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Sample records for humoral immunomodulatory effects

  1. DISEASE RESISTANCE AND HUMORAL IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF VITAMIN C ON GROUPER, EPINEPHELUS AWOARA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The disease resistance and humoral immunomodulatory effects of vitamin C administered orally to grouper, Epinephelus awoara maintained on a frozen fish diet supplemented with vitamin C at 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg were investigated. After 20 weeks, the growth rates of the groups with high level of vitamin C apparently increased. The untreated fish had symptoms of vitamin C deficiency. The endogenous liver tissue vitamin C levels were found to reflect well the dietary treatments. After intraperitoneal injection or bath challenge with a virulent strain of Vibrio vulnificus, fish fed with high level vitamin C showed significantly higher survival rate compared with the normal control group. Vaccination with formalin inactivated V. vulnificus significantly enhanced the specific antibody production in fish treated with vitamin C, and completely protected from strong bacterial challenge the groups fed on fish with vitamin C 1500 and 2000 mg/kg diet.

  2. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Fábio Ricardo; Schmidt, Gustavo; Romero, Adriano Lopez; Sartoretto, Juliano Luiz; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2009-07-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), sage, Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae), essential oils were evaluated by studying humor- and cell-mediated immune responses. Essential oils were administered to mice (once a day, orally, for a week) previously immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Clove essential oil increased the total white blood cell (WBC) count and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice. Moreover, it restored cellular and humoral immune responses in cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice in a dose-dependent manner. Ginger essential oil recovered the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. Contrary to the ginger essential oil response, sage essential oil did not show any immunomodulatory activity. Our findings establish that the immunostimulatory activity found in mice treated with clove essential oil is due to improvement in humor- and cell-mediated immune response mechanisms.

  3. VITAMIN D IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Radović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the classical role in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D shows a regulatory effect on a number of different cells, especially its antiproliferative and pro-differential biological function. Through its own receptor in the immune cells, vitamin D increases the phagocytic activity of macrophages and NK cells. Also, by binding to the regulatory sequences of antimicrobial peptides genes, vitamin D increases the microbicidal activity of phagocytes. Inhibition of differentiation and maturation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, as well as direct influence on their contact with T lymphocytes, it significantlly influences the type of immune response. Dendritic cells under the influence of vitamin D induce a suppressor T cells, which can inhibit Th1 cell response and are critical in the regulation of immune tolerance. Vitamin D inhibits proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells, as well their cytokine production, and suppresses the differentiation and maturation of B lymphocytes. Due to all these functions, vitamin D has shown beneficial effects in the prevention and modification of a number of autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, immunity disorders with predominant Th2 response (asthma, allergies did not show such good results after the use of hypocalcemic VDR agonists.

  4. [Clinical and experimental research of immunomodulatory effect of amisulpride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetlugina, T P; Lobacheva, O A; Al'perina, E L; Zhukova, E N; Semke, A V; Nikitina, V B; Cheĭdo, M A; Idova, G V

    2012-01-01

    Study of immunomodulatory effect of atypical antipsychotic amisulpride has revealed a positive clinical effect after 6-week therapy of schizophrenic patients regarding both positive and negative symptoms. A decrease in activity of humoral immunity factors (B lymphocytes, immunoglobulins, HLADR(+)-cells) identified among schizophrenic patients in the process of amisulpride therapy can be attributed to a positive effect optimizing the ratio Th1/Th2. Amisulpride when used under experimental conditions produced a suppression of IgM-immune response in mice of the C57BL/6J strain. This effect was more expressed in animals with aggressive behavior pattern.

  5. Immunomodulatory effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella eFranquesa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research on T cell immunosuppression therapies has attracted most of the attention in clinical transplantation. However, B cells and humoral immune responses are increasingly acknowledged as crucial mediators of chronic allograft rejection. Indeed, humoral immune responses can lead to renal allograft rejection even in patients whose cell-mediated immune responses are well controlled. On the other hand, newly studied B cell subsets with regulatory effects have been linked to tolerance achievement in transplantation. Better understanding of the regulatory and effector B cell responses may therefore lead to new therapeutic approaches.Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC are arising as a potent therapeutic tool in transplantation due to their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. The research on MSCs has mainly focused on their effects on T cells and although data regarding the modulatory effects of MSCs on alloantigen-specific humoral response in humans is scarce, it has been demonstrated that MSCs significantly affect B cell functioning. In the present review we will analyze and discuss the results in this field.

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG from

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Mahnet

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Various immune responses have been influenced by probiotics and these immunomodulatory effects have been proposed for several potential applications such as the prevention of infectious diarrhoea, alleviation of hypersensitivity reactions and tumour suppression. The new probiotic product from LURA d. d., low fat fresh cheese "BioAktiv LGG", contains well-known probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG. The viable count of L. rhamnosus GG remained stable and has been 1.3x108 CFU/g of low fat fresh cheese "BioAktiv LGG" during storage of 16 days at 4 0C. The effect of L. rhamnosus GG from this product on the immune response, as an importantpoint in relation to immunomodulation, and its survival/residence time in the gastrointestinal tract in Swiss albino mice was also studied. During the feeding of mice with L. rhamnosus GG, with a daily dose of 2.2x1010 cells, the number of lactobacilli in faeces was increased and reduction of enterobacteria and sulphite-reducing clostridia was observed. The similar results were obtained in homogenates of large intestine of mice in the 1st and in the 14th day after feeding with L. rhamnosus GG, which pointed out the adherence ability of examined strain. Furthermore, the oral immunization of Swiss albino mice was performed with a dose of 2.2x1010 L. rhamnosus GG cells per day, for eight consecutive days. The blood samples were collected on the 4th, 8th, 10th, 14th and 21st day after the 1st immunization. The sera of mice were tested for total and specific anti-lactobacilli IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA assay. L. rhamnosus GG slightly stimulated the total humoral immune response but didn't evoke reaction against itself, which confirms its probiotic properties and make new probiotic product, low fat fresh cheese "BioAktiv LGG", as good carrier for this probiotic strain.

  7. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  8. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  9. Brazilian Propolis Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects

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    Suelen Santos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of propolis collected in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis experimental infection. The antileishmanial effect of propolis on promastigote forms was verified by reducing growth and by promoting morphologic alterations observed by scanning electron microscopy. In in vitro immunomodulatory assays, macrophages were pretreated with propolis and then infected with L. (V. braziliensis. In vivo, supernatants from liver cells and peritoneal exudate of BALB/c mice pretreated with propolis and infected with Leishmania (107/mL promastigotes were collected, and TNF-α and IL-12 were measured by ELISA. Macrophages incubated with propolis showed a significant increase in interiorization and further killing of parasites. An increased TNF-α production was seen in mice pretreated with propolis, whereas IL-12 was downregulated during the infection. In conclusion, Brazilian propolis showed a direct action on the parasite and displayed immunomodulatory effects on murine macrophages, even though the parasite has been reported to affect the activation pathways of the cell. The observed effects could be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, aromatic acids, and benzopyranes, di- and triterpenes, and essential oils found in our propolis sample.

  10. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Arreola; Enrique Becerril-Villanueva; Carlos Cruz-Fuentes; Marco Antonio Velasco-Velázquez; María Eugenia Garcés-Alvarez; Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado; Saray Quintero-Fabian; Lenin Pavón

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) induces concentration-dependent metabolic effects in diverse cell types, including neurons, entherochromaffin cells, adipocytes, pancreatic beta-cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, and leukocytes. Three classes of genes regulating 5-HT function are constitutively expressed or induced in these cells: (a) membrane proteins that regulate the response to 5-HT, such as SERT, 5HTR-GPCR, and the 5HT3-ion channels; (b) downstream signaling transduction proteins...

  11. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Garcés-Alvarez, María Eugenia; Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Quintero-Fabian, Saray; Pavón, Lenin

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) induces concentration-dependent metabolic effects in diverse cell types, including neurons, entherochromaffin cells, adipocytes, pancreatic beta-cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, and leukocytes. Three classes of genes regulating 5-HT function are constitutively expressed or induced in these cells: (a) membrane proteins that regulate the response to 5-HT, such as SERT, 5HTR-GPCR, and the 5HT3-ion channels; (b) downstream signaling transduction proteins; and (c) enzymes controlling 5-HT metabolism, such as IDO and MAO, which can generate biologically active catabolites, including melatonin, kynurenines, and kynurenamines. This review covers the clinical and experimental mechanisms involved in 5-HT-induced immunomodulation. These mechanisms are cell-specific and depend on the expression of serotonergic components in immune cells. Consequently, 5-HT can modulate several immunological events, such as chemotaxis, leukocyte activation, proliferation, cytokine secretion, anergy, and apoptosis. The effects of 5-HT on immune cells may be relevant in the clinical outcome of pathologies with an inflammatory component. Major depression, fibromyalgia, Alzheimer disease, psoriasis, arthritis, allergies, and asthma are all associated with changes in the serotonergic system associated with leukocytes. Thus, pharmacological regulation of the serotonergic system may modulate immune function and provide therapeutic alternatives for these diseases. PMID:25961058

  12. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Serotonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT induces concentration-dependent metabolic effects in diverse cell types, including neurons, entherochromaffin cells, adipocytes, pancreatic beta-cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, and leukocytes. Three classes of genes regulating 5-HT function are constitutively expressed or induced in these cells: (a membrane proteins that regulate the response to 5-HT, such as SERT, 5HTR-GPCR, and the 5HT3-ion channels; (b downstream signaling transduction proteins; and (c enzymes controlling 5-HT metabolism, such as IDO and MAO, which can generate biologically active catabolites, including melatonin, kynurenines, and kynurenamines. This review covers the clinical and experimental mechanisms involved in 5-HT-induced immunomodulation. These mechanisms are cell-specific and depend on the expression of serotonergic components in immune cells. Consequently, 5-HT can modulate several immunological events, such as chemotaxis, leukocyte activation, proliferation, cytokine secretion, anergy, and apoptosis. The effects of 5-HT on immune cells may be relevant in the clinical outcome of pathologies with an inflammatory component. Major depression, fibromyalgia, Alzheimer disease, psoriasis, arthritis, allergies, and asthma are all associated with changes in the serotonergic system associated with leukocytes. Thus, pharmacological regulation of the serotonergic system may modulate immune function and provide therapeutic alternatives for these diseases.

  13. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Herrera, Samantha; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Flores-Gutierrez, Enrique Octavio; Quintero-Fabián, Saray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS) that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R). The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS), there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers. PMID:27795960

  14. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS, has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R. The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS, there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers.

  15. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  16. The immunomodulatory effects of laparoscopic surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, Mark

    2012-02-03

    Laparoscopic alternatives to conventional surgical procedures confer many advantages to patients including reduced postoperative pain, shortened convalescence and, perhaps, improved disease-related outcomes. The diminished degree of immune dysfunction apparent with these techniques may underpin these beneficial aspects. However, minimal access is accompanied by various ancillary anesthetic and mechanical associations (including the induction of a carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum), which must be considered in addition to reduced tissue trauma when attempting to correlate cause with effect. Furthermore, the opportunity to establish causation between the immunomodulatory aspects of laparoscopy and subsequent clinical outcome by prospective, randomized study is difficult because of the rapid incorporation of minimal access techniques into clinical practice. Therefore, experimental in vitro and in vivo studies must be used to complement the limitations of clinical studies in this area. Although the initial investigations into the immunological effects of laparoscopy are encouraging, many of the intricacies associated with this approach still await elaboration.

  17. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ribavirin shows immunomodulatory effects on activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danijela; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Herdegen, Thomas; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Ribavirin (RBV) is synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, licensed as anti-viral drug that displays immunomodulatory actions on various immune cells. Our previous ex vivo studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of RBV on reactive T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we examined the effects of RBV on inflammatory response of microglia. RBV potency to down-regulate microglia inflammatory response was assessed by measuring microglia cell body size, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. RBV exerted cytotoxic effects on LPS-stimulated microglia, leaving non-stimulated microglia unaffected. The exposure of activated microglia to RBV led to: decrease in the level of NO as a result of decreased cell number, lower average cell surface, the reduction of membrane ruffling, the suppression of interleukin-6 release and promoted interleukin-10 production. On the other hand, RBV promoted LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta release. Our results imply that RBV is a complex immunomodulator showing both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects on activated microglia.

  19. Antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory effects of chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, S Santosh; Sainis, Krishna B

    2007-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL) was earlier shown to reduce the level of intracellular ROS and apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation and 2,2'-azobis(2-propionimidinedihydrochloride) (AAPH). In the present studies, the effect of CHL on radiation-induced immunosuppression and modulation of immune responses in mice was examined. Chlorophyllin inhibited the in vitro lymphocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A) in a dose dependent manner at doses>or=50 microM. At lower doses (10 microM) CHL significantly inhibited activation induced cell death (AICD) in Con A stimulated spleen cells. Spleen cells obtained from CHL treated mice showed an inhibition of response to Con A depending on dose of CHL and the time after its administration. Spleen cells obtained from CHL treated mice (24 h) showed lower inhibition of response to Con A following in vitro (5 Gy) as well as whole body irradiation (2 Gy). The expression of antiapoptotic genes bcl-2 and bcl-xL was up-regulated in these cells. Chlorophyllin treatment of mice led to splenomegaly and increase in the number of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC). The numbers of T cells, B cells and macrophages in the spleen were also increased. Increased phagocytic activity was seen in PEC obtained from CHL treated mice. Most importantly, CHL administration to mice immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) augmented both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of honey cannot be distinguished from endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Michael; Bartelt, Stine; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2008-01-01

    in vitro effects of honey. Our results show that natural honeys induce interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells as well as release of reactive oxygen species from all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) differentiated HL-60 cells. The natural honeys contained substantial amounts of endotoxin, and the responses...... observed in the cell based assays were similar to the responses induced by endotoxin alone. In addition, we determined that the immunomodulatory component present in the natural honeys was retained in the ultra filtrated fraction with a molecular weight greater than 20 kDa. The component was resistant...... to boiling and its immunomodulatory activity could be abrogated by the addition of polymyxin B. We speculate that the observed in vitro immunomodulatory effects of honey might solely be explained by the endotoxin content in the natural honeys....

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of anti-microbial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Laszlo

    2016-09-01

    Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) were originally thought to exert protecting actions against bacterial infection by disintegrating bacterial membranes. Upon identification of internal bacterial targets, the view changed and moved toward inhibition of prokaryote-specific biochemical processes. However, the level of none of these activities can explain the robust efficacy of some of these peptides in animal models of systemic and cutaneous infections. A rapidly growing panel of reports suggests that AMPs, now called host-defense peptides (HDPs), act through activating the immune system of the host. This includes recruitment and activation of macrophages and mast cells, inducing chemokine production and altering NF-κB signaling processes. As a result, both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses are elevated together with activation of innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms, wound healing, and apoptosis. HDPs sterilize the systemic circulation and local injury sites significantly more efficiently than pure single-endpoint in vitro microbiological or biochemical data would suggest and actively aid recovering from tissue damage after or even without bacterial infections. However, the multiple and, often opposing, immunomodulatory functions of HDPs require exceptional care in therapeutic considerations.

  2. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. extract on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice.

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    Gupta, Anamika; Gautam, Manish K; Singh, Rahul K; Kumar, M Vijay; Rao, Ch V; Goel, R K; Anupurba, Shampa

    2010-11-01

    Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract (50%) of M. oleifera leaves (MOE) has been studied in normal and immunosuppressed mice models. Different doses of MOE i.e. 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice were administered orally for 15 days. Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for the next 3 days. On day 16 and 19, hematological parameters like white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin level (Hb), percent neutrophils and organ weight were recorded. Effect of MOE on phagocytic activity of mice macrophages was determined by carbon clearance test. MOE showed significant dose dependent increase in WBC, percent neutrophils, weight of thymus and spleen along with phagocytic index in normal and immunosuppressed mice. The results indicate that MOE significantly reduced cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression by stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity.

  3. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  4. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  5. The immunomodulatory effects of Ipomoea carnea in rats vary depending on life stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueza, Isis M; Górniak, Silvana L

    2011-10-01

    Ipomoea carnea Jacq. ssp. fistulosa (Mart. Ex Choisy; Convolvulaceae; I. carnea) possesses a toxic component: an indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine (SW) that has immunomodulatory effects due to its inhibition of glycoprotein metabolism. It is also known that SW is excreted into both the amniotic fluid and milk of female rats exposed to I. carnea. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether SW exposure, either in utero or from the milk of dams treated with I. carnea, modulates offspring immune function into adulthood. In addition, adult (70 days old) and juvenile rats (21 days old) were exposed to I. carnea in order to evaluate several other immune parameters: lymphoid organs relative weight and cellularity, humoral and cellular immune responses. Offspring exposed to I. carnea during lactation developed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adulthood after an immunogenic challenge. In addition, both adult and juvenile rats exposed to I. carnea showed discrepancies in several immune parameters, but did not exhibit any decrease in humoral immune response, which was enhanced at both ages. These findings indicate that SW modulates immune function in adult rats exposed to SW during lactation and in juvenile and adult rats exposed to SW as juveniles and adults, respectively.

  6. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned.

  7. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity following vaccination with synthetic Candida cell wall mannan derived heptamannoside-protein conjugate: immunomodulatory properties of heptamannoside-BSA conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulovičová, Lucia; Paulovičová, Ema; Karelin, Alexander A; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Bystrický, Slavomír

    2012-10-01

    Chemically defined glycoprotein conjugate composed of synthetically prepared mannan-derived heptamannoside with terminal β-1,2-linked mannose residue attached to the α-1,3-linked mannose residues and BSA as carrier protein (M7-BSA conjugate) was analysed for the capacity to induce protective humoral immunity and appropriate alteration cellular immunity. To identify protective antigenic structure of Candida cell wall mannan M7-BSA conjugate was used for BALB/c mice immunization. The obtained results were compared with placebo group and with heat-inactivated C. albicans whole cells immunization. The administration route of M7-BSA conjugate secondary booster injection significantly affected the intensity of humoral immune response and the specificity of produced antibodies. All prepared sera were able to elevate candidacidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in cooperation with complement. Moreover, polyclonal sera obtained after secondary subcutaneous (s.c.) booster injection of M7-BSA conjugate were able to induce candidacidal activity of PMN also in complement independent manner. M7-BSA conjugate immunization induced increases of phagocytic activity and respiratory burst of granulocytes, caused a raise of the proportion of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and increased the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio. We observed also an increasing proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells compared to immunization with heat inactivated whole C. albicans cells, which in turn promoted an increase of the CD8(+)CD25(+) cell proportion. Immunization with M7-BSA conjugate induced Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune responses as indicated by the elevation of relevant cytokines levels. These data provide some insights on the immunomodulatory properties of oligomannosides and contribute to the development of synthetic oligosaccharide vaccines against fungal diseases.

  8. NEW MEAT PRODUCTS WITH IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT CREATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kaltovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New meat products with immunomodulatory effect creation method reflecting differential characteristics of technological stages of manufacture of those types of meat products, including issues on the selection of primary and secondary raw materials, guidelines for development of formulations and production technologies, legislative requirements towards its labeling, etc, has been developed for the first time. A list of prospective meat raw materials for the manufacture of products with immunomodulatory effect was established: beef, pork, rabbit meat, broiler chicken meat, turkey, veal, ostrich meat, which have high content of protein (14,3– 21,7%, low content of fat (1,2–16,1%, excluding pork (33,3%, high levels of minimum amino-acid score (90,0–104,0%, protein quality indicator(0,91–1,64, essential amino acid index (1,16-1,25, coefficient of utility of amino acid content (0,72–0,86 and close to optimum fatty acid content, and also contain a great number of vitamins and minerals which play a significant role for immunity improvement. It was determined that the following functional ingredients are recommended to use: amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, arginine, tryptophan, lysine, histidin, phenylalanyl, vitamins and provitamins (C,E, beta-carotene, B vitamins(Bc, B12, PP, etc., P(bioflavonoid complex, H, K, minerals (calcium, magnesium, iron, cuprum, zinc, manganese, selenium, polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6, pseudo-vitamins (L-carnitin, coenzyme Q10, polysaccharides and peptides naturally occurring(squalen, B-Carotene, ginger, shiitake mushrooms, probiotics and prebiotics, glutathione, indole and lycopienes, bioflavonoids, L-arginine, N-acetylcysteine, gel from seaweed «Lamifaren». The use of the developed meat products with immunomodulatory effect creation method by process engineers of meat processing factories will allow them to form a single scientifically grounded approach during the

  9. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  10. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  11. Gypenosides might have neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects on optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaijun; Du, Yi; Fan, Qian; Tang, Cheng-Ye; He, Jian-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Optic neuritis is a common disease in young adults, inducing apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, which leads to varying degree of visual function damages, even blindness. As the standard treatment, methylprednisolone pulse therapy can only promote the recovery of visual acuity but not prevent retinal ganglion cell degeneration. It cannot help improve the ultimate visual outcome. Both inflammatory response and endogenous oxidative stress play crucial roles in the progression of optic neuritis. The combination of immunomodulatory and antioxidant is expected to improve the prognosis of the disease by preventing the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells. Triterpenoids (oleanolic acid derived) were reported to have the dual capacity of simultaneously repressing production of pro-inflammatory mediators and exerting neuroprotective effects through induction of anti-oxidant genes in experimental optic neuritis. Gypenosides with an aglycone mainly of dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoids, also has the dual capacity of immune regulation and antioxidation. Both gypenosides and oleanolic acid were reported to have similar roles in hepatoprotection. Beside, gypenosides were reported to have the capacity of modulating the activation of immune cells and the expression of cytokines. In addition, gypenosides showed neuroprotective effect against oxidative injury in dopaminergic neurons and mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, we propose that gypenosides have potential neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects on optic neuritis through antioxidation and immune regulation. The application of gypenosides might prevent the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and improve the ultimate visual outcome in patients with optic neuritis.

  12. The Effect of Context (Humorous vs. Non-humorous on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghaffari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.

  13. Immunomodulatory Effect of Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration during Sepsis: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Servillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Severe sepsis and septic shock are the primary causes of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, which is the most frequent cause of death in intensive care unit patients. Many pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6, play a strategic role in septic syndrome. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT removes in a nonselective way pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Objective. To investigate the effects of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH as an immunomodulatory treatment of sepsis in a prospective clinical study. Methods. High flux hemofiltration (Qf = 60 ml/Kg/hr was performed for 72 hr in thirteen critically ill patients suffering from severe sepsis or septic shock with acute renal failure (ARF. IL-6 gene expression was measured by real-time PCR analysis on RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cell before beginning of treatment (T0 and after 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours (T1–4. Results. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated in twelve patients IL-6 mRNA reduction after 12 hours of treatment and a progressive increase after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions. We suggest that an immunomodulatory effect might exist during CVVH performed in critically ill patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Our data show that the transcriptional activity of IL-6 increases during CVVH.

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of the fungicide Mancozeb in agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Birindelli, Sarah; Fustinoni, Silvia; De Paschale, Gioia; Mammone, Teresa; Visentin, Sara; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio

    2005-10-15

    Available data suggest that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) may have immunomodulatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the immunological profile of farmers exposed to Mancozeb, an EBDC fungicide, through the determination of several serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. Twenty-six healthy subjects entered the study, 13 vineyards exposed to Mancozeb and 13 unexposed controls. Exposure was assessed through the determination of ethylentiourea (ETU) in urine. Complete and differential blood count, serum immunoglobulins, complement fractions, autoantibodies, lymphocyte subpopulations, proliferative response to mitogens, natural killer (NK) activity, and cytokine production were measured. Post-exposure samples showed ETU urine concentration significantly higher than pre-exposure and control groups. A significant increase in CD19+ cells, both percentage and absolute number, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD25+ cells were found in post-exposure samples compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in the proliferative response to phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA + ionomycin) was observed in the post-exposure group compared to controls and baseline, while a significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-alpha release in post-exposure samples was observed. Overall, our results suggest that low-level exposure to Mancozeb has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out a method adequate to reveal immune-modifications in workers occupationally exposed to potential immunotoxic compounds, based on a whole blood assay.

  15. Does humor moderate the effects of experimentally-induced stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M G; Stone, A A

    1996-06-01

    This study attempted to determine whether humor production moderates mood and physiological responses to stress of subjects high and low in trait humor. Forty subjects who were high and 40 subjects who were low in trait humor were selected. Half of each group was randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In one condition they generated a humorous monologue and in the other condition they generated a serious monologue to a silent stressful film. Heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature were taken continuously for the fifteen minutes before, during, and fifteen minutes after the film. Pre- and post-stress mood and tension ratings were also recorded. Analyses of covariance were conducted with baseline mood and tension as covariates. Compared to the production of a serious narrative, humor production led to lower negative affect, lower tension, and reduced psychophysiological reactivity for both high and low trait-humor groups. These results suggest that humor production may be an effective coping strategy, even for individuals who do not typically use humor to cope with stress.

  16. Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of Justicia spicigera Schltdl (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Domínguez, Fabiola; Arana-Argáez, Victor; Juárez-Vázquez, Maria del Carmen; Chávez, Marco; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; López-Toledo, Gabriela; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2012-06-14

    Medicinal plants are an important source of antitumor compounds. This study evaluated the acute toxicity in vitro and in vivo, as well as the cytotoxic, antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extracts of Justicia spicigera leaves (JSE). The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of JSE was evaluated with comet assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and acute toxicity in mice, according to the Lorke procedure, respectively. The apoptotic effect of JSE on human cancer cells and human noncancerous cells was evaluated using flow cytometry with annexin-Alexa 488/propidium iodide. Also, different doses of JSE were injected intraperitoneally daily into athymic mice bearing tumors of HeLa cells during 18 days. The growth and weight of tumors were measured. The in vitro immunomodulatory effects of JSE were evaluated estimating the effects of JSE on the phagocytosis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NO production and H(2)O(2) release in macrophages, as well as the proliferation of splenocytes and NK activity. The comet assay showed that only JSE tested at 200 and 1000 μg/ml induced a significantly DNA damage in PBMC, compared to untreated cells, whereas the LD(50) was >5000 mg/kg by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) and by oral route. JSE showed pro-apoptotic (Annexin/PI) effects by 35% against HeLa cells, but lack toxic effects against human normal cells. JSE administrated at 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. inhibited the tumor growth by 28%, 41% and 53%, respectively, in mice bearing HeLa tumor. JSE stimulated, in a concentration dependent manner, the phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, the NO production and H(2)O(2) release by human differentiated macrophages. In addition, JSE stimulated the proliferation of murine splenocytes and induced the NK cell activity. Justicia spicigera shows low toxic effects in vitro and in vivo, exerts apoptotic effects on HeLa cells, has antitumor effects in mice bearing HeLa tumor and induces immunomodulatory

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of endogenous and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska, Dorota K; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main role of endogenous opioid peptides is the modulation of pain. Opioid peptides exert their analgesic activity by binding to the opioid receptors distributed widely in the central nervous system (CNS). However, opioid receptors are also found on tissues and organs outside the CNS, including the cells of the immune system, indicating that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in periphery. Morphine, which is a gold standard in the treatment of chronic pain, is well-known for its immunosuppressive effects. Much less is known about the immunomodulatory effects exerted by endogenous (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins and endomorphins) and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors. In this review we tried to summarize opioid peptide-mediated modulation of immune cell functions which can be stimulatory as well as inhibitory.

  18. The immunomodulatory effects of shark cartilage on the mouse and human immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali Sheikhian

    2007-01-01

    Materials and methods: In an experimental study, the effects of different doses of shark cartilage on humoral (antibody titer immune response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC, were measured in mouse. In addition, we evaluated the modulatory effects of the shark cartilage on the natural killer (NK activity of the peritoneal cells of mouse against a tumor cell line called K562, according to the standard methods. The proliferative response of the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured under the influence of shark cartilage. Results: Pure shark cartilage enhanced antibody response against SRBC in vivo. The hemagglutination titer which was 1/147 in the control group (injected with hen cartilage, increased to 1/1355 in the test group. The optimal dose was 100 mg/ml. both type of cartilage had blastogenic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (the blastogenic index was 6.7 and 4.9 for impure shark cartilage and hen cartilage, respectively. NK activity was inhibited completely by pure shark cartilage (the amount of the killing activity of the effector peritoneal cells for the control and test groups against target cells was 25.9% and 5.5% respectively. Conclusion: Shark cartilage has a potent immunomodulatory effect on the specific immune mechanisms and some inhibitory effects on the innate immune mechanisms such as NC activity. Since the specific immunity has a more pivotal role against tumor formation, shark cartilage can be used as a cancer immunotherapeutic.

  19. Novel immunomodulatory effects of adiponectin on dendritic cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Julia Yuen Shan; Li, Daxu; Ho, Derek; Peng, Jiao; Xu, Aimin; Lamb, Jonathan; Chen, Yan; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang

    2011-05-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory properties. Although it has been reported that ADN can inhibit the immunostimulatory function of monocytes and macrophages, little is known of its effect on dendritic cells (DC). Recent data suggest that ADN can regulate immune responses. DCs are uniquely specialised antigen presenting cells that play a central role in the initiation of immunity and tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the immuno- modulatory effects of ADN on DC functions. We found that ADN has only moderate effect on the differentiation of murine bone marrow (BM) derived DCs but altered the phenotype of DCs. The expression of major histocompatibilty complex class II (MHCII), CD80 and CD86 on ADN conditioned DCs (ADN-DCs) was lower than that on untreated cells. The production of IL-12p40 was also suppressed in ADN-DCs. Interestingly, ADN treated DCs showed an increase in the expression of the inhibitory molecule, programmed death-1 ligand (PDL-1) compared to untreated cells. In vitro co-culture of ADN-DCs with allogeneic T cells led to a decrease in T cell proliferation and reduction of IL-2 production. Concomitant with that, a higher percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was detected in co-cultures of T cells and ADN-DCs. Blocking PD-1/PDL-1 pathway could partially restore T cell function. These findings suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of ADN on immune responses could be at least partially be mediated by its ability to alter DC function. The PD-1/PDL-1 pathway and the enhancement of Treg expansion are implicated in the immunomodulatory mechanisms.

  20. Isolation, antiproliferation on tumor cell and immunomodulatory activity of BSP-I, a novel bursal peptide from chicken humoral immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiuli; Liu, Taoqing; Wang, Fangquan; Cao, Ruibing; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Mao, Xiang; Chen, Puyan; Zhang, Hui

    2011-06-01

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is acknowledged as central humoral immune organ unique to birds. Our purpose was to identify the potential function of a novel bursal-derived bioactive peptide. A bursal septpeptide (BSP-I), EPASGMM, first isolated from BF, reduced MCF and Hela tumor cells proliferation, and enhanced antitumor factor p53 luciferase activity and protein expression. Further, we found the significantly immune inducing function of BSP-I on antigen-specific immune response in BALB/c mice intraperitoneally immunized with inactivated avian influence virus (AIV, H(9)N(2) subtype) vaccine, including of enhancing the antibody (IgG, the isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a) production, and stimulating cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ level, and inducing T cell immunophenotyping and lymphocyte proliferation. These results suggested that as the bioactive peptide from avian humoral immune system, various biological function of BSP-I may have far-reaching implication on immune system significance, which might provide novel insight on linking between humoral immune system and development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for treating human cancers diseases.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of a polysaccharide from Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelekha, T T; Vijayakumar, T; Ankanthil, R; Vijayan, K K; Nair, M K

    1993-04-01

    A polysaccharide isolated and purified from Tamarindus indica shows immunomodulatory activities such as phagocytic enhancement, leukocyte migration inhibition and inhibition of cell proliferation. These properties suggest that this polysaccharide from T. indica may have some biological applications.

  2. Ulcer: An Antioxidative Trail Weaved with Immunomodulatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L., apart from its food value, can be used as a gastroprotective agent in non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-induced gastropathy. It has been suggested that the antioxidative property of amla is the key to its therapeutic effect. Hence, on the basis of in vitro antioxidative potential, the ethanolic extract of amla (eAE was selected for in vivo study in NSAID-induced ulcer. Intriguingly, eAE showed biphasic activity in ulcerated mice, with healing effect observed at 60 mg/kg and an adverse effect at 120 mg/kg.The dose-dependent study revealed that switching from anti-oxidant to pro-oxidant shift and immunomodulatory property could be the major cause for its biphasic effect, as evident from the total antioxidant status, thiol concentration, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content followed by mucin content, PGE2 synthesis and cytokine status. Further, Buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO pretreatment established the potential impact of antioxidative property in the healing action of eAE. However, eAE efficiently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF- and IL-1 levels and appreciably upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 concentration. In conclusion, gastric ulcer healing induced by eAE was driven in a dose-specific manner through the harmonization of the antioxidative property and modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine level.

  3. Unique immunomodulatory effects of azelastine on dendritic cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S; Kietzmann, M; Stark, H; Bäumer, W

    2014-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis are among the most common inflammatory skin diseases in western countries, and antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells (DC) are key players in their pathophysiology. Histamine, an important mediator of allergic reactions, influences DC maturation and cytokine secretion, which led us to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of the well-known histamine H1 receptor antagonists: azelastine, olopatadine, cetirizine, and pyrilamine. Unlike other H1 antihistamines, azelastine decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-12 secretion from murine bone marrow-derived DC. This effect was independent of histamine receptors H1, H2, or H4 and may be linked to inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Moreover, only azelastine reduced proliferation of allogenic T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction. We then tested topical application of the H1 antihistamines on mice sensitized against toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, a model of Th2-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. In contrast to the in vitro results, all investigated substances were efficacious in reducing allergic ear swelling. Azelastine has unique effects on dendritic cells and T cell interaction in vitro. However, this did not translate into superior in vivo efficacy for Th2-mediated allergic dermatitis, possibly due to the effects of the antihistamines on other cell types involved in skin inflammation. Future research will have to clarify whether these properties are relevant to in vivo models of allergic inflammation with a different T cell polarization.

  4. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. Nut milk extract in experimental inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-04-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut milk extract (SA) were investigated in adjuvant induced arthritis by studying the alterations in humoral and cell mediated immune responses and also the anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating the changes in paw edema, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase activities. Pharmacological studies were also conducted with SA and indomethacin on experimental animals for evaluating the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic activities. The alterations in the humoral and cell mediated immunity were significantly reverted back to near normal levels on treatment with SA. The drug significantly reduced the elevation in the paw edema, TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels when compared with adjuvant induced arthritic animals, which shows the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug. SA showed strong anti-inflammatory effects in xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced inflammation. In analgesic test, the extract elicited a potential activity on both acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as hot plate test showing its central and peripheral mediated action. The drug also elicited antipyretic action in yeast-induced hyperemia in rats. In addition, the extract did not produce any ulceration on gastric mucosa during ulcerogenic test and did not produce any serious adverse effects. All these effects are nearly similar to the activities of indomethacin except the ulceration where indomethacin produced significant ulceration. From this study, the protective immunological and pharmacological role of SA is demonstrated.

  5. The immunomodulatory effects of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Courtney M

    2015-11-01

    Due to their characteristic physical, chemical and optical properties, titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are attractive tools for use in a wide range of applications. The use of nanoparticles for biological applications is, however, dependent upon their biocompatibility with living cells. Because of the importance of inflammation as a modulator of human health, the safe and efficacious in vivo use of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles is inherently linked to a favorable interaction with immune system cells. However, both titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles have demonstrated potential to exert immunomodulatory and immunotoxic effects. Titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are readily internalized by immune system cells, may accumulate in peripheral lymphoid organs, and can influence multiple manifestations of immune cell activity. Although the factors influencing the biocompatibility of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles with immune system cells have not been fully elucidated, nanoparticle core composition, size, concentration and the duration of cell exposure seem to be important. Because titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are widely utilized in pharmaceutical, commercial and industrial products, it is vital that their effects on human health and immune system function be more thoroughly evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunomodulatory activity of Bauhinia Racemosa Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Sohrab A.; Ghaisas, Mahesh M.; Deshpande, Avinash D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam swiss albino mice. Material and Methods: The specific humoral immunity was assessed by performing hemagglutinating antibody titer (H.A.Titer) and the non-specific immunity was assessed by performing carbon clearance test and neutrophil adhesion test. Results: The methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia Racemosa (MEBR) was found effective in increasing the H.A.Titer. Primary and sec...

  7. Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Umesh; Rastogi, Bhawna; Singh, Paramjit; Saraf, Dinesh K; Vyas, Suresh P

    2004-05-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of ethanol insoluble fraction of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn. (TPEIF) have been investigated. After intraperitoneal administration of TPEIF in doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg body weight (BW) a significant increase in phagocytic index, leukocyte count and spleenic antibody secreting cells was noticed. Stimulation of humoral immune response was further observed with elevation in heamagglutination antibody titer. Heightened delayed type hypersensitivity reaction suggested convincing evidence for activation of cellular immune system. Protective action of herbal medicine in case of anaphylactic shock was also studied. In addition, elicitation of specific antibody titer against tetanus toxoid (TT) challenge was measured in order to explore the possible use as adjuvant along with clinical vaccination program to reduce number of non-responders. The results suggest that TPEIF influences both humoral as well as cell mediated immune system vis-a-vis assists in genesis of improved antibody response against specific clinical antigen.

  8. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tornquist, Michelle; Chiappe, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability...

  9. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  10. Effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the endometrial inflammatory response to induced infectious endometritis in susceptible mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Woodward, Elizabeth; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy (glucocorticoids (GC) and mycobacterium cell wall extract (MCWE)) on the endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in susceptible mares with induced infectious endometritis. Endometrial gene expr...

  11. Potential immunomodulatory effects of latent toxoplasmosis in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stříž Ilja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 30% of the population worldwide are infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Latent toxoplasmosis has many specific behavioral and physiological effects on the human organism. Modified reactivity of the immune system has been suggested to play a key role in many of these effects. For example, the immunosuppression hypothesis explains the higher probability of the birth of male offspring observed in Toxoplasma-positive humans and mice by the protection of the (more immunogenic male embryos against abortion. Methods Here we searched for indices of immunosuppression in Toxoplasma-positive subjects by comparing clinical records of immunology outpatients. Results Our cohort study showed that the male patients with latent toxoplasmosis had decreased and the Toxoplasma-positive women had increased leukocyte, NK-cell and monocyte counts in comparison with controls. The B-cell counts were reduced in both Toxoplasma-positive men and women. The difference between Toxoplasma-positive and Toxoplasma-negative subjects diminished with the decline of the specific Toxoplasma antibody titre (a proxy for the length of infection, which is consistent with the observed decreasing strength of the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on human reproduction. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in 128 male patients was unusually low (10.9% which contrasted with normal prevalence in 312 female patients (23.7% and in general population Prague (20-30%. Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis has immunomodulatory effects in human and probably protects men against some classes of immunopathological diseases. The main limitation of the present study was the absence of the data on the immunoreactivity of immune cells subpopulations. Therefore further studies are needed to search for indices of immunosuppression in human using more specific markers.

  12. Immunomodulatory Effect of Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br.) Leaf Extract: An In Vitro Study in Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Dwivedi, Padmanabh; Chaudhary, B R; Singh, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre Wild R.Br (family: Asclepidaceae) is a valuable medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, obesity, asthma etc. in India for antiquity. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized immunologically by lymphocyte apoptosis and reduced cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Modulation of immune responses to alleviate diseases has been of interest, and traditional herbal medicines may play an important role in this regard. In this study, we aim to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf using rat model. HPLC analysis of leaf extract was carried out for gymnemic acid. The method involves the initial hydrolysis of gymnemic acids, the active ingredients, to a common aglycone followed by the quantitative estimation of gymnemagenin, using gymnemagenin as reference standard. Gymnemic acid content was 2.40% (w/w) in G. sylvestre leaf extract. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf (1-200μg/ml) was evaluated by gauging its effects on nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and nitrite release in rat peritoneal macrophages and on mitogen (ConA, PHA and LPS) induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract showed significant (sylvestre leaf extract stimulates macrophage reactivity, increasing the level of activity even higher when combined with PMA or LPS. These findings suggest the presence of active compounds, gymnemic acid, in methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf that stimulates both myeloid and lymphoid components of immune system, and therefore can restore the innate immune function. Through this study, the traditional knowledge of anti-diabetic property of G. sylvestre is scientifically supplemented with its immunomodulatory properties.

  13. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  14. Immunomodulatory Effects of Soybeans and Processed Soy Food Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an immune response against both internal and external antigens in organisms, particularly in mammals, and includes both uncontrolled chronic and low-grade inflammations. Uncontrolled chronic inflammation often leads to severe diseases such as vascular disease, arthritis, cancer, diabete, allergy, and autoimmunity. On the other hand, low-grade inflammation is recognized as a relationship between obesity and risk of metabolic syndrome. Elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators is commonly observed in patients with uncontrolled or low-grade inflammation-associated diseases. Plants have been generated phytochemicals to overcome inflammations and infections through evolution. Phytochemicals belong to alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, and terpenoids. The consumption of soybeans plays a role in immune modulation through their components such as isoflavones, saponins, and anthocyanins. Recently, it was reported that the application of phytochemicals into patients with inflammatory diseases improves their symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify novel phytochemicals with immunomodulatory activities. This review introduces and discusses recent advances and patents regarding soybean or processed soy food compounds which exhibit immunomodulatory activity in immune diseases, particularly allergy, by mediating the suppression of inflammatory pathways.

  15. The Effects of Professor Humor on College Students' Attention and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to investigate the effect of instructor humor on college students' levels of engagement and retention of material. A convenience sample of junior- and senior-level students enrolled in four separate courses within the College of Education were exposed to two different lectures--one humorous, one non-humorous.…

  16. Immunomodulatory Effects of Probiotic Supplementation in Schizophrenia Patients: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Tomasik; Yolken, Robert H; Sabine Bahn; Dickerson, Faith B

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAlthough peripheral immune system abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia pathophysiology, standard antipsychotic drugs show limited immunological effects. Thus, more effective treatment approaches are required. Probiotics are microorganisms that modulate the immune response of the host and, therefore, may be beneficial to schizophrenia patients. The aim of this study was to examine the possible immunomodulatory effects of probiotic supplementation in chronic schizophrenia...

  17. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  18. The effect of humor on aggression catharsis in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, A

    1987-07-01

    Two studies were designed to measure the cathartic effects of humor on aggressive responses. In the first study, two versions (easy and difficult) of Raven's intelligence test were administered to two groups of high school students. Only the easy version could be solved in the alloted time. Rosenzweig's (1951) Picture Frustration test was then administered and the students' aggressive responses were scored. Results showed that those who did not solve the problems had significantly higher scores on aggressivity than did the others. The second study, using four different groups, was planned according to a modified Solomon design. Two of the four groups of students completed the difficult part of the Raven test, and then two video-tapes were presented: a humorous one to two groups and a neutral one to the others. Finally, the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test was administered to all four groups. An analysis of variance computed on the aggressivity scores showed one significant difference: frustrated students who viewed the humorous videotape had lower scores than those viewing the neutral one.

  19. Immunomodulatory Effect of Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br. Leaf Extract: An In Vitro Study in Rat Model.

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    Vineet Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre Wild R.Br (family: Asclepidaceae is a valuable medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, obesity, asthma etc. in India for antiquity. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized immunologically by lymphocyte apoptosis and reduced cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Modulation of immune responses to alleviate diseases has been of interest, and traditional herbal medicines may play an important role in this regard. In this study, we aim to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf using rat model. HPLC analysis of leaf extract was carried out for gymnemic acid. The method involves the initial hydrolysis of gymnemic acids, the active ingredients, to a common aglycone followed by the quantitative estimation of gymnemagenin, using gymnemagenin as reference standard. Gymnemic acid content was 2.40% (w/w in G. sylvestre leaf extract. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf (1-200μg/ml was evaluated by gauging its effects on nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and nitrite release in rat peritoneal macrophages and on mitogen (ConA, PHA and LPS induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract showed significant (<0.05 enhancement in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and in proliferation of lymphocytes in dose dependent manner. EC50 value was 3.10, 3.75 and 2.68 μg/ml for NBT reduction, nitrite release and lymphoproliferation, respectively. Potential effect was observed at 100 μg/ml in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and 20 μg/ml in lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract stimulates macrophage reactivity, increasing the level of activity even higher when combined with PMA or LPS. These findings suggest the presence of active compounds, gymnemic acid, in methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf that stimulates both myeloid and lymphoid components of immune system, and therefore can restore the innate

  20. Parasitic helminths and HIV-1 infection: the effect of immunomodulatory antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, E.E.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    In many regions of the world co-infection with parasitic helminths and HIV-1 is common. Both pathogens have major implications for the host immune system, helminths possess immunomodulatory properties whilst HIV-1 infects and kills immune cells. Currently very little is known regarding what effects

  1. Rumination, Suicidal Ideation, and the Mediating Effect of Self-Defeating Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Tucker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a self-defeating humor style is related to indicators of psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction, including depression, anxiety, loneliness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. The current study continued this investigation by examining how self-defeating humor is related to suicidal ideation and a ruminative response style. Analyses indicated that a self-defeating humor style was positively associated to rumination, brooding, reflection, and suicidal ideation. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that self-defeating humor mediated the relationship between rumination and suicidal ideation. This same effect was seen for both brooding and reflection individually. Results indicate that self-defeating humor may serve as an interpersonal means of ruminating as this humor style involves consistent focus on perceived flaws and weaknesses. The assessment of this humor style may provide additional information about the maintenance of suicidal thinking.

  2. Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined whether different levels of sense of humor would influence respondents' ratings about a potentially desirable partner. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design--with gender and humor as independent variables and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables--the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than did those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets. The authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

  3. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  4. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of " Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamlal Singh Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  5. Sweet whey as a raw material for the dietary supplements obtaining with immunomodulatory effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Didukh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the study of literary sources to prove the viability of the idea of using sweet whey to deep its fractionation, and to obtain biologically active proteins with immunomodulatory effect. We demonstrated methods for fractionation of milk whey (membrane and chromatographic, as well as the technological scheme of concentration of sweet whey. We introduced the composition of sweet whey and protein content of immunomodulatory action. Modern methods of processing whey, which include, basically, only the process of dehydration and concentration of whey and its use in the complete component composition, which limits its use for food purposes are shown. The necessity of processing of secondary resources in a catastrophic ecological situation on the planet and full use of the composite processing of raw materials for food purposes, and also shows properties of proteins immunomodulating actions which are part of the whey are grounded.

  6. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF TOTAL FLAVONOIDS OF ASTRAGALUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ze; Xu, Hong-Yan; Xu, Lu; Wang, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Xue-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Astragali Radix has long been used to improve immune function in traditional Chinese medicine. However, its main active components and potential immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory activities have not been elucidated. In the present study, the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA) isolated from Astragali Radix were evaluated by using in vivo animal models and in vitro cell models. The in vivo Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of TFA were assessed by measuring macrophage phagocytic index, delayed type hypersensitivity, serum hemolysin level and immune organ index in mice, ear edema test in mice, paw edema test in rats, vascular permeability test in mice and granuloma test in rats. The in vitro Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of TFA were assessed by examining its effect on cytokine and mediator production in un-stimulated and LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results of in vivo experiments showed that TFA enhanced macrophage phagocytic index, delayed type hypersensitivity, serum hemolysin level and immune organ index in mice, and attenuated mouse ear edema, rat paw edema, mouse vascular permeability and rat granuloma formation. The results of in vitro experiments showed that TFA stimulated the production of NO and cytokine TNF-α, IL-Ιβ, IL-6 and IFN-γ in un-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and inhibited the overproduction of these inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner without exerting cytotoxicity. These results of this study indicate that TFA have potential immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects.

  7. Preliminary Study on Immunomodulatory Effect of Sarang-Semut Tubers Myrmecodia tuberosa and Myrmecodia pendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Hertiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Sarang-Semut tubers, Myrmecodia tuberosa and M. pendens (Rubiaceae are both medicinal plants originating from Papua which have broad range of therapeutic values including those to improve vitality. Nevertheless, no scientific proof is available so far on their immunomodulatory effect. The purpose of this study was to reveal the potency of Sarang-Semut tubers as immunomodulatory agent by evaluating their effects on Balb/c mice lymphocytes proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis by in vitro techniques. Approach: Bioactivity assays were performed on the raw extracts and fractions. Extracts were obtained by macerating the pulverized samples in ethanol 95%, followed by successive fractionation to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water fractions. Series of extracts and fractions were made to concentration 10, 20, 50 and 100 µg mL-1 by adding 0.5% Tween 80. Lymphocytes proliferation was observed by the MTT reduction method and analyzed using microplate reader at 550 nm. Macrophage phagocytosis activity was determined based on the number of latex beads uptake by the macrophage cells. Results: All extracts and fractions significantly increased the lymphocytes proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis activity in comparison to negative control. The ethyl acetate fraction of M. pendens (50 µg mL-1 showed the highest activity in lymphocytes proliferation assay, but the highest macrophage phagocytic index was shown by M. tuberosa ethanol extract (50 µg mL-1. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Sarang-Semut tubers are potential to be developed as immunomodulatory agents.

  8. Effectiveness of humor intervention for patients with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunfeng; Yu, Liping; Rong, Lan; Zhong, Hanling

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of a 10-session humor intervention program in improving rehabilitative outcomes and the effects of the intervention on patients' sense of humor among patients with schizophrenia. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned into either the intervention (humor skill training) group (n = 15) or the control (doing handwork) group (n = 15). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests and ANOVA. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were conducted to examine the differences across conditions and time. A group by time interaction effect was observed on all of the outcomes, except positive symptoms of PANSS. The time main effect was also significant on the total score (p humor skill training in a mental health service can improve rehabilitative outcomes and sense of humor for schizophrenia patients who were in the rehabilitation stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino in Immunosuppressed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaoya; Chao, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Chengyuan; Xu, Chunlan; Niu, Weining

    2016-08-19

    The immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GPMPP) were investigated. GPMPP was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 1.39:3.76:1.00:1.64:4.98:5.88. In vivo studies showed GPMPP significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, activated the macrophage phagocytosis and NK cells, and exhibited activity on none or Con A/LPS-stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, GPMPP elevated CD4⁺ T lymphocyte counts as well as the CD4⁺/CD8⁺ ratio dose-dependently, and it increased IL-2 level in the sera and spleen of Cy-immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, GPMPP significantly increased the SOD, GSH-Px, T-AOC, GSH and CAT level, and decreased the MDA level. The results showed that GPMPP might play an important role in prevention of oxidative damage in immunological system. These findings indicate GPMPP has immunomodulatory activity in vivo and seems to be an effective natural immunomodulatory agent.

  10. Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino in Immunosuppressed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoya Shang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GPMPP were investigated. GPMPP was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 1.39:3.76:1.00:1.64:4.98:5.88. In vivo studies showed GPMPP significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, activated the macrophage phagocytosis and NK cells, and exhibited activity on none or Con A/LPS-stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, GPMPP elevated CD4+ T lymphocyte counts as well as the CD4+/CD8+ ratio dose-dependently, and it increased IL-2 level in the sera and spleen of Cy-immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, GPMPP significantly increased the SOD, GSH-Px, T-AOC, GSH and CAT level, and decreased the MDA level. The results showed that GPMPP might play an important role in prevention of oxidative damage in immunological system. These findings indicate GPMPP has immunomodulatory activity in vivo and seems to be an effective natural immunomodulatory agent.

  11. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  12. Immunomodulatory effect of pleuran (β-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) in children with recurrent respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesenak, Milos; Majtan, Juraj; Rennerova, Zuzana; Kyselovic, Jan; Banovcin, Peter; Hrubisko, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) represent a very important problem in daily clinical practice because of their significant contribution to morbidity in children. Several natural nutritional supplements have been used in the prevention of RRTIs, but the clinical efficacy of only a few preparations is supported by scientific evidence. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, multicentre study, we have observed a group of 175 children (aged 5.65 ± 2.39 years) with more than 5 respiratory infections that occurred during the 12 months prior to the beginning of the study. Children were randomised into an active group, treated with Imunoglukan P4H® syrup (with pleuran-β-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus and vitamin C), or a placebo group (vitamin C only). During the 3 visits, within a 12-month period, questionnaires were completed, and blood samples were examined for immune parameters. In the active group, 36% of the children did not suffer from any respiratory infections throughout the treatment, compared to 21% in the placebo group (p<0.05). Imunoglukan P4H® also significantly decreased the frequency of flu and flu-like disease and the number of lower respiratory tract infections. Imunoglukan P4H® treatment resulted in a statistically significant modulation of humoral and cellular immunity. Results from this study demonstrate that Imunoglukan P4H® is effective in the prevention of RRTIs in children. Furthermore, our results also revealed complex immunomodulatory activity of this product. This is the first double-blind, placebo-controlled study in children with RRTIs that has addressed the preventive effects of pleuran on morbidity caused by respiratory infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects of dezocine-propofol anesthesia combination ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open ... intravenous injection of 0.05 mg fentanyl, 1 – 2 ..... Tönük ŞB, Serin E, Ayhan FF, Yorgancioglu ZR.

  14. Studies on Male Antifertilitic and Immunomodulatory Effects of TW19

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王作鹏; 王晓凤; 曹霖; 陆荣发; 赵世兴; 李晓玉; 顾芝萍

    2000-01-01

    TW 19 is a diterpene compound isolated from the root cortex of Tripterygium Wilfordii Hood. F. . Its effects on the immune function in ICR mice and the male fertility in SD rats, ICR mice and Kunming mice were evaluated. TW19 was given orally for 5 weeks. Then the antifertilitic effect was assessed by mating test. The results showed that EDso for anti-fertilitic were 332 μg/kg, 369. 9 μg/kg and 286. 8 μg/kg per day in SD rats, ICR mice and Kunming mice respectively. After the treatment of TW 19 at anti fertility dose for 5 weeks consecutively, the spermatozoa density and motility of trial animals reduced significantly. The weight of testis also declined in SD rats and Kunming mice, but no effects were observed in ICR mice. TW 19 inhibited proliferation of splenic T and B-lymphocytes of ICR mice in vitro and hence inhibited the antibody formation in vivo, but compared with T 4, the immunosuppressive effect of TW 19 was less obvious.

  15. Hemodynamic, Thyroid and Immunomodulatory Effects of Heroin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail M. Maulood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diacetylmorphine (heroin has many effects on the body system; it exerts effects on cardiovascular, immune and endocrine systems. The aim of the this study is to investigate the short-term effects of low and high doses of heroin on systolic blood pressure (SBP, thyroid hormones and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. The experimental rats were divided into three groups, each with six individuals and the treatments were continued for seven days. SBP significantly reduced by heroin administration in the second dose as compared with the control group. A marked decrease in the serum NO level was also noticed after first (low and second (high dose of administration as compared with control group. The present results also revealed that serum MCP-1 was statistically increased in the second dose of heroin group. Statistical analysis showed that both serum T3 and T4 levels were reduced significantly by heroin administration. In conclusions, for the first time, our findings suggested that diacetylmorphine could affect immune system through MCP-1 elevation. As well as heroin may affect cardiac and liver functions via increasing troponin-T and bilirubin levels.

  16. Immunomodulatory effect of Canova medication on experimental Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W K V; Lonardoni, M V C; Grespan, R; Caparroz-Assef, S M; Cuman, R K N; Bersani-Amado, C A

    2005-08-01

    This study investigates the action of Canova medication (CM) on experimental infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, utilizing in vitro and in vivo assays. For the in vitro tests, Balb/c mouse peritoneal macrophages (5x10(5) cells in 500 microl of culture medium, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin (100 U/ml) and streptomycin (0.1 mg/ml) (were distributed in 24-well plates and CM was added at concentrations of 20 or 40%. Twenty-four hours later, the macrophages were infected with Leishmania amastigotes in culture medium. The effect of CM on macrophages leishmanicidal activity in 24 and 48 h cultures was evaluated by determining infection index and measuring nitric oxide (NO) production. The in vivo tests were performed in mice infected with 10(7)L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes injected in to the right hind footpad (25 microl in phosphate buffered saline). The progression of the lesions was examined over a 9-week period by measuring footpad swelling, and the parasite load in regional lymph nodes and spleen. The in vitro results showed that at 40% CM reduced the infection index, and induced NO production in the elicited macrophages, which suggests that the inhibitory effect on infection index may be mediated by NO. In the in vivo infection, when administered, orally or subcutaneously in mice, CM reduced infection by L. (L.) amazonensis in the paws, resulting in smaller lesions. CM treatment also decreased parasite load in the regional popliteal lymph nodes and in the spleen. These results suggest that CM modulates experimental infection by L. (L.) amazonensis, controlling infection progression and limiting dissemination.

  17. Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2003-09-01

    Because of a characteristic aroma and health benefits, green tea is consumed worldwide as a popular beverage. The epicatechin derivatives, commonly called polyphenols, present in green tea possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The major and most highly chemopreventive constituent in green tea responsible for the biochemical or pharmacological effects is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Epidemiological, clinical and biological studies have implicated that solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a complete carcinogen and repeated exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We and others have shown that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibit chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in different laboratory animal models. Topical treatment of GTP and EGCG or oral consumption of GTP resulted in prevention of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, immunosuppression and oxidative stress, which are the biomarkers of several skin disease states. Topical application of GTP and EGCG prior to exposure of UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals, which was associated with the inhibition of UVB-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of immune responses by EGCG was also associated with the reduction in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production at UV irradiated skin and draining lymph nodes, whereas IL-12 production was significantly enhanced in draining lymph nodes. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of green tea were also observed in human skin. Treatment of EGCG to human skin resulted in the inhibition of UVB-induced erythema, oxidative stress and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. We also showed that treatment of GTP to human skin prevents UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers

  18. IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF VITAMIN D ON SKIN INFLAMMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniato, E; Spinas, E; Saggini, A; Kritas, S K; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Saggini, R; Pandolfi, F; Conti, P

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has a major role in calcium absorption and maintenance of healthy bones. Vitamin D is also involved in cancer, cardiovascular system, allergic diseases, immune regulation and immune disor¬ders. Irradiation of food as well as animals produces vitamin D and more than 90% of previtamin D3 synthesis in the skin occurs in the epidermis. Vitamin D receptor has been found in many cells including T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, NK cells and Tregs, and it selectively binds with high affinity to its ligand. Vitamin D binds its receptor VDR, resulting in transcription of a number of genes playing a role in inhibition of MAPK. Its effect may be also mediated by the direct activation of PKC. Vitamin D has the ability to suppress inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1, IFN-gamma and IL-2; while it increases the generation of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. In B cells, vitamin D3 have also been shown to suppress IgE antibody class switch partly through the inhibition of NF-kB. Here we discuss the relationship between vitamin D, immunity and skin disorders.

  19. IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF PHYTO-ADDITIVES IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ŞTEF

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was been performed in the sector of Nutrition and Animal Feeding discipline from Timisoara Didactic Station, on a 6 week period, beginning with hatching and finishing with 42 days of age, on 120 broilers divided into four experimental variants, each of them with 30 individuals. In LEU group was incorporated essential oils of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita and Hyperici herba 250 mg in 1 kg combined fodder, in LEP group was included in combined fodder structure a plants premix in 2%, in LEUP group was incorporated plants premix 2% +250 mg essential oil of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita, Hyperici herba in 1 kg combined fodder. After seric lizozime quntification was observed an increase with 303.46% in LEPU group, followed by LEU with 200.14%, results who demonstrated the presence of an immunological stimulation in broiler chickens. Increased values of seric properdine were observed in LEPU group, with 210.45% more increased in comparison with LM group, followed by LEU group, demonstrating that the changing of unspecific immune effectors values took place like a result of a exogenous substance with immunomodulator effect. Was also observed an easy increase of limfocytes in LPU group, but not so important like in first two determinations, if the experiment will continue, these values maybe will be significant increased, taking into consideration that these increases become more evident after a period of time after stimulation.

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of recombinant lactoferrin during MRSA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2014-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection remains a serious hazard to global health. The use of immune modulatory therapy to combat infection is gaining an interest as a novel treatment alternative. Lactoferrin (LF), an iron binding protein with immune modulating properties, has the potential to modify the course of systemic MRSA infection. Specifically, LF is capable of limiting deleterious inflammatory responses while promoting the development of antigen specific T-cell activity. The efficacy of a novel recombinant mouse LF (rmLF) to protect against MRSA infection was examined in a mouse peritonitis model. BALB/c mice were infected with a lethal dose of MRSA and treated at 2h post-infection with rmLF. Effects of rmLF on MRSA-infected primary monocytes and granulocytes were analyzed for inflammatory mediators. The rmLF treated mice demonstrated a modest increase in survival of more than 24h, albeit with reduced bacteremia. Serum cytokines, IL-17 and IL-6, were significantly reduced post-challenge post-rmLF treatment. The rmLF led to a minor decrease in IL-1b, and a slight increase in TNF-a production. Preliminary investigation towards human clinical relevance was accomplished using human blood derived monocytes and granulocytes infected with MRSA and treated with homologous recombinant human LF (rhLF). Treatment with (rhLF) led to increased production of IFN-g and IL-2. The human cell studies also showed a concurrent decrease in TNF-a, IL-6, IL-1b, IL-12p40, and IL-10. These results indicate that the rmLF and rhLF have a high degree of overlap to modify inflammatory responses, although differences in activities were observed between the two heterologous recombinant molecules.

  1. Immunomodulatory effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jong Kwon; Kim, Hyung Soo; Chung, Seung Tae; Eom, Juno H; Kim, Kyung A; Chung, Se Jin; Paik, Soon Young; Oh, Hye Young

    2004-03-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an the active component of propolis, is known to have anticarcinogenic, antiviral and various biological activities; however, the effect of CAPE on the immunomodulatory activity in vivo remains unknown. We have investigated the effect of CAPE on the immune system in female Balb/c mice. CAPE (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) was given to mice orally for 14 days. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by assessment of body and organ weight, lymphocyte blastogenesis, plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay, lymphocyte subpopulation by flow cytometry and cytokine production. Even though the change of body weight was not observed in CAPE-administered group, thymus weight and/or cellularity of thymus and spleen are decreased at the all dose groups of CAPE (5, 10, 20 mg/kg). On the other hand, CAPE had no effect on B lymphocyte proliferation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but increased T lymphocyte blastogenesis induced by concanavalin A (Con A) at the dose of 20 mg/kg. In the case of lymphocyte subpopulation, the population of T and B cells was not changed but CD4(+) T cell subsets are significantly increased in exposure to CAPE. The antibody responses to T lymphocyte dependent antigen, sheep red blood cell and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) were increased more than 10 mg/kg in CAPE-treated group. Likewise, the cytokine, IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma were significantly increased at the dose of 20 mg/kg CAPE group. These results suggest that CAPE could have immunomodulatory effects in vivo.

  2. PST-Gold nanoparticle as an effective anticancer agent with immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Manu M; Aravind, S R; Varghese, Sheeja; Mini, S; Sreelekha, T T

    2013-04-01

    Polysaccharide PST001, which is isolated from the seed kernels of Tamarindus indica (Ti), is an antitumor and immunomodulatory compound. Gold nanoparticles have been used for various applications in cancer. In the present report, a novel strategy for the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles using anticancer polysaccharide PST001 was employed and the nanoparticles' antitumor activity was evaluated. PST-Gold nanoparticles were prepared such that PST001 acted both as a reducing agent and as a capping agent. PST-Gold nanoparticles showed high stability, no obvious aggregation for months and a wide range of pH tolerance. PST-Gold nanoparticles not only retained the antitumor effect of PST001 but also showed an enhanced effect even at a low concentration. It was also found that the nanoparticles exerted their antitumor effects through the induction of apoptosis. In vivo assays on BALB/c mice revealed that PST-Gold nanoparticles exhibited immunomodulatory effects. Evaluation of biochemical, hematological and histopathological features of mice revealed that PST-Gold nanoparticles could be administered safely without toxicity. Using the polysaccharide PST001 for the reduction and stabilization of gold nanoparticles does not introduce any environmental toxicity or biological hazards, and these particles are more effective than the parent polysaccharide. Further studies should be employed to exploit these particles as anticancer agents with imaging properties.

  3. Effect of tylosin tartrate on humoral immune responses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, T; Yamashita, N; Kodama, H; Mukamoto, M; Asada, M; Nakamoto, K; Nose, Y; McGruder, E D

    1998-06-01

    While many antimicrobial agents have been reported to cause immunosuppression in animals, macrolide antibiotics enhance the immune function. Tylosin tartrate is a macrolide antibiotic approved for the control of mycoplasmosis in poultry. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of tylosin on the humoral immune functions in chickens. Three days after oral tylosin tartrate administration, 4- or 8-week-old chickens were immunized intravenously with carbolic acid-killed Brucella abortus bacterin or sheep red blood cells. Seven days (plasma antibodies titre) or 4 days (antibody forming cells) post-immunization, there was a significant increase in antibody production as well as in the numbers of antibody-producing cells in tylosin tartrate-administered chickens compared with the untreated controls. However, 3 days after tylosin tartrate administration, there was no difference in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 or CD8 positive cells) or B lymphocytes (surface immunoglobulin positive cells) in either the peripheral blood or spleens or untreated control chickens.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Huang, Qin; Mao, Yulong; Cui, Zhiwen; Li, Yali; Huang, Yi; Rajput, Imran Rashid; Yu, Dongyou; Li, Weifen

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophage, RAW 264.7 cells were cultured alone or with B subtilis (natto) B4 spores at 37°C for 12 hrs, then both cells and culture supernatants were collected for analyses. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores had no significant effects on macrophage viability and amounts of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, it remarkably increased the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cells and the amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin [IL]-1 beta, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in culture supernatants. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores are harmless to murine macrophages and can stimulate their activation through up-regulation of ACP and LDH activities and enhance their immune function by increasing iNOS activity and stimulating NO and cytokine production. The above findings suggest that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores have immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. © 2012 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. A proteomic approach to identify proteins from Trichuris trichiura extract with immunomodulatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, L N; Gallo, M B C; Silva, E S; Figueiredo, C A V; Cooper, P J; Barreto, M L; Loureiro, S; Pontes-de-Carvalho, L C; Alcantara-Neves, N M

    2013-01-01

    Infections with Trichuris trichiura and other trichurid nematodes have been reported to display protective effects against atopy, allergic and autoimmune diseases. The aims of the present study were to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of T. trichiura adult worm extract (TtE) and its fractions (TtEFs) on the production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and to identify their proteinaceous components. Fourteen TtEFs were obtained by ion exchange chromatography and tested for effects on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The molecular constituents of the six most active fractions were evaluated using nano-LC/mass spectrometry. The homology between T. trichiura and the related nematode Trichinella spiralis was used to identify 12 proteins in TtEFs. Among those identified, fructose biphosphate aldolase, a homologue of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and heat-shock protein 70 may contribute to the immunomodulatory effects of TtEFs. The identification of such proteins could lead to the development of novel drugs for the therapy of allergic and other inflammatory diseases.

  6. The effectiveness of humor in persuasion: the case of business ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, J

    2001-04-01

    In this study, persuasion theory was used to develop the following predictions about use of humor in persuasive messages for business ethics training: (a) cartoon drawings will enhance persuasion by creating liking for the source, (b) ironic wisecracks will enhance persuasion by serving as a distraction from counterarguments, and (c) self-effacing humor will enhance persuasion by improving source credibility. Canadian business students (N = 148) participated in 1 of 4 versions of "The Ethics Challenge," a training exercise used by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Three versions were modified by adding or removing cartoon drawings (of cartoon characters Dilbert and Dogbert) and humorous responses (Dogbert's wisecracks). Removing the cartoon drawings had little effect on persuasiveness. Removing ironic wisecracks had more effect, and interfering with the self-effacing combination of cartoons and wisecracks had the strongest effect. The results suggest that researchers should ground their predictions in existing theory and that practitioners should differentiate among humor types.

  7. Long-term immunomodulatory effect of amniotic stem cells in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Sul; Kim, Hyun Sook; Park, Ji-Min; Kim, Han Wool; Park, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Hyun-Seob; Lim, Dae Seog; Lee, Tae Hee; Chopp, Michael; Moon, Jisook

    2013-10-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) plays a major role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and neuroinflammatory processes mediated by Aβ plaque-induced microglial cells and astrocytes contribute to AD pathogenesis. The present study examined human placenta amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs), which have potent immunomodulatory and paracrine effects in a Tg2576 (APPswe) transgenic mouse model of AD. AMSCs secreted high levels of transforming growth factor-β under in vitro inflammatory environment conditions. Six weeks after the intravenous injection of AMSCs, APPswe mice showed evidence of improved spatial learning, which significantly correlated with the observation of fewer Aβ plaques in brain. The number of ED1-positive phagocytic microglial cells associated with Aβ plaques was higher in AMSC-injected mice than in phosphate-buffered saline-injected mice, and the level of Aβ-degrading enzymes (matrix metallopeptidase-9 and insulin-degrading enzyme) was also significantly higher. Furthermore, the level of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, was lower and that of anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β, was higher in AMSC-injected mice than phosphate-buffered saline-injected mice. These effects lasted until 12 weeks after AMSC injection. Taken together, these results collectively suggest that injection of AMSCs might show significant long-lasting improvement in AD pathology and memory function via immunomodulatory and paracrine mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects in the spleen-injured mice following exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xuezi; Fei, Min; Sheng, Lei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Yu, Xiaohong; Hong, Jie; Ze, Yuguan; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Ze, Xiao; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2014-10-01

    Immune injuries following the exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂ NPs) have been greatly concerned along with the TiO₂ NPs are widely used in pharmacology and daily life. However, very little is known about the immunomodulatory mechanisms in the spleen-injured mice due to TiO₂ NPs exposure. In this study, mice were continuously exposed to 2.5, 5, or 10 TiO₂ NPs mg kg(-1) body weight for 90 days with intragastric administration to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms in the spleen. The findings showed that TiO₂ NPs exposure resulted in significant increases in spleen and thymus indices, and titanium accumulation, in turn led to histopathological changes and splenocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, the exposure of TiO₂ NPs could significantly increase the levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-2, Eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interferon-γ, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-13, interferon-γ-inducible protein-10, migration inhibitory factor, CD69, major histocompatibility complex, protein tyrosine phosphatase, protein tyrosine kinase 1, basic fibroblast growth factor, Fasl, and GzmB expression, whereas markedly decrease the levels of NKG2D, NKp46, 2B4 expression involved in immune responses, lymphocyte healing and apoptosis. These findings would better understand toxicological effects induced by TiO₂ NPs exposure.

  9. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahirwal Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we performed a comparative phytochemical analysis of the immunomodulating activities of the methanol leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLEGS in Swiss albino mice. The phytochemical screening conducted on MLEGS revealed the presence of several phytoconstituents, including saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Immunomodulatory activities were determined by hemagglutination antibody (HA titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH tests for determining specific and non-specific immune responses. Flow cytometric techniques were performed for the estimation of B lymphocytes (CD3 and CD19 and Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited a significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody response and DTH response. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody and DTH responses, with maximum reduction observed at 200 mg/kg-body wt. The maximal reductions in the production of CD3, CD19, IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 were 31.59, 32.12, 29.51, 32.45 and 33.53%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg body weight. This study demonstrates that G. sylvestre exerts immunosuppressive effects on the components of the immune system of mice, and points to its significant immunomodulatory potential.

  10. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  11. Antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of gelatin hydrolysate from unicorn leatherjacket skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Benjakul, Soottawat; O'Brien, Nora

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro cellular bioactivities including, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of a gelatin hydrolysate (GH) prepared from unicorn leatherjacket skin, using partially purified glycyl endopeptidase, were investigated in order to optimize the use of fish skin waste products as functional food ingredients. GH under the tested concentrations (750-1500 µg mL(-1) ) protected against H2 O2 -induced DNA damage in U937 cells. GH also protected against the H2 O2 -induced reduction in cellular antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase and catalase, in HepG2 cells. GH demonstrated immunomodulatory potential by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β) production and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Cell proliferation in human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner following incubation with GH. These results indicate that GH has several bioactivities which support its potential as a promising functional food ingredient with various health benefits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Immunomodulatory and radioprotective effects of lignans derived from fresh nutmeg mace (Myristica fragrans) in mammalian splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checker, Rahul; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad; Sharma, Arun; Poduval, T B

    2008-05-01

    Recently, the lignans present in the aqueous extract of fresh nutmeg mace (aril of the fruit of Myristica fragrans) were shown to possess antioxidant properties in cell free systems and protected PUC18 plasmid against radiation-induced DNA damage. The present report describes the immunomodulatory and radiomodifying properties of lignans present in the aqueous extract of fresh nutmeg mace in mammalian splenocytes. These macelignans (ML) inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes in response to polyclonal T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). This inhibition of proliferation was due to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and augmentation of apoptosis as shown by increase in pre G1 cells. The increase in activation induced cell death by ML was dose dependent. It was found to inhibit the transcription of IL-2 and IL-4 genes in response to Con A. The production of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma cytokines was significantly inhibited by ML in Con A-stimulated lymphocytes in a dose dependent manner. ML protected splenocytes against radiation-induced intracellular ROS production in a dose dependent manner. ML was not cytotoxic towards lymphocytes. On the contrary, it significantly inhibited the radiation-induced DNA damage in splenocytes as indicated by decrease in DNA fragmentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the antioxidant, radioprotective and immunomodulatory effects of lignans in mammalian cells.

  13. Allergic Responses Induced by the Immunomodulatory Effects of Nanomaterials upon Skin Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Kuroda, Etsushi; Hirai, Toshiro; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Ishii, Ken J.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, a vast array of nanomaterials has been created through the development of nanotechnology. With the increasing application of these nanomaterials in various fields, such as foods, cosmetics, and medicines, there has been concern about their safety, that is, nanotoxicity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to collect information about the biological effects of nanomaterials so that we can exploit their potential benefits and design safer nanomaterials, while avoiding nanotoxicity as a result of inhalation or skin exposure. In particular, the immunomodulating effect of nanomaterials is one of most interesting aspects of nanotoxicity. However, the immunomodulating effects of nanomaterials through skin exposure have not been adequately discussed compared with the effects of inhalation exposure, because skin penetration by nanomaterials is thought to be extremely low under normal conditions. On the other hand, the immunomodulatory effects of nanomaterials via skin may cause severe problems for people with impaired skin barrier function, because some nanomaterials could penetrate the deep layers of their allergic or damaged skin. In addition, some studies, including ours, have shown that nanomaterials could exhibit significant immunomodulating effects even if they do not penetrate the skin. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the allergic responses induced by nanomaterials upon skin exposure. First, we discuss nanomaterial penetration of the intact or impaired skin barrier. Next, we describe the immunomodulating effects of nanomaterials, focusing on the sensitization potential of nanomaterials and the effects of co-exposure of nanomaterials with substances such as chemical sensitizers or allergens, on the onset of allergy, following skin exposure. Finally, we discuss the potential mechanisms underlying the immunomodulating effects of nanomaterials by describing the involvement of the protein corona in the interaction of

  14. That’s Not Funny! – But It Should Be: Effects of Humorous Emotion Regulation on Emotional Experience and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eKugler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory, compared to non-humorous rational reappraisal and a non-reappraisal control condition. Replicating previous findings, humorous reappraisal reduced evoked negative valence and arousal levels very effectively, and the down-regulation of experienced negative emotions was even more pronounced after humorous compared to rational reappraisal. Regarding later memory for emotion-eliciting stimuli, both humorous and rational reappraisal reduced free recall, but recognition memory was unaffected, with memory strength being stronger after humorous than after rational reappraisal. These results indicate that humor seems to be indeed an optimal strategy to cope with negative situations because humor can help us to feel better when confronted with negative stimuli, but still allows us to retrieve stimulus information later when afforded to do so by the presence of appropriate contextual features.

  15. Flavones induce immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects by activating cellular anti-oxidant activity: a structure-activity relationship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilani-Jaziri, Soumaya; Mustapha, Nadia; Mokdad-Bzeouich, Imen; El Gueder, Dorra; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira-Chekir, Leila

    2016-05-01

    Flavonoids impart a variety of biological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-genotoxic effects. This study investigated the effects of flavone luteolin and apigenin on immune cell functions, including proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity of isolated murine splenocytes. We report for the first time that flavones enhance lymphocyte proliferation at 10 μM. Luteolin and apigenin significantly promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and enhance humoral immune responses. Luteolin induces a weak cell proliferation of lectin-stimulated splenic T cells, when compared to apigenin. In addition, both flavones significantly enhance NK cell and CTL activities. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that both flavones could inhibit lysosomal enzyme activity, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect. The anti-inflammatory activity was concomitant with the cellular anti-oxidant effect detected in macrophages, red blood cells, and splenocytes. We conclude from this study that flavones exhibited an immunomodulatory effect which could be ascribed, in part, to its cytoprotective capacity via its anti-oxidant activity.

  16. The Immunomodulatory Effect of Acupoint Application for Childhood Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Cun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the evidence on the immunomodulatory effect of acupoint application for childhood asthma. Methods. Five electronic databases through October 2014 were searched. The risk of bias in eligible studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Standardised mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI of random-effects model were calculated. And heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and quantified with the I2 index. Results. Six studies were included in our review. The aggregated results suggested that acupoint application showed the beneficial effect for childhood asthma in improving IgA (SMD, −0.83; 95% CI −1.14 to −0.52; P<0.00001, IgE (SMD, −0.52; 95% CI −0.76 to −0.29; P<0.001, IgG (SMD, −1.17; 95% CI −1.61 to −0.74; P<0.0001, IL-4 (SMD, −0.57; 95% CI −0.91 to −0.23; P=0.0009, and IFN-γ (SMD, −0.38; 95% CI −0.71 to −0.04; P=0.03 but not IgM (SMD, −0.40; 95% CI −0.98 to 0.18; P=0.18. And the effective dose of acupoint application may be 2–6 hours/time and a total of 3 times within 4 weeks. Conclusions. This review showed the positive evidence that acupoint application had the favorable immunomodulatory effect for childhood asthma. However, more studies with long follow-up are warrant to confirm the current findings.

  17. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.

  18. The effect of ultrasonication on the immunomodulatory activity of low-quality ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong Chang; Song, Chi Ho; Lim, Hye Won; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ultrasonication extraction (UE) on the immunomodulatory activity of low-quality ginseng. The results indicate that the optimal conditions for extracting low-quality ginseng are ultrasonication at 60 kHz and 85°C for 60 min. The extraction yield from the UE was 20% higher than that of the water extraction (WE) at 100°C. The low quality ginseng obtained from the UE exhibited relatively low cytotoxicity toward normal human cells, with an observed toxicity of 15-18% at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. The ginseng product obtained following UE induced human B and T cells growth and resulted in concentrations of up to 9.33 × 10(4) cells/mL and 15.33 × 10(4) cells/mL, respectively. The ginseng extract also increased the secretion of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α from these cells by up to 35%, and natural killer/ cell growth was also improved by up to 30%. The UE effectively released 2- to 3-fold higher levels of ginsenosides than the WE. Specifically, the obtained levels of Rb(1) , Re, and Rg(1) , which are likely immunomodulatory factors, were approximately three times higher after ultrasonication than after WE. These results were further supported by the finding that UE product-treated macrophages produced higher levels of nitric oxide (21 μM) than macrophages treated with the WE product or with standard ginsenosides. These results demonstrate that this optimized ultrasonication process effectively destroyed the more rigid cell walls of low-quality ginseng and released high levels of ginsenosides. This work is the first to correlate extraction parameters with both extraction yields and biological activity. The use of low-quality ginseng can thus be expanded by utilizing a low-temperature ultrasonic extraction process. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  19. The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib exerts immunomodulatory effects through regulation of tumor-infiltrating macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Lingyan; Ding, Ning; Shi, Yunfei; Feng, Lixia; Li, Jiao; Liu, Yalu; Lin, Yufu; Shi, Cunzhen; Wang, Xing; Pan, Zhengying; Song, Yuqin; Zhu, Jun

    2017-06-13

    The Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor ibrutinib has demonstrated promising efficacy in a variety of hematologic malignancies. However, the precise mechanism of action of the drug remains to be fully elucidated. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages presented in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to promote development and progression of B-cell lymphomas through crosstalk mediated by secreted cytokines and chemokines. Because Btk has been implicated in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways that regulate macrophage activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of Btk inhibitor on macrophages. Our results demonstrate that Btk inhibition efficiently suppresses production of CXCL12, CXCL13, CCL19, and VEGF by macrophages. Furthermore, attenuated secretion of homeostatic chemokines from Btk inhibitor-treated macrophages significantly compromise adhesion, invasion, and migration of lymphoid malignant cells and even those not driven by Btk expression. The supernatants from Btk inhibitor-treated macrophages also impair the ability of endothelial cells to undergo angiogenic tube formation. Mechanistic analysis revealed that Btk inhibitors treatment downregulates secretion of homeostatic chemokines and cytokines through inactivation of Btk signaling and the downstream transcription factors, NF-κB, STAT3, and AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that the encouraging therapeutic efficacy of Btk inhibitor may be due to both direct cytotoxic effects on malignant B cells and immunomodulatory effects on macrophages present in the tumor microenvironment. This novel mechanism of action suggests that, in addition to B-cell lymphomas, Btk inhibitor may also have therapeutic value in lymphatic malignancies and solid tumors lacking Btk expression.

  20. Immunomodulatory Effect of Cytokines in the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Wafa; Hashim, Siti Nurnasihah Md; Yusof, Muhammad Fuad Hilmi; Osman, Zul Faizuddin; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Mokhtar, Khairani Idah; Ahmad, Azlina; Noordin, Khairul Bariah Ahmad Amin

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal origin cells with multilineage differentiation capacity. The immunoregulatory properties of MSCs can be interfered effectively by cytokines. Cytokines, produced by a broad range of cells, act at the systemic level to influence biological phenomena such as inflammation, wound healing, organogenesis and oncogenesis. Cytokines also play vital roles in the differentiation of MSCs into several cell lineages. This review summarizes on how cytokines can affect MSCs differentiation and their relative signaling pathways, which may serve to understand the possible underlying mechanisms. Also, this review reveals the potential clinical use of MSCs as promising therapeutic agents due to their special characteristics such as multipotent differentiation, immunomodulatory properties, and selfrestoration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Immunomodulatory Effect of Mangiferin in Experimental Animals with Benzo(a)Pyrene-induced Lung Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Jayakumar, Thangavel; Nishigaki, Ikuo; Ekambaram, Ganapathy; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Vetriselvi, Jayabal; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2013-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of mangiferin was studied in various groups of animals. For this study, adult Swiss albino male mice were treated with benzo(a)pyrene, abbreviated as B(a)P, at 50 mg/kg body weight orally twice a week for 4 weeks; and mangiferin was also given orally (pre- and post-initiation of carcinoma) at 100 mg/kg body weight. Immunocompetence and immune complexes as measured by phagocyte index, avidity index, and soluble immune complex (SIC) levels (p<0.001), as well as NBT reduction, were decreased in the B(a)P-treated animals;whereas increased levels of immunocompetence were noted in the mangiferin-treated animals given B(a)P (p<0.001, p<0.05). The levels of immunoglobulins such as IgG and IgM were decreased considerably (p<0.001) in the B(a)P-treated animals compared with their levels in the control animals; whereas the IgA level was increased (p<0.001). In the mangiferin-treated experimental animals given B(a)P, the levels of IgG and IgM were significantly (p<0.001, p<0.05) increased whereas the IgA level was decreased compared with those for the B(a)P-treated mice. Oxidative changes in lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages were also measured. The enhanced lipid peroxidation and decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities found in the lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and macrophages from B(a)P-treated mice were significantly reduced and increased, respectively, by the mangiferin treatment. This study confirms the immunomodulatory effect of mangiferin and shows an immunoprotective role arbitrated through a reduction in the reactive intermediate-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages. PMID:23847456

  2. A Field Experiment on Behavioural Effects of Humorous, Environmentally Oriented and Authoritarian Posters against Littering

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    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A humorous, an environmentally oriented and an authoritarian poster against littering were tested in a field experiment on their behavioural effectiveness. Corresponding slogans were placed on anti-littering posters designed for this study and used experimentally at four railway stations. The experimental design entailed 4 communication conditions including a control condition where no poster was presented. In each experimental run (N = 96, flyers were distributed for 30 minutes. The number of distributed flyers was counted, and the proportion of littered flyers was determined for each experimental run. It was found that the humorous and environmentally oriented posters achieved a reduction of 58% and 64%, respectively, in littering as compared with the control condition. The authoritarian poster was significantly less effective, but achieved a significant reduction of 25%. Considered together with some previous findings and theories, the results indicate that environmentally oriented and humorous anti-littering posters are more effective than authoritarian ones

  3. In vitro and in vivo studies of the immunomodulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea on dendritic cells

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    N.E. El-Ashmawy

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the immunomodulatory mechanisms of E. purpurea impact generation fate of DCs rather than differentiation stages. The results obtained in the in vivo study utilizing murine splenic DCs supported those observed in vitro.

  4. Putting the brakes on prejudice rebound effects: An ironic effect of disparagement humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Teeter, Sabrina R; Richardson, Kyle; Woodzicka, Julie A

    2016-08-26

    When people high in prejudice censor prejudice in one setting, they can experience a prejudice rebound effect-subsequently responding with more prejudice than otherwise. Disparagement humor fosters the release rather than suppression of prejudice. Thus, two experiments tested the hypothesis that exposure to disparagement humor attenuates rebound effects. Participants suppressed prejudice by writing fewer anti-gay thoughts about same-sex adoption (Experiment 1) or by reporting greater support for same-sex civil rights (Experiment 2) when expecting to share their responses with others (non-prejudice norm condition) but not if others first exchanged anti-gay jokes (prejudice norm condition). High-prejudice participants then exhibited prejudice rebound in the non-prejudice norm condition only. They rated a gay man more stereotypically (Experiment 1) and allocated greater budget cuts to a gay student organization (Experiment 2) in the non-prejudice norm condition.

  5. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis

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    Hwang Ji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming a popular treatment for modulating diverse immune disorders. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus as one of the CAMs has been used to modulate cancers, inflammation and allergic activities. However, little evidence has been shown about its underlying mechanism of action by which it exerts a beneficial role in dermatological disease in vivo. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD and elucidated its action mechanism. Methods The immunomodulatory effect of total extract of P. linteus on IgE production by human myeloma U266B1 cells was measured by ELISA. To further identify the effective components, P. linteus was fractionated into methanol soluble, water soluble and boiling water soluble extracts. Each extract was treated to U266B1 cells and primary B cells to compare their inhibitory effects on IgE secretion. To test the in vivo efficacy, experimental atopic dermatitis (AD was established by alternative treatment of DNCB and house dust mite extract into BALB/c mice. Water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA or ceramide as a positive control were topically applied to ears of atopic mouse every day for 2 weeks and progression of the disease was estimated by the following criteria: (a ear thickness, clinical score, (b serum total IgE, IgG and mite specific IgE level by ELSIA, (c histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and (d cytokine profile of total ear cells and CD4+ T cells by real time PCR and ELSIA. Results Treatment of total extracts of P. linteus to U266B1 inhibited IgE secretion. Among the diverse extracts of P. linteus, water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA significantly reduced the IgE production in primary B cells and B cell line U266B1. Moreover, treatment of WA reduced AD symptoms such as ear swelling, erythema, and dryness and decreased recruitment of lymphocyte into the inflamed site

  6. On the Effects of Teacher’s Sense of Humor on Iranian’s EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

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    Fateme Ghanei Motlagh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teacher’s sense of humor is like a miracle in creating effective teaching and learning environments where there is no place for stress and anxiety but instead intrinsic motivation is enhanced. The present study aims mainly, to explore the effects of teachers’ sense of humor of EFL intermediate learners' reading comprehension ability. Having administered a test of reading proficiency, 58 learners are selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. Also two English language teachers, based on TOEFL and Humor Questionnaire, are selected to teach these learners. The process of teaching and the materials were the same for both groups. But participants in humor class were taught in a well-defined humorous environment managed by the teacher. Considering the control group, the process of teaching reading texts was conducted in a normal manner. To measure the relationship between EFL teachers’ sense of humor and EFL learners' intrinsic motivation in reading comprehension ability, an Intrinsic Motivation in Reading Questionnaire (IMERQ including reading curiosity, is given to experimental participants both at the outset and at the end of the course. Finally based on the data, it was found that teachers’ sense of humor was effective in improving learners' reading comprehension ability and enhancing intrinsic motivation. The findings can also provide pedagogical implications for considering teachers’ sense of humor as an intrinsically motivating learning tool. Keywords: sense of humor, intrinsic motivation, reading comprehension, intermediate

  7. Immunomodulatory Properties and Molecular Effects in Inflammatory Diseases of Low-dose X-Irradiation

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    Franz eRödel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory diseases are the result of complex and pathologically unbalanced multicellular interactions. For decades, low-dose X-irradiation therapy (LD-RT has been clinically documented to exert an anti-inflammatory effect on benign diseases and chronic degenerative disorders. By contrast, experimental studies to confirm the effectiveness and to reveal underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still at their early stages. During the last decade, however, the modulation of a multitude of immunological processes by LD-RT has been explored in vitro and in vivo. These include leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesion, adhesion molecule and cytokine/chemokine expression, apoptosis induction and mononuclear/polymorphonuclear cell metabolism and activity. Interestingly, these mechanisms display comparable dose dependences and dose-effect relationships with a maximum effect in the range between 0.3 - 0.7 Gy, already empirically identified to be most effective in the clinical routine. This review summarizes data and models exploring the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of LD-RT that may serve as a prerequisite for further systematic analyses to optimize low-dose irradiation procedures in future clinical practice.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of alcbholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Moringa olifera Lam leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, Otilia J F; Banji, David; Kavitha, R

    2012-04-01

    Effects of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of the alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of M. olifera were studied on various immune paradigms like delayed type hypersensitivity reaction using SRBC as an antigen, determination of antibody titer, neutrophil adhesion test as an indicator for neutrophil index, total leucocyte count in cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed animals and carbon clearance assay as a measure of phagocytic activity. Hydro-alcoholic extract of M. olifera substantially enhanced cellular immune response, humoral immune response, neutrophil index and phagoctic activity in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was efficient in improving immune response. The results suggest that M. olifera has a significant role to play as an immune stimulator.

  9. Characterization of the effect of Cr(VI) on humoral innate immunity using Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragya, P; Shukla, A K; Murthy, R C; Abdin, M Z; Kar Chowdhuri, D

    2015-11-01

    With the advancement of human race, different anthropogenic activities have heaped the environment with chemicals that can cause alteration in the immune system of exposed organism. As a first line of barrier, the evolutionary conserved innate immunity is crucial for the health of an organism. However, there is paucity of information regarding in vivo assessment of the effect of environmental chemicals on innate immunity. Therefore, we examined the effect of a widely used environmental chemical, Cr(VI), on humoral innate immune response using Drosophila melanogaster. The adverse effect of Cr(VI) on host humoral response was characterized by decreased gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the exposed organism. Concurrently, a significantly decreased transcription of humoral pathway receptors (Toll and PGRP) and triglyceride level along with inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in exposed organism. This in turn weakened the immune response of exposed organism that was manifested by their reduced resistance against bacterial infection. In addition, overexpression of the components of humoral immunity particularly Diptericin benefits Drosophila from Cr(VI)-induced humoral immune-suppressive effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding negative impact of an environmental chemical on humoral innate immune response of Drosophila along with subsequent protection by AMPs, which may provide novel insight into host-chemical interactions. Also, our data validate the utility and sensitivity of Drosophila as a model that could be used for screening the possible risk of environmental chemicals on innate immunity with minimum ethical concern that can be further extrapolated to higher organisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Immunomodulatory effects of royal jelly on aorta CD3, CD68 and eNOS expression in hypercholesterolaemic rats

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    Amal Attia El-Morsy Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    RJ administration (300 mg/kg/day with CH, produced a counteractive effect, represented in recompense of biochemical alteration, CD4 and CD8 expression. RJ intake also amended the histological picture. The immunohistochemical picture revealed a decrease in CD3, CD86 and eNOS in the aortic tissue. These findings attributed to the significant immunomodulatory effect of RJ remedy suppress deleterious effects of hypercholesterolaemia.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects and mechanisms of plant alkaloid tetrandrine in autoimmune diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Jenn-Haung

    2002-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases characterized by activation of immune effector cells and damage of target organs are currently treated with a combination of several disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that preserve different immunomodulatory mechanisms. Such a combination treatment strategy not only provides synergistic effects but also reduces side effects from individual drug. Tetrandrine (Tet), purified from a creeper Stephania tetrandra S Moore, is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid and has been used to treat patients with silicosis, autoimmune disorders, and hypertension in Mainland China for decades. The accumulated studies both in vitro and in vivo reveal that Tet preserves a wide variety of immunosuppressive effects. Importantly, the Tet-mediated immunosuppressive mechanisms are evidently different from some known DMARDs. The synergistic effects have also been demonstrated between Tet and other DMARDs like FK506 and cyclosporin. These results highlight Tet a very potential candidate to be considered as one of DMARDs in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. This review summarizes evidence-based in vivo and in vitro studies on this potential Chinese immunosuppressive herb.

  12. Biological therapies (immunomodulatory drugs), worsening of psoriasis and rebound effect: new evidence of similitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian

    2016-11-01

    Employing the secondary action or adaptative reaction of the organism as therapeutic response, homeopathy uses the treatment by similitude (similia similibus curentur) administering to sick individuals the medicines that caused similar symptoms in healthy individuals. Such homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism is scientifically explained through the rebound effect of drugs, which cause worsening of symptoms after withdrawal of several palliative treatments. Despite promoting an improvement in psoriasis at the beginning of the treatment, modern biological therapies provoke worsening of the psoriasis (rebound psoriasis) after discontinuation of drugs. Exploratory qualitative review of the literature on the occurrence of the rebound effect with the use of immunomodulatory drugs [T-cell modulating agents and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors drugs] in the treatment of psoriasis. Several researches indicate the rebound effect as the mechanism of worsening of psoriasis with the use of efalizumab causing the suspension of its marketing authorization in 2009, in view of some severe cases. Other studies also have demonstrated the occurrence of rebound psoriasis with the use of alefacept, etanercept and infliximab. As well as studied in other classes of drugs, the rebound effect of biologic agents supports the principle of similitude (primary action of the drugs followed by secondary action and opposite of the organism). Copyright © 2016 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  14. Immunomodulatory effect of candesartan on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Rehab; El Morsy, Engy M; Awad, Azza S

    2012-12-01

    Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce gastric mucosal lesions in part by induction of oxidative stress as well as the activation of inflammatory cells and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we examined the protective effect of candesartan (2 and 5 mg/kg) on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosa damage. Pretreatment with candesartan for 10 days reduced significantly the ulcer index induced by indomethacin injection. The preventive index of 2 mg/kg (76.74%) was higher than that of 5 mg/kg (65.11%). Both doses of candesartan were able to reduce significantly the stomach malondialdehyde content compared to indomethacin-treated group. Myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant gastric levels were significantly reduced by 2 mg/kg of candesartan more than 5 mg/kg. The Th1 cytokine interferon γ was also significantly reduced by both doses of candesartan compared to indomethacin injected group. On the other hand, indomethacin significant decreased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 gastric level. Pretreatment with candesartan (2 and 5 mg/kg) reversed this effect. In conclusion, the present study indicates that pretreatment with candesartan, can protect against the stomach injury induced by indomethacin through its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of Hedysarum polybotrys extract in mice macrophages, splenocytes and leucopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-Cheng; Lee, Chia-Jung; Wang, Kun-Teng; Weng, Bor-Chun; Chien, Ting-Yi; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2013-12-03

    Astragali Radix (Huang-Qi) is a popular herbal medicine commonly used as a constituent in tonic herbal preparations. Hedysarum polybotrys Handel-Mazzetti is one species used of Astragali Radix. In this study, the immunomodulatory properties of H. polybotrys were explored by LPS-activated and SNP-treated RAW 264.7 cells and splenocytes and, daunoblastina-induced leucopenia BALB/c mice. Formononetin was used as the bioactive marker to monitor the quality of the H. polybotrys extracts. H. polybotrys was extracted with hot-water and methanol, and MeOH extract partitioned with H2O (M-H) and ethyl acetate (M-EA) to yield four different fractions. M-EA had the highest formononetin and total proanthocyanidin content and showed stronger inhibitory effects on the production and expression of NO, PGE2, iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and splenocytes than the other fractions. In addition, M-EA significantly stimulated the proliferation of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and splenocytes, enhanced NO radicals scavenging and attenuated NO-induced cytotoxicity.  Furthermore, M-EA also significantly increased the rate of recovery of white blood cells level in daunoblastina-induced leucopenia mice. These evidences suggest that this traditional Qi-tonifying herb has potential effects in clinical conditions when immune-enhancing and anti-inflammatory effect is desired.

  16. Signaling pathway involved in the immunomodulatory effect of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide in spleen lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Nie, Shao-Ping; Wang, Jun-Qiao; Huang, Dan-Fei; Li, Wen-Juan; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-03-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effect of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) in spleen lymphocytes. Our results showed that PSG-1 increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and calcineurin (CaN) activity. Moreover, PSG-1 was found to elevate nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activity, but this effect could be diminished by the treatment of CaN inhibitors (cyclosporin A and FK506). PSG-1-induced interleukin (IL)-2 production was also inhibited by cyclosporin A and FK506. In addition, PSG-1 was found to significantly enhance protein kinase C (PKC) activity. PKC was involved in induction of NFAT activity by PSG-1, as evidenced by abrogation of NFAT activity by PKC inhibitor calphostin C, which significantly decreased PSG-1-induced IL-2 production. On the basis of these results, we concluded that PSG-1 may induce activation of spleen lymphocytes at least in part via the Ca2+/CaN/NFAT/IL-2 signaling pathway and the PKC/NFAT/IL-2 signaling pathway cooperatively regulated PSG-1-induced activation of spleen lymphocytes.

  17. Dual-Directional Immunomodulatory Effects of Corbrin Capsule on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianyi; Zhao, Ruxing; Lu, Yiran; Li, Wenjuan; Hou, Xinguo; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effects of Corbrin Capsule (CS-C-Q80), a drug derived from Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc., on autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). Methods. 44 Patients with Graves's disease (GD) and 56 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) were randomly assigned to treatment group (GD-Tx and HT-Tx) or control group (GD-Ct and HT-Ct). The control groups were given methimazole or levothyroxine only while the treatment groups were given Corbrin Capsule (2.0 g tid) besides the same conventional prescriptions as control groups. Thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies, and T lymphocyte subsets were quantified at baseline and 24 weeks posttreatment. Results. Significant drop of serum anti-TPO-Ab levels was observed in both GD-Tx and HT-Tx groups. Before treatment, GD patients had higher helper T cells compared to cytotoxic T cells, while HT patients suffered from a nearly inverted proportion of helper T/cytotoxic T cells. There was a significant drop of the helper T/cytotoxic T cells ratio in GD-Tx to the median of the normal ranges after Corbrin treatment for 24 weeks, while that in HT-Tx was elevated. Conclusion. Corbrin Capsule could restore the balance between helper T and cytotoxic T cells in both GD and HT patients with dual-directional immunomodulatory effects. And it could significantly reduce the autoantibody levels in both GD and HT. PMID:27721890

  18. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of the lectin from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditamo, Yanina; Rupil, Lucia L; Sendra, Victor G; Nores, Gustavo A; Roth, German A; Irazoqui, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are glycan-binding proteins that are resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and enter intact to blood circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus lectin (ABL) on innate and adaptive immune responses as well as its effect in two different experimental pathologies that involve the immune system. ABL inhibited in vitro nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in response to the pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, it did not modify the activity of arginase, showing that while ABL downregulates M1 activation, it does not affect M2 activation. ABL also inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogen Con A, or in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. During the in vivo studies, oral administration of ABL to BALB/c mice induced a marked inhibition of NO production by peritoneal macrophages after LPS stimuli. The influence of ABL on tumor growth was studied in BALB/c mice receiving daily oral doses of ABL and implanted with CT26 tumor cells. ABL treatment induced significantly higher rate of tumor growth when compared with control mice. On the other hand, oral ABL administration in Wistar rats induced a marked diminution of the incidence of the disease and the severity of the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We can conclude that ABL has an in vivo immunomodulatory effect reducing the innate and adaptive responses. This food lectin shows potential therapeutic application on control of inflammatory autoimmune pathologies.

  19. Immunomodulatory Effects of Esculetin (6,7-Dihydroxycoumarin) on Murine Lymphocytes and Peritoneal Macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-nam Leung; Pui-yin Leung; Lai-ping Kong; Po-ki Leung

    2005-01-01

    Coumarins belong to a diverse group of naturally occurring non-nutrient phytochemicals known as benzo-α-pyrones. In this study, esculetin, a 6,7-dihydroxy derivative of coumarin with pleiotropic biological activities, was found to have no significant cytotoxic effect on normal murine macrophages, but it could increase the in vivo migration of the thioglycollate-elicited macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, esculetin significantly increased the endocytic activity, and augmented the nitric oxide production and iNOS gene expression in LPS-treated macrophages. In addition, in vivo administration of esculetin into mice was shown to increase the mitogenesis of splenic lymphocytes towards Con A and LPS stimulations, and induced the LAK activity of splenic lymphocytes. Collectively, our results indicate that esculetin could exert immunomodulatory effects on murine macrophages and lymphocytes, both in vitro and in vivo, and this might be one of the possible mechanisms by which coumarins can exert their chemopreventive and anti-tumor activities in vivo.

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of oak dust exposure in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juha; Haapakoski, Rita; Lehto, Maili; Leino, Marina; Tillander, Sari; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Wolff, Henrik; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri

    2007-09-01

    Repeated airway exposure to wood dust has been reported to cause adverse respiratory effects such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. In our recent study, we found that exposure of mice to oak dust induced more vigorous lung inflammation compared to birch dust exposure. In the present study, we assessed the immunomodulatory effects of repeated intranasal exposure to oak dust both in nonallergic and in ovalbumin-sensitized, allergic mice. Allergen-induced influx of eosinophils and lymphocytes was seen in the lungs of allergic mice. Oak dust exposure elicited infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in nonallergic mice. Interestingly, oak dust-induced lung neutrophilia as well as oak dust-induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and chemokine CCL3 were significantly suppressed in allergic mice. On the other hand, allergen-induced expression of IL-13 mRNA and protein was significantly reduced in oak dust-exposed allergic mice. Finally, allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity to inhaled metacholine was significantly suppressed in oak dust-exposed allergic mice. The present results suggest that repeated airway exposure to oak dust can regulate pulmonary inflammation and airway responses depending on the immunological status of the animal.

  1. Dual-Directional Immunomodulatory Effects of Corbrin Capsule on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effects of Corbrin Capsule (CS-C-Q80, a drug derived from Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc., on autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD. Methods. 44 Patients with Graves’s disease (GD and 56 patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT were randomly assigned to treatment group (GD-Tx and HT-Tx or control group (GD-Ct and HT-Ct. The control groups were given methimazole or levothyroxine only while the treatment groups were given Corbrin Capsule (2.0 g tid besides the same conventional prescriptions as control groups. Thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies, and T lymphocyte subsets were quantified at baseline and 24 weeks posttreatment. Results. Significant drop of serum anti-TPO-Ab levels was observed in both GD-Tx and HT-Tx groups. Before treatment, GD patients had higher helper T cells compared to cytotoxic T cells, while HT patients suffered from a nearly inverted proportion of helper T/cytotoxic T cells. There was a significant drop of the helper T/cytotoxic T cells ratio in GD-Tx to the median of the normal ranges after Corbrin treatment for 24 weeks, while that in HT-Tx was elevated. Conclusion. Corbrin Capsule could restore the balance between helper T and cytotoxic T cells in both GD and HT patients with dual-directional immunomodulatory effects. And it could significantly reduce the autoantibody levels in both GD and HT.

  2. The Application of Humorous Song in EFL Classrooms and Its Effects on Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Marzieh; Kassaian, Zohre; Dastjerdi, Hossein Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Language learners need to feel secure and to be free of stress so they can focus on language tasks (Ellis, 1994). A language teacher should use different tools to encourage students and make them involved in learning process. Humor and song are effective tools, as they develop creativity and make the class environment an appropriate setting for…

  3. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of plant flavonoids in lipopolysaccharide-challenged broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboh, A A; Hang, S-Q; Khan, M A; Zhu, W-Y

    2016-10-01

    Plant flavonoids are generally regarded as natural replacers of synthetic growth promoters in poultry production. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of plant flavonoids, such as genistein and hesperidin, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broilers. A total of 700 21-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned into six treatment groups, each having six pens of 20 chicks/pen. Chicks were fed a basal diet without any additive (control, CON), 5 mg genistein/kg feed (G5), 20 mg hesperidin/kg (H20), or a basal diet with a combination of genistein and hesperidin (1 : 4) with doses of 5 mg/kg feed (GH5), 10 mg/kg (GH10) and 20 mg/kg (GH20) for 6 weeks. Half of the birds from each treatment were separated, and either challenged with 0·9% sodium chloride solution or Escherichia coli LPS (250 μg/kg BW) on days 16, 18 and 20. The results showed that both genistein and hesperidin improved (Ptotal antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreasing malondialdehyde production. LPS challenge further increased (Pflavonoids generally increased (Pflavonoids showed further improvement than individual compounds.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of Withania somnifera on azoxymethane induced experimental colon cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, Govidan; Dinda, Amit K; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of Withania somnifera on immunomodulation was tested in experimental azoxymethane induced colon cancer in mice. Azoxymethane is a potential carcinogen to induce the colon cancer in Swiss albino mice. Azoxymethane 15 mg/kg body weight was injected intraperitoneally once a week for 28 days. The colon cancer was confirmed by the appearance of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of the experimental mice. The progression in colon tumor development was correlated with the appearance of the histological biomarker and ACF. Azoxymethane induced colon cancer animals were treated with 400 mg/kg body weight of W. somnifera extract once a week for four weeks orally. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and analyzed for immunocompetent cells, immune complexes and immunoglobulins. W. somnifera significantly altered the level of leucocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, immune complexes and immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G and M. The azoxymethane induced colon cancer and immune dysfunction was better controlled by W. somnifera. These results suggested that the immunomodulatory effects of W. somnifera could be useful in the treatment of colon cancer.

  5. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory effect of a polysaccharide HCP-2 from Houttuynia cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bao-Hui; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Chan, Ben Chung-Lap; Lin, Huang-Quan; Han, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Xuelin; Wan, David Chi-Cheong; Wang, Yi-Fen; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-03-15

    Immunomodulation of natural polysaccharides has been the hot topic of research in recent years. In order to explore the immunomodulatory effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb., the water extract was studied and a polysaccharide HCP-2 with molecular weight of 60,000 Da was isolated by chromatography using DEAE Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-500 [corrected] HR columns. The structure characterization of HCP-2 was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), acidic hydrolysis, PMP derivation, HPLC analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR). HCP-2 was elucidated as a pectic polysaccharide with a linear chain of 1,4-linked α-D-galacturonic acid residues in which part of the 6-carboxyl groups were methyl esterified and part of 2-hydroxyl groups were acetylated. The bioactivity assays showed that HCP-2 could increase the secretions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1β (MIP-1β), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which play critical roles in the innate immune system and shape the adaptive immunity. Our results implied that HCP-2 could be an immune enhancer.

  6. Characterization and immunomodulatory effects of glucans from Pleurotus albidus, a promising species of mushroom for farming and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alves, Victor Costa; Gomes, Daniel; Menolli, Nelson; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira do

    2017-02-01

    Polysaccharides from a number of mushroom species are recognized as functional food ingredients with potential health benefits, including immunomodulatory effects. In this study, polysaccharides extracted from the basidiome with cold water (BaCW), hot water (BaHW), and hot alkali (BaHA) solution, and exo- (MyEX) and endopolysaccharides (MyEN) from the submerged culture of Pleurotus albidus, a promising species for farming and biomass production, were analyzed for their chemical composition and structure and immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. Compositional (HPAEC-PAD and HPSEC-RID/MWD) and structural (FT-IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) analyses identified BaCW and MyEX as β-(1,6)-branched β-(1,3)-glucans, BaHW and MyEN as α-(1,3)-(1,2)-branched α-(1,6)-glucans, and BaHA as a mixture of α-(1,6)- and β-(1,3)-glucans. BaCW and MyEX stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6), and decreased phagocytosis of zymosan particles. In contrast, BaHW and MyEN induced TNF-α, NO and IL-6 production, and increased zymosan phagocytosis, while BaHA displayed intermediary effects in comparison the other polysaccharides. In conclusion, the basidiome and the submerged culture of P. albidus are sources of easily extractable α- and β-glucans with potential immunomodulatory effects.

  7. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of olive leaf extract on serum level of Th17 related cytokines

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    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Olive has a protective effect against chronic inflammatory conditions. However, it is not clear weather this effect is due to its immunomodulatory or antioxidant property. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive leaf extract on serum levels of Th-17 related cytokines and its antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: 40 male rats divided into 5 groups, and were treated by placebo (Control group, vitamin C (as a known and potent antioxidant and different doses of olive leaf extract. Four test groups, received vitamin C 10 mg/kg and olive leaf extract which contained 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg Oleuropein. All treatments were applied for 10 consecutive days orally via gavage. After this period, cardiac puncture was performed to retrieve blood from animals in order to determine interleukin 17, 23 and TGFβ levels in their serum by ELISA method. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, as a lipid peroxidation marker were assayed in right brain hemisphere of treated animals. Results: TBARS increased significantly in control group when compared to the other groups (p0.05, TGFβ concentration was significantly lower in animals which treated by 5 and 15 mg/kg of Oleuropein. Conclusion: Olive leaf extract, which contains Oleuropein, had a significant antioxidant effect on the brain of studied animals, while it was not able to change the Th-17 cell-related cytokines (Except TGFβ significantly. Therefore, it could conclude that the protective role of olive against chronic degenerative diseases is related to its antioxidant properties rather than its effects on pathogenic cytokine profile of Th17 cells.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of the botanical compound LCS101: implications for cancer treatment

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    Rachmut IH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Itzchak H Rachmut,1 Noah Samuels,2,* Steven J Melnick,3 Cheppail Ramachandran,4 Yedida Sharabi,1 Anya Pavlovsky,1 Yair Maimon,5 Jacob Shoham1 1The Gonda-Goldschmied Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; 2Center for Integrative Complementary Medicine, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 3Department of Pathology, 4Research Institute, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, FL, USA; 5Refuot Integrative Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel *Joint first author Objective: To examine the effects of LSC101, a botanical compound, on adaptive and innate immunity. Materials and methods: LCS101 preparations were tested for batch-to-batch consistency using high-performance liquid chromatography. T-cell activation was quantified in murine spleen cells using 3H-thymidine incorporation, and cytokine production analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Natural killer cell activity was tested on human blood cells using flow cytometry, and cytotoxicity measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and apoptosis using a FACSCalibur. Effects on interferon-γ production in fluorouracil/doxorubicin-treated mice were tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency. T-cell proliferation was increased, and a dose-dependent activation of natural killer cells and macrophage tumor necrosis factor-α secretion were observed with LCS101 treatment. Interferon-γ levels, reduced following fluorouracil treatment, were corrected in treated animals. No toxicity or compromised treatment outcomes were associated with LCS101 exposure. Conclusions: LCS101 demonstrated significant effects on a number of immune processes. Further research is needed in order to understand the molecular immunomodulatory pathways affected by this compound, as well as clinical implications for treatment. Keywords: botanical compound, immunomodulation, T-cell immunity

  9. Antiparasitic and immunomodulatory effect of innovative treatments against Myxobolus sp. infection in Diplodus puntazzo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagouni, E; Athanassopoulou, F; Lytra, A; Komis, C; Dotsika, E

    2005-12-10

    The potential antiparasitic and immunomodulatory effect of three treatments against myxosporean parasites on the innate immune system of sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) was investigated. Fish naturally infected with Myxobolus sp. (Bivalvulida/Platysporina), a histozoic parasite mainly affecting the renal interstitial tissue, were treated by oral administration of a combination of salinomycin with amprolium, Origanum essential oil or fumagillin in a small-scale field trial. Various leucocyte functions influenced by myxosporean infection were examined in order to determine treatment effects on leucocyte immunocompetence of treated fish. One month post treatment all drugs caused a significant decrease in prevalence and intensity of infection in comparison to untreated, infected fish. The effect was most prominent in salinomycin with amprolium treated fish, which 1-month post treatment contained either no cysts at all or a few spores free in melanomacrophage centres revealing almost total elimination of the parasite and the antiparasitic action of the treatment. There was no histopathological evidence of drug toxicity. Antiparasitic action was accompanied by a significant enhancement of phagocytic activity demonstrated by ingestion of large numbers of latex beads and the secretion of high levels of reactive nitrogen intermediates by phagocytes in vitro. Complete restoration of the diminished mitogenic responses and serum lysozyme secretion was also detected in salinomycin with amprolium-treated fish compared to untreated, infected fish. These data suggest that salilomycin with amprolium may be a promising treatment for myxosporean infections in intensively cultured warm-water fish, exhibiting action partially via the enhancement of host, innate immune functions and leading to parasite elimination.

  10. Effects of a Humor Therapy Program on Stress Levels in Pediatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Julio C; Echeverri, Luis F; Londoño, Manuel J; Ochoa, Sergio A; Quiroz, Andrés F; Romero, César R; Ruiz, Joaquín O

    2017-01-01

    Disease and hospitalization generate stress, which can affect the response to treatment. Humor has been used in many hospitals to decrease stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a humor therapy program on stress levels in pediatric inpatients. In the first phase, an intervention and a control group were studied over 2 consecutive 3-month periods; the interventions were performed by a team of artists trained in humor therapy. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Weisz test, a pictorial chart that determines subjective stress perception, and the Parker test, which assesses objective stress, were applied. In the second phase, salivary cortisol levels were measured and the Weisz test was administered before and after the interventions. A total of 306 patients were recruited into this study: 198 in the first phase (94 in the intervention group and 104 in the nonintervention group) and 108 in the second phase. There were no differences between groups regarding age, sex, or medical diagnosis. The children in the intervention group presented lower cortisol levels, lower scores on the Parker test, and higher scores on the Weisz test than children in the nonintervention group. In the second phase, the children showed lower salivary cortisol levels and higher scores on the Weisz test after the intervention. Humor therapy has beneficial effects on stress and cortisol levels in pediatric inpatients. This supports the implementation and reinforcement of these therapies in pediatric hospitals. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

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    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  12. Immunomodulatory Effect of Marine Cembrane-Type Diterpenoids on Dendritic Cells

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    Kao-Jean Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen presenting cells, which can present antigens to T-cells and play an important role in linking innate and adaptive immunity. DC maturation can be induced by many stimuli, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Here, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of marine cembrane compounds, (9E,13E-5-acetoxy-6-hydroxy-9,13-dimethyl-3- methylene-3,3a,4,5,6,7,8,11,12,14a-decahydro-2H-cyclotrideca[b]furan-2-one (1, (9E,13E- 5-acetoxy-6-acetyl-9,13-dimethyl-3-methylene-3,3a,4,5,6,7,8,11,12,14a-decahydro-2H-cyclotrideca[b]furan-2-one (2, lobocrassin B (3, (−14-deoxycrassin (4, cembranolide B (5 and 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide (6 isolated from a soft coral, Lobophytum crassum, on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs. The results revealed that cembrane-type diterpenoids, especially lobocrassin B, effectively inhibited LPS-induced BMDC activation by inhibiting the production of TNF-α. Pre-treatment of BMDCs with Lobocrassin B for 1 h is essential to prohibit the following activation induced by various toll-like receptor (TLR agonists, such as LPS, zymosan, lipoteichoic acid (LTA and Pam2CSK4. Inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation by lobocrassin B, which is a key transcription factor for cytokine production in TLR signaling, was evident as assayed by high-content image analysis. Lobocrassin B attenuated DC maturation and endocytosis as the expression levels of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules were downregulated, which may affect the function of DCs to initiate the T-cell responses. Thus, lobocrassin B may have the potential in treatment of immune dysregulated diseases in the future.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Critonia aromatisans leaves: Downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Torre Fabiola, Villa-De; Ralf, Kinscherf; Gabriel, Bonaterra; Victor Ermilo, Arana-Argaez; Martha, Méndez-González; Mirbella, Cáceres-Farfán; Rocio, Borges-Argáez

    2016-08-22

    Critonia aromatisans (Asteraceae), commonly known as "Chiople", is a cultivated species that is used in Mayan traditional medicine to treat inflammation, joint pain and rheumatism. To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from Critonia aromatisans leaves. Methanol, ethyl acetate, methylene chloride, hexanic, and aqueous extracts were obtained from the leaves of C. aromatisans. The anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were tested in vivo to evaluate their ability to reduce the inflammatory response in the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in NIH mice. In addition, to explore the immunomodulatory effects of C. aromatisans, in vitro testing was performed to determine whether C. aromatisans leaf extracts are capable of decreasing macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) without affecting macrophage viability. Single orally administered doses (100mg/kg or 200mg/kg) of a hexanic extract of C. aromatisans leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (Peffect of the extract in this model was generally comparable to those of the standard drugs used. In the in vitro determination, the extracts reduced the amount of NO mainly at 500 and 1000μg/mL. Hexanic extract and subfractions C, D, E, and F at 50 and 100μg/mL produced the lowest concentration of mediators in culture supernatants (protein) and at the mRNA/gene level by the significant down-regulation of cytokines. These findings explain some of the anti-inflammatory activity of this species. Purification of fractions C and D allowed the complete identification of cyclocolorenone, stigmasterol and stigmasterol derivatives as some of their main components. A hexanic extract of C. aromatisans displayed anti-inflammatory effects, validating the traditional practice of Mayan communities wherein an ointment

  14. Treatment effects of immunomodulatory therapies at different stages of multiple sclerosis in short-term trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, David

    2011-01-04

    Intervention with interferon-β (IFNβ) therapy counters early inflammatory damage to myelin and protects axons; such therapy might demonstrate greater efficacy earlier in the disease course compared with later when permanent damage has already occurred. Clinical trials conducted in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) show clinical benefits of early treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), as evidenced by delayed conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis and reduced disability 3 years later; however, statistical significance is lost at 5 years. Moreover, in the CIS trials, patients who began treatment later in the course of MS did not benefit as much as those who began treatment earlier. In the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), immunomodulatory drug (IMD) therapy markedly reduced relapse rates and the burden of disease, as assessed by MRI. IFNβ therapy has demonstrated greater benefits in RRMS than in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). The SPMS trials consistently show reduction in relapse rates and accumulation of new MRI lesions, but have conflicting results for time to disability progression, which is the primary outcome measure in SPMS trials. Current evidence suggests that IFNβ therapy may be more effective in the early stages of SPMS, characterized by relapsing episodes and MRI evidence of greater brain lesion disease activity. Thus, intervention with IFNβ therapy is appropriate for all stages of MS except PPMS or non-relapsing SPMS. Intervention with glatiramer acetate is appropriate for RRMS. The balance of evidence indicates that early therapy is essential to delay the accumulation of irreversible neurologic damage and consequent disability.

  15. Linezolid has unique immunomodulatory effects in post-influenza community acquired MRSA pneumonia.

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    Urvashi Bhan

    Full Text Available Post influenza pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, with mortality rates approaching 60% when bacterial infections are secondary to multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus, in particular community acquired MRSA (cMRSA, has emerged as a leading cause of post influenza pneumonia.Linezolid (LZD prevents acute lung injury in murine model of post influenza bacterial pneumonia.Mice were infected with HINI strain of influenza and then challenged with cMRSA at day 7, treated with antibiotics (LZD or Vanco or vehicle 6 hours post bacterial challenge and lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL harvested at 24 hours for bacterial clearance, inflammatory cell influx, cytokine/chemokine analysis and assessment of lung injury.Mice treated with LZD or Vanco had lower bacterial burden in the lung and no systemic dissemination, as compared to the control (no antibiotic group at 24 hours post bacterial challenge. As compared to animals receiving Vanco, LZD group had significantly lower numbers of neutrophils in the BAL (9×10(3 vs. 2.3×10(4, p < 0.01, which was associated with reduced levels of chemotactic chemokines and inflammatory cytokines KC, MIP-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β in the BAL. Interestingly, LZD treatment also protected mice from lung injury, as assessed by albumin concentration in the BAL post treatment with H1N1 and cMRSA when compared to vanco treatment. Moreover, treatment with LZD was associated with significantly lower levels of PVL toxin in lungs.Linezolid has unique immunomodulatory effects on host inflammatory response and lung injury in a murine model of post-viral cMRSA pneumonia.

  16. Effects of yeast culture in broiler diets on performance and immunomodulatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Zhang, H J; Yu, S H; Wu, S G; Yoon, I; Quigley, J; Gao, Y P; Qi, G H

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental yeast culture (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture; YC) in broiler diets on performance, digestibility, mucosal development, and immunomodulatory functions. One-day-old Arbor Acres chicks (n = 960) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/kg of YC in the diet for 42 d. Each treatment consisted of 12 replicates of 20 broilers each. Nutrient digestibility was determined on d 15 and 35 by total fecal collection. On d 21 and 42, 12 birds per treatment were sacrificed to evaluate gut morphology and secretory IgA. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine by eye drop on d 7 and 28 and antibody titer was determined on d 14, 21, 35, and 42. Dietary supplemental YC at 2.5 g/kg improved average daily gain and feed conversion during grower and overall periods (P Yeast culture supplementation increased digestibility of Ca (linear and quadratic, P = 0.01) and P (linear, P = 0.01) on d 35, but did not affect (P > 0.05) protein retention and energy digestibility. Villus height to crypt depth ratios in the duodenum and jejunum (d 42) and ileum (d 21) were increased (P Yeast culture increased antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus (linear, P intestinal mucosal morphology of broilers. Growth performance was optimized at 2.5 g/kg of YC in the present study. Immune function could be modified with dietary YC supplementation.

  17. A proteomic insight into the effects of the immunomodulatory hydroxynaphthoquinone lapachol on activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Renato A S; Correia-Oliveira, Janaina; Tang, Li-Jun; Garcia, Rodolfo C

    2012-09-01

    We report the effect of an immunomodulatory and anti-mycobacterial naphthoquinone, lapachol, on the bi-dimensional patterns of protein expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-agonised and IFN-γ-treated THP-1 macrophages. This non-hypothesis driven proteomic analysis intends to shed light on the cellular functions lapachol may be affecting. Proteins of both cytosol and membrane fractions were analysed. After quantification of the protein spots, the protein levels corresponding to macrophages activated in the absence or presence of lapachol were compared. A number of proteins were identified, the levels of which were appreciably and significantly increased or decreased as a result of the action of lapachol on the activated macrophages: cofilin-1, fascin, plastin-2, glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase, adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1, pyruvate kinase, sentrin-specific protease 6, cathepsin B, cathepsin D, cytosolic aminopeptidase, proteasome β type-4 protease, tryptophan-tRNA ligase, DnaJ homolog and protein disulphide isomerase. Altogether, the comparative analysis performed indicates that lapachol could be hypothetically causing an impairment of cell migration and/or phagocytic capacity, an increase in NADPH availability, a decrease in pyruvate concentration, protection from proteosomal protein degradation, a decrease in lysosomal protein degradation, an impairment of cytosolic peptide generation, and an interference with NOS2 activation and grp78 function. The present proteomic results suggest issues that should be experimentally addressed ex- and in-vivo, to establish more accurately the potential of lapachol as an anti-infective drug. This study also constitutes a model for the pre-in-vivo evaluation of drug actions.

  18. Estragole and methyl-eugenol-free extract of Artemisia dracunculus possesses immunomodulatory effects

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    Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon, may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS. The estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract was characterized and used for evaluation of immunity in NMRI mice after challenging with sheep red blood cells. Results: It was shown that the aqueous extract of tarragon was free from potentially harmful estragole or methyl-eugenol. Moreover, the immunomodulatory effect of the aqueous extract of tarragon (100 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days was investigated. The extract significantly increased the level of anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC (antibody and simultaneously decreased the level of cellular immunity in the treatment group. Moreover, tarragon caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ in parallel with a reduction in the ratio of INF-γ to Il-10 or IL-17 to IL-10 in the splenocytes. In addition, the levels of the respiratory burst and nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages were significantly decreased. Additionally, the phagocytosis potential of macrophages was significantly increased in treated mice. Conclusion: These data showed that the aqueous extract of tarragon may be used as a natural source to modulate the immune system, because it can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce anti-inflammatory macrophages.

  19. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of the disinfection by-product, sodium chlorite, in female B6C3F1 mice: a drinking water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrow, N A; Guo, T L; McCay, J A; Johnson, G W; Brown, R D; Musgrove, D L; Germolec, D R; Luebke, R W; White, K L

    2001-08-01

    Sodium chlorite is an inorganic by-product of chlorine dioxide formed during the chlorination of drinking water. Relatively little is known about the adverse health effects of exposure to sodium chlorite in drinking water. In this study, we evaluated sodium chlorite's immunomodulatory properties using female B6C3F1 mice and a panel of immune assays that were designed to evaluate potential changes in innate and acquired cellular and humoral immune responses. Female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to sodium chlorite in their drinking water (0, 0.1, 1, 5, 15, and 30 mg/L) for 28 days, and then evaluated for immunomodulation. Overall, minimal toxicological and immunological changes were observed after exposure to sodium chlorite. Increases in the percentages of blood reticulocytes, and the relative spleen weights were both observed at different sodium chlorite treatment levels; however, these increases were not dose-dependent. An increasing trend in the number of spleen antibody-forming cells was observed over the range of sodium chlorite concentrations. This increase was not, however, significant at any individual treatment level, and was not reflected by changes in serum IgM levels. A significant increase (26%) in the total number of splenic CD8+ cells was observed in mice treated with 30 mg/L of sodium chlorite, but not at the other concentrations. Splenic mixed leukocyte response and peritoneal macrophage activity were unaffected by sodium chlorite. Lastly, exposure to sodium chlorite did not affect natural killer cell activity, although a decrease in augmented natural killer cell activity (42%) was observed at the lowest sodium chlorite treatment level. These results suggest that sodium chlorite, within the range 0.1-30 mg/L, produces minimal immunotoxicity in mice.

  20. The effects of ochratoxin/aluminosilicate interaction on the tissues and humoral immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Elizabeth; Paulillo, Antonio C; Maiorka, Paulo C; Alessi, Antonio C; Krabbe, Everton L; Maiorka, Alex

    2002-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, on the histology of the bursa of Fabricius, liver and kidneys, and on the humoral immune response of broilers vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus. The exposure of birds to 2 p.p.m. ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, reduced their humoral immune response and the number of mitotic cells in the bursa. The relative weight of the livers of the birds exposed to this toxin was increased and, microscopically, there was hepatocyte vacuolation and megalocytosis with accompanying hyperplasia of the biliary epithelium. The kidneys showed hypertrophy of the renal proximal tubular epithelium, with thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. Aluminosilicate did not ameliorate the deleterious effects of the ochratoxin.

  1. Humor's healing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  2. Aqueous humor changes after experimental filtering surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J; Claflin, A; Fiorentino, G

    1980-02-01

    We studied aqueous humor of rhesus and owl monkeys for its effect on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture. Aqueous humor samples obtained before glaucoma surgery inhibited the initiation of growth of fibroblasts. However, postoperative aqueous humor samples supported growth of fibroblasts. The change in aqueous humor physiology lasted for up to two months after glaucoma surgery. Our study indicated that possibly material added to the postoperative aqueous humor inactivates an inhibitor normally present in primary aqueous humor. An alternative explanation would be that primary aqueous humor, in contrast to secondary aqueous humor, lacks sufficient nutrient material to support fibroblast growth in tissue culture.

  3. Effect of Different Levels of Zinc on the Performance and Humoral Immunity Response in Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    S Sharbatdar; M Shamse Shargh; A Hesabi Namaghi; S. Hasani; R Hadadian

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the ...

  4. A Field Experiment on Behavioural Effects of Humorous, Environmentally Oriented and Authoritarian Posters against Littering

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    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A humorous, an environmentally oriented and an authoritarian poster against littering were tested in a field experiment on their behavioural effectiveness. Corresponding slogans were placed on anti-littering posters designed for this study and used experimentally at four railway stations. The experimental design entailed 4 communication conditions including a control condition where no poster was presented. In each experimental run (N = 96, flyers were distributed for 30 minutes. The number of distributed flyers was counted, and the proportion of littered flyers was determined for each experimental run. It was found that the humorous and environmentally oriented posters achieved a reduction of 58% and 64%, respectively, in littering as compared with the control condition. The authoritarian poster was significantly less effective, but achieved a significant reduction of 25%. Considered together with some previous findings and theories, the results indicate that environmentally oriented and humorous anti-littering posters are more effective than authoritarian onesDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.72.1.14169

  5. Acute toxicity evaluation, antibacterial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of Melastoma malabathricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajar, Zahra A Amin; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Ali, Hapipah M; Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2012-03-20

    Melastoma malabathricum (MM) is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), and the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP free radical scavenging activities were also measured. Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were assayed and the antibacterial effect was tested against four species of bacteria; two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia). The tests were carried out using the disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evaluated in vivo on the ethanol extract of MM to establish its safety when administered orally. In our results, both extracts of MM showed abilities to scavenge DPPH and ABTS free radicals, IC(50) values: (11.599 ± 0.84, 10.573 ± 0.58 µmol/L) and (62.657 ± 0.78, 63.939 ± 0.48 µmol/L) for ethanol and aqueous extracts respectively. Indeed the ethanol extract evidenced high phenolic content (384.33 ± 0.005 mg/g), flavonoids contents (85.8 ± 0.009 mg/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (33,590 ± 0.038 mmol/g), with high activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zones). Likewise, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) viability was increased in response to MM, IC(50) values (1.781 ± 1.2 and 6.545 ± 0.93 µg/mL) for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. In addition, our results showed that the MM extract is safe even at a high dose of 5,000 mg/kg and has no oral toxicity. These findings suggest the excellent medicinal bioactivity of MM and explain the popularity of this plant in the folk medicine as a remedy for different illnesses.

  6. Acute Toxicity Evaluation, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melastoma malabathricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum (MM is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC, and the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP free radical scavenging activities were also measured. Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were assayed and the antibacterial effect was tested against four species of bacteria; two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia. The tests were carried out using the disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evaluated in vivo on the ethanol extract of MM to establish its safety when administered orally. In our results, both extracts of MM showed abilities to scavenge DPPH and ABTS free radicals, IC50 values: (11.599 ± 0.84, 10.573 ± 0.58 µmol/L and (62.657 ± 0.78, 63.939 ± 0.48 µmol/L for ethanol and aqueous extracts respectively. Indeed the ethanol extract evidenced high phenolic content (384.33 ± 0.005 mg/g, flavonoids contents (85.8 ± 0.009 mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (33,590 ± 0.038 mmol/g, with high activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zones. Likewise, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC viability was increased in response to MM, IC50 values (1.781 ± 1.2 and 6.545 ± 0.93 µg/mL for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. In addition, our results showed that the MM extract is safe even at a high dose of 5,000 mg/kg and has no oral toxicity. These findings suggest the excellent medicinal bioactivity of MM and explain the popularity of this plant in the folk medicine as a remedy for different illnesses.

  7. Adhesion and immunomodulatory effects of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on intestinal epithelial cells INT-407

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To elucidate the adherence and immunomodulatory properties of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium lactis(B.lactis) HN019.METHODS:Adhesion assays of B.lactis HN019 and Salmonella typhimurium(S.typhimurium) ATCC 14028 to INT-407 cells were carried out by detecting copies of species-specific genes with real-time polymerase chain reaction.Morphological study was further conducted by transmission electron microscopy.Interleukin-1β(IL-1β),interleukin-8,and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) gene expression were as...

  8. Immunomodulatory potencies of isolated compounds from Crataegus azarolus through their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Mokdad-Bzéouich, Imèn; Sassi, Aicha; Abed, Besma; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-06-01

    The search of natural immunomodulatory agents has become an area of great interest in order to reduce damage to the human body. In this study, the immunomodulatory potential of Crataegus azarolus and its isolated hyperoside on mouse lymphocytes and macrophages in vitro was assessed. The effect of C. azarolus natural compounds on splenocytes proliferation, natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) activities, and on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity were assessed by MTT test. Phagocytic activity and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) release by macrophages were also evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of these products was evaluated by determining their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) in splenocytes and macrophages. Depending on the concentrations, both ethyl acetate (EA) extract and hyperoside (Hyp) from C. azarolus affect macrophage functions by modulating their lysosomal enzyme activity and nitric oxide release. Whereas, the above-mentioned products significantly promote LPS and lectin-stimulated splenocyte proliferation, implying a potential activation of lymphocytes B and T enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses. Moreover, EA extract and Hyp could enhance the activity of NK and T lymphocytes cells, as well as the macrophages-mediated cytotoxicity against B16F10 cells. The anti-inflammatory activity was concomitant with the cellular antioxidant effect of the tested compounds against macrophages and splenocytes. Collectively, C. azarolus and its isolated hyperoside exhibited an immunomodulatory effect through their antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that C. azarolus should be explored as a novel potential immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  9. Effects of fenbendazole on the murine humoral immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Ana Marie; Frasca, Daniela; Zaias, Julia; Van der Put, Elaine; Riley, Richard L; Altman, Norman H; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2009-05-01

    Pinworms are highly contagious parasites that have been effectively treated in laboratory rodents with fenbendazole (FBZ). Whether FBZ has any detrimental side effects that may compromise experimental results is unknown. Here we asked whether the immune systems from young and aged mice are altered under FBZ treatment. We compared control and FBZ-treated groups of young (age, 2 to 4 mo) and old (age, 22 to 24 mo) BALB/cN mice. The treated mice received a total of 4 wk (alternating-week treatment regimen) of FBZ-medicated feed. Spleen and bone marrow were collected for immunologic assays, and heart, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and liver were evaluated by histopathology. Our results indicate that FBZ treatment has significant effects on the immune systems of mice; these effects are greater in aged mice. FBZ treatment adversely affected mRNA and protein expression of E2A (a transcription factor crucial for B lymphocytes) in activated precursor B lymphocytes obtained from the bone marrow of young and old mice. These effects were reversed by 6 wk on regular feed after the end of treatment. Activated B lymphocytes from the spleens of young and old mice showed decreased function (cell proliferation, E2A mRNA and protein expression) through the last time point of FBZ treatment but recovered by 2 to 4 wk after treatment. Our findings suggest that FBZ treatment may alter sensitive immune and molecular measures as presented here, and postponing the experimental use of mice until at least 6 wk after treatment should be considered.

  10. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR.

  11. Cytotoxic, Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lotus is an edible and medicinal plant, and the extracts from its different parts exhibit various bioactivities. In the present study, the hot water–soluble polysaccharides from lotus seeds (LSPS were evaluated for their cancer cell cytotoxicity, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. LSPS showed significant inhibitory effects on the mouse gastric cancer MFC cells, human liver cancer HuH-7 cells and mouse hepatocarcinoma H22 cells. The animal studies showed that LSPS inhibited tumor growth in H22 tumor-bearing mice with the highest inhibition rate of 45.36%, which is comparable to that induced by cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg treatment (50.79%. The concentrations of white blood cells were significantly reduced in cyclophosphamide-treated groups (p < 0.01, while LSPS showed much fewer side effects according to the hematology analysis. LSPS improved the immune response in H22 tumor-bearing mice by enhancing the spleen and thymus indexes, and increasing the levels of serum cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2. Moreover, LSPS also showed in vivo antioxidant activity by increasing superoxide dismutase activity, thus reducing the malondialdehyde level in the liver tissue. These results suggested that LSPS can be used as an antitumor and immunomodulatory agent.

  12. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Fish Oil and omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Non-melanoma Skin Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khurram; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Yuen, Ng Pei; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil is composed of various fatty acids among which omega-3 fatty acids are considered as most beneficial. The effects of fish oil on the activity of a topical anticancer drug, imiquimod, and the immunomodulatory activity of omega-3 fatty acids was investigated in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Imiquimod-fish oil mixture exhibited higher carcinoma cell growth inhibition and immunomodulatory activity than imiquimod alone, especially against squamous cell carcinoma cells. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibited growth inhibition of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and modulated the immune response. Omega-3 fatty acids of fish oil serve as inducers of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and as suppressors of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which not only depress tumor growth but also adequately control the inflammatory side effects of imiquimod. Thus, imiquimod administration with fish oil could be beneficial for inhibition of non-melanoma skin carcinoma cells but further in vivo studies are needed to understand their role in skin cancer.

  13. Apple cider vinegar boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Khalili, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of combined or singular administration of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet. An 8-week feeding trial was designed with following treatments: Control (basal diet), Pro (contains 10(7) CFU g(-1)L. casei), LACV (contains 1% ACV), HACV (contains 2% ACV), Pro + LACV (contains 10(7) CFU g(-1)L. casei plus 1% ACV) and Pro + HACV (contains 10(7) CFU g(-1)L. casei plus 2% ACV). Evaluation of skin mucus revealed notable increase of total Ig level and lysozyme activity in Pro + LACV and Pro + HACV treatments compared other groups (P ACV (P ACV boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of L. casei and can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Aquaphilus dolomiae extract on in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries MF

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Françoise Aries,1 Hélène Hernandez-Pigeon,1 Clémence Vaissière,1 Hélène Delga,1 Antony Caruana,1 Marguerite Lévêque,1 Muriel Bourrain,1,2 Katia Ravard Helffer,1 Bertrand Chol,3 Thien Nguyen,1 Sandrine Bessou-Touya,1 Nathalie Castex-Rizzi1 1Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, Centre de Recherche & Développement Pierre Fabre, Toulouse, 2Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Biotechnologies Microbiennes (LBBM, Observatoire Océanologique, Banyuls/Mer, France; 3Centre d’Immunologie Pierre Fabre, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, France Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease characterized by recurrent pruritic inflammatory skin lesions resulting from structural and immune defects of the skin barrier. Previous studies have shown the clinical efficacy of Avène thermal spring water in AD, and a new microorganism, Aquaphilus dolomiae was suspected to contribute to these unique properties. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and immunomodulatory properties of ES0, an original biological extract of A. dolomiae, in immune and inflammatory cell models in order to assess its potential use in the treatment of AD.Materials and methods: An ES0 extract containing periplasmic and membrane proteins, peptides, lipopolysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides was obtained from A. dolomiae. The effects of the extract on pruritus and inflammatory mediators and immune mechanisms were evaluated by using various AD cell models and assays.Results: In a keratinocyte model, ES0 inhibited the expression of the inflammatory mediators, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL-18, IL-4R, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3, macrophage inflammatory protein-3α, and macrophage-derived chemokine and induced the expression of involucrin, which is involved in skin barrier keratinocyte terminal differentiation. In addition, ES0 inhibited protease-activated receptor-2 activation in

  15. Biphasic Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. Extract on NSAID-Induced Ulcer: An Antioxidative Trail Weaved with Immunomodulatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ananya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K

    2011-01-01

    Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.), apart from its food value, can be used as a gastroprotective agent in non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy. It has been suggested that the antioxidative property of amla is the key to its therapeutic effect. Hence, on the basis of in vitro antioxidative potential, the ethanolic extract of amla (eAE) was selected for in vivo study in NSAID-induced ulcer. Intriguingly, eAE showed biphasic activity in ulcerated mice, with healing effect observed at 60 mg/kg and an adverse effect at 120 mg/kg.The dose-dependent study revealed that switching from anti-oxidant to pro-oxidant shift and immunomodulatory property could be the major cause for its biphasic effect, as evident from the total antioxidant status, thiol concentration, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content followed by mucin content, PGE(2) synthesis and cytokine status. Further, Buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) pretreatment established the potential impact of antioxidative property in the healing action of eAE. However, eAE efficiently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels and appreciably upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) concentration. In conclusion, gastric ulcer healing induced by eAE was driven in a dose-specific manner through the harmonization of the antioxidative property and modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine level.

  16. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  17. The effect of humor on short-term memory in older adults: a new component for whole-person wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Schwab, Ernie; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Deshpande, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    For older adults, the damaging effects of aging and stress can impair the ability to learn and sustain memory. Humor, with its associated mirthful laughter, can reduce stress and cortisol, a stress hormone. Chronic release of cortisol can damage hippocampus neurons, leading to impairment of learning and memory. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether watching a humorous video had an effect on short-term memory in an older population. The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study took place at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, California. The research team recruited 20 normal, healthy, older adults, 11 males and 9 females. The humor group (n = 10, mean = 69.3 ± 3.7 y) self-selected 1 of 2 humorous videos--a Red Skelton comedy or a montage of America's Funniest Home Videos--and watched it for 20 min. A control group (n = 10, mean = 68.7 ± 5.5 y) sat calmly for 20 min and were not allowed to read, sleep, or talk on a cell phone. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess short-term memory--learning ability, delayed recall, and visual recognition. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at predetermined times. Learning ability improved by 38.5% and 24.0% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P = .014). Delayed recall improved by 43.6% and 20.3% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P =.029). Within the humor group, delayed recall (43.6%) was significant compared with learning ability (38.5%) (P = .002). At 3 predetermined time points, significant decreases in salivary cortisol were observed in the humor group (P = .047, P = .046, and P = .062, respectively). The study's findings suggest that humor can have clinical benefits and rehabilitative implications and can be implemented in programs that support whole-person wellness for older adults. Learning ability and delayed recall are important to these individuals for a better quality of life--considering mind, body, spirit, social, and economic

  18. Protective effect of rutin on humoral and cell mediated immunity in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Saluja, Ajay K

    2017-08-01

    Diet and dietary intake can persuade the development, safeguard and proper functioning of immune system. Ruin, an important bioflavonoid, is abundantly found in various foodstuffs. Rutin has been acknowledged for its protective and beneficial effects on various aspects of the biological system. The present study was aimed to examine the effect of rutin on the regulation of the immune response in experimental animal models. Effect of rutin of cellular immunity was determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, carbon clearance assay, leucocyte mobilization test, and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, whereas humoral immunity was analyzed by the haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre assay. Rutin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) evoked a significant increase in antibody titre in the haemagglutination test, increased immunoglobulin levels, and enhanced the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. It also significantly restored the functioning of leucocytes in cyclophosphamide treated rats and augmented phagocytic index in the carbon clearance assay. The outcomes from the present study indicate that rutin possesses sufficient potential for increasing immune activity by cellular and humoral mediated mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Efficacy and Immunomodulatory Effects of Ulinastatin and Thymosin α1 for Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To systematically review the efficacy and potential immunomodulatory effect of ulinastatin combined with thymosin α1 (UTI for sepsis. Design. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Data Sources. The following databases: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central were searched to identify related clinical trials. The search terms were “ulinastatin”, “thymosin”, and “sepsis”. Results. Six RCTs, 944 septic patients in total, were included in this meta-analysis. The result shows UTI increased the 28-day survival rate of septic patients, odds ratio (OR = 2.01, 95% CI [1.53, 2.64]. After the treatment with UTI, the APACHE II score (four studies dropped 4.72 further, mean = −4.72, 95% CI [−6.54, −2.91] (p<0.00001. The mean time of ICU stay (four studies in UTI group decreased 3.03 days further, mean = −3.03 [−6.99, 0.95] (p=0.14, and mechanical ventilation time (four studies decreased 2.05 days, mean = −1.81 [−2.96, −0.66] (p=0.002. With the treatment of UTI, CD4+T cells raised 5.13%, mean = 5.13, 95% CI [2.75, 7.50] (p<0.0001; there was no significant change in CD8+T cells, mean = −0.74 [−2.93, 1.45] (p=0.51. Conclusion. According to this meta-analysis, with the treatment of UTI, the short-term survival rate of septic patients was increased and the illness severity was alleviated. ICU stay and mechanical ventilation time were effectively shortened. The beneficial effect of UTI might be due to the potential immunomodulatory effects of these two drugs.

  20. Non Castigat Ridendo Mores: evaluating the effectiveness of humor appeal in printed advertisements for HIV/AIDS prevention in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed.

  1. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of Caulerpa racemosa var peltata polysaccharide and its selenizing product on T lymphocytes and NK cells in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN WeiZai; WANG Hui; GUO GuoQing; TUO JingJing

    2008-01-01

    A polysaccharide, CrvpPS, was isolated from Caulerpa racemosa vat peltata. It was reacted with nano-selenium in distilled water containing ascorbic acid (Vit C) to form a stable CrvpPS-nano-Se complex. The immunomodulatory effects of CrvpPS and CrvpPS-nano-Se on T lymphocytes subgroups and NK cells in mice were investigated. After intragastric administration for 10 days separately, both CrvpPS and CrvpPS-nano-Se showed significant stimulatory functions to thymus gland of mice. Moreover, the CrvpPS-nano-Se induced the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, NK cells and the CD4+/CD8+ value to increase significantly (P<0.05) when analyzed by flow cytometry, which is better than the CrvpPS, sucrose-nano-Se, and even the positive drug levamisole.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of Caulerpa racemosa var peltata polysaccharide and its selenizing product on T lymphocytes and NK cells in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A polysaccharide, CrvpPS, was isolated from Caulerpa racemosa var peltata. It was reacted with nano-selenium in distilled water containing ascorbic acid (Vit C) to form a stable CrvpPS-nano-Se complex. The immunomodulatory effects of CrvpPS and CrvpPS-nano-Se on T lymphocytes subgroups and NK cells in mice were investigated. After intragastric administration for 10 days separately, both CrvpPS and CrvpPS-nano-Se showed significant stimulatory functions to thymus gland of mice. Moreover, the CrvpPS-nano-Se induced the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, NK cells and the CD4+/CD8+ value to increase significantly (P<0.05) when analyzed by flow cytometry, which is better than the CrvpPS, sucrose-nano-Se, and even the positive drug levamisole.

  4. Potential Anti-proliferative and Immunomodulatory Effects of Marine Microalgal Exopolysaccharide on Various Human Cancer Cells and Lymphocytes In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geon-Tae; Go, Ryeo-Eun; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2017-02-04

    Marine microalgal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have drawn great attention due to their biotechnological potentials such as anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-lipidemic, anti-proliferative, and immunomodulatory activities, etc. In the present study, the EPS derived from microalgae Thraustochytriidae sp.-derived mutant GA was investigated for its anti-proliferation and immunomodulation. Anti-cancer efficacy of the microalgal EPS was examined for the alterations in cell proliferation and cell cycle-related gene expression that occur in three types of human cancer cell lines, BG-1 ovarian, MCF-7 breast, and SW-620 colon cancer cell lines, by its treatment. Alterations in immunoreactivity by the microalgal EPS were examined by measuring its influence on the growth of T and B lymphocytes and cytokine production of T cells. In cell viability assay, the microalgal EPS inhibited cancer cell growth at the lowest concentration of 10(-11) dilution and in a dose-responsive manner within the range of dilution of 10(-11)~10(-3). In addition, the protein expression of cell cycle progression genes such as cyclin D1 and E in these cancer cell lines was significantly reduced by the microalgal EPS in a dose- and a time-dependant manner. In cell proliferation assay using T and B cells, the microalgal EPS induced B cell proliferation even at the lowest dilution of 10(-11), but not T cells. In cytokine assay, the microalgal EPS decreased the formation of IL-6 and INF-γ at 10(-3) dilution compared to the control and had no significant effects on TNF-α. Collectively, these findings suggest that the EPS derived from microalgae Thraustochytriidae sp. GA has an anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells and an immunomodulatory effect by having an influence on B cell proliferation and cytokine secretion of T cells.

  5. The effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on immunophenotype, differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory functions of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgholaminejad, Arash; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as cells with potential clinical utilities, have demonstrated preferential incorporation into inflammation sites. Immunophenotype and immunomodulatory functions of MSCs could alter by inflamed-microenvironments due to the local pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu. A major cellular mediator with specific function in promoting inflammation and pathogenicity of autoimmunity are IL-17-producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells that polarize in inflamed sites in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-23. Since MSCs are promising candidate for cell-based therapeutic strategies in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, Th17 cell polarizing factors may alter MSCs phenotype and function. In this study, human bone-marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) were cultured with or without IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 as pro-inflammatory cytokines. The surface markers and their differentiation capacity were measured in cytokine-untreated and cytokine-treated MSCs. MSCs-mediated immunomodulation was analyzed by their regulatory effects on mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and the level of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α production as immunomodulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines showed no effect on MSCs morphology, immunophenotype and co-stimulatory molecules except up-regulation of CD45. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity increased in CD45+ MSCs. Moreover, cytokine-treated MSCs preserved the suppressive ability of allogeneic T cell proliferation and produced higher level of TGF-β and lower level of IL-4. We concluded pro-inflammatory cytokines up-regulate the efficacy of MSCs in cell-based therapy of degenerative, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF THE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT, SODIUM CHLORITE, IN FEMALE B6C3F1 MICE: A DRINKING WATER STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Disinfection By-product, Sodium chlorite, in Female B6C3f1 mice: A Drinking Water Study. Niel A. Karrow, Tal, L. Guo, J. Ann McCay, Greg W. Johnson, Ronnetta D. Brown, Debrorah L. Musgrove, Dori R. Germolec, Robert W. Lueb...

  7. Exosomes from Osteosarcoma and normal osteoblast differ in proteomic cargo and immunomodulatory effects on T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Ryan M; Ruby, Carl E; Goodall, Cheri P; Yang, Liping; Maier, Claudia S; Albarqi, Hassan A; Brady, Jacqueline V; Bathke, Kallan; Taratula, Oleh; Mourich, Dan; Bracha, Shay

    2017-09-15

    Canine osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common cancer of the appendicular skeleton and is associated with high metastatic rate to the lungs and poor prognosis. Recent studies have shown the impact of malignant-derived exosomes on immune cells and the facilitation of immune evasion. In the current study, we have characterized the proteomic profile of exosomes derived from healthy osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cell lines. We investigated the direct impact of these exosomes on healthy T cells. Proteomic cargo of the malignant exosomes was markedly different from osteoblastic exosomes and contained immunosuppressive proteins including TGF-β, α fetoprotein and heat shock proteins. OSA exosomes directly attenuated the rate of T cell proliferation, increased a regulatory (FoxP3+) CD4+ phenotype and diminished the expression of the activation marker CD25+ on CD8+ cells. Exosomes of osteoblasts also demonstrated a direct impact on T cells, but to a lesser degree. Osteosarcoma-derived exosomes compared to normal osteoblasts contain an immunomodulatory cargo, which reduced the rate of T cell proliferation and promoted T regulatory phenotype. Osteoblast-derived exosomes can also reduce T cell activity, but to lesser degree compared to OSA exosomes and without promoting a T regulatory phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Immunomodulatory Effects of Flavonoids and Scutebarbatines of Scutellaria barbata D. Don in Lewis-Bearing C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory effect has been found to be an important therapeutic measure for immune responses against cancer. In this study, we evaluated the inhibition of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB, an anti-inflammatory and an antitumor Chinese herb, including flavonoids and scutebarbatines on tumor growth and its immunomodulatory effects in vivo. HPLC and LC/MS/MS methods were conducted for the analysis of flavonoids and scutebarbatines in SB. Lewis-bearing C57BL/6 mice model was established and tumor volume was evaluated by high frequency color ultrasound experiment. ELISA and western blot analysis were performed for the determination of immunomodulatory factors. SB treatment at the dose of 10, 6.67, and 3.33 g crude drug/kg/d significantly inhibited tumor growth of Lewis-bearing C57BL/6 mice with the inhibition rates of 44.41±5.44%, 33.56±4.85%, and 27.57±4.96%, respectively. More importantly, the spleen and thymus indexes were increased remarkably by SB treatment. SB could decrease IL-17, IL-10, FOXP3, TGF-β1, RORγt, and IL-6 levels whereas it could increase remarkably IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. Our results demonstrated that SB could inhibit tumor growth in vivo through regulating immune function in tumor-bearing mice and suggested that the immunomodulatory function of SB had a potential therapeutic effect in lung cancer.

  9. 海参寡肽:免疫调节作用及机制研究%Sea cucumber oligopeptides: Immunomodulatory effects and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽霞; 陈启贺; 刘睿; 任金威; 孙彬; 李林; 徐腾; 王军波; 张召锋

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of sea cucumber oligopeptides and their mechanisms,a total of 250 specific pathogen free (SPF) female BALB/c mice are randomly divided into 5 groups:the control group,the whey protein group (with 0.30 g/kg of whey protein) and the groups with 0.15,0.30 and 0.60 g/kg of sea cucumber oligopeptides.The experiment takes 30 days.To determine the cell-mediated immunity,the humoral immunity,the macrophage phagocytosis and the natural killer (NK) cell activity in mice,the splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the delayed-type hypersensitivity assays (for the cell-mediated immunity),the IgM antibody response of spleen to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the serum hemolysin level assays (for the humoral immunity),the carbon clearance assay and the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal cavity phagocytes assays (for the macrophage phagocytosis) and the NK cell activity assays are performed.Furthermore,the flow cytometry is used to determine the T lymphocyte subsets.The results showed that the sea cucumber oligopeptides significantly increase the cell-mediated immunity,the humoral immunity,the macrophage phagocytosis and the NK cell activity in mice(P<0.05),and the effects are better than those of the whey protein.From the flow cytometry,it is observed that the sea cucumber oligopeptides significantly enhance the percentages of CD3+ and CD4+(P<0.05).In conclusion,the sea cucumber oligopeptides could increase the T lymphocyte cell number and the Th cell proportion to enhance the functions of the cell-mediated immunity,the humoral immunity,the macrophage phagocytosis and the NK cell activity,and furthermore to improve the immune functions in mice.%为研究海参寡肽对小鼠的免疫调节作用及机制,试验选取250只SPF级雌性BALB/c小鼠,随机分为5组:空白对照组,乳清蛋白组(0.30 g/kg),0.15、0.30、0.60 g/kg海参寡肽组.连续灌胃30 d后,通过测定ConA诱导的小鼠淋巴细胞转化实验、迟发型变

  10. Introducing the Immunomodulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an Experimental Model of Behçet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri H.KH. Mirzaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease (BD is a systemic vasculitis which is characterised by oral, aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, skin lesions and ocular manifestations. Although the aetiopathogenesis of BD is still unknown, the critical role of Th1 immune responses, neutrophil hyperactivation alongside overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα and particularly IL-17 have been demonstrated in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. Despite significant progress in understanding of the aetiology of the disease, its treatment remains intricate, and is still treated with immune-suppressive drugs and biological agents with probable systemic side effects. Accordingly, there is a necessity to establish the more efficient and less toxic therapeutic methods which may offer a long-time remission of BD.Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are non-haematopoietic and multipotential stem cells with immunosuppressive capacities in innate and acquired immune systems. MSCs can migrate to damaged tissues and prevent secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and other immunomodulatory effectors, increasing the survival of damaged cells, although the exact underlying mechanisms are still unknown. For this purpose, numerous herpes simplex viruses are injected into C57BL/6 mice to produce Behçet’s mouse model and transferring a certain number of MSCs may have therapeutic value for control of Behçet’s animal model, so researchers could deliberate the function of MSCs and proinflammatory cytokines particularly IL-17A-F, TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 in an experimental model.The aim of this hypothesis is to evaluate immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties of MSCs in syngeneic animal model for BD, in order to clarify the mechanisms of MSCs in BD management, as a broad and more confident treatment in clinical application

  11. Cost-effectiveness of four immunomodulatory therapies for relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis: A Markov model based on data a Balkan country in socioeconomic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A cost-effectiveness analyses of immunomodulatory treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS in developed countries have shown that any benefit from these drugs is achieved at very high cost. The aim of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of five treatment strategies in patients diagnosed with RRMS (symptom management alone and in combination with subcutaneous glatiramer acetate, intramuscular interferon β-1a, subcutaneous interferon β-1a, or intramuscular interferon β- 1b in a Balkan country in socio-economic transition. Methods. The Markov model was developed based on the literature about effectiveness and on local Serbian cost calculations. The duration of a cycle in the model was set to a month. The baseline time horizon was 480 months (40 years. The societal perspective was used for costs and outcomes, and they were discounted for 3% annually. Monte Carlo micro simulation with 1000 virtual patients was done. Results. Significant gain with immunomodulatory therapy was achieved only in relapse-free years, while the time spent in health states EDSS 0.0-5.5 was longer with symptomatic therapy only, and gains in life years and QALYs were only marginal. One QALY gained costs more than a billion of Serbian dinars (more than 20 million US dollars, making each of the four immunomodulatory therapies costineffective. Conclusion. Our study suggests that immunomodulatory therapy of RRMS in a Balkan country in socioeconomic transition is not cost-effective, regardless of the type of the therapy. Moderate gain in relapse-free years does not translate to gain in QALYs, probably due to adverse effects of immunomodulatory therapy.

  12. Hypercalcaemia of malignancy: evidence for a nonparathyroid humoral agent with an effect on renal tubular handling of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S H; Fogelman, I; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T

    1984-02-01

    The renal handling of calcium was examined in 31 patients with hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Results were compared with those from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and normal controls rendered hypercalcaemic by calcium infusion. On relating the urinary calcium excretion indices to serum calcium values, inappropriately low rates of urinary calcium excretion were generally found in patients with malignancy associated hypercalcaemia. Further, the pattern of urinary calcium excretion in these subjects was similar to that found in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. These observations suggest that, in many solid tumours, the development of hypercalcaemia may be attributable to a humoral mediator with a parathyroid hormone-like effect on renal tubular calcium reabsorption. The relatively frequent occurrence of hypercalcaemia in malignant disease thus may be partially explained by the presence of this humoral agent, which may impair the renal excretion of an increase in filtered calcium load, whether due to bone metastases, or humorally mediated osteolysis.

  13. Reciprocal immunomodulatory effects of gamma interferon and interleukin-4 on filaria-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlotra, R K; Hall, L R; Haxhiu, M A; Pearlman, E

    2001-03-01

    Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a severe asthmatic syndrome of lymphatic filariasis, in which an allergic response is induced to microfilariae (Mf) in the lungs. Previously, in a murine model for TPE, we have demonstrated that recombinant interleukin-12 (IL-12) suppresses pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) by modulating the T helper (Th) response in the lungs from Th2- to Th1-like, with elevated gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) production and decreased IL-4 and IL-5 production. The present study examined the immunomodulatory roles of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in filaria-induced AHR and pulmonary inflammation using mice genetically deficient in these cytokines. C57BL/6, IL-4 gene knockout (IL-4(-/-)), and IFN-gamma(-/-) mice were first immunized with soluble Brugia malayi antigens and then inoculated intravenously with 200,000 live Mf. Compared with C57BL/6 mice, IL-4(-/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced AHR, whereas IFN-gamma(-/-) mice had increased AHR. Histopathologically, each mouse strain showed increased cellular infiltration into the lung parenchyma and bronchoalveolar space compared with naïve animals. However, consistent with changes in AHR, IL-4(-/-) mice had less inflammation than C57BL/6 mice, whereas IFN-gamma(-/-) mice had exacerbated pulmonary inflammation with the loss of pulmonary architecture. Systemically, IL-4(-/-) mice produced significantly higher IFN-gamma levels compared with C57BL/6 mice, whereas IFN-gamma(-/-) mice produced significantly higher IL-4 levels. These data indicate that IL-4 is required for the induction of filaria-induced AHR, whereas IFN-gamma suppresses AHR.

  14. What Role Does Humor in the Higher Education Classroom Play in Student-Perceived Instructor Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halula, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has had college instructors who they thought were excellent and those who were not. In pondering what attributes might have made the difference between these groups, the idea of "humor" came to mind, setting the researcher on course to study the research question "What role does humor in the higher education classroom play…

  15. The Effect of Pistacia khynjuk on Humoral Immune System of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hadinia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Plants from the genus Pistacia family such as Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khynjuk are considered as herbal medicines. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been confirmed. The aim of the current study was to find the effect of Pistacia khynjuk on humoral immune system of Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of ten animals and orally received 10 mg/kg of the extract of nucleus, cutin and fruit of Pistacia khynjuk respectively, every day for two weeks. The control group received only placebo. Immuno-reactivity was induced using BCG vaccine (IP with Freund‘s complete adjuvant (CFA. The titer of IgG and IgM were measured after the treatment using ELISA method. Moreover, the cervical lymph nodes and spleen of animals were excised and the volume and density of the primary and secondary follicle was evaluated by steriology. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS using one-way ANOVA. Results: The differences in the mean level of IgG and IgM between the treated and the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Also, the mean volume of the spleen and cervical lymph nodes of the first three groups in comparison with the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the Pistacia khynjuk did not have any direct effect on the activity of humoral immune system and the increasing of antibody level among Wistar rats.

  16. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn

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    Ghaisas M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn, to justify the traditional claim endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana in Ayurveda. The effect of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata (EBV on the primary and secondary antibody responses was evaluated by the humoral antibody response for a specific immune response. The effect of EBV on the phagocytic activity was evaluated by the carbon clearance test and neutrophil activation was evaluated by the neutrophil adhesion test for a nonspecific immune response. The data was analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramar multiple comparison tests. On oral administration, EBV showed a significant increase in the primary and secondary humoral antibody responses, by increasing the hemagglutinating antibody titre at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg/p.o. There was a significant increase in the phagocytic index and percentage neutrophil adhesion at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg/p.o. The present study reveals that the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn holds a promise as an immunomodulatory agent, which acts probably by stimulating both the specific and nonspecific arms of immunity.

  17. Evaluation of Antitumor, Immunomodulatory and Free Radical Scavenging Effects of A New Herbal Prescription Seaweed Complex Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; SHAO Changlun; KONG Wenwen; FANG Yuchun; WANG Changyun

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed Complex Preparation (SCP) is a clinical traditional Chinese medicine preparation which is composed of seven traditional Chinese herbs,and it has been used for treatment of lung cancer,liver cancer and digestive cancer.However,little information is available about the pharmacodynamic basis.The antitumor,immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of SCP were evaluated in this study.Transplanted tumor in vivo method was used to determine the antitumor effect.The effects on splenocyte proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were measured by the MTT method and the phagocytizing cock red blood cell (CRBC) method respectively.The scavenging activities of SCP on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro were investigated.It was found that the medium-dose and high-dose of SCP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplanted hepatic tumor of murine hepatocarcinoma cell line H22,and promote proliferation of splenocytes and phagocytosis of macrophages.SCP possessed noticeable scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals.The antitumor effects of SCP might be achieved by improving immune system and scavenging free radicals,which is in accordance with the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors for cancer treatment.

  18. Aqueous humor enhances the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells in culture, and this effect is partially reproduced by ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jing; Klassen, Henry; Pries, Mette

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous humor has been shown to influence the proliferation of various ocular cell types, but the effect on immature retinal cells is not known. Here, the effect of pig aqueous humor on the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells (RPCs) was investigated. RPCs were prepared from embryonic day...... 19 Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in the presence or absence of aqueous humor from healthy pigs along with a medium consisting of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium:Ham's F-12 medium, N2 supplement, and epidermal growth factor. Proliferation was quantified by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation under...... different treatment conditions, and any associated morphological changes were noted. Potential active components of porcine aqueous humor were partially characterized by gel filtration chromatography, and the effect on RPC proliferation was determined. Results showed that adding 20% aqueous humor increased...

  19. The effects of melamine on humoral immunity with or without cyanuric acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong H; Li, Xi T; Wang, Xin; Li, Hua S; Yin, Rong L; Liu, Jiao; Dong, Qiao; Wang, Wen C; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Bao S; Han, Xiao H; He, Jian B; Bai, Wen L

    2016-04-01

    Melamine is an industrial chemical with high nitrogen content. When added to the pet food and milk it can falsely elevate the apparent protein concentration readings. Cyanuric acid related structurally to melamine has a strong mutual affinity with melamine. The combined ingestion of melamine and cyanuric acid was considered to be responsible for the crystalluria, kidney stones and subsequent renal failure in animals. In our previous investigation, we demonstrated that melamine alone or its combination with cyanuric acid appears to be toxic to the immune system in mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of melamine on humoral immunity with or without cyanuric acid in mice. In comparison to control group, a significantly lower content of plasma cells expressing CD138 were observed in mixture groups of melamine and cyanuric acid with both middle and high doses. The co-administration of melamine and cyanuric acid resulted in a significant decreasing in blimp-1 protein expression and the contents of sIgA, C3, IL-21 and IL-4 compared with the control group. Moreover, our data clearly showed that melamine-related toxicity suppressed the production of IL-6 and IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the animals from mixture of melamine and cyanuric acid with high dose group exhibited a significantly lower expression of gata-3 protein, The results from the present study suggested that the exposure to melamine alone or combination with cyanuric acid had certain humoral immunotoxicity in mice, especially when ingested in high dosage.

  20. Effect of maternal seaweed extract supplementation on suckling piglet growth, humoral immunity, selected microflora, and immune response after an ex vivo lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; O'Doherty, J V

    2012-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation (n = 10 sows/treatment) with seaweed extract (SWE: 0 vs. 10.0 g/d) from d 107 of gestation until weaning (d 26) on neonatal piglet growth, humoral immunity, intestinal morphology, selected intestinal microflora, and VFA concentrations. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of dietary treatment on the immune response after an ex vivo Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tissue challenge at weaning in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The main factors consisted of sow dietary treatment (SWE or control) and immunological challenge (yes or no). The SWE supplement (10.0 g/d) contained laminarin (1.0 g), fucoidan (0.8 g), and ash (8.2 g) and was extracted from a Laminaria spp. The SWE-supplemented sows had greater colostrum IgA (P Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had greater serum IgG (P piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had a decreased colonic E. coli population at weaning (P Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had greater TNF-α mRNA expression after ex vivo LPS challenge compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P Piglet BW at birth and weaning, and small intestinal morphology were unaffected by sow dietary treatment under current experimental conditions. In summary, these results demonstrate an important immunomodulatory role of SWE supplementation characterized by enhanced colostral IgA and IgG concentrations, greater piglet circulatory IgG concentrations on d 14 of lactation, and enhanced TNF-α mRNA expression in the ileum after an ex vivo LPS challenge. These results indicate that SWE supplementation enhanced piglet immune function and colonic microflora at weaning.

  1. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  2. Lymphocyte Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism as Targets of the Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Wasinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glutamine are important energetic and biosynthetic nutrients for T and B lymphocytes. These cells consume both nutrients at high rates in a function-dependent manner. In other words, the pathways that control lymphocyte function and survival directly control the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways. Therefore, lymphocytes in different functional states reprogram their glucose and glutamine metabolism to balance their requirement for ATP and macromolecule production. The tight association between metabolism and function in these cells was suggested to introduce the possibility of several pathologies resulting from the inability of lymphocytes to meet their nutrient demands under a given condition. In fact, disruptions in lymphocyte metabolism and function have been observed in different inflammatory, metabolic, and autoimmune pathologies. Regular physical exercise and physical activity offer protection against several chronic pathologies, and this benefit has been associated with the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of exercise/physical activity. Chronic exercise induces changes in lymphocyte functionality and substrate metabolism. In the present review, we discuss whether the beneficial effects of exercise on lymphocyte function in health and disease are associated with modulation of the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways.

  3. Immunomodulatory oligonucleotide IMT504: Effects on mesenchymal stem cells as a first-in-class immunoprotective/immunoregenerative therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzopulos, Jorge; Opal, Steven M; Hernando-Insúa, Andrés; Rodriguez, Juan M; Elías, Fernanda; Fló, Juan; López, Ricardo A; Chasseing, Norma A; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A; Coronel, Maria F; Franco, Raul; Montaner, Alejandro D; Horn, David L

    2017-01-01

    The immune responses of humans and animals to insults (i.e., infections, traumas, tumoral transformation and radiation) are based on an intricate network of cells and chemical messengers. Abnormally high inflammation immediately after insult or abnormally prolonged pro-inflammatory stimuli bringing about chronic inflammation can lead to life-threatening or severely debilitating diseases. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplant has proved to be an effective therapy in preclinical studies which evaluated a vast diversity of inflammatory conditions. MSCs lead to resolution of inflammation, preparation for regeneration and actual regeneration, and then ultimate return to normal baseline or homeostasis. However, in clinical trials of transplanted MSCs, the expectations of great medical benefit have not yet been fulfilled. As a practical alternative to MSC transplant, a synthetic drug with the capacity to boost endogenous MSC expansion and/or activation may also be effective. Regarding this, IMT504, the prototype of a major class of immunomodulatory oligonucleotides, induces in vivo expansion of MSCs, resulting in a marked improvement in preclinical models of neuropathic pain, osteoporosis, diabetes and sepsis. IMT504 is easily manufactured and has an excellent preclinical safety record. In the small number of patients studied thus far, IMT504 has been well-tolerated, even at very high dosage. Further clinical investigation is necessary to demonstrate the utility of IMT504 for resolution of inflammation and regeneration in a broad array of human diseases that would likely benefit from an immunoprotective/immunoregenerative therapy.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of Alliums and Ipomoea batata extracts on lymphocytes and macrophages functions in White Leghorn chickens: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanieh, Hamza; Narabara, Kiyoaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Gu, Zhigang; Abe, Asaki; Kondo, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We previously described that supplementary garlic, onion and purple sweet potato (PSP) enhance humoral immune response in White Leghorn chickens. In the present in vitro study, we investigated the effects of garlic (GE), onion (OE) and PSP (PSPE) extracts on proliferation, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (INF)-γ gene expression of stimulated lymphocytes. The effects on microbicidal activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) productions of stimulated peritoneal macrophages were studied as well. The results showed that GE augmented Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced splenocytes (4, 8 and 16µg/mL) and thymocytes (2, 4 and 8µg/mL) proliferations, and gene expression of IL-2 (8 and 16µg/mL) and INF-γ (16µg/mL). None of the examined extracts had mitogenic effect nor stimulated bursacytes response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Macrophages exhibited superior microbicidal activity and ROS production with GE at 4 and 8µg/mL and with OE at 25.6µg/mL. None of the extracts showed stimulatory effects on NO production. The extracts showed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on all measured parameters at higher concentrations. Taken together, it is likely that garlic has direct stimulatory effects on immune cell functions, whereas the in vitro inhibitory effects of onion and PSP were likely attributed to high flavonoid contents.

  5. [Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kumi; Ichinohe, Tatsuo

    2014-06-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are a new class of anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic agents that have structural and functional similarities with their prototype compound, thalidomide. Although thalidomide and its derivatives, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are widely used as an essential component in the treatment of selected hematologic neoplasms including multiple myeloma, the precise mechanisms by which these agents exert anti-tumor effects have yet to be clarified. Recently, a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, cereblon (CRBN), has been identified as a direct molecular target for anti-neoplastic activities of IMiDs. CRBN has also been shown to be involved in IMiDs-mediated T-cell co-stimulation and cytokine production. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the CRBN-related molecular pathways that are essential for antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of IMiDs.

  6. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  7. The limited immunomodulatory effects of escharectomy on the kinetics of endotoxin, cytokines, and adhesion molecules in major burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyung Han

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available ESCHARECTOMY has been shown to improve the survival rates and the outcomes in burns. This observational study was conducted to assess the role of escharectomy on the inflammatory mediators in major burns. Seventeen ASA physical status II or status III adult surviving major burn patients were recruited. When the escharectomy was scheduled, a series of blood samples was obtained at −3 and −1 days preoperation, and +1 and +3 postoperation. The changing levels of endotoxin, cytokines, and adhesion molecules were measured with a quantitative sandwich immunoassay. Extensive escharectomy did not appear to have any significant impact on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-10, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. Meanwhile, endotoxin and E-selectin were significantly decreased after escharectomy. Escharectomy appeared to have a limited immunomodulatory effect on the inflammatory mediators in systemic inflammatory responses induced by major burns. This is probably related to the timing and extent of surgery, and the complex nature of burn-related inflammation.

  8. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.). In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T), which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  9. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.. In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T, which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  10. Black humor in O.Henry's novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

      Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.

  11. Cooperative Principle and English Humorous Utterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳

    2010-01-01

    <正>Humorous utterances,especially those in the form of conversation in life,have distinctive pragmatic features.There is a close relationship between humor and pragmatics,which can be found in various books on pragmatics.In those books,humorous utterances function as examples for pragmatic analysis.Effective humorous languages often reflect one or several pragmatic features.This paper specifically introduces one of the important theories of pragmatics:cooperative principle,by which the paper analyzes the humorous utterance and explores the relationship between pragmatic rules and humorous utterance.The purpose is to make people know humorous utterance is a matter of pragmatics. The reality of the humor especially depends on implication of the language and the context.

  12. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  13. Effects of Vitrectomy and Lensectomy on Older Rhesus Macaques: Oxygen Distribution, Antioxidant Status, and Aqueous Humor Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Carla J; Shui, Ying-Bo; Tian, Baohe; Nork, T Michael; Heatley, Gregg A; Kaufman, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant-oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Aqueous and vitreous humor specimens were analyzed for antioxidant status and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage. TM specimens were obtained for immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR analysis. pO2 at baseline revealed steep gradients in the anterior chamber and low levels in the posterior chamber (PC) and around the lens. Following PPV and PE/IOL, pO2 significantly increased in the PC, around the IOL, and angle. IOP increased following both surgical interventions, with no change in outflow facility. Histopathologic analysis did not show changes in TM cell quantification, but there was an increase in 8-OHdG. Quantitative PCR did not reveal significant differences in glaucoma-related gene expression. Aqueous and vitreous humor analysis revealed decreased ascorbate and total reactive antioxidant potential and increased 8-OHdG in the aqueous humor only in the surgical eyes. Oxygen distribution in the older rhesus monkey is similar to humans at baseline and following surgical interventions. Our findings of histopathologic changes of TM oxidative damage and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance suggest a potential correlation of increased oxygen exposure with oxidative stress/damage and the development of open angle glaucoma.

  14. Investigating the Effect of Humor Therapy on Chronic Pain in the Elderly Living in Nursing Homes in Mashhad, Iran

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    Shohre behrouz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of chronic pains in the elderly residing in nursing homes is high, which can bring about social isolation, depression, incidence of disabilities, as well as increased costs. Given the risks, medication therapy is not used for the elderly, and non-pharmaceutical methods, such as humor therapy as one of the complementary medicine techniques using thought distraction, have been advocated. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of humor therapy on pain intensity in the elderly living in nursing homes in Mashhad, Iran. Method: This two-group, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on two groups of intervention (28 individuals and control (27 individuals at two similar nursing homes in Mashhad, Iran, 2016. Humor therapy was performed during six 60-minute sessions (once per week using humorous methods such as video clip displays, games, music plays, as well as telling funny jokes. Then, pain intensity was measured via the Modified German Version of the Brief Pain Inventory before the study and after the 3rd and 6th sessions of humor therapy. Finally, the data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS, version 22. Results: The mean ages of the participants in the control and intervention groups were 73.9±4.3 and 73.9±5.8 years, respectively. The results of the Mann-Whitney U test also showed that pain intensity before the study in both groups was homogenous (P=0.15. Moreover, the mean scores of the highest, lowest, and moderate pain intensity after the 3rd (P

  15. Effect of adjuvants on the humoral immune response to congopain in mice and cattle

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    Kateregga John

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated several adjuvants for their effects on the humoral immune response in both mice and cattle using the central domain of congopain (C2, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, as a model for developing a vaccine against animal trypanosomosis. The magnitude and sustainability of the immune response against C2 and the occurrence of a booster effect of infection, an indirect measure of the presence of memory cells, were determined by ELISA, while spectrofluorometry was used to determine and measure the presence of enzyme-inhibiting antibodies. Results Mice immunized with recombinant C2 in TiterMax™, Adjuphos™, purified saponin Quil A™ or Gerbu™ showed the best response according to the evaluation criteria and the latter three were chosen for the cattle vaccination study. The cattle were challenged with T. congolense four and a half months after the last booster. Cattle immunized with recombinant C2 in purified saponin Quil A™ showed the best antibody response according to the measured parameters. Conclusions We identified purified saponin Quil A™ as a good adjuvant for immunizations with C2. The results from this study will be useful in future attempts to develop an effective anti-disease vaccine against African trypanosomosis.

  16. Study on the Immunomodulatory Effects of Functional Milk in Mice%功能牛奶对小鼠免疫调节作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任璐; 张锋华; 苗君莅; 蔡涛; 王辉; 肖杨

    2013-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of Functional Milk including FOS (Fructo oligosaccharide), inulin , Selenium enriched yeast in mice were explored .Two hundred and fifty mice, weight in the range of 17 and 23 gram, were divided into five treatment groups and fed at five dose. The dose groups were normal control group, milk control group, low dose group (0.4 mL/kg·bw), middle dose group (0.8 mL/kg·bw) and high dose group (2.5 mL/kg·bw) respectively. Cellular immunity, humoral immunity, monocyte - macrophage cell function and activity of natural-killer (NK) cells were investigated to verify immune function of functional milk. The results showed that no significant effect was observed on weight gain. Compared with the normal and milk control group, the phagocytic capacity of macrophage in medium dose group was significantly different. The activity of lymphocyte transformation , delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH ), antibody formation cell and haemolysis value, clearance capacity of carbon and phagocytic capacity of macrophages, activity of NK cells in high dose group were highly significantly different. According to '2003 checking and appraising a technical code on health-care food' decides, functional milk can enhance the immune function in mice.%  探讨了以低聚果糖、菊粉、富硒酵母为主要原料所研制而成的功能牛奶的免疫调节作用。实验采用250只体重为(20±3)g的清洁的ICR小鼠,随机分为5组,每组50只。每组再分成空白对照组、牛奶对照组和低(0.4 mL/kg·bw)、中(0.8 mL/kg·bw)、高(2.5 mL/kg·bw)5个剂量组,并于给药30 d后,分别从细胞免疫、体液免疫、单核-巨噬细胞功能及NK细胞活性4个方面,对功能牛奶的作用进行了研究。结果表明,不同剂量的功能牛奶对小鼠的体重差异无显著影响;中剂量组对于提高巨噬细胞吞噬能力有显著作用;高剂量组对提高小鼠脾淋巴细胞转化、增强小鼠迟

  17. Cycling and Tai Chi Chuan exercises exert greater immunomodulatory effect on surface antigen expression of human hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-yawn; CHIANG Jasson; CHEN Yu-jen; CHEN Kung-tung; YANG Rong-sen; LIN Jaung-geng

    2008-01-01

    Background Both athletes with intensive exercise and aged people may have weakened immunity against virus infection.This study aimed to evaluate whether people undergoing aerobic exercises including competitive cyctists with moderate training (CMT) and middle-aged people practicing Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise have higher immunity against hepatitis B virus than age-matched sedentary controls including college students (CSC) and middle-aged people (MSC).Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from competitive cyclists and sedentary controls were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) to prepare conditioned medium (MNC-CM) for the assessment of inhibitory effects on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.Results The inhibitory effects on the relative HBsAg expression of CMT's and TCC's MNC-CM were greater than those of the controls.The CMT's MNC-CM prepared from 5 pg/ml PHA decreased HBsAg expression to 61.5%,whereas that of CSC remained at 83.8%.Similarly,this expression by treatment of TCC group' MNC-CM was 68.4% whereas that of MSC group was 84.3%.The levels of cytokines such as interferon-y (IFN-y),tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α),IFN-α and interleukin-1β(1L-1β) in the MNC-CM from the CMT and TCC groups were greater than those in the controls.Antibody neutralization of CMT's MNC-CM and addition of recombinant cytokines into CSC's MNC-CM indicated that IFN-y,TNF-α and IFN-α had synergistic effects against HBsAg expression.Similar blocking effect was noted in TCC versus MSC groups.Conclusion These results suggest that the immunomodulatory response to suppress HBsAg expression in CMT and TCC with moderate aerobic exercise is greater than that in age-matched sedentary controls.

  18. Effect of nanovaccine chemistry on humoral immune response kinetics and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughney, Shannon L.; Ross, Kathleen A.; Boggiatto, Paola M.; Wannemuehler, Michael J.; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2014-10-01

    Acute respiratory infections represent a significant portion of global morbidity and mortality annually. There is a critical need for efficacious vaccines against respiratory pathogens. To vaccinate against respiratory disease, pulmonary delivery is an attractive route because it mimics the route of natural infection and can confer both mucosal and systemic immunity. We have previously demonstrated that a single dose, intranasal vaccine based on polyanhydride nanoparticles elicited a protective immune response against Yersinia pestis for at least 40 weeks after immunization with F1-V. Herein, we investigate the effect of nanoparticle chemistry and its attributes on the kinetics and maturation of the antigen-specific serum antibody response. We demonstrate that manipulation of polyanhydride nanoparticle chemistry facilitated differential kinetics of development of antibody titers, avidity, and epitope specificity. The results provide new insights into the underlying role(s) of nanoparticle chemistry in providing long-lived humoral immunity and aid in the rational design of nanovaccine formulations to induce long-lasting and mature antibody responses.Acute respiratory infections represent a significant portion of global morbidity and mortality annually. There is a critical need for efficacious vaccines against respiratory pathogens. To vaccinate against respiratory disease, pulmonary delivery is an attractive route because it mimics the route of natural infection and can confer both mucosal and systemic immunity. We have previously demonstrated that a single dose, intranasal vaccine based on polyanhydride nanoparticles elicited a protective immune response against Yersinia pestis for at least 40 weeks after immunization with F1-V. Herein, we investigate the effect of nanoparticle chemistry and its attributes on the kinetics and maturation of the antigen-specific serum antibody response. We demonstrate that manipulation of polyanhydride nanoparticle chemistry

  19. Effects of ascorbic acid on cell mediated, humoral immune response and pathophysiology of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchint Simaraks

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an experiment related to the effects of chronic heat stress on total white blood cell changes, pathophysiology of leukocyte and effects of ascorbic acid on lymphocytes, lympholytic cells and humoral immunity of New-castle disease of broilers under chronic heat stress. Randomized complete block was the design. One hundred-forty-four chickens were maintained at 33+1 oC environmental temperature and on four levels of added ascorbic acid i.e. 0 (control group, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg in dietsfor 21 days. On days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period, total white blood cells count, lympholytic cell and HI titer for Newcastle disease were determined. On day 21, histopathology of lung, liver, kidney, heart and bursa of fabricius of randomly selected broilers (n=36; 3 birds per experimental unit were studied. Total white blood cells (TWBC of the birds were significantly increased on day 3 (P<0.05 and were higheston days 7 and 14 then significantly decreased on days 21 (P<0.05. Monocytes were significantly increased on day 3 (P<0.05. Lymphocytes were significantly increased on day 7, and were highest on day 14 (P<0.05. On day 21, the value of lymphocyte was significantly lower than on days 7 and 14 (P<0.05, respectively. Lympholytic cells were significantly increased on day 3 and 7 (P<0.05, respectively, but on day 21, lympholyticcells were significantly decreased to lower value than on day 7 (P<0.05. Heterophils were significantly increased on day 3 and 7 and then decreased on day 14 (P<0.05. Tissue injury and hemorrhage in broilers under chronic heat stress caused leukocytosis, heterophilia, lympholysis and monocytosis. The size of lobules within the bursa of fabricius in broilers receiving ascorbic acid at 800 mg/kg in the diet were larger than inbirds that received added ascorbic acid at 400, 200 and 0 mg/kg in their diets, respectively. Lymphocytes and lympholytic cells were not significantly different

  20. Therapeutic and immunomodulatory effects of glucosamine in combination with low-dose cyclosporine a in a murine model of imiquimod-induced psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Ai-Young

    2015-06-05

    Although cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunomodulating agent and is commonly used as a systemic agent for the management of psoriasis patients, current clinical treatments are not always effective due to the clinical inefficacy of low-doses and numerous harmful effects of higher doses. Currently, the combined use of two other systemic drugs often has better therapeutic efficacy and is safer than low or high dose of a single drug. Glucosamine (Glu) also has immunomodulatory properties for autoimmune diseases. The aims of our study were to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Glu in combination with low-dose CsA on imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in mice and to determine its immunomodulatory mechanism. We found that combined treatment with Glu (300 mg/kg) and low-dose (10 or 20mg/kg) CsA strongly ameliorated the development of psoriasis-like skin lesions and reduced the levels of Th1 cytokine (TNF-α) and Th17 cytokines (IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23) in the serum and dorsal skin. Histological findings also showed that the thickening of epidermis, stratum corneum, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Particularly, these combined treatments increased the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in splenic. These results suggest that use of a combination of each drug might be used as an efficacious and safe alternative therapeutic strategy, as well as may provide an immunomodulatory approach for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis.

  1. Protective effect of melatonin against propoxur-induced oxidative stress and suppression of humoral immune response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Kumar, Achint; Ahmed, Rafat S; Chakraborti, Ayanabha; Tripathi, A K; Mediratta, P K; Banerjee, B D

    2006-04-01

    Effect of melatonin in attenuation of propoxur induced oxidative stress and suppression of humoral immune response was studied in rats. Oral administration of propoxur (10 mg/kg) increased lipid peroxidation in serum after 28 days treatment. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione were also altered following propoxur exposure. In addition propoxur exposure markedly suppressed humoral immune response as assessed by antibody titre and plaque forming cell assay. Simultaneous treatment with melatonin (5 mg/kg, ip) markedly attenuated the effect of propoxur on (a) lipid peroxidation, (b) oxidative stress parameters and (c) immunotoxicity. Results have been discussed in the light of possible immunopotentiating and antioxidant effects of melatonin to understand the influence of oxidative stress on propoxur induced immunomodulation.

  2. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol on humoral immune response elicited by bovine albumin encapsulated in niosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MADANJitender; KAUSHIKDinesh; SARDANASatish; MISHRADn

    2007-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the effect of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol on anti-BSA antibody production triggered by bovine albumin encapsulated in non-ionic surfactant vesicle, niosomes. Reverse phase evaporation method was adopted to entrap the antigen in colloidal carrier composed of Span 80 and Span 85 followed by simultaneous characterization for particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The protein content was determined by Bradford method using UV Visible Spectrophotometer at 595 nm. Humoral immune response was measured in terms of systemic IgG antibody titre by ELISA method. Experimental data indicated that 7∶3 molar ratio of Span 80 and cholesterol based niosomal formulation possessed maximum (39.8±2.9)% of soluble protein.Ciprofloxacin markedly (P<0.05) decreased the antibody titre. In contrast, chloramphenicol did not reduce the antibody titre significantly in comparison to control group (P>0.05). It is necessary to explore the effect of a vaccine antigen when a candidate is medicated with a therapeutic agent, which might help in programming a new drug management and vaccination programme.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of probiotic supplementation in schizophrenia patients: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Tomasik (Jakub); R.H. Yolken (Robert); S. Bahn (Sabine); F. Dickerson (Faith)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAlthough peripheral immune system abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia pathophysiology, standard antipsychotic drugs show limited immunological effects. Thus, more effective treatment approaches are required. Probiotics are microorganisms that modulate the immune response of t

  5. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  6. Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 and Immunomodulatory Effects of a PAR1-Activating Peptide in a Mouse Model of Prostatitis

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    M. Mark Stanton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonbacterial prostatitis has no established etiology. We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1 can play a role in prostatitis. We therefore investigated the effects of PAR1 stimulation in the context of a new model of murine nonbacterial prostatitis. Methods. Using a hapten (ethanol-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (DNBS- induced prostatitis model with both wild-type and PAR1-null mice, we examined (1 the location of PAR1 in the mouse prostate and (2 the impact of a PAR1-activating peptide (TFLLR-NH2: PAR1-TF on ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation. Results. Ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation was maximal at 2 days. In the tissue, PAR1 was expressed predominantly along the apical acini of prostatic epithelium. Although PAR1-TF on its own did not cause inflammation, its coadministration with ethanol-DNBS reduced all indices of acute prostatitis. Further, PAR1-TF administration doubled the prostatic production of interleukin-10 (IL-10 compared with ethanol-DNBS treatment alone. This enhanced IL-10 was not observed in PAR1-null mice and was not caused by the reverse-sequence receptor-inactive peptide, RLLFT-NH2. Surprisingly, PAR1-TF, also diminished ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation in PAR1-null mice. Conclusions. PAR1 is expressed in the mouse prostate and its activation by PAR1-TF elicits immunomodulatory effects during ethanol-DNBS-induced prostatitis. However, PAR1-TF also diminishes ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation via a non-PAR1 mechanism by activating an as-yet unknown receptor.

  7. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 and immunomodulatory effects of a PAR1-activating peptide in a mouse model of prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M Mark; Nelson, Lisa K; Benediktsson, Hallgrimur; Hollenberg, Morley D; Buret, Andre G; Ceri, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Nonbacterial prostatitis has no established etiology. We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) can play a role in prostatitis. We therefore investigated the effects of PAR1 stimulation in the context of a new model of murine nonbacterial prostatitis. Using a hapten (ethanol-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (DNBS-)) induced prostatitis model with both wild-type and PAR1-null mice, we examined (1) the location of PAR1 in the mouse prostate and (2) the impact of a PAR1-activating peptide (TFLLR-NH2: PAR1-TF) on ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation. Ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation was maximal at 2 days. In the tissue, PAR1 was expressed predominantly along the apical acini of prostatic epithelium. Although PAR1-TF on its own did not cause inflammation, its coadministration with ethanol-DNBS reduced all indices of acute prostatitis. Further, PAR1-TF administration doubled the prostatic production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared with ethanol-DNBS treatment alone. This enhanced IL-10 was not observed in PAR1-null mice and was not caused by the reverse-sequence receptor-inactive peptide, RLLFT-NH2. Surprisingly, PAR1-TF, also diminished ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation in PAR1-null mice. PAR1 is expressed in the mouse prostate and its activation by PAR1-TF elicits immunomodulatory effects during ethanol-DNBS-induced prostatitis. However, PAR1-TF also diminishes ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation via a non-PAR1 mechanism by activating an as-yet unknown receptor.

  8. Effects of the Immunomodulatory Agent Cordyceps militaris on Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Asthma Model

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    Chia-Hsiu Hsu

    2008-10-01

    Conclusion: C. militaris can modulate airway inflammation in asthma, but it is less effective than prednisolone or montelukast. These results demonstrate that C. militaris is unable to adequately block the potent mediators of asthmatic airway inflammation.

  9. Immunomodulatory properties and anti-apoptotic effects of zinc and melatonin in an experimental model of chronic Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazão, Vânia; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Azevedo, Angela Palamin; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; de Morais, Fabiana Rossetto; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2015-05-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of melatonin and zinc during chronic experimental Chagas' disease were studied. Early and late apoptosis by Annexin V-propidium iodide staining were evaluated. The expression of CD28, CD80, CD86, CD45RA and CD4(+)T and CD8(+)T cells were also evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. The combination of zinc and melatonin notably reduced the apoptotic ratios of splenic cells in the infected and treated animals when compared to untreated rats, during early and late stages of apoptosis. The percentages of CD8(+)T cells in Zn, Mel or Zn and Mel treated rats were reduced when compared to infected and untreated animals. Higher percentages of CD28 expression in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations were observed in control and infected Zn-treated group as compared to untreated ones. Zn, Mel or the combination of both did not induce any statistically significant differences for B cells when comparing to treated control and infected groups. Zinc or Mel-treated animals presented a lower expression of CD86 when compared to untreated counterparts. According to our data, this work strongly suggest that the modulation of the immune system operated by zinc and melatonin administration affected the balance among T cell immune response, apoptosis and expression of co-stimulatory molecules during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection, inducing important changes in the host's immune response against the parasite. Future experiments in this field should be focused in improving our understanding of the key mechanisms underlying the involvement of melatonin and zinc in the immune response during chronic Chagas' disease.

  10. Immunomodulatory effects of turmeric, Curcuma longa (Magnoliophyta, Zingiberaceae on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Palaemonidae against Vibrio alginolyticus (Proteobacteria, Vibrionaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Alambra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii is being favored for farming due to its large size. However, like other crustaceans, it is also prone to bacterial and viral infections. Turmeric, a derivative of the plant Curcuma longa, is a spice commonly used in Middle East and Asia as an herbal remedy. Immuno-modulatory effects of turmeric powder on hemocyte population and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs of M. rosenbergii challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus was investigated. Eighty (80 juveniles of M. rosenbergii were divided into three groups labeled as D0, D1 and D7 (Day 0, 1 and 7 respectively. D0 were fed with commercial feeds while D1 and D7 were fed with turmeric-incorporated (enhanced feeds for one and seven days respectively. The total hemocyte count (THC of D0 remained constant and a significant increase was observed from D1 to D7 treatment. Prawns were challenged with V. alginolyticus and total RNA was isolated and synthesized into cDNAs from hepatopancreas. RT-PCR was performed with crustin and lysozyme as target genes and EF-1α as the reference gene. PCR products were run through 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed an increasing expression of crustin and lysozyme PCR relative to duration of feeding, indicating a remarkable increase in the expression of AMPs (antimicrobial peptides. Challenged prawns fed with enhanced feeds also had an induced expression of AMPs. It is noteworthy to mention that this is the first report on AMPs expression in M. rosenbergii.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., a traditional Chinese herbal medicine

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    Dong-Yi eHe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In China, Korea and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of paeony (TGP, which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotrience B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea.

  12. [Effect of melatonin instillations on the clinical course of experimental uveitis and biochemical processes in tears and aqueous humor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, N B; Beznos, O V; Lozinskaya, N A; Beyshenova, G A; Nesterova, T V

    2016-01-01

    Acute immunogenic uveitis was modeled in rabbits via the subcutaneous and intravitreal injections of normal horse serum. We studied the effect of instillations of 0.1% melatonin solution on the clinical course of uveitis and biochemical parameters of tear fluid and aqueous humor: antioxi-dant activity, protein concentration and α(2)-macroglobulin level. Melatonin instillations decreased clinical manifestations of uveitis. We found that the antioxidant activity in tears of the rabbits treated with melatonin was substantially higher and the α(2)-macroglobulin level lower than in untreated animals. Antioxidant activity in aqueous humor taken on day 10 of uveitis was also twice higher while protein and α(2)-macroglobulin levels were 1.5-2 times lower than in untreated animals. These data indicate that instillations of melatonin increase the local antioxidant activity and decrease the acuity of inflammation and permeability of hematoophthalmic barrier in uveitis.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of alpha interferon and thymostimulin in patients with neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, I; Marinaro, M; Gesario, A; Cannuscio, B; Michel, Y; Paulling, E

    1995-01-01

    In this report, we have evaluated the immunological effects following administration of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) in combination with thymostimulin (TP-1), as well as of IFN-alpha and TP-1 alone in patients with neoplasias who underwent surgery and were subsequently treated with conventional chemotherapy. Data suggest that the combination of IFN-alpha and TP-1 is the most effective in the up-regulation of some immune parameters such as the CD4(+)-CD8+ cell-dependent antibacterial activity. Since this immune function plays an important role in the host protection against different targets such as invading microorganisms and/or neoplastic cells, the administration of TP-1-IFN-alpha is advisable for patients with neoplasias under chemotherapy. PMID:7583935

  14. Neuroprotective effects of the immunomodulatory drug Setarud on cerebral ischemia in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farzaneh Vafaee; Nasser Zangiabadi; Fatemeh Mehdi Pour; Farzaneh Dehghanian; Majid Asadi-Shekaari; Hossein Karimi Afshar

    2012-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents can alleviate ischemic cerebral injury. The immunomodulary drug Setarud, which is composed of herbal extracts including Rosa canina, Urtica dioica and Tanacetum vulgare, supplemented with selenium exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that Setarud will have a neuroprotective effect against ischemic cerebral injury. To validate this hypothesis, rats were intraperitoneally administered with 0.66 mL/kg Setarud for 30 minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining showed that Setarud could reduce cerebral infarct volume of rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Transmission electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that Setarud could alleviate the degenerative changes in cortical neurons of rats with cerebral ischemia. The inclined plate test and prehensile test showed that Setarud could significantly improve the motor function of rats with cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that Setarud shows neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of a set of amygdalin analogues on human keratinocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, A; Paoletti, I; Greco, R; Satriano, R A; Ruocco, E; Tufano, M A; Perez, J J

    2005-11-01

    Peptide T (PT) is an octapeptide shown to resolve psoriatic lesions. Our previous investigations suggest that keratinocytes play an important role in conditioning the therapeutic effects of the PT in psoriasis. However, peptides are not good therapeutic agents, because they exhibit poor absorption, are easily metabolized and are immunogenic. Using computational methods, the natural product amygdalin was identified as peptidomimetic of PT. However, amygdalin exhibits a toxic profile due to its cyanide group. To overcome this deleterious effect, we synthesized analogues lacking the cyanide group. Human keratinocytes were treated with PT or with three different peptidomimetics of PT. To study its effects on the expression of HSP-70, TGF-beta, alpha-v integrin, ICAM-1 and cytokines, we analysed the protein levels by Western blot and ELISA. Our results show that the different peptidomimetics of PT tested exhibit a similar biological behaviour in regard to the overexpression of HSP-70, TGF-beta and alpha-v integrin than the native peptide. TNF-alpha is overexpressed by PT and SVT-03018; between the other two analogs, SVT-03016 do not produce any significant change in regard to the control, while SVT-03017 shows only a moderate increase in regard to control. SVT-03018 provokes a remarkable upregulation of IL-10, stronger than SVT-03016, SVT-03017 and PT. All the other three analogues reduce comparably to the PT, the expression of ICAM-1 and do not increase the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The results highlighted that the three analogues of amygdalin with the cyanide group removed exhibit the same biological effects of PT. Therefore, they can be considered peptidomimetics, suggesting their possible use in the treatment of psoriasis.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of an extract of Coccidioides posadasii in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina Matias Dinelly; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Julio Costa; Leite, Ana Karine Rocha de Melo; Leite, Ana Caroline Rocha de Melo; Girão, Virgínia Cláudia Carneiro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cunha, Fernando de Queiroz; Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro

    2013-04-01

    Trying to surpass host defenses, fungal infections alter the immune response. Components from nonpathogenic fungi present therapeutic anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activities. This study reveals that proteins present in a Coccidioides posadasii extract provide anti-inflammatory benefit in experimental arthritis. Zymosan was given intra-articularly to rats and mice, and groups were pretreated with C. posadasii extract either per os or intraperitoneally. Controls received the vehicle. Acute hypernociception was evaluated using articular incapacitation and von Frey methods. Cell influx and cytokine levels were assessed in joint exudates. Joint damage was evaluated by histopathology and determination of glycosaminoglycan content of the cartilage. Synovia was evaluated for cell death and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression using TUNEL and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Pretreatment with C. posadasii extract significantly inhibited acute and chronic cell influx, hypernociception, and provoked reduction of glycosaminoglycan loss while reducing chronic synovitis, cell death, and iNOS expression. Reduction/alkylation of C. posadasii extract abrogated these effects. C. posadasii administration did not alter TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and γ-interferon levels, whereas IL-10 levels were significantly reduced. Data reveal that a C. posadasii extract reduces iNOS expression that is associated with inhibition of synovial apoptosis and decrease in IL-10 levels released into zymosan-inflamed joints. Characterization of active components excluded charged carbohydrates while pointing to a protein as responsible for these effects. In summary, systemic administration of components from a pathogenic fungus provides anti-inflammatory effects, being species-independent and orally active. Besides adding to understand host response against fungi, the results may lead to therapeutic implications.

  17. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Shinorine and Porphyra-334

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Becker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs are secondary metabolites, produced by a large variety of microorganisms including algae, cyanobacteria, lichen and fungi. MAAs act as UV-absorbers and photo-protectants. MAAs are suggested to exert pharmaceutical relevant bioactivities in the human system. We particularly focused on their effect on defence and regulatory pathways that are active in inflamed environments. The MAAs shinorine and porphyra-334 were isolated and purified from the red algae Porphyra sp. using chromatographic methods. The effect of MAAs on central signaling cascades, such as transcription factor nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB activation, as well as tryptophan metabolism, was investigated in human myelomonocytic THP-1 and THP-1-Blue cells. Cells were exposed to the MAAs in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. NF-κB activity and the activity of tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1 were used as readout. Compounds were tested in the concentration range from 12.5 to 200 µg/mL. Both MAAs were able to induce NF-κB activity in unstimulated THP-1-Blue cells, whereby the increase was dose-dependent and more pronounced with shinorine treatment. While shinorine also slightly superinduced NF-κB in LPS-stimulated cells, porphyra-334 reduced NF-κB activity in this inflammatory background. Modulation of tryptophan metabolism was moderate, suppressive in stimulated cells with the lower treatment concentration of both MAAs and with the unstimulated cells upon porphyra-334 treatment. Inflammatory pathways are affected by MAAs, but despite the structural similarity, diverse effects were observed.

  18. Immunomodulatory Effects of Astragalus gypsicolus Hydroalcoholic Extract in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Ghafourian Boroujerdnia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that herbal extracts possess various biological effects including anti-inflammatory and  anti-cancer  activities. The  present  study  was aimed to investigate the protective effects of the Astragalus gypsicolus  (AG hydroalcoholic extract in early allergic sensitized mice induced by ovalbumin.Phytochemical assay was used  to  recognize the  main active constituents  in the  AG hydroalcoholic extract. Mice were immunized with subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide. Efficiency of  sensitization was assessed by serum  IgE  levels and eosinophil count. After sensitization, two doses of extract (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were injected intrapritoneally.On  day 14, mice were challenged with intrapritoneal injection of ovalbumin. IL-4 and IFNγ  levels in  broncoalveolar  lavage fluid, which had  been  collected on  day 15, were assessed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA kit.Our results indicate two main active constituents including flavonoids and terpenoids are present in the AG hydroalcoholic extract. Intrapritoneal injection of the AG hydroalcoholic extract was able to decrease IL-4 and increase IFNγ. It seems the AG hydroalcoholic extract has the potential to modulate the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines in allergy.

  19. Immunomodulatory effect of photodynamic therapy in Galleria mellonella infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Jéssica Diane; de Alvarenga, Janaína Araújo; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; García, Maíra Terra; Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Cardoso Jorge, Antonio Olavo; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2017-09-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important pathogen in the development of periodontal disease. Our study investigated if the treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) that employs a nontoxic dye, followed by irradiation with harmless visible light can attenuate the experimental infection of P. gingivalis in Galleria mellonella. Firstly, different concentrations of P. gingivalis ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) cells/larva were injected into the animal to obtain a lethal concentration. Next, the following groups of G. mellonella infected with P. gingivalis were evaluated: inoculation of the photosensitizer and application of laser (P + L+), inoculation of physiologic solution and application of laser (P-L+), inoculation the photosensitizer without laser (P + L-) and inoculation of physiologic solution without Laser (P-L-). The effects of aPDT on infection by P. gingivalis were evaluated by survival curve analysis and hemocytes count. A lethal concentration of 10(6) cells/larva was adopted for evaluating the effects of aPDT on experimental infection with P. gingivalis. We found that after 120 s of PDT application, the death of G. mellonella was significantly lower compared to the control groups (p = 0.0010). Moreover, the hemocyte density in the P+L+ group was increased by 9.6 × 10(6) cells/mL (2.62-fold increase) compared to the infected larvae with no treatment (L-P- group) (p = 0.0175). Finally, we verified that the aPDT led to a significant reduction of the number of P. gingivalis cells in G. mellonella hemolymph. In conclusion, PDT application was effective against P. gingivalis infection by increasing the survival of G. mellonella and was able to increase the circulating hemocytes indicating that PDT activates the G. mellonella immune system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus casei administration in a mouse model of gliadin-sensitive enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arienzo, R; Stefanile, R; Maurano, F; Mazzarella, G; Ricca, E; Troncone, R; Auricchio, S; Rossi, M

    2011-10-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is a very common food-sensitive enteropathy, which is triggered by gluten ingestion and is mediated by CD4(+) T cells. In addition, alterations in the intestinal microbiota that is normally involved in the homeostasis of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue) seem to play a role in CD. In accordance with these findings, we previously reported that Lactobacillus casei can induce a strong enhancement of the T cell-mediated response to gliadin without inducing enteropathy. In this study, we analysed the effects of L. casei administration in a mouse model of gliadin-induced villous damage that was recently developed and involves the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activities in gliadin-sensitized HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice. To address the issue, we assessed the weight loss, the intestinal cytokine pattern, the density of CD25(+) cells and morphometry of the gut mucosa. We confirmed that COX inhibition in sensitized mice caused villus blunting, dysregulated expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and reduced gliadin-specific IL-2 production. Notably, the administration of probiotic strain induced a complete recovery of villus blunting. This finding was associated with a delay in weight decrease and a recovery of basal TNF-α levels, whereas the numbers of CD25(+) cells and the levels of IL-2 remained unchanged. In conclusion, our data suggest that the administration of L. casei can be effective in rescuing the normal mucosal architecture and GALT homeostasis in a mouse model of gliadin-induced enteropathy. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Lycium barbarum fruit juice in Chinese older healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagase, Harunobu; Sun, Bixuang; Nance, Dwight M

    2009-10-01

    Lycium barbarum has been traditionally used in combination with several herbs for medicinal properties, but systematic modern clinical evaluation as a single herb has not been reported. To examine the systematic effects of L. barbarum on immune function, general well-being, and safety, we tested the effects of a standardized L. barbarum fruit juice (GoChi, FreeLife International, Phoenix, AZ, USA) at 120 mL/day, equivalent to at least 150 g of fresh fruit, the amount traditionally used, or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 60 older healthy adults (55-72 years old). The GoChi group showed a statistically significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and levels of interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G compared to pre-intervention and the placebo group, whereas the number of CD4, CD8, and natural killer cells or levels of interleukin-4 and immunoglobulin A were not significantly altered. The placebo group showed no significant changes in any immune measures. Whereas the GoChi group showed a significant increase in general feelings of well-being, such as fatigue and sleep, and showed a tendency for increased short-term memory and focus between pre- and post-intervention, the placebo group showed no significant positive changes in these measures. No adverse reactions, abnormal symptoms, or changes in body weight, blood pressure, pulse, visual acuity, urine, stool, or blood biochemistry were seen in either group. In conclusion, daily consumption of GoChi significantly increased several immunological responses and subjective feelings of general well-being without any adverse reactions.

  2. In vivo and in vitro effects of multiple sclerosis immunomodulatory therapeutics on glutamatergic excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtman, Dirk; Gollan, René; Ellwardt, Erik; Birkenstock, Jérôme; Robohm, Kerstin; Siffrin, Volker; Zipp, Frauke

    2016-03-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), a candidate downstream mechanism for neuronal injury is glutamate (Glu)-induced excitotoxicity, leading to toxic increases in intraneuronal Ca(2+) . Here, we used in vivo two-photon imaging in the brain of TN-XXL transgenic Ca(2+) reporter mice to test whether promising oral MS therapeutics, namely fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, and their respective metabolites fingolimod-phosphate and monomethyl fumarate, can protect neurons against acute glutamatergic excitotoxic damage. We also assessed whether these drugs can protect against excitotoxicity in vitro using primary cortical neurons, and whether they can directly inhibit Glu release from pathogenic T-helper 17 lymphocytes. In vivo, direct and acute (1 h) administration of 100 mM Glu to the brainstem resulted in a rapid and significant up-regulation in neuronal Ca(2+) signaling as well as morphological excitotoxic changes that were attenuated by the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK801. Direct CNS administration of MS drugs prior to Glu significantly delayed or reduced, but did not prevent the neuronal Ca(2+) increase or morphological changes. In vitro, prolonged (24 h) treatment of primary neurons with the fumarates significantly protected against neurotoxicity induced by Glu as well as NMDA, similar to MK801. Furthermore, monomethyl fumerate significantly reduced Glu release from pathogenic T-helper 17 lymphocytes. Overall, these data suggest that MS drugs may mediate neuroprotection via excitotoxicity modulating effects. Evidence suggests MS pathogenesis may involve neuronal excitotoxicity, induced by local release of glutamate. However, current MS drugs, including dimethyl fumerate (DMF) and fingolimod (FTY720) are largely anti-inflammatory and not yet fully tested for their neuroprotective potential. Here, we show that the drugs, in particular DMF metabolite monomethyl fumerate (MMF), protect neurons by excitotoxicity modulating effects. Th17, T-helper 17.

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of captopril and local irradiation on myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Kyung; Shin, Sung Won; Kim, Shin Yeong; Choi, Chang Hoon; Park, Won; Noh, Jae Myoung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang Won [Dept. of Physiology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study is to investigate the effect of captopril when combined with irradiation. 4T1 (mouse mammary carcinoma) cells were injected in the right hind leg of Balb/c mice. Mice were randomized to four groups; control (group 1), captopril-treated (group 2), irradiated (group 3), irradiated and captopril-treated concurrently (group 4). Captopril was administered by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg) daily and irradiation was delivered on the tumor-bearing leg for 15 Gy in 3 fractions. Surface markers of splenic neutrophils (G-MDSCs) and intratumoral neutrophils (tumor-associated neutrophils [TANs]) were assessed using flow cytometry and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) of tumor was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The mean tumor volumes (±standard error) at the 15th day after randomization were 1,382.0 (±201.2) mm{sup 3} (group 1), 559.9 (±67.8) mm{sup 3} (group 3), and 370.5 (± 48.1) mm{sup 3} (group 4), respectively. For G-MDSCs, irradiation reversed decreased expression of CD{sub 101} from tumor-bearing mice, and additional increase of CD{sub 101} expression was induced by captopril administration. Similar tendency was observed in TANs. The expression of tumor-necrosis factor-associated molecules, CD{sub 120} and CD{sub 137}, are increased by irradiation in both G-MDSCs and TANs. Further increment was observed by captopril except CD{sub 120} in TANs. For IHC staining, VEGF and HIF-1α positivity in tumor cells were decreased when treated with captopril. Captopril is suggested to have additional effect when combined to irradiation in a murine tumor model by modulation of MDSCs and angiogenesis.

  4. Clinical and Immunomodulatory Effect of Fun-boi, an Herbal Medicine, in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizawa, A; Kogure, T; Fujinaga, H; Takahashi, K; Shimada, Y; Terasawa, K

    2000-10-01

    Crude preparations of Fun-boi (Fen-fan-ji in Chinese), a traditional anti-rheumatic herb, have been used safely over millennia. To begin to study the efficacy of Fun-boi on the disease activity and the peripheral lymphocyte subsets, we performed a 12-week, open-label trial of Fun-boi extract (a decoction of Fun-boi 10 g/day) in 29 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most clinical and immunological variables: swollen joint count, physician's and patient's assessment, pain score and IgM rheumatoid factor, showed statistically significant improvement. Seven (24%) of the enrolled patients met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for a 20 percent improvement in measures of disease activity (ACR20) and 3 (10%) met those for ACR50. The CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes were increased significantly. Accordingly, the CD4/CD8 ratio was decreased; however, these changes did not show any clear correlation with clinical response. Two patients (7%) experienced some minor transient adverse events. In conclusion, Fun-boi is safe and showed beneficial effect in some patients for the treatment of the relatively mild RA seen in the patients studied. Further controlled studies are indicated. Clinicians should keep an open mind about possible benefits of these still incompletely studied herbal agents.

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of fluoxetine: A new potential pharmacological action for a classic antidepressant drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosso, María Emilia; Palumbo, María Laura; Genaro, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are frequently used antidepressants. In particular, fluoxetine is usually chosen for the treatment of the symptoms of depression, obsessive-compulsive, panic attack and bulimia nervosa. Antidepressant therapy has been associated with immune dysfunction. However, there is contradictory evidence about the effect of fluoxetine on the immune system. Experimental findings indicate that lymphocytes express the serotonin transporter. Moreover it has been shown that fluoxetine is able to modulate the immune function through a serotonin-dependent pathway and through a novel independent mechanism. In addition, several studies have shown that fluoxetine can alter tumor cell viability. Thus, it was recently demonstrated in vivo that chronic fluoxetine treatment inhibits tumor growth by increasing antitumor T-cell activity. Here we briefly review some of the literature referring to how fluoxetine is able to modify, for better or worse, the functionality of the immune system. These results of our analysis point to the relevance of the novel pharmacological action of this drug as an immunomodulator helping to treat several pathologies in which immune deficiency and/or deregulation is present.

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of selenosemicarbazides and selenium inorganic compounds, distribution in organs after selenium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, I; Koziol-Montewka, M; Toś-Luty, S; Pasternak, K; Latuszyńska, J; Tokarska, M; Kielczykowska, M

    1999-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of selenium producing a protective barrier against free radicals play an important role in numerous metabolic and immunologic processes associated with oxidation-reduction reactions which take place during intracellular digestion of phagocyted bacteria. The aim of our study was to examine the properties of an organic compound of selenium, 4-(o-tolilo)-selenosemicarbazide of p-chlorobenzoic acid in terms of its retention in organs, effect on erythropoesis and phagocytic abilities of neutrophiles as well as antioxidant properties in neutrophiles tested with NBT test. This compound as well as inorganic sodium selenate was given to Swiss mice at the dose of 10(-3) g Se/kg for the period of 10 days. The concentrations of selenium in livers of mice treated with sodium selenate and selenosemicarbazide were found to be higher than in controls (18.7 micrograms lg-1 and 23.2 micrograms lg-1 vs. 12 micrograms lg-1, respectively). Analysis of blood cells count has shown a significant decrease in neutrophile levels in both groups treated with selenium. The influence of selenium compounds on phagocytosis and especially NBT test has been determined (3.8% of positive cells in the controls vs. 2.2% and 0.9% in the groups treated with sodium selenate and selenosemicarbazide, respectively). Our preliminary investigations suggest that selenosemicarbazides are biologically active compounds and can modify neutrophile functions.

  7. Immunomodulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Molendijk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs to suppress immune responses combined with their potential to actively participate in tissue repair provides a strong rationale for the use of MSCs as a new treatment option in diseases characterized by inflammation and severe tissue damage, such as Crohn’s disease (CD and perianal fistulas. Multiple studies have shown that MSCs suppress a range of immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DC, naïve and effector T cells, and natural killer (NK cells. Recently published papers attribute the immunosuppressive capacity of MSCs to soluble factors produced by MSCs, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO. Promising results are obtained from phase I and II clinical trials with autologous and allogeneic MSCs as treatment for refractory CD and perianal fistulas; however the question remains: what are the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunomodulating properties of MSCs? This paper highlights the present knowledge on the immunosuppressive effects of MSCs and its complexity in relation to CD and perianal fistulas.

  8. THE IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS (PBMCS OF ALLERGIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaya M. El Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases represent major health burden. An allergic reaction is characterized by a disrupted T- helper 1⁄T-helper 2 balance toward a preferential allergen specifically induced TH2 cytokine profile, causing allergic inflammation Probiotic bacteria have various benificial effects in many pathologic situation. Studies have shown that the bacteria present in the intestinal micro flora play a role in the TH1/TH2 balance and its modulation can promote the control of infectious and immune processes. Testing the effects of probiotic bacteria on TH1/TH2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic patients and control subjects. This study included 24 patients allergic to date pollen and 16 healthy control subjects. PBMC of both groups were separated and cultured for 72 h with date pollen allergen (home-made in the presence or absence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 (Living and dead and C- phycocyanin (extracted from Spirulina platensis. The cell culture supernatants were collected to measure Interlukin 4 and Interferon gamma by quantitative ELISA. Incubation of PBMCs of allergic patients with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 showed marked reduction in IL4 production (median IL4 concentarion = 3.9 pg. compared to PBMCs callenged with pollen alone (mediam IL4 conentration = 52.6 pg. When PBMC were incubated with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus in absence of allergen significant increase in and IFNγ (median concentration = 42.75 pg. was obtained, compared to PBMC challenged with allergen alone (median = 22.8 pg. When PBMCs incubated with heat killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus either in presence or absence of the offending allergen, marked reduction in IL4 production was obtained (median = 10.6, 3.6 pg respectively compared to PBMC incubated with allergen alone (median = 52.6 pg. When PBMCs incubated with dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus, marked increase in IFNγ production

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of sodium alginate enriched diet in kelp grouper Epinephelus brneus against Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Jang, Ik-Soo; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-02-01

    The effect of diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ following challenge with Streptococcus iniae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus were assessed with reference to survival rate and innate immune parameters such as alternative complement, lysozyme, natural haemagglutination, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase, and phagocytic activities on week 1, 2, and 4. Fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ after being challenged with S. iniae had higher survival rates of 75% and 60%, respectively than those fed with control diet (0 g kg⁻¹). With any enriched diet the percentage of macrophages significantly decreased from week 1-4, while the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes significantly increased. The alternate complement activity, natural haemagglutination, and phagocytic activities of infected fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ on week 2 and 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ diets on week 4 were significantly higher when compared to the control. The lysozyme, respiratory bursts, and superoxide dismutase activities of fish fed with enriched diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly increased on week 2 and 4. We therefore recommend that at 1.0 or 2.0 g kg⁻¹ dietary administration of sodium alginate can enhance innate immunity and disease resistance in kelp grouper against S. iniae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunomodulatory effects of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 on allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Pang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hygiene hypothesis demonstrates that the lack of microbial exposure would promote the development of allergic airway disease (AAD. Therefore, the gut microbiota, including Escherichia coli (E. coli, would probably offer a potential strategy for AAD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether E. coli infection is able to suppress the induction of AAD and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Nonpathogenic E. coli ATCC 25922 was infected by gavage before AAD phase in three patterns: 10(8 or 10(6 CFU in neonates or 10(8 CFU in adults. Then mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA to induce allergic inflammation in both the upper and lower airways. Hallmarks of AAD, in terms of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, Th2 skewing of the immune response, and levels of T regulate cells (Tregs, were examined by histological analysis, ELISA, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: E. coli, especially neonatally infected with an optimal dose, attenuated allergic responses, including a decrease in nasal rubbing and sneezing, a reduction in eosinophil inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, decreased serum levels of OVA-specific IgE, and reduced Th2 (IL-4 cytokines. In contrast, this effect came with an increase of Th1 (IFN-r and IL-2 cytokines, and an enhancement of IL-10-secreting Tregs in paratracheal lymph nodes (PTLN. CONCLUSION: E. coli suppresses allergic responses in mice, probably via a shift from Th1 to Th2 and/or induction of Tregs. Moreover, this infection is age- and dose-dependent, which may open up novel possibilities for new therapeutic interventions.

  11. Making social robots more attractive: the effects of voice pitch, humor and empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niculescu, Andreea; Dijk, van Betsy; Nijholt, Anton; Li, Haizhou; See, Swan Lan; Ge, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore how simple auditory/verbal features of the spoken language, such as voice characteristics (pitch) and language cues (empathy/humor expression) influence the quality of interaction with a social robot receptionist. For our experiment two robot characters were created: Olivia,

  12. Complications of Immunosuppressive/Immunomodulatory Therapy in Neurological Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Avindra

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement The first critical step in the appropriate treatment of neurological infectious disease accompanying immunosuppressive states or immunomodulatory medication is to properly identify the offending organism. Broadly immunosuppressive conditions will predispose to both common and uncommon infectious diseases. There are substantial differences between neurological infectious disorders complicating disturbances of the innate immunity (neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages) and those due to abnormal adaptive immunity (humoral and cellular immunity). Similarly, there are differences in the types of infections with impaired humoral immunity compared to disturbed cellular immunity and between T- and B-cell disorders. HIV/AIDS has been a model of acquired immunosuppression and the nature of opportunistic infections with which it has been associated has been well characterized and generally correlates well with the degree of CD4 lymphopenia. Increasingly, immunotherapies target specific components of the immune system, such as an adhesion molecule or its ligand or surface receptors on a special class of cells. These targeted perturbations of the immune system increase the risk of particular infectious diseases. For instance, natalizumab, an α4β1 integrin inhibitor that is highly effective in multiple sclerosis, increases the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy for reasons that still remain unclear. It is likely that other therapies that result in a disruption of a specific component of the immune system will be associated with other unique opportunistic infections. The risk of multiple simultaneous neurological infections in the immunosuppressed host must always be considered, particularly with a failure to respond to a therapeutic regimen. With respect to appropriate and effective therapy, diagnostic accuracy assumes primacy, but occasionally broad spectrum therapy is necessitated. For a number of opportunistic infectious disorders

  13. In-vitrostudy:Immunomodulatory and cytotoxicity effects of ethanolic leave extracts ofAegle marmelos andFicus benghalensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winnyfred Crossia; Hans-Uwe Dahms; Krishnan Muthukumar; Thanamegam Kaviarasan; Thiyagarajan Thirunalasundari; Rathinam Arthur James

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of the coastal trees Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos) andFicus benghalensis (F. benghalensis) byin-vitro methods. Methods:A. marmelos andF. benghalensis leaves were extracted with the solvents di-ethyl ether, ethanol and methanol. The extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and immunomodulatory activity against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), respectively. Results:F. benghalensis ethanol cold extract gave maximum inhibition zones against Escherichia coliNCIM 2931 (B2) at 18 mm and enhanced the growth of humanPBMC. It was non-toxic to humanPBMC shown by the Tryphan blue dye exclusion method, sulforhodamine B andMTT assays. IR phyto-chemical analysis demonstrated the presence of the functional groups: NH, CH2, CH3, CO, OH, -C-C=O, and C-S. We confirmed the presence of quantifiable amounts of tannins and alkaloids with traces of phenolic compounds by thin layer chromatography analysis. Conclusions: Leaves ofA. marmelos andF. benghalensis provide both antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties.

  14. The Effect of IVIG on Superoxide Generation in Primary Humoral Immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Sezgin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary antibody deficiency (common variable immunodeficiency, Hyper IgM, X-linked agammaglobulinemia and selective Ig A deficiency is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by defective antibody production. In primary hypogammaglobulinemias, particularly in patients with common variable immunodeficiency there is an increased generation of reactive oxygen species from monocytes which may be important for both immunopathogenesis and clinical manifestations. The generation of toxic oxygen metabolites may contribute to inflammation and tissue damage associated with phagocytic infiltration, and play role in the pathogenesis of malignancies, autoimmune disorders, acute and chronic pulmonary diseases seen in these patients. In primary immunodeficiencies and functional antibody deficiencies, IVIG act as replacement therapy and several mechanisms of IVIG action have been postulated. In vitro studies with human granulocytes showed stimulation of respiratory burst and promotion of bacterial killing by IVIG. In adult patients with primary humoral immunodeficiency, treated with IVIG showed that IVIG does not affect superoxide generation. We investigated superoxide generation from PMNL in 35 children with hyper IgM syndrome, XLA, CVID and IgA deficiency and 13 healthy children. We also explored the effect of IVIG administration on superoxide generation from granulocytes, white cell count, absolute neutrophil count, absolute lymphocyte count and quantitative CRP levels. There was a substantial increase in superoxide generation from PMNL in patients with XLA, CVID and IgA deficiency. Comparison of the superoxide generation before, 24 hours and one week after IVIG treatment showed no difference. In patients with CVID, quantitative CRP levels before and 24 hours after IVIG revealed significant difference. Other parameters were not changed. It can be concluded that enhanced superoxide generation in patients with XLA, CVID, Ig A deficiency may result from

  15. Effect of Different Levels of Zinc on the Performance and Humoral Immunity Response in Broiler Chicken

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    S Sharbatdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the highest and the lowest weight gain, respectively (P0.05. In connection with feed conversion ratio, the highest and the lowest means belonged to the treatments containing 40 and 120 mg Zn/kg respectively (P0.05. Regarding Bronchitis antibody titer in 13th and 19th days, the lowest titer belonged to the birds on the control and 40 mg Zn/kg and the highest titer belonged to the birds fed with 160 mg Zn/kg. The difference between this treatment and the others was significant (P0.05. In secondary SRBC at 36 days of age the best and the lowest titer were shown by 40 mg Zn/kg and 160 mg Zn/kg of diet, respectively(P0.05. Finally, the results indicated that addition of 120 mg Zn/kg, of diet improved weight gain and feed conversion ration. The levels of 40 and 160 mg Zn/kg of diet showed the highest immunity response against SRBC and Bronchitis respectively.

  16. The immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D in chickens is dose-dependent and influenced by calcium and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Yitbarek, A; Cuperus, T; Echeverry, H; van Dijk, A

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D requirement is estimated to be higher than recommended values for the first two weeks of a broiler chicken's life, and is heavily dependent on the concentrations of Ca and P in the diet. There are data indicating the beneficial effect of higher vitamin D levels on performance and overall health of the chickens. However, data on the role of higher vitamin D levels on the innate immune response of chickens are limited. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of higher doses of vitamin D supplementation on the innate immune response in broiler chickens receiving optimal or calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) deficient diets. Three hundred Ross-308 male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 60 cages with 5 birds per cage in a 3 × 2 factorial design with three levels of vitamin D and two levels of Ca/P with each experimental diet fed to 10 cages (10 replicates). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (n = 5) was used to assess Toll-like receptor (TLR2b and 4), cytokine/chemokine (IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4, IL-13, IL-18, CxCLi2) and cathelicidin (CATH1, CATHB1, CATH3) transcription levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), spleen, and bursa of Fabricius. Vitamin D supplementation of the Ca and P deficient diet considerably augmented transcription of TLR2b, TLR4, CATH1, and CATHB1 and predominantly Th2 cytokines in spleen. Supplementation of the control diet with vitamin D downregulated TLR4 transcription, and dose-dependently increased CATH1, CATHB1, Th1, and Th2 cytokine transcription (Th2>Th1). All diets downregulated CATH3 transcription. In conclusion, vitamin D or its derivative 25-OH-D3 both have a robust immunomodulatory property with a more favorable Th2 response, while at the same time enhancing observed Th2 cytokine responses under both optimal and lower Ca and P inclusion levels in the diets of broiler chickens.

  17. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. Dad13 on Humoral Immune Response of Balb/C Mice Infected with Salmonella typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Dyah Kusumawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An indigenous strain of lactic acid bacterium (LAB identified as Lactobacillus spp. Dad13 (Dad13, isolatedfrom traditional fermented buffalo milk, was found to be potential as probiotic. The aim of this research was to studythe effect of probiotic Dad13 on humoral immune response of Balb/C mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium. Thespecific objective was to find out the effect of different Dad13 consumption time (before and along with infection of S.typhimurium on the humoral immune response of Balb/C mice. The experiment was conducted by in vivo trial on 20males of Balb/C mice, age of 6-8 weeks, fed with AIN-93 standard diet. The mice were assigned into 4 groups. Eachgroup received the following treatments, ie. Dad13 only, Dad13 before infection, Dad13 along with infection andSalmonella infection only. A volume of 100 μl Dad13 cell suspensions (1010 CFU/ml were given by oral forced feedingdaily for a week, at week 3 for group before infection and at week 4 for group of Dad13 only and Dad13 along withinfection. Salmonella infection (109 CFU/ml was given once orally at week 4 to all groups except group treated withDad13 only. The humoral immune response of Balb/C mice was detected 2 weeks after infection by measuring thetiters of IgG and IgA specific from serum and mucosal intestinal liquid samples using Enzyme-linked ImmunosorbentAssay (ELISA method. The result indicated that humoral immune response of Balb/C mice consuming Dad13 beforeand along with Salmonella infection were significantly different (p<0.05. Dad13 consumption along with Salmonellainfection increased circulated IgG and IgA as well as secretory IgA. It can be concluded that Dad13 probiotic feedingalong with infection increased humoral immune response more significantly compared to that before infection.Key words : Probiotic, Lactobacillus sp. Dad13, Immune response, Salmonella typhimurium

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from homologous recipients in rats after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-zhong LIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the immunomodulatory effects of homologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs obtained from the bone marrow in rats after heart transplantation. Methods Twenty adult male Lewis rats were used as donors for the heart transplantation, whereas twenty adult male Wistar rats served as recipients. The recipients with cervical heart transplantation were randomly divided into two groups (10 each. Approximately 3ml 0.9% NaCl solution was injected through the tail vein 24h after heart transplantation in the control group (group A. About 2×106 MSCs (suspended in 3ml 0.9% NaCl solution were injected through the tail vein 24h after heart transplantation in the MSCs treatment group (group B. Four recipient rats from each group were randomly chosen one week after transplantation for determining proportion of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, CD4+CD25high T, and CD4+CD25highfoxp3+ T cells in the lymphocytes in the venous blood and grafts. Subsequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was calculated. The survival time of the grafts were observed in the remaining six rats in each group. Results (1The survival time of the transplanted hearts was 7.2±1.3d in group A, and 14.8±2.9d in group B, showing a significant difference between the two groups (P 0.05. The ratios of CD4+CD25high T cells/total lymphocytes and CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ T cells/ total lymphocytes in the allografts were evidently higher in group B (2.74%±0.28%, 2.54%±0.31% than in group A (0.61%±0.06%, 0.53%±0.06%, showing a significant statistical difference (P < 0.01. Conclusion Intravenous infusion with MSCs from the bone marrow of the recipients can induce immune tolerance and prolong the survival time of transplanted heart in rats.

  19. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  20. The gender-differentiated antioxidant effects of a lutein-containing supplement in the aqueous humor of patients with senile cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Rijo; Hayashi, Shimmin; Arai, Kiyomi; Sakai, Miki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant supplements are expected to decrease oxidative damage and prevent ocular diseases. In this study, changes in the anti-oxidative ability and oxidative status in the aqueous humor before and after intake of a lutein-containing supplement were measured. Forty patients who all had identical grades of cataracts in both eyes were included. The aqueous humor was collected as pre-intake samples during cataract surgery. Ocuvite + Lutein(Ⓡ), an antioxidant supplement, was administered orally beginning the day after surgery. Six weeks later, the aqueous humor was collected as a post-intake sample during cataract surgery of the opposite eye. To determine the anti-oxidative ability, the levels of superoxide (O2(*-)) scavenging activity were measured. To determine the oxidative status, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and total amount of hydroperoxides (TH, including H2O2 and peroxides of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) were measured. In post-intake samples, the O2(*-) scavenging activities were significantly higher in both genders (p humor in females only (r = 0.66 and p humor to prevent further oxidation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, which was confirmed by the low levels of TH in post-intake samples. Antioxidant supplements are suggested to be effective in reducing oxidation in the aqueous humor by different mechanisms in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse messages: are humorous responsible drinking campaign messages effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse advertisements. The authors conducted a posttest-only control group experiment with 91 teenagers and college-aged participants. For underage moderate drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans (e.g., "Don't drink") increased participants' perceived risk of excessive drinking and increased a level of intention to change their drinking behavior. However, for underage binge drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans lowered participants' risk perception of excessive drinking and intention to change their drinking behavior.

  2. Alphavirus replicon particles expressing TRP-2 provide potent therapeutic effect on melanoma through activation of humoral and cellular immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Avogadri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and is refractory to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore alternative approaches to treat this disease, such as immunotherapy, are needed. Melanoma vaccine design has mainly focused on targeting CD8+ T cells. Activation of effector CD8+ T cells has been achieved in patients, but provided limited clinical benefit, due to immune-escape mechanisms established by advanced tumors. We have previously shown that alphavirus-based virus-like replicon particles (VRP simultaneously activate strong cellular and humoral immunity against the weakly immunogenic melanoma differentiation antigen (MDA tyrosinase. Here we further investigate the antitumor effect and the immune mechanisms of VRP encoding different MDAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VRP encoding different MDAs were screened for their ability to prevent the growth of the B16 mouse transplantable melanoma. The immunologic mechanisms of efficacy were investigated for the most effective vaccine identified, focusing on CD8+ T cells and humoral responses. To this end, ex vivo immune assays and transgenic mice lacking specific immune effector functions were used. The studies identified a potent therapeutic VRP vaccine, encoding tyrosinase related protein 2 (TRP-2, which provided a durable anti-tumor effect. The efficacy of VRP-TRP2 relies on a novel immune mechanism of action requiring the activation of both IgG and CD8+ T cell effector responses, and depends on signaling through activating Fcγ receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies a VRP-based vaccine able to elicit humoral immunity against TRP-2, which plays a role in melanoma immunotherapy and synergizes with tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These findings will aid in the rational design of future immunotherapy clinical trials.

  3. Alphavirus replicon particles expressing TRP-2 provide potent therapeutic effect on melanoma through activation of humoral and cellular immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogadri, Francesca; Merghoub, Taha; Maughan, Maureen F; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Morris, John; Ritter, Erika; Olmsted, Robert; Houghton, Alan N; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2010-09-10

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and is refractory to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore alternative approaches to treat this disease, such as immunotherapy, are needed. Melanoma vaccine design has mainly focused on targeting CD8+ T cells. Activation of effector CD8+ T cells has been achieved in patients, but provided limited clinical benefit, due to immune-escape mechanisms established by advanced tumors. We have previously shown that alphavirus-based virus-like replicon particles (VRP) simultaneously activate strong cellular and humoral immunity against the weakly immunogenic melanoma differentiation antigen (MDA) tyrosinase. Here we further investigate the antitumor effect and the immune mechanisms of VRP encoding different MDAs. VRP encoding different MDAs were screened for their ability to prevent the growth of the B16 mouse transplantable melanoma. The immunologic mechanisms of efficacy were investigated for the most effective vaccine identified, focusing on CD8+ T cells and humoral responses. To this end, ex vivo immune assays and transgenic mice lacking specific immune effector functions were used. The studies identified a potent therapeutic VRP vaccine, encoding tyrosinase related protein 2 (TRP-2), which provided a durable anti-tumor effect. The efficacy of VRP-TRP2 relies on a novel immune mechanism of action requiring the activation of both IgG and CD8+ T cell effector responses, and depends on signaling through activating Fcγ receptors. This study identifies a VRP-based vaccine able to elicit humoral immunity against TRP-2, which plays a role in melanoma immunotherapy and synergizes with tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These findings will aid in the rational design of future immunotherapy clinical trials.

  4. Extraction of β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Comparison of different extraction methods and in vivo assessment of immunomodulatory effect in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat PENGKUMSRI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-glucan (BG is a conserved cell wall components of bacteria, fungi, and yeast. BG is an immunomodulator and stimulates the host immune system. This study was performed to screen Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with high BG, extraction of BG using different chemical extraction methods, composition analysis of BG, and evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of high-quality BG using mice model. Ten yeast strains were screened for high BG content using total glucan extraction kit and were subjected to FT-IR analysis. The kit based extraction revealed that HII31 showed a high content of total glucan and BG. HII31 cells were subjected to four different acid/base extractions, which indicated that combination of a strong base (NaOH and weak acid (CH3COOH extraction recovered high BG and a high ratio of polysaccharide, protein, and lipid. Further, the immunomodulatory effect of the selected BG was evaluated using mice, which suggested that low dose of HII31-BG induces the expression of selected pro-inflammatory (IL-17, IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 significantly, whereas relatively high dose was required to alter the IL-6 and TGF-β expression. Overall, the present study revealed that BG extracted from HII31 cells alters the expression of studied cytokines, which can be used as a potent immunomodulator in pharmaceutical products.

  5. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003).

  6. The Immunomodulatory Effect of Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Expression of TLR3 and TLR9 in Mice Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, L.; Karimi, M. H.; Kamali-Sarvestani, E.; Azarpira, N.; Shariati, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with immunomodulatory effect on immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APC). MSCs have been found to modulate both differentiation and function of DCs. DCs express a broad range of Toll-like receptors (TLR), which play a critical role in DCs maturation and function. Objective: To evaluate expression level of TLR3 and TLR9 transcripts in DCs following treatment with MSCs supernatant. Methods: MSCs and DCs were derived from adult BALB/c mice bone marrow and spleen, respectively. MSCs supernatant was harvested following 24, 48, and 72 hours. Isolated DCs were treated with MSCs supernatant and incubated for 24 and 48 hours. TLR3 and TLR9 transcript levels were evaluated using real-time PCR. Results: The results showed that 48 and 72 hours MSCs supernatant significantly decreased the expression of TLR3 in DCs following 24 and 48 hours incubation in comparison with untreated cells (p<0.01). Moreover, 48 hours of treatment with 24, 48 and 72 hours MSCs supernatant significantly decreased TLR9 transcript level (p<0.05). Conclusion: TLR3 and TLR9 mRNA expression decreases in DCs after incubation with MSCs culture supernatant. This confirms the immunomodulatory role of MSCs in cell-base therapy. PMID:28299026

  7. Humor og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Inger

    1998-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker.......I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker....

  8. Can Computers Create Humor?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Graeme; University of Aberdeen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that AI has always been adventurous in trying to elucidate complex aspects of human behaviour, only recently has there been research into computational modelling of humor. One obstacle to progress is the lack of a precise and detailed theory of how humor operates. Nevertheless, since the early 1990s, there have been a number of small programs that create simple verbal humor, and more recently there have been studies of the automatic classification of the humorous status of te...

  9. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  10. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  11. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  12. Effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors. [Rats, radiation effects on blood cell production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E P; Carsten, A L; Cohen, R; Miller, M E; Moccia, G

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors using the in vivo plasma clot diffusion chamber and the in vitro plasma clot culture methods. Plasma erythropoietin levels changes in the reticulocyte concentration and hematocrits of irradiated and non-irradiated Long-Evans rats exposed to hypoxia were also determined. While erythropoietin plasma levels appeared to effect BFU-E and CFU-E growth, results suggest erythropoietin may not be the sole regulator of red cell production and that inhibitors or chalone-like mechanisms may be involved. Measurements made on granulocyte precursors treated with CSF containing L-cell conditioned medium revealed granulocytic colonies and burst-like formations, similar to those seen for erythrocytic growth. There is strong evidence suggesting that CSF is a regulator of granulopoiesis; however, it is not the sole regulator and it appears that inhibitors may play an in vivo role. Growth of colonies with cell numbers not a power of 2 implies either asymmetric nitosis due to loss of genetic information required for continuing division, or differences in concentration of, or ability to recognize inhibitory factors. These possibilities are examined on the basis of results using in vivo and in vitro culture techniques.

  13. Science Letters: Effects of dietary supplementation with Clostridium butyricum on the growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichthys miiuy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zeng-fu; WU Tian-xing; CAI Li-sheng; ZHANG Li-jing; ZHENG Xiao-dong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with Clostridium butyricum on growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichthys miiuy were evaluated. One hundred and fifty Miichthys miiuy weighing approximately 200~260 g were divided into five groups and reared in 15 tanks with closed circuiting culture system. The animals were fed 5 diets: basal diet only (control) or supplemented of the basal diet with C. butyricum at doses of 103 (CB1), l05 (CB2), 107 (CB3) or 109 (CB4) CFU/g.Compared with the control, the serum phenoloxidase activity was significantly increased by the supplementation (P<0.05), acid phosphatases activity was increased significantly (P<0.05) at the doses of 109 CFU/g. Serum lysozyme activity peaked at dose of 107 CFU/g and in the skin mucus at dose of 109 CFU/g. Immunoglobulin M level in the serum and skin mucus was increased except at dose of 103 CFU/g (P<0.05). The growth at the dose of 109 CFU/g was higher than that of the control (P<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation ofC. butyricum can mediate the humoral immune responses and improve the growth performance in Miichthys miiuy.

  14. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Prebiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Humoral Immunity Responses and Egg Hatchability in Broiler Breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajati H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the influence of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation in the broiler breeder diets on body weight, mortality, feed intake, egg production, hatchability and humoral immunity response was investigated. A total number of 13140 female and 1260 male breeders (Cobb 500 with 26 wks of age were allocated to three treatments with six replicates (800 birds each replicate. Breeders were fed control basal diet, basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide or probiotic (Protexin® for 17 weeks. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured weekly during 26-40 wks of age. The hatchability of eggs was recorded on weeks 38, 39, and 40. Antibody production was recorded after 8 wks of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation. Prebiotic supplementation did not affect feed intake, the percentages of egg production and settable eggs percents. Prebiotic increased egg hatchability and reduced the percentages of infertile eggs, as well as dead embryo-in-shells. Antibody titers against influenza and reovirus were higher in prebiotic fed group, but there were no significant differences among the other blood antibody titers. Probiotic had no significant effect on the considered parameters. In conclusion, findings of present study showed that prebiotic improved egg hatchability and humoral immunity of broiler breeders.

  15. Effects of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tiamulin and tulathromycin on pig humoral immune responses induced by erysipelas vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Kwit, K; Wierzchosławski, K; Dors, A; Pejsak, Z

    2016-05-28

    It addition to their antimicrobial properties, antibiotics can influence the host immune system (modulation of cytokine secretion, antibody production and T-cell proliferation). In the present study, the authors studied the effects of therapeutic doses of amoxicillin (AMX), ceftiofur (CEF), doxycycline (DOXY), tiamulin (TIAM) and tulathromycin (TUL) on the postvaccinal immune response after pigs had been vaccinated against erysipelas. Because humoral immunity is considered as the most important in the protection against swine erysipelas, the present study focused on the interactions between antibiotics and postvaccinal humoral immunity. One hundred and five, eight-week-old pigs of both sexes were used. Specific antibodies to the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antigen were determined using a commercial ELISA test. In pigs treated with DOXY or CEF or TIAM, a significant reduction in the number of positive pigs was observed four and six weeks after the second dose of vaccine, compared with the remaining vaccinated groups. In pigs treated with CEF, the ELISA score was significantly lower than in non-treated vaccinated pigs. While in vaccinated pigs treated with AMX or TUL, the ELISA score was significantly higher than in pigs treated with the remaining antibiotics and than in non-treated vaccinated controls. The results of the present study indicate that vaccination of pigs against erysipelas in the presence of antibiotics may result in a decrease (CEF, DOXY, TIAM) or enhancement (AMX, TUL) in the production of specific antibodies. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Preliminary study to characterize differences in potential immunomodulatory effects of cyclosporine A using BALB/c and ICR mouse splenocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Mariño

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine A (CsA is widely used as an immunosuppressant for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and immune regulation in transplant patients. Due to its wide applicability, studies of unwanted side effects of CsA are imperative. It has been found that not all patients treated with CsA display the same types/patterns of adverse effects. To ascertain the bases for these differential responses, potential differing effects of CsA on B-lymphocytes were analyzed. This entailed an assessment of changes in CsA viability and mitotic activity within splenocyte populations from BALB/c and ICR mice. These particular strains were examined because: (1 in each of them, previously have been shown that differed in the respond to biological response modifiers, such as bacterial agents, and/or immunogens; (2 our own earlier studies showing strain-associated differences in ex vivo splenocyte/lymphocyte responses to other drug; and, (3 a potential immunomodulatory effect of any agent should be studied in at least two different strains during a broad toxicological evaluation. Splenocytes from each strain were treated with 200 μg/mL CsA, and CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ cell viabilities were monitored at various time points during the exposure period. In general, there appeared to be a trend toward greater decreases in viability among BALB/c B-lymphocytes than their ICR counterparts as incubation progressed. Differences related with T-lymphocyte sensitivity to drug associated to strains was not observed, because it was uniformly lethal throughout. With regard to mitotic activity, cells from ICR mice were more susceptible to inhibition of spontaneous cell division at low concentrations of CsA (relative to the rates of blastogenesis by BALB/c counterparts. At higher concentrations of the drug however, there were no differences in the sensitivity of each strain. This work provides new insight into the mechanism of action of CsA and illustrates the need for at least two

  17. Successful ingredients in the SMILE study: resident, staff, and management factors influence the effects of humor therapy in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Low, Lee-Fay; Liu, Zhixin; Fletcher, Jennifer; Roast, Joel; Goodenough, Belinda; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that individual and institutional-level factors influence the effects of a humor therapy intervention on aged care residents. Data were from the humor therapy group of the Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns, or SMILE, study, a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of humor therapy conducted over 12 weeks; assessments were performed at baseline, week 13, and week 26. One hundred eighty-nine individuals from 17 Sydney residential aged care facilities were randomly allocated to the humor therapy intervention. Professional performers called "ElderClowns" provided 9-12 weekly humor therapy 2-hour sessions, augmented by trained staff, called "LaughterBosses." Outcome measures were as follows: Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the withdrawal subscale of Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, and proxy-rated quality of life in dementia population scale. Facility-level measures were as follows: support of the management for the intervention, commitment levels of LaughterBosses, Environmental Audit Tool scores, and facility level of care provided (high/low). Resident-level measures were engagement, functional ability, disease severity, and time-in-care. Multilevel path analyses simultaneously modeled resident engagement at the individual level (repeated measures) and the effects of management support and staff commitment to humor therapy at the cluster level. Models indicated flow-on effects, whereby management support had positive effects on LaughterBoss commitment, and LaughterBoss commitment increased resident engagement. Higher resident engagement was associated with reduced depression, agitation, and neuropsychiatric scores. Effectiveness of psychosocial programs in residential aged care can be enhanced by management support, staff commitment, and active resident engagement. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  18. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  19. Effects of Electro-acupuncture on T Cell Subpopulations, NK Activity,Humoral Immunity and Leukocyte Count in Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Fang; Liu Deshan; Wang Shuli; Xu Lan; Wang Xinzhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of electro-acupuncture on T cell subpopulations, natural killer cell (NK)activity, humoral immunity and leukocyte count in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods:Electro-acupuncture was added for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Tests were done on T cell subpopulations, NK activity, humoral immunity and leukocyte count before treatment and after 4 courses of treatment. Results: After 4 courses of treatment with chemotherapy and electro-acupuncture, no obvious changes were found in T cell subpopulations, NK activity, humoral immunity and leukocyte count (P > 0.05) as compared with those before treatment. Patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with electro-acupuncture showed obviously higher leukocyte count than that of the control group given no leukogenic drugs (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Electro-acupuncture may reduce immunologic damage caused by chemotherapy, thus it can be used as the auxiliary therapy for patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  20. Ascorbic acid has superior ex vivo antiproliferative, cell death-inducing and immunomodulatory effects over IFN-α in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy.

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    Britta Moens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clear therapeutic guidelines for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP are missing due to the lack of randomized double-blind controlled clinical trials. Moderate yet similar clinical benefit has been demonstrated for IFN-α and high-dose ascorbic acid (AA monotherapy in a large open clinical trial. However, there is a lack of in vivo and in vitro studies exploring and comparing the effects of high-dose AA and IFN-α treatment in the context of HAM/TSP. Therefore, we performed the first comparative analysis of the ex vivo and in vitro molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of IFN-α and high-dose AA in HAM/TSP. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through thymidine incorporation and quantification of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, we demonstrate that high-dose AA displays differential and superior antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects over IFN-α in HAM/TSP PBMCs ex vivo. In addition, high-dose AA, but not IFN-α, induced cell death in both HAM/TSP PBMCs and HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines MT-2 and MT-4. Microarray data combined with pathway analysis of MT-2 cells revealed AA-induced regulation of genes associated with cell death, including miR-155. Since miR-155 has recently been demonstrated to up-regulate IFN-γ, this microRNA might represent a novel therapeutic target in HAM/TSP, as recently demonstrated in multiple sclerosis, another neuroinflammatory disease. On the other hand, IFN-α selectively up-regulated antiviral and immune-related genes. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to IFN-α, high-dose AA treatment has superior ex vivo and in vitro cell death-inducing, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory anti-HTLV-1 effects. Differential pathway activation by both drugs opens up avenues for targeted treatment in specific patient subsets.

  1. Humor and Laughter May Influence Health IV. Humor and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the final article in a four part series reviewing the influence of humor and laughter on physiological and psychological well-being. This final article reviews the evidence for the effect of sense of humor, exposure to a humor stimulus and laughter on various immune system components, with a focus on the effects of laughter on natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

  2. A Study on Intertextuality in Verbal Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks about how intertextuality and its concerned theories can be well applied to the study of humor.Through analysis of specific samples,the paper finds parody,verbal irony and text allusions are effective intertextual means to produce and understand verbal humor.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of tulathromycin on apoptosis, efferocytosis, and proinflammatory leukotriene B4 production in leukocytes from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-or zymosan-challenged pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Stephanie C; Fischer, Carrie D; Williams, Alison C; Sajedy, Saman; Feener, Troy D; Bhargava, Amol; Reti, Kristen L; Muench, Gregory P; Morck, Douglas W; Allison, Jim; Lucas, Merlyn J; Buret, Andre G

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of tulathromycin in vitro and in experimental models of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-induced pleuropneumonia and zymosan-induced pulmonary inflammation in pigs. Blood samples from six 8- to 30-week-old healthy male pigs for the in vitro experiment and sixty-five 3-week-old specific pathogen-free pigs. Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from blood samples. Isolated cells were exposed to tulathromycin (0.02 to 2.0 mg/mL) for various durations and assessed for markers of apoptosis and efferocytosis. For in vivo experiments, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with A pleuropneumoniae, zymosan, or PBS solution (control group) with or without tulathromycin pretreatment (2.5 mg/kg, IM). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected 3 and 24 hours after inoculation and analyzed for proinflammatory mediators, leukocyte apoptosis, and efferocytosis. In vitro, tulathromycin induced time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis in neutrophils, which enhanced their subsequent clearance by macrophages. In the lungs of both A pleuropneumoniae- and zymosan-challenged pigs, tulathromycin promoted leukocyte apoptosis and efferocytosis and inhibited proinflammatory leukotriene B4 production, with a concurrent reduction in leukocyte necrosis relative to that of control pigs. Tulathromycin also attenuated the degree of lung damage and lesion progression in A pleuropneumoniae-inoculated pigs. Tulathromycin had immunomodulatory effects in leukocytes in vitro and anti-inflammatory effects in pigs in experimental models of A pleuropneumoniae infection and nonmicrobial-induced pulmonary inflammation. These data suggested that in addition to its antimicrobial properties, tulathromycin may dampen severe proinflammatory responses and drive resolution of inflammation in pigs with microbial pulmonary infections.

  4. Safety and immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants in healthy adults: SETOPROB study.

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    Julio Plaza-Diaz

    Full Text Available We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers' feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543.

  5. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Organic Extract of the Red Sea Marine Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria against Carrageenan Induced Rat Paw Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagla A El-Shitany

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are found to be a rich source of bioactive compounds which show a wide range of biological activities including antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulator effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. The chemical composition of the Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS analysis. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl was measured to assess the antioxidant activity of the sponge extract. Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was adopted in this study. Six groups of rats were used: group1: Control, group 2: Carrageenan, group 3: indomethacin (10 mg/kg, group 4-6: Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity was performed by both calculating the percentage increase in paw weight and hisopathologically. Assessment of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity was performed. GC-MS analysis revealed that there were 41 different compounds present in the methanolic extract. Sponge extract exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals. Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (100 mg/kg significantly decreased % increase in paw weight measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan injection. Histopathologically, the extract caused a marked decrease in the capillary congestion and inflammatory cells infiltrate. The extract decreased paw malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO and increased the reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT activity. It also decreased the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1 β(IL-1β and IL-6. The results of this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic extract of the Red

  6. Cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory effects of sol-gel combustion based titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of large surface area on RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Palani; Suresh Yadav, C; Kannadasan, Sathanandhan; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2017-09-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory effects of sol-gel combustion based TiO2 particles (glycine and l-alanine as reducing agents) of large surface area on RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages exposed to varying concentrations of TiO2 particles (0.001 to 1000μg/ml) were assessed after 24h and showed a reduced cell viability at 100 and 1000μg/ml and increased LDH release at 10μg/ml. Furthermore, TiO2 particles (0.1, 1 and 10μg/ml) were utilized to assess the immune responses and intracellular ROS levels on RAW 264.7 macrophages. TiO2 particles at 10μg/ml showed increased mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6), inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2) and transcription factor (NFκB) similar to that of LPS stimulated macrophages. However, the mRNA expression levels were found near normal levels at lower concentrations (0.1 and 1μg/ml). In addition, TiO2 particles at 10μg/ml also increased the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6) and intracellular ROS levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages similar to that of LPS stimulated macrophages. Conclusively, TiO2 particles prepared through this method at a concentration≤0.1μg/ml can be used for various biological applications with minimal immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Immunomodulatory effects of adult Haemonchus contortus excretory/secretory products on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Z U; Knight, J S; Koolaard, J; Simpson, H V; Pernthaner, A

    2015-12-01

    The levels of expression of surface molecules and release of cytokines and chemokines of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were determined after their exposure to adult H. contortus excretory/secretory (ES) products or a combination of ES products and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Worm products provoked a weak response and only partial maturation of the dendritic cells, consistent with the hyporesponsiveness and more tolerogenic immune environment present in parasitized animals and humans. Co-stimulation with LPS demonstrated that H. contortus secretions, like those of other helminths, contain immunomodulators capable of reducing some aspects of the strong T(H)1/T(H)2 response evoked by bacterial LPS. There were significant reductions in the release of some cytokine/chemokines by LPS-stimulated mdDCs and a trend (although not significant at P < 0.05) for reduced expression levels of CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR. A prominent feature was the variability in responses of dendritic cells from the four donors, even on different days in repeat experiments, suggesting that generalized conclusions may be difficult to make, except in genetically related animals. Such observations may therefore be applicable only to restricted populations. In addition, previous exposure to parasites in a target population for immunomodulatory therapy may be an important factor in assessing the likelihood of adverse reactions or failures in the treatment to worm therapy.

  8. Semantic Perspective:Verbal Humor in Chinese Cross Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the verbal humor in Guo Degang’s cross talk from semantic perspective. The focus is to illus-trate the generating process and the mechanism of verbal humor. Three aspects of semantics which produce humorous effect, morpheme absorption, ambiguity, and script opposition will be discussed. Finally, it is found out that script opposition can take place of morpheme absorption, ambiguity to explain how humor is caused fundamentally.

  9. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  11. Humor in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of viral TLR ligands on experimental asthma depend on the additive effects of IL-12 and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, Serdar; Wegmann, Michael; Sel, Sarper; Bauer, Stefan; Garn, Holger; Alber, Gottfried; Renz, Harald

    2007-06-15

    Based on epidemiological data, the hygiene hypothesis associates poor hygienic living conditions during childhood with a lower risk for the development of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. The role of viral infections, and especially of viral TLR ligands, within this context remains to be clarified. Viral TLR ligands involve dsRNA and ssRNA which are recognized by TLR-3 or TLR-7, respectively. In this study, we evaluated the impact of TLR-3 or TLR-7 activation on experimental asthma in mice. Systemic application of the synthetic TLR-3 or TLR-7 ligands polycytidylic-polyinosinic acid (p(I:C)) or R-848, respectively, during the sensitization phase prevented the production of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 Abs and subsequently abolished all features of experimental asthma including airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic airway inflammation. Furthermore, administration of p(I:C) or R-848 to animals with already established primary allergic responses revealed a markedly reduced secondary response following allergen aerosol rechallenges. In contrast to wild-type animals, application of p(I:C) or R-848 to IL-12p35(-/-) mice had no effect on airway inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, in the absence of IL-12, the numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were still significantly reduced. These partial effects could also be abolished by neutralizing anti-IL-10 Abs in IL-12p35(-/-) mice. These data indicate that TLR-3 or TLR-7 activation by viral TLR ligands has both preventive as well as suppressive effects on experimental asthma which is mediated by the additive effects of IL-12 and IL-10.

  13. Effect of Zinc on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity of Broilers Vaccinated Against Coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Moazeni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was the comparison of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in ‎broilers fed with different levels of zinc during a coccidiosis challenge.‎Methods: One hundred and forty-‎four one-day-old broiler chicks were used with three ‎dietary zinc ‎(40, 120 and 200 mg/kg. At 14 d of age, all birds were inoculated orally with 5×103 sporulated oocysts of E. Tenella. ‎At ‎2, 22, 32, 42 ‎days of age, the blood serums were tested for ‎antibody titer against‎ Newcas­tle disease vaccine, using ‎the standard HI test. On day 42 the sum of nitrite ‎and nitrate based on the reduction of nitrate ‎to nitrite by cadmium ‎and white blood cell count (WBC using a hemocytometer were measured.Results: At 42 d, levels of ‎120 and 200 mg significantly (P< 0.05 increased the antibody titer in compare with the control. The peak response of CBH was observed at the level of 200 mg Zn/kg diet. Also both level of 120 and 200 mg Zn/kg diet increased WBC count and sum of nitrite and nitrate‎ in serum compared with the control.Conclusion: The levels of 120 and 200 mg Zn/kg diet could be considered as a non-pharmacologic booster of immunity in broilers chicks infected with E. Tenella.

  14. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of Inonotus obliquus

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    Staniszewska Justyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of compounds and extracts from Inonotus obliquus. Polysaccharides isolated from sclerotium have a direct antitumor effect due to protein synthesis inhibition in tumor cells. Polysaccharides derived from the mycelium function by activating the immune system. Due to the limited toxicity of these substances, both extracts as well as isolated and purified chemicals may be a good alternative to current chemotherapy and play a role in cancer prevention. In vitro experiments have shown the inhibition of inflammation with the influence of action of I. obliquus extracts; however, in vivo experiments on animals implanted with tumor cells of different types have shown the activation of the host immune system. This led to decrease in tumor mass and prolonged survival. The immunomodulatory mechanism of action is complex and it seems that stimulation of macrophages and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells is of great importance.

  15. Biofilms of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum: Effect on stress responses, antagonistic effects on pathogen growth and immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoudia, Nabil; Rieu, Aurélie; Briandet, Romain; Deschamps, Julien; Chluba, Johanna; Jego, Gaëtan; Garrido, Carmen; Guzzo, Jean

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have extensively investigated probiotic functions associated with biofilms. Here, we show that strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum are able to grow as biofilm on abiotic surfaces, but the biomass density differs between strains. We performed microtiter plate biofilm assays under growth conditions mimicking to the gastrointestinal environment. Osmolarity and low concentrations of bile significantly enhanced Lactobacillus spatial organization. Two L. plantarum strains were able to form biofilms under high concentrations of bile and mucus. We used the agar well-diffusion method to show that supernatants from all Lactobacillus except the NA4 isolate produced food pathogen inhibitory molecules in biofilm. Moreover, TNF-α production by LPS-activated human monocytoid cells was suppressed by supernatants from Lactobacillus cultivated as biofilms but not by planktonic culture supernatants. However, only L. fermentum NA4 showed anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish embryos fed with probiotic bacteria, as assessed by cytokine transcript level (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10). We conclude that the biofilm mode of life is associated with beneficial probiotic properties of lactobacilli, in a strain dependent manner. Those results suggest that characterization of isolate phenotype in the biofilm state could be additional valuable information for the selection of probiotic strains.

  16. Different Effects of the Immunomodulatory Drug GMDP Immobilized onto Aminopropyl Modified and Unmodified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles upon Peritoneal Macrophages of Women with Endometriosis

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    Yuliya Antsiferova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare in vitro the possibility of application of unmodified silica nanoparticles (UMNPs and modified by aminopropyl groups silica nanoparticles (AMNPs for topical delivery of immunomodulatory drug GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis. The absence of cytotoxic effect and high cellular uptake was demonstrated for both types of silica nanoparticles. The immobilization of GMDP on the UMNPs led to the suppression of the stimulatory effect of GMDP on the membrane expression of scavenger receptors SR-AI and SR-B, mRNAs expression of NOD2 and RAGE, and synthesis of proteolytic enzyme MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1. GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs, enhanced the initially reduced membrane expression of SRs and increased NOD2, RAGE, and MMP-9 mRNAs expression by macrophages. Simultaneously high level of mRNAs expression of factors, preventing undesirable hyperactivation of peritoneal macrophages (SOCS1 and TIMP-1, was observed in macrophages incubated in the presence of GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs. The effect of AMNPs immobilized GMDP in some cases exceeded the effect of free GMDP. Thus, among the studied types of silica nanoparticles, AMNPs are the most suitable nanoparticles for topical delivery of GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages.

  17. Humor and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  18. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  19. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  20. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80's of last century.Traditionally.they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper.I try aflew research perspective,metonymicfunction and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in theinterpretation of humor asa cognitive and mental process.

  1. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.

  2. El humor centenarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 7 -volumen IV- de julio de 1961, bajo el título de El Humor Parnasiano, fueron publicados cuatro sonetos humorísticos: dos del Maestro Guillermo Valencia y dos de su discípulo Carlos López Narváez.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects in a phase II study of lenalidomide combined with cetuximab in refractory KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

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    Anita K Gandhi

    Full Text Available This study assessed the immunomodulatory effects in previously treated KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients participating in a phase II multicenter, open-label clinical trial receiving lenalidomide alone or lenalidomide plus cetuximab. The main findings show the T cell immunostimulatory properties of lenalidomide as the drug induced a decrease in the percentage CD45RA(+ naïve T cells 3-fold while increasing the percentage HLA-DR(+ activated T helper cells and percentage total CD45RO(+ CD8(+ memory T cytotoxic cells, 2.6- and 2.1-fold respectively (p<0.0001. In addition, lenalidomide decreased the percentage of circulating CD19(+ B cells 2.6-fold (p<0.0001. Lenalidomide increased a modest, yet significant, 1.4-fold change in the percentage of circulating natural killer cells. Our findings indicate that lenalidomide significantly activates T cells, suggestive of an immunotherapeutic role for this drug in settings of maintenance therapy and tumor immunity. Furthermore, reported for the first time is the effect of lenalidomide in combination with cetuximab on T cell function, including increases in circulating naïve and central memory T cells. In summary, lenalidomide and cetuximab have significant effects on circulating immune cells in patients with colorectal carcinoma.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01032291.

  4. Effects of lactoferrin on elicitation of the antigen-specific cellular and humoral cutaneous response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Zimecki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin resulting from exposure to allergens in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the actions of lactoferrin (LF, a natural immunomodulator, on the elicitation phases of the cellular and humoral, cutaneous immune responses to oxazolone and toluene diisocyanate (TDI, respectively. LF was given i.v. in a 10 mg/mouse dose, together with the eliciting doses of the antigens. The ear edema and the number of lymphocytes in the draining lymph nodes were measured. In addition, the production of IL-2 in the cultures of lymph node cells and the content of IL-4 in lymph node cells were determined. LF had a profound inhibitory effect on the eliciting phase of the immune response to oxazolone as measured by the ear edema and lymph node cell number. The suppressive effect of LF on the effector phase of the immune response to TDI was moderate. LF had some stimulatory effect on the ex vivo content of IL-4 in lymphocytes in the immune response to TDI. On the other hand, it significantly inhibited IL-2 in vitro production in the immune response to oxazolone. The data strongly suggest that LF exerted differential actions on the activities of antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells involved in respective types of the cutaneous immune responses.

  5. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  6. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…

  7. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  8. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  9. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  10. 活性维生素D3的免疫调节作用%Immunomodulatory effects of active vitamin D3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠

    2010-01-01

    活性维生素 D3[1,25(OH)2VitD3]对钙磷代谢有重要的调节作用.近年来,大量体外实验和临床研究发现,活性维生素D3有重要的抗炎和免疫调节作用.此文就活性维生素D3对免疫系统和免疫相关疾病的调节作用作一系统性总结.%The active vitamin D3 ( 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ) is a key regulator for calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. In recent years, a large number of experiments in vitro and in vivo as well as clinical evidences have showed that the active vitamin D3 has important antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. This review summarizes the regulatory effects of active vitamin D3 on immune system and immune-related diseases.

  11. Analysis on the Humorous Effect of Verbal Irony%反语的幽默效果探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芮; 陈彧

    2015-01-01

    Verbal irony, a kind of discordant linguistic phe-nomenon, is widely used in our daily life which produces special effect in conversation. For decades, an increasing number of studies on verbal irony has been done, especially the linguistic one. In this article, verbal irony is classified according to cooper-ative principle, and illustration on its produced humorous effect is provided.%生活中随处可见反语这种不和谐的语言现象,它具有特殊的交际效果。近几十年来反语的研究越来越多,尤其是语言学界的理论层出不穷。本文作者从语用学的合作原则出发,将反语进行分类,并使用关联原则解释反语的幽默效果。

  12. Effects of fish protein hydrolysate on growth performance and humoral immune response in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-gang TANG; Tian-xing WU; Zhan-yu ZHAO; Xiao-dong PAN

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) on growth performance and humoral immune response of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.). One thousand and two hundred large yellow croakers [initial average weight: (162.75±23.85) g] were divided into four groups and reared in floating sea cages (3 m×3 m×3 m). The animals were fed with 4 diets: basal diet only (control) or diets supplemented with 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w) FPH. The results show that dietary FPH levels significantly influenced the growth and immunity of the large yellow croaker. Compared with the control group, total weight gain (TWG) in all treatment groups, relative weight gain (RWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) in fish fed with diets supplemerited with 10% and 15% FPH were significantly increased (P<0.05). Similar results were observed in immune parameters [lysozyme activity, serum complements, immunoglobulin M (IgM)]. Lysozyme activity, complement C4 and IgM were also significantly increased (P<0.05) in fish fed with diets supplemented with 10% and 15% FPH, while complement C3 level was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all treatment groups. In general, with the supplementation of FPH, particularly at dose of 10%,the growth performance and immunity of the large yellow croaker can be improved effectively.

  13. Immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effect of a probiotic supplemented in the feed of broiler chicks vaccinated against infectious bursal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Naseem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of a probiotic plus an immunomodulatory product on the growth performance, immune response and net economic returns of broiler chicks vaccinated against Infectious bursal diseases virus (IBDV. A flock of 350 day-old chicks were equally and randomly distributed in seven groups, each comprising 50 birds. A mixture of microorganisms (¹Probiotic or Cyclophosphamide (immune suppressor was offered through feed supplementation to different groups. The Probiotic, consisting of Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus salivarius and Enterococcus faecium, in addition to Aspergillus oryza and Candida pintolopessii. Compared with control treatment group, the probiotic-supplemented chicks had better feed conversion ratio (FCR (1.938 and 1.959, with significantly heavier live body weight 2141.0±34.2 and 2120.3±33.2, respectively. Similarly, their antibody titers against IBDV were significantly higher (941 and 832 on day 35. No morbidity and mortality were observed in these groups. This study suggests that a product composed of a probiotic and cyclophosphamide enhanced the growth rate as well as the immunity against infectious bursal disease virus of broilers chicks.

  14. Effect of Immunoglobulin Therapy on the Rate of Infections in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and or Treated with Immunomodulatory Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are few data available regarding the prevalence of infection in multiple myeloma (MM patients in conjunction with newer generations of immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide or post autologous stem cell transplantation.  We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients with MM from March 2006 to June 2009 at our institution. All patients received thalidomide and steroid therapy for at least 6 months. Nine patients received bortezomib and 11 lenalidomide subsequently to thalidomide, because of disease progression and 22 patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation.   The median age was 64 years (range 37-86, with a female–to-male ratio of 18:29. The median residual-serum IgG-level at time of infection was 3.2 g/L, IgA 0.3 g/L and IgM 0.2 g/L. Most patients suffered from recurrent moderate to severe infections. All patients except 3 received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy with a significant decline of the rate of infection thereafter. Our analysis shows that IVIG appears to be an effective strategy to prevent infection in MM patients. Further studies to confirm these findings are warranted.

  15. Effect of Copper on the Humoral and Biochemical Indices of the Teleost fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskaran Nair Girish KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of copper and the ameliorating capacity of vitamin C on the humoral and biochemical parameters in the teleost fish, Anabas testudineus, were investigated. The 96 h LC 50 value of copper for A. testudineus was determined by Probit method and was found to be 1.74 mg/L. The blood of fish from two sub-lethal concentrations along with vitamin supplemented media and control medium, were analysed. The haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, erythrocyte count (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC were reduced (p > 0.0001 in copper exposed fish compared to the control. The leucocyte (WBC count increased (p < 0.0001 with dose and duration. Immature and amitotic RBCs, hypoxia, hypochromia, and crenation were observed in highest nominal concentrations and last exposures. The plasma glucose, cortisol, GOT (Glutamate oxalate transaminase, GPT (Glutamate pyruvate transaminase, ALP (Alkaline phosphatase and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase increased (p < 0.0001, and serum protein decreased. However, on day 28, the Hb, RBC count, MCH, MCHC, and the oxygen carrying capacity increased, and glucose, cortisol and LDH decreased, markedly. The administration of vitamin C improved the blood parameters, illustrating its prophylactic capacity to overwhelm the trace metal stress.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.78

  16. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  17. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Dix, A.; Morkes, J.; Cockton, G.; Korhonen, P.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  18. Humors in Rip Van Winkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2014-01-01

    Humor is widely employed in Irving’s Rip Van Winkle. There are several kinds of humors in this short story, for exam-ple: irony, satire, farce, mockery, etc. Different humors indicate different attitudes the writer adopts toward his subject matter. This essay aims at grasping the main idea of the story through the analyses of various uses of humor.

  19. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The origin of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  1. Humor and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  2. Political Uses of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ronald G.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical framework applicable to the political and social uses made of humor. Focuses on the uses individuals make of jokes and joking in relation to the constant interchange involved between institutional stability and social change. (FL)

  3. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  4. How fun are your meetings? How and when humor patterns emerge and impact team performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter dur...

  5. Mathematics and Humor: John Allen Paulos and the Numeracy Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos at minimum gave the Numeracy movement a name through his book Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. What may not be so obvious was Paulos’ strong interest in the relationship between mathematics and mathematicians on the one hand and humor and stand-up-comedian joke structures on the other. Innumeracy itself could be seen as a typically mathematical Gotcha joke on American culture generally. In this perspective, a Minnesotan acculturated to Minnesota-Nice Humor of Self-Immolation Proclivities (SImP looks at the more raw-boned, take-no-prisoners humor style Paulos outlined in Mathematics and Humor and implemented in Innumeracy. Despite the difference in humor styles, there is much to applaud in Paulos’ analysis of the relationship between certain types of humor and professional interests of mathematicians in Mathematics and Humor. Much humor relies on the sense of incongruity which Paulos’ claims to be central to all humor and key to mathematical reductio ad absurdum. Mathematics is rightfully famous for a sense of combinatorial playfulness in its most elegant proofs, as humor often relies on clashing combinations of word play. And a great range of mathematical lore is best understood within a concept of a sudden drop from one sense of certainty to another (essentially a Gotcha on the audience. Innumeracy repeatedly exemplifies Gotchas on the great unwashed and unmathematical majority. Extensive empirical evidence over the last quarter century allows us to synthesize these Paulos observations into the idea that inculcated mathematical humor has strong propensities to complex Intellectual, Advocate, and Crusader humor forms. However, the Paulos humors do not include the Sympathetic Pain humor form, the inclusion of which may increase teaching effectiveness.

  6. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  7. Antileishmanial and immunomodulatory potential of Ocimumsanctum Linn. and Cocosnucifera Linn. in murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Gaurav; Kaur, Sukhbir; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Rupinder; Raina, Puneet

    2017-03-01

    The role of immunomodulation in the therapeutic treatment of visceral leishmaniasis has gained eminence in view of moderate to severe drawbacks of the currently available drugs like toxicity, drug resistance and prohibitive costs. The potential for modulation of the immune system of many herbal plants can be tapped to address these problems. We conducted the present research study to investigate the antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cocos nucifera Linn. during the progression of visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mouse model. The IC50 values of the ethanolic leaf extract of O. sanctum and that of the aqueous husk-fibre extract of C. nucifera against the sodium stibogluconate (SSG) susceptible strain (MHOM/IN/80/Dd8) were found to be 73.3 and 62 µg/ml respectively. On treatment of infected BALB/c mice with the extracts, we observed a reduction in hepatic parasite load by 43.63 % (O. sanctum), 65.42 % (C. nucifera) and 75.61 % (O. sanctum + C. nucifera) at 1st post treatment day (p.t.d.), while at 15th p.t.d., the reduction was 73.61 % (O. sanctum), 76.59 % (C. nucifera) and 94.12 % (O. sanctum + C. nucifera). This was accompanied by an up-scaling of the DTH response, skewing of the humoral response towards Th1 type and hepatoprotection in the form of normalization of liver function tests. Overall, administration of the extracts of these two plants in combination as compared to their administration alone rescued the affected mice from the disease greatly, which can be attributed to their antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities.

  8. Involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the aqueous humor outflow-enhancing effects of abnormal-cannabidiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhuanhong; Kumar, Akhilesh; Kumar, Pritesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal-cannabidiol (abn-cbd), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid agonist, on aqueous humor outflow via the trabecular meshwork (TM) of porcine eye, and to examine the involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor and the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) pathway. The effects of abn-cbd on aqueous humor outflow were measured using a porcine anterior segment perfused organ culture model. The activation of p42/44 MAPK by abn-cbd was determined in cultured TM cells with western blot analysis using an anti-phospho-p42/44 MAPK antibody. Administration of abn-cbd caused a concentration-dependent enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility with a maximum effect (155.0 ± 11.7% of basal outflow facility) after administration of 30 nM abn-cbd. Pretreatment with 1 μM of O-1918, a cannabidiol analog that acts as a selective antagonist at the non-CB1/CB2 receptor, produced a full antagonism of 30 nM abn-cbd induced increase of aqueous humor outflow facility. Pretreatment with 1 μM of CB1 antagonist SR141716A partially blocked, whereas pretreatment with either 1 μM of CB1 antagonist AM251 or 1 μM of CB2 antagonist SR144528 had no effect on abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. Treatment of TM cells with 30 nM of abn-cbd activated p42/44 MAPK, which was blocked completely by pretreatment with O-1918, and partially by pretreatment with SR141716A, but not by either AM251 or SR144528. In addition, PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK pathway, blocked completely the abn-cbd induced p42/44 MAPK activation and blocked partially the abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that abn-cbd increases aqueous humor outflow through the TM pathway of the eye, and this effect is mediated by a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor, with an involvement of p42/44 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:22580290

  9. Involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the aqueous humor outflow-enhancing effects of abnormal-cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhuanhong; Kumar, Akhilesh; Kumar, Pritesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal-cannabidiol (abn-cbd), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid agonist, on aqueous humor outflow via the trabecular meshwork (TM) of porcine eye, and to examine the involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor and the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) pathway. The effects of abn-cbd on aqueous humor outflow were measured using a porcine anterior segment perfused organ culture model. The activation of p42/44 MAPK by abn-cbd was determined in cultured TM cells with western blot analysis using an anti-phospho-p42/44 MAPK antibody. Administration of abn-cbd caused a concentration-dependent enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility with a maximum effect (155.0 ± 11.7% of basal outflow facility) after administration of 30 nM abn-cbd. Pretreatment with 1 μM of O-1918, a cannabidiol analog that acts as a selective antagonist at the non-CB1/CB2 receptor, produced a full antagonism of 30 nM abn-cbd induced increase of aqueous humor outflow facility. Pretreatment with 1 μM of CB1 antagonist SR141716A partially blocked, whereas pretreatment with either 1 μM of CB1 antagonist AM251 or 1 μM of CB2 antagonist SR144528 had no effect on abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. Treatment of TM cells with 30 nM of abn-cbd activated p42/44 MAPK, which was blocked completely by pretreatment with O-1918, and partially by pretreatment with SR141716A, but not by either AM251 or SR144528. In addition, PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK pathway, blocked completely the abn-cbd induced p42/44 MAPK activation and blocked partially the abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that abn-cbd increases aqueous humor outflow through the TM pathway of the eye, and this effect is mediated by a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor, with an involvement of p42/44 MAPK signaling pathway.

  10. n Vitro Immunomodulatory Effect of R10 Fraction of Garlic on Viability and Production of TNF-? in CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ghazanfari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: -cells, especially CD8+ T lymphocytes are the most important cells in anti-tumor response. Previously R10 fraction of garlic extract was reported as an immuno-modulator which induced an effective cellular immunity and Th1 responses. In this study the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of R10 on CD8+ T cells viability and production of TNF-? were evaluated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, using monoclonal antibodies attached to magnetic beads with isolating columns by magnetic bead method, CD8+ T cells from spleen cells of Balb/C mice were isolated. R10 fraction based on molecular weight was prepared using Ultra filtration. MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. TNF-? level was meas-ured in the supernatant of culture of CD8+ T cells by ELISA. Obtained data was compared and analyzed using Nonparametric Test and Keraskel & Wanny's Test tests.. Results: The findings indicate that all dilutions of R10 fraction increased cell viability of CD8+ T cells in comparison with the negative control group and in the presence of ConA with dilution of 1:50 of R10 fraction significantly increased cell viability of CD8+ T Cells com-pared to ConA alone. Secretion of TNF-? significantly increased by all dilutions of R10 frac-tion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that R10 fraction of garlic can be used as an Immuno-modulator drug candidate for induction of cellular Immunity in tumor therapy. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 20 (4:273-279

  11. Determination of opiates in whole blood and vitreous humor: a study of the matrix effect and an experimental design to optimize conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Livia Rentas; Seulin, Saskia Carolina; Leyton, Vilma; Paranhos, Beatriz Aparecida Passos Bismara; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Osselton, Michael David; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2012-04-01

    Undoubtedly, whole blood and vitreous humor have been biological samples of great importance in forensic toxicology. The determination of opiates and their metabolites has been essential for better interpretation of toxicological findings. This report describes the application of experimental design and response surface methodology to optimize conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide. The analytes (free morphine, 6-acetylmorphine and codeine) were extracted from the samples using solid-phase extraction on mixed-mode cartridges, followed by derivatization to their trimethylsilyl derivatives. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron ionization and full scan mode. The method was validated for both specimens (whole blood and vitreous humor). A significant matrix effect was found by applying the F-test. Different recovery values were also found (82% on average for whole blood and 100% on average for vitreous humor). The calibration curves were linear for all analytes in the concentration range of 10-1,500 ng/mL. The limits of detection ranged from 2.0 to 5.0 ng/mL. The method was applied to a case in which a victim presented with a previous history of opiate use.

  12. Humor and older adults: what makes them laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Barbara G; Prazak, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Laughter, the physical response to perceived humor, has demonstrated positive effects on physical and psychological well-being. Studies that focus on effects of humor on health and well-being of older adults are scarce. No studies were found that examine what older adults find humorous. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the humor stimulus in a population of older adults. One hundred thirty (130) hospital auxiliary personnel aged 50 and older were asked the question What makes you laugh? Content analysis of responses revealed nine themes in two major categories, which were (a) people or animals and (b) situations or events. Children represented the largest category of people (30%), and telling jokes represented the largest category of situations or events (51%). Humor can be used by nurses as an effective therapeutic tool when caring for older adults if appropriate sources of humor are identified and applied.

  13. Commensal Gut Microbiota Immunomodulatory Actions in Bone Marrow and Liver have Catabolic Effects on Skeletal Homeostasis in Health

    OpenAIRE

    Novince, Chad M.; Whittow, Carolyn R.; Aartun, Johannes D.; Hathaway, Jessica D.; Poulides, Nicole; Chavez, Michael B.; Steinkamp, Heidi M.; Kirkwood, Kaeleigh A.; Huang, Emily; Westwater, Caroline; Kirkwood, Keith L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota?s osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota?s immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbio...

  14. Effect of Immunoglobulin Therapy on the Rate of Infections in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and or Treated with Immunomodulatory Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Bates

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    There are few data available regarding the prevalence of infection in multiple myeloma (MM patients in conjunction with newer generations of immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide or post autologous stem cell transplantation.  We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients with MM from March 2006 to June 2009 at our institution. All patients received thalidomide and steroid therapy for at least 6 months. Nine patients received bortezomib and 11 lenalidomide subsequently to thalidomide, because of disease progression and 22 patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation.   The median age was 64 years (range 37-86, with a female–to-male ratio of 18:29. The median residual-serum IgG-level at time of infection was 3.2 g/L, IgA 0.3 g/L and IgM 0.2 g/L. Most patients suffered from recurrent moderate to severe infections. All patients except 3 received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy with a significant decline of the rate of infection thereafter. Our analysis shows that IVIG appears to be an effective strategy to prevent infection in MM patients. Further studies to confirm these findings are warranted.

  15. Immunomodulatory Effects of Different Lactic Acid Bacteria on Allergic Response and Its Relationship with In Vitro Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chunqing; Ma, Na; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Pei; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Some studies reported that probiotic could relieve allergy-induced damage to the host, but how to get a useful probiotic is still a challenge. In this study, the protective effects of three lactic acid bacteria (La, Lp and Lc) were evaluated in a mouse model, and its relationship with the in vitro properties was analyzed. The in vitro results indicated that La with the capacity to inhibit IL-4 production could have a better anti-allergy effect in vivo than two others. However, the animal trials showed that all LAB strains could alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation. Among them, LAB strain Lp had a better effect in inhibiting allergic response through a modulation of Th1/Th2 balance and an increase of regulatory T cells. This difference could be explained by that different LAB strains have a strain-specific effect on gut microbiota closely associated with host immune responses. Finally, this study did not only obtain an effective anti-allergy probiotic strain via animal study, but also indicate that probiotic-induced effect on intestinal microbiota should be considered as an important screening index, apart from its inherent characteristics. PMID:27764153

  16. PIKA Provides an Adjuvant Effect to Induce Strong Mucosal and Systemic Humoral Immunity Against SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-wei Gai; Yan Zhang; Di-han Zhou; Yao-qing Chen; Jing-yi Yang; Hui-min Yan

    2011-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(SARS)is a deadly infectious disease caused by SARS Coronavirus(SARS-CoV).Inactivated SARS-CoV has been explored as a vaccine against SARS-CoV.However,safe and potent adjuvants,especially with more efficient and economical needle-free vaccination are always needed more urgently in a pandemic.The development of a safe and effective mucosal adjuvant and vaccine for prevention of emergent infectious diseases such as SARS will be an important advancement.PIKA,a stabilized derivative of Poly(I:C),was previously reported to be safe and potent as adjuvant in mouse models.In the present study,we demonstrated that the intraperitoneal and intranasal co-administration of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine together with this improved Poly(I:C)derivative induced strong anti-SARS-CoV mucosal and systemic humoral immune responses with neutralizing activity against pseudotyped virus.Although intraperitoneal immunization of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine alone could induce a certain level of neutralizing activity in serum as well as in mucosal sites,co-administration of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine with PIKA as adjuvant could induce a much higher neutralizing activity.When intranasal immunization was used,PIKA was obligatorily for inducing neutralizing activity in serum as well as in mucosal sites and was correlated with both mucosal IgA and mucosal IgG response.Overall,PIKA could be a good mucosal adjuvant candidate for inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine for use in possible future pandemic.

  17. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  18. Effects of 60-day bed rest with and without exercise on cellular and humoral immunological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Paula; Belavý, Daniel L; Huscher, Dörte; Lang, Annemarie; Hahne, Martin; Kuhlmey, Anne-Kathrin; Maschmeyer, Patrick; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Fitzner, Rudolf; Perschel, Frank H; Gaber, Timo; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Straub, Rainer H; Felsenberg, Dieter; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Exercise at regular intervals is assumed to have a positive effect on immune functions. Conversely, after spaceflight and under simulated weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), immune functions can be suppressed. We aimed to assess the effects of simulated weightlessness (Second Berlin BedRest Study; BBR2-2) on immunological parameters and to investigate the effect of exercise (resistive exercise with and without vibration) on these changes. Twenty-four physically and mentally healthy male volunteers (20-45 years) performed resistive vibration exercise (n=7), resistance exercise without vibration (n=8) or no exercise (n=9) within 60 days of bed rest. Blood samples were taken 2 days before bed rest, on days 19 and 60 of bed rest. Composition of immune cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines and neuroendocrine parameters were analyzed by Luminex technology and ELISA/RIA in plasma. General changes over time were identified by paired t-test, and exercise-dependent effects by pairwise repeated measurements (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). With all subjects pooled, the number of granulocytes, natural killer T cells, hematopoietic stem cells and CD45RA and CD25 co-expressing T cells increased and the number of monocytes decreased significantly during the study; the concentration of eotaxin decreased significantly. Different impacts of exercise were seen for lymphocytes, B cells, especially the IgD(+) subpopulation of B cells and the concentrations of IP-10, RANTES and DHEA-S. We conclude that prolonged bed rest significantly impacts immune cell populations and cytokine concentrations. Exercise was able to specifically influence different immunological parameters. In summary, our data fit the hypothesis of immunoprotection by exercise and may point toward even superior effects by resistive vibration exercise.

  19. The use of humor in the care of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysodimitra Galatou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is defined as a state of good spirit, exhibited with a smile or laughter, as a response to external stimuli. It constitutes a special form of human communication as well as a form of social conduct. The word «humor» appears for the first time in Hippocrates' writings. Psychology considers humor as one of the most powerful weapons against depression and disappointment. In psychiatric therapeutics humor serves many purposes, thereby acting as a supplement, not a substitute to treatment received. Purpose: of this article is to highlight the positive effects of humor in humans, health professionals and patient. Material and method: An extensive literature search databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Wikipedia, Cinahl, Medscape, with key words: humor, psychiatric patient, care, humor scales Results: Humor is an interpersonal process which facilitates and promotes expression and exchange of views; however it requires prudence, cautiousness and respect to patients' personality and sensitive issues. Humor is not innate, it is acquired and it can be learning and taught. Conclusion: The correct use of humor in therapeutic practice, contributes to the development of a therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional as well as a sense of trust between them.

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of amino acid-based formulae (AAF) in gastrointestinal non-IgE mediated food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Anita; Jones, Hannah E.; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; Garssen, Johan; Stephenson, Holly; Brunner, Katja; Köglmeier, Jutta; Shah, Neil; Bajaj-Elliot, Mona; Lindley, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Management of non-IgE mediated food allergies in early childhood involves allergen avoidance by using extensively hydrolysed (eHF) or amino acid-based formulas (AAF). Clinical anecdote suggests that AAF relieve symptoms more effectively in some patients than using eHF or simple allergen

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of amino acid-based formulae (AAF) in gastrointestinal non-IgE mediated food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Anita; Jones, Hannah E.; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; Garssen, Johan; Stephenson, Holly; Brunner, Katja; Köglmeier, Jutta; Shah, Neil; Bajaj-Elliot, Mona; Lindley, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Management of non-IgE mediated food allergies in early childhood involves allergen avoidance by using extensively hydrolysed (eHF) or amino acid-based formulas (AAF). Clinical anecdote suggests that AAF relieve symptoms more effectively in some patients than using eHF or simple allergen a

  2. Characterisation of the Immunomodulatory Effects of Meningococcal Opa Proteins on Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and CD4+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jones

    Full Text Available Opa proteins are major surface-expressed proteins located in the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane, and are potential meningococcal vaccine candidates. Although Opa proteins elicit high levels of bactericidal antibodies following immunisation in mice, progress towards human clinical trials has been delayed due to previous findings that Opa inhibits T cell proliferation in some in vitro assays. However, results from previous studies are conflicting, with different Opa preparations and culture conditions being used. We investigated the effects of various Opa+ and Opa- antigens from N. meningitidis strain H44/76 in a range of in vitro conditions using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and purified CD4+ T cells, measuring T cell proliferation by CFSE dilution using flow cytometry. Wild type recombinant and liposomal Opa proteins inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation after stimulation with IL-2, anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and these effects were reduced by mutation of the CEACAM1-binding region of Opa. These effects were not observed in culture with ex vivo PBMCs. Opa+ and Opa- OMVs did not consistently exert a stimulatory or inhibitory effect across different culture conditions. These data do not support a hypothesis that Opa proteins would be inhibitory to T cells if given as a vaccine component, and T cell immune responses to OMV vaccines are unlikely to be significantly affected by the presence of Opa proteins.

  3. [Experimental studies on the effect of ceramic materials on cellular and humoral immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsenko, V V; Tolstop'iatov, B O; Zhmin'ko, P G; Diedkov, A G; Konovalenko, V F; Korovin, S I; Palivets', A Iu; Volkov, I B; Iurkovs'kyĭ, S D; Vasiliuk, O M

    2001-01-01

    It has been established in an experimental setting in laboratory animals through testing a number of reactions such as active skin anaphylaxis reaction, mast cell degranulation reaction, specific leucocyte lysis reaction, delayed hypersensitivity reaction, and graft-versus-host reaction that ceramic preparations hydroxilapatite M and osteogel-7 have no sensitizing effects; osteogel-7 is not endowed with immunomodulating activity, which fact suggests to us its immunological inertness.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of zinc and DHEA on the Th-1 immune response in rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazão, Vânia; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Del Vecchio Filipin, Marina; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2010-05-01

    Chagas' disease is considered the sixth most important neglected tropical disease worldwide. Considerable knowledge has been accumulated concerning the role of zinc on cellular immunity. The steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is also known to modulate the immune system. The aims of this paper were to investigate a possible synchronization of their effects on cytokines and NO production and the resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi during the acute phase of infection. It was found that zinc, DHEA or zinc and DHEA supplementation enhanced the immune response, as evidenced by a significant reduction in parasitemia levels. Zinc and DHEA supplementation exerted additive effects on the immune response by elevation of macrophage counts, and by increasing concentrations of IFN-gamma and NO.

  5. In vitro immunomodulatory effects of microemulsions with levamisole delivery systems on blood phagocytes interacting with Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Mara Rosa Gil; Moraes, Lucélia Campelo Albuquerque; Ribeiro, Elton Brito; Fagundes, Danny Laura Gomes; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; França, Eduardo Luzía

    2017-06-01

    Giardiasis is one of the main parasites that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Antiparasitics administered to treat giardiasis are inefficient in 20% of the cases, usually because of parasite resistance and side effects. In this scenario, microemulsions are a promising pharmaceutical alternative as carriers of molecules with therapeutic action that stimulate the immune system. The study evaluated the effects of a microemulsion delivery system with levamisole hydrochloride on the functional activity of MN phagocytes incubated with G. lamblia. The microemulsion formulated was incorporated with levamisole hydrochloride using distilled water, caprylic/capric triglyceride-Polymol 812®, Sorbitan Oleate-Span 80®, Polysorbate 80 - Tween 80® and 1-butanol. The activity of the microemulsion was analyzed by phagocytosis rate, microbicidal activity, apoptosis rate and intracellular calcium concentration. Phagocytosis rate, microbicidal activity and apoptosis index increased in the microemulsion treatment. The results suggest that the microemulsion improves the therapeutic efficacy of levamisole, increasing the functional activity of phagocytes. The microemulsion with a levamisole delivery system is therefore an efficient alternative for treating giardiasis, acting as an immunomodulator that probably causes fewer side effects than conventional drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of ferumoxides-protamine sulfate labeling on immunomodulatory characteristics of macrophage-like THP-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Janic

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO complexed with cationic transfection agent is used to label various mammalian cells. Labeled cells can then be utilized as an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI probes. However, certain number of in vivo administered labeled cells may be cleared from tissues by the host's macrophages. For successful translation to routine clinical application of SPIO labeling method it is important that this mode of in vivo clearance of iron does not elicit any diverse immunological effects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that SPIO agent ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FePro incorporation into macrophages does not alter immunological properties of these cells with regard to differentiation, chemotaxis, and ability to respond to the activation stimuli and to modulate T cell response. We used THP-1 cell line as a model for studying macrophage cell type. THP-1 cells were magnetically labeled with FePro, differentiated with 100 nM of phorbol ester, 12-Myristate-13-acetate (TPA and stimulated with 100 ng/ml of LPS. The results showed 1 FePro labeling had no effect on the changes in morphology and expression of cell surface proteins associated with TPA induced differentiation; 2 FePro labeled cells responded to LPS with slightly higher levels of NFkappaB pathway activation, as shown by immunobloting; TNF-alpha secretion and cell surface expression levels of CD54 and CD83 activation markers, under these conditions, were still comparable to the levels observed in non-labeled cells; 3 FePro labeling exhibited differential, chemokine dependent, effect on THP-1 chemotaxis with a decrease in cell directional migration to MCP-1; 4 FePro labeling did not affect the ability of THP-1 cells to down-regulate T cell expression of CD4 and CD8 and to induce T cell proliferation. Our study demonstrated that intracellular incorporation of FePro complexes does not alter overall immunological properties of THP-1 cells. The described

  7. Immunomodulatory effects of testosterone evaluated in all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, granulocytes, and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Alex; Moesby, Lise; Timm, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    that testosterone at pharmacological doses reduced the production of interleukin-8 and reactive oxygen species from differentiated HL-60 cells in a concentration dependent manner without affecting phagocytosis. The cells were stimulated with zymosan, lipopolysaccharide, or Bacillus subtilis. At the highest...... concentration of testosterone (120 µM), interleukin-8 secretion was reduced 42-80%, and production of reactive oxygen species was reduced 32-46%. Flutamide, an antagonist of the classical intracellular androgen receptor, was unable to antagonize the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone. We further...

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  9. Effective humoral immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Czirják, László; Hóbor, Renáta; Illes, Zsolt; Bánáti, Miklós; Rajczy, Katalin; Tordai, Attila; Füst, George

    2013-07-01

    Controversy exists about the effectiveness of vaccine-induced immune response in patients with immunoregulatory disorders. Our aim was to determine the antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus in patients with either of two autoimmune diseases. 279 patients with SLE (205 females, aged 45.0 ± 13.8 years), 158 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) (101 females, aged 55 ± 18.7 years) and 208 healthy subjects (122 females, aged 48 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled. Serum concentrations of diphtheria-antitoxin-IgG (A-DIPHTH) and tetanus-antitoxoid-IgG (A-TET) were determined with ELISA. Equal proportions of healthy subjects, as well as patients with SLE or MG exhibited proper antibody responses and immune protection against diphtheria and tetanus. In all three test groups, serum concentration of A-DIPHTH decreased significantly (p60-years-old) subjects. There were no significant differences among the groups in the age-related changes of A-TET and A-DIPHTH except that in diphtheria and tetanus infections in patients with SLE or MG is comparable to the healthy population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunomodulatory effect of Withania somnifera supplementation diet in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Jawahar, Sundaram; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Withania somnifera extract supplementation diets on innate immune response in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. The bacterial clearance efficiency significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet against pathogen from weeks 1-4 as compared to the control. The innate immune parameters such as, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion level, superoxide dismutase activity, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations were significantly enhanced in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen. The total hemocyte counts (THC) significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen as compared to the control. These results strongly suggested that administration of W. somnifera through supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune system and enhanced survival rate in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila infection.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of supercritical fluid CO2 extracts from freeze-dried powder of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QingFeng TANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to take full advantage of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm resources, the supercritical CO2 fluid freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae (fdTML extraction on the immune systems of mice was carried out. The results about the effects of supercritical CO2 fluid fdTML extraction on carbon expurgation and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages experiments of mice indicated that the fdTML extraction enhanced observably carbon expurgatory index, phagocytic rate and phagocytic index. The fdTML extraction could stimulate response of delayed hypersensitivity. The proliferation of ConA-induced mitogenic reponse for spleen lymphocyte was also increased. The amount of hemolytic antibody in mice serum increased compared with those of the control group mice. The half of hemolysis values in serum of treated mice increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, serum NO content in all treatment groups was higher than that of the control group whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity was only significantly higher relative to the control group. Our findings suggest that supercritical CO2 fluid the fdTML extraction has potential as a health food supplement.

  12. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  13. Gambiense human african trypanosomiasis and immunological memory: effect on phenotypic lymphocyte profiles and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Mumba Ngoyi, Dieudonné; Kestens, Luc; Boel, Luc; Barbé, Barbara; Kande Betu, Victor; van Griensven, Johan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Muyembe Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    In mice, experimental infection with Trypanosoma brucei causes decreased bone marrow B-cell development, abolished splenic B-cell maturation and loss of antibody mediated protection including vaccine induced memory responses. Nothing is known about this phenomenon in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), but if occurring, it would imply the need of revaccination of HAT patients after therapy and abolish hope for a HAT vaccine. The effect of gambiense HAT on peripheral blood memory T- and B-cells and on innate and vaccine induced antibody levels was examined. The percentage of memory B- and T-cells was quantified in peripheral blood, prospectively collected in DR Congo from 117 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infected HAT patients before and six months after treatment and 117 controls at the same time points. Antibodies against carbohydrate antigens on red blood cells and against measles were quantified. Before treatment, significantly higher percentages of memory B-cells, mainly T-independent memory B-cells, were observed in HAT patients compared to controls (CD20+CD27+IgM+, 13.0% versus 2.0%, p<0.001). The percentage of memory T-cells, mainly early effector/memory T-cells, was higher in HAT (CD3+CD45RO+CD27+, 19.4% versus 16.7%, p = 0.003). After treatment, the percentage of memory T-cells normalized, the percentage of memory B-cells did not. The median anti-red blood cell carbohydrate IgM level was one titer lower in HAT patients than in controls (p<0.004), and partially normalized after treatment. Anti-measles antibody concentrations were lower in HAT patients than in controls (medians of 1500 versus 2250 mIU/ml, p = 0.02), and remained so after treatment, but were above the cut-off level assumed to provide protection in 94.8% of HAT patients, before and after treatment (versus 98.3% of controls, p = 0.3). Although functionality of the B-cells was not verified, the results suggest that immunity was conserved in T.b. gambiense infected HAT patients and

  14. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  15. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  16. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  17. Effect of humoral immunity on HIV-1 dynamics with virus-to-target and infected-to-target infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaiw, A. M.; Raezah, A. A.; Alofi, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    We consider an HIV-1 dynamics model by incorporating (i) two routes of infection via, respectively, binding of a virus to a receptor on the surface of a target cell to start genetic reactions (virus-to-target infection), and the direct transmission from infected cells to uninfected cells through the concept of virological synapse in vivo (infected-to-target infection); (ii) two types of distributed-time delays to describe the time between the virus or infected cell contacts an uninfected CD4+ T cell and the emission of new active viruses; (iii) humoral immune response, where the HIV-1 particles are attacked by the antibodies that are produced from the B lymphocytes. The existence and stability of all steady states are completely established by two bifurcation parameters, R 0 (the basic reproduction number) and R 1 (the viral reproduction number at the chronic-infection steady state without humoral immune response). By constructing Lyapunov functionals and using LaSalle's invariance principle, we have proven that, if R 0 ≤ 1 , then the infection-free steady state is globally asymptotically stable, if R 1 ≤ 1 1 , then the chronic-infection steady state with humoral immune response is globally asymptotically stable. We have performed numerical simulations to confirm our theoretical results.

  18. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  19. A Study of the Translation of Humor in English Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹

    2016-01-01

    What is believed to be the most important thing in translating English movie subtitle is the transmission of humorous effects. Humor is the development result of language and culture, and it is human's wisdom. Based on Vermeer's Skopostheorie theory of functionalist approaches, the thesis suggests that the instrumental translation strategy based on the source text analysis can be used for the translation of humor discourses. The translator can translate humorous languages by way of literal translation, annotation, combination of literal translation and free translation.

  20. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  1. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  2. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  3. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  4. Peptide design for antimicrobial and immunomodulatory applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Evan F; Hancock, Robert E W

    2013-11-01

    The increasing threat of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria and the dwindling supply of antibiotics available to combat these infections poses a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have long been touted as the next generation of antibiotics capable of filling the anti-infective void. Unfortunately, peptide-based antibiotics have yet to realize their potential as novel pharmaceuticals, in spite of the immense number of known AMP sequences and our improved understanding of their antibacterial mechanism of action. Recently, the immunomodulatory properties of certain AMPs have become appreciated. The ability of small synthetic peptides to protect against infection in vivo has demonstrated that modulation of the innate immune response is an effective strategy to further develop peptides as novel anti-infectives. This review focuses on the screening methods that have been used to assess novel peptide sequences for their antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties. It will also examine how we have progressed in our ability to identify and optimize peptides with desired biological characteristics and enhanced therapeutic potential. In addition, the current challenges to the development of peptides as anti-infectives are examined and the strategies being used to overcome these issues are discussed.

  5. Molecular cloning of a new immunomodulatory protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which induces B cell IgM secretion through a T-independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chou Kuan

    Full Text Available An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity.

  6. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  7. Effects of the endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom, and calyx fluid on cellular and humoral immunity of its host Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zi-Wen; Xu, Gang; Gan, Shi-Yu; Chen, Xuan; Fang, Qi; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-02-01

    The larval endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis injects venom and bracoviruses into its host Chilo suppressalis during oviposition. Here we study the effects of the polydnavirus (PDV)-carrying endoparasitoid C. chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom and calyx fluid on host cellular and humoral immunity, specifically hemocyte composition, cellular spreading, encapsulation and melanization. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) were higher in parasitized larvae than in unparasitized larvae in the late stages following parasitization. While both plasmatocyte and granulocyte fractions and hemocyte mortality did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized hosts, in vitro spreading behavior of hemocytes was inhibited significantly by parasitism throughout the course of parasitoid development. C. chilonis parasitism suppressed the encapsulation response and melanization in the early stages. Venom alone did not alter cellular immune responses, including effects on THCs, mortality, hemocyte composition, cell spreading and encapsulation, but venom did inhibit humoral immunity by reducing melanization within 6h after injection. In contrast to venom, calyx fluid had a significant effect on cell spreading, encapsulation and melanization from 6h after injection. Dose-response injection studies indicated the effects of venom and calyx fluid synergized, showing a stronger and more persistent reduction in immune system responses than the effect of either injected alone.

  8. A Study of Humor in Lost in Thailand from the Perspective of Presupposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2014-01-01

    Humor study enjoys a long history with a variety of theories and methods. Among them, the pragmatic approach is a relatively new and vigorous perspective. Scholars have adopted the cooperative principle and relevance theory to explain humor. However, as to studying humor from the perspective of pragmatic presupposition, very few researches have been done in this regard. Such being the case, this paper will use presupposition as a tool to analyze humor in Lost in Thailand which is a sensational comedy in China. By analyzing cases from this film, the paper aims to explore how presupposition functions in the production of humorous effect, and to provide some new insights into humor study.

  9. Glem ikke at bruge humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2017-01-01

    relationer og nærhed. Det er velkendt. Mindre velkendt er måske at gode relationer begynder med humor. Humorbegrebet kan begribes ud fra fire forskellige perspektiver. Humor bliver sammenlignet med leg, der er en undersøgende og seriøs form for læring mellem fantasi og virkelighed. Humor skaber sociale...... fællesskaber, der er grundlag for læring. Humor udvikler følelser, der er en motiverende faktor i undervisningen. Humor udvikler kognition, der er evnen til at kunne tænke....

  10. Effect of adjuvant ganglioside sodium therapy on nerve injury degree as well as cytokines and humoral immunity in patients with acute severe craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of adjuvant ganglioside sodium therapy on nerve injury degree as well as cytokines and humoral immunity in patients with acute severe craniocerebral injury. Methods:94 patients with severe craniocerebral injury treated in our hospital between March 2013 and March 2016 were selected and randomly divided into the ganglioside sodium group (GM1 group) and control group. Before treatment as well as after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment, serum levels of nerve injury molecules, nerve injury cytokines, inflammatory cytokines and humoral immune molecules were determined respectively.Results: After 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100β protein (S100β), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH L1), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) content of both groups were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05) while brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), IgG, IgM and IgA content were significantly higher than those before treatment (P<0.05), and serum NSE, S100β, UCH-L1, GFAP, hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 content of GM1 group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05) while BDNF, NGF, IgG, IgM and IgA content were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Adjuvant ganglioside sodium therapy can relieve the nerve injury, inhibit the inflammatory reaction and improve the humoral immune response in patients with acute severe craniocerebral injury.

  11. Effects of a humor-centered activity on disruptive behavior in patients in a general hospital psychiatric ward

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Higueras; Hugo Carretero-Dios; José P. Muñoz; Esther Idini; Ana Ortiz; Francisco Rincón; David Prieto-Merino; María M. Rodríguez del Águila

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio cuasi-experimental es analizar lo efectos de una actividad centrada en el humor sobre las conductas disruptivas de pacientes hospitalizados en un servicio de Psiquiatría. Se han comparado, teniendo en cuenta dos grupos homogéneos de pacientes hospitalizados en un servicio de Psiquiatría de hospital general (unidad de agudos), dos periodos temporales de 83 días cada uno, siendo el período 1 el de línea base, y el período 2, el de intervención. Para am...

  12. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  13. The value of humor in psycotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chazenbalk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns. 

  14. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  15. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  16. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Glycoprotein Isolated from the Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; He, Zehong; Li, Weifeng; Wang, Xiumei; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; Qi, Lin

    2017-08-25

    The yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb) is a well-known edible food and widely used as the traditional Chinese medicine. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of glycoprotein (DOT) from yam and explore its possible molecular mechanisms. Results showed that the DOT could improve the cell immunity, humoral immunity and phagocytic system function of the normal mice. The DOT could also increase the production of TNF-α, interleukin-6 and nitric oxide and enhance the pinocytosis function of macrophages. Furthermore, the DOT increased phosphor-p38, JNK, ERK1/2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein expression in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that DOT could be used as a potential immunostimulant and exert its immunomodulatory activity via mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB signal pathways. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effects of a humor-centered activity on disruptive behavior in patients in a general hospital psychiatric ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Higueras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio cuasi-experimental es analizar lo efectos de una actividad centrada en el humor sobre las conductas disruptivas de pacientes hospitalizados en un servicio de Psiquiatría. Se han comparado, teniendo en cuenta dos grupos homogéneos de pacientes hospitalizados en un servicio de Psiquiatría de hospital general (unidad de agudos, dos periodos temporales de 83 días cada uno, siendo el período 1 el de línea base, y el período 2, el de intervención. Para ambos periodos, se codificaron y registraron un total de diez conductas disruptivas. En los 83 días del periodo de intervención, y con una frecuencia de dos días semanales, dos actores profesionales llevaban a cabo las actividades centradas en el humor. Se calculó un Indice de Disrupción Global (IGD, teniendo en cuenta conjuntamente todas las conductas disruptivas, al igual que un Indice de Disrupción Específico (IDE para cada una de las conductas disruptivas. Usando para las comparaciones la corrección de Bonferroni, los resultados indican que el IGD descendió significativamente durante el periodo de intervención, siendo tres las conductas disruptivas que mostraron un descenso significativo (intentos de fuga, autolesiones y peleas.

  18. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understandingof the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter duri...

  19. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  20. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.

  1. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  2. Effects of dimerized lysozyme (KLP-602) on the cellular and humoral defence mechanisms in sheatfish (Silurus glanis): in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, M; Siwicki, A; Pozet, F; Klein, P; Vinaize, J C; Keck, N

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the dimerized lysozyme (KLP-602) on the immunocompetence cell activity in sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and its influence in vivo on the non-specific defence mechanisms and protection against motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS). The in vitro study showed that the lysozyme dimer (KLP-602), at concentrations between 5 and 50 micrograms/mL of medium significantly (P < 0.05) increased the respiratory burst activity and potential killing activity of pronephric macrophages, as well as the proliferative ability of pronephric lymphocytes stimulated by ConA and LPS. The in vivo study showed that injecting lysozyme dimer (Lydium-KLP) intraperitoneally at doses of 50 micrograms/kg bw stimulated cell-mediated and humoral-mediated imunity. On day 5, after application of Lydium-KLP in vivo, a statistically higher (P < 0.05) respiratory burst activity and potential killing activity of blood and pronephros phagocytes were observed. A higher proliferative ability of blood and pronephros lymphocytes stimulated by Concanavaline A (ConA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was also observed. At the same time, the myeloperoxidase activity in the PMN cells and the lysozyme activity and total Ig levels in serum were significantly higher (P < 0.05), compared to the control group. A challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila showed that dimerized lysozyme increased the protection against MAS. Dimerized lysozyme stimulates non-specific cellular and humoral mechanisms and protection against MAS in sheatfish.

  3. Humor in the classroom using faculty skits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cheryl Mixon; Noviello, Sheri Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The infusion of humor in the classroom through faculty-developed skits is a teaching-learning strategy that engages nursing students in the learning process. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for Adult Learners provides the framework for the use of humor as a strategy in higher education. Three exemplars are presented with a description of the specific strategy, an objective for each strategy, and the effect of the strategy on student engagement in nursing education. In the exemplars, the authors provide "ready to use" ideas with some "pearls of wisdom" for other faculty interested in developing similar learning activities.

  4. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  5. Antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activity of Xylopia discreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Cuca, L E; Delgado, G

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the in vitro antileishmanial activity of the essential oil and eight extracts obtained from Xylopia discreta. J774 and U937 macrophages were exposed to the different substances to establish the median lethal concentration (LC(50)). The median effective concentration (EC(50)) was obtained by determining the reduction of Leishmania panamensis-infected cells. A selectivity index (SI) (LC(50)/EC(50)) >or= 20 defined a specific activity for one Xylopia discreta leaf extracts and for the essential oil, being these the two that showed the highest activity (SI = 64.8 and 110, respectively in J774 cells). To assess the substances' immunomodulatory activity, pro- and anti-inflammatory soluble mediators produced after treating infected macrophages were quantified by flow cytometry. The leaf methanol extract and the essential oil induced a differential production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a chemokine associated with a Leishmania-resistant phenotype (Th1).

  6. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.

  7. Analysis of Humor in The Big Bang Theory Based on the Conversational Relevance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yang

    2014-01-01

    Humor is the life buoy in waves of life. Pragmatics and humor are closely linked. Relevance is one of the important topics of Pragmatics. This paper takes the lines from The Big Bang Theory as a case study and analyzes the humorous effect from the perspective of Principle of Relevance and Conversational Relevance, hoping to help people deepen the appreciation and un⁃derstanding of humor.

  8. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further.

  9. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  10. Study on Deep Structure of Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫林琼

    2007-01-01

    Humor is the common favorite of people in all walks of life and at all ages. Studying the deep structure of humor, that is, the psychological and cognitive foundation in producing and comprehending humor, is quite practical in helping people first to recognize, understand and appreciate others' humor and then to apply their own humor to their daily communication.

  11. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  12. 仙人掌多糖主要组分对糖尿病小鼠的免疫调节作用%Immunomodulatory effect of main component of Opuntia dillenii Haw.polysaccharides on mice with streptozotocin and cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松莲; 赵龙岩; 袁清霞; 程杰; 曾富华

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of Opuntia dillenii Haw. polysaccharides( ODPs) on immunomodulatory function of diabetic mice. Methods A diabetic mice model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and cyclophosphamide. The immunomodulatory effects of ODP-I on the diabetic mice were studied by determining NO content,phagocytesis of macrophages (MO) .levels of serum IgM and IgG, proliferation of spenocytes and T lymphocyte subets in peripheral blood. Results ODP-I (400 mg/kg) by o-ral administration could regulate NO contents of diabetic mice to nomal level, significantly increase phagocytosis of macrophage of diabetic mice, significantly increase levels of serum IgM and IgG of diabetic mice, and enhance the proliferation of T and B lymphocyte to normal level. ODP-I significantly raised CD8 + T lymphocytes percentage,thereby reducing the ratio of CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocyte and restored the ratio to normal level. Conclusion The results indicated that ODP-I could improve the immunity of the diabetic mice by regulating non-specific immune, humoral immune and cell immune, whose effects were better than those of Levamisole.%目的 研究野生仙人掌多糖(Opuntia dillenii Haw.Polysaccharides,ODPs)对糖尿病(DM)小鼠免疫调节作用的影响.方法 建立链脲佐菌素(STZ)+环磷酰胺(Cy)诱导的DM免疫功能低下复合模型,观察ODPs主要组分ODP-I对DM小鼠NO含量、腹腔巨噬细胞的吞噬功能、血清IgM和IgG的含量、脾淋巴细胞增殖反应、外周血T淋巴细胞亚群比例的影响.结果 400 mg/kg ODP-I能调节DM小鼠NO至正常水平;极显著增强DM小鼠巨噬细胞的吞噬功能;显著提高DM小鼠血清IgM或IgG的含量;显著提高DM小鼠T、B淋巴细胞的增殖能力,且使之恢复至正常水平;能通过提高CD8+T细胞亚群比例,降低CD4+/CD8+T细胞比值,使之恢复至正常水平,改善DM小鼠的免疫紊乱现象.结论 ODP-I能从DM小鼠的非特异性免疫、体液免疫、细胞

  13. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8 probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.

  14. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D Dowall

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP. It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  15. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Graham, Victoria A; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Watson, Robert; Taylor, Irene; Rule, Antony; Carroll, Miles W; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP). It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  16. Effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Bunglavan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The experimental research was conducted at Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. 63 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 equal groups on the basis of their mean body weight (BW (124.3±3.1 g BW following completely randomized design. Experimental feeding was similar in all the groups except for the source and level of selenium (Se in the diet. While Group 1 (control was fed a basal diet with no Se supplementation, in Groups 2 and 3, 150 ppb Se was supplemented either as sodium selenite or Se nanoparticles, respectively. In Groups 4, 5, 6 and 7, Se was supplemented as its nanoparticles at 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% levels respectively i.e. at 75 ppb, 37.5 ppb, 18.75 ppb and 9.375 ppb levels respectively. In Groups 8 and 9, 300 ppb Se was supplemented either as Se nanoparticles or sodium selenite, respectively. Experimental feeding was conducted for a period of 91 days. At the end of the experimental trial, blood samples were collected to analyze the blood serum biochemical profile (serum glucose, serum total protein (TP, serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin: globulin ratio [A:G ratio], serum total cholesterol and humoral immunity. Results: The levels of serum glucose, serum TP and serum albumin were comparable (p>0.05 among the nine groups of male Wistar rats. The mean serum total cholesterol was significantly (p<0.001 lowered in all the Se supplemented Wistar rats compared to the control group. The mean serum globulin level was significantly (p<0.05 higher and A:G ratio was significantly (p<0.05 lowered in Group 3 (supplemented with 150 ppb selenium nanoparticles followed by Groups 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 as compared to the control group. The mean serum antibody titer was significantly (p<0.001 higher

  17. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  18. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  19. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  20. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  1. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  2. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  3. [Effect of Yunnan-cobra venom factor in overcoming acute humoral rejection after allograft cardiac transplantation in presensitized recipients: experiment with rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Chen, Gang; Guo, Hui; Wang, Da-wei; Xie, Lin; Wang, Shu-sen; Wang, Wan-yu; Xiong, Yu-liang; Chen, Shi

    2006-06-06

    To investigate the effect of Yunnan-cobra venom factor (Y-CVF) in overcoming acute humoral rejection after allograft cardiac transplantation in presensitized recipients. Fifteen Lewis rats received the transplantation of full-thickness skin graft of BN rats three times so as to be presensitized. Fifteen pairs of Lewis rat, as recipients of heart, and BN rat, as heart donors, were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n = 8), and control group (n = 7). The Lewis rats in the experimental group received heart transplantation of the heart of the BN rat 7 approximately 10 days after the third skin transplantation, and were injected with Y-CVF 80 microg/kg 24 hours before the heart transplantation. The Lewis rat in the control group received only the heart transplantation without Y-CVF injection. Blood samples were collected from all rats before pre-sensitization and 7 days after the third skin transplantation so as to determine the titer of anti-BN rat lymphocyte antibody. 0 and 24 hours, and 6 and 8 days after Y-CVF injection blood samples were collected from the Lewis rats to determine the total complement activity with the complement activity before Y-CVF injection defined as 100%. The survival time of the transplanted heart was observed. After the transplanted hearts stopped to beat, they were resected and underwent HE staining and microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the deposition of IgG and complement 3 (C3). The titer of anti-BN rat lymphocyte antibody was 0 before the pre-sensitization, and increased to 1:1028 - 1:2056 7 days after the third skin pre-sensitization. The serum total complement activity of the Lewis rats decreased to 0 twenty-four hours after the Y-CVF injection, recovered to 2.01% - 15.41% 6 days after, and returned to the normal level (89.61% - 109.46%) 8 days after. The mean survival time of the transplanted hearts of the control group was 12.71 +/- 13.94 hours (with a range of 1.5 - 15 hours), significantly

  4. Phosprenyl: a novel drug with antiviral and immunomodulatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, L L; Maltsev, S D; Deyeva, A V; Narovlyansky, A N; Sanin, A V; Ozherelkov, S V; Pronin, A V

    1996-01-01

    A novel antiviral drug with immunomodulatory activity (Phosprenyl) is presented. The main active ingredient of the preparation is polyprenyl phosphates. This medicine is highly efficient against a number of viruses, including HIV in vitro, and tick-borne encephalitis and rabies viruses in the experimental models in vivo. In veterinary practice Phosprenyl is now regarded as an effective therapeutic means for treatment of canine distemper, hepatitis, enteritis, etc.

  5. Finding of a novel fungal immunomodulatory protein coding sequence in Ganoderma australe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea González Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most common human diseases with immune system compromise are autoimmune diseases, cancer, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Many of these diseases still have no treatment or their therapies have undesirable side effects. This has aroused a great interest in the search for new natural products with therapeutic potential and scientifically proven effects, showing minimal side effects. Formal clinical and pharmacological investigation in various medicinal fungi of the genus Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae has shown immunomodulatory effects and tumor growth inhibition in mammals, attributable to the presence of immunomodulatory proteins and other secondary metabolites. To date, six fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs have been reported in Ganoderma. This paper seeks to advance in the discovery of immunomodulatory proteins present in Ganoderma australe, through mycelium transcriptome 454 Roche® pyrosequencing (RNA-seq and bioinformatics analyses. The results suggest the presence of gene sequences related to an immunomodulatory protein which has been reported only once in other fungal species Taiwanofungus camphoratus. The candidate gene sequences found in G. australe exhibit high identity values in their amino acid composition and predicted protein secondary structure with the protein reported for Tai. camphoratus. According to present knowledge about the action mechanisms of these proteins, it is possible to suggest that this is a promising molecule for the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with certain immune deficiencies, cancer, and other diseases with compromised immune systems. Future studies are proposed in order to determine its immunomodulatory potential using in vitro and in vivo assays.

  6. Immunomodulatory Effect of Agave tequilana Evaluated on an Autoimmunity Like-SLE Model Induced in Balb/c Mice with Pristane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúlima Jannette Gutiérrez Nava

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the immunomodulatory activity of the acetone extract and the fructans obtained from Agave tequilana were evaluated, on the systemic autoimmunity type-SLE model generated by the administration of 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD, also known as pristane on Balb/c female mice. The systemic autoimmunity type-SLE was observed seven months after the application of TMPD, in which the animals from the negative control group (animals with damage and without any other treatment developed articular inflammation, proteinuria, an increment of the antinuclear antibody titters and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines levels (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α e IFN-γ as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The administration of the different treatments and the extracts of A. tequilana, provoked the decrease of: articular inflammation, the development of proteinuria, ssDNA/dsDNA antinuclear antibody titters and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10. The phytochemical analysis of the acetone extract identified the presence of the following compounds: β-sitosterol glycoside; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (phytol; octadecadienoic acid-2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester; stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one; cycloartenone and cycloartenol. Therefore, A. tequilana contains active compounds with the capacity to modify the evolution of the systemic autoimmunity type-SLE on a murine model.

  7. Immunomodulatory potential of shatavarins produced from Asparagus racemosus tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pise, Mashitha Vinod; Rudra, Jaishree Amal; Upadhyay, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Asparagus racemosus (vernacular name: Shatavari) are attributed to its steroidal saponins called shatavarins. This plant is facing the threat of being endangered due to several developmental, seasonal constrains and malpractices involved in its collection and storage. To support its conservation, a tissue culture protocol is standardized which produces 20 fold higher levels of shatavarin. Here we evaluate the bioactivity and immunomodulatory potential of in vitro produced shatavarins from cell cultures of AR using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In vitro produced shatavarin stimulated immune cell proliferation and IgG secretion in a dose dependent manner. It stimulated interleukin (IL)-12 production and inhibited production of IL-6. It also had strong modulatory effects on Th1/Th2 cytokine profile, indicating its potential application for immunotherapies where Th1/Th2 balance is envisaged. Our study demonstrating the bioactivity of tissue cultured AR extracts supports further in vivo evaluation of its immunomodulatory efficacy.

  8. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Dhiaa Ibraheem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor. The researchers of the present paper intend to show how the selected literary extract can be subjected to a linguistic pragmatic analysis and then be explained by applying the incongruity theory of humor by Kant (1790 in order to show the ways or the mechanisms that lead to the flouting, infringing and the violation of Gricean maxims can consequently lead to the creation of humor. Despite the fact that the present paper is qualitative in nature, some tables are provided by the researchers in order to reach into a better, deeper and more understandable analysis. Investigating the ways Gricean maxims are flouted, infringed and violated to create humor, and showing how the imperfect use of language sometimes create unintentional humor are the researchers’ aims of this paper. Keywords: pragmatics, humor, implicature, Gricean maxims, Measure for Measure

  9. Parasitic Nematode Immunomodulatory Strategies: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dustin; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-09-14

    More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Nematodes have evolved elegant strategies that allow them to evade, suppress, or modulate host immune responses in order to persist and spread in the host. Nematode immunomodulation involves the secretion of molecules that are capable of suppressing various aspects of the host immune response in order to promote nematode invasion. Immunomodulatory mechanisms can be identified in parasitic nematodes infecting insects, plants, and mammals and vary greatly in the specific tactics by which the parasites modify the host immune response. Nematode-derived immunomodulatory effects have also been shown to affect, negatively or positively, the outcome of some concurrent diseases suffered by the host. Understanding nematode immunomodulatory actions will potentially reveal novel targets that will in turn lead to the development of effective means for the control of destructive nematode parasites.

  10. Parasitic Nematode Immunomodulatory Strategies: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dustin; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Nematodes have evolved elegant strategies that allow them to evade, suppress, or modulate host immune responses in order to persist and spread in the host. Nematode immunomodulation involves the secretion of molecules that are capable of suppressing various aspects of the host immune response in order to promote nematode invasion. Immunomodulatory mechanisms can be identified in parasitic nematodes infecting insects, plants, and mammals and vary greatly in the specific tactics by which the parasites modify the host immune response. Nematode-derived immunomodulatory effects have also been shown to affect, negatively or positively, the outcome of some concurrent diseases suffered by the host. Understanding nematode immunomodulatory actions will potentially reveal novel targets that will in turn lead to the development of effective means for the control of destructive nematode parasites. PMID:27649248

  11. Parasitic Nematode Immunomodulatory Strategies: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Cooper

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Nematodes have evolved elegant strategies that allow them to evade, suppress, or modulate host immune responses in order to persist and spread in the host. Nematode immunomodulation involves the secretion of molecules that are capable of suppressing various aspects of the host immune response in order to promote nematode invasion. Immunomodulatory mechanisms can be identified in parasitic nematodes infecting insects, plants, and mammals and vary greatly in the specific tactics by which the parasites modify the host immune response. Nematode-derived immunomodulatory effects have also been shown to affect, negatively or positively, the outcome of some concurrent diseases suffered by the host. Understanding nematode immunomodulatory actions will potentially reveal novel targets that will in turn lead to the development of effective means for the control of destructive nematode parasites.

  12. On Untranslatability of Humor in Mark Twain's Novels and Compensating Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小路

    2016-01-01

    Mark Twain was a well-known 19th-century American author and a reputed critical realist. His novels are excellent for combining humor with irony, which reveal his criticism of kinds of miserable reality in American society. His humor is not just for humorous effect, but has serious and profound social connotations. So when readers of the target language are reading his novels, their understanding of the deep purpose and connotations would be influenced by the quality of translation of those humors. Therefore, translators must own language competence and sufficient knowledge about the cultural background, for humor is a typical example of untranslatability. This paper makes an analysis of the two types of untranslatability: the cultural untranslatability and the linguistic and takes translation of humor in Mark Twain's novels as examples to analyze the untranslatability of humor in literature and gives suggestions of compensating strategy.

  13. Activation of Macrophages by Lipopolysaccharide for Assessing the Immunomodulatory Property of Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shengwei; Chen, Zetao; Han, Pingping; Hu, Qingang; Xiao, Yin

    2017-03-24

    The design paradigm of biomaterials has been changed to ones with favorable immunomodulatory effects, indicating the importance of accurately evaluating the immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials. Among all the immune cells macrophages receive most attention, due to their plasticity and multiple roles in the materials and host interactions, and thereby become model immune cells for the evaluation of immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials in many studies. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a polysaccharide in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, elicit strong immune responses, which was often applied to activate macrophages, resulting in a proinflammatory M1 phenotype, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6. However, there is no consensus on how to apply macrophages and LPS to detect the immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials. The lack of scientific consideration of this issue has led to some inaccurate and insufficient conclusions on the immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials, and inconsistences between different research groups. In this study, we carried out a systemic study to investigate the stimulatory effects of LPS with different times, doses, and conditions on the activation of macrophages. An experimental pathway was proposed accordingly for the activation of macrophages using LPS for assessing the immunomodulatory property of biomaterials.

  14. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  15. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  16. Pragmatic Analysis on Verbal Humor in Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    As a nature of humanity, humor is a way of communication peculiar to human beings. Verbal humor is a cate-gory of humor which is used to express humorist ideas through language, and siteom as a unique comedy performance is an important carrier of humor. This paper applies some basic pragnmtic theories, such as Cooperative Principles (CP) and Relevance Theory(RT), to analyze the verbal humor in American popular situational comedy Friends, aiming to explore the generation mechanism of English humor. And then a better understanding and appreciation of English humor for English learners can be achieved.

  17. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  18. The case for immunomodulatory approaches in treating HSV encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Chandran; Openshaw, Harry; Cantin, Edouard M

    2013-03-01

    HSV encephalitis (HSE) is the most prevalent sporadic viral encephalitis. Although safe and effective antiviral therapies and greatly improved noninvasive diagnostic procedures have significantly improved outcomes, mortality (~20%) and debilitating neurological sequelae in survivors remain unacceptably high. An encouraging new development is that the focus is now shifting away from the virus exclusively, to include consideration of the host immune response to infection in the pathology underlying development of HSE. In this article, the authors discuss results from recent studies in experimental mouse models, as well as clinical reports that demonstrate a role for exaggerated host inflammatory responses in the brain in the development of HSE that is motivating researchers and clinicians to consider new therapeutic approaches for treating HSE. The authors also discuss results from a few studies that have shown that immunomodulatory drugs can be highly protective against HSE, which supports a role for deleterious host inflammatory responses in HSE. The impressive outcomes of some immunomodulatory approaches in mouse models of HSE emphasize the urgent need for clinical trials to rigorously evaluate combination antiviral and immunomodulatory therapy in comparison with standard antiviral therapy for treatment of HSE, and support for such an initiative is gaining momentum.

  19. Powerful Complex Immunoadjuvant Based on Synergistic Effect of Combined TLR4 and NOD2 Activation Significantly Enhances Magnitude of Humoral and Cellular Adaptive Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Dzharullaeva, Alina S; Tukhvatulina, Natalia M; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Shmarov, Maxim M; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Stanhope-Baker, Patricia; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gudkov, Andrei V; Logunov, Denis Y; Gintsburg, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    Binding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activates innate immune responses and contributes to development of adaptive immunity. Simultaneous stimulation of different types of PRRs can have synergistic immunostimulatory effects resulting in enhanced production of molecules that mediate innate immunity such as inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, etc. Here, we evaluated the impact of combined stimulation of PRRs from different families on adaptive immunity by generating alum-based vaccine formulations with ovalbumin as a model antigen and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist MPLA and the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) agonist MDP adsorbed individually or together on the alum-ovalbumin particles. Multiple in vitro and in vivo readouts of immune system activation all showed that while individual PRR agonists increased the immunogenicity of vaccines compared to alum alone, the combination of both PRR agonists was significantly more effective. Combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2 results in a stronger and broader transcriptional response in THP-1 cells compared to individual PRR stimulation. Immunostimulatory composition containing both PRR agonists (MPLA and MDP) in the context of the alum-based ovalbumin vaccine also enhanced uptake of vaccine particles by bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and promoted maturation (up-regulation of expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII) and activation (production of cytokines) of BMDCs. Finally, immunization of mice with vaccine particles containing both PRR agonists resulted in enhanced cellular immunity as indicated by increased proliferation and activation (IFN-γ production) of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following in vitro restimulation with ovalbumin and enhanced humoral immunity as indicated by higher titers of ovalbumin-specific IgG antibodies. These results indicate that combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2

  20. Assessment of yeast cell wall as replacements for antibiotic growth promoters in broiler diets: effects on performance, intestinal histo-morphology and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T K; Haldar, S; Bedford, M R; Muthusami, N; Samanta, I

    2012-04-01

    The study compared the effects of an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast cell wall (YCW) on performance, microbiology and histo-morphology of the small intestine and humoral immune responses in Ross 308 broilers. The treatments (eight replicates/treatment, n = 12/replicate) were negative control (NC, without AGP), positive control (PC, supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate, 400 mg/kg), Y and YCW (supplemented with yeast and YCW, respectively, 1000 mg/kg). Live weight at 42 days improved (p = 0.086) in the PC, Y and YCW groups. Feed conversion ratio was better (p = 0.039) in the YCW group compared with the other groups. Antibiotic growth promoter in the PC group shortened the villi in duodenum (p = 0.044). Mucosal Escherichia coli number was higher in the PC group (p Yeast cell wall -treated birds exhibited better (p yeast and the yeast cell wall may have effects identical to BMD on performance of broilers and thus may constitute an effective replacement strategy in the dietary regimens for broiler chickens.

  1. Decoding Humor Experiences from Brain Activity of People Viewing Comedy Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  2. Decoding humor experiences from brain activity of people viewing comedy movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Sawahata

    Full Text Available Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer's perception of humor (humor onset determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events.

  3. Immunomodulatory activity of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak M Kasote; Anand A Zanwar; Santosh T Devkar; Mahabaleshwar V Hegde; Keshav K Deshmukh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed in rat. Methods: Immunomodulatory activity of EPC-BF was assessed in rat at oral doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg using neutrophil adhesion test, heamagglutination test and measuring delayed type hypersensitivity response. Results: EPC-BF modulates immune response by significantly reducing cell-mediated immune response at oral dose 150 mg/kg but not at dose 300 mg/kg. However, EPC-BF did not affect on the neutrophil adhesion and humoral immunity at both the studied doses. Conclusion: EPC-PC modulates immune response by reducing cell-mediated immune response at lower dose but not at higher dose, which could be due to the presence of both immunostimulant and immunosuppressant phenols together in EPC-BF. These studies suggest that EPC-BF could be a promising source for new immune modifier.

  4. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  5. A preliminary study to understand the effect of Fasciola hepatica tegument on naïve macrophages and humoral responses in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haçarız, O; Sayers, G; Mulcahy, G

    2011-02-15

    Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke, is a highly evolved endo-parasite that uses various mechanisms to evade the host immune system. The immunosuppressive capabilities of the parasite's excretory/secretory products have been well demonstrated by previous independent studies. However, the role of the parasite's tegument in the immune responses remains to be investigated. In this study, the effect of the tegument and other fractions of adult F. hepatica (excretory/secretory, liver fluke homogenate and liver fluke homogenate without tegument) in the activation of naïve macrophages in vitro was investigated using an ovine model. In addition, an immunoproteomic approach was used to investigate the characteristics of humoral antibody responses developed in sheep against the tegument fraction. The results indicated significantly increased arginase expression in macrophages incubated with the tegument and excretory/secretory fractions. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis of the tegument demonstrated approximately 100 protein spots, with only four of these spots were highly reactive with the positive serum as determined by 2-DE immunoblotting. These results give a preliminary indication that the liver fluke tegument may play role in avoiding hosts' protective immune responses against itself.

  6. The effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata) broodstock and larval vaccination on the susceptibility by Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida and on the humoral immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, A; Bakopoulos, V; Leonardos, I; Dimitriadis, G J

    2005-10-01

    Sea bream broodstock were immunised 1 or 2 months before spawning with a novel photobacteriosis vaccine. Sixty-seven-day-old larvae (mean weight 22.3 mg) originating from immunised and non-immunised parents were experimentally infected with the Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida (Phdp). Larvae from immunised fish showed delayed onset and lower mortality (66.67%) compared with larvae from control fish (80%). Eighty-nine-day-old larvae (mean weight 162.2 mg) from both groups were bath vaccinated with Phdp and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and larval samples were collected for measurement of humoral parameters. Larvae vaccinated with Phdp and LPS showed significantly higher anti-protease activity, lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin compared to the controls. One-hundred-and-twenty-day-old larvae (mean weight 297.85 mg) from both parental groups were challenged with (LD70) virulent Phdp bacterial cells. Vaccinated larvae from both groups showed significantly less mortality compared to the respective controls. The RPS values of larvae from immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 95.83% and 72.22%, respectively. The RPS values of larvae from non-immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 62.5% and 70.83%, respectively. Results are discussed with respect to the beneficial effect of broodstock immunisation prior to spawning and the immunisation of larvae on their survival against photobacteriosis.

  7. Effects of hydrolysed Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and yeast cell wall components on live performance, intestinal histo-morphology and humoral immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, N; Haldar, S; Ghosh, T K; Bedford, M R

    2011-12-01

    1. The effects of enzymatically hydrolysed whole Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (HY) and the pellets of yeast cell wall (YCW) on production traits, the microbiology and histo-morphology of the small intestine, and humoral immune responses against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), of Ross 308 broilers were investigated. 2. The control group received a maize-soyabean meal based basal diet for 42 days. In the treated groups the basal diet was supplemented with 1 g/kg of HY and YCW. There were 8 replicate pens per group (n = 12 birds/pen). 3. HY and YCW supplementation improved live weight (P = 0·006) and FCR (P = 0·003) at 42-d as compared with the control group. 4. In the small intestine, Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli numbers were higher (P = 0·01) in the mucosa and lower (P = 0·01) in the digesta of the HY and the YCW fed groups at 25 d of age. Lactobacillus in the duodenal and jejunal digesta was higher (P yeast cell wall may be a better dietary tool than the hydrolysed whole yeast cell as a performance enhancer for broilers.

  8. Development of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-supplemented adjuvant and its effects on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in male rats immunized against sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOGUCHI, Junko; WATANABE, Shinya; NGUYEN, Thanh Q. Dang; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; KANEKO, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from non-pathogenic Escherichia coli was found to enhance the adjuvant effects of a veterinary vaccine adjuvant (ISA 71VG®). Sperm immunization using 71VG as an adjuvant in the immature period induced infertility in 25% of male rats, whereas this increased to 62.5% after immunization with 71VG + LPS or Freund′s complete adjuvant (FCA). Mean testicular weight of non-sterile males in the 71VG + LPS group was significantly lower than that in the 71VG or FCA group. Histological examination of testicular tissue from sterile males demonstrated severe impairment of spermatogenesis due to experimental autoimmune orchitis, a cell-mediated autoimmune condition. The serum anti-sperm titer was elevated in the three sperm-immunized groups relative to male rats treated with adjuvant alone, but the titer was higher in the 71VG + LPS and FCA groups than in the 71VG group. We consider that this LPS-supplemented adjuvant stimulates both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to an extent comparable to FCA. PMID:27890874

  9. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  10. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  11. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  12. Analysis of Black Humor in the Movie Forrest Gump From Rhetorical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱梅红; 刘立红

    2009-01-01

    The humorous effect is well presented throughout the American movie Forrest Gump by using kinds of rhetoric methods.This paper mainly focuses on the black humor in the movie from rhetorical perspective.It analyzes the application of certain rhetoric methods such as sarcasm,irony,simile,and hyperbole in the movie;and it also illustrates how the effect of black humor is achieved by giving a great number of examples.

  13. Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide from Chlorophytum borivilianum Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes (Liliaceae is an ayurvedic Rasayana herb with immunostimulating properties. The polysaccharide fraction (CBP derived from hot water extraction of C. borivilianum (CB, comprising of ~31% inulin-type fructans and ~25% acetylated mannans (of hot water-soluble extract, was evaluated for its effect on natural killer (NK cell activity (in vitro. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, isolated from whole blood on a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient, were tested in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of each C. borivilianum fraction for modulation of NK cell cytotoxic activity toward K562 cells. Preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation against P388 cells was performed to establish non-cytotoxic concentrations of the different fractions. Testing showed the observed significant stimulation of NK cell activity to be due to the CBP of C. borivilianum. Furthermore, in vivo evaluation carried out on Wistar strain albino rats for humoral response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs and immunoglobulin-level determination using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, exhibited an effectiveness of C. borivilianum aqueous extract in improving immune function. Present results provide useful information for understanding the role of CBP in modulating immune function.

  14. Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jacqueline S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Gregory, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of childhood cancer have been described as extremely stressful experiences in the life of a child. Anecdotally, children report that a sense of humor helps them cope with the daily experiences of living with cancer; however, no research has examined sense of humor and childhood cancer stressors. This study investigated the effect of sense of humor on the relationship between cancer stressors and children's psychosocial adjustment to cancer, immune function, and infection using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. A direct relationship was observed between sense of humor and psychosocial adjustment to cancer, such that children with a high sense of humor had greater psychological adjustment, regardless of the amount of cancer stressors. A moderating effect was observed for incidence of infection. As childhood cancer stressors increase, children with high coping humor scores reported fewer incidences of infection than low scorers.

  15. EFFECTS OF FLUNIXIN MEGLUMINE CONJUNCTIVAL SHOT OVER THE HUMOR AQUEOUS PROTEIN OF DOGS SUBMITTED TO THE PARACENTESIS OF THE ANTERIOR CHAMBER AVALIAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS DA FLUNIXINA MEGLUMINA, POR VIA SUBCONJUNTIVAL, SOBRE A CONCENTRAÇÃO E PADRÃO PROTEICO DO HUMOR AQUOSO DE CÃES SUBMETIDOS À PARACENTESE DA CÂMARA ANTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diniz Galera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Flunixin meglumine effects, over aqueous humor proteins of eyes on dogs who were submitted to paracentesis of the anterior chamber, were evaluated. To ten adult dogs clinically healthy were given a subconjunctival shot with flunixin meglumine (1.1mg/Kg on the right eye and sterilized saline solution 0.9% on the left eye, with the same volume. After general anesthesia, were submitted to two paracentesis of the both eyes to collect 0.2mL of first and second aqueous. The samples were submitted to Bradford test, wich proteins concentrations were  15.98mg/dL ± 4.48 e 11.46mg/dL ± 2.72 for the right and the left eyes, respectively, on the first paracentesis and 119.8mg/dL ± 6.74 e 120.63mg/dL ± 22.4 for the right and the left eyes, on the second paracentesis. There was no significant statistically differences between the protein values of the treated eyes in comparison with the control one. When compared, the proteins concentrations between the first and second paracentesis of the right and left eyes, statistic differences were found between these two moments (p<0.001. SDS-PAGE showed differences in the protein patterns of aqueous humor in result of the paracentesis.

    KEY WORDS: Aqueous humor, eye, flunixin meglumine, paracentesis, proteíns.

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da flunixina meglumina, pela via subconjuntival, sobre as proteínas do humor aquoso de olhos de cães submetidos à paracentese da câmara anterior. Dez animais adultos, clinicamente sadios, receberam, por aplicação subconjuntival, flunixina meglumina (1,1mg/kg no olho direito e solução salina estéril a 0,9% no olho esquerdo, em igual volume. Mediante anestesia geral, foram submetidos a duas paracenteses de ambos os olhos para coleta de 0,2mL de aquoso primário e secundário, respectivamente. As amostras foram submetidas ao Teste de Bradford, cujas concentrações proteicas (média e desvio-padrão obtidas foram de 15

  16. The Experience of Failed Humor: Implications for Interpersonal Affect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michele; Emich, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate failed interpersonal affect regulation through the lens of humor. We investigated individual differences that influenced people's affective and cognitive responses to failed humor and their willingness to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect after a failed attempt. Using well-established autobiographical narrative methods and surveys, we collected data at two time points. All participants (n = 127) received identical surveys at time 1. At time 2, they were randomly assigned to complete a narrative about either successful or failed humor as well as a second survey. Using moderated regression analyses and SEM, we found significant differences between our failed and successful humor conditions. Specifically, individual differences, including gender, affective perspective taking, and humor self-efficacy, were associated with negative reactions to failed humor and the willingness of individuals to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect. Moreover, affective perspective taking moderated the effect of gender in both the failed and successful humor conditions. Our results suggest that failed humor is no laughing matter. Understanding individuals' willingness to continue in attempts to regulate the affect of others contributes to the comprehension of an understudied phenomenon that has implications for interpersonal behavior in organizations such as helping, group decision making, and intragroup conflict. Studies of interpersonal affect regulation often focus on people's ability to successfully regulate others' emotions. In contrast, this is the first quantitative study to explore factors that influence individual's willingness to persist in interpersonal affect regulation after failure, and to investigate how individual differences influence the personal outcomes associated with failed attempts.

  17. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. The acceptability of humor between palliative care patients and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Julia; Dance, Derry; Pare, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Humor frequently occurs in palliative care environments; however, the acceptability of humor, particularly between patients and health care providers has not been previously examined. To explore the importance and acceptability of humor to participants who are patients in a palliative care context, the study determines if demographics are correlated with the degree of acceptability, and examines the acceptance of humor by patients with advanced illness when interacting with nurses or physicians. One hundred participants admitted to a palliative care unit or residential hospice were surveyed. Basic demographic data were collected, as well as responses on a five-point Likert scale to a variety of questions regarding the participants' attitudes about humor before and after their illness and the acceptability of humor in a palliative setting. Participants were also given the opportunity to comment freely on the topic of humor and the palliative experience. A large majority of participants valued humor highly both prior to (77%) and during (76%) their illness experience. Despite this valuation, the frequency of laughter in their daily lives diminished significantly as patients' illness progressed. Most participants remembered laughing with a nurse (87%) and a doctor (67%) in the week prior to the survey, and found humor with their doctors (75%) and nurses appropriate (88%). The vast majority of participants found humorous interactions with their health care providers acceptable and appropriate, and this may indicate a opportunity for enhanced and more effective end-of-life care in the future.

  19. Humor Styles and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model of Generalized Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that sense of humor may play a role in anxiety. The present study builds upon this work by exploring how individual differences in various humor styles, such as affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor, may fit within a contemporary research model of anxiety. In this model, intolerance of uncertainty is a fundamental personality characteristic that heightens excessive worry, thus increasing anxiety. We further propose that greater intolerance of uncertainty may also suppress the use of adaptive humor (affiliate and self-enhancing, and foster the increased use of maladaptive self-defeating humor. Initial correlational analyses provide empirical support for these proposals. In addition, we found that excessive worry and affiliative humor both served as significant mediators. In particular, heightened intolerance of uncertainty lead to both excessive worry and a reduction in affiliative humor use, which, in turn, increased anxiety. We also explored potential humor mediating effects for each of the individual worry content domains in this model. These analyses confirmed the importance of affiliative humor as a mediator for worry pertaining to a wide range of content domains (e.g., relationships, lack of confidence, the future and work. These findings were then discussed in terms of a combined model that considers how humor styles may impact the social sharing of positive and negative emotions.

  20. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  1. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓棠

    2014-01-01

    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  2. El humor es algo serio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guiralt Gomar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro colectivo El humor frente al poder. Prensa humorística, cultura política y poderes fácticos en España (1927-1987, editado por Enrique Bordería Ortiz, Francesc-Andreu Martínez Gallego y Josep Lluís Gómez Mompart y publicado en 2015 por Biblioteca Nueva, dentro de su “Colección Historia”. El volumen, resultado del Grupo de Investigación en Comunicación Humorística y Satírica (GRICOHUSA, consiste en una compilación de trabajos científicos y de gran rigor académico acerca de la prensa humorística y satírica española durante las dos transiciones políticas de la historia contemporánea de España. Así, en él se analizan en profundidad semanarios y rotativos fundamentales del periodismo de humor español, tales como La Traca, Gutiérrez, La Codorniz, El Jueves y El Papus, entre muchos otros.

  3. Humor in the eye tracker: attention capture and distraction from context cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W; Van Baaren, Rick; Van Knippenberg, Ad

    2010-01-01

    The humor effect refers to a robust finding in memory research that humorous information is easily recalled, at the expense of recall of nonhumorous information that was encoded in close temporal proximity. Previous research suggests that memory retrieval processes underlie this effect. That is, free recall is biased toward humorous information, which interferes with the retrieval of nonhumorous information. The present research tested an additional explanation that has not been specifically addressed before: Humor receives enhanced attention during information encoding, which decreases attention for context information. Participants observed humorous, nonhumorous positive, and nonhumorous neutral texts paired with novel consumer brands, while their eye movements were recorded using eye-tracker technology. The results confirmed that humor receives prolonged attention relative to both positive and neutral nonhumorous information. This enhanced attention correlated with impaired brand recognition.

  4. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal, as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and

  5. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  6. Comparison of the effects of IV administration of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin E(2) concentration in aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Margi A; Payton, Mark E

    2012-05-01

    To compare the effects of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine administered IV on the concentration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis. 15 adult dogs with ophthalmically normal eyes. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Treatment groups were saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL, IV), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, IV), and flunixin meglumine (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Each dog was anesthetized, treatment was administered, and aqueocentesis was performed on each eye at 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Aqueous humor samples were frozen at -80°C until assayed for PGE(2) concentration with an enzyme immunoassay kit. For all 4 treatment groups, PGE(2) concentration was significantly higher in samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, compared with that in samples obtained 30 minutes after treatment, which indicated aqueocentesis-induced PGE(2) synthesis. For aqueous humor samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, PGE(2) concentration did not differ significantly among groups treated with saline solution, meloxicam, and carprofen; however, the PGE(2) concentration for the group treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than that for each of the other 3 treatment groups. Flunixin meglumine was more effective than meloxicam or carprofen for minimizing the PGE(2) concentration in the aqueous humor of dogs with experimentally induced uveitis. Flunixin meglumine may be an appropriate pre-medication for use prior to intraocular surgery in dogs.

  7. Single-Dose Hepatitis A Immunization: 7.5-Year Observational Pilot Study in Nicaraguan Children to Assess Protective Effectiveness and Humoral Immune Memory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Orlando; Bühler, Silja; Jaeger, Veronika K; Bally, Seraina; Hatz, Christoph; Frösner, Gert; Protzer, Ulrike; Van Damme, Pierre; Egger, Matthias; Herzog, Christian

    2016-11-15

     Universal 2-dose hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination of toddlers effectively controls hepatitis A. High vaccine costs, however, impede implementation in endemic countries. To test single-dose vaccination as a possible alternative, we initiated an observational, longitudinal study in Nicaragua, to assess protective effectiveness and-through challenge vaccination-humoral immune memory response.  After a 2003 serosurvey, 130 originally seronegative children received one dose of virosomal HAV vaccine in 2005, followed by yearly serological and clinical assessments until 2012. After 7.5 years, a vaccine booster was administered. Concurrent antibody screening of patients presenting with hepatitis symptoms documented persistent HAV circulation in the communities studied.  Between serosurvey and vaccination, 25 children contracted hepatitis A subclinically (>8000 mIU/mL anti-HAV). In the remaining 105 children, immunization resulted in anti-HAV levels of 17-572 mIU/mL. Based on the ≥15% annual infection risk, an estimated 60% of children were exposed to HAV encounters during follow-up. No child presented with hepatitis symptoms. Serological breakthrough infection (7106 mIU/mL) was documented in 1 child, representing an estimated protective effectiveness of 98.3% (95% confidence interval, 87.9-99.8). Boosting elicited an average 29.7-fold increase of anti-HAV levels.  In children living in hyperendemic settings, a single dose of virosomal HAV vaccine is sufficient to activate immune memory and may provide long-term protection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Application of Pragmatic Theories on Humorous Language in Advertisement and their Translations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈亚媛; 周玉梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper will analyze the humorous language in advertisement and their English to Chinese and Chinese to English translations from the pragmatic perspective.Some pragmatic theories including the Relevance Theory,the Cooperative Principle,and the Speech Acts will be introduced to discuss how the humor effects and how to translate it efficiently,i.e.,achieving the equivalent effect in the context.The aim of the paper is to comprehend the humor and to analyze how to translate the humorous language in advertisements fromthe perspective ofpragmatics.

  9. Virtuous laughter: we should teach medical learners the art of humor

    OpenAIRE

    Simon J Oczkowski

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the stress and burnout suffered by critical care workers. Physicians have a responsibility to teach learners the skills required not only to treat patients, but to cope with the demands of a stressful profession. Humor has been neglected as a strategy to help learners develop into virtuous and resilient physicians. Humor can be used to reduce stress, address fears, and to create effective health care teams. However, there are forms of humor which can be hurt...

  10. Efeitos adversos metabólicos de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor Metabolic side effects of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Ribeiro Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Um aumento na incidência de obesidade e diabetes melito entre pacientes psiquiátricos foi observado ainda na década de 60, como resultado indesejável do uso de antipsicóticos. Nos anos 80 e 90, a reabilitação da clozapina, a síntese dos demais antipsicóticos atípicos e a disseminação do uso do lítio e do ácido valpróico chamaram novamente a atenção para os efeitos metabólicos desses medicamentos. Este estudo tem por objetivo revisar a literatura médica a respeito dos efeitos adversos metabólicos associados ao uso de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma extensa pesquisa nas bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS até outubro de 2005. CONCLUSÃO: Os efeitos adversos metabólicos permanecem como problemas importantes da psicofarmacologia. Ganho de peso clinicamente relevante ocorre com freqüência em pacientes em uso de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor, principalmente naqueles em uso de clozapina, olanzapina, lítio e ácido valpróico. A clozapina e a olanzapina associam-se também a uma maior incidência de diabetes melito e dislipidemias, seja devido ao ganho de peso, seja por ação deletéria direta sobre o metabolismo da glicose. A incidência de obesidade e outros distúrbios metabólicos é menor com a risperidona, se comparada à olanzapina ou à clozapina. Carbamazepina associa-se a menor ganho de peso, se comparada ao lítio ou ao ácido valpróico. Drogas como o haloperidol, a ziprasidona, o aripiprazol e a lamotrigina não estão associadas a ganho importante de peso ou a maior incidência de diabetes melito e são alternativas para pacientes mais propensos a desenvolver tais efeitos adversos.BACKGROUND: An increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in psychiatric patients using antipsychotic drugs was observed as early as the 1960's. In the 1980's and 1990's, rehabilitation of clozapine, synthesis of other atypical antipsychotics, and spread of the

  11. Progress of immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D and its relationship with autism%维生素D的免疫调节作用及其与自闭症关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯俊燕; 杜琳; 单玲; 王冰; 贾飞勇

    2014-01-01

    维生素D不仅是钙、磷代谢的重要生物调节因子,也是重要的免疫功能调节剂。研究发现维生素D缺乏性佝偻病除骨骼病变之外,同时可影响神经、肌肉、造血及免疫组织器官的功能。其中最引人注目的是维生素D的免疫调节功能。现就维生素D的免疫调节作用及其在自闭症患儿中的免疫学研究进展作一综述。%Vitamin D is not only an important biological regulatory factor of calcium and phosphate metabolism, but also an important modulator of immune function. Study has found that vitamin D deficiency rickets in addition to bone lesions, also can affect the nerves, muscles, blood and immune organ function. One of the most striking is the vitamin D immune function. Now the progress of immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D and its relationship with autism were reviewed in this article.

  12. 冬虫夏草及其产物免疫调节作用研究进展%Research progress on the immunomodulatory effects of Cordyceps sisnensis and its products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱朝阳; 刘高强

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis or 'Dongchong Xiacao' in Chinese is a special type of mushroom, which is formed on an insect larva infected by the fungus. It is a rare and precious medicinal mushroom with great medicinal value. In this paper, the immunomodulatory effects of the polysaccharide, mycelia and fruiting bodies, extract and fermented products of C. sinensis, as well were reviewed.%冬虫夏草(Cordyceps sinensis)是麦角菌科真菌冬虫夏草寄生在蝙蝠蛾科昆虫幼虫上的子座及幼虫尸体的复合物,具有重要的药理作用。对虫草多糖、虫草菌丝体/子实体,以及虫草提取物和发酵产物在免疫调节方面的最新研究进展进行了综述。

  13. The in vivo effects of neutralizing antibodies against IFN-γ, IL-4, or IL-10 on the humoral immune response in young and aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, R.; Tielemans, M.; Nagelkerken, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether age-related changes in the composition and functional properties of murine CD4+ T cells are reflected in vivo by a changed humoral response to influenza vaccine in aged mice. After the primary immunization, the titers of influenza-specific IgM, IgG1, IgG2

  14. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Joseph M; Wig, Gagan S; Adams, Reginald B; Janata, Petr; Kelley, William M

    2004-03-01

    Humor is a uniquely human quality whose neural substrates remain enigmatic. The present report combined dynamic, real-life content and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to dissociate humor detection ("getting the joke") from humor appreciation (the affective experience of mirth). During scanning, subjects viewed full-length episodes of the television sitcoms Seinfeld or The Simpsons. Brain activity time-locked to humor detection moments revealed increases in left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices, whereas brain activity time-locked to moments of humor appreciation revealed increases in bilateral regions of insular cortex and the amygdala. These findings provide evidence that humor depends critically upon extant neural systems important for resolving incongruities (humor detection) and for the expression of affect (humor appreciation).

  15. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  16. New and future immunomodulatory therapy in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James E; Waldron-Lynch, Frank; Herold, Kevan C

    2012-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a common autoimmune disease that affects millions of people worldwide and has an incidence that is increasing at a striking rate, especially in young children. It results from the targeted self-destruction of the insulin-secreting β cells of the pancreas and requires lifelong insulin treatment. The effects of chronic hyperglycemia - the result of insulin deficiency - include secondary endorgan complications. Over the past two decades our increased understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease has led to the development of new immunomodulatory treatments. None have yet received regulatory approval, but this report highlights recent progress in this area.

  17. Immunomodulatory properties of human adult and fetal multipotent mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Min; Yen, Men-Luh; Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Yen, B-Linju

    2011-07-18

    In recent years, a large number of studies have contributed to our understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms used by multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Initially isolated from the bone marrow (BM), MSCs have been found in many tissues but the strong immunomodulatory properties are best studied in BM MSCs. The immunomodulatory effects of BM MSCs are wide, extending to T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, and are therapeutically useful for treatment of immune-related diseases including graft-versus-host disease as well as possibly autoimmune diseases. However, BM MSCs are very rare cells and require an invasive procedure for procurement. Recently, MSCs have also been found in fetal-stage embryo-proper and extra-embryonic tissues, and these human fetal MSCs (F-MSCs) have a higher proliferative profile, and are capable of multilineage differentiation as well as exert strong immunomodulatory effects. As such, these F-MSCs can be viewed as alternative sources of MSCs. We review here the current understanding of the mechanisms behind the immunomodulatory properties of BM MSCs and F-MSCs. An increase in our understanding of MSC suppressor mechanisms will offer insights for prevalent clinical use of these versatile adult stem cells in the near future.

  18. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kevin B. MacDonald

    2008-01-01

    To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a) proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men). General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extr...

  19. Effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on growth performance, humoral and mucosal immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Yeganeh, Sakineh; Dadar, Maryam; Sakai, Masahiro; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation of Spirulina platensis at different levels (0% control, 2.5%, 5% and 10%) was evaluated to find out the effects on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, humoral and skin innate immune responses and disease resistance in the great sturgeon (Huso huso). After 8 weeks of experimental trial, growth parameters, intestinal lactic acid bacteria count, protease and lipase activities were significantly high in 10% S. platensis fed group (P < 0.05). Similarly, in this group, respiratory burst activity of leucocytes and total protein of serum were also significantly high. Furthermore, supplementation of S. platensis at 5 or 10% exhibited higher serum IgM and lysozyme activity than the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). On the contrary, serum triglycerides and number of blood lymphocytes were lower in experimental groups than that of control group. Total proteins, lysozyme, protease and esterase, as well as in vitro bactericidal activity (against Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Aeromonas hydrophila and Lactococcus garviea) were significantly high in skin mucus from fish fed 5% and 10% S. platensis, while, alkaline phosphatase was significantly high in fish fed 10% S. platensis (P < 0.05). Further, fish infected with Streptococcus iniae bacteria increased mortality, but it was alleviated by a diet supplemented with S. platensis. The present results demonstrate that this dietary supplementation with S. platensis (mainly at 10% level) could be useful for maintaining the overall health status of great sturgeon.

  20. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

  1. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  2. Immunomodulatory functions of type I interferons

    OpenAIRE

    González-Navajas, José M.; Lee, Jongdae; David, Michael; Raz, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-α (IFNα) and IFNβ, collectively known as type I IFNs, are the major effector cytokines of the host immune response against viral infections. However, the production of type I IFNs is also induced in response to bacterial ligands of innate immune receptors and/or bacterial infections, indicating a broader physiological role for these cytokines in host defence and homeostasis than was originally assumed. The main focus of this Review is the underappreciated immunomodulatory functions...

  3. TLR4 ligand formulation causes distinct effects on antigen-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Vergara, Julie; Desbien, Anthony L; Nana, Ghislain I; Vedvick, Thomas S; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2013-12-02

    The formulation of TLR ligands and other immunomodulators has a critical effect on their vaccine adjuvant activity. In this work, the synthetic TLR4 ligand GLA was formulated with three distinct vaccine delivery system platforms (aqueous suspension, liposome, or oil-in-water emulsion). The effect of the different formulations on the adaptive immune response to protein subunit vaccines was evaluated in the context of a recombinant malaria antigen, Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein (PbCSP). Antibody responses in vaccinated mice were similar for the different formulations of GLA. However, cell-mediated responses differed significantly depending on the adjuvant system; in particular, the emulsion formulation of the TLR4 ligand induced significantly enhanced cellular IFN-γ and TNF-α responses compared to the other formulations. The effects of differences in adjuvant formulation composition and physical characteristics on biological activity are discussed. These results illustrate the importance of formulation of immunostimulatory adjuvants (e.g. TLR ligands) on the resulting immune responses to adjuvanted vaccines and may play a critical role for combating diseases where T cell immunity is advantageous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of macrolide antibiotics and their use in dermatology%大环内酯类抗生素的抗炎与免疫调节作用在皮肤科的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 张锡宝

    2014-01-01

    大环内酯类抗生素除抗菌作用外,还兼有抗炎和免疫调节作用,主要通过抑制中性粒细胞趋化、迁移,促进免疫细胞凋亡,减少炎症介质释放,下调黏附分子表达及影响细胞信号转导通路等交织作用共同发挥抗炎和免疫调节活性.在皮肤科应用方面,除用于感染性皮肤病外,对某些炎症性或免疫性皮肤病,如银屑病、玫瑰糠疹、痤疮、酒渣鼻、苔藓样糠疹、融合性网状乳头瘤病、色素性痒疹、家族性慢性良性天疱疮、大疱性类天疱疮等亦有较好的疗效.%Apart from antimicrobial effects,macrolide antibiotics also have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects via inhibiting the chemotaxis and migration of neutrophils,accelerating the apoptosis of immune cells,attenuating the secretion of inflammatory mediators,down-regulating the expression of adhesion molecules and affecting cellular signal transduction pathways.In dermatology,macrolide antibiotics not only are used to treat infectious dermatoses,but also show favorable therapeutic effects on some inflammatory or immune dermatoses such as psoriasis,pityriasis rosea,acne,rosacea,pityriasis lichenoides,confluent and reticulated papillomatosis,prurigo pigmentosa,Hailey-Hailey disease,bullous pemphigoid,etc.

  5. Collagen hydrogel as an immunomodulatory scaffold in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tun; Zhang, Li; Li, Kuifeng; Fan, Hongsong; Fan, Yujiang; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-02-01

    A collagen type I hydrogel was constructed and used as the scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Neonatal rabbit chondrocytes were seeded into the hydrogel, and the constructs were cultured in vitro for 7, 14, and 28 days. The immunomodulatory effect of the hydrogel on seeded chondrocytes was carefully investigated. The expressions of major histocompatibility complex classes I and II of seeded chondrocytes increased with the time, which indicated that the immunogenicity also increased with the time. Meanwhile, the properly designed collagen type I hydrogel could prompt the chondrogenesis of engineered cartilage. The extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis ability of seeded chondrocytes and the accumulated ECM in the constructs continuously increased with the culture time. Both the isolation and protection, which come from formed ECM and hydrogel scaffold, can effectively control the adverse immunogenicity of seeded chondrocytes and even help to lessen the immunogenicity of the whole engineered cartilage. As the result, the levels of mixed lymphocyte chondrocyte reactions of seed cells and the constructs decreased gradually. The stimulation on allogeneic lymphocytes of the whole constructs was obviously lower than that of the retrieved cells from the constructs. Therefore, properly designed collagen type I hydrogel can give certain immunogenicity-reducing effects on engineered cartilage based on chondrocytes, and it may be a potential immunomodulatory biomaterial in tissue engineering.

  6. Comparative study on immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from different sources%不同来源成体骨髓间充质干细胞调控免疫功能的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵智刚; 王晓芳; 张翼鷟; 于泳; 杨洪亮

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the difference in immunomodulatory effects among non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)-, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)- and normal adult bone marrow-derived mesenthymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods MSCs were obtained from HL, NHL and normal adult bone marrow and cultured in expanded medium. Immunophenotype was investigated by FACS. The levels of cytokines were evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). T-cell suppression ability was evaluated by Transwell. Moreover, the immunoregulatory ability of HL-, NHL- and normal adult bone marrow-derived MSCs was detected by mixed lymphocyte culture assay. Results HL-, NHLand normal adult bone marrow-derived MSCs were similar in morphology and immunophenotype, and they did not express HLA-DR and co-stirnulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86). All HL-,NHL- and normal adult bone marrow-derived MSCs could significantly suppress T lymphocytes'proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and such an effect could be reversed by anti-TGF-β1 antibody.MSCs differentiated into various mesenchymal lineages did not alter their immunosuppressive effects on T-cell proliferation. Conclusion The similar immunomodulatory effects were found among HL-,NHL- and normal adult bone marrow-derived MSCs, which was not changed by differentiation.%目的 比较霍奇金淋巴瘤(HL)、非霍奇金淋巴瘤(NHL)患者与正常人骨髓间充质干细胞(MSC)的免疫调节能力.方法 获取正常人、HL和NHL患者的骨髓MSC,用低血清培养液进行培养.采用流式细胞仪检测骨髓MSC的免疫表型;应用酶联免疫吸附试验检测骨髓MSC培养上清液中转化生长因子β1(TGF-β1)的水平;采用Transwell培养体系检测骨髓MSC抑制T淋巴细胞增殖的能力;应用混合淋巴细胞反应检测骨髓MSC抑制异体T淋巴细胞增殖的能力.结果 正常人、HL和NHL患者骨髓间充质干细胞具有相似的细胞形态和免疫表型,均具有分泌TGF-β1的能力,均不表达HLA-DR和共刺激分子CD80

  7. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from Phellinus linteus and Phellinus igniarius on the IL-6/IL-10 cytokine balance of the mouse macrophage cell lines (RAW 264.7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Griensven, Van L.J.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus linteus and igniarius (L.) Quel. have been used in traditional Asian medicine for over two centuries against a variety of diseases. Polysaccharides from their fruiting bodies show strong immunomodulatory activity. In this study we characterized the structure and composition of polysacch

  8. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected

  9. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  10. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  11. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  12. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  13. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality.Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  14. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH). This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH). FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α) by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer immunotherapy.

  15. A Novel Immunomodulatory Hemocyanin from the Limpet Fissurella latimarginata Promotes Potent Anti-Tumor Activity in Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C.; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E.; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH). This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH). FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α) by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer immunotherapy. PMID

  16. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arancibia

    Full Text Available Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH. This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH. FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer

  17. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  18. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  19. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  20. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA...

  1. The Potency of Humor and Instructional Self-Efficacy on Art Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Palmer, Teri

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was sparked by a keen interest in art teachers who practice humor in challenging school environments. Stressors unique to art education can cause teachers to lose heart in such a way that their ability to perform is compromised. To teach effectively, teachers must maintain resilience to cope with stress. Pedagogical humor,…

  2. INFLUENCE OF METHOD OF QUESTIONING UPON CHILDREN'S RESPONSES TO HUMOROUS SITUATIONS IN LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSON, DIANNE L.

    TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF METHODS OF ELICITING CHILDREN'S RESPONSES TO HUMOR IN LITERATURE AND TO DETERMINE HOW THESE RESPONSES ARE AFFECTED BY SEX, SOCIOECONOMIC LEVEL, INTELLIGENCE, AND READING ABILITY, 365 FIFTH GRADERS WERE ASKED TO READ EXCERPTS CONTAINING ELEMENTS OF FIVE TYPES OF HUMOR. UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRES REQUIRING…

  3. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in Friends from the Perspective of Coopera-tive Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷宏

    2014-01-01

    Friends is a classical situation comedy in America in which humorous dialogues abound. With the theoretical frame-work of Cooperative Principle, this thesis extracts typical dialogues in American situation comedy Friends as data and discusses the characters’violation of maxims of Cooperative Principle together with the derived humorous effect.

  4. Challenges and future in vaccines, drug development, and immunomodulatory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Heather M; Nau, Gerard J; Ross, Ted M; Evans, Thomas G; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M; Flynn, JoAnne L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The "Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy" session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials.

  5. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Immunomodulatory Potential of Chosen Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sujatha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Antibiotic susceptibility is still the best way for bacterial pathogen escape mechanism against immunity. Approach: In the present investigation, bacterial pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to screen antibiotic susceptibility and immunomodulatory potential. Results: All the test pathogens were sensitive to all the test antibiotics 11±2 mm except penicillin. The conditions for the preparation of antigens of intact natural composition and conformation from pathogens (whole cell and heat killed, were determined using Swiss albino mice (Balb/C as experimental species. Immunomodulatory potential of test pathogens were screened using animal model. Test pathogen decreases the body weight comparing that of normal mice, some notable changes were also noted in activity, growth, water consumption, feed consumption. Antibody titre level in animal serum decreased upto 50% in whole cell pathogen and heat killed pathogen treated animals. Conclusion: The five pathogens administered animals, decrement in B-lymphocyte was much pronounced in Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila in the 5 week. Pathogen treated mice showed an IgG suppressive effect. It is found to be suppressive to T cell production, so induction in cell mediated immunity has confirmed pathogenic potential of test pathogens. All these test pathogenic strains were remarkably suppressing immune system of pathogen exposed animals.

  6. Immunomodulatory activities of five clinically used Chinese herbal polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Lu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide is a natural macromolecular compound with complex, important and multifaceted biological activities. Some of polysaccharides have been marketed in China as drugs or healthy products. More studies confirm that the active ingredient of many traditional Chinese medicine exist in the form of polysaccharides. They play a role in disease therapy by activating immune cells and the complement system; regulating the cytokines expression; promoting the production of antibodies; inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and inducing tumor cell apoptosis; inhibiting virus entering cells and replication; increasing activity of antioxidant enzyme; scavenging free radicals; and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. In this review, we focus on the immunomodulatory effects and its possible mechanism of polysaccharides from Chinese herbal polysaccharides products, including Lentinan, Astragalus polysaccharide, Polyporus polysaccharide and Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide. The immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides were categorized in the paper into general immunoregulatory activity, anti-tumor, anti-infections, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-mutagenic and radioprotective, anti-complementary, anti-adhesive, and anti-allergy since all the activities are related to modulate immune responses by the polysaccharides. Also the challenges in the research of polysaccharides will be discussed. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 15-27

  7. English Humor Derived from the Violation of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯凌虹

    2009-01-01

    Humor is a wisdom, which reflects a person's character, mind and educational level. Humor can be revealed in many ways, yet mainly by means oflanguage. Starting from the analysis of the language of English humor, this paper studies the ways of English humor, especially the English humor on the violation of Cooperative Principle. By analyzing the relationship of English humor and the Cooperative Principle, this paper aims at bettering our understanding and comprehension of the Cooperative Principle and English humor.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of dietary β-1,3-glucan from Euglena gracilis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immersion vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per Walter; Holten-Andersen, Lars; Fouz, Belén; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-07-01

    Potential immunostimulatory effects of orally administered β-glucan were investigated in combination with immersion vaccination against enteric redmouth disease caused by Yersinia ruckeri in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A linear, unbranched and pure (purity ≥98%) β-1,3-glucan (syn. paramylon) from the alga Euglena gracilis was applied at an inclusion level of 1% β-glucan in feed administered at a rate of 1% biomass day(-1) for 84 consecutive days. Fish were vaccinated after two weeks of experimental feeding and bath challenged with live Y. ruckeri six weeks post-vaccination. Blood and head kidney were sampled at day 0, 13 (1 day pre-vaccination), 15, 55, 59 (day 3 post-challenge (p.c.)), 70 and 84. Vaccination induced significantly increased survival p.c., whereas the β-glucan had no effect on survival in either unvaccinated or vaccinated fish. Expression in head kidney of genes related to the acute phase response, i.e. interleukin-1β (IL-1β), serum amyloid A (SAA), precerebellin, and hepcidin, was significantly different in vaccinated fish receiving β-glucan compared to vaccinated controls at day 3 p.c., while no effect of β-glucan was observed among unvaccinated fish. Significant interaction between β-glucan and vaccination was found for the regulation of IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, SAA, precerebellin and hepcidin p.c. For SAA, the significant effect of β-glucan in vaccinated fish persisted at day 14 p.c. and 28 p.c. The difference in gene expression among vaccinated fish was mainly observed as down-regulations in vaccinated, β-glucan fed fish compared to up-regulations or no regulation in vaccinated controls. Slightly increased levels of plasma lysozyme activity were found in fish (both unvaccinated and vaccinated) receiving β-glucan at day 3 p.c. compared to control fed groups. This was associated with a faster clearance of Y. ruckeri in unvaccinated fish receiving β-glucan. In contrast to the trend towards a

  9. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  10. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  11. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  12. Humor Use Moderates the Relation of Stressful Life Events With Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi L; Russek, Leslie N; Dillon, Melissa M

    2017-06-01

    Three studies examined humor and adjustment to stressful events. In Study 1, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome ( N = 22) reported on mental and physical adjustment, social interaction, and reappraisal of their illness. Dispositional humor was associated with reduced distress and fewer physical symptoms. Study 2 ( N = 109) examined undergraduates' reports of stressful events. Dispositional, self-enhancing, affiliative, and self-defeating humor showed direct effects on distress, which were mediated by social interaction and reappraisal. Moreover, dispositional and aggressive humor showed stress-buffering effects. Study 3 ( N = 105) examined undergraduates' adjustment to the September 11, 2001, attacks at 1 and 3 months postattack. At T1, affiliative humor showed a stress-buffering effect on distress. Social interaction mediated the relation of self-enhancing humor with reduced T1 distress, and mediated relations of aggressive and self-defeating humor with greater distress. Relations of T1 dispositional and self-defeating humor to changes in T2 distress were mediated by reappraisal.

  13. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gelkopf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  14. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  15. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  16. Immunomodulatory Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hung Lin; Ching-Hua Yeh; Li-Jen Lin; Shulhn-Der Wang; Jen-Shu Wang; Shung-Te Kao

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang (SFYCT), consisting of 13 medicinal plants, was used to treat patients with lung diseases. This study investigated the immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT on intratracheal lipopolysaccharides- (LPS-) challenged acute lung injury (ALI) mice. SFYCT attenuated pulmonary edema, macrophages, and neutrophils infiltration in the airways. SFYCT decreased inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF α ), interleukin-1 β , and...

  17. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Hot-nature diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Mehdi, Farhoudi; Mehrangiz, Ebrahimi-Mamaghani; Baradaran, Behzad; Sadeghihokmabad, Elyar; Mostafaei, Somaiyeh; Fazljou, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Torbati, Mohammad-ali; Sanaie, Sarvin; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most chronic and inflammatory disorder. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. This study was aimed to assess the potential therapeutic effects of hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-nature dietary intervention on RRMS patients. In this double blind, randomized trial, 100 MS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into 3 groups: "Group A" who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot-nature diet, "Group B" who received olive oil, "Group C" who received the co-supplemented oils. Mizadj, clinically EDSS and relapse rate as well as immunological factors (IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17) were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25±8.07 years with disease duration 6.80±4.33 years). There was no significant difference in studies parameters at baseline. After 6 months, significant improvements in Mizadj, EDSS and relapse rate were found in the groups A and C, while the group B showed a border significant decrease in relapse rate. Immunological parameters showed improvement in groups A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for group B after the intervention. The co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with Hot-nature diet have beneficial effects in improving of clinical score in RRMS patients which were confirmed by immunological findings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields stimulation modulates autoimmunity and immune responses: a possible immuno-modulatory therapeutic effect in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guerriero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines. Transcranial electromagnetic brain stimulation is a non-invasive novel technique used recently to treat different neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease. Despite its proven value, the mechanisms through which EMF brain-stimulation exerts its beneficial action on neuronal function remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that its beneficial effects may be due to a neuroprotective effect on oxidative cell damage. On the basis of in vitro and clinical studies on brain activity, modulation by ELF-EMFs could possibly counteract the aberrant pro-inflammatory responses present in neurodegenerative disorders reducing their severity and their onset. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of the published literature on EMFs and outline the most promising effects of ELF-EMFs in developing treatments of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, we review data supporting the role of ELF-EMF in generating immune-modulatory responses, neuromodulation, and potential neuroprotective benefits. Nonetheless, we reckon that the underlying mechanisms of interaction between EMF and the immune system are still to be completely understood and need further studies at a molecular level.

  19. Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells is not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Wilbers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs affect T cells. Therefore we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation. The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells, however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydrate containing adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.

  20. Virtuous laughter: we should teach medical learners the art of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Simon

    2015-05-11

    There is increasing recognition of the stress and burnout suffered by critical care workers. Physicians have a responsibility to teach learners the skills required not only to treat patients, but to cope with the demands of a stressful profession. Humor has been neglected as a strategy to help learners develop into virtuous and resilient physicians. Humor can be used to reduce stress, address fears, and to create effective health care teams. However, there are forms of humor which can be hurtful or discriminatory. In order to maximize the benefits of humor and to reduce its harms, we need to teach and model the effective and virtuous use of humor in the intensive care unit.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Mechanism of Tanshinone IIA for Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan II A is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. It has been demonstrated to have pleiotropic effects for atherosclerosis. From the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanism perspective, this paper reviewed major progresses of Tan IIA in antiatherosclerosis research, including immune cells, antigens, cytokines, and cell signaling pathways.

  2. Immunomodulatory properties of oat and barley β-glucan populations on bone marrow derived dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosch, Christiane; Meijerink, Marjolein; Delahaije, Roy J.B.M.; Taverne, Nico; Gruppen, Harry; Wells, Jerry M.; Schols, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Specific structures of oat and barley β(1,3)(1,4)-glucans induced different in vitro immunomodulatory effects in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from TLR2/4 knock out mice. All barley β-glucan fractions induced larger amounts of cytokines in BMDCs than their oat equivalents. The particula

  3. Effect of post-exercise protein-leucine feeding on neutrophil function, immunomodulatory plasma metabolites and cortisol during a 6-day block of intense cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andre R; Jackson, Lara; Clarke, Jim; Stellingwerff, Trent; Broadbent, Suzanne; Rowlands, David S

    2013-09-01

    Whey protein and leucine ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and could influence neutrophil function during recovery from prolonged intense exercise. We examined the effects of whey protein and leucine ingestion post-exercise on neutrophil function and immunomodulators during a period of intense cycling. In a randomized double-blind crossover, 12 male cyclists ingested protein/leucine/carbohydrate/fat (LEUPRO 20/7.5/89/22 g h(-1), respectively) or isocaloric carbohydrate/fat control (CON 119/22 g h(-1)) beverages for 1-3 h post-exercise during 6 days of high-intensity training. Blood was taken pre- and post-exercise on days 1, 2, 4 and 6 for phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated neutrophil superoxide (O2 (-)) production, immune cell counts, amino acid and lipid metabolism via metabolomics, hormones (cortisol, testosterone) and cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-10). During recovery on day 1, LEUPRO ingestion increased mean concentrations of plasma amino acids (glycine, arginine, glutamine, leucine) and myristic acid metabolites (acylcarnitines C14, myristoylcarnitine; and C14:1-OH, hydroxymyristoleylcarnitine) with neutrophil priming capacity, and reduced neutrophil O2 production (15-17 mmol O2 (-) cell(-1) ± 90 % confidence limits 20 mmol O2 (-) cell(-1)). On day 2, LEUPRO increased pre-exercise plasma volume (6.6 ± 3.8 %) but haematological effects were trivial. LEUPRO supplementation did not substantially alter neutrophil elastase, testosterone, or cytokine concentrations. By day 6, however, LEUPRO reduced pre-exercise cortisol 21 % (±15 %) and acylcarnitine C16 (palmitoylcarnitine) during exercise, and increased post-exercise neutrophil O2 (-) (33 ± 20 mmol O2 (-) cell(-1)), relative to control. Altered plasma amino acid and acylcarnitine concentrations with protein-leucine feeding might partly explain the acute post-exercise reduction in neutrophil function and increased exercise-stimulated neutrophil oxidative burst on

  4. Oral Serum-Derived Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Has Immunomodulatory Effects on the Colon of Mice that Spontaneously Develop Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijó, Mònica; Polo, Javier; Campbell, Joy M.; Russell, Louis; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Weaver, Eric; Moretó, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Dietary immunoglobulin concentrates prepared from animal plasma can modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Previous studies have revealed that supplementation with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) ameliorates colonic barrier alterations in the mdr1a-/- genetic mouse model of IBD. Here, we examine the effects of SBI on mucosal inflammation in mdr1a-/- mice that spontaneously develop colitis. Wild type (WT) mice and mice lacking the mdr1a gene (KO) were fed diets supplemented with either SBI (2% w/w) or milk proteins (Control diet), from day 21 (weaning) until day 56. Leucocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and in lamina propria were determined, as was mucosal cytokine production. Neutrophil recruitment and activation in MLN and lamina propria of KO mice were increased, but were significantly reduced in both by SBI supplementation (p animals, but SBI prevented these changes (both p < 0.05). In the colon of KO mice, there was an increased production of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 (2-fold), IL-6 (26-fold) and IL-17 (19-fold), and of chemokines MIP-1β (4.5-fold) and MCP-1 (7.2-fold). These effects were significantly prevented by SBI (p < 0.05). SBI also significantly increased TGF-β secretion in the colon mucosa, suggesting a role of this anti-inflammatory cytokine in the modulation of GALT and the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory response during the onset of colitis. PMID:27139220

  5. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  6. Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biedron R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis L. due to its origin in Brazilian rain forest, is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which also comprises medicinal mushrooms such as Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. AbM has been used in traditional medicine locally and also recently as a health food worldwide. Since it has been found to possess immunomodulatory properties, its biological and health-related effects, as well as its isolated active ingredients e.g. beta-glucans, have been examined by scientists. Otherinvestigations have been performed with mixed mushroom products, such as AndoSanTM, which contains mostly AbM, but also the two other mushrooms above. AbM-related benefits reviewed here include effects against cancer, infections, inflammation, allergy/ asthma and diabetes. Effects of AndoSanTMand other AbM-based extracts have been compared in a bacterial sepsis model.

  7. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichers Harry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei were found to contain (1→6,(1→4-linked α-glucan, (1→6-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly

  8. In vitro immunomodulatory activity and in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential with gastroprotective effect of the Mediterranean red alga Laurencia obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajili, Sirine; Deghrigue, Monia; Bel Haj Amor, Haifa; Muller, Christian D; Bouraoui, Abderrahman

    2016-11-01

    Red algae have been recognized as a rich natural source of compounds possessing interesting biological and pharmacological activities. This work investigates anti-inflammatory, analgesic and gastroprotective activities of MeOH/CH2Cl2 crude extract and its fractions F1 (50% MeOH) and F2 (80% MeOH) from the whole alga plant Laurencia obtusa Hudson (Rhodomelaceae). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using cytometric bead array (CBA) technology to follow up the secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide activated THP-1 monocytic cells at doses of 10-250 μg/mL and in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in Wistar rats at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Crude extract and fractions were tested at the doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for peripheral and central analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot-plate method, respectively, in Swiss albino mice. Gastroprotective activity was evaluated using HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer test in rats at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Crude extract, F1 and F2 showed an interesting inhibition of TNF-α secretion with IC50 values of 25, 52 and 24 μg/mL, respectively, and a significant anti-inflammatory activity in vivo (p <  0.01), 3 h after carrageenan injection, the oedema inhibition was 55.37%, 52.18% and 62.86%, respectively, at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Furthermore, they showed a significant peripheral analgesic activity with 53.79%, 55.92% and 57.37% (p <  0.01) of writhing inhibition, respectively. However, no significant activity was found in the hot-plate test. An interesting gastroprotective effect was observed with crude extract and its fractions F1 and F2 with a gastric ulcer inhibition of 65.48%, 77.42% and 81.29%, respectively, at the dose of 50 mg/kg. These results suggest that L. obtusa might be used as a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents with gastroprotective effect.

  9. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor variously. Sometimes people can feel happy when they hear humor; but sometimes they can feel infuriated, hateful, insinuated, or even aggrieved. This is caused by immeasurable humor context in each communication. It depends on the target that the humor creator wants.

  10. Immunomodulatory effect of non-viable components of probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus on holoxenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Ditu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Competition of probiotic bacteria with other species from the intestinal microbiota involves different mechanisms that occur regardless of probiotics’ viability. The objective of this paper was to assess the cytokine serum levels in holoxenic mice after oral administration of non-viable components (NVC of Enterococcus faecium probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in comparison to NVC of unstimulated E. faecium probiotic culture. Methods: Probiotic E. faecium CMGb 16 culture, grown in the presence of heat-inactivated cultures of E. coli and B. cereus CMGB 102, was subsequently separated into supernatant (SN and heat-inactivated cellular sediment (CS fractions by centrifugation. Each NVC was orally administered to holoxenic mice (balb C mouse strain, in three doses, given at 24 hours. Blood samples were collected from the retinal artery, at 7, 14, and 21 days after the first administration of the NVC. The serum concentrations of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α interleukins were assessed by ELISA method. Results: After the oral administration of SN component obtained from the probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated cultures of B. cereus CMGB 102 and E. coli O28, the serum concentrations of IL-12 were maintained higher in the samples collected at 7 and 14 days post-administration. No specific TNF-α profile could be established, depending on stimulated or non-stimulated probiotic culture, NVC fraction, or harvesting time. Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate that non-viable fractions of probiotic bacteria, stimulated by other bacterial species, could induce immunostimulatory effects mediated by cytokines and act, therefore, as immunological adjuvants.

  11. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 polymorphism interaction with spirulina immunomodulatory effects in healthy Korean elderly: A 16 week, double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Spirulina is a known a functional food related to lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity. Circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) level is associated with inflammation markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the MCP-1 promoter region -2518 have been identified and shown to affect gene transcription. Gene variation may also impact functional food supplementary effects. The current study investigated the interaction of MCP-1 -2518 polymorphism with spirulina supplements on anti-inflammatory capacity in Korean elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS After genotyping, healthy elderly subjects (n = 78) were included in a randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled study. Baseline characteristic, body composition, and dietary intake were measured twice (baseline vs. week 16). For 16 weeks, subjects consumed 8 g either spirulina or placebo daily. Plasma MCP-1, interleukin (IL) -2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, complement (C) 3, immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and Ig A concentrations and lymphocyte proliferation rate (LPR) were analyzed as inflammatory markers. RESULTS In the placebo group with A/A genotype, MCP-1 level was significantly increased, but the spirulina group with A/A genotype was unchanged. IL-2 was significantly increased only in subjects with spirulina supplementation. TNF-α was significantly reduced in subjects with the G carrier. C3 was significantly increased in the placebo group, particularly when A/A increased more than G, but not when spirulina was ingested. LPR was significantly different only in subjects with A/A genotype; there was a significant increase in phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide induced LPR in the spirulina group. CONCLUSION In healthy Korean elderly, spirulina supplementation may influence different inflammatory markers by the MCP-1 genotype. These results may be useful for customized dietary guidelines to improve immune function in Koreans. PMID:28765775

  12. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Combined administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate boosted immunomodulatory, disease resistance and growth enhancing effects of Lactobacillus plantarum in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doan, Hien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Tapingkae, Wanaporn; Tongsiri, Sudaporn; Khamtavee, Pimporn

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigates the effects of combined or singular administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate (LWMSA) and Lactobacillus plantarum on innate immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Three hundred and twenty fish were supplied and randomly stocked in sixteen glass tanks (150 L) assigned to four treatments as follows: 0 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Control, Diet 1), 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Diet 2), 10(8) CFU g(-1)L. plantarum (Diet 3), and 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA + 10(8) CFU g(-1)L. plantarum (Diet 4). Following 30 and 60 days of the feeding trial, serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and alternative complement activities as well as growth performance parameters (specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio) were measured. Serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and alternative complement activities of fish were significantly stimulated by both LMWSA and L. plantarum diets, however, the highest innate immune response were observed in fish fed synbiotic diet. At the end of the experiment, eight fish per replication were randomly selected for a challenge test against Streptococcus agalactiae. The survival rate of the fish fed supplemented diets was significantly greater than the control treatment and the highest post challenge survival rate was observed in synbiotic diet. Furthermore, SGR and FCR were significantly improved in fish fed supplemented diets after 60 days and the highest growth performance was observed in fish fed synbiotic diet. These results suggest combined LMWSA and L. plantarum can be considered as a promising immunostimulant and growth enhancer in Nile tilapia diet.

  14. Immunomodulatory properties of defensins and cathelicidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdish, D M E; Davidson, D J; Hancock, R E W

    2006-01-01

    Host defence peptides are a conserved component of the innate immune response in all complex life forms. In humans, the major classes of host defence peptides include the alpha- and beta-defensins and the cathelicidin, hCAP-18/LL-37. These peptides are expressed in the granules of neutrophils and by a wide variety of tissue types. They have many roles in the immune response including both indirect and direct antimicrobial activity, the ability to act as chemokines as well as induce chemokine production leading to recruitment of leukocytes to the site of infection, the promotion of wound healing and an ability to modulate adaptive immunity. It appears that many of these properties are mediated though direct interaction of peptides with the cells of the innate immune response including monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells and epithelial cells. The importance of these peptides in immune responses has been demonstrated since animals defective in the expression of certain host defence peptides show greater susceptibility to bacterial infections. In the very few instances in which human patients have been demonstrated to have defective host defence peptide expression, these individuals suffer from frequent infections. Although studies of the immunomodulatory properties of these peptides are in their infancy, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the immunomodulatory properties of these small, naturally occurring molecules might be harnessed for development as novel therapeutic agents.

  15. Lessons in Détente or know thy host: The immunomodulatory gene products of myxoma virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Martha C Zúñiga

    2003-04-01

    The poxvirus, myxoma virus, encodes within its genome at least eleven different proteins that compromise, skew, or disable the innate and adaptive responses of its hosts. In the laboratory rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, these effects result in myxomatosis, a fatal condition characterized by skin lesions and systemic immunosuppression. Interestingly, while myxoma infection also causes skin lesions in its natural host and in natural populations of O. cuniculus in Australia where this novel host and the virus have co-evolved, the condition of myxomatosis does not ensue and infection is not fatal. In this review I discuss the biochemical properties of the characterized immunomodulatory proteins of myxoma virus, and their pathogenic effects in laboratory rabbits. Disruption of any one myxoma immunomodulatory gene diminishes the severity of the infection without compromising infectivity. Thus, the characterized immunomodulatory genes appear not to be required for a productive infection in vivo. The differences in the severity of their effects in laboratory-bred versus wild O. cuniculus suggest that the outcome of myxoma infection is a consequence of the interplay between the viral immunomodulatory gene products and the cells and molecules of the host immune system.

  16. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  17. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We

  18. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We analy

  19. 柠檬醛亚微乳对哮喘大鼠的免疫调节作用%Immunomodulatory Effects of Citral Submicron Emulsion on Asthmatic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 袁菁菁; 丁兴红; 钱俊华

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate effects and mechanisms of citral submicron emulsion on asthma in Wistar rats. [Methods] Sixty Wistar rats were divided into six groups randomly, which were blank group, model group, positive control group, low, middle, high dose citral submicron emulsion groups. Rats were sensitized with antigen(ovalbumin, OVA). After two weeks, the sensitized rats were chal enged with OVA(10 g·L-1), and before the rats chal enged 2 hours were pretreated with citral submicron emulsion, once per day, every time 30 min, for four weeks. After 24 hours last atomization attack, white blood celldifferential amount, eosinophil amount, the content of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) were detected. Histological changes of lung tissue were determined. [Results] Compared with blank group, EOS and IL-4 were significantly increased( P<0.01), while IFN-gamma was significantly decreased in model group( P<0.01). Compared with model group, the levels of EOS and IL-4 were significantly reduced( P<0.01), the level of IFN-gamma was increased in positive group( P<0.01). EOS and IL-4 were decreased significantly in high dose group( P<0.01), while the content of IFN-gamma was obviously increased(P<0.05). [Conclusion] EOS, IL-4 and IFN gamma play an important role in the development of asthma. Citral submicron emulsion relieved the airway inflammation in rats by reducing EOS, IL-4 level, and increasing IFN-γlevel possibly.%[目的]探讨柠檬醛亚微乳对哮喘大鼠的免疫调节作用及其作用机制。[方法]将60只Wistar大鼠随机分为空白组、模型组、阳性对照组、柠檬醛亚微乳低、中、高剂量组。以卵白蛋白(OVA)致敏大鼠,2周后给予1%OVA雾化激发,在雾化激发前2h用柠檬醛亚微乳剂雾化给药,连续4周。末次雾化攻击24h后,计数肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中白细胞总数和嗜酸性粒细胞(Eosinophil,EOS)数量,测定BALF中IL-4和IFN-γ的含量,并检测肺组

  20. Denosumab is Effective for Controlling Serum Calcium Levels in Patients with Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Syndrome: A Case Report on Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein-producing Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Norihiro; Nakajima, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Mutsuhiro; Shirahata, Kumiko; Maeda, Chika; Uehara, Takeshi; Gomi, Daisuke; Ito, Nobuo

    Hypercalcemia resulting in the elevation of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and suppression of serum PTH was observed in a patient with advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) and multiple lymph node metastases. We confirmed humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy based on PTHrP-producing CCC. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin could not control the patient's serum PTHrP levels and the patient was affected with bisphosphonate-refractory hypercalcemia. We administered a single dose of denosumab, an anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand monoclonal antibody, and the patient's serum calcium levels remained close to the normal range for approximately 3 weeks without additional treatment.