WorldWideScience

Sample records for humoral immunomodulatory effects

  1. Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunomodulatory effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella eFranquesa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research on T cell immunosuppression therapies has attracted most of the attention in clinical transplantation. However, B cells and humoral immune responses are increasingly acknowledged as crucial mediators of chronic allograft rejection. Indeed, humoral immune responses can lead to renal allograft rejection even in patients whose cell-mediated immune responses are well controlled. On the other hand, newly studied B cell subsets with regulatory effects have been linked to tolerance achievement in transplantation. Better understanding of the regulatory and effector B cell responses may therefore lead to new therapeutic approaches.Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC are arising as a potent therapeutic tool in transplantation due to their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. The research on MSCs has mainly focused on their effects on T cells and although data regarding the modulatory effects of MSCs on alloantigen-specific humoral response in humans is scarce, it has been demonstrated that MSCs significantly affect B cell functioning. In the present review we will analyze and discuss the results in this field.

  3. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  4. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  5. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Serotonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT induces concentration-dependent metabolic effects in diverse cell types, including neurons, entherochromaffin cells, adipocytes, pancreatic beta-cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, and leukocytes. Three classes of genes regulating 5-HT function are constitutively expressed or induced in these cells: (a membrane proteins that regulate the response to 5-HT, such as SERT, 5HTR-GPCR, and the 5HT3-ion channels; (b downstream signaling transduction proteins; and (c enzymes controlling 5-HT metabolism, such as IDO and MAO, which can generate biologically active catabolites, including melatonin, kynurenines, and kynurenamines. This review covers the clinical and experimental mechanisms involved in 5-HT-induced immunomodulation. These mechanisms are cell-specific and depend on the expression of serotonergic components in immune cells. Consequently, 5-HT can modulate several immunological events, such as chemotaxis, leukocyte activation, proliferation, cytokine secretion, anergy, and apoptosis. The effects of 5-HT on immune cells may be relevant in the clinical outcome of pathologies with an inflammatory component. Major depression, fibromyalgia, Alzheimer disease, psoriasis, arthritis, allergies, and asthma are all associated with changes in the serotonergic system associated with leukocytes. Thus, pharmacological regulation of the serotonergic system may modulate immune function and provide therapeutic alternatives for these diseases.

  6. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Herrera, Samantha; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Flores-Gutierrez, Enrique Octavio; Quintero-Fabián, Saray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS) that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R). The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS), there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers. PMID:27795960

  7. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS, has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R. The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS, there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, P V; Ververis, K; Tang, M L; El-Osta, A; Karagiannis, T C

    2013-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have emerged as a new generation of anticancer therapeutics. The classical broad-spectrum HDACi typically alter the cell cycle distribution and induce cell death, apoptosis and differentiation in malignant and transformed cells. This provides the basis for the clinical potential of HDACi in cancer therapy. Currently two compounds, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat, Zolinza™) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax™) have been approved for by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Apart from clinical application in oncology, HDACi have also been investigated as potential therapeutics for various pathologies including those of the central nervous system (such as Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis), cardiac conditions (particularly hypertrophy), arthritis and malaria. Further, evidence is accumulating for potent immunomodulatory effects of classical HDACi which is the focus of this review. We review the antiinflammatory effects of HDACi and in particular findings implicating regulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems by HDAC enzymes. The recent findings highlighting the immunomodulatory function of HDAC11 which relates to balancing immune activation versus tolerance are also discussed.

  9. The immunomodulatory effects of laparoscopic surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, Mark

    2012-02-03

    Laparoscopic alternatives to conventional surgical procedures confer many advantages to patients including reduced postoperative pain, shortened convalescence and, perhaps, improved disease-related outcomes. The diminished degree of immune dysfunction apparent with these techniques may underpin these beneficial aspects. However, minimal access is accompanied by various ancillary anesthetic and mechanical associations (including the induction of a carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum), which must be considered in addition to reduced tissue trauma when attempting to correlate cause with effect. Furthermore, the opportunity to establish causation between the immunomodulatory aspects of laparoscopy and subsequent clinical outcome by prospective, randomized study is difficult because of the rapid incorporation of minimal access techniques into clinical practice. Therefore, experimental in vitro and in vivo studies must be used to complement the limitations of clinical studies in this area. Although the initial investigations into the immunological effects of laparoscopy are encouraging, many of the intricacies associated with this approach still await elaboration.

  10. Immunomodulatory effects of Hericium erinaceus derived polysaccharides are mediated by intestinal immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaotong; Yan, Jingmin; Meng, Yue; Kang, Yuying; Han, Zhen; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Cheng, Hairong

    2017-03-22

    This study was aimed at investigating the immunomodulating activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) in mice, by assessing splenic lymphocyte proliferation (cell-mediated immunity), serum hemolysin levels (humoral immunity), phagocytic capacity of peritoneal cavity phagocytes (macrophage phagocytosis), and NK cell activity. ELISA of immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in the lamina propria, and western blotting of small intestinal proteins were also performed to gain insight into the mechanism by which HEP affects the intestinal immune system. Here, we report that HEP improves immune function by functionally enhancing cell-mediated and humoral immunity, macrophage phagocytosis, and NK cell activity. In addition, HEP was found to upregulate the secretion of SIgA and activate the MAPK and AKT cellular signaling pathways in the intestine. In conclusion, all these results allow us to postulate that the immunomodulatory effects of HEP are most likely attributed to the effective regulation of intestinal mucosal immune activity.

  11. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Tornquist

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term relationships. The main findings were that individuals desired partners who were high in humor production and receptivity, though the effects were particularly pronounced for women judging long-term relationships. Moreover, humor production was more important than receptivity for women’s ratings of male desirability. Notably, we also found that ratings of physical attractiveness were influenced by the humor conditions. These results are discussed in terms of the fitness indicator, interest indicator, and encryption hypotheses of the evolutionary functions of humor.

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of honey cannot be distinguished from endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Michael; Bartelt, Stine; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2008-01-01

    in vitro effects of honey. Our results show that natural honeys induce interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells as well as release of reactive oxygen species from all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) differentiated HL-60 cells. The natural honeys contained substantial amounts of endotoxin, and the responses...... observed in the cell based assays were similar to the responses induced by endotoxin alone. In addition, we determined that the immunomodulatory component present in the natural honeys was retained in the ultra filtrated fraction with a molecular weight greater than 20 kDa. The component was resistant...... to boiling and its immunomodulatory activity could be abrogated by the addition of polymyxin B. We speculate that the observed in vitro immunomodulatory effects of honey might solely be explained by the endotoxin content in the natural honeys....

  13. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  14. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  16. Who Benefits From Humor-Based Positive Psychology Interventions? The Moderating Effects of Personality Traits and Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenzohn, Sara; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2018-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of humor-based positive psychology interventions (PPIs; i.e., interventions aimed at enhancing happiness and lowering depressive symptoms) is steadily increasing. However, little is known about who benefits most from them. We aim at narrowing this gap by examining whether personality traits and sense of humor moderate the long-term effects of humor-based interventions on happiness and depressive symptoms. We conducted two placebo-controlled online-intervention studies testing for moderation effects. In Study 1 ( N = 104) we tested for moderation effects of basic personality traits (i.e., psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) in the three funny things intervention, a humor-based PPI. In Study 2 ( N = 632) we tested for moderation effects of the sense of humor in five different humor-based interventions. Happiness and depressive symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention, as well as after 1, 3, and 6 months. In Study 2, we assessed sense of humor before and 1 month after the intervention to investigate if changes in sense of humor go along with changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. We found moderating effects only for extraversion. Extraverts benefitted more from the three funny things intervention than introverts. For neuroticism and psychoticism no moderation effects were found. For sense of humor, no moderating effects were found for the effectiveness of the five humor-based interventions tested in Study 2. However, changes in sense of humor from pretest to the 1-month follow-up predicted changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. Taking a closer look, the playful attitude- and sense of humor-subscales predicted changes in happiness and depression for up to 6 months. Overall, moderating effects for personality (i.e., extraversion) were found, but none for sense of humor at baseline. However, increases in sense of humor during and after the intervention were associated with the interventions

  17. The Effect of Context (Humorous vs. Non-humorous on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghaffari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of orally administered aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reported the immunnodulation tests of Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker in immunity. Mice were fed with E. sinensis water-decoction at a dose of 1.89, 3.78 and 7.56 g/kg/d for 4 weeks, then their immune function was studied. The results of the effects of E. sinensis water-decoction on spleen index, thymus index and ...

  19. NEW MEAT PRODUCTS WITH IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT CREATION METHOD

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    I. V. Kaltovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New meat products with immunomodulatory effect creation method reflecting differential characteristics of technological stages of manufacture of those types of meat products, including issues on the selection of primary and secondary raw materials, guidelines for development of formulations and production technologies, legislative requirements towards its labeling, etc, has been developed for the first time. A list of prospective meat raw materials for the manufacture of products with immunomodulatory effect was established: beef, pork, rabbit meat, broiler chicken meat, turkey, veal, ostrich meat, which have high content of protein (14,3– 21,7%, low content of fat (1,2–16,1%, excluding pork (33,3%, high levels of minimum amino-acid score (90,0–104,0%, protein quality indicator(0,91–1,64, essential amino acid index (1,16-1,25, coefficient of utility of amino acid content (0,72–0,86 and close to optimum fatty acid content, and also contain a great number of vitamins and minerals which play a significant role for immunity improvement. It was determined that the following functional ingredients are recommended to use: amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, arginine, tryptophan, lysine, histidin, phenylalanyl, vitamins and provitamins (C,E, beta-carotene, B vitamins(Bc, B12, PP, etc., P(bioflavonoid complex, H, K, minerals (calcium, magnesium, iron, cuprum, zinc, manganese, selenium, polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6, pseudo-vitamins (L-carnitin, coenzyme Q10, polysaccharides and peptides naturally occurring(squalen, B-Carotene, ginger, shiitake mushrooms, probiotics and prebiotics, glutathione, indole and lycopienes, bioflavonoids, L-arginine, N-acetylcysteine, gel from seaweed «Lamifaren». The use of the developed meat products with immunomodulatory effect creation method by process engineers of meat processing factories will allow them to form a single scientifically grounded approach during the

  20. Immunomodulatory Effect of Rhaphidophora korthalsii on Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity

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    Swee Keong Yeap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extracts from leaves of Rhaphidophora korthalsii was determined via immune cell proliferation, T/NK cell phenotyping, and splenocyte cytotoxicity of BALB/c mice after 5 consecutive days of i.p. administration at various concentrations. Splenocyte proliferation index, cytotoxicity, peripheral blood T/NK cell population, and plasma cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-γ in mice were assessed on day 5 and day 15. High concentration of extract (350 μg/mice/day for 5 consecutive days was able to stimulate immune cell proliferation, peripheral blood NK cell population, IL-2, and IFN- γ cytokines, as well as splenocyte cytotoxicity against Yac-1 cell line. Unlike rIL-2 which degraded rapidly, the stimulatory effect from the extract managed to last until day 15. These results suggested the potential of this extract as an alternative immunostimulator, and they encourage further study on guided fractionation and purification to identify the active ingredients that contribute to this in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of the fungicide Mancozeb in agricultural workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Birindelli, Sarah; Fustinoni, Silvia; De Paschale, Gioia; Mammone, Teresa; Visentin, Sara; Galli, Corrado L.; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Available data suggest that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) may have immunomodulatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the immunological profile of farmers exposed to Mancozeb, an EBDC fungicide, through the determination of several serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. Twenty-six healthy subjects entered the study, 13 vineyards exposed to Mancozeb and 13 unexposed controls. Exposure was assessed through the determination of ethylentiourea (ETU) in urine. Complete and differential blood count, serum immunoglobulins, complement fractions, autoantibodies, lymphocyte subpopulations, proliferative response to mitogens, natural killer (NK) activity, and cytokine production were measured. Post-exposure samples showed ETU urine concentration significantly higher than pre-exposure and control groups. A significant increase in CD19+ cells, both percentage and absolute number, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD25+ cells were found in post-exposure samples compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in the proliferative response to phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA + ionomycin) was observed in the post-exposure group compared to controls and baseline, while a significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-α release in post-exposure samples was observed. Overall, our results suggest that low-level exposure to Mancozeb has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out a method adequate to reveal immune-modifications in workers occupationally exposed to potential immunotoxic compounds, based on a whole blood assay

  2. The immunomodulatory effects of shark cartilage on the mouse and human immune system

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    ali Sheikhian

    2007-01-01

    Materials and methods: In an experimental study, the effects of different doses of shark cartilage on humoral (antibody titer immune response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC, were measured in mouse. In addition, we evaluated the modulatory effects of the shark cartilage on the natural killer (NK activity of the peritoneal cells of mouse against a tumor cell line called K562, according to the standard methods. The proliferative response of the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured under the influence of shark cartilage. Results: Pure shark cartilage enhanced antibody response against SRBC in vivo. The hemagglutination titer which was 1/147 in the control group (injected with hen cartilage, increased to 1/1355 in the test group. The optimal dose was 100 mg/ml. both type of cartilage had blastogenic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (the blastogenic index was 6.7 and 4.9 for impure shark cartilage and hen cartilage, respectively. NK activity was inhibited completely by pure shark cartilage (the amount of the killing activity of the effector peritoneal cells for the control and test groups against target cells was 25.9% and 5.5% respectively. Conclusion: Shark cartilage has a potent immunomodulatory effect on the specific immune mechanisms and some inhibitory effects on the innate immune mechanisms such as NC activity. Since the specific immunity has a more pivotal role against tumor formation, shark cartilage can be used as a cancer immunotherapeutic.

  3. Novel immunomodulatory effects of adiponectin on dendritic cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Julia Yuen Shan; Li, Daxu; Ho, Derek; Peng, Jiao; Xu, Aimin; Lamb, Jonathan; Chen, Yan; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang

    2011-05-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory properties. Although it has been reported that ADN can inhibit the immunostimulatory function of monocytes and macrophages, little is known of its effect on dendritic cells (DC). Recent data suggest that ADN can regulate immune responses. DCs are uniquely specialised antigen presenting cells that play a central role in the initiation of immunity and tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the immuno- modulatory effects of ADN on DC functions. We found that ADN has only moderate effect on the differentiation of murine bone marrow (BM) derived DCs but altered the phenotype of DCs. The expression of major histocompatibilty complex class II (MHCII), CD80 and CD86 on ADN conditioned DCs (ADN-DCs) was lower than that on untreated cells. The production of IL-12p40 was also suppressed in ADN-DCs. Interestingly, ADN treated DCs showed an increase in the expression of the inhibitory molecule, programmed death-1 ligand (PDL-1) compared to untreated cells. In vitro co-culture of ADN-DCs with allogeneic T cells led to a decrease in T cell proliferation and reduction of IL-2 production. Concomitant with that, a higher percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was detected in co-cultures of T cells and ADN-DCs. Blocking PD-1/PDL-1 pathway could partially restore T cell function. These findings suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of ADN on immune responses could be at least partially be mediated by its ability to alter DC function. The PD-1/PDL-1 pathway and the enhancement of Treg expansion are implicated in the immunomodulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunomodulatory effect of vitamin K2: Implications for bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, V D; Mezey, E

    2018-03-01

    In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, vitamin K2 appears to decrease the incidence of hip, vertebral, and non-vertebral fractures. Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis have more circulating activated T cells compared with healthy postmenopausal and premenopausal women, but the effects of vitamin K2 on T cells have not been studied. In this study, we have looked at T-cell suppression by vitamin K2. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from three healthy donors were used. The PBMCs were stimulated with the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A, and T-cell proliferation was analyzed using flow cytometry based on carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CSFE) dye dilution. Vitamin K2 (60 and 100 μM) inhibited T-cell proliferation. Vitamin K1 at the same concentrations did not inhibit T-cell proliferation. Vitamin K2 has immunomodulatory activities. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  6. Ulcer: An Antioxidative Trail Weaved with Immunomodulatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L., apart from its food value, can be used as a gastroprotective agent in non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-induced gastropathy. It has been suggested that the antioxidative property of amla is the key to its therapeutic effect. Hence, on the basis of in vitro antioxidative potential, the ethanolic extract of amla (eAE was selected for in vivo study in NSAID-induced ulcer. Intriguingly, eAE showed biphasic activity in ulcerated mice, with healing effect observed at 60 mg/kg and an adverse effect at 120 mg/kg.The dose-dependent study revealed that switching from anti-oxidant to pro-oxidant shift and immunomodulatory property could be the major cause for its biphasic effect, as evident from the total antioxidant status, thiol concentration, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content followed by mucin content, PGE2 synthesis and cytokine status. Further, Buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO pretreatment established the potential impact of antioxidative property in the healing action of eAE. However, eAE efficiently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF- and IL-1 levels and appreciably upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 concentration. In conclusion, gastric ulcer healing induced by eAE was driven in a dose-specific manner through the harmonization of the antioxidative property and modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine level.

  7. The immunomodulatory effects of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Courtney M

    2015-11-01

    Due to their characteristic physical, chemical and optical properties, titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are attractive tools for use in a wide range of applications. The use of nanoparticles for biological applications is, however, dependent upon their biocompatibility with living cells. Because of the importance of inflammation as a modulator of human health, the safe and efficacious in vivo use of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles is inherently linked to a favorable interaction with immune system cells. However, both titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles have demonstrated potential to exert immunomodulatory and immunotoxic effects. Titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are readily internalized by immune system cells, may accumulate in peripheral lymphoid organs, and can influence multiple manifestations of immune cell activity. Although the factors influencing the biocompatibility of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles with immune system cells have not been fully elucidated, nanoparticle core composition, size, concentration and the duration of cell exposure seem to be important. Because titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are widely utilized in pharmaceutical, commercial and industrial products, it is vital that their effects on human health and immune system function be more thoroughly evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunomodulatory effect of diethylcarbamazine in mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, M; Castro-Corona, M A; Segoviano-Ramírez, J C; Brattig, N W; Medina-De la Garza, C E

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (IVM), both antiparasitic drugs with reported immunomodulatory properties, were able to affect the immune system to potentiate host defense mechanisms and protect against actinomycetoma in a mouse model. Male BALB/c mice of 10-12 weeks of age were injected with either Nocardia brasiliensis or saline solution. Recorded were the effects of a treatment by DEC (6 mg/kg per os daily for one week) or IVM (200 μg/kg subcutaneously on days 1 and 3) on (i) the development of mycetoma lesion, (ii) the expression of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by phagocytes, (iii) the proliferation index of lymphocytes and (iv) antibody production of IgG and IgM. After an initial lesion in all mice, DEC inhibited a full development and progression of actinomycetoma resulting in a reduced lesion size (p brasiliensis antigens and concanavalin A in DEC-treated group was higher than in non-treated group at day 21 and 28 postinfection (p brasiliensis leading to retrogression of the mycetoma and increasing cellular immune responses. Our findings may indicate a potential use of DEC as a putative adjuvant in infectious disease or vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of multiple sclerosis treatment with current immunomodulatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS of a putative autoimmune origin characterized by neurologic dysfunction disseminated in space and time due to demyelination and axonal loss that results in progressive disability. Recent advances in understanding the immune pathogenesis of the disease resulted in the introduction of numerous effective immunomodulatoty drugs having diverse mechanisms of action, modes of administration and risk-benefit profiles. This results in more complex albeit more promising treatment selection and choices. The epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis and diagnosis of the disease are discussed. The mode of action and main characteristics of current immunomodulatory drugs for MS and their place in the therapeutic algorithm of the disease based on evidence from clinical trials are described. Speculation on new paradigms, treatment goals and outcome measures aimed at improving the landscape of MS treatment is presented. Multiple disease, drug and patient-related factors should be taken into consideration when selecting the appropriate drug and treatment strategy to the appropriate patient, thus paving the road for personalized medicine in MS.

  10. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Tornquist; Dan Chiappe

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term rela...

  11. Humor in the Classroom: The Effects of Integrated Humor on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Griffin, Darrin J.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of integrated humor on direct measures of students' ability to retain and transfer information from educational lessons. In two experiments, participants were randomly exposed to either a lesson with humorous examples or standard examples and were subsequently asked to take tests on the material. Data…

  12. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  13. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  14. Immunomodulatory Effects of Soybeans and Processed Soy Food Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an immune response against both internal and external antigens in organisms, particularly in mammals, and includes both uncontrolled chronic and low-grade inflammations. Uncontrolled chronic inflammation often leads to severe diseases such as vascular disease, arthritis, cancer, diabete, allergy, and autoimmunity. On the other hand, low-grade inflammation is recognized as a relationship between obesity and risk of metabolic syndrome. Elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators is commonly observed in patients with uncontrolled or low-grade inflammation-associated diseases. Plants have been generated phytochemicals to overcome inflammations and infections through evolution. Phytochemicals belong to alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, and terpenoids. The consumption of soybeans plays a role in immune modulation through their components such as isoflavones, saponins, and anthocyanins. Recently, it was reported that the application of phytochemicals into patients with inflammatory diseases improves their symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify novel phytochemicals with immunomodulatory activities. This review introduces and discusses recent advances and patents regarding soybean or processed soy food compounds which exhibit immunomodulatory activity in immune diseases, particularly allergy, by mediating the suppression of inflammatory pathways.

  15. Rumination, Suicidal Ideation, and the Mediating Effect of Self-Defeating Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Tucker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a self-defeating humor style is related to indicators of psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction, including depression, anxiety, loneliness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. The current study continued this investigation by examining how self-defeating humor is related to suicidal ideation and a ruminative response style. Analyses indicated that a self-defeating humor style was positively associated to rumination, brooding, reflection, and suicidal ideation. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that self-defeating humor mediated the relationship between rumination and suicidal ideation. This same effect was seen for both brooding and reflection individually. Results indicate that self-defeating humor may serve as an interpersonal means of ruminating as this humor style involves consistent focus on perceived flaws and weaknesses. The assessment of this humor style may provide additional information about the maintenance of suicidal thinking.

  16. Humor and Anxiety: Effects on Class Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michael A. R.; Mahoney, Peggy

    1981-01-01

    Measures of anxiety and achievement were obtained on a sample of undergraduate students. Highly anxious students had lower achievement on humorous tests. Students with low anxiety had higher achievement on humorous tests. Results indicate that humor is not a positive factor in reducing high anxiety associated with academic evaluations. (Author)

  17. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Hippocampus: The Effects of Humor on Student Achievement and Memory Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney Matthews, Melissa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Research literature relating to the use of humor as a teaching method or curricula specifically designed to include humor was reviewed to investigate the effects of humor on student learning in various environments from elementary schools to post-secondary classrooms. In this multi-method study, four instruments and a humor treatment were selected…

  18. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  19. Parasitic helminths and HIV-1 infection: the effect of immunomodulatory antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, E.E.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    In many regions of the world co-infection with parasitic helminths and HIV-1 is common. Both pathogens have major implications for the host immune system, helminths possess immunomodulatory properties whilst HIV-1 infects and kills immune cells. Currently very little is known regarding what effects

  20. Peripherally Generated Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Mediate the Immunomodulatory Effects of IVIg in Allergic Airways Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Amir H; Kaufman, Gabriel N; Xue, Di; Béland, Marianne; Dembele, Marieme; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A; Mourad, Walid; Mazer, Bruce D

    2017-04-01

    IVIg is widely used as an immunomodulatory therapy. We have recently demonstrated that IVIg protects against airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in mouse models of allergic airways disease (AAD), associated with induction of Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Treg). Using mice carrying a DTR/EGFP transgene under the control of the Foxp3 promoter (DEREG mice), we demonstrate in this study that IVIg generates a de novo population of peripheral Treg (pTreg) in the absence of endogenous Treg. IVIg-generated pTreg were sufficient for inhibition of OVA-induced AHR in an Ag-driven murine model of AAD. In the absence of endogenous Treg, IVIg failed to confer protection against AHR and airway inflammation. Adoptive transfer of purified IVIg-generated pTreg prior to Ag challenge effectively prevented airway inflammation and AHR in an Ag-specific manner. Microarray gene expression profiling of IVIg-generated pTreg revealed upregulation of genes associated with cell cycle, chromatin, cytoskeleton/motility, immunity, and apoptosis. These data demonstrate the importance of Treg in regulating AAD and show that IVIg-generated pTreg are necessary and sufficient for inhibition of allergen-induced AAD. The ability of IVIg to generate pure populations of highly Ag-specific pTreg represents a new avenue to study pTreg, the cross-talk between humoral and cellular immunity, and regulation of the inflammatory response to Ags. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of “Shirishavaleha”–An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22253509

  2. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of " Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamlal Singh Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  3. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of "Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  4. Effect of prolonged continuous irradiation of humoral immunity of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Muksinova, K.N.; Skukovskaya, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the content and function of cell populations and subpopulations involved in the humoral response of mice to the thymus-dependent antigen were investigated. The effect was followed during a prolonged continuous exposure to 137 C gamma-emitter (total dose - 5 Gy and daily dose - 12 cGy for 22 hours) and after its termination. The data obtained give evidence for a decrease of the pool of polypotent lymphocyte precursors (CFUs), stable moderate hypoplasia of central and peripheral organs of the immune system, distinct inhibition of antibody production at the expense of reduced activity of precursors of lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and T-helpers. In the remote post-irradiation period residual radiation damage was seen in polypotent and committed precursors of lymphocytes and T-helpers, which was responsible for the trend towards the decline of antibody production, hypoplasia in the spleen and lymph nodes being persistent

  5. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  6. The Use of Humor by Primary School Administrators and Its Organizational Effect on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the aim of primary school administrators' use of humor and the organizational effects of their use of humor according to the opinions of the school administrators and teachers. The study was modelled as a multiple holistic case study. The study group consists of 9 administrators and 12 teachers working in…

  7. Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of the naphthoquinone 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende Kitagawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large number of quinones has been associated with antitumor, antibacterial, antimalarial and antifungal activities. In this work we describe the effect of the naphthoquinone, 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin, on murine tumor cells (LP07 and LM2 and its immunomodulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO production on LPS-stimulated macrophages. The results have shown that 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin was a significant inhibitor of LPS-stimulated NO generation from macrophage (inhibition percentage ranged from 97.4 to 98.9% and a strong cytotoxic agent against both tumor cells LP07 and LM2 (CI50 6.2±0.36 µM and 74.6±1.9 µM, respectively. These results indicate that the 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin may show promising activity in the treatment of murine breast and lung cancer by immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities.

  8. Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of the naphthoquinone 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende Kitagawa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Large number of quinones has been associated with antitumor, antibacterial, antimalarial and antifungal activities. In this work we describe the effect of the naphthoquinone, 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin, on murine tumor cells (LP07 and LM2 and its immunomodulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO production on LPS-stimulated macrophages. The results have shown that 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin was a significant inhibitor of LPS-stimulated NO generation from macrophage (inhibition percentage ranged from 97.4 to 98.9% and a strong cytotoxic agent against both tumor cells LP07 and LM2 (CI50 6.2±0.36 µM and 74.6±1.9 µM, respectively. These results indicate that the 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin may show promising activity in the treatment of murine breast and lung cancer by immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities.

  9. Endocrine disrupting activities and immunomodulatory effects in lymphoblastoid cell lines of diclofenac, 4-hydroxydiclofenac and paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopčič, Ivana; Markovič, Tijana; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2018-05-16

    A critical literature review reveals that knowledge of side effects of pharmaceuticals diclofenac and paracetamol is extremely important because of their widespread use and occurrence in the environment. In order to delineate whether these compounds have endocrine activity and influence on the immune system, we assessed the potential endocrine disrupting and immunomodulatory activities of: diclofenac (DIC), its metabolite 4-hydroxydiclofenac (4-HD) and paracetamol (PAR). Herein, we report on their impact on estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR). The endocrine disrupting effects were assessed in vitro in MDA-kb2 and GH3.TRE-Luc cell lines and by the XenoScreen YES/YAS assay. Moreover, binding affinity to nuclear receptors (GR and AR) was also measured. Immunomodulatory properties of the compounds were evaluated in lymphoblastoid cell lines. All the tested compounds showed endocrine disrupting and immunomodulatory activities. The results revealed that both DIC and its metabolite 4-HD exhibited significant estrogenic, anti-androgenic (in YAS assay), (anti)-androgenic, (anti)-glucocorticoid and anti-thyroid hormonal activities (in luciferase reporter gene assays). DIC showed direct binding to the GR, while its metabolite 4-HD to the GR and AR. Only metabolite 4-HD showed estrogenic, androgenic (in YAS assay) and thyroid-hormonal activities. PAR had anti-androgenic activity and anti-thyroid hormonal activity. PAR displayed GR agonist activity with competition to its receptor and agonistic activity to AR. All of the compounds significantly modulated pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine production in lymphoblastoid cell lines and were thus proven immunomodulatory. The study is useful in determining toxicological effects and contributes to the knowledge of possible side effects of diclofenac, its metabolite and paracetamol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sweet whey as a raw material for the dietary supplements obtaining with immunomodulatory effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Didukh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the study of literary sources to prove the viability of the idea of using sweet whey to deep its fractionation, and to obtain biologically active proteins with immunomodulatory effect. We demonstrated methods for fractionation of milk whey (membrane and chromatographic, as well as the technological scheme of concentration of sweet whey. We introduced the composition of sweet whey and protein content of immunomodulatory action. Modern methods of processing whey, which include, basically, only the process of dehydration and concentration of whey and its use in the complete component composition, which limits its use for food purposes are shown. The necessity of processing of secondary resources in a catastrophic ecological situation on the planet and full use of the composite processing of raw materials for food purposes, and also shows properties of proteins immunomodulating actions which are part of the whey are grounded.

  11. That’s not funny! – But it should be: effects of humorous emotion regulation on emotional experience and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, Lisa; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory,...

  12. The immunomodulatory effect of plant lectins: a review with emphasis on ArtinM properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria A; Carvalho, Fernanda C; Ruas, Luciana P; Ricci-Azevedo, Rafael; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Advances in the glycobiology and immunology fields have provided many insights into the role of carbohydrate-protein interactions in the immune system. We aim to present a comprehensive review of the effects that some plant lectins exert as immunomodulatory agents, showing that they are able to positively modify the immune response to certain pathological conditions, such as cancer and infections. The present review comprises four main themes: (1) an overview of plant lectins that exert immunomodulatory effects and the mechanisms accounting for these activities; (2) general characteristics of the immunomodulatory lectin ArtinM from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus; (3) activation of innate immunity cells by ArtinM and consequent induction of Th1 immunity; (4) resistance conferred by ArtinM administration in infections with intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania (Leishmania) major, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We believe that this review will be a valuable resource for more studies in this relatively neglected area of research, which has the potential to reveal carbohydrate targets for novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies.

  13. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Macrolides—A Systematic Review of the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zimmermann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe mechanisms underlying the non-antimicrobial immunomodulatory properties of macrolides are not well understood.ObjectivesTo systematically review the evidence for the immunomodulatory properties of macrolides in humans and to describe the underlying mechanism and extent of their influence on the innate and adaptive immune system.MethodsA systematic literature search was done in MEDLINE using the OVID interface from 1946 to December 2016 according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA. Original articles investigating the influence of four macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin on immunological markers in humans were included.ResultsWe identified 22 randomized, controlled trials, 16 prospective cohort studies, and 8 case–control studies investigating 47 different immunological markers (186 measurements in 1,834 participants. The most frequently reported outcomes were a decrease in the number of neutrophils, and the concentrations of neutrophil elastase, interleukin (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, eosinophilic cationic protein, and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Inhibition of neutrophil function was reported more frequently than eosinophil function. A decrease in T helper (Th 2 cells cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 was reported more frequently than a decrease in Th1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-gamma.ConclusionMacrolides influence a broad range of immunological mechanisms resulting in immunomodulatory effects. To optimize the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases by macrolides, further studies are necessary, particularly comparing different macrolides and dose effect relationships.

  14. Immunomodulatory Effects of Macrolide Antibiotics - Part 1 : Biological Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, J.; de Graaff, C. S.; van der Werf, T. S.; Boersma, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    Macrolide antibiotics are well known for their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. This article provides an overview of the biological mechanisms through which macrolides exert this 'double effect'. Their antibacterial effect consists of the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis,

  15. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modulatory effects of dezocine-propofol, and fentanyl-propofol combinations in colonoscopy. Methods: One hundred and thirty-four patients who received painless colonoscopy in Eastern Medical District of Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi City, ...

  16. Hemodynamic, Thyroid and Immunomodulatory Effects of Heroin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail M. Maulood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diacetylmorphine (heroin has many effects on the body system; it exerts effects on cardiovascular, immune and endocrine systems. The aim of the this study is to investigate the short-term effects of low and high doses of heroin on systolic blood pressure (SBP, thyroid hormones and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. The experimental rats were divided into three groups, each with six individuals and the treatments were continued for seven days. SBP significantly reduced by heroin administration in the second dose as compared with the control group. A marked decrease in the serum NO level was also noticed after first (low and second (high dose of administration as compared with control group. The present results also revealed that serum MCP-1 was statistically increased in the second dose of heroin group. Statistical analysis showed that both serum T3 and T4 levels were reduced significantly by heroin administration. In conclusions, for the first time, our findings suggested that diacetylmorphine could affect immune system through MCP-1 elevation. As well as heroin may affect cardiac and liver functions via increasing troponin-T and bilirubin levels.

  17. The effectiveness of humor in persuasion: the case of business ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, J

    2001-04-01

    In this study, persuasion theory was used to develop the following predictions about use of humor in persuasive messages for business ethics training: (a) cartoon drawings will enhance persuasion by creating liking for the source, (b) ironic wisecracks will enhance persuasion by serving as a distraction from counterarguments, and (c) self-effacing humor will enhance persuasion by improving source credibility. Canadian business students (N = 148) participated in 1 of 4 versions of "The Ethics Challenge," a training exercise used by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Three versions were modified by adding or removing cartoon drawings (of cartoon characters Dilbert and Dogbert) and humorous responses (Dogbert's wisecracks). Removing the cartoon drawings had little effect on persuasiveness. Removing ironic wisecracks had more effect, and interfering with the self-effacing combination of cartoons and wisecracks had the strongest effect. The results suggest that researchers should ground their predictions in existing theory and that practitioners should differentiate among humor types.

  18. Immunomodulatory effects in workers exposed to naturally occurring asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Caterina; Costa, Chiara; Matera, Serena; Puglisi, Beatrice; Costanzo, Valentina; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Natural asbestiform fibers are defined 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) and refer to the mineral as a natural component of soils or rocks. The release of NOA fibers into the air from rocks or soils by routine human activities or natural weathering processes represents a risk for human beings. Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a NOA fiber detected in the benmoreitic lava in the area of Biancavilla, South-west slope of Mt. Etna. The aim of the present study was to investigate FE immunotoxicity pathways in a group of 38 occupationally exposed construction workers, in order to find any biological markers of its effect. Subjects underwent respiratory function tests and HRCT total chest scanning. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were measured. The presence of PPs was significantly greater in subjects exposed than in the control (25 vs. 2). In subjects exposed to FE, IL-1β and TNF-α values were significantly higher than the controls. The previously observed increase of IL-1β and IL-18 showed a probable involvement of the proteic complex defined inflammosome by FE fibers.

  19. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa peregrina leaves, ex vivo and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oran, Sawsan Atallah; Hassuneh, Mona Rushdie; Al-Qaralleh, Haitham Naief; Rayyan, Walid Abu; Al-Thunibat, Osama Yosef; Mallah, Eyad; Abu-Rayyan, Ahmed; Salem, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vivo and ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of the ethanol leaves extract of Moringa peregrina in Balb/c mice. For this study, five groups of 5 Balb/c mice were given a single acute subtoxic oral dose of the ethanolic extract at 1.13, 11.30, 23.40 and 113.4 mg/kg and the immunomodulatory effect was assessed on the 6th day following the ingestion. In the (non-functional) assessment, the effect of the extract on the body weight, relative lymphoid organ weight, splenic cellularity and peripheral blood hematologic parameters were evaluated. While in the immunomodulation assessment (functional), we investigated the effect of the extract on the proliferative capacity of splenic lymphocytes and peripheral T and B lymphocytes using mitogen blastogenesis, mixed allogeneic MLR and IgM-Plaque forming cells assays. The ingestion of M. peregrina extract caused a significant increase in the body weight, weight and number of cells of spleen and lymph nodes of the treated mice. Furthermore, the count of RBCs, WBCs, platelets, hemoglobin concentration and PCV % were increased by the extract treatment in a dose-dependent manner. M. peregrina enhanced the proliferative responses of splenic lymphocytes for both T cell and B-cell mitogens. Likewise, the mixed lymphocyte reaction MLR assay has revealed a T-cell dependent proliferation enhancement in the extract treated mice. Moreover, the oral administration of M. peregrina leaves extracts significantly increased PFCs/106 splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, subtoxic acute doses of M. peregrina extract demonstrated significant potential as an immunomodulatory agent even at the lowest dose of 1.13 mg/kg. PMID:29204086

  20. Ramadan Fasting Exerts Immunomodulatory Effects: Insights from a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawi, Mohammad; Watad, Abdulla; Brown, Stav; Aazza, Khadija; Aazza, Hicham; Zouhir, Mohamed; Sharif, Kassem; Ghanayem, Khaled; Farah, Raymond; Mahagna, Hussein; Fiordoro, Stefano; Sukkar, Samir Giuseppe; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Mahroum, Naim

    2017-01-01

    Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting. All Muslim adults are expected to fast; nevertheless certain subgroups, including sick, frail subjects, and pregnant women, among others, are exempted. Ramadan fasting has been shown to impact on body systems in different manners. The influence of Ramadan fasting on immune system regulation remains elusive; however, immune system changes, such as the modulation of body response to various infectious, stressful, and other harmful events, are of great interest during fasting. In this paper, we performed an extensive systematic literature review of different scholarly databases (ISI/Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed,/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, EbscoHOST, Scirus, Science Direct, the Cochrane Library, and ProQuest), using the following key words: “fasting,” “Ramadan,” “Islam,” and “immunity.” Conclusions drawn from these findings included: (1) Ramadan fasting has been shown to only mildly influence the immune system and the alterations induced are transient, returning to basal pre-Ramadan status shortly afterward. (2) Ramadan fasting during the second trimester of pregnancy was shown to be safe and did not result in negative fetal outcomes, or maternal oxidative status alterations. (3) In cardiac patients, Ramadan fasting can have beneficial effects including lipid profile improvement and alleviation of oxidative stress. (4) In asthmatic patients as well as in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and autoimmune disorders, fasting was safe. (5) In psychiatric patients, such as those suffering from schizophrenia, fasting could increase immunologic markers. (6) Fasting Muslim athletes who maintain intensive training schedule during Ramadan showed fluctuations of immunologic markers. PMID:29230208

  1. Ramadan Fasting Exerts Immunomodulatory Effects: Insights from a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting. All Muslim adults are expected to fast; nevertheless certain subgroups, including sick, frail subjects, and pregnant women, among others, are exempted. Ramadan fasting has been shown to impact on body systems in different manners. The influence of Ramadan fasting on immune system regulation remains elusive; however, immune system changes, such as the modulation of body response to various infectious, stressful, and other harmful events, are of great interest during fasting. In this paper, we performed an extensive systematic literature review of different scholarly databases (ISI/Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed,/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, EbscoHOST, Scirus, Science Direct, the Cochrane Library, and ProQuest, using the following key words: “fasting,” “Ramadan,” “Islam,” and “immunity.” Conclusions drawn from these findings included: (1 Ramadan fasting has been shown to only mildly influence the immune system and the alterations induced are transient, returning to basal pre-Ramadan status shortly afterward. (2 Ramadan fasting during the second trimester of pregnancy was shown to be safe and did not result in negative fetal outcomes, or maternal oxidative status alterations. (3 In cardiac patients, Ramadan fasting can have beneficial effects including lipid profile improvement and alleviation of oxidative stress. (4 In asthmatic patients as well as in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and autoimmune disorders, fasting was safe. (5 In psychiatric patients, such as those suffering from schizophrenia, fasting could increase immunologic markers. (6 Fasting Muslim athletes who maintain intensive training schedule during Ramadan showed fluctuations of immunologic markers.

  2. Ramadan Fasting Exerts Immunomodulatory Effects: Insights from a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawi, Mohammad; Watad, Abdulla; Brown, Stav; Aazza, Khadija; Aazza, Hicham; Zouhir, Mohamed; Sharif, Kassem; Ghanayem, Khaled; Farah, Raymond; Mahagna, Hussein; Fiordoro, Stefano; Sukkar, Samir Giuseppe; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Mahroum, Naim

    2017-01-01

    Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting. All Muslim adults are expected to fast; nevertheless certain subgroups, including sick, frail subjects, and pregnant women, among others, are exempted. Ramadan fasting has been shown to impact on body systems in different manners. The influence of Ramadan fasting on immune system regulation remains elusive; however, immune system changes, such as the modulation of body response to various infectious, stressful, and other harmful events, are of great interest during fasting. In this paper, we performed an extensive systematic literature review of different scholarly databases (ISI/Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed,/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, EbscoHOST, Scirus, Science Direct, the Cochrane Library, and ProQuest), using the following key words: "fasting," "Ramadan," "Islam," and "immunity." Conclusions drawn from these findings included: (1) Ramadan fasting has been shown to only mildly influence the immune system and the alterations induced are transient, returning to basal pre-Ramadan status shortly afterward. (2) Ramadan fasting during the second trimester of pregnancy was shown to be safe and did not result in negative fetal outcomes, or maternal oxidative status alterations. (3) In cardiac patients, Ramadan fasting can have beneficial effects including lipid profile improvement and alleviation of oxidative stress. (4) In asthmatic patients as well as in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and autoimmune disorders, fasting was safe. (5) In psychiatric patients, such as those suffering from schizophrenia, fasting could increase immunologic markers. (6) Fasting Muslim athletes who maintain intensive training schedule during Ramadan showed fluctuations of immunologic markers.

  3. Effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the endometrial inflammatory response to induced infectious endometritis in susceptible mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Woodward, Elizabeth; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-01-01

    endometritis based on their endometrial histopathology and ability to clear an induced uterine inflammation. To investigate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy, the mares were inoculated with 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) Escherichia coli in three consecutive estrus cycles in a modified cross-over study...... inoculation. Endometrial biopsies were recovered 3, 24 and 72 h post inoculation. Relative gene-expression analyses were performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was modulated by administration of GC. Expression of proinflammatory...

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of helminths and protozoa in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasseldam, Henrik; Hansen, C S; Johansen, F F

    2013-01-01

    hygiene standards that exist in the western world, with reduced exposure to various pathogens, including parasites, as a consequence. Parasites are known to employ various immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies, which enable them to evade destruction by the immune system. This is most likely...... one of the reasons for the disease-dampening effects, reported in numerous studies investigating parasite infections and autoimmunity. This review will focus on recent advances in the field of parasites as beneficial immunomodulators, in multiple sclerosis and the animal model experimental autoimmune...

  5. That’s not funny! – But it should be: effects of humorous emotion regulation on emotional experience and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Lisa; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory, compared to non-humorous rational reappraisal and a non-reappraisal control condition. Replicating previous findings, humorous reappraisal reduced evoked negative valence and arousal levels very effectively, and the down-regulation of experienced negative emotions was even more pronounced after humorous compared to rational reappraisal. Regarding later memory for emotion-eliciting stimuli, both humorous and rational reappraisal reduced free recall, but recognition memory was unaffected, with memory strength being stronger after humorous than after rational reappraisal. These results indicate that humor seems to be indeed an optimal strategy to cope with negative situations because humor can help us to feel better when confronted with negative stimuli, but still allows us to retrieve stimulus information later when afforded to do so by the presence of appropriate contextual features. PMID:26379608

  6. That's not funny! - But it should be: effects of humorous emotion regulation on emotional experience and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Lisa; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory, compared to non-humorous rational reappraisal and a non-reappraisal control condition. Replicating previous findings, humorous reappraisal reduced evoked negative valence and arousal levels very effectively, and the down-regulation of experienced negative emotions was even more pronounced after humorous compared to rational reappraisal. Regarding later memory for emotion-eliciting stimuli, both humorous and rational reappraisal reduced free recall, but recognition memory was unaffected, with memory strength being stronger after humorous than after rational reappraisal. These results indicate that humor seems to be indeed an optimal strategy to cope with negative situations because humor can help us to feel better when confronted with negative stimuli, but still allows us to retrieve stimulus information later when afforded to do so by the presence of appropriate contextual features.

  7. That’s Not Funny! – But It Should Be: Effects of Humorous Emotion Regulation on Emotional Experience and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eKugler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory, compared to non-humorous rational reappraisal and a non-reappraisal control condition. Replicating previous findings, humorous reappraisal reduced evoked negative valence and arousal levels very effectively, and the down-regulation of experienced negative emotions was even more pronounced after humorous compared to rational reappraisal. Regarding later memory for emotion-eliciting stimuli, both humorous and rational reappraisal reduced free recall, but recognition memory was unaffected, with memory strength being stronger after humorous than after rational reappraisal. These results indicate that humor seems to be indeed an optimal strategy to cope with negative situations because humor can help us to feel better when confronted with negative stimuli, but still allows us to retrieve stimulus information later when afforded to do so by the presence of appropriate contextual features.

  8. Evaluation of immunomodulatory effects of lamotrigine in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Rish Eman Y.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of the immune system has recently been shown to be involved in the pharmacological effects of old antiepileptic drugs and in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Therefore, the most recent guidelines for immunotoxicological evaluation of drugs were consulted to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of lamotrigine, a newer antiepileptic drug, in BALB/c mice. These included the in vivo effects of lamotrigine on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to sheep red blood cell (SRBC antigens, hemagglutination titer assays and hematological changes. In vitro effects of lamotrigine on ConA-induced splenocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion were assessed. The results showed that lamotrigine treatment significantly increased the DTH response to SRBC in the mouse model of this study. This was accompanied by a significant increase in relative monocyte and neutrophil counts and in spleen cellularity. Lamotrigine significantly inhibited ConA-induced splenocyte proliferation in vitro and it significantly inhibited IL-2 and TNF-α secretion in ConA-stimulated splenocytes. In conclusion, the results demonstrated significant immunomodulatory effects of lamotrigine in BALB/c mice. These data could expand the understanding of lamotrigine-induced adverse reactions and its role in modulating the immune system in epilepsy.

  9. Immunomodulatory Properties of Carvone Inhalation and Its Effects on Contextual Fear Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasarte-Cia, Aritz; Lozano, Teresa; Pérez-González, Marta; Gorraiz, Marta; Iribarren, Kristina; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Sarobe, Pablo; Rabal, Obdulia; Cuadrado-Tejedor, Mar; García-Osta, Ana; Casares, Noelia; Lasarte, Juan José

    2018-01-01

    A complex network of interactions exists between the immune, the olfactory, and the central nervous system (CNS). Inhalation of different fragrances can affect immunological reactions in response to an antigen but also may have effects on the CNS and cognitive activity. We performed an exploratory study of the immunomodulatory ability of a series of compounds representing each of the 10 odor categories or clusters described previously. We evaluated the impact of each particular odor on the immune response after immunization with the model antigen ovalbumin in combination with the TLR3 agonist poly I:C. We found that some odors behave as immunostimulatory agents, whereas others might be considered as potential immunosuppressant odors. Interestingly, the immunomodulatory capacity was, in some cases, strain-specific. In particular, one of the fragrances, carvone, was found to be immunostimulatory in BALB/c mice and immunosuppressive in C57BL/6J mice, facilitating or impairing viral clearance, respectively, in a model of a viral infection with a recombinant adenovirus. Importantly, inhalation of the odor improved the memory capacity in BALB/c mice in a fear-conditioning test, while it impaired this same capacity in C57BL/6J mice. The improvement in memory capacity in BALB/c was associated with higher CD3+ T cell infiltration into the hippocampus and increased local expression of mRNA coding for IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 cytokines. In contrast, the memory impairment in C57BL/6 was associated with a reduction in CD3 numbers and an increase in IFN-γ. These data suggest an association between the immunomodulatory capacity of smells and their impact on the cognitive functions of the animals. These results highlight the potential of studying odors as therapeutic agents for CNS-related diseases. PMID:29422905

  10. Nivolumab, a new immunomodulatory drug, a new adverse effect; adrenal crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Karbek Akarca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the advancements in medicine, new information is obtained regarding cancer, new antineoplastic agents are developed. Frequent use of these new pharmacological agents emergency physicians to be vigilant about their side effects. We present a case of adrenal crisis in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, caused by an immunomodulatory drug; nivolumab. While adverse events are related to other immunomodulatory drugs have been reported in literature, our case is the first nivolumab-related adrenal failure to be reported. A patient with lung cancer presented to the emergency room(ER with nausea and vomiting. Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, persistent hypoglycemia led to the diagnosis of adrenal crisis. Having direct effect on the immune system, these drugs were claimed to be highly reliable. However, there is no reliable data on the side effect profile of these agents. It should be kept in mind that life-threatening auto-immune reactions may occur. Keywords: Nivolumab, Immunomodulation, CTLA 4 antigen, Adrenal crisis

  11. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.

  12. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  13. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahirwal Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we performed a comparative phytochemical analysis of the immunomodulating activities of the methanol leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLEGS in Swiss albino mice. The phytochemical screening conducted on MLEGS revealed the presence of several phytoconstituents, including saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Immunomodulatory activities were determined by hemagglutination antibody (HA titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH tests for determining specific and non-specific immune responses. Flow cytometric techniques were performed for the estimation of B lymphocytes (CD3 and CD19 and Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited a significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody response and DTH response. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody and DTH responses, with maximum reduction observed at 200 mg/kg-body wt. The maximal reductions in the production of CD3, CD19, IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 were 31.59, 32.12, 29.51, 32.45 and 33.53%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg body weight. This study demonstrates that G. sylvestre exerts immunosuppressive effects on the components of the immune system of mice, and points to its significant immunomodulatory potential.

  14. Antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of gelatin hydrolysate from unicorn leatherjacket skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Benjakul, Soottawat; O'Brien, Nora

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro cellular bioactivities including, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of a gelatin hydrolysate (GH) prepared from unicorn leatherjacket skin, using partially purified glycyl endopeptidase, were investigated in order to optimize the use of fish skin waste products as functional food ingredients. GH under the tested concentrations (750-1500 µg mL(-1) ) protected against H2 O2 -induced DNA damage in U937 cells. GH also protected against the H2 O2 -induced reduction in cellular antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase and catalase, in HepG2 cells. GH demonstrated immunomodulatory potential by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β) production and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Cell proliferation in human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner following incubation with GH. These results indicate that GH has several bioactivities which support its potential as a promising functional food ingredient with various health benefits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of a-adrenergic agonist and laser trabeculoplasty on plasmoid aqueous humor of glaucomatous rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protection of blood aqueous barrier by the apraclonidine drops, which is an adrenergic receptor agonist that reduces each of the aqueous humor protein production and the intraocular pressure in glaucomatous rabbits eye before and after treatment with apraclonidine and diode laser trabeculoplasty (DLT).The rabbits were classified into four groups in addition to a normal one. Group (I) was treated with apraclonidine only twice daily, group (II) with apraclonidine before DLT, group (III) with apraclonidine after laser and group (IV) was treated with apraclonidine before and after laser. The aqueous humor was withdrawn from the anterior chamber of the normal and glaucomatous rabbits eye immediately after treatment (direct effect) and one week after treatment for the plasmoid (delayed effect). The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured then the protein contents and the changes in the molecular structures of aqueous humor proteins were detected using gel column chromatography and electrophoretic mobility. Apraclonidine eye drops led to decrease in IOP and prevented its rise after DLT. The degree of permeability of the barrier was deduced by the amount of protein in the plasmoid aqueous humor after DLT. In normal rabbits, the total protein was increased in the plasmoid aqueous humor. In the four treated groups, the total protein was decreased. The most pronounced decrease was in the group that treated with apraclonidine before and after laser. The change in total protein content was accompanied with change in its molecular weight and electrophoretic mobility. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the withdrawing of the aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye in appreciable amount leads to reformation of new aqueous humor (plasmoid) with elevated protein concentration. Moreover, the treatment with apraclonidine before DLT completely protected the blood aqueous barrier from disruption caused by laser and

  16. The Immunomodulatory Effect of Acupoint Application for Childhood Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Cun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the evidence on the immunomodulatory effect of acupoint application for childhood asthma. Methods. Five electronic databases through October 2014 were searched. The risk of bias in eligible studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Standardised mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI of random-effects model were calculated. And heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and quantified with the I2 index. Results. Six studies were included in our review. The aggregated results suggested that acupoint application showed the beneficial effect for childhood asthma in improving IgA (SMD, −0.83; 95% CI −1.14 to −0.52; P<0.00001, IgE (SMD, −0.52; 95% CI −0.76 to −0.29; P<0.001, IgG (SMD, −1.17; 95% CI −1.61 to −0.74; P<0.0001, IL-4 (SMD, −0.57; 95% CI −0.91 to −0.23; P=0.0009, and IFN-γ (SMD, −0.38; 95% CI −0.71 to −0.04; P=0.03 but not IgM (SMD, −0.40; 95% CI −0.98 to 0.18; P=0.18. And the effective dose of acupoint application may be 2–6 hours/time and a total of 3 times within 4 weeks. Conclusions. This review showed the positive evidence that acupoint application had the favorable immunomodulatory effect for childhood asthma. However, more studies with long follow-up are warrant to confirm the current findings.

  17. Am I the Only One This Supervisor is Laughing at? Effects of Aggressive Humor on Employee Strain and Addictive Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Y; Lam, W; Chen, Z

    2012-01-01

    Prior literature on humor primarily documents its positive effects on employees’ attitudes and behaviors, though increasing research on aggressive humor suggests some conflicting viewpoints. This article proposes a model based on social comparison and attribution theories to examine the influence of supervisors’ aggressive humor on employees’ strain and addictive behaviors. The tests of the research model entailed a two-wave study with 243 frontline employees from four manufacturing companies...

  18. Putting the brakes on prejudice rebound effects: An ironic effect of disparagement humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Teeter, Sabrina R; Richardson, Kyle; Woodzicka, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    When people high in prejudice censor prejudice in one setting, they can experience a prejudice rebound effect-subsequently responding with more prejudice than otherwise. Disparagement humor fosters the release rather than suppression of prejudice. Thus, two experiments tested the hypothesis that exposure to disparagement humor attenuates rebound effects. Participants suppressed prejudice by writing fewer anti-gay thoughts about same-sex adoption (Experiment 1) or by reporting greater support for same-sex civil rights (Experiment 2) when expecting to share their responses with others (non-prejudice norm condition) but not if others first exchanged anti-gay jokes (prejudice norm condition). High-prejudice participants then exhibited prejudice rebound in the non-prejudice norm condition only. They rated a gay man more stereotypically (Experiment 1) and allocated greater budget cuts to a gay student organization (Experiment 2) in the non-prejudice norm condition.

  19. A Parametric Study on the Immunomodulatory Effects of Electroacupuncture in DNP-KLH Immunized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Kwang Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of low frequency electroacupuncture (EA and high frequency EA at acupoint ST36 on the production of IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines in BALB/c mice that had been immunized with 2,4-dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet protein (DNP-KLH, as well as to investigate the difference in the immunomodulatory effects exerted by EA stimulations at acupoint ST36 and at a non-acupoint (tail. Female BALB/c mice were divided into seven groups: normal (no treatments, IM (immunization only, ST36-PA (IM + plain acupuncture at ST36, ST36-LEA (IM + low frequency (1 Hz EA at ST36, ST36-HEA (IM + high frequency (120 Hz EA at ST36, NA-LEA (IM + low frequency (1 Hz EA at non-acupoint and NA-HEA (IM + high frequency (120 Hz EA at non-acupoint. EA stimulation was performed daily for two weeks, and total IgE, DNP-KLH specific IgE, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels were measured at the end of the experiment. The results of this study showed that the IgE and IL-4 levels were significantly suppressed in the ST36-LEA and ST36-HEA groups, but not in the NA-LEA and NA-HEA groups. However, there was little difference in the immunomodulatory effects observed in the ST36-LEA and ST36-HEA groups. Taken together, these results suggest that EA stimulation-induced immunomodulation is not frequency dependent, but that it is acupoint specific.

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of intravenous bis-1 f(ab')(2) administration in renal-cell cancer-patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R. A. J.; Kroesen, B. J.; Mesander, G.; Sleijfer, D. T.; The, T. Hauw; Mulder, N. H.; de Leij, L

    We report the immunomodulatory effects of an intravenous treatment with F(ab')(2) fragments of the bispecific monoclonal antibody BIS-1 during subcutaneous recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) therapy of renal cell cancer (RCC) patients. BIS-1 is directed against both the CD3 antigen on T cells and the

  1. Comparison of Immunomodulatory Effects of Fresh Garlic and Black Garlic Polysaccharides on RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yan, Yi-Xi; Yu, Qing-Tao; Deng, Yong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Wang, Ying; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Garlic has a long history to be used for medicine and food purposes. Black garlic, the fermented product of fresh garlic, is considered with better biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, and is developed as an increasingly popular functional food. Polysaccharides are the major components of fresh and black garlic, and immunomodulatory activity is one major pharmacological effect of polysaccharides. Therefore, chemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from fresh and black garlic are investigated and compared in vitro for the 1st time, in order to reveal their molecular and pharmacological differences. It is demonstrated that the molecular weights of polysaccharides from the 2 sources and molar ratios of monosaccharides after acid hydrolysis are greatly variant. The effects of polysaccharides from 2 sources on RAW 264.7 macrophages functions, including promotion of phagocytosis, release of NO, and expressions of several immune-related cytokines (including interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma), were different from each other. The results indicated that fresh garlic polysaccharide exhibited stronger immunomodulatory activities than that of black garlic. Moreover, it is revealed that fructan might be the bioactive component in garlic and it is indicated that during the fermentation treatment, fructan constituents of garlic has degraded, and basically no immunomodulatory effect can be found in black garlic polysaccharides. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. The effect of oral immunomodulatory therapy on treatment uptake and persistence in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrender-Sparkes, Matthew; Spelman, Tim; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Trojano, Maria; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Boz, Cavit; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Alroughani, Raed; Iuliano, Gerardo; Duquette, Pierre; Girard, Marc; Terzi, Murat; Hupperts, Raymond; Grammond, Pierre; Petersen, Thor; Fernandez-Bolaños, Ricardo; Fiol, Marcela; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Verheul, Freek; Cristiano, Edgardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Petkovska-Boskova, Tatjana; Moore, Fraser; Kister, Ilya; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Saladino, Maria Laura; Slee, Mark; Barnett, Michael; Amato, Maria Pia; Shaw, Cameron; Shuey, Neil; Young, Carolyn; Gray, Orla; Kappos, Ludwig; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas; Jokubaitis, Vilija

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to analyse the effect of the introduction of fingolimod, the first oral disease-modifying therapy, on treatment utilisation and persistence in an international cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). MSBASIS, a prospective, observational sub-study of the MSBase registry, collects demographic, clinical and paraclinical data on patients followed from MS onset (n=4718). We conducted a multivariable conditional risk set survival analysis to identify predictors of treatment discontinuation, and to assess if the introduction of fingolimod has altered treatment persistence. A total of 2640 patients commenced immunomodulatory therapy. Following the introduction of fingolimod, patients were more likely to discontinue all other treatments (hazard ratio 1.64, ptreatment compared with other therapies (ptreatment discontinuation. Following the availability of fingolimod, patients were more likely to discontinue injectable treatments. Those who switched to fingolimod were more likely to do so for convenience. Persistence was improved on fingolimod compared to other medications. © The Author(s), 2015.

  3. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Polarization within the Tumor Microenvironment Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosette M. Rivera-Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs represent a promising tool for cell therapy, particularly for their antitumor effects. This cell population can be isolated from multiple tissue sources and also display an innate ability to home to areas of inflammation, such as tumors. Upon entry into the tumor microenvironment niche, MSCs promote or inhibit tumor progression by various mechanisms, largely through the release of soluble factors. These factors can be immunomodulatory by activating or inhibiting both the adaptive and innate immune responses. The mechanisms by which MSCs modulate the immune response are not well understood. Because of this, the relationship between MSCs and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment niche continues to be an active area of research in order to help explain the apparent contradictory findings currently available in the literature. The ongoing research aims to enhance the potential of MSCs in future therapeutic applications.

  4. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Aqueous Obat Pahit Extract of Lingga Malay Ethnic on White Rats (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitmawati Fitmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obat pahit has been generally known and believed by Lingga Malay society as anti-aging agent. However, the study of Obat pahit is not scientifically proven. This research was aimed to prove immunomodulatory ability of Obat pahit potion from Lingga, Riau Archipelago. This study used white rats as an animal modelling, and Staphylococcus aureus as bacteria tester. The rats had been treated with aqueous Obat pahit extract from three TMPs on dose scales of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mL/200g of body weight through oral administration for 7 days. Furthermore, on the 8th days, the experiment animals were injected by the preparation of bacteria tester through intraperitoneal administration in the amount of 0.5 mL/200 gram of body weigth and subsequently incubated for 1 hour after the injection. There were 2 observed parameters on this study, i.e efectivity and capacity of phagocytosis by leukocytes. The observation of leukocytes-phagocytocis activity was carried out by making a smear preparat samples of peritoneum fluid from rats. After the observation under microscope on a magnification of 100 times. The result was obtained the Obat pahit from Kalan PMT swere more effective on dose 2, while from SP4 and Linau TMPs were much more effective on dose 1. It is therefore, using these data of the results, the advanced doses scale of this Obat pahit would not be necessary. Obat pahit potion from Malay Lingga Malay Ethnic could become raw materials of immunomodulatory herbal medicine based on traditional knowledge. It also potentially as a standardized herbal.

  5. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the effect of Cr(VI) on humoral innate immunity using Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragya, P; Shukla, A K; Murthy, R C; Abdin, M Z; Kar Chowdhuri, D

    2015-11-01

    With the advancement of human race, different anthropogenic activities have heaped the environment with chemicals that can cause alteration in the immune system of exposed organism. As a first line of barrier, the evolutionary conserved innate immunity is crucial for the health of an organism. However, there is paucity of information regarding in vivo assessment of the effect of environmental chemicals on innate immunity. Therefore, we examined the effect of a widely used environmental chemical, Cr(VI), on humoral innate immune response using Drosophila melanogaster. The adverse effect of Cr(VI) on host humoral response was characterized by decreased gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the exposed organism. Concurrently, a significantly decreased transcription of humoral pathway receptors (Toll and PGRP) and triglyceride level along with inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in exposed organism. This in turn weakened the immune response of exposed organism that was manifested by their reduced resistance against bacterial infection. In addition, overexpression of the components of humoral immunity particularly Diptericin benefits Drosophila from Cr(VI)-induced humoral immune-suppressive effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding negative impact of an environmental chemical on humoral innate immune response of Drosophila along with subsequent protection by AMPs, which may provide novel insight into host-chemical interactions. Also, our data validate the utility and sensitivity of Drosophila as a model that could be used for screening the possible risk of environmental chemicals on innate immunity with minimum ethical concern that can be further extrapolated to higher organisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Immunomodulatory Effects of Kuseonwangdogo-Based Mixed Herbal Formula Extracts on a Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Wan Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Kuseonwangdogo is a traditional Korean immunomodulatory polyherbal prescription. However, there are no systemic findings on its complex immunomodulatory effects on in vivo models. In this study, we observed the immunomodulatory effects of Kuseonwangdogo-based mixed herbal formula aqueous extracts (MHFe on cyclophosphamide- (CPA- induced immunosuppression mouse model. Methods. In total, 60 male 6-week-old ICR mice (10 mice/group were selected based on body weight 24 h after the second CPA treatment and used in this experiment. Twelve hours after the end of the last (fourth oral administration of MHFe, the animals were sacrificed. Results. Following CPA treatment, a noticeable decrease in the body, thymus, spleen, and submandibular lymph node (LN weights; white blood cell, red blood cell, platelet number, hemoglobin, and hematocrit concentrations; serum interferon-γ levels; splenic tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL- 1β, and IL-10 content; and peritoneal and splenic natural killer cell activities was observed. Depletion of lymphoid cells in the thymic cortex, splenic white pulp, and submandibular LN-related atrophic changes were also observed. However, these CPA-induced myelosuppressive signs were markedly and dose-dependently inhibited by the oral administration of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg MHFe. Conclusion. MHFe can be a promising, potent immunomodulatory therapeutic agent for various immune disorders.

  8. Humorous advertising used on TV: The effects of this appeal upon brand awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Glen Kingsley

    2009-01-01

    The following study is a detailed account of the effects humorous TV advertising has upon brand awareness. The objective of this study is to uncover firstly, can humour gain attention for the brand and through using humour in TV ads, can this create more recognition towards the brand? Also is the brand remembered in conjunction with the humorous TV advert? These are the main questions that will be studied and answered. A brief introduction to the study and the purpose of the study is explaine...

  9. Humors Effect on Short-term Memory in Healthy and Diabetic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Schwab, Ernie; Deshpande, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    With aging, the detrimental effects of stress can impair a person's ability to learn and sustain memory. Humor and its associated mirthful laughter can reduce stress by decreasing the hormone cortisol. Chronic release of cortisol can damage hippocampal neurons, leading to impairment of learning and memory. Objectives • The study intended to examine the effect of watching a humor video on short-term memory in older adults. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study took place at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, CA, USA. The study included 30 participants: 20 normal, healthy, older adults-11 males and 9 females-and 10 older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-6 males and 4 females. The study included 2 intervention groups of older adults who viewed humorous videos, a healthy group (humor group), aged 69.9 ± 3.7 y, and the diabetic group, aged 67.1 ± 3.8 y. Each participant selected 1 of 2 humorous videos that were 20 min in length, either a Red Skeleton comedy or a montage of America's Funniest Home Videos. The control group, aged 68.7 ± 5.5 y, did not watch a humor video and sat in quiescence. A standardized, neuropsychological, memory-assessment tool, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), was used to assess the following abilities: (1) learning, (2) recall, and (3) visual recognition. The testing occurred twice, once before (RAVLT1) and once after (RAVLT2) the humorous video for the humor and diabetic groups, and once before (RAVLT1) and once after (RAVLT2) the period of quiescence for the control group. At 5 time points, measurements of salivary cortisol were also obtained. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to measure significance of the data based on the 3 groups. In the humor, diabetic, and control groups, (1) learning ability improved by 38.5%, 33.4%, and 24.0%, respectively (P = .025); (2) delayed recall improved by 43.6%, 48.1%, and 20.3%, respectively (P = .064); and (3) visual recognition

  10. Carbohydrate fatty acid monosulphate esters are safe and effective adjuvants for humoral responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, L.A.T.; Platenburg, P.; Bajramovic, J.; Veth, J.; Sauerwein, R.; Roeffen, W.; Pohl, M.; Amerongen, G. van; Stittelaar, K.J.; Bosch, J.F. van den

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid sulphate esters (CFASEs) formulated in a squalane-in-water emulsion are effective adjuvants for humoral responses to a wide range of antigens in various animal species but rise in body temperature and local reactions albeit mild or minimal hampers application in humans. In

  11. Effects of splenectomy on the humoral immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozing, J.; Brons, N.H.C.; Benner, R.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the influence of neonatal and adult splenectomy on humoral immunity in mice. In the bone marrow and lymph nodes of both groups of splenectomized mice the number of immunoglobulin (Ig)-positive (B) lymphocytes was significantly higher than in sham-operated mice. These higher numbers of B cells probably reflect a compensation for the absence of the B cell population of the spleen. Hardly any quantitative differences in the serum immunoglobulins were found between splenectomized and sham-splenectomized mice. Only for the IgM class was a significantly lower concentration found in the serum of splenectomized animals. This low concentration of IgM in the blood of splenectomized mice was caused by a failure of the remaining organs to compensate completely for the removal of the quantitatively important population of IgM-producing plasma cells in the spleen. Nevertheless, the number of precursors of IgM-producing plasma cells in bone marrow and lymph nodes and their ability to differentiate into IgM-producing plasma cells was not diminished by splenectomy. Probably the spleen provides a highly efficient environment for the differentiation into IgM-producing plasma cells. By investigating the synergistic ability of bone marrow cells and thymus cells from neonatally splenectomized mice it was found that these cells were fully capable of co-operating in the adoptive plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (SFBC). (author)

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of royal jelly on aorta CD3, CD68 and eNOS expression in hypercholesterolaemic rats

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    Amal Attia El-Morsy Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    RJ administration (300 mg/kg/day with CH, produced a counteractive effect, represented in recompense of biochemical alteration, CD4 and CD8 expression. RJ intake also amended the histological picture. The immunohistochemical picture revealed a decrease in CD3, CD86 and eNOS in the aortic tissue. These findings attributed to the significant immunomodulatory effect of RJ remedy suppress deleterious effects of hypercholesterolaemia.

  13. On the Effects of Teacher’s Sense of Humor on Iranian’s EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Ghanei Motlagh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teacher’s sense of humor is like a miracle in creating effective teaching and learning environments where there is no place for stress and anxiety but instead intrinsic motivation is enhanced. The present study aims mainly, to explore the effects of teachers’ sense of humor of EFL intermediate learners' reading comprehension ability. Having administered a test of reading proficiency, 58 learners are selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. Also two English language teachers, based on TOEFL and Humor Questionnaire, are selected to teach these learners. The process of teaching and the materials were the same for both groups. But participants in humor class were taught in a well-defined humorous environment managed by the teacher. Considering the control group, the process of teaching reading texts was conducted in a normal manner. To measure the relationship between EFL teachers’ sense of humor and EFL learners' intrinsic motivation in reading comprehension ability, an Intrinsic Motivation in Reading Questionnaire (IMERQ including reading curiosity, is given to experimental participants both at the outset and at the end of the course. Finally based on the data, it was found that teachers’ sense of humor was effective in improving learners' reading comprehension ability and enhancing intrinsic motivation. The findings can also provide pedagogical implications for considering teachers’ sense of humor as an intrinsically motivating learning tool.

  14. Immunomodulatory and antitumor effects in vivo by the cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jung-Gul; Kim, Eun Hee; Kang, Hae Eun; Yim, In Been; Kim, Ji Yeon; Joo, Hong-Gu; Woo, Hee Jong

    2004-03-01

    The immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) were investigated. Cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum were tested for the antiproliferative activity in vitro to SNUC2A, SNU1, NIH/3T3 and Jurkat cell lines by crystal violet assay. All cytoplasmic fraction suppressed proliferation of tumor cells, though L. casei and B. longum were more effective. From these results, cytoplasmic fraction of L. casei and B. longum with Y400 as a control were administered as dietary supplements to Balb/c mice for 2, and 4 consecutive wks. Administration for 4 wks enhanced the number of total T cells, NK cells and MHC class II+ cells, and CD4-CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry analysis. To determine of antitumor activity of LABs preparation in vivo, F9 teratocarcinoma cells were inoculated on mice at 14th day. Body weight was decreased with increased survival rate in all groups with the cytoplasm of LABs. Our results showed that cytoplasmic fraction of LABs had direct antiproliferative effects on tumor cell lines in vitro, effects on immune cells in vivo, and antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice with prolonged survival periods.

  15. Immunomodulatory Properties and Molecular Effects in Inflammatory Diseases of Low-Dose X-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rödel, Franz; Frey, Benjamin; Manda, Katrin; Hildebrandt, Guido; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Keilholz, Ludwig; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Gaipl, Udo S.; Rödel, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases are the result of complex and pathologically unbalanced multicellular interactions. For decades, low-dose X-irradiation therapy (LD-RT) has been clinically documented to exert an anti-inflammatory effect on benign diseases and chronic degenerative disorders. By contrast, experimental studies to confirm the effectiveness and to reveal underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still at their early stages. During the last decade, however, the modulation of a multitude of immunological processes by LD-RT has been explored in vitro and in vivo. These include leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesion, adhesion molecule and cytokine/chemokine expression, apoptosis induction, and mononuclear/polymorphonuclear cell metabolism and activity. Interestingly, these mechanisms display comparable dose dependences and dose-effect relationships with a maximum effect in the range between 0.3 and 0.7 Gy, already empirically identified to be most effective in the clinical routine. This review summarizes data and models exploring the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of LD-RT that may serve as a prerequisite for further systematic analyses to optimize low-dose irradiation procedures in future clinical practice.

  16. Immunomodulatory Properties and Molecular Effects in Inflammatory Diseases of Low-Dose X-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rödel, Franz [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang-Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frey, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Manda, Katrin; Hildebrandt, Guido [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Hehlgans, Stephanie [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang-Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Keilholz, Ludwig [Department of Radiotherapy, Clinical Center Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum, Hamburg (Germany); Gaipl, Udo S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Rödel, Claus, E-mail: franz.roedel@kgu.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang-Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-09-25

    Inflammatory diseases are the result of complex and pathologically unbalanced multicellular interactions. For decades, low-dose X-irradiation therapy (LD-RT) has been clinically documented to exert an anti-inflammatory effect on benign diseases and chronic degenerative disorders. By contrast, experimental studies to confirm the effectiveness and to reveal underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still at their early stages. During the last decade, however, the modulation of a multitude of immunological processes by LD-RT has been explored in vitro and in vivo. These include leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesion, adhesion molecule and cytokine/chemokine expression, apoptosis induction, and mononuclear/polymorphonuclear cell metabolism and activity. Interestingly, these mechanisms display comparable dose dependences and dose-effect relationships with a maximum effect in the range between 0.3 and 0.7 Gy, already empirically identified to be most effective in the clinical routine. This review summarizes data and models exploring the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of LD-RT that may serve as a prerequisite for further systematic analyses to optimize low-dose irradiation procedures in future clinical practice.

  17. Biological therapies (immunomodulatory drugs), worsening of psoriasis and rebound effect: new evidence of similitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian

    2016-11-01

    Employing the secondary action or adaptative reaction of the organism as therapeutic response, homeopathy uses the treatment by similitude (similia similibus curentur) administering to sick individuals the medicines that caused similar symptoms in healthy individuals. Such homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism is scientifically explained through the rebound effect of drugs, which cause worsening of symptoms after withdrawal of several palliative treatments. Despite promoting an improvement in psoriasis at the beginning of the treatment, modern biological therapies provoke worsening of the psoriasis (rebound psoriasis) after discontinuation of drugs. Exploratory qualitative review of the literature on the occurrence of the rebound effect with the use of immunomodulatory drugs [T-cell modulating agents and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors drugs] in the treatment of psoriasis. Several researches indicate the rebound effect as the mechanism of worsening of psoriasis with the use of efalizumab causing the suspension of its marketing authorization in 2009, in view of some severe cases. Other studies also have demonstrated the occurrence of rebound psoriasis with the use of alefacept, etanercept and infliximab. As well as studied in other classes of drugs, the rebound effect of biologic agents supports the principle of similitude (primary action of the drugs followed by secondary action and opposite of the organism). Copyright © 2016 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Curcumin-albumin conjugates as an effective anti-cancer agent with immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S R; Krishnan, Lissy K

    2016-05-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an active ingredient in turmeric (Curcuma longa) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive, chemosensitization, and radiosensitization properties. Conjugation of curcumin (Curc) to albumin (Alb) has been found to increase the aqueous solubility of the drug. The current study aimed to prove the safe use of the Curc-Alb conjugate in animals and to demonstrate that it retains drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cell viability was inhibited by the Curc-Alb conjugate in a dose dependent manner in vitro, as evidenced by the MTT assay. Administration of up to 11.4 mg of conjugated curcumin per kg body weight to healthy animals was non-toxic both in terms of lethality and weight loss. Histological analysis of vital organs (kidney, liver and spleen) also did not show toxic effects. Favorable immuno-modulatory activity was observed after continuous administration of sub-acute doses of the conjugate which caused increase in total leukocyte count, platelet count, and viable cell count in bone marrow, and enhanced proliferation of lymphocyte in vitro upon culture. In vivo studies in the DLA tumor model in mice demonstrated that conjugated drug induces tumor reduction and prevention. Significant tumor reduction was observed when the Curc-Alb conjugate was administered intraperitoneally in DLA-induced mice after 1 day (prevention therapy) and 7 days (reduction therapy) of tumor induction. There was significant reduction in both tumor volume and tumor cell numbers in the treated animals as well as a marked increase in their mean survival time and percent increase in life span. The effect was greater when the conjugate was administered soon after inducing the tumor as compared to when treatment was started after allowing tumor to grow for 7 days. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that curcumin albumin conjugate has immunomodulatory and tumor growth inhibition properties. The study postulates

  19. Immunomodulatory Effects of Deokgu Thermomineral Water Balneotherapy on Oxazolone-Induced Atopic Dermatitis Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sae Mi; Lee, Kyung Ho; Han, Hyung Jin; Yu, Dong Soo; Woo, So Youn; Yun, Seong Taek; Hamm, Se-Yeong; Kim, Hong Jig; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-04-01

    Although the therapeutic mechanism of balneotherapy for atopic dermatitis has not been clarified, many atopic patients who visit thermomineral springs have shown clinical improvements. This study was aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of thermomineral water balneotherapy on the atopic dermatitis murine model. The oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis murine model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of balneotherapy with Deokgu thermomineral water compared with distilled water. Histologic evaluation and confocal microscopic imaging were performed to analyze the lesional expression of cluster-of-differentiation (CD)4 and forkhead box p3 (Foxp3). Lesional mRNA expression of interleukin (IL) 33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and Foxp3 was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the distilled water bath group, confocal microscopic evaluation of CD4 and Foxp3 merged images showed increased expression of regulatory T cells in the thermomineral balneotherapy group. The lesional mRNA level of IL-33 showed a reduced trend in the thermomineral balneotherapy group, whereas the level of mRNA of Foxp3 was increased. TSLP showed a decreased trend in both distilled water and thermomineral water bath groups. There was a trend of reduced expression in lesional IL-33 mRNA but increased cell count of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in thermomineral balneotherapy compared with distilled water bath. Therefore, thermomineral balneotherapy can be an effective and safe adjuvant therapeutic option for atopic dermatitis.

  20. Intrinsic Immunomodulatory Effects of Low-Digestible Carbohydrates Selectively Extend Their Anti-Inflammatory Prebiotic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Breton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of carbohydrate-derived fibers are mainly attributed to modulation of the microbiota, increased colonic fermentation, and the production of short-chain fatty acids. We studied the direct immune responses to alimentary fibers in in vitro and in vivo models. Firstly, we evaluated the immunomodulation induced by nine different types of low-digestible fibers on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. None of the fibers tested induced cytokine production in baseline conditions. However, only one from all fibers almost completely inhibited the production of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines induced by bacteria. Secondly, the impact of short- (five days and long-term (three weeks oral treatments with selected fibers was assessed in the trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid colitis model in mice. The immunosuppressive fiber significantly reduced levels of inflammatory markers over both treatment periods, whereas a nonimmunomodulatory fiber had no effect. The two fibers did not differ in terms of the observed fermentation products and colonic microbiota after three weeks of treatment, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory action was not related to prebiotic properties. Hence, we observed a direct effect of a specific fiber on the murine immune system. This intrinsic, fiber-dependent immunomodulatory potential may extend prebiotic-mediated protection in inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Systemic effects in naïve mice injected with immunomodulatory lectin ArtinM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kellen Martins Oliveira Brito

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLR contain N-glycans, which are important glycotargets for plant lectins, to induce immunomodulation. The lectin ArtinM obtained from Artocarpus heterophyllus interacts with TLR2 N-glycans to stimulate IL-12 production by antigen-presenting cells and to drive the immune response toward the Th1 axis, conferring resistance against intracellular pathogens. This immunomodulatory effect was demonstrated by subcutaneously injecting (s.c. ArtinM (0.5 μg in infected mice. In this study, we evaluated the systemic implications of ArtinM administration in naïve BALB/c mice. The mice were s.c. injected twice (7 days interval with ArtinM (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 μg, LPS (positive control, or PBS (negative control and euthanized after three days. None of the ArtinM-injected mice exhibited change in body weight, whereas the relative mass of the heart and lungs diminished in mice injected with the highest ArtinM dose (5.0 μg. Few and discrete inflammatory foci were detected in the heart, lung, and liver of mice receiving ArtinM at doses ≥2.5 μg. Moreover, the highest dose of ArtinM was associated with increased serum levels of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB and globulins as well as an augmented presence of neutrophils in the heart and lung. IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 measurements in the liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and lung homogenates revealed decreased IL-10 level in the heart and lung of mice injected with 5.0 μg ArtinM. We also found an augmented frequency of T helper and B cells in the spleen of all ArtinM-injected naïve mice, whereas the relative expressions of T-bet, GATA-3, and ROR-γt were similar to those in PBS-injected animals. Our study demonstrates that s.c. injection of high doses of ArtinM in naïve mice promotes mild inflammatory lesions and that a low immunomodulatory dose is innocuous to naïve mice.

  2. Systemic effects in naïve mice injected with immunomodulatory lectin ArtinM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Brito, Patrícia Kellen Martins; Gonçalves, Thiago Eleutério; Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; Miguel, Camila Botelho; Rodrigues, Wellington Francisco; Lazo Chica, Javier Emílio; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) contain N-glycans, which are important glycotargets for plant lectins, to induce immunomodulation. The lectin ArtinM obtained from Artocarpus heterophyllus interacts with TLR2 N-glycans to stimulate IL-12 production by antigen-presenting cells and to drive the immune response toward the Th1 axis, conferring resistance against intracellular pathogens. This immunomodulatory effect was demonstrated by subcutaneously injecting (s.c.) ArtinM (0.5 μg) in infected mice. In this study, we evaluated the systemic implications of ArtinM administration in naïve BALB/c mice. The mice were s.c. injected twice (7 days interval) with ArtinM (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 μg), LPS (positive control), or PBS (negative control) and euthanized after three days. None of the ArtinM-injected mice exhibited change in body weight, whereas the relative mass of the heart and lungs diminished in mice injected with the highest ArtinM dose (5.0 μg). Few and discrete inflammatory foci were detected in the heart, lung, and liver of mice receiving ArtinM at doses ≥2.5 μg. Moreover, the highest dose of ArtinM was associated with increased serum levels of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) and globulins as well as an augmented presence of neutrophils in the heart and lung. IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 measurements in the liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and lung homogenates revealed decreased IL-10 level in the heart and lung of mice injected with 5.0 μg ArtinM. We also found an augmented frequency of T helper and B cells in the spleen of all ArtinM-injected naïve mice, whereas the relative expressions of T-bet, GATA-3, and ROR-γt were similar to those in PBS-injected animals. Our study demonstrates that s.c. injection of high doses of ArtinM in naïve mice promotes mild inflammatory lesions and that a low immunomodulatory dose is innocuous to naïve mice. PMID:29084277

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of the aromatic geranyl derivative filifolinone tested by the induction of cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Beatriz; Imarai, Mónica; Torres, René; Modak, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    Fish farming crops are constantly exposed to infectious diseases due to intensive production conditions under which microorganisms develop and spread easily, resulting in severe economic losses. The massive use of antibiotics to control these diseases has lead to the accumulation of residues and the development of drug resistance. Consequently, it is urgent to develop new pharmacological tools to stimulate protective immune responses in salmonids to combat infectious diseases. We evaluated the immunostimulant activity of terpenoid derivatives isolated from species of the Heliotropium genus, which had previously shown antiviral activity in salmon. The immunomodulatory effects of the 3 H-spiro [1-benzofuran-2,1'-ciclohexane] derivative called filifolinone, were studied in vitro using the SHK-1 cell line derived from leucocytes of salmon head kidney and in vivo in Atlantic salmon. For the evaluation, we studied the effect of this compound in the expression of various cytokines. The results showed that Filifolinone increases the levels of expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This suggests that Filifolinone is a potential alternative immunomodulator for veterinary purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of the immunomodulatory extract of Kalanchoe pinnata against murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, D C O; Muzitano, M F; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2010-04-01

    Previously, we described the protective action of the immunomodulatory extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) in murine and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of Kp against visceral leishmaniasis, using the BALB/c mouse model of infection with Leishmania chagasi. Mice receiving oral daily doses of Kp (400 mg/kg) for 30 days displayed significantly reduced hepatic and splenic parasite burden, when compared with untreated animals. Protectiveness was accompanied by a reduction in parasite-specific IgG serum levels, and impaired capacity of spleen cells to produce IL-4, but not IFN-gamma and nitric oxide upon antigen recall in vitro. The reference drug Pentostam (72 mg/kg) given by the intra-peritoneal route on alternate days produced an anti-leishmanial effect similar to oral Kp. Our findings show that the oral efficacy of Kp, seen previously in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis, extends also to visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. chagasi, a difficult to treat and lethal disease of man.

  5. Immunomodulatory Effects of CP-25 on Splenic T Cells of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Han, Chen-Chen; Cui, Dongqian; Luo, Ting-Ting; Li, Yifan; Zhang, Yuwen; Ma, Yang; Wei, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells play an important role. Paeoniflorin-6-oxy-benzenesulfonate (CP-25) shows a strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect in the joint of adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats, but the role of the spleen function is still unclear. The aim of this study was to research how CP-25 regulated spleen function of AA rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with CP-25 (50 mg/kg) orally from day 17 to 29 after immunization. The spleen histopathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and prostaglandin receptor subtypes (EPs) were screened by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The co-expression of GRK2 and EP2 as well as GRK2 and EP4 was measured by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation. The expression of GRK2 and EP4 in splenic T cells was further detected by immunofluorescence. CP-25 was found to relieve the secondary paw swelling, attenuate histopathologic changes, and downregulate GRK2, EP2 and EP4 expression in AA rats. Additionally, CP-25 not only downregulated the co-expression of GRK2 and EP4 but also downregulated GRK2, EP4 expression in splenic T cells of AA rats. From these results, we can infer that CP-25 play an anti-inflammatory and immune function by affecting the function of the splenic T cells.

  6. The Immunomodulatory Effect of You-Gui-Wan on Dermatogoides-pteronyssinus-Induced Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Chinese medicine You-Gui-Wan (YGW contains ten species of medicinal plants and has been used to improve health in remissive states of asthma for hundreds of years in Asia. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory mechanisms in vivo. Therefore, this study investigated the pathologic and immunologic responses to YGW in mice that had been repeatedly exposed to Dermatogoides-pteronyssinus (Der p. YGW reduced Der-p-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and total IgE in serum. It also inhibited eosinophil infiltration by downregulating the protein expression of IL-5 in serum and changed the Th2-bios in BALF by upregulating IL-12. Results of the collagen assay and histopathologic examination showed that YGW reduced airway remodeling in the lung. In addition, after YGW treatment there was a relative decrease in mRNA expression of TGF-β1, IL-13, eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-1 in lung in the YGW group. The results of EMSA and immunohistochemistry revealed that YGW inhibited NF-κB expression in epithelial lung cells. YGW exerts its regulative effects in chronic allergic asthmatic mice via its anti-inflammatory activity and by inhibiting the progression of airway remodeling.

  7. Distinct Immunomodulatory Effects of Spermine Oxidase in Colitis Induced by Epithelial Injury or Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain P. Gobert

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines have been implicated in numerous biological processes, including inflammation and carcinogenesis. Homeostatic regulation leads to interconversion of the polyamines putrescine and the downstream metabolites spermidine and spermine. The enzyme spermine oxidase (SMOX, which back-converts spermine to spermidine, contributes to regulation of polyamine levels, but can also have other effects. We have implicated SMOX in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis due to infection by the pathogen Helicobacter pylori. In addition, we reported that SMOX can be upregulated in humans with inflammatory bowel disease. Herein, we utilized Smox-deficient mice to examine the role of SMOX in two murine colitis models, Citrobacter rodentium infection and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced epithelial injury. In C. rodentium-infected wild-type (WT mice, there were marked increases in colon weight/length and histologic injury, with mucosal hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration; these changes were ameliorated in Smox−/− mice. In contrast, with DSS, Smox−/− mice exhibited substantial mortality, and increased body weight loss, colon weight/length, and histologic damage. In C. rodentium-infected WT mice, there were increased colonic levels of the chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL10, and the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, CSF3, IFN-γ, and IL-17; each were downregulated in Smox−/− mice. In DSS colitis, increased levels of IL-6, CSF3, and IL-17 were further increased in Smox−/− mice. In both models, putrescine and spermidine were increased in WT mice; in Smox−/− mice, the main effect was decreased spermidine and spermidine/spermine ratio. With C. rodentium, polyamine levels correlated with histologic injury, while with DSS, spermidine was inversely correlated with injury. Our studies indicate that SMOX has immunomodulatory effects in experimental colitis via polyamine flux. Thus, SMOX contributes to the immunopathogenesis of

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of Sceletium tortuosum (Trimesemine™) elucidated in vitro: Implications for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Amber C; Smith, Carine

    2018-03-25

    Sceletium tortuosum, among other Sceletium species, was traditionally used by the Khoisan people of Southern Africa for relief of pain-related ailments. However, the commercial availability of this supplement has greatly expanded due to anecdotal claims of its mood-elevating and anxiolytic properties. Unrelated research has elucidated a significant link between cytokines and the mediation of depression. Therefore, the effect of Sceletium supplementation on immune cell functionality is of interest, since the efficacy of potential depression treatments could, at least in part, rely on downregulation of pro-inflammatory signalling. The current study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of a Sceletium extract, both basally and in the context of acute endotoxin stimulation. Primary human monocytes were supplemented with either a 0.01mg/ml or 1mg/ml Sceletium extract dose, with or without E. coli LPS stimulation in vitro, for 24h. Mitochondrial viability, as an indirect measure of cytotoxicity, and cytokine release in response to the treatment intervention were assessed. Sceletium extract treatment was associated with increased mitochondrial viability, as well as up-regulated IL-10 release under basal conditions. LPS exposure significantly decreased mitochondrial viability, but this was prevented completely under Sceletium-treated conditions. The acute inflammatory response to LPS stimulation was not negatively affected. Sceletium treatment conferred most significant effects at a dose of 0.01mg/ml. Sceletium exerts significant cytoprotective effects in the setting of endotoxin stimulation. Cytokine assessment indicated that Sceletium possesses mild anti-inflammatory properties, but does not hinder the mounting of an adequate immune response to acute immune challenge. These findings indicate that Sceletium may be beneficial for the attenuation of cytokine-induced depression, as well as in systemic low-grade inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. [Application of Mixed-effect Model in PMI Estimation by Vitreous Humor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M Z; Li, H J; Zhang, T Y; Ding, Z J; Wu, S F; Qiu, X G; Liu, Q

    2018-02-01

    To test the changes of the potassium (K⁺) and magnesium (Mg²⁺) concentrations in vitreous humor of rabbits along with postmortem interval (PMI) under different temperatures, and explore the feasibility of PMI estimation using mixed-effect model. After sacrifice, rabbit carcasses were preserved at 5 ℃, 15 ℃, 25 ℃ and 35 ℃, and 80-100 μL of vitreous humor was collected by the double-eye alternating micro-sampling method at every 12 h. The concentrations of K⁺ and Mg²⁺ in vitreous humor were measured by a biochemical-immune analyser. The mixed-effect model was used to perform analysis and fitting, and established the equations for PMI estimation. The data detected from the samples that were stoned at 10 ℃, 20 ℃ and 30 ℃ with 20, 40 and 65 h were used to validate the equations of PMI estimation. The concentrations of K⁺ and Mg²⁺ [f( x , y )] in vitreous humor of rabbits under different temperature increased along with PMI ( x ). The relative equations of K⁺ and Mg²⁺ concentration with PMI and temperature under 5 ℃~35 ℃ were f K⁺ ( x , y )=3.413 0+0.309 2 x +0.337 6 y +0.010 83 xy -0.002 47 x ² ( P PMI estimation by K⁺ and Mg²⁺ was in 10 h when PMI was between 0 to 40 h, and the time of deviation was in 21 h when PMI was between 40 to 65 h. the ambient temperature range of 5 ℃-35 ℃, the mixed-effect model based on temperature and vitreous humor substance concentrations can provide a new method for the practical application of vitreous humor chemicals for PMI estimation. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  10. Effect of low molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation processes of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarova, T.V.; Skobel'tsyna, E.S.; Grinberg, S.M.; Kruglikov, I.L.; Korotaev, G.K.; Tepelina, O.M.; Il'ina, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation in mice irradiated at 4 Gy was studied. It is shown that injection of low-molecular fraction of thymus hymoral factor to irradiated animals affects proliferative processes in spleen and bone marrow, however the degree of the effect depends on the injection scheme of the preparation. Application of mathematical planning methods of the experiment enables to analyze various injection schemes of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on the investigated indices. The optimal scheme of preparation injection is determined: 1st injection with the dose of 10 mkg/kg following 4 hour after irradiation, 2d injection - with the same dose in 7-21 days

  11. Investigating the effect of ionizing radiations on humoral immune system in industrial radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Fariedeh.

    1993-01-01

    A general review of radiobiology, immunology system,mechanism of biological effect of radiation and their biological damaging on cells and organs and specifically radiation effects on humoral immune system are given. The purpose is investigating the side effects of occupational exposures caused by ionizing radiation, and reviewing the decreasing probability of humoral immune responses in industrial radiographers. Generally, it measures the following humoral factors of industrial radiographers by value of different exposures: 1-Measuring immunoglobulins serum which consist of IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE. 2-Electrophoresis of serum proteins to investigate gamma globulins changes and also the changes occur in serum globulins after exposure. 3-Investigating the titration of isohem glutins serum (or natural immunoglobulins) that is mostly from IgM. 4-Measuring the above experiments on health control personnel who have not exposed to occupational or biological radiation effects. 5-Comparing the results of the two groups by statistical analysis. 6-Trying to relate the exposure to the information obtained from the above experiments. 7-Finally, to obtain this response whether mutation as low dose of radiation as investigated in this project is a threatening factor to the health and immunity of industrial radiographers

  12. Effects of hypoxia on the immunomodulatory properties of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Roemeling-Van Rhijn (Marieke); F.K.F. Mensah (Fane ); S.S. Korevaar (Sander); M.J.C. Leijs (Maarten J.C.); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); C.C. Baan (Carla); W. Weimar (Willem); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAdipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) are of great interest as a cellular therapeutic agent for regenerative and immunomodulatory purposes. The function of ASC adapts to environmental conditions, such as oxygen tension. Oxygen levels within tissues are typically much lower

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous and organic fractions from Petiveria alliacea on human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Sandra Paola; Hernández, John Fredy; Barreto, Claudia Cifuentes; Cifuentes B, Claudia; Masayuki, Aoki; M, Aoki; Moins-Teisserenc, Hélène; H, Moins-Teisserenc; Fiorentino, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Petiveria alliacea is a plant traditionally known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities; however, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of its immunomodulatory properties are still unknown. Dendritic cells (DC) promote adaptive immune response by activating T lymphocytes, inducing an effector response or tolerance depending on the DC differentiation level. Herein, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous and organic plant fractions from P. alliacea using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. The phenotype, cytokine secretion and gene expression were estimated after treatment with the plant fractions. We found that P. alliacea aqueous fraction induced morphological changes and co-stimulatory expression of CD86, indicating partial DC maturation. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNF-α were secreted. The fraction also increased NF-κB gene expression while down-regulating TGFβ gene expression. These results suggest that the aqueous fraction can induce partial DC activation, a situation that can be relevant in tolerance induction. It is important to state that the organic fraction by itself does not show any immunomodulatory activity. This study provides evidence for possible immunomodulatory activity of P. alliacea extracts which has been used in traditional medicine in Colombia.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of antibiotics and their use in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Swetalina Pradhan; Bhushan Madke; Poonam Kabra; Adarsh Lata Singh

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics (antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic) are class of drugs which result in either killing or inhibiting growth and multiplication of infectious organisms. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed by all specialties for treatment of infections. However, antibiotics have hitherto immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties and can be exploited for various noninfectious dermatoses. Dermatologists routinely prescribe antibiotics in treatment of various noninfectious disorders. ...

  15. Human multipotent adult progenitor cells are nonimmunogenic and exert potent immunomodulatory effects on alloreactive T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Pinxteren, Jef; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Luyckx, Ariane; van't Hof, Wouter; Deans, Robert; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Waer, Mark; Billiau, An D; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are bone marrow-derived nonhematopoietic stem cells with a broad differentiation potential and extensive expansion capacity. A comparative study between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human MAPCs (hMAPCs) has shown that hMAPCs have clearly distinct phenotypical and functional characteristics from hMSCs. In particular, hMAPCs express lower levels of MHC class I than hMSCs and cannot only differentiate into typical mesenchymal cell types but can also differentiate in vitro and in vivo into functional endothelial cells. The use of hMSCs as cellular immunomodulatory stem cell products gained much interest since their immunomodulatory capacities in vitro became evident over the last decade. Currently, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs is already used in clinical trials to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), as well as for the treatment of acute myocardial infarct, ischemic stroke, and Crohn's disease. Therefore, we studied the immune phenotype, immunogenicity, and immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs in vitro. We demonstrated that hMAPCs are nonimmunogenic for T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, hMAPCs exert strong immunosuppressive effects on T-cell alloreactivity and on T-cell proliferation induced by mitogens and recall antigens. This immunomodulatory effect was not MHC restricted, which makes off-the-shelf use promising. The immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs is partially mediated via soluble factors and dependent on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity. At last, we isolated hMAPCs, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs, named MultiStem, and hMSCs from one single donor and observed that both the immunogenicity and the immunosuppressive capacities of all three stem cell products are comparable in vitro. In conclusion, hMAPCs have potent immunomodulatory properties in vitro and can serve as a valuable cell source for the clinical use of immunomodulatory cellular

  16. Immuno-modulatory effect of local rhEGF treatment during tissue repair in diabetic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Cifuentes, Alberto; Ortega, Miguel A; Pastor, Marta; Gainza, Garazi; Gainza, Eusebio; Buján, Julia; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2018-04-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that can be severely impaired due to pathological situations such as diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of this pathology and are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. In this work, the effects of local treatment with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) were studied using a full-thickness wound healing model in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound healing process was assessed with different concentrations of rhEGF (0.1, 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 µg/mL), placebo and both diabetic and non-diabetic controls ( n  = 53). The macroscopic healing observed in treated diabetic rats was affected by rhEGF concentration. Histologically, we also observed an improvement in the epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and maturation in treated groups, finding again the best response at doses of 0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. Afterwards, the tissue immune response over time was assessed in diabetic rats using the most effective concentrations of rhEGF (0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL), compared to controls. The presence of macrophages, CD4 + T lymphocytes and CD8 + T lymphocytes, in the reparative tissue was quantified, and cytokine expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. rhEGF treatment caused a reduction in the number of infiltrating macrophages in the healing tissue of diabetic, as well as diminished activation of these leukocytes. These findings show that local administration of rhEGF improves the healing process of excisional wounds and the quality of the neoformed tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, this treatment reduces the local inflammation associated with diabetic healing, indicating immuno-modulatory properties. © 2018 The authors.

  17. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  18. Immunomodulatory and antioxidant protective effect of Sarcocornia perennis L. (swampfire) in lead intoxicated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Manel; Hamed, Houda; Akrouti, Amel; Christian, Magné; Ksouri, Riadh; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2017-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is a very toxic metal present in the environment, causing disturbances of several functions. Preventive or curative effects of halophytic plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate in vivo immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects of Sarcocornia perennis extract (Sp) against lead toxicity in rats. Groups of six animals each were treated with plant extract (via food), 6 g/L lead acetate (via drinking water) or a combination of both. At the end of the three-week period, rat exposure to lead caused reduction of liver weight but an increase of that of kidney. Moreover, lead intoxication-induced oxidative stress manifested by significant increases of inflammatory cytokines (except IL-10) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS), compared with the control group. Meanwhile, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and glutathione levels (GSH), as well as antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were decreased. Considering liver and renal markers, lead treatment induced a significant increase in the activities of aminotransferases (AST, ALT), and in the levels of urea, creatinine and phosphorous, whereas total plasma protein, albumin and calcium levels were significantly decreased. S. perennis extract alone did not induce any significant changes in hepatic or renal markers, whereas the antioxidant markers were significantly increased. S. perennis supplementation significantly reduced the lead-induced elevation of serum IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TBARS but increased the IL-10 and antioxidant enzyme activities. Overall, plant components ameliorated hepatorenal damages caused by lead.

  19. Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Effects of Polysaccharides from Broken-Spore of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Yun eWang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antitumor activity of Gl-BSP, a polysaccharide isolated from boiling water extract of the broken-spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss ex Fr Karst. and its possible mechanism were investigated in vivo and in vitro. It was showed that Gl-BSP (50, 100, 200 mg/kg exhibited antitumor effect against Sarcoma 180 (S180 in BALB/c mice. The Gl-BSP was not cytotoxicity in S180 cells and PG cells (human lung carcinoma cell in vitro. However, Gl-BSP-treated serum potently inhibited S180 cells and PG cells proliferation in vitro. Moreover, Gl-BSP could promote the splenic lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A or LPS, enhance nature killer cell (NK cell cytotoxic activity, augment the percentage of neutral red (NR phagocytosis by macrophages, and increase the percentage of the CD4+ or CD8+ subset in S180-bearing BALB/c mice. The level of IFN-γ, TNF-α and NO of serum apparently was increased by Gl-BSP. Gl-BSP also showed immunomodulatory activities in tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore,It was proved that neutralization with anti-TNF-α and/or anti-IFN-γ significantly diminished growth inhibition induced by Gl-BSP –treated serum in S180 or PG cells. Blocking effect was noted in the combination of anti-TNF-α and anti-IFN-γ. These observations suggest that the antitumor activity of Gl-BSP may mainly relate to the activation of the immune response of the host organism by the stimulation of NK cells, T cells, and macrophages.

  20. Linezolid has unique immunomodulatory effects in post-influenza community acquired MRSA pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi Bhan

    Full Text Available Post influenza pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, with mortality rates approaching 60% when bacterial infections are secondary to multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus, in particular community acquired MRSA (cMRSA, has emerged as a leading cause of post influenza pneumonia.Linezolid (LZD prevents acute lung injury in murine model of post influenza bacterial pneumonia.Mice were infected with HINI strain of influenza and then challenged with cMRSA at day 7, treated with antibiotics (LZD or Vanco or vehicle 6 hours post bacterial challenge and lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL harvested at 24 hours for bacterial clearance, inflammatory cell influx, cytokine/chemokine analysis and assessment of lung injury.Mice treated with LZD or Vanco had lower bacterial burden in the lung and no systemic dissemination, as compared to the control (no antibiotic group at 24 hours post bacterial challenge. As compared to animals receiving Vanco, LZD group had significantly lower numbers of neutrophils in the BAL (9×10(3 vs. 2.3×10(4, p < 0.01, which was associated with reduced levels of chemotactic chemokines and inflammatory cytokines KC, MIP-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β in the BAL. Interestingly, LZD treatment also protected mice from lung injury, as assessed by albumin concentration in the BAL post treatment with H1N1 and cMRSA when compared to vanco treatment. Moreover, treatment with LZD was associated with significantly lower levels of PVL toxin in lungs.Linezolid has unique immunomodulatory effects on host inflammatory response and lung injury in a murine model of post-viral cMRSA pneumonia.

  1. Estragole and methyl-eugenol-free extract of Artemisia dracunculus possesses immunomodulatory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon, may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS. The estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract was characterized and used for evaluation of immunity in NMRI mice after challenging with sheep red blood cells. Results: It was shown that the aqueous extract of tarragon was free from potentially harmful estragole or methyl-eugenol. Moreover, the immunomodulatory effect of the aqueous extract of tarragon (100 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days was investigated. The extract significantly increased the level of anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC (antibody and simultaneously decreased the level of cellular immunity in the treatment group. Moreover, tarragon caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ in parallel with a reduction in the ratio of INF-γ to Il-10 or IL-17 to IL-10 in the splenocytes. In addition, the levels of the respiratory burst and nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages were significantly decreased. Additionally, the phagocytosis potential of macrophages was significantly increased in treated mice. Conclusion: These data showed that the aqueous extract of tarragon may be used as a natural source to modulate the immune system, because it can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce anti-inflammatory macrophages.

  2. The effect of feed supplementation with zinc chelate and zinc sulphate on selected humoral and cell-mediated immune parameters and cytokine concentration in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Kalinowski, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    The ability of poultry to withstand infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa depends upon the integrity of the immune system. Zinc is important for proper functioning of heterophils, mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Numerous data indicate that the demand for zinc in poultry is not met in Poland due to its low content in feeds of vegetable origin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of inorganic (ZnSO 4 and ZnSO 4 + phytase enzyme), and organic forms of zinc (Zn with glycine and Zn with glycine and phytase enzyme) on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by evaluating the percentage of CD3 + CD4 + , CD3 + CD8 + , CD25 + , MHC Class II, and BU-1 + lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of monocytes and heterophils, and the concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. Phagocytic activity in whole blood was performed using the commercial Phagotest kit (ORPEGEN-Pharma, Immuniq, Poland). The results showed that supplementation with zinc chelates causes activation of the cellular and humoral immune response in poultry, helping to maintain the balance between the Th1 and Th2 response and enhancing resistance to infections. In contrast with chelates, the use of zinc in the form of sulphates has no immunomodulatory effect and may contribute to the development of local inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, increasing susceptibility to infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The effect of acquiring life skills through humor on social adjustment rate of the female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Sabour, Nazanin Hashemi; Yazdani, Mohsen; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2010-01-01

    Life skills have different effects on various aspects of the mental health. Social adjustment prepares adolescents for entering to the adulthood. On the other hand, humor and joking in the education is considered as a stress reducer and learning increaser. Therefore, the present study conducted aimed to determine the effect of acquiring life skills through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girls. This was a two-group semi-experimental study including three phases. The study population included 69 first year high school female students of Isfahan Department of Education district 3 who were selected in simple random sampling. First of all, the social adjustment rate was measured using California Personality Inventory. Thereafter, life skills education was conducted using humor during five sessions. Finally, a test was taken in order to assess the acquisition of the life skills in which passing score was required for re-completing the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using software SPSS(10) and independent and paired t-tests. The findings of the study indicated that the mean score of the social adjustment statistically had a significant difference in the intervention group before and after the intervention. Furthermore, statistically, there was a significant difference between mean score of the social adjustment in the control group and test group after conducting the intervention. The findings of the study indicated that life skills education has been increased through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girl students. Considering the efficacy of learning life skills on the social adjustment and results of the other studies which were in accordance with the present study, implementing such trainings with a new method comprehensively is recommended in the schools.

  4. Identification and Characterization of Novel Immunomodulatory Bursal-derived Pentapeptide-II (BPP-II)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiu-Li; Liu, Qing-Tao; Cao, Rui-Bing; Zhou, Bin; Ma, Zhi-Yong; Deng, Wen-Lei; Wei, Jian-Chao; Qiu, Ya-Feng; Wang, Fang-Quan; Gu, Jin-Yan; Wang, Feng-Juan; Zheng, Qi-Sheng; Ishag, Hassan; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius, the acknowledged central humoral immune organ, plays a vital role in B lymphocyte differentiation. However, there are few reports of the molecular basis of the mechanism on immune induction and potential antitumor activity of bursal-derived peptides. In this paper, a novel bursal-derived pentapeptide-II (BPP-II, MTLTG) was isolated and exerted immunomodulatory functions on antibody responses in vitro. Gene microarray analyses demonstrated that BPP-II regulated expression of 2478 genes in a mouse-derived hybridoma cell line. Immune-related gene ontology functional procedures were employed for further functional analysis. Furthermore, the majority of BPP-II-regulated pathways were associated with immune responses and tumor processes. Moreover, BPP-II exhibited immunomodulatory effects on antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, including enhancement of avian influenza virus (H9N2 subtype)-specific antibody and cytokine production and modification of T cell immunophenotypes and lymphocyte proliferation. Finally, BPP-II triggered p53 expression and stabilization and selectively inhibited tumor cell proliferation. These data identified the multifunctional factor, BPP-II, as a novel biomaterial representing an important linking between the humoral central immune system and immune induction, including antitumor. Information generated in this study elucidates further the mechanisms involved in humoral immune system and represents the potential basis of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for treating human tumors and immune improvement. PMID:22184121

  5. Identification and characterization of novel immunomodulatory bursal-derived pentapeptide-II (BPP-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiu-Li; Liu, Qing-Tao; Cao, Rui-Bing; Zhou, Bin; Ma, Zhi-Yong; Deng, Wen-Lei; Wei, Jian-Chao; Qiu, Ya-Feng; Wang, Fang-Quan; Gu, Jin-Yan; Wang, Feng-Juan; Zheng, Qi-Sheng; Ishag, Hassan; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2012-02-03

    The bursa of Fabricius, the acknowledged central humoral immune organ, plays a vital role in B lymphocyte differentiation. However, there are few reports of the molecular basis of the mechanism on immune induction and potential antitumor activity of bursal-derived peptides. In this paper, a novel bursal-derived pentapeptide-II (BPP-II, MTLTG) was isolated and exerted immunomodulatory functions on antibody responses in vitro. Gene microarray analyses demonstrated that BPP-II regulated expression of 2478 genes in a mouse-derived hybridoma cell line. Immune-related gene ontology functional procedures were employed for further functional analysis. Furthermore, the majority of BPP-II-regulated pathways were associated with immune responses and tumor processes. Moreover, BPP-II exhibited immunomodulatory effects on antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, including enhancement of avian influenza virus (H9N2 subtype)-specific antibody and cytokine production and modification of T cell immunophenotypes and lymphocyte proliferation. Finally, BPP-II triggered p53 expression and stabilization and selectively inhibited tumor cell proliferation. These data identified the multifunctional factor, BPP-II, as a novel biomaterial representing an important linking between the humoral central immune system and immune induction, including antitumor. Information generated in this study elucidates further the mechanisms involved in humoral immune system and represents the potential basis of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for treating human tumors and immune improvement.

  6. Effects of multidose combination chemotherapy on the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, A; Lodewijk, ME; Klok, PA; Timens, W

    Patients receiving multidose combination chemotherapy are at risk for severe, life-threatening infections, caused by among others encapsulated bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae. The splenic marginal zone is essential in the initiation of immune responses to S. pneumoniae. We analyzed effects of

  7. Effects of fenbendazole on the murine humoral immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Ana Marie; Frasca, Daniela; Zaias, Julia; Van der Put, Elaine; Riley, Richard L; Altman, Norman H; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2009-05-01

    Pinworms are highly contagious parasites that have been effectively treated in laboratory rodents with fenbendazole (FBZ). Whether FBZ has any detrimental side effects that may compromise experimental results is unknown. Here we asked whether the immune systems from young and aged mice are altered under FBZ treatment. We compared control and FBZ-treated groups of young (age, 2 to 4 mo) and old (age, 22 to 24 mo) BALB/cN mice. The treated mice received a total of 4 wk (alternating-week treatment regimen) of FBZ-medicated feed. Spleen and bone marrow were collected for immunologic assays, and heart, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and liver were evaluated by histopathology. Our results indicate that FBZ treatment has significant effects on the immune systems of mice; these effects are greater in aged mice. FBZ treatment adversely affected mRNA and protein expression of E2A (a transcription factor crucial for B lymphocytes) in activated precursor B lymphocytes obtained from the bone marrow of young and old mice. These effects were reversed by 6 wk on regular feed after the end of treatment. Activated B lymphocytes from the spleens of young and old mice showed decreased function (cell proliferation, E2A mRNA and protein expression) through the last time point of FBZ treatment but recovered by 2 to 4 wk after treatment. Our findings suggest that FBZ treatment may alter sensitive immune and molecular measures as presented here, and postponing the experimental use of mice until at least 6 wk after treatment should be considered.

  8. Characterization and immunomodulatory effects of glucans from Pleurotus albidus, a promising species of mushroom for farming and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alves, Victor Costa; Gomes, Daniel; Menolli, Nelson; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira do

    2017-02-01

    Polysaccharides from a number of mushroom species are recognized as functional food ingredients with potential health benefits, including immunomodulatory effects. In this study, polysaccharides extracted from the basidiome with cold water (BaCW), hot water (BaHW), and hot alkali (BaHA) solution, and exo- (MyEX) and endopolysaccharides (MyEN) from the submerged culture of Pleurotus albidus, a promising species for farming and biomass production, were analyzed for their chemical composition and structure and immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. Compositional (HPAEC-PAD and HPSEC-RID/MWD) and structural (FT-IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) analyses identified BaCW and MyEX as β-(1,6)-branched β-(1,3)-glucans, BaHW and MyEN as α-(1,3)-(1,2)-branched α-(1,6)-glucans, and BaHA as a mixture of α-(1,6)- and β-(1,3)-glucans. BaCW and MyEX stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6), and decreased phagocytosis of zymosan particles. In contrast, BaHW and MyEN induced TNF-α, NO and IL-6 production, and increased zymosan phagocytosis, while BaHA displayed intermediary effects in comparison the other polysaccharides. In conclusion, the basidiome and the submerged culture of P. albidus are sources of easily extractable α- and β-glucans with potential immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of maternal atrazine exposure on male Balb/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide applied to corn, sugar and other crops as a broad leaf weed inhibitor. Using the Balb/c mouse model, we have determined that prenatal/lactational exposure to atrazine alters adult immune function. Pregnant Balb/c dams were exposed subcutaneously for 21 days via time release pellets to 700 μg per day of atrazine beginning between days 10 and 12 of pregnancy. Prenatal/Lactational exposure caused no overt physical malformations in the offspring and had no effect on the number of litters carried to term or the litter size. Upon reaching early adulthood (approximately 3 months of age), the state of their immune system was evaluated. There were no changes in body weight or in the organ to body weight ratio of the spleen. Additionally, no changes were observed in the number of CD8 + T cell, CD4 + T cell, or B220 + B cell subpopulations in the spleen. T cell function was assessed by measuring proliferation and cytolytic activity after in vitro allogeneic stimulation. Male mice which had been prenatally/lactationally exposed to atrazine had an increase in both T cell proliferation and cytolytic activity. The humoral immune response was assessed after immunization with heat killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP). There was a significant increase in the number of HKSP-specific IgM secreting B cells in the spleen of prenatal/lactational exposed male mice. Inasmuch as atrazine is a widespread environmental contaminant, this immunopotentiation raises concerns that it may potentiate clinical diseases, such as autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity, and needs to be carefully monitored and studied

  10. Immunomodulatory potencies of isolated compounds from Crataegus azarolus through their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Mokdad-Bzéouich, Imèn; Sassi, Aicha; Abed, Besma; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-06-01

    The search of natural immunomodulatory agents has become an area of great interest in order to reduce damage to the human body. In this study, the immunomodulatory potential of Crataegus azarolus and its isolated hyperoside on mouse lymphocytes and macrophages in vitro was assessed. The effect of C. azarolus natural compounds on splenocytes proliferation, natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) activities, and on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity were assessed by MTT test. Phagocytic activity and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) release by macrophages were also evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of these products was evaluated by determining their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) in splenocytes and macrophages. Depending on the concentrations, both ethyl acetate (EA) extract and hyperoside (Hyp) from C. azarolus affect macrophage functions by modulating their lysosomal enzyme activity and nitric oxide release. Whereas, the above-mentioned products significantly promote LPS and lectin-stimulated splenocyte proliferation, implying a potential activation of lymphocytes B and T enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses. Moreover, EA extract and Hyp could enhance the activity of NK and T lymphocytes cells, as well as the macrophages-mediated cytotoxicity against B16F10 cells. The anti-inflammatory activity was concomitant with the cellular antioxidant effect of the tested compounds against macrophages and splenocytes. Collectively, C. azarolus and its isolated hyperoside exhibited an immunomodulatory effect through their antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that C. azarolus should be explored as a novel potential immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  11. Effects of deceleration on the humoral antibody response in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, R. P.; Caren, L. D.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of hypergravity, simulated by chronic centrifugation, followed by a return to normal G (deceleration) on the immune system of rats were investigated. Two groups of male rats (28 days at 2.1 G, and 3.1 G) were compared to the control group (1.0 G). The animals were immunized by i.p. injections of sheep red blood cells on days 29, 42, and 57, and bled on days 36, 47, and 62. While the centrifuged rats ate and gainedsignificantly less than the control rats, the antibody titers and the organ/body mass ratios for the adrenal glands, kidneys, lungs, heart, and thymus were unaffected by gravity exposures, as were the values of the hematocrit and the white blood cell counts. It is concluded that deceleration does not adversely affect these particular aspects of the immune system.

  12. Effects of vinegar–egg on growth inhibition, differentiation human leukemic U937 cells and its immunomodulatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Yu Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar and eggs have rich nutrients. In this study, the mixed form of both derived products, vinegar–egg solution and its products (vinegar–egg concentrate and vinegar–egg condensate were chosen for an assessment of their biological activity. To further our understanding regarding the anticancer and immunomodulatory effects of vinegar–egg, we investigated its effects on the proliferation and differentiation of U937 cells. Vinegar–egg was treated using spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum concentration and used to stimulate human mononuclear cells. The conditioned media obtained from these cultures by filtration were used to treat U937 cells. Three conditioned media inhibited U937 cell growth by 22.1–67.25% more effectively than PHA-treated control (22.53%. CD11b and CD14 expression on the treated U937 cells were 29.1–45.4% and 31.6–47.2%, respectively. High levels of cytokines IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α were detected in the three conditioned media. Vinegar–egg stimulates human mononuclear cells to secrete cytokines, which inhibit the growth of U937 cells and induce their differentiation. Keywords: Cytokines, Differentiation, Immunomodulatory activity, Leukemic U937 cells, Vinegar–egg

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of herbal formula of astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and polysaccharopeptide (PSP) in mice with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing; Liu, Zijing; Long, Tingting; Zhou, Lijng; Bao, Yixi

    2018-01-01

    This study is to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of the herbal formula of astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and polysaccharopeptide (PSP) in mouse models of immunosuppression and lung cancer. Immune parameters were recorded for these model mice. Peripheral white blood cells (WBC) were detected with the automatic blood cell analyzer. Spleen and thymus indices, and tumor inhibition ratio were obtained. Percentage of peripheral blood CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Serum levels of Th1 (IL-2, TNF, and IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), and Th17 (IL-17A) were detected with the BD cytometric bead array (CBA) mouseTh1/Th2/Th17 cytokine kit. Compared with the NS group, the PSP and APS herbal formula significantly improved the WBC, thymus index, spleen index, CD4 + /CD8 + ratio, TNF, IFN-γ, IL-2, andIL-17Ainimmunosuppressivemice and lung cancer mice (PAPS herbal formula group (PAPS herbal formula group induced comparable tumor inhibiting effect with the AMD group (23.3% and 24.1%, respectively). The PSP+APS herbal formula have immunomodulatory effects and anti-tumor activity in mice with of lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of humor on short-term memory in older adults: a new component for whole-person wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Schwab, Ernie; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Deshpande, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    For older adults, the damaging effects of aging and stress can impair the ability to learn and sustain memory. Humor, with its associated mirthful laughter, can reduce stress and cortisol, a stress hormone. Chronic release of cortisol can damage hippocampus neurons, leading to impairment of learning and memory. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether watching a humorous video had an effect on short-term memory in an older population. The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study took place at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, California. The research team recruited 20 normal, healthy, older adults, 11 males and 9 females. The humor group (n = 10, mean = 69.3 ± 3.7 y) self-selected 1 of 2 humorous videos--a Red Skelton comedy or a montage of America's Funniest Home Videos--and watched it for 20 min. A control group (n = 10, mean = 68.7 ± 5.5 y) sat calmly for 20 min and were not allowed to read, sleep, or talk on a cell phone. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess short-term memory--learning ability, delayed recall, and visual recognition. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at predetermined times. Learning ability improved by 38.5% and 24.0% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P = .014). Delayed recall improved by 43.6% and 20.3% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P =.029). Within the humor group, delayed recall (43.6%) was significant compared with learning ability (38.5%) (P = .002). At 3 predetermined time points, significant decreases in salivary cortisol were observed in the humor group (P = .047, P = .046, and P = .062, respectively). The study's findings suggest that humor can have clinical benefits and rehabilitative implications and can be implemented in programs that support whole-person wellness for older adults. Learning ability and delayed recall are important to these individuals for a better quality of life--considering mind, body, spirit, social, and economic

  15. Cytotoxic, Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lotus is an edible and medicinal plant, and the extracts from its different parts exhibit various bioactivities. In the present study, the hot water–soluble polysaccharides from lotus seeds (LSPS were evaluated for their cancer cell cytotoxicity, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. LSPS showed significant inhibitory effects on the mouse gastric cancer MFC cells, human liver cancer HuH-7 cells and mouse hepatocarcinoma H22 cells. The animal studies showed that LSPS inhibited tumor growth in H22 tumor-bearing mice with the highest inhibition rate of 45.36%, which is comparable to that induced by cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg treatment (50.79%. The concentrations of white blood cells were significantly reduced in cyclophosphamide-treated groups (p < 0.01, while LSPS showed much fewer side effects according to the hematology analysis. LSPS improved the immune response in H22 tumor-bearing mice by enhancing the spleen and thymus indexes, and increasing the levels of serum cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2. Moreover, LSPS also showed in vivo antioxidant activity by increasing superoxide dismutase activity, thus reducing the malondialdehyde level in the liver tissue. These results suggested that LSPS can be used as an antitumor and immunomodulatory agent.

  16. Non Castigat Ridendo Mores: evaluating the effectiveness of humor appeal in printed advertisements for HIV/AIDS prevention in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed.

  17. Effect of excimer laser (Arf, 193 nm) on aqueous humor during photorefractive keratectomy biophysical and biochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.S.; Mahmoud, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (193 nm) produced by an excimer laser has been used to produce precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of excimer laser during photo refractive keratectomy (PRK) on aqueous humor constituents and also the effect of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD)- applied topically- on these changes if exist. Five groups of schenchilla rabbits were involved in this study, where four groups underwent corneal stromal ablation using argon fluoride excimer laser (Ar F, 193 nm). Two of these four groups were treated with superoxide dismutase intra operatively. The fifth group was used as control one. The obtained results revealed depletion of aqueous humor ascorbate and glutathione contents. Aqueous humor refractive index, cholesterol, phospholipids, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total protein were measured. In conclusion, the excimer laser can induce changes in aqueous humor constituents during PRK. These changes lasted at least for 24 hours and as the time increased to 4 weeks, these changes became limited. The use of exogenous SOD seems to exert beneficial effect on aqueous humor refractive index and total protein

  18. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Aquaphilus dolomiae extract on in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries MF

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Françoise Aries,1 Hélène Hernandez-Pigeon,1 Clémence Vaissière,1 Hélène Delga,1 Antony Caruana,1 Marguerite Lévêque,1 Muriel Bourrain,1,2 Katia Ravard Helffer,1 Bertrand Chol,3 Thien Nguyen,1 Sandrine Bessou-Touya,1 Nathalie Castex-Rizzi1 1Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, Centre de Recherche & Développement Pierre Fabre, Toulouse, 2Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Biotechnologies Microbiennes (LBBM, Observatoire Océanologique, Banyuls/Mer, France; 3Centre d’Immunologie Pierre Fabre, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, France Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease characterized by recurrent pruritic inflammatory skin lesions resulting from structural and immune defects of the skin barrier. Previous studies have shown the clinical efficacy of Avène thermal spring water in AD, and a new microorganism, Aquaphilus dolomiae was suspected to contribute to these unique properties. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and immunomodulatory properties of ES0, an original biological extract of A. dolomiae, in immune and inflammatory cell models in order to assess its potential use in the treatment of AD.Materials and methods: An ES0 extract containing periplasmic and membrane proteins, peptides, lipopolysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides was obtained from A. dolomiae. The effects of the extract on pruritus and inflammatory mediators and immune mechanisms were evaluated by using various AD cell models and assays.Results: In a keratinocyte model, ES0 inhibited the expression of the inflammatory mediators, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL-18, IL-4R, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3, macrophage inflammatory protein-3α, and macrophage-derived chemokine and induced the expression of involucrin, which is involved in skin barrier keratinocyte terminal differentiation. In addition, ES0 inhibited protease-activated receptor-2 activation in

  19. Immunomodulatory Effects of Amblyomma variegatum Saliva on Bovine Cells: Characterization of Cellular Responses and Identification of Molecular Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, is a tick species of veterinary importance and is considered as one of major pest of ruminants in Africa and in the Caribbean. It causes direct skin lesions, transmits heartwater, and reactivates bovine dermatophilosis. Tick saliva is reported to affect overall host responses through immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory molecules, among other bioactive molecules. The general objective of this study was to better understand the role of saliva in interaction between the Amblyomma tick and the host using cellular biology approaches and proteomics, and to discuss its impact on disease transmission and/or activation. We first focused on the immuno-modulating effects of semi-fed A. variegatum female saliva on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. We analyzed its immuno-suppressive properties by measuring the effect of saliva on PBMC proliferation, and observed a significant decrease in ConA-stimulated PBMC lymphoproliferation. We then studied the effect of saliva on bovine macrophages using flow cytometry to analyze the expression of MHC-II and co-stimulation molecules (CD40, CD80, and CD86 and by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO and pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed a significant decrease in the expression of MHC-II, CD40, and CD80 molecules, associated with decreased levels of IL-12-p40 and TNF-α and increased level of IL-10, which could explain the saliva-induced modulation of NO. To elucidate these immunomodulatory effects, crude saliva proteins were analyzed using proteomics with an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. Among the 336 proteins identified in A. variegatum saliva, we evidenced bioactive molecules exhibiting anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and anti-oxidant properties (e.g., serpins, phospholipases A2, heme lipoprotein. We also characterized an intriguing ubiquitination complex that could be involved in

  20. Immunomodulatory Effects of Amblyomma variegatum Saliva on Bovine Cells: Characterization of Cellular Responses and Identification of Molecular Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valérie; Fernandez, Bernard; Vercoutere, Arthur; Chamayou, Léo; Andersen, Alexandre; Vigy, Oana; Demettre, Edith; Seveno, Martial; Aprelon, Rosalie; Giraud-Girard, Ken; Stachurski, Frédéric; Loire, Etienne; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Holzmuller, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, is a tick species of veterinary importance and is considered as one of major pest of ruminants in Africa and in the Caribbean. It causes direct skin lesions, transmits heartwater, and reactivates bovine dermatophilosis. Tick saliva is reported to affect overall host responses through immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory molecules, among other bioactive molecules. The general objective of this study was to better understand the role of saliva in interaction between the Amblyomma tick and the host using cellular biology approaches and proteomics, and to discuss its impact on disease transmission and/or activation. We first focused on the immuno-modulating effects of semi-fed A. variegatum female saliva on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. We analyzed its immuno-suppressive properties by measuring the effect of saliva on PBMC proliferation, and observed a significant decrease in ConA-stimulated PBMC lymphoproliferation. We then studied the effect of saliva on bovine macrophages using flow cytometry to analyze the expression of MHC-II and co-stimulation molecules (CD40, CD80, and CD86) and by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed a significant decrease in the expression of MHC-II, CD40, and CD80 molecules, associated with decreased levels of IL-12-p40 and TNF-α and increased level of IL-10, which could explain the saliva-induced modulation of NO. To elucidate these immunomodulatory effects, crude saliva proteins were analyzed using proteomics with an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. Among the 336 proteins identified in A. variegatum saliva, we evidenced bioactive molecules exhibiting anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and anti-oxidant properties (e.g., serpins, phospholipases A2, heme lipoprotein). We also characterized an intriguing ubiquitination complex that could be involved in saliva

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of γ-Aminopropyl Silatrane-Acyclovir Hybrids with Immunomodulatory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Faqing; Song, Xiaoqin; Liu, Jianmin; Xu, Xuemei; Wang, Yuewu; Hu, Lichuan; Wang, Yi; Liang, Guang; Guo, Ping; Xie, Zixin

    2015-10-01

    Several derivatives of γ-aminopropyl silatrane containing acyclovir in their molecular structure were synthesized and evaluated for their immunomodulatory and antiviral activities. The structures of all these derivatives were confirmed by mass spectra, IR, and (1) H NMR. Based on WST-1 assay in vitro, these compounds could stimulate proliferation of splenic lymphocytes at certain concentrations. Furthermore, compound 3d could also potentiate the expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, CD4(+) , CD8(+) , and CD4(+) /CD8(+) in vivo. Our results show that these derivatives possess antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses with a similar potency to acyclovir without a cellular immune response. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of hydroxyethylated Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide on macrophages RAW264.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhe; Qin, Tao; Qiu, Fuan; Song, Yulong; Lin, Dandan; Ma, Yufang; Li, Jian; Huang, Yifan

    2017-12-01

    Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. In present study, HEP was successfully modified to obtain its hydroxyethylated derivative hHEP. Its potential immunomodulatory activities on RAW264.7 macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the hHEP were significantly stronger than that of the corresponding unmodified polysaccharide, HEP. Meanwhile, the NO, IL-6 and TNF-α production activities of macrophages were enhanced in the RAW264.7 macrophages by stimulation of hHEP. In addition, the hHEP increase significantly higher iNOS expression than HEP. These results indicated that the hydroxyethylated derivative hHEP could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages, and hydroxyethylation modification can enhance the immunomodulation function of HEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of hyperthermia on the immunomodulatory properties of human umbilical cord vein mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesami, Shilan; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Rezaee, Mohamad Ali; Jalili, Ali; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza

    2017-11-01

    Hyperthermia can modulate inflammation and the immune response. Based on the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to inflamed tissues and the immunomodulatory properties of these cells, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of hyperthermia on the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Passages 4-6 of human umbilical cord vein mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured in a two-way MLR. Cells in the hyperthermia groups were incubated at 41 °C for 45 min. A colorimetric assay was employed to examine the effects of MSCs on cell proliferation. The levels of IL-4 and TNF-α proteins in the cell culture supernatant were measured, and non-adherent cells were used for RNA extraction, which was then used for cDNA synthesis. RT-PCR was utilised to assess levels of IL-10, IL-17A, IL-4, TNF-α, TGF-β1, FOX P 3 , IFN-γ, CXCL12 and β-actin mRNA expression. UCV-MSCs co-cultured in an MLR reduced lymphocyte proliferation at 37 °C, whereas hyperthermia attenuated this effect. Hyperthermia increased expression of IL-10, TGF-β1 and FOXP3 mRNAs in co-culture; however, no effects on IL-17A and IFN-γ were observed, and it reduced CXCL12 expression. In co-culture, IL-4 mRNA and protein increased at 37 °C, an effect that was reduced by hyperthermia. No considerable change in TNF-α mRNA expression was found in hyperthermia-treated cells. Hyperthermia increases cell proliferation of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and modifies the cytokine profile in the presence of UCV-MSCs.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of testosterone evaluated in all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, granulocytes, and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Alex; Moesby, Lise; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The sex hormones are known to affect innate immunity in humans. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of testosterone in a model system comprising of all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, and confirmed the results in human granulocytes and monocytes. Results showed...... that testosterone at pharmacological doses reduced the production of interleukin-8 and reactive oxygen species from differentiated HL-60 cells in a concentration dependent manner without affecting phagocytosis. The cells were stimulated with zymosan, lipopolysaccharide, or Bacillus subtilis. At the highest...... concentration of testosterone (120 µM), interleukin-8 secretion was reduced 42-80%, and production of reactive oxygen species was reduced 32-46%. Flutamide, an antagonist of the classical intracellular androgen receptor, was unable to antagonize the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone. We further...

  5. Antineoplastic and immunomodulatory effect of polyphenolic components of Achyranthes aspera (PCA) extract on urethane induced lung cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Chandradeo; Kumar, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of Achyranthes aspera (PCA) extract is evaluated for anti-cancerous and cytokine based immunomodulatory effects. The PCA extract contains known components of phenolic acid and flavonoids such as mixture of quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and chrysin along with many unknown components. PCA has been orally feed to urethane (ethyl carbamate) primed lung cancerous mice at a dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight for 30 consecutive days. 100 mg powder of A. aspera contains 2.4 mg phenolic acid and 1.1 mg flavonoid (2:1 ratio). Enhanced activities and expression of antioxidant enzymes GST, GR, CAT, SOD, while down regulated expression and activation of LDH enzymes in PCA feed urethane primed lung cancerous tissues as compared to PCA non-feed urethane primed lung cancerous tissues were observed. PCA feed urethane primed lung tissues showed down regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α along with TFs, NF-κB and Stat3 while the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and p53 were enhanced in PCA feed urethane primed lung tissues. FTIR and CD spectroscopy data revealed that PCA resisted the urethane mediated conformational changes of DNA which is evident by the shift in guanine and thymine bands in FTIR from 1,708 to 1,711 cm(-1) and 1,675 to 1,671 cm(-1), respectively in PCA feed urethane primed lung cancerous tissues DNA in comparison to urethane primed lung cancerous tissues DNA. The present study suggests that PCA components have synergistic anti-cancerous and cytokine based immunomodulatory role and DNA conformation restoring effects. However, more research is required to show the effects of each component separately and in combination for effective therapeutic use to cure and prevent lung cancer including other cancers.

  6. Immunomodulatory effects of the herbicide propanil on cytokine production in humans: In vivo and in vitro exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Codeca, Ilaria; Mangiaratti, Simona; Birindelli, Sarah; Minoia, Claudio; Turci, Roberta; Viviani, Barbara; Facchi, Alessandra; Vitelli, Nora; Lucchi, Laura; Galli, Corrado L.; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Propanil, 3,4-dichloropropionanilide, a commonly used herbicide, has been shown to induce effects on the mouse immune system. The aim of this study was to assess the immunotoxicity of propanil in occupationally exposed agricultural workers and to characterize its molecular mechanism of action. Seven agricultural workers intermittently exposed to propanil and 7 healthy matched controls entered the study. Data were collected through physical examination, and laboratory investigations addressed at the main serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. The levels of exposure were assessed by determining the urine concentration of the major propanil metabolite, 3,4-dichloroaniline. The investigation of serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters suggested that propanil exposure results in a modest immunomodulatory effect, characterized by an increase in the plasma level of IgG 1 and in LPS-induced IL-6 release and, by a reduction in PHA-induced IL-10 and IFN release, associated with a reduced IFN/IL-4 ratio. As observed, following in vivo exposure, in vitro treatment of human peripheral blood leukocytes with propanil resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in PHA-induced IFN-gamma and IL-10 production, while LPS-induced TNF-α production was not affected indicating a direct effect of propanil on selected immune parameters. We demonstrated that propanil interfering with PHA-induced intracellular calcium increase modulated IL-10 and IFN-gamma transcription and translation, which indicates that propanil acts on early events triggered by PHA. Overall, our results suggest that human exposure to propanil has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out that the inhibition of the PHA-induced intracellular calcium rise is an important target of propanil. These findings improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying propanil-induced immunotoxicity

  7. Ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of propolis during Celiac Disease: involvement of nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjeber, Oussama; Touri, Kahina; Rafa, Hayet; Djeraba, Zineb; Belkhelfa, Mourad; Boutaleb, Amira Fatima; Arroul-Lammali, Amina; Belguendouz, Houda; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2018-03-07

    Celiac Disease (CeD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy, in which dietary gluten induces an inflammatory reaction, predominantly in the duodenum. Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by honeybees from various plant sources. Propolis is well-known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects, due to its major compounds, polyphenols and flavonoids. The aim of our study was to assess the ex vivo effect of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) upon the activity and expression of iNOS, along with IFN-γ and IL-10 production in Algerian Celiac patients. In this context, PBMCs isolated from peripheral blood of Celiac patients and healthy controls were cultured with different concentrations of EEP. NO production was measured using the Griess method, whereas quantitation of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels was performed by ELISA. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, NFκB and pSTAT-3 activity were analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Our results showed that PBMCs from Celiac patients produced high levels of NO and IFN-γ compared with healthy controls (HC). Interestingly, EEP reduced significantly, NO and IFN-γ levels and significantly increased IL-10 levels at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. Importantly, EEP downmodulated the iNOS expression as well as the activity of NFκB and pSTAT-3 transcription factors. Altogether, our results highlight the immunomodulatory effect of propolis on NO pathway and on pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we suggest that propolis may constitute a potential candidate to modulate inflammation during Celiac Disease and has a potential therapeutic value.

  8. What Role Does Humor in the Higher Education Classroom Play in Student-Perceived Instructor Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halula, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has had college instructors who they thought were excellent and those who were not. In pondering what attributes might have made the difference between these groups, the idea of "humor" came to mind, setting the researcher on course to study the research question "What role does humor in the higher education classroom play…

  9. Humor in psychiatric healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, B

    1988-01-01

    The oft-quoted aphorism that "laughter is the best medicine" is examined. Specifically, three big drops in the shower of claims regarding the benefits of humor in treating physical and mental disorders are evaluated. First, studies of the effects of mirth and laughter on the physiology of the body reveal both good and bad news. The meager evidence of the salutary effects of positive emotions on the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune and neuroendocrine systems, though apparently supportable on more or less scientific, rational and subjective grounds, needs much better verification from more extensive, replicable, and empirical research. Second, despite numerous claims, in the context of behavioral or psychosomatic medicine, that a joyful, optimistic, or humorous attitude can render a salubrious effect, almost to the extent of preventing illness and curing physical disease, the jury is still out and issuing dire warnings regarding too ready acceptance of this largely anecdotal evidence. Much careful "clinical trial" research needs to be mounted to determine the conditions under which humor works best, if at all. The type of patient, the kind of humor, the type and severity of illness, the psychosocial contexts-all of these factors should be considered. Third, the infusion of humor into psychotherapy is great news for some therapists and awful news for others. A number of more balanced approaches point up the probability that when mirth is incorporated into therapy judiciously, appropriately, and meaningfully it can be of value.

  10. The effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on immunophenotype, differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory functions of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgholaminejad, Arash; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as cells with potential clinical utilities, have demonstrated preferential incorporation into inflammation sites. Immunophenotype and immunomodulatory functions of MSCs could alter by inflamed-microenvironments due to the local pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu. A major cellular mediator with specific function in promoting inflammation and pathogenicity of autoimmunity are IL-17-producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells that polarize in inflamed sites in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-23. Since MSCs are promising candidate for cell-based therapeutic strategies in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, Th17 cell polarizing factors may alter MSCs phenotype and function. In this study, human bone-marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) were cultured with or without IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 as pro-inflammatory cytokines. The surface markers and their differentiation capacity were measured in cytokine-untreated and cytokine-treated MSCs. MSCs-mediated immunomodulation was analyzed by their regulatory effects on mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and the level of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α production as immunomodulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines showed no effect on MSCs morphology, immunophenotype and co-stimulatory molecules except up-regulation of CD45. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity increased in CD45+ MSCs. Moreover, cytokine-treated MSCs preserved the suppressive ability of allogeneic T cell proliferation and produced higher level of TGF-β and lower level of IL-4. We concluded pro-inflammatory cytokines up-regulate the efficacy of MSCs in cell-based therapy of degenerative, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The Effect of Pistacia khynjuk on Humoral Immune System of Wistar Rats

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    A Hadinia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Plants from the genus Pistacia family such as Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khynjuk are considered as herbal medicines. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been confirmed. The aim of the current study was to find the effect of Pistacia khynjuk on humoral immune system of Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of ten animals and orally received 10 mg/kg of the extract of nucleus, cutin and fruit of Pistacia khynjuk respectively, every day for two weeks. The control group received only placebo. Immuno-reactivity was induced using BCG vaccine (IP with Freund‘s complete adjuvant (CFA. The titer of IgG and IgM were measured after the treatment using ELISA method. Moreover, the cervical lymph nodes and spleen of animals were excised and the volume and density of the primary and secondary follicle was evaluated by steriology. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS using one-way ANOVA. Results: The differences in the mean level of IgG and IgM between the treated and the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Also, the mean volume of the spleen and cervical lymph nodes of the first three groups in comparison with the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the Pistacia khynjuk did not have any direct effect on the activity of humoral immune system and the increasing of antibody level among Wistar rats.

  12. Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Immunomodulatory Effects of Flavonoids and Scutebarbatines of Scutellaria barbata D. Don in Lewis-Bearing C57BL/6 Mice

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    Tao Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory effect has been found to be an important therapeutic measure for immune responses against cancer. In this study, we evaluated the inhibition of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB, an anti-inflammatory and an antitumor Chinese herb, including flavonoids and scutebarbatines on tumor growth and its immunomodulatory effects in vivo. HPLC and LC/MS/MS methods were conducted for the analysis of flavonoids and scutebarbatines in SB. Lewis-bearing C57BL/6 mice model was established and tumor volume was evaluated by high frequency color ultrasound experiment. ELISA and western blot analysis were performed for the determination of immunomodulatory factors. SB treatment at the dose of 10, 6.67, and 3.33 g crude drug/kg/d significantly inhibited tumor growth of Lewis-bearing C57BL/6 mice with the inhibition rates of 44.41±5.44%, 33.56±4.85%, and 27.57±4.96%, respectively. More importantly, the spleen and thymus indexes were increased remarkably by SB treatment. SB could decrease IL-17, IL-10, FOXP3, TGF-β1, RORγt, and IL-6 levels whereas it could increase remarkably IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. Our results demonstrated that SB could inhibit tumor growth in vivo through regulating immune function in tumor-bearing mice and suggested that the immunomodulatory function of SB had a potential therapeutic effect in lung cancer.

  13. Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses of Eimeria tenella-Infected Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Parmentier, H.K.; Li, W.K.; Yang, Z.Q.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of polysaccharide extracts from 2 mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on cellular and humoral immune responses of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A total of 150 broiler chicks were assigned to 5

  14. Immunomodulatory and Physical Effects of Oil Composition in Vaccine Adjuvant Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B.; Baldwin, Susan L.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; Vedvick, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions have been used for years in some seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. However, concerns have been expressed regarding squalene source and potential biological activities. Little information is available regarding the immunomodulatory activity of squalene in comparison with other metabolizable oils in the context of oil-in-water emulsions formulated with vaccines. The present work describes the manufacture and physical characterization of emulsions composed of different classes of oils, including squalene, long chain triglycerides, a medium chain triglyceride, and a perfluorocarbon, all emulsified with egg phosphatidylcholine. Some differences were apparent among the non-squalene oils in terms of emulsion stability, including higher size polydispersity in the perfluorocarbon emulsion, more rapid visual instability at 60 °C for the long-chain triglyceride and perfluorocarbon emulsions, and an increased creaming rate in the medium-chain triglyceride emulsion at 60 °C as detected by laser scattering optical profiling. The biological activity of each of these emulsions was compared when formulated with either a recombinant malaria antigen or a split-virus inactivated influenza vaccine. Overall, vaccines containing the squalene emulsion elicited higher antibody titers and more abundant long-lived plasma cells than vaccines containing emulsions based on other oils. Since squalene-based emulsions show higher adjuvant potency compared to the other oils tested, non-squalene oils may be more suitable as carriers of amphiphilic or hydrophobic immunostimulatory molecules (such as TLR agonists) rather than as stand-alone adjuvants. PMID:21906648

  15. Immunomodulatory Effects of Diterpene Quinone Derivatives from the Roots of Horminum pyrenaicum in Human PBMC

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    K. Becker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several phytochemicals were shown to interfere with redox biology in the human system. Moreover, redox biochemistry is crucially involved in the orchestration of immunological cascades. When screening for immunomodulatory compounds, the two interferon gamma- (IFN-γ- dependent immunometabolic pathways of tryptophan breakdown via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1 and neopterin formation by GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GTP-CH-I represent prominent targets, as IFN-γ-related signaling is strongly sensitive to oxidative triggers. Herein, the analysis of these pathway activities in human peripheral mononuclear cells was successfully applied in a bioactivity-guided fractionation strategy to screen for anti-inflammatory substances contained in the root of Horminum (H. pyrenaicum L. (syn. Dragon’s mouth, the only representative of the monophyletic genus Horminum. Four abietane diterpene quinone derivatives (horminone, 7-O-acetylhorminone, inuroyleanol and its 15,16-dehydro-derivative, a novel natural product, two nor-abietane diterpene quinones (agastaquinone and 3-deoxyagastaquinone and two abeo 18 (4 → 3 abietane diterpene quinones (agastol and its 15,16-dehydro-derivative could be identified. These compounds were able to dose-dependently suppress the above mentioned pathways with different potency. Beside the description of new active compounds, this study demonstrates the feasibility of integrating IDO-1 and GTP-CH-I activity in the search for novel anti-inflammatory compounds, which can then be directed towards a more detailed mode of action analysis.

  16. The effects of humor therapy on nursing home residents measured using observational methods: the SMILE cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lee-Fay; Goodenough, Belinda; Fletcher, Jennifer; Xu, Kenny; Casey, Anne-Nicole; Chenoweth, Lynn; Fleming, Richard; Spitzer, Peter; Bell, Jean-Paul; Brodaty, Henry

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of humor therapy assessed using observational methods on agitation, engagement, positive behaviors, affect, and contentment. Single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial. A total of 35 Sydney nursing homes. All eligible residents within geographically defined areas within each nursing home were invited to participate. Professional "ElderClowns" provided 9 to 12 weekly humor therapy sessions, augmented by resident engagement by trained staff "LaughterBosses." Controls received usual care. The Behavior Engagement Affect Measure (BEAM) touchpad observational tool was used to capture real-time behavioral data. The tool assesses the duration in seconds of agitation, positive behavior toward others, engagement, and affect (angry, anxious, happy, neutral, sad). Seventeen nursing homes (189 residents) received the intervention and 18 homes (209 residents) received usual care. Over 26 weeks, in comparison with controls, the humor therapy group decreased in duration of high agitation (effect size = 0.168 and 0.129 at 13 and 26 weeks, respectively) and increased in duration of happiness (effect size = 0.4 and 0.236 at 13 and 26 weeks, respectively). We confirmed that humor therapy decreases agitation and also showed that it increases happiness. Researchers may consider evaluating impacts of nonpharmaceutical interventions on positive outcomes. Computer-assisted observational measures should be considered, particularly for residents with dementia and when the reliability of staff is uncertain. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurements of canine aqueous humor inflammatory mediators and the effect of carprofen following anterior chamber paracentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Chantale L; Gauvin, Dominique; Moreau, Maxim; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Troncy, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Phase I: To evaluate levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ), nitrites and nitrates (NO(x) ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and expression of inducible cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3 and -9) in canine aqueous humor following repeated anterior chamber paracenteses (ACP). Phase II: to evaluate the effect of carprofen on PGE(2) , NO(x) , and TNF-α in canine aqueous humor following ACP. Four beagles in phase I and 8 beagles in phase II. Phase I: ACP was performed at time (T) 0, 4 and 8 h. Phase II: A randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design with four dogs per group where carprofen was given 4.4 mg/kg/day on day (D) 1, 2 and 3. ACP was performed at T0 and T1.5 on D3. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures anova and post hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple-comparison procedure. In phase II, TNF-α level was analyzed with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Phase I: PGE(2) significantly increased (P carprofen group (P = 0.037). NO(x) and TNF-α did not statistically increase in either group. Following ACP, significant increases in PGE(2) levels confirmed inflammation characterized by a rise of COX-2. The NO(x) pathway took longer to induce as compared with PGE(2) . Carprofen decreased PGE(2) levels and could help control intraocular inflammation. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Characterization and Immunomodulatory Effects of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Russell

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC hold promise for both cell replacement and immune modulation strategies owing to their progenitor and non-progenitor functions, respectively. Characterization of MSC from different sources is an important and necessary step before clinical use of these cells is widely adopted. Little is known about the biology and function of canine MSC compared to their mouse or human counterparts. This knowledge-gap impedes development of canine evidence-based MSC technologies.We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT and bone marrow (BM MSC (derived from the same dogs will have similar differentiation and immune modulatory profiles. Our objectives were to evaluate progenitor and non-progenitor functions as well as other characteristics of AT- and BM-MSC including 1 proliferation rate, 2 cell surface marker expression, 3 DNA methylation levels, 4 potential for trilineage differentiation towards osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cell fates, and 5 immunomodulatory potency in vitro.1 AT-MSC proliferated at more than double the rate of BM-MSC (population doubling times in days for passage (P 2, AT: 1.69, BM: 3.81; P3, AT: 1.80, BM: 4.06; P4, AT: 2.37, BM: 5.34; P5, AT: 3.20, BM: 7.21. 2 Canine MSC, regardless of source, strongly expressed cell surface markers MHC I, CD29, CD44, and CD90, and were negative for MHC II and CD45. They also showed moderate expression of CD8 and CD73 and mild expression of CD14. Minor differences were found in expression of CD4 and CD34. 3 Global DNA methylation levels were significantly lower in BM-MSC compared to AT-MSC. 4 Little difference was found between AT- and BM-MSC in their potential for adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Chondrogenesis was poor to absent for both sources in spite of adding varying levels of bone-morphogenic protein to our standard transforming growth factor (TGF-β3-based induction medium. 5 Immunomodulatory capacity was equal regardless of cell source when tested in

  19. Immunomodulatory effects of OX40Ig gene-modified adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on rat kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yue; Shen, Zhongyang; Zou, Xunfeng; Chen, Xiaobo; Chen, Li; Wang, Yuliang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) therapy and OX40 costimulation blockade are two immunomodulatory strategies used to suppress the immune response to alloantigens. However, relatively little has been reported regarding the immunomodulatory potential of the abilityof these two strategies to synergize. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to investigate OX40-Ig fusion protein (OX40Ig) expression in ADSCs and to validate their more potent immu...

  20. Effect of a cephalic irradiation on humoral immunitary response in adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, P.; Marquer, C.

    In connection with the origin and mechanisms of immunitary depression due to irradiation, it is tried to find if changes of humoral immunitary response could be caused by a limited irradiation of central nervous system [fr

  1. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  2. Investigating the Effect of Humor Therapy on Chronic Pain in the Elderly Living in Nursing Homes in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohre behrouz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of chronic pains in the elderly residing in nursing homes is high, which can bring about social isolation, depression, incidence of disabilities, as well as increased costs. Given the risks, medication therapy is not used for the elderly, and non-pharmaceutical methods, such as humor therapy as one of the complementary medicine techniques using thought distraction, have been advocated. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of humor therapy on pain intensity in the elderly living in nursing homes in Mashhad, Iran. Method: This two-group, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on two groups of intervention (28 individuals and control (27 individuals at two similar nursing homes in Mashhad, Iran, 2016. Humor therapy was performed during six 60-minute sessions (once per week using humorous methods such as video clip displays, games, music plays, as well as telling funny jokes. Then, pain intensity was measured via the Modified German Version of the Brief Pain Inventory before the study and after the 3rd and 6th sessions of humor therapy. Finally, the data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS, version 22. Results: The mean ages of the participants in the control and intervention groups were 73.9±4.3 and 73.9±5.8 years, respectively. The results of the Mann-Whitney U test also showed that pain intensity before the study in both groups was homogenous (P=0.15. Moreover, the mean scores of the highest, lowest, and moderate pain intensity after the 3rd (P

  3. Effects of Vitrectomy and Lensectomy on Older Rhesus Macaques: Oxygen Distribution, Antioxidant Status, and Aqueous Humor Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Carla J; Shui, Ying-Bo; Tian, Baohe; Nork, T Michael; Heatley, Gregg A; Kaufman, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant-oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Aqueous and vitreous humor specimens were analyzed for antioxidant status and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage. TM specimens were obtained for immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR analysis. pO2 at baseline revealed steep gradients in the anterior chamber and low levels in the posterior chamber (PC) and around the lens. Following PPV and PE/IOL, pO2 significantly increased in the PC, around the IOL, and angle. IOP increased following both surgical interventions, with no change in outflow facility. Histopathologic analysis did not show changes in TM cell quantification, but there was an increase in 8-OHdG. Quantitative PCR did not reveal significant differences in glaucoma-related gene expression. Aqueous and vitreous humor analysis revealed decreased ascorbate and total reactive antioxidant potential and increased 8-OHdG in the aqueous humor only in the surgical eyes. Oxygen distribution in the older rhesus monkey is similar to humans at baseline and following surgical interventions. Our findings of histopathologic changes of TM oxidative damage and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance suggest a potential correlation of increased oxygen exposure with oxidative stress/damage and the development of open angle glaucoma.

  4. Evaluation of antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of a new herbal prescription seaweed complex preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Shao, Changlun; Kong, Wenwen; Fang, Yuchun; Wang, Changyun

    2013-09-01

    Seaweed Complex Preparation (SCP) is a clinical traditional Chinese medicine preparation which is composed of seven traditional Chinese herbs, and it has been used for treatment of lung cancer, liver cancer and digestive cancer. However, little information is available about the pharmacodynamic basis. The antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of SCP were evaluated in this study. Transplanted tumor in vivo method was used to determine the antitumor effect. The effects on splenocyte proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were measured by the MTT method and the phagocytizing cock red blood cell (CRBC) method respectively. The scavenging activities of SCP on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro were investigated. It was found that the medium-dose and high-dose of SCP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplanted hepatic tumor of murine hepatocarcinoma cell line H22, and promote proliferation of splenocytes and phagocytosis of macrophages. SCP possessed noticeable scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The antitumor effects of SCP might be achieved by improving immune system and scavenging free radicals, which is in accordance with the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors for cancer treatment.

  5. n Vitro Immunomodulatory Effect of R10 Fraction of Garlic on Viability and Production of TNF-? in CD8+ T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ghazanfari; H. Rashidi; Sh. Jalaei; P. Alijani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: -cells, especially CD8+ T lymphocytes are the most important cells in anti-tumor response. Previously R10 fraction of garlic extract was reported as an immuno-modulator which induced an effective cellular immunity and Th1 responses. In this study the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of R10 on CD8+ T cells viability and production of TNF-? were evaluated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, using monoclonal antibodies attached to magnetic beads with isola...

  6. Effect of adjuvants on the humoral immune response to congopain in mice and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateregga John

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated several adjuvants for their effects on the humoral immune response in both mice and cattle using the central domain of congopain (C2, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, as a model for developing a vaccine against animal trypanosomosis. The magnitude and sustainability of the immune response against C2 and the occurrence of a booster effect of infection, an indirect measure of the presence of memory cells, were determined by ELISA, while spectrofluorometry was used to determine and measure the presence of enzyme-inhibiting antibodies. Results Mice immunized with recombinant C2 in TiterMax™, Adjuphos™, purified saponin Quil A™ or Gerbu™ showed the best response according to the evaluation criteria and the latter three were chosen for the cattle vaccination study. The cattle were challenged with T. congolense four and a half months after the last booster. Cattle immunized with recombinant C2 in purified saponin Quil A™ showed the best antibody response according to the measured parameters. Conclusions We identified purified saponin Quil A™ as a good adjuvant for immunizations with C2. The results from this study will be useful in future attempts to develop an effective anti-disease vaccine against African trypanosomosis.

  7. Apple cider vinegar boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Khalili, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of combined or singular administration of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet. An 8-week feeding trial was designed with following treatments: Control (basal diet), Pro (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei), LACV (contains 1% ACV), HACV (contains 2% ACV), Pro + LACV (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei plus 1% ACV) and Pro + HACV (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei plus 2% ACV). Evaluation of skin mucus revealed notable increase of total Ig level and lysozyme activity in Pro + LACV and Pro + HACV treatments compared other groups (P < 0.05). Similarly, serum total Ig and lysozyme activity in HACV, Pro + LACV and Pro + HACV fed carps was remarkably higher than other groups (P < 0.05). However, regarding serum alternative complement (ACH50) activity significant difference was observed just between Pro + HACV and control treatment (P < 0.05). The highest expression of immune related (LYZ, TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) and antioxidant enzymes genes (GSR, GST) were observed in carps fed Pro + HACV and Pro + LACV. The expression of GH gene expression in Pro, LACV and HACV treatments was significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The highest expression level of GH and IGF1 was observed in fish fed combined Pro and ACV (P < 0.05). These results indicated that co-administration of ACV boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of L. casei and can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  9. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  10. Immunomodulatory/inflammatory effects of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith in combination with doxorubicin on THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucas Pires Garcia; Conte, Fernanda Lopes; Cardoso, Eliza de Oliveira; Conti, Bruno José; Santiago, Karina Basso; Golim, Marjorie de Assis; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2016-12-01

    Geopropolis (GEO) in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) reduced HEp-2 cells viability compared to GEO and DOX alone. A possible effect of this combination on the innate immunity could take place, and its effects were analysed on THP-1 cell - a human leukaemia monocytic cell line used as a model to study monocyte activity and macrophage activity, assessing cell viability, expression of cell markers and cytokine production. THP-1 cells were incubated with GEO, DOX and their combination. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, cell markers expression by flow cytometry and cytokine production by ELISA. GEO + DOX did not affect cell viability. GEO alone or in combination increased TLR-4 and CD80 but not HLA-DR and TLR-2 expression. GEO stimulated TNF-α production while DOX alone or in combination did not affect it. GEO alone or in combination inhibited IL-6 production. GEO exerted a pro-inflammatory profile by increasing TLR-4 and CD80 expression and TNF-α production, favouring the activation of the immune/inflammatory response. GEO + DOX did not affect cell viability and presented an immunomodulatory action. Lower concentrations of DOX combined to GEO could be used in cancer patients, avoiding side effects and benefiting from the biological properties of GEO. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  12. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Cohen, R.; Miller, M.E.; Moccia, G.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors using the in vivo plasma clot diffusion chamber and the in vitro plasma clot culture methods. Plasma erythropoietin levels changes in the reticulocyte concentration and hematocrits of irradiated and non-irradiated Long-Evans rats exposed to hypoxia were also determined. While erythropoietin plasma levels appeared to effect BFU-E and CFU-E growth, results suggest erythropoietin may not be the sole regulator of red cell production and that inhibitors or chalone-like mechanisms may be involved. Measurements made on granulocyte precursors treated with CSF containing L-cell conditioned medium revealed granulocytic colonies and burst-like formations, similar to those seen for erythrocytic growth. There is strong evidence suggesting that CSF is a regulator of granulopoiesis; however, it is not the sole regulator and it appears that inhibitors may play an in vivo role. Growth of colonies with cell numbers not a power of 2 implies either asymmetric nitosis due to loss of genetic information required for continuing division, or differences in concentration of, or ability to recognize inhibitory factors. These possibilities are examined on the basis of results using in vivo and in vitro culture techniques

  14. Lymphocyte Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism as Targets of the Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Wasinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glutamine are important energetic and biosynthetic nutrients for T and B lymphocytes. These cells consume both nutrients at high rates in a function-dependent manner. In other words, the pathways that control lymphocyte function and survival directly control the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways. Therefore, lymphocytes in different functional states reprogram their glucose and glutamine metabolism to balance their requirement for ATP and macromolecule production. The tight association between metabolism and function in these cells was suggested to introduce the possibility of several pathologies resulting from the inability of lymphocytes to meet their nutrient demands under a given condition. In fact, disruptions in lymphocyte metabolism and function have been observed in different inflammatory, metabolic, and autoimmune pathologies. Regular physical exercise and physical activity offer protection against several chronic pathologies, and this benefit has been associated with the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of exercise/physical activity. Chronic exercise induces changes in lymphocyte functionality and substrate metabolism. In the present review, we discuss whether the beneficial effects of exercise on lymphocyte function in health and disease are associated with modulation of the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways.

  15. Comparison of in vivo immunomodulatory effects of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 5, 5'-oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ni; Liu, Tiantian; Lin, Lin; Lin, Sheng; Zang, Qingce; He, Jiuming; Abliz, Zeper; Li, Chao; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao

    2016-11-01

    The standard of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) existed in dextrose injection as an inevitable by-product during high-temperature setrilization has been included in pharmacopoeias considering its hazardous effects on human health. We found that the concentrations of 5-HMF in some traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) far exceeded its limit in dextrose injection. Besides, we detected 5, 5'-Oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural) (OMBF) in those TCMIs containing high concentrations of 5-HMF. We investigated the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of 5-HMF and OMBF at three dose levels using the reporter antigen popliteal lymph node assay (RA-PLNA), which allows the straightforward examination and mechanistic study of immunotoxicity of low molecular weight compounds. We found that 5-HMF increased the production of IgG 2a and IFN-γ when co-injected with TNP-OVA, indicating its capability of providing a co-stimulatory signal to evoke a typical type-1 immune response. Compared with the 5-HMF, OMBF elevated the production of IgG 1 , IgG 2 , IL-4 and IFN-γ in response to both reporter antigens, suggesting that OMBF can act as a neo-antigen or neo-epitope to elicit a mixed type-1 and type-2 immune response. It indicates that both 5-HMF and OMBF have immunosensitizing potential with different mechanisms, and exposure to 5-HMF and OMBF may represent a safety concern for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory and DNA protective activities of the shoots of Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangathayaru, K; Umadevi, M; Reddy, C Umamaheswara

    2009-05-04

    Fresh juice of Cyanodon dactylon known as 'durva' grass is employed in India as a rejuvenator and for wound healing. To validate the traditional use of the herb through evaluation of DNA protective activity in vitro and immunomodulatory activity in vivo. Fresh juice of the grass was prepared as indicated for use in traditional medicine and standardized for solid content. Its total phenol content was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Freshly prepared juice was investigated for its effect on doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in vitro. Its immunomodulatory activity was tested on balb/c mice by the humoral antibody response which was determined by haemagglutination antibody titer and spleen cell assay. Fresh juice of Cyanodon dactylon of 1.46% (w/w) solid content had a phenolic content of 47+/-0.33 mg/kg GAE. At doses equivalent to 50, 100 and 200mg total solids/kg body weight the juice protected human DNA against doxorubicin-induced DNA damage as demonstrated in DNA spectral studies, where the ratio of absorbance of DNA at 260 and 280 nm in samples pretreated with the juice was 1.66, 1.53 and 1.63 respectively, while it was 1.37 for DNA treated with doxorubicin only. This indicates nucleic acid purity in the Cynodon dactylon treated samples. Oral administration of the juice at 250 and 500 mg/kg in balb/c mice increased humoral antibody response upon antigen challenge, as evidenced by a dose-dependent, statistically significant increase in antibody titer in the haemagglutination antibody assay and plaque forming cell assay. The present report demonstrated the DNA protective activity and immunomodulatory property of the fresh juice of Cynodon dactylon validating the traditional use of the herb as a 'rasayana' in ayurvedic system of medicine.

  17. Albumin-binding of diclofenac and the effect of a site II inhibitor in the aqueous humor of cataract patients with the instillation of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Mineo; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Tokunaga, Jin; Setoguchi, Nao; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Diclofenac instillation has been used widely in cataract surgery to prevent postoperative inflammation. Since diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the circulation, it does not have a sufficient effect on patients in whom diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the aqueous humor. A decrease in diclofenac binding and an increase in free diclofenac levels are necessary in these patients. The binding of diclofenac to albumin was investigated in the aqueous humor. In a diclofenac binding assay with albumin in the aqueous humor of individual patients, diclofenac was extracted from aliquots of the aqueous humor, and its total levels were measured using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Free diclofenac levels were measured using ultrafiltration and UHPLC. The albumin-binding fraction of diclofenac was 0.8 or higher in the aqueous humor of some patients. Ibuprofen significantly inhibited diclofenac binding to site II of albumin in mimic aqueous humor, but not in pooled aqueous humor. This difference may have been due to the weak binding of diclofenac to site II in the pooled aqueous humor. Flurbiprofen was used instead of diclofenac. Flurbiprofen has been shown to bind more strongly than diclofenac to the same site of albumin. Thus, the inhibitory effect of ibuprofen on the binding of flurbiprofen to albumin was investigated in pooled aqueous humor. The results indicated that ibuprofen significantly inhibited the flurbiprofen binding. An effective diclofenac administration method may be established for clinical application by the instillation of an appropriate inhibitor of binding to the albumin site II. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  19. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.). In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T), which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  20. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.. In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T, which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  1. Separate and combined effect of low doses of ionizing radiation and hydroquinone on humoral immune response in regional lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharetskij, A.N.; Surinov, B.P.; Abramova, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The whole-body exposure of mice to 0.1 Gy γ-radiation resulted in stimulation of T-cell dependent humoral immune response in lymph nodes. At the same enhansement of succeptability of immunocompetent cells to damaging effect of hydroquinone was observed. Under irradiation with doses of 0.5 or 1 Gy which cause dose-dependent immunosupression, hydroquinone induced stimulation of antigene production

  2. Aqueous humor enhances the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells in culture, and this effect is partially reproduced by ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jing; Klassen, Henry; Pries, Mette

    2006-01-01

    19 Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in the presence or absence of aqueous humor from healthy pigs along with a medium consisting of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium:Ham's F-12 medium, N2 supplement, and epidermal growth factor. Proliferation was quantified by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation under...... different treatment conditions, and any associated morphological changes were noted. Potential active components of porcine aqueous humor were partially characterized by gel filtration chromatography, and the effect on RPC proliferation was determined. Results showed that adding 20% aqueous humor increased...

  3. [Effect of melatonin instillations on the clinical course of experimental uveitis and biochemical processes in tears and aqueous humor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, N B; Beznos, O V; Lozinskaya, N A; Beyshenova, G A; Nesterova, T V

    2016-01-01

    Acute immunogenic uveitis was modeled in rabbits via the subcutaneous and intravitreal injections of normal horse serum. We studied the effect of instillations of 0.1% melatonin solution on the clinical course of uveitis and biochemical parameters of tear fluid and aqueous humor: antioxi-dant activity, protein concentration and α(2)-macroglobulin level. Melatonin instillations decreased clinical manifestations of uveitis. We found that the antioxidant activity in tears of the rabbits treated with melatonin was substantially higher and the α(2)-macroglobulin level lower than in untreated animals. Antioxidant activity in aqueous humor taken on day 10 of uveitis was also twice higher while protein and α(2)-macroglobulin levels were 1.5-2 times lower than in untreated animals. These data indicate that instillations of melatonin increase the local antioxidant activity and decrease the acuity of inflammation and permeability of hematoophthalmic barrier in uveitis.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of balneotherapy with hae-un-dae thermal water on imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Jun Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Yun, Seong Taek; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Hong Jig; Yu, Dong Soo; Woo, So Youn; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2014-04-01

    Balneotherapy, although not a well-established dermatological treatment, is thought to have therapeutic properties for psoriasis and is used as an alternative treatment modality throughout the world. To evaluate the mechanism underlying the therapeutic immunologic effects of thermomineral water. A murine model of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation was used for evaluating the therapeutic effects of balneotherapy with Hae-Un-Dae hot spring mineral water. The clinical improvements were evaluated by a dermatologist. Lesional cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23, and IL-22, were quantitatively measured by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Serum levels of interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17A were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T cell proportions in the spleen were evaluated by flow cytometry, and histopathological evaluation of the skin was also performed. The mineral water balneotherapy group showed faster improvement in skin erythema and scales than the distilled water bathing group. A substantial reduction was observed in the lesional mRNA levels of IL-17A and IL-23 in the mineral water group. Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-5 were significantly decreased in the mineral water group but not in the distilled water group. Normalized T cell proportions were observed after bathing. Balneotherapy showed immunomodulatory effects in a psoriasis-like murine model. Balneotherapy suppressed lesional IL-23 and IL-17A, which are important cytokines in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. These results suggest that balneotherapy can be used as an effective and safe treatment for psoriasis.

  5. Making humor together: phenomenology and interracial humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Barber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains humor through phenomenological concepts and methods. The three major theories of humor: Superiority, Relief, and Incongruity depend on the thwarting of intentional expectations. Since one experiences an incongruity between what is intended and what is actually experienced, the incongruity theory affords the best explanation, but intentionality remains fundamental for all theories. Theorists of humor rightly insist that the enjoyment of humorous incongruity completes the definition of humor, but such enjoyment also depends on a special epoché, usually elicited by the cues of an interlocutor who invites the listener to leap together into the humorous finite province of meaning. In this province, actions and statements, hurtful in everyday life, such as a pie thrown at someone who ducks as the pie hits another, produce laughter. This comic epoché resembles the phenomenological epoché in its distancing from everyday life, and, like the phenomenological epoché, it opens everyday experience to reflection. Although one often experiences and enjoys humor alone, humor is thoroughly intersubjective and more frequently occurs when two persons participate in the humorous epoché together. The opportunities for making humor together are enhanced to the extent the partners differ in their expectations and responses to situations. Those differences, including bodily differences, often result from the complex intersubjective networks, including culture. As in the case of a seemingly solitary activity like reflection, which one learns from others and exercises on one’s own autonomously, one internalizes others’ styles of humor and discovers such internalization through reflection on one’s «because motives». On the basis of these features – intentionality, epoché, and intersubjectivity, the paper concludes by briefly examining an example of interracial humor. Despite the racist character of much interracial humor, the example

  6. Carbohydrate fatty acid monosulphate esters are safe and effective adjuvants for humoral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, Luuk A Th; Platenburg, Peter Paul L I; Bajramovic, Jeffrey; Veth, Jennifer; Sauerwein, Robert; Roeffen, Will; Pohl, Marie; van Amerongen, Geert; Stittelaar, Koert J; van den Bosch, Johannes F

    2017-05-31

    Carbohydrate fatty acid sulphate esters (CFASEs) formulated in a squalane-in-water emulsion are effective adjuvants for humoral responses to a wide range of antigens in various animal species but rise in body temperature and local reactions albeit mild or minimal hampers application in humans. In rabbits, body temperature increased 1°C one day after intramuscular (IM) injection, which returned to normal during the next day. The effect increased with increasing dose of CFASE but not with the number of injections (up to 5). Antigen enhanced the rise in body temperature after booster immunization (P100-fold after the second immunization. In ferrets immunized with 7.5μg of inactivated influenza virus A/H7N9, CMS adjuvant gave 100-fold increase in HAI antibody titres after the first and 25-fold after the second immunisation, which were 10-20-fold higher than with the MF59-like AddaVax adjuvant. In both models, a single immunisation with CMS adjuvant revealed similar or higher titres than two immunisations with either benchmark, without detectable systemic and local adverse effects. Despite striking chemical similarities with monophospholipid A (MPL), CMS adjuvant did not activate human TLR4 expressed on HEK cells. We concluded that the synthetic CMS adjuvant is a promising candidate for poor immunogens and single-shot vaccines and that rise in body temperature, local reactions or activation of TLR4 is not a pre-requisite for high adjuvanticity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and phytochemical screening of Alternanthera tenella Colla (Amaranthaceae aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Agostino Biella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla extracts are used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to treat a variety of infectious diseases as well as inflammation and fever. In this work, the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and potential toxic effects of cold (CAE and hot (HAE aqueous extracts of A. tenella were investigated in vivo. In addition, we analyzed the phytochemical properties of both extracts. BALB/c mice were immunized in vivo with sheep red blood cells and concomitantly inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p. with each extract (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg. Specific antibody-producing cells were enumerated using plaque-forming cell assays (PFC and anti-SRBC IgG and IgM serum levels were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body and lymphoid organ weights were determined after treatments in order to evaluate toxic effects. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was employed to investigate anti-inflammatory activity in mice inoculated i.p. with CAE or HAE (200 or 400 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening was performed using spectrometric and chromatographic approaches and revealed that CAE possessed higher tannin and flavonoid levels than HAE. PFC numbers were increased after treatment with CAE (100 mg/kg four days after immunization, as were the serum antibody titers after four and seven days, suggesting immunostimulatory activity through modulation of B lymphocyte functions. Body and organ weights did not show major changes, suggesting that extracts administered to mice did not induce significant toxicity. Both extracts had significant anti-inflammatory activity in the paw edema assay. These results suggested that aqueous extracts from A. tenella contained several chemical compounds that possess positive and/or negative modulator effects on the immune system, which appeared to correlate with tannin and flavonoid levels in those extracts. In summary, these studies provide important insight into the biological activities of A. tenella.

  8. Different immunomodulatory effects associated with sub-micrometer particles in ambient air from rural, urban and industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, Gunnar; Franck, Ulrich; Herbarth, Olf; Rehwagen, Martina; Dietz, Andreas; Massolo, Laura; Ronco, Alicia; Mueller, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of chemicals adsorbed to particles with aerodynamic diameter below 0.49 μm (PM 0.5 ) collected in winter 2001 at three sampling points (industrial area [LPIn], traffic-influenced urban area [LPCi], and control area [LPCo]) of La Plata, Argentina, were investigated. The sampling of particulate matter was carried out with high-volume collectors using cascade impactors. PM 0.5 -adsorbed compounds were hexane-extracted by accelerated solvent extraction. For immunological investigations, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated by phytohemagglutinin and exposed to dimethyl-sulfoxide dilutions of PM 0.5 -extracts for 24 h. Vitality/proliferation was quantified using MTT, released interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) by ELISA. Cytokine production but not vitality/proliferation was significantly suppressed by all of the highest extract concentrations. Generally, suppression of IFN-γ by PM 0.5 -extracts was stronger than those of IL-4. Based on administered mass of PM 0.5 , all extracts suppressed IFN-γ production nearly uniform. Contrary, LPCi-extracts exerted maximum IFN-γ suppression based either on air volume or regarding PM 0.5 -adsorbed PAH. Also the ranking of PM 0.5 -associated effects on IL-4 production differs in dependence of the chosen reference points, either mass or [μg/ml] or air volume [m 3 /ml] related dust quantities in cell culture. Based on the corresponding air volume, LPCi-extracts inhibited IL-4 production to the maximum extend, whereas suppression of IL-4 was comparable based on concentrations. This indicates that not only the disparate PM 0.5 -masses in air cause varying impacts, but also that disparities in PM 0.5 -adsorbed chemicals provoke different effects on immune responses and shifts in the regulatory balance that might have implications for allergy and cancer development

  9. Making social robots more attractive: the effects of voice pitch, humor and empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niculescu, A.I.; Ge, S.S.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; Li, Haizhou; See, Swan Lan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore how simple auditory/verbal features of the spoken language, such as voice characteristics (pitch) and language cues (empathy/humor expression) influence the quality of interaction with a social robot receptionist. For our experiment two robot characters were created: Olivia,

  10. The effect of excimer laser keratectomy on corneal glutathione peroxidase activities and aqueous humor selenium levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yis, Ozgür; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Bilgihan, Kamil; Yis, Nilgün Safak; Hasanreisoğlu, Berati

    2002-06-01

    The formation of free oxygen radicals has been demonstrated in the corneal tissue after 193 nm laser irradiation. Cornea has several defense mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage. One of them, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalyzes the destruction of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide. Selenium is a trace element which is incorporated into the selenoenzyme GPx. In the present study, the effect of excimer laser keratectomy on corneal GPx activities and aqueous humor selenium concentrations in rabbits was evaluated. Animals were divided into five groups, and all groups were compared: controls (group 1), after epithelial scraping (group 2), transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy(PRK; group 3), superficial traditional PRK (50 microm; group 4) and deep traditional PRK (100 microm; group 5). Corneal GPx activities were measured by a modification of the coupled assay procedure. Aqueous humor selenium concentrations were determined using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Corneal GPx activities were significantly lower only in group 5 ( P<0.05), and the selenium concentration in the aqueous humor did not change in any group. Deep corneal photoablation inhibits GPx enzyme activities in the cornea. Therefore, antioxidants may be useful in reducing free radical-mediated complications after excimer laser corneal photoablation.

  11. Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 and Immunomodulatory Effects of a PAR1-Activating Peptide in a Mouse Model of Prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M. Mark; Nelson, Lisa K.; Benediktsson, Hallgrimur; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Buret, Andre G.; Ceri, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nonbacterial prostatitis has no established etiology. We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) can play a role in prostatitis. We therefore investigated the effects of PAR1 stimulation in the context of a new model of murine nonbacterial prostatitis. Methods. Using a hapten (ethanol-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (DNBS-)) induced prostatitis model with both wild-type and PAR1-null mice, we examined (1) the location of PAR1 in the mouse prostate and (2) the impact of a PAR1-activating peptide (TFLLR-NH2: PAR1-TF) on ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation. Results. Ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation was maximal at 2 days. In the tissue, PAR1 was expressed predominantly along the apical acini of prostatic epithelium. Although PAR1-TF on its own did not cause inflammation, its coadministration with ethanol-DNBS reduced all indices of acute prostatitis. Further, PAR1-TF administration doubled the prostatic production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared with ethanol-DNBS treatment alone. This enhanced IL-10 was not observed in PAR1-null mice and was not caused by the reverse-sequence receptor-inactive peptide, RLLFT-NH2. Surprisingly, PAR1-TF, also diminished ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation in PAR1-null mice. Conclusions. PAR1 is expressed in the mouse prostate and its activation by PAR1-TF elicits immunomodulatory effects during ethanol-DNBS-induced prostatitis. However, PAR1-TF also diminishes ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation via a non-PAR1 mechanism by activating an as-yet unknown receptor. PMID:24459330

  12. A Systematic Review of Innate Immunomodulatory Effects of Household Air Pollution Secondary to the Burning of Biomass Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Kinney, Patrick; Chillrud, Steve; Jack, Darby

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP)-associated acute lower respiratory infections cause 455,000 deaths and a loss of 39.1 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of HAP are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of all studies examining the mechanisms underlying the relationship between HAP secondary to solid fuel exposure and acute lower respiratory tract infection to evaluate current available evidence, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose future research priorities. We conducted and report on studies in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. In all, 133 articles were fully reviewed and main characteristics were detailed, namely study design and outcome, including in vivo versus in vitro and pollutants analyzed. Thirty-six studies were included in a nonexhaustive review of the innate immune system effects of ambient air pollution, traffic-related air pollution, or wood smoke exposure of developed country origin. Seventeen studies investigated the effects of HAP-associated solid fuel (biomass or coal smoke) exposure on airway inflammation and innate immune system function. Particulate matter may modulate the innate immune system and increase susceptibility to infection through a) alveolar macrophage-driven inflammation, recruitment of neutrophils, and disruption of barrier defenses; b) alterations in alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular killing; and c) increased susceptibility to infection via upregulation of receptors involved in pathogen invasion. HAP secondary to the burning of biomass fuels alters innate immunity, predisposing children to acute lower respiratory tract infections. Data from biomass exposure in developing countries are scarce. Further study is needed to define the inflammatory response, alterations in phagocytic function, and upregulation of receptors important in bacterial and viral

  13. Comparative study on immuno-modulatory effect of anticoccidial vaccines and a coccidiostat on nd vaccinated broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeen, M.K.; Mustafa, M.Y.; But, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    105 day old broiler chicks were divided into 5 equal groups with 21 chicks in each i.e. A (non vaccinated, non medicated control), B (ND vaccinated control), C (administered with ND vaccine Lasota and Eimeria vaccine EV), D (NDV and immucox) and E (administered with NDV vaccine and coccidiostat). The comparative immunomodulatory effects of EV, immucox and Sacox were worked out on the basis of the GMT levels in Newcastle disease vaccinated birds along with the non-vaccinated and non-medicated control birds. These titres were evaluated by using HA and H1 tests on the sera of these experimental chicks. Other parameters i.e. morbidity, mortality, OPG, weight gain, FCR, Postmortem findings, Bursal/body weight ratio, weight, size and texture of spleen, thymus and liver were also assessed. The birds that were kept as NDV vaccinated control (group B) had the highest body weight and showed best FCR. The birds of unmedicated, unvaccinated control group (A) secured 2nd position regarding weight gain and FCR. Among the three experimental groups (C, D and E), the birds from group C (NDV + EV) had higher body weight than group D and E. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the birds of group C was also found to be better than the birds belonging to group D and E. The number of oocysts per gm of faeces showed gradual decrease and became nil on the observation of day 33 of the experiment, as the birds became solidly immune against Eimeria infection at this age. The birds belonging to group B (NDV vaccinated control) had shown the highest antibody titers while the birds of group A (unvaccinated unmedicated control) had the lowest antibody titres. Among the three experimental groups (C, D and E) the birds from group C had the higher antibody titres as compared to other two groups (D and E) on day 49. (author)

  14. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) extract in female B6C3F1/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Matthew J.; Germolec, Dori R.; Frawley, Rachel P.; White, Kimber L.

    2013-01-01

    Black cohosh extracts (BCE; Actaea racemosa) are being used worldwide as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for the management of menstrual and menopausal symptoms, yet the effects of BCE on the immune system are largely unknown. Female B 6 C 3 F 1 /N mice were treated daily with BCE (0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg) for 28 days by oral gavage. Liver weights were significantly increased (26–32%) at the 1000 mg/kg dose. Dose-related increases in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were observed. Decreasing trends were observed in all thymic T cell populations, with the most notable dose-responsive effects on immature thymocytes. In the spleen, dose-related decreases were observed in all cell phenotypes evaluated, reaching the level of statistical significance at the 1000 mg/kg BCE dose. Splenic natural killer (NK) cell numbers were significantly decreased at all BCE doses, with the exception of absolute NK numbers at the 125 mg/kg dose. No effects were observed on T-dependent antibody responses of the humoral immune system, including the antibody-forming cell response to sheep erythrocytes (sRBC) and IgM antibody levels to both sRBC and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Cytotoxic T cell (T CTL ) activity was increased, as was the mixed leukocyte response in one of two studies. Anti-CD3 mediated proliferation and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response were unaffected. No effects were observed on innate immunity or on bone marrow cellularity and colony-forming units. Overall, BCE exposure in B 6 C 3 F 1 /N mice for 28 days at doses up to 1000 mg/kg had minimal immune effects, with the exception of an increased T CTL response

  16. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of paeonia lactiflora pall., a traditional chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-Yi; Dai, Sheng-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In China, Korea, and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of peony (TGP), which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., a traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yi eHe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In China, Korea and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of paeony (TGP, which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotrience B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea.

  18. The gender-differentiated antioxidant effects of a lutein-containing supplement in the aqueous humor of patients with senile cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Rijo; Hayashi, Shimmin; Arai, Kiyomi; Sakai, Miki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant supplements are expected to decrease oxidative damage and prevent ocular diseases. In this study, changes in the anti-oxidative ability and oxidative status in the aqueous humor before and after intake of a lutein-containing supplement were measured. Forty patients who all had identical grades of cataracts in both eyes were included. The aqueous humor was collected as pre-intake samples during cataract surgery. Ocuvite + Lutein(Ⓡ), an antioxidant supplement, was administered orally beginning the day after surgery. Six weeks later, the aqueous humor was collected as a post-intake sample during cataract surgery of the opposite eye. To determine the anti-oxidative ability, the levels of superoxide (O2(*-)) scavenging activity were measured. To determine the oxidative status, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and total amount of hydroperoxides (TH, including H2O2 and peroxides of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) were measured. In post-intake samples, the O2(*-) scavenging activities were significantly higher in both genders (p humor in females only (r = 0.66 and p humor to prevent further oxidation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, which was confirmed by the low levels of TH in post-intake samples. Antioxidant supplements are suggested to be effective in reducing oxidation in the aqueous humor by different mechanisms in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Shinorine and Porphyra-334

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Becker; Anja Hartmann; Markus Ganzera; Dietmar Fuchs; Johanna M. Gostner

    2016-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites, produced by a large variety of microorganisms including algae, cyanobacteria, lichen and fungi. MAAs act as UV-absorbers and photo-protectants. MAAs are suggested to exert pharmaceutical relevant bioactivities in the human system. We particularly focused on their effect on defence and regulatory pathways that are active in inflamed environments. The MAAs shinorine and porphyra-334 were isolated and purified from the red algae Porp...

  20. Immunomodulatory Effects of Domoic Acid Differ Between In vivo and In vitro Exposure in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Levin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunotoxic potential of domoic acid (DA, a well-characterized neurotoxin, has not been fully investigated. Phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation were evaluated following in vitro and in vivo exposure to assay direct vs indirect effects. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of DA (2.5 µg/g b.w. and sampled after 12, 24, or 48 hr. In a separate experiment, leukocytes and splenocytes were exposed in vitro to 0, 1, 10, or 100 µM DA. In vivo exposure resulted in a significant increase in monocyte phagocytosis (12-hr, a significant decrease in neutrophil phagocytosis (24-hr, a significant decrease in monocyte phagocytosis (48-hr, and a significant reduction in T-cell mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation (24-hr. In vitro exposure significantly reduced neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at 1 µM. B- and T-cell mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation were both significantly increased at 1 and 10 µM, and significantly decreased at 100 µM. Differences between in vitro and in vivo results suggest that DA may exert its immunotoxic effects both directly and indirectly. Modulation of cytosolic calcium suggests that DA exerts its effects through ionotropic glutamate subtype surface receptors at least on monocytes. This study is the first to identify DA as an immunotoxic chemical in a mammalian species.

  1. Effect of arthritic synovial fluids on the expression of immunomodulatory factors by mesenchymal stem cells: an explorative in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J.C. Leijs

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In diseased joints, the catabolic environment results in progressive joint damage. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can have immunomodulatory effect by secreting anti-inflammatory factors. To exert these effects, MSCs need to be triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines. To explore the potential of MSCs as a treatment for diseased joints, we studied the effect of synovial fluid (SF from donors with different joint diseases and donors without joint pathology on the immunomodulatory capacities of human MSCs in vitro. We hypothesized that SF of diseased joints influences the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. Materials & Methods: MSCs were cultured in medium with SF of six osteoarthritis (OA or six rheumatoid arthritis (RA donors and three donors without joint pathology were used as control. Gene expressions of IL-6, HGF, TNFa, TGFb1 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO were analysed. L-kynurenine concentration in conditioned medium (CM by MSCs with SF was determined as a measure of IDO activity by MSCs. Furthermore, the effect of CM with SF on proliferation of activated lymphocytes was analysed. Results: Addition of SF significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IDO in MSCs. SF(OA induced significantly higher expression of IDO than SF(control, although no difference in IDO activity of the MSCs could be shown with a L-kynurenine assay. Medium conditioned by MSCs with SF(OA or RA suppressed activated lymphocyte proliferation in vitro more than medium conditioned by MSCs without SF or with SF(control.Discussion: SF can influence the expression of genes involved in immunomodulation by MSCs and the effect on lymphocyte proliferation. We found indications for disease-specific differences between SFs but the variation between donors, even within one disease group was high. These data warrant further research to examine the potential application of MSC therapy in arthritic joints.

  2. Effect of ceruloplasmin on some cellular and humoral immunity indices in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyins'kikh, N.K.; Savtsova, Z.D.; Yindik, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The ceruloplasmin (CD) in animals being permanently under combined external and internal low-intensity ionizing irradiation is shown to increase the level of cellular immunity reactions, including antiviral ones, and of natural resistance reactions, to decrease probability of derangement of biosynthetic processes during the development of immune response, and to increase resistance of animals to influenza infection. The influence of C P on humoral antiviral immunity was not observed

  3. The Contribution of Cervicovaginal Infections to the Immunomodulatory Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pai-Lien; Morrison, Charles S.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Mendonca, Kevin; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert; Mauck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Particular types of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and genital tract infections have been independently associated with risk of HIV-1 acquisition. We examined whether immunity in women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), combined oral contraceptives (COC), or no HCs differs by the presence of cervicovaginal infections. Immune mediators were quantified in cervical swabs from 832 HIV-uninfected reproductive-age Ugandans and Zimbabweans. Bacterial infections and HIV were diagnosed by PCR, genital herpes serostatus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), altered microflora by Nugent score, and Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans infection by wet mount. Generalized linear models utilizing Box-Cox-Power transformation examined associations between levels of mediators, infection status, and HCs. In no-HC users, T. vaginalis was associated with broadest spectrum of aberrant immunity (higher interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α [MIP-3α], β-defensin 2 [BD2], and IL-1 receptor antigen [IL-1RA]). In women with a normal Nugent score and no genital infection, compared to the no-HC group, COC users showed higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1RA, while DMPA users showed higher levels of RANTES and lower levels of BD2, both associated with HIV seroconversion. These effects of COC were blunted in the presence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and an abnormal Nugent score; however, RANTES was increased among COC users with herpes, chlamydia, and abnormal Nugent scores. The effect of DMPA was exacerbated by lower levels of IL-1RA in gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes, SLPI in gonorrhea, and IL-1β, MIP-3α, and IL-1RA/IL1β ratio in trichomoniasis. Thus, the effects of HC on cervical immunity depend on the genital tract microenvironment, and a weakened mucosal barrier against HIV may be a combined resultant of genital tract infections and HC use. PMID:26330510

  4. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Shinorine and Porphyra-334

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Becker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs are secondary metabolites, produced by a large variety of microorganisms including algae, cyanobacteria, lichen and fungi. MAAs act as UV-absorbers and photo-protectants. MAAs are suggested to exert pharmaceutical relevant bioactivities in the human system. We particularly focused on their effect on defence and regulatory pathways that are active in inflamed environments. The MAAs shinorine and porphyra-334 were isolated and purified from the red algae Porphyra sp. using chromatographic methods. The effect of MAAs on central signaling cascades, such as transcription factor nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB activation, as well as tryptophan metabolism, was investigated in human myelomonocytic THP-1 and THP-1-Blue cells. Cells were exposed to the MAAs in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. NF-κB activity and the activity of tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1 were used as readout. Compounds were tested in the concentration range from 12.5 to 200 µg/mL. Both MAAs were able to induce NF-κB activity in unstimulated THP-1-Blue cells, whereby the increase was dose-dependent and more pronounced with shinorine treatment. While shinorine also slightly superinduced NF-κB in LPS-stimulated cells, porphyra-334 reduced NF-κB activity in this inflammatory background. Modulation of tryptophan metabolism was moderate, suppressive in stimulated cells with the lower treatment concentration of both MAAs and with the unstimulated cells upon porphyra-334 treatment. Inflammatory pathways are affected by MAAs, but despite the structural similarity, diverse effects were observed.

  5. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Shinorine and Porphyra-334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kathrin; Hartmann, Anja; Ganzera, Markus; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites, produced by a large variety of microorganisms including algae, cyanobacteria, lichen and fungi. MAAs act as UV-absorbers and photo-protectants. MAAs are suggested to exert pharmaceutical relevant bioactivities in the human system. We particularly focused on their effect on defence and regulatory pathways that are active in inflamed environments. The MAAs shinorine and porphyra-334 were isolated and purified from the red algae Porphyra sp. using chromatographic methods. The effect of MAAs on central signaling cascades, such as transcription factor nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB) activation, as well as tryptophan metabolism, was investigated in human myelomonocytic THP-1 and THP-1-Blue cells. Cells were exposed to the MAAs in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). NF-κB activity and the activity of tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) were used as readout. Compounds were tested in the concentration range from 12.5 to 200 µg/mL. Both MAAs were able to induce NF-κB activity in unstimulated THP-1-Blue cells, whereby the increase was dose-dependent and more pronounced with shinorine treatment. While shinorine also slightly superinduced NF-κB in LPS-stimulated cells, porphyra-334 reduced NF-κB activity in this inflammatory background. Modulation of tryptophan metabolism was moderate, suppressive in stimulated cells with the lower treatment concentration of both MAAs and with the unstimulated cells upon porphyra-334 treatment. Inflammatory pathways are affected by MAAs, but despite the structural similarity, diverse effects were observed. PMID:27338421

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on long-term heavy-load exercising mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yali; Cai, Dehua; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Xinshen

    2012-12-01

    Long-term heavy-load exercise can lead to a decrease in the organism's immune response. In this study, we used 100 Kunming (KM) mice to investigate the immune-regulatory effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on long-term heavy-load exercising mice. Peripheral white blood cells (WBC), the absolute value of neutrophils (NEUT), the phagocytic function of macrophages, serum agglutination valence, and the number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) were evaluated 4 weeks after gavaging long-term heavy-load exercising mice with GLP. After exercise, the WBC count in peripheral blood, absolute neutrophil count, macrophage phagocytic index, serum agglutination valence, and the number of plaque-forming cells were significantly reduced in the mice not fed GLP. Both medium and high doses of GLP drastically increased peripheral WBC, absolute neutrophil count, macrophage phagocytic index, serum agglutination valence, and the number of plaque-forming cells in long-term heavy-load exercising mice. High doses of GLP increased peritoneal macrophage phagocytic rate considerably. With this study, we demonstrate that 4 weeks of heavy-load exercise can lead to exercise-induced immunosuppression in mice. A supplement of GLP fed to these mice improves both non-specific and specific immune responses among these mice. The effect for the high-dose GLP treatment is especially significant.

  7. [Recent research progress in immunomodulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicine on asthma treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang-Fang; Xu, Zhao-Xia; Adila, Aipire; Li, Jin-Yao

    2017-10-01

    Asthma is a kind of chronic respiratory inflammation, commonly with breathlessness, chest tightness, coughing, recurrent episodes of wheezing and airflow obstruction, severely affecting human health. A variety of immunocytes are involved in this chronic disease. Chinese herbal medicine(CHM) has a long history in the treatment of asthma. A large number of studies have shown that CHM could ameliorate asthma symptoms through regulating cellular immune responses. This paper reviewed the studies of CHM on the regulation of immunocytes and their mechanisms in recent years, including the count of inflammatory cells, maturation of dendritic cells, balance of helper T cell subtypes, induction of regulatory T cells and intracellular signaling pathways. We also proposed the future research directions about the effects of CHM on asthma treatment. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. The immunomodulatory effects of interferon-gamma on mature B-lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, A; Carballido, J; Griffel, H; Hochkeppel, H K; Wetzel, G D

    1989-06-15

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) exerts a broad spectrum of activities which affect the responses of mature B-cells. It strongly inhibits B-cell activation, acts as a B-cell growth factor (BCGF), and also induces final differentiation to immunoglobulin (Ig) production. IFN-gamma is deeply involved in the differential control of isotype expression, as it enhances IgG2a production and suppresses both IgG1 and IgE production. Although it is now possible to draw a general scheme of the effects of IFN-gamma on B-cells, a number of paradoxical results still exist in the field. In this manuscript, different experimental systems are analyzed in an attempt to explain these apparent paradoxes.

  9. Immunomodulatory and protective effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei against Candida albicans infection in malnourished mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Julio; Salva, Susana; Agüero, Graciela; Alvarez, Susana

    2011-06-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (Lc), when administered as a supplement to a repletion diet, on the resistance of malnourished mice to Candida albicans infection was studied. Weaned mice were malnourished by being given a protein-free diet (PFD) for 21 days. The malnourished mice were then fed a balanced conventional diet (BCD) for 7 days or BCD for 7 days with supplemental Lc on days 6 and 7 (BCD+Lc). Malnourished (MNC) and well-nourished (WNC) mice were used as controls. At the end of the treatments the mice were infected intraperitoneally with C. albicans. Animals that had received probiotics had improved survival and resistance against this infection compared to those in the BCD and MNC groups. The number and fungicidal activity of phagocytes, and the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and interleukin-6 (IL-6), increased in blood and infected tissues in all experimental groups, but MNC mice showed lower concentrations than those in the WNC group. BCD and BCD+Lc mice showed higher concentrations of these variables than those in the MNC group, but only the BCD+Lc group presented values similar to the WNC mice. Malnutrition also impaired the production of IL-17 and IL-10 in response to infection. Both repletion treatments normalized IL-17 concentrations, but IL-10 in the BCD+Lc group was significantly higher than in WNC mice. The addition of L. casei to the repletion diet normalized the immune response against C. albicans, allowing efficient recruitment and activation of phagocytes, as well as effective release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, probiotic treatment induced an increase in IL-10 concentrations, which would have helped to prevent damage caused by the inflammatory response. © 2011 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Immunomodulatory effect of captopril and local irradiation on myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Kyung; Shin, Sung Won; Kim, Shin Yeong; Choi, Chang Hoon; Park, Won; Noh, Jae Myoung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang Won [Dept. of Physiology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study is to investigate the effect of captopril when combined with irradiation. 4T1 (mouse mammary carcinoma) cells were injected in the right hind leg of Balb/c mice. Mice were randomized to four groups; control (group 1), captopril-treated (group 2), irradiated (group 3), irradiated and captopril-treated concurrently (group 4). Captopril was administered by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg) daily and irradiation was delivered on the tumor-bearing leg for 15 Gy in 3 fractions. Surface markers of splenic neutrophils (G-MDSCs) and intratumoral neutrophils (tumor-associated neutrophils [TANs]) were assessed using flow cytometry and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) of tumor was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The mean tumor volumes (±standard error) at the 15th day after randomization were 1,382.0 (±201.2) mm{sup 3} (group 1), 559.9 (±67.8) mm{sup 3} (group 3), and 370.5 (± 48.1) mm{sup 3} (group 4), respectively. For G-MDSCs, irradiation reversed decreased expression of CD{sub 101} from tumor-bearing mice, and additional increase of CD{sub 101} expression was induced by captopril administration. Similar tendency was observed in TANs. The expression of tumor-necrosis factor-associated molecules, CD{sub 120} and CD{sub 137}, are increased by irradiation in both G-MDSCs and TANs. Further increment was observed by captopril except CD{sub 120} in TANs. For IHC staining, VEGF and HIF-1α positivity in tumor cells were decreased when treated with captopril. Captopril is suggested to have additional effect when combined to irradiation in a murine tumor model by modulation of MDSCs and angiogenesis.

  11. Immunomodulatory effect of captopril and local irradiation on myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Kyung; Shin, Sung Won; Kim, Shin Yeong; Choi, Chang Hoon; Park, Won; Noh, Jae Myoung; Hong, Chang Won

    2016-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of captopril when combined with irradiation. 4T1 (mouse mammary carcinoma) cells were injected in the right hind leg of Balb/c mice. Mice were randomized to four groups; control (group 1), captopril-treated (group 2), irradiated (group 3), irradiated and captopril-treated concurrently (group 4). Captopril was administered by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg) daily and irradiation was delivered on the tumor-bearing leg for 15 Gy in 3 fractions. Surface markers of splenic neutrophils (G-MDSCs) and intratumoral neutrophils (tumor-associated neutrophils [TANs]) were assessed using flow cytometry and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) of tumor was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The mean tumor volumes (±standard error) at the 15th day after randomization were 1,382.0 (±201.2) mm 3 (group 1), 559.9 (±67.8) mm 3 (group 3), and 370.5 (± 48.1) mm 3 (group 4), respectively. For G-MDSCs, irradiation reversed decreased expression of CD 101 from tumor-bearing mice, and additional increase of CD 101 expression was induced by captopril administration. Similar tendency was observed in TANs. The expression of tumor-necrosis factor-associated molecules, CD 120 and CD 137 , are increased by irradiation in both G-MDSCs and TANs. Further increment was observed by captopril except CD 120 in TANs. For IHC staining, VEGF and HIF-1α positivity in tumor cells were decreased when treated with captopril. Captopril is suggested to have additional effect when combined to irradiation in a murine tumor model by modulation of MDSCs and angiogenesis

  12. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of temperature and pH of water in an Indian freshwater sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Bhunia, Anindya Sundar; Bhunia, Niladri Sekhar; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-07-01

    Eunapius carteri, a freshwater sponge of India, inhabits the ponds and lakes and experiences variations of temperature and pH of water throughout the year. Sponges bear evolutionary and ecological importance with limited information on their immunological attribute and adaptational resilience in a changing environment. This paper reports temperature and pH specific responses of immune related parameters in sponge maintained in the experimental conditions of laboratory. Innate immunological parameters like phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase activity were estimated in E. carteri at different environmentally realistic water temperatures (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) and pH (6.4, 7.4 and 8.4). Phagocytosis and cytotoxicity are established as important immune parameters of invertebrates. Calalase, an antioxidant enzyme and phosphatases are involved in pathogen destruction and are considered as components of innate immunity. Activities of catalase, acid and alkaline phosphatases were estimated in E. carteri at different thermal regimes and pH. Modulation of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses and the activities of catalase and phosphatases at different water temperatures and pH indicated temperature and pH specific immunological status of E. carteri. Present investigation deals with the effects of selected hydrological parameters on the fundamental immune related parameters in sponge indicating its adaptational plasticity. Immunological resilience of this species in the face of variation of water temperature and pH is thought to be a special adaptive feature of sponge, a reported "living fossil". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The immunomodulatory effects of Zn-incorporated micro/nanostructured coating in inducing osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ranran; Liu, Xujie; Xiong, Zhiyuan; Huang, Qianli; Yang, Xing; Yan, Hao; Ma, Jing; Feng, Qingling; Shen, Zhijian

    2018-03-08

    Micro/nanostructured TiO 2 /ZnO coating has been shown to possess multiple functions, including antibacterial activity and bioactivity. Osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells were employed for evaluating the in vitro osteogenic capacity of this coating and positive results were obtained. However, traditional principles of osseointegration focus only on the osteogenic differentiation alone. The effects of immunomodulation on the osteogenic activity have been largely ignored. In this study, the inflammatory responses of macrophages on the micro/nanostructured TiO 2 /ZnO coating were investigated. The extract media of macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cultured on the TiO 2 /ZnO coating were collected as indirect co-culture conditioned media. The osteogenic activity of SaOS-2 cells in the conditioned media was investigated. Adhesion, ALP activity and extracellular mineralization of cells grown in the conditioned media extracted from the micro/nanostructured TiO 2 /ZnO coating were found to be enhanced, compared to those grown in the conditioned media extracted from the macroporous TiO 2 coating. The immune microenvironment produced by the micro/nanostructured TiO 2 /ZnO coating showed excellent capacity to promote osteogenesis, indicating that this coating could be a promising candidate for implant surface modification in orthopaedic and dental applications. Furthermore, this work could help us understand the interplay between the host immune system and the osteoimmunomodulatory properties of the biomaterials, and optimize the design for coating biomaterials.

  15. Beta adrenergic blockade decreases the immunomodulatory effects of social disruption stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, M L; Powell, N D; Stiner, L M; Bailey, M T; Sheridan, J F

    2012-10-01

    . Together, this study demonstrates that the immune activation and priming effects of SDR result, in part, as a consequence of SNS activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beta adrenergic blockade decreases the immunomodulatory effects of social disruption stress☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, M.L.; Powell, N.D.; Stiner, L.M.; Bailey, M.T.; Sheridan, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    . Together, this study demonstrates that the immune activation and priming effects of SDR result, in part, as a consequence of SNS activation. PMID:22841997

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of ResistAid™: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multidose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract from the larch tree (ResistAid, Lonza Ltd., Basel, Switzerland) to change the immune response in healthy adults to a standardized antigenic challenge (tetanus and influenza vaccines) in a dose-dependent manner compared to placebo. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 75 healthy adults (18-61 years old). Subjects were randomized to receive either 1.5 or 4.5 g/day of ResistAid or placebo for 60 days. At day 30, subjects were administered both tetanus and influenza vaccines. Serum antigenic response (tetanus immunoglobulin G [IgG], influenza A and B IgG and immunoglobulin M [IgM]) was measured at days 45 (15 days after vaccination) and 60 (30 days after vaccination) of the study and compared to baseline antibody levels. Frequency and intensity of adverse events were monitored throughout the study. As expected, all 3 groups demonstrated an expected rise in tetanus IgG levels 15 and 30 days following the vaccine. There was a strongly significant difference in the rise in IgG levels at day 60 in the 1.5 g/day group compared to placebo (p = 0.008). In the 4.5 g/day group, there was significant rise in tetanus IgG at days 45 and 60 compared to baseline (p < 0.01) but these values were not significant compared to placebo. Neither group demonstrated any significant elevations in IgM or IgG antibodies compared to placebo following the influenza vaccine. There were no clinically or statistically significant or serious adverse events. ResistAid at a dose of 1.5 g/day significantly increased the IgG antibody response to tetanus vaccine compared to placebo. In conjunction with earlier studies, this validates the effect of ResistAid on the augmentation of the response to bacterial antigens (in the form of vaccine).

  18. Immunomodulatory effect of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil on immune cells: mitogen-activated splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi, Alireza; Daneshmandi, Saeed; Soleimani, Neda; Bagheri, Kambiz; Karimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-04-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) has been traditionally used for the treatment of allergy, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. The present study aims to investigate the suppressive effects of parsley essential oil on mouse splenocytes and macrophages cells. Parsley essential oil was harvested. It was treated on splenocytes and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 μg/mL) activated splenocytes in different concentrations (0.01-100 μg/mL); then, proliferation was assayed by methyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. Treatment was also performed on the macrophages and LPS-stimulated macrophages (10 μg/ml) and the nitrite levels were measured using the diazotization method based on the Griess reaction and MTT assay for evaluation of the viability of the macrophages. Proliferation of splenocytes in all the treated groups was suppressed. In PHA-stimulated splenocytes, the suppression was seen in all the examined concentrations (0.01-100 μg/mL), while in the unstimulated and LPS-stimulated groups suppression was relatively dose dependent and in high concentration (10 and100 μg/mL).The viability of the macrophages in all groups was the same and in the unstimulated groups; NO suppression was significant in all the concentrations but in LPS-stimulated groups, it was significant in the three higher concentrations (1, 10, and100 μg/mL). The results of this study indicate that parsley essential oil may be able to suppress the cellular and humoral immune response. It can also suppress both NO production and the functions of macrophages as the main innate immune cells. These results may suggest that parsley essential oil is a proper suppressant for different applications.

  19. Selection of optimal therapy for neuroblastoma: a study of the immunomodulatory effects of surgery and irradiation in the murine C1300 neuroblastoma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalian, S.L.; Ziegler, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Human neuroblastoma is an immunogenic tumor for which therapy directed in an immunologic context may offer some advantage over conventional treatment. This study examines the immunomodulatory effects of surgery and irradiation in the murine C1300 neuroblastoma model. In vivo studies of primary tumor growth characteristics after treatment demonstrated no superiority of either therapeutic modality in control of local tumor or prolongation of host survival. However, irradiated hosts showed an increased ability to reject a secondary tumor challenge, compared to their surgical counterparts. That this phenomenon may be immune-related is suggested by in vitro studies of T lymphocyte function utilizing mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell cultures and PHA lymphoblastogenesis

  20. Building Resilience through Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Debra Vande; Van Brockern, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Research on resilience suggests that a sense of humor helps to stress-proof children in conflict. Reports on a workshop for educators and youth workers convened to explore ways humor is being used to foster positive development and resilience with troubled youth. Describes applications of humor front-line professionals report as useful in their…

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of Longdan Xiegan Tang on CD4+/CD8+ T cells and associated inflammatory cytokines in rats with experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Guo, Dadong; Zhang, Lian; Guo, Junguo; Zheng, Fengming; Si, Junkang; Bi, Hongsheng

    2016-09-01

    Longdan Xiegan Tang (LXT) is a mixture of herbal extracts commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine that may exert immunomodulatory effects for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms that mediate the actions of LXT are unclear. The present study induced an experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) model in Lewis rats via injection of IRBP1177‑1191 emulsion. The model was used to investigate the effects of LXT on EAU rats and assess the efficacy of LXT by measuring clinical manifestations and histopathological changes caused by EAU. Additionally, alterations in the ratio of CD4+/CD8+‑T cells were determined by flow cytometry, and the expression of interferon (IFN)‑γ, interleukin (IL)‑17, IL‑10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α were measured using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The results of the present study demonstrate that LXT can efficiently alleviate the symptoms of EAU, inhibit the differentiation of uveitogenic CD4+ T cells and reduce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN‑γ, IL‑17 and TNF‑α. Furthermore, LXT promotes the production of IL‑10 and accelerates the recovery of EAU, indicating that the immunomodulatory effects of LXT may potentially be used for the treatment of uveitis.

  2. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  3. Effects of irradiation on the production of factors regulating humoral hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Kazuko

    1974-01-01

    Changes in factors regulating humoral hematopoiesis after irradiation were studied by intraperitoneal insertion of cellulose acetate membrane (CA membrane). There is little possibility that regulation factors is produced by macrophage itself. The growth of the colony depends mainly on increase or decrease of regulation factors in the host. However, there is a possibility that the macrophage interferes the action of these regulation factors. From the fact that there is no action of EPO (erythropoiesis) in Sl/slsup(d) mice having abnormal function of microenvironment, it is suggested that the action of EPO is brought about through the function of the microenvironment. In the analysis of the colony formation by intraperitoneal insertion of CA membrane, it is considered that the erythroblastic colony can be formed by the macrophage through the action of EPO. In short, it is concluded that factors regulating humoral hematopoiesis increased in the body of the mouse which have been irradiated to the whole body, and the increase in these factors is not constant, but remarkably changes with time. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Immunomodulatory Activity and Protective Effects of Polysaccharide from Eupatorium adenophorum Leaf Extract on Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel broad-spectrum, antiviral agents against H5N1 infection is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activities and protective effect of Eupatorium adenophorum polysaccharide (EAP against the highly pathogenic H5N1 subtype influenza virus. EAP treatment significantly increased the production of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ both in vivo and in vitro as measured by qPCR and ELISA. In a mouse infection model, intranasal administration of EAP at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight prior to H5N1 viral challenge efficiently inhibited viral replication, decreased lung lesions, and increased survival rate. We further evaluated the innate immune recognition of EAP, as this process is regulated primarily Dectin-1 and mannose receptor (MR. These results indicate that EAP may have immunomodulatory properties and a potential prophylactic effect against H5N1 influenza infection. Our investigation suggests an alternative strategy for the development of novel antiinfluenza agents and benefits of E. adenophorum products.

  5. Effects of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tiamulin and tulathromycin on pig humoral immune responses induced by erysipelas vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Kwit, K; Wierzchosławski, K; Dors, A; Pejsak, Z

    2016-05-28

    It addition to their antimicrobial properties, antibiotics can influence the host immune system (modulation of cytokine secretion, antibody production and T-cell proliferation). In the present study, the authors studied the effects of therapeutic doses of amoxicillin (AMX), ceftiofur (CEF), doxycycline (DOXY), tiamulin (TIAM) and tulathromycin (TUL) on the postvaccinal immune response after pigs had been vaccinated against erysipelas. Because humoral immunity is considered as the most important in the protection against swine erysipelas, the present study focused on the interactions between antibiotics and postvaccinal humoral immunity. One hundred and five, eight-week-old pigs of both sexes were used. Specific antibodies to the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antigen were determined using a commercial ELISA test. In pigs treated with DOXY or CEF or TIAM, a significant reduction in the number of positive pigs was observed four and six weeks after the second dose of vaccine, compared with the remaining vaccinated groups. In pigs treated with CEF, the ELISA score was significantly lower than in non-treated vaccinated pigs. While in vaccinated pigs treated with AMX or TUL, the ELISA score was significantly higher than in pigs treated with the remaining antibiotics and than in non-treated vaccinated controls. The results of the present study indicate that vaccination of pigs against erysipelas in the presence of antibiotics may result in a decrease (CEF, DOXY, TIAM) or enhancement (AMX, TUL) in the production of specific antibodies. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Mesenchymal stromal cells express GARP/LRRC32 on their surface: effects on their biology and immunomodulatory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Galvez, Ana Belén; Cobo, Marién; Cuevas-Ocaña, Sara; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, Alejandra; Sánchez-Gilabert, Almudena; Bongarzone, Pierpaolo; García-Pérez, Angélica; Muñoz, Pilar; Benabdellah, Karim; Toscano, Miguel G; Martín, Francisco; Anderson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising tool for therapy in regenerative medicine, transplantation, and autoimmune disease due to their trophic and immunomodulatory activities. However, we are still far from understanding the mechanisms of action of MSCs in these processes. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in MSC migration, differentiation, and immunomodulation. Recently, glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) was shown to bind latency-associated peptide (LAP)/TGF-β1 to the cell surface of activated Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and megakaryocytes/platelets. In this manuscript, we show that human and mouse MSCs express GARP which presents LAP/TGF-β1 on their cell surface. Silencing GARP expression in MSCs increased their secretion and activation of TGF-β1 and reduced their proliferative capacity in a TGF-β1-independent manner. Importantly, we showed that GARP expression on MSCs contributed to their ability to inhibit T-cell responses in vitro. In summary, we have found that GARP is an essential molecule for MSC biology, regulating their immunomodulatory and proliferative activities. We envision GARP as a new target for improving the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs and also as a novel MSC marker. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Phytochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic investigation of Carum copticum seeds and their potential as immunomodulatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Pankaj K; Singh, Ranjit; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2016-01-01

    Carum copticum seeds have been prescribed in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of immune disorders, such as asthma and rheumatism. The objective of this study was to determine immunomodulatory effects of the alcoholic extract and isolated compounds in Swiss albino mice. Seeds of C. copticum were extracted with 95% v/v alcohol. The immunomodulatory activity of the crude extract was evaluated at the doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice, administered in mice once daily (orally) for 25 days. Volatile oil of C. copticum was isolated by steam distillation and was characterized by GLC and HPLC. Bio-assay-guided fractionation and isolation were carried out and the isolated compounds were characterized and subjected to immunomodulatory activity studies. The n-hexane fraction yielded p-cymene, carvacrol, and α-pinene. The LD50 value of the crude extract was found to be 4500 mg/kg and the values reported for p-cymene, carvacrol, and α-pinene in the literature were 4750, 810, and 3700 mg/kg, respectively. The oral administration of crude extract, n-hexane fraction (HEF), and isolated oils at the dose of 500, 150, and 50 mg/kg body weight, respectively, showed a significant increase in the HA titers, DTH-response, and phagocytosis. The stimulatory effect observed, on humoral and cellular immunity, was compared with the standard (levamisole treated) and control groups. The results obtained in the study endorse the traditional use of the seeds of C. copticum and the isolated constituents act as immunostimulants.

  8. Cellular and humoral immuno-stimulatory effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Jafar-Zadeh, A.; Khosravi, M.H.; Mehdipour, L.A.; Behnejad, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The immunosuppressive effects of high doses of ionizing radiation have long been known, while researchers know less about the effects of low dose radiation on the immune system. Recently, in human and experimental animal models it has been reported that low dose radiation may have immuno-stimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low doses of diagnostic doses of X-rays on cell mediated and humoral immune responses in a Balb/c animal model. Materials and Methods: Using a conventional Villa radiography machine, three groups of male Balb/c mice were exposed one, two and three times to 30 mGy of X-rays. The measured surface dose was equal to the dose of a single view lateral lumbar radiography. Two to four hours after irradiation, the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and humoral responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) were measured and compared to the responses of sham and control groups. Results: The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibodies in two-times irradiated (74.66± 26.12 ) and three-times irradiated (128 ± 70.1) groups were significantly higher than those of non-irradiated (26.66 ± 8.26) or sham irradiated (28.8 ± 20.86) group (p<0.001). However, no significant differences were observed between the mean titer of anti-SRBC antibodies in one-time irradiated (22.4 ± 8.76) and either non-irradiated or sham irradiated groups. Similarly, comparing DTH responses showed that the differences between either two-times irradiated (12.2 ± 3.9 ) or three times-irradiated (6.9 ± 3.7) and non-irradiated (4 ± 0.2) or sham irradiated (4.3 ± 3) groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Theses results show that two-times and three-times irradiated mice demonstrate significant stimulatory effects on both DTH and antibody responses. However, one-time irradiated animals did not exhibit any bio- positive effect on DTH and humoral responses. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was observed between the DTH

  9. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  10. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunomodulatory effect of the topical ophthalmic Janus kinase inhibitor tofacitinib (CP-690,550) in patients with dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Feng; Yafawi, Rolla; Zhang, Min; McDowell, Michael; Rittenhouse, Kay D; Sace, Frederick; Liew, Shiao Hui Melissa; Cooper, Scott R; Pickering, Eve H

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of topical ophthalmic tofacitinib (CP-690,550) after an 8-week treatment period in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Biomarker substudy of a phase 1/2 prospective, randomized, vehicle- and comparator-controlled clinical trial (NCT00784719). A total of 82 patients with moderate to severe DED enrolled. Patients received 1 of 5 doses of tofacitinib (0.0003%, 0.001%, 0.003%, or 0.005% twice daily [BID] or 0.005% once daily [QD]), active comparator (cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion, 0.05% [Restasis, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA]), or vehicle control BID for 8 weeks. Conjunctival impression cytology and tear fluid samples were collected at baseline and after an 8-week treatment period. Conjunctival cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for human leukocyte antigen DR-1 (HLA-DR). Tear fluids were analyzed by microsphere-based immunoassays for tear levels of cytokines and inflammation markers. Reduction in inflammation assessed by change from baseline in conjunctival cell surface level of HLA-DR and tear level of cytokines and inflammation markers. At week 8, a decrease in conjunctival cell surface expression of HLA-DR was observed in patients treated with tofacitinib 0.005% QD and 0.003% BID: 71% and 67% of baseline, respectively, compared with 133% of baseline in patients treated with vehicle (P=0.023 and P=0.006, compared with vehicle, respectively). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 in tears was reduced from baseline at week 8 (40% of baseline, P=0.035) in the tofacitinib 0.005% QD group, whereas the vehicle group showed 77% of baseline (P>0.20). Interleukin (IL)-1β in tears was 36% of baseline (P=0.053) in the tofacitinib 0.005% QD group and 95% of baseline (P > 0.20) in the vehicle group. Several other cytokines and inflammation markers in tears, including MMP-9, IL-15, IL-17A, and IL-12p70, were markedly reduced in the tofacitinib 0.005% QD group but not the vehicle group. There was an association between the changes in HLA

  12. Chronic low-level tritium contamination effects on humoral immune response in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcu, I.; Bejan, A.; Stinga, A.

    1993-01-01

    Using an adaptation of the radioimmunoassay technique, the present study reports on immunochemical parameters of the antibodies synthesized in vivo against bovine serum albumin by rats previously exposed to long-term internal contamination with tritiated water. The corresponding dose range of the irradiation was between 0.6 and 6.2 mGy. A slight increase of a affinity constant of the antibodies produced by the irradiated organisms was found. This experimental fact might sustain the hypothesis of a humoral immune response associated to adaptation increase in cell renewal mechanisms, rather than to selective cell deletion. We also observed a total dissimilarity between the modifications induced by chronic low-dose irradiation and those induced by physiological aging. For old rats the concentration of antibodies is higher by almost an order of magnitude, but they are much less efficient as the decreased value of the affinity constant indicates. (Author)

  13. Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunomodulators are substances that modify immune system response to a threat. Immunomodulators modulate and potentiate the immune system, keeping it highly prepared for any threat. The immunomodulatory effect of the traditional medicine Tinospora crispa is investigated in this work. Methods T. crispa ethanol extract was fractionated by using different solvents. The ethanol extract and effective isolated fraction were used to investigate the potential immunomodulatory effect of different T. crispa doses ranging from 25 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL on RAW 246.7 cells by detecting intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The antioxidant activity of T. crispa was evaluated through FRAP and DPPH. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also quantified. Results Results show that T. crispa extract has higher antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. The FRAP value of T. crispa extract is 11011.11 ± 1145.42 μmol Fe+2/g, and its DPPH inhibition percentage is 55.79 ± 7.9, with 22 μg/mL IC50. The results also reveal that the total phenolic content of T. crispa extract is 213.16- ± 1.31 mg GAE/g dry stem weight, and the total flavonoid content is 62.07- ± 39.76 mg QE/g dry stem weight. T. crispa crude extract and its isolated fraction significantly stimulate RAW264.7 cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The results of LC-MS show that four of the active compounds detected in the T. crispa isolated fraction are cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine. Conclusions The results of this study obviously indicate that T. crispa has immunomodulatory effects through the stimulation of INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. LC-MS phytochemical analysis showed that the T. crispa fraction has cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine, which may be responsible for the immunostimulator effect of T. crispa. PMID:24969238

  14. [Comparison of the immunomodulatory effects of spore polysaccharides and broken spore polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum on murine splenic lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-yun; Wang, Sai-zhen; Lin, Shu-qian; Lin, Zhi-bin

    2005-12-18

    To compare the immunomodulatory effects of spore polysaccharides (Gl-SP) and broken spore polysaccharides (Gl-BSP) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss et Fr.) Karst. on murine splenic lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLR), lymphocyte proliferation in the presence or absence of mitogen, and the cytotoxic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells were detected with MTT assay in vitro. The percentage of phagocytosis of neutral red (NR) by mouse peritoneal macrophages was detected by colorimetric assay. Splenic T-lymphocyte subpopulations were measured with flow cytometry(FCM). IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in the culture supernatants were detected by ELISA and biological assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was examined by Griess reaction. At the concentration range of 0.2-12.8 mg/L, Gl-SP and Gl-BSP were shown to increase lymphocyte proliferation in the presence or absence of mitogen, enhance NK cytotoxic activity, augment the production of TNF-alpha and NO in Gl-SP- or Gl-BSP-activated macrophages, as well the percentage of phagocytosis of NR by macrophages in vitro. Both Gl-SP and Gl-BSP could promote MLR, however, at the dose of 12.8 mg/L, Gl-BSP showed higher activity than Gl-SP in the proliferation of lymphocytes. These two kinds of polysaccharide could significantly increase the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in doublejway MLR at the concentrations of 0.2-12.8 mg/L, but Gl-BSP had stronger effects than Gl-SP at the same concentrations. Both Gl-SP and Gl-BSP could increase the ratio of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in double-way MLR. At the concentrations of 0.2-12.8 mg/L or 3.2-12.8 mg/L, Gl-BSP demonstrated more significant activity in increasing the percentage of the CD4(+) or CD8(+) subset than Gl-SP. At the concentrations of 0.2-0.8 mg/L, the ratio of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) subset in the Gl-BSP treated group was higher than that of the Gl-SP treated group. Gl-SP and Gl-BSP have similar immunomodulatory

  15. The effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on selected parameters of humoral immunity in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, R; Małaczewska, J; Siwicki, A K; Miciński, J; Zwierzchowski, G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on selected parameters of the humoral immunity in calves. The experiment was performed on 14 calves aged 30 +/- 2 days, divided into two equal groups of control (group K) and experimental (group H) animals. The feed administered to the experimental calves was supplemented with HMB at 40 mg/kg BW, whereas the control calves were administered standard farm-made feed without supplementation. Blood was sampled from the jugular vein immediately before the experiment (day 0) and on experimental days 15, 30 and 60 to determine the following immunological parameters: total protein levels, gammaglobulin levels, lysozyme activity and ceruloplasmin activity. An analysis of the results obtained revealed a significant increase (p HMB as compared to those found in the control group.

  16. IMMUNO-MODULATORY EFFECT OF INACTIVATED EIMERIA TENELLA VACCINE AND LIVE IMPPORTED COCCIDIAL VACCINE ON NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS VACCINA TED BROILER CHICKS

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    Muhammad Akram Muneer, Haji Ahmad Hashmi, Masood Rabbani, Zahid Munir Chaudhry and Ali M. Bahrami

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 160 one-day-old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of an inactivated Eimeria tenella vaccine and a live polyvalent imported antiococcidial vaccine (Coccivac. This study indicated that both of these vaccines did not adversely affect the development of serum antibody against Newcastle disease virus (NDV and the chicks vaccinated with either of the anticoccidial vaccines resisted the virulent NDV challenge. A study of the lymphoid organs such as bursa of fabricuis: thymus and spleen from the experimental chicks indicated that those organs were comparable with those from the chicks not vaccinated with these coccidial vaccines. The overall findings of this study indicate that anticoccidial vaccines do not have any effects on the immune functions of the vaccinates. In fact these vaccines prevented the occurrence of clinical coccidiosis in the vaccinates.

  17. Preliminary study to characterize differences in potential immunomodulatory effects of cyclosporine A using BALB/c and ICR mouse splenocytes

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    Angélica Mariño

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine A (CsA is widely used as an immunosuppressant for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and immune regulation in transplant patients. Due to its wide applicability, studies of unwanted side effects of CsA are imperative. It has been found that not all patients treated with CsA display the same types/patterns of adverse effects. To ascertain the bases for these differential responses, potential differing effects of CsA on B-lymphocytes were analyzed. This entailed an assessment of changes in CsA viability and mitotic activity within splenocyte populations from BALB/c and ICR mice. These particular strains were examined because: (1 in each of them, previously have been shown that differed in the respond to biological response modifiers, such as bacterial agents, and/or immunogens; (2 our own earlier studies showing strain-associated differences in ex vivo splenocyte/lymphocyte responses to other drug; and, (3 a potential immunomodulatory effect of any agent should be studied in at least two different strains during a broad toxicological evaluation. Splenocytes from each strain were treated with 200 μg/mL CsA, and CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ cell viabilities were monitored at various time points during the exposure period. In general, there appeared to be a trend toward greater decreases in viability among BALB/c B-lymphocytes than their ICR counterparts as incubation progressed. Differences related with T-lymphocyte sensitivity to drug associated to strains was not observed, because it was uniformly lethal throughout. With regard to mitotic activity, cells from ICR mice were more susceptible to inhibition of spontaneous cell division at low concentrations of CsA (relative to the rates of blastogenesis by BALB/c counterparts. At higher concentrations of the drug however, there were no differences in the sensitivity of each strain. This work provides new insight into the mechanism of action of CsA and illustrates the need for at least two

  18. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The effect of infectious dose on humoral and cellular immune responses in Chlamydophila caviae primary ocular infection.

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    Ana Filipovic

    Full Text Available Following infection, the balance between protective immunity and immunopathology often depends on the initial infectious load. Several studies have investigated the effect of infectious dose; however, the mechanism by which infectious dose affects disease outcomes and the development of a protective immune response is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate how the infectious dose modulates the local and systemic humoral and the cellular immune responses during primary ocular chlamydial infection in the guinea pig animal model. Guinea pigs were infected by ocular instillation of a Chlamydophila caviae-containing eye solution in the conjunctival sac in three different doses: 1×102, 1×104, and 1×106 inclusion forming units (IFUs. Ocular pathology, chlamydial clearance, local and systemic C. caviae-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed. All inocula of C. caviae significantly enhanced the local production of C. caviae-specific IgA in tears, but only guinea pigs infected with the higher doses showed significant changes in C. caviae-specific IgA levels in vaginal washes and serum. On complete resolution of infection, the low dose of C. caviae did not alter the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within guinea pigs' submandibular lymph node (SMLN lymphocytes while the higher doses increased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within the SMLN lymphocytes. A significant negative correlation between pathology intensity and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within SMLN lymphocyte pool at selected time points post-infection was recorded for both 1×104, and 1×106 IFU infected guinea pigs. The relevance of the observed dose-dependent differences on the immune response should be further investigated in repeated ocular chlamydial infections.

  20. Safety and immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants in healthy adults: SETOPROB study.

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    Julio Plaza-Diaz

    Full Text Available We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers' feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543.

  1. Effect of Zinc on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity of Broilers Vaccinated Against Coccidiosis

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    Milad Moazeni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was the comparison of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in ‎broilers fed with different levels of zinc during a coccidiosis challenge.‎Methods: One hundred and forty-‎four one-day-old broiler chicks were used with three ‎dietary zinc ‎(40, 120 and 200 mg/kg. At 14 d of age, all birds were inoculated orally with 5×103 sporulated oocysts of E. Tenella. ‎At ‎2, 22, 32, 42 ‎days of age, the blood serums were tested for ‎antibody titer against‎ Newcas­tle disease vaccine, using ‎the standard HI test. On day 42 the sum of nitrite ‎and nitrate based on the reduction of nitrate ‎to nitrite by cadmium ‎and white blood cell count (WBC using a hemocytometer were measured.Results: At 42 d, levels of ‎120 and 200 mg significantly (P< 0.05 increased the antibody titer in compare with the control. The peak response of CBH was observed at the level of 200 mg Zn/kg diet. Also both level of 120 and 200 mg Zn/kg diet increased WBC count and sum of nitrite and nitrate‎ in serum compared with the control.Conclusion: The levels of 120 and 200 mg Zn/kg diet could be considered as a non-pharmacologic booster of immunity in broilers chicks infected with E. Tenella.

  2. Appreciation of humor is decreased among patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Posen, Jennie; Giladi, Nir; Manor, Yael; Mayanz, Connie; Mirelman, Anat; Gurevich, Tanya

    2012-02-01

    To test whether appreciation of humor might be a non-motor function affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-nine PD patients and 38 healthy controls participated in this study. Appreciation of humor and effect of the presentation method utilized were assessed. Sense of humor was evaluated by the sense of humor questionnaire (SHQ-6). Humor appreciation was tested using three methods of presentation: videos, audio sketches and pictorial cartoons, each portraying both obvious and non-obvious humor content. Depression, anxiety, cognition, disease severity and quality of life were measured by standardized questionnaires and correlated with humor outcomes. Patients with PD rated humor content lower than controls on every method of presentation as well as on the SHQ-6 (p = 0.004). The greatest between-group difference was noted when the material was presented visually via pictorial cartoons (p < 0.0001). In addition, obvious humor content was rated higher than non-obvious content by the PD group in all three presentation methods (p < 0.05). The degree of depression and anxiety did not influence these results. Patients with PD have a decreased sense of humor compared to healthy controls. Utilizing audio methods of presentation and humor in an obvious mode appears to be the preferred approach for eliciting responses to humor in a PD population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Humor Assessment and Interventions in Palliative Care: A Systematic Review

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    Lisa M. Linge-Dahl

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The central goal of palliative care is to optimize the quality of life of patients suffering from life-limiting illnesses, which includes psychosocial and spiritual wellbeing. Research has demonstrated positive correlations between humor and laughter with life satisfaction and other aspects of wellbeing, and physiological symptoms can be improved by humorous stimuli.Objectives: The aim of this review is to evaluate humor interventions and assessments that have been applied in palliative care and to derive implications for future research.Methods: A systematic review of four databases identified 13 included studies. Criteria for inclusion were peer-reviewed English-language studies on humor interventions or assessments in a palliative care context.Results: Two studies on humor interventions and 11 studies on humor assessment were included in the systematic review. Most of these studies were about the patients' perspective on humor in palliative care. Findings showed that humor had a positive effect on patients, their relatives, and professional caregivers. Humor was widely perceived as appropriate and seen as beneficial to care in all studies.Conclusions: Even though humor interventions seem to be potentially useful in palliative care, descriptions evaluating their use are scarce. Overall, research on humor assessment and interventions in palliative care has remained limited in terms of quantity and quality. More research activities are needed to build a solid empirical foundation for implementing humor and laughter as part of regular palliative care activities.

  4. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  5. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  6. Bacterial infections in cynomolgus monkeys given small molecule immunomodulatory antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Karen D

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic infections (OIs) during the course of non-clinical toxicity studies can serve as a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. In monkeys, severity may be magnified since the possibility for fecal-oral and cage-to-cage transmission of bacteria exists, reserve capacity is low, and clinical signs of infection are not easily detected until the infectious process is well underway. This review summarizes a case study presented at the HESI-ILSI ITC-Sponsored workshop on Naturally Occurring Infections in Non-human Primates and Immunotoxicity Implications. It gives an overview on the impact of bacterial infections in monkeys on the development and regulatory assessment of three closely-related representative small molecule immunomodulatory (anti-inflammatory) drug candidates all inhibiting the same drug target. The infections, which sometimes progressed to bacteremia and death, originally manifested in the skin, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and less frequently as soft tissue abscesses. Infections were sporadic and not observed in all studies despite coverage of equivalent or higher systemic exposures or longer durations of treatment. To address concerns regarding inconsistency in the presentation and type of findings and their potential relationship to infection, steps were taken to identify causative agents (via culture, microscopy), implement various intervention and treatment regimens (supportive care, antibiotics, drug holiday), demonstrate reversibility of clinical and immune effects, and study major immune components/mechanisms affected (cytokine/stress protein profiling, immune cell phenotyping, and humoral/innate immune cell function tests). Appropriate diagnosis and characterization of the infection was critical to discrimination of these findings as a secondary pharmacologic effect rather than a direct drug-related target organ effect, and also guided clinical protocol design and regulatory acceptance.

  7. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  8. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…

  9. Development of QSAR model for immunomodulatory activity of natural coumarinolignoids

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    Dharmendra K Yadav

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dharmendra K Yadav, Abha Meena, Ankit Srivastava, D Chanda, Feroz Khan, SK ChattopadhyayMetabolic and Structural Biology Department, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, PO-CIMAP, IndiaAbstract: Immunomodulation is the process of alteration in immune response due to foreign intrusion of molecules inside the body. Along with the available drugs, a large number of herbal drugs are promoted in traditional Indian treatments, for their immunomodulating activity. Natural coumarinolignoids isolated from the seeds of Cleome viscose have been recognized as having hepatoprotective action and have recently been tested preclinically for their immunomodulatory activity affecting both cell-mediated and humoral immune response. To explore the immunomodulatory compound from derivatives of coumarinolignoids, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR and molecular docking studies were performed. Theoretical results are in accord with the in vivo experimental data studied on Swiss albino mice. Immunostimulatory activity was predicted through QSAR model, developed by forward feed multiple linear regression method with leave-one-out approach. Relationship correlating measure of QSAR model was 99% (R2 = 0.99 and predictive accuracy was 96% (RCV2 = 0.96. QSAR studies indicate that dipole moment, steric energy, amide group count, lambda max (UV-visible, and molar refractivity correlates well with biological activity, while decrease in dipole moment, steric energy, and molar refractivity has negative correlation. Docking studies also showed strong binding affinity to immunomodulatory receptors.Keywords: coumarinolignoids, immunomodulation, docking, QSAR, regression model

  10. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of Inonotus obliquus

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    Staniszewska Justyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of compounds and extracts from Inonotus obliquus. Polysaccharides isolated from sclerotium have a direct antitumor effect due to protein synthesis inhibition in tumor cells. Polysaccharides derived from the mycelium function by activating the immune system. Due to the limited toxicity of these substances, both extracts as well as isolated and purified chemicals may be a good alternative to current chemotherapy and play a role in cancer prevention. In vitro experiments have shown the inhibition of inflammation with the influence of action of I. obliquus extracts; however, in vivo experiments on animals implanted with tumor cells of different types have shown the activation of the host immune system. This led to decrease in tumor mass and prolonged survival. The immunomodulatory mechanism of action is complex and it seems that stimulation of macrophages and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells is of great importance.

  11. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  12. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Different Effects of the Immunomodulatory Drug GMDP Immobilized onto Aminopropyl Modified and Unmodified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles upon Peritoneal Macrophages of Women with Endometriosis

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    Yuliya Antsiferova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare in vitro the possibility of application of unmodified silica nanoparticles (UMNPs and modified by aminopropyl groups silica nanoparticles (AMNPs for topical delivery of immunomodulatory drug GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis. The absence of cytotoxic effect and high cellular uptake was demonstrated for both types of silica nanoparticles. The immobilization of GMDP on the UMNPs led to the suppression of the stimulatory effect of GMDP on the membrane expression of scavenger receptors SR-AI and SR-B, mRNAs expression of NOD2 and RAGE, and synthesis of proteolytic enzyme MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1. GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs, enhanced the initially reduced membrane expression of SRs and increased NOD2, RAGE, and MMP-9 mRNAs expression by macrophages. Simultaneously high level of mRNAs expression of factors, preventing undesirable hyperactivation of peritoneal macrophages (SOCS1 and TIMP-1, was observed in macrophages incubated in the presence of GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs. The effect of AMNPs immobilized GMDP in some cases exceeded the effect of free GMDP. Thus, among the studied types of silica nanoparticles, AMNPs are the most suitable nanoparticles for topical delivery of GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages.

  14. Different effects of the immunomodulatory drug GMDP immobilized onto aminopropyl modified and unmodified mesoporous silica nanoparticles upon peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferova, Yuliya; Sotnikova, Nataliya; Parfenyuk, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare in vitro the possibility of application of unmodified silica nanoparticles (UMNPs) and modified by aminopropyl groups silica nanoparticles (AMNPs) for topical delivery of immunomodulatory drug GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis. The absence of cytotoxic effect and high cellular uptake was demonstrated for both types of silica nanoparticles. The immobilization of GMDP on the UMNPs led to the suppression of the stimulatory effect of GMDP on the membrane expression of scavenger receptors SR-AI and SR-B, mRNAs expression of NOD2 and RAGE, and synthesis of proteolytic enzyme MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1. GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs, enhanced the initially reduced membrane expression of SRs and increased NOD2, RAGE, and MMP-9 mRNAs expression by macrophages. Simultaneously high level of mRNAs expression of factors, preventing undesirable hyperactivation of peritoneal macrophages (SOCS1 and TIMP-1), was observed in macrophages incubated in the presence of GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs. The effect of AMNPs immobilized GMDP in some cases exceeded the effect of free GMDP. Thus, among the studied types of silica nanoparticles, AMNPs are the most suitable nanoparticles for topical delivery of GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages.

  15. Biofilms of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum: Effect on stress responses, antagonistic effects on pathogen growth and immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoudia, Nabil; Rieu, Aurélie; Briandet, Romain; Deschamps, Julien; Chluba, Johanna; Jego, Gaëtan; Garrido, Carmen; Guzzo, Jean

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have extensively investigated probiotic functions associated with biofilms. Here, we show that strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum are able to grow as biofilm on abiotic surfaces, but the biomass density differs between strains. We performed microtiter plate biofilm assays under growth conditions mimicking to the gastrointestinal environment. Osmolarity and low concentrations of bile significantly enhanced Lactobacillus spatial organization. Two L. plantarum strains were able to form biofilms under high concentrations of bile and mucus. We used the agar well-diffusion method to show that supernatants from all Lactobacillus except the NA4 isolate produced food pathogen inhibitory molecules in biofilm. Moreover, TNF-α production by LPS-activated human monocytoid cells was suppressed by supernatants from Lactobacillus cultivated as biofilms but not by planktonic culture supernatants. However, only L. fermentum NA4 showed anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish embryos fed with probiotic bacteria, as assessed by cytokine transcript level (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10). We conclude that the biofilm mode of life is associated with beneficial probiotic properties of lactobacilli, in a strain dependent manner. Those results suggest that characterization of isolate phenotype in the biofilm state could be additional valuable information for the selection of probiotic strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of CTLA4-Fc on glomerular injury in humorally-mediated glomerulonephritis in BALB/c mice.

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    Kitching, A R; Huang, X R; Ruth, A-J; Tipping, P G; Holdsworth, S R

    2002-06-01

    The effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule 4-immunoglobulin fusion protein (CTLA4-Fc) on humorally-mediated glomerulonephritis was studied in accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) glomerulonephritis induced in BALB/c mice. This strain of mice develops antibody and complement dependent glomerulonephritis under this protocol. Sensitized BALB/c mice developed high levels of circulating autologous antibody titres, intense glomerular deposition of mouse immunoglobulin and complement, significant proteinuria, renal impairment, significant glomerular necrosis and a minor component of crescent formation 10 days after challenge with a nephritogenic antigen (sheep anti-GBM globulin). Early treatment during the primary immune response, or continuous treatment throughout the disease with CTLA4-Fc, significantly suppressed mouse anti-sheep globulin antibody titres in serum, and immunoglobulin and complement deposition in glomeruli. The degree of glomerular necrosis was improved and proteinuria was reduced, particularly in the earlier stages of disease. Late treatment by CTLA4-Fc starting one day after challenge with sheep anti-mouse GBM did not affect antibody production and did not attenuate glomerulonephritis. The low level of crescent formation found in BALB/c mice developing glomerulonephritis was not prevented by the administration of CTLA4-Fc. These results demonstrate that CTLA4-Fc is of benefit in this model of glomerulonephritis by its capacity to attenuate antibody production, without affecting the minor degree of cell-mediated glomerular injury.

  17. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of L-carnitine and q10 in mouse spleen exposed to low-frequency high-intensity magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, Hossam M.M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.A.; El-Mahdy, Mohamad A.; Ramadan, Laila A.; Hamada, Farid M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we have investigated the bioeffects of repeated exposure to low-frequency (50 Hz) high-intensity (20 mT; 200 G) electromagnetic field (EMF) on some immune parameters in mice. The animals were exposed to EMF daily for 30 min three times per week for 2 weeks. We also studied the possible immunomodulatory effects of two anti-radical substances known to have non-specific immunostimulant effects namely, L-carnitine (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.) and Q10 (200 mg/kg body weight, p.o.). Both drugs were given 1 h prior to each EMF exposure. Immune endpoints included total body weight, spleen/body weight ratio, splenocytes viability, total and differential white blood cell (WBCs; lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils) counts, as well as the lymphocyte proliferation induced by the mitogens; phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin-A (Con-A) and lipoploysaccharide (LPS). Magnetic field decreased splenocyte viability, WBCs count, as well as mitogens-induced lymphocyte proliferation. L-carnitine, but not Q10 could ameliorate the adverse effects of EMF on the vast majority of the immune parameters tested, suggesting a possible immunoprotective role of L-carnitine under the current experimental conditions

  19. Immunomodulatory effects in a phase II study of lenalidomide combined with cetuximab in refractory KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Gandhi

    Full Text Available This study assessed the immunomodulatory effects in previously treated KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients participating in a phase II multicenter, open-label clinical trial receiving lenalidomide alone or lenalidomide plus cetuximab. The main findings show the T cell immunostimulatory properties of lenalidomide as the drug induced a decrease in the percentage CD45RA(+ naïve T cells 3-fold while increasing the percentage HLA-DR(+ activated T helper cells and percentage total CD45RO(+ CD8(+ memory T cytotoxic cells, 2.6- and 2.1-fold respectively (p<0.0001. In addition, lenalidomide decreased the percentage of circulating CD19(+ B cells 2.6-fold (p<0.0001. Lenalidomide increased a modest, yet significant, 1.4-fold change in the percentage of circulating natural killer cells. Our findings indicate that lenalidomide significantly activates T cells, suggestive of an immunotherapeutic role for this drug in settings of maintenance therapy and tumor immunity. Furthermore, reported for the first time is the effect of lenalidomide in combination with cetuximab on T cell function, including increases in circulating naïve and central memory T cells. In summary, lenalidomide and cetuximab have significant effects on circulating immune cells in patients with colorectal carcinoma.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01032291.

  20. Transplantation of CX3CL1-expressing mesenchymal stem cells provides neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects in a rat model of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Libin; Xu, Wei; Xu, Guoxing

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) engineered to secrete CX3CL1 on the light-injured retinal structure and function. Normal MSCs and CX3CL1-expressing MSCs (CX3CL1-MSCs) were transplanted into the subretinal space of light-injured rats. By ERG and TUNEL methods, their rescue effect of the host retina was compared with untreated light-injured and vehicle-injected rats. Activated microglia in the retina were stained by ED-1 antibody, and Western blot was performed to quantify cytokines secreted by the retina post-transplantation. ERG analysis showed better function in CX3CL1-MSC-injected group than other groups at 21 days after transplantation (p < 0.05). CX3CL1-MSCs inhibited apoptosis of the retinal cells and microglial activation. Neurotrophic factors expression in host retina that received CX3CL1-MSCs was stronger than in the retina that received normal MSCs. Conversely, the expression of proinflammatory factors was downregulated. CX3CL1-MSCs subretinal transplantation may enhance protective effect against light-induced retinal degeneration.

  1. The Humorous Function of English Euphemism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎清亚

    2017-01-01

    As a universal linguistic phenomenon in human society, euphemism is widely used in all social classes and fields. It is an important means to coordinate interpersonal relationship. This research discusses some fundamental knowledge of euphemism. It aims to analyze the humorous function of English euphemism in social interaction, advertisement and expressing professions. Through the analysis of the humorous function of English euphemism, it helps people to reduce mistake, improve the effect of communication and enhance mutual understanding.

  2. Mathematics and Humor: John Allen Paulos and the Numeracy Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos at minimum gave the Numeracy movement a name through his book Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. What may not be so obvious was Paulos’ strong interest in the relationship between mathematics and mathematicians on the one hand and humor and stand-up-comedian joke structures on the other. Innumeracy itself could be seen as a typically mathematical Gotcha joke on American culture generally. In this perspective, a Minnesotan acculturated to Minnesota-Nice Humor of Self-Immolation Proclivities (SImP looks at the more raw-boned, take-no-prisoners humor style Paulos outlined in Mathematics and Humor and implemented in Innumeracy. Despite the difference in humor styles, there is much to applaud in Paulos’ analysis of the relationship between certain types of humor and professional interests of mathematicians in Mathematics and Humor. Much humor relies on the sense of incongruity which Paulos’ claims to be central to all humor and key to mathematical reductio ad absurdum. Mathematics is rightfully famous for a sense of combinatorial playfulness in its most elegant proofs, as humor often relies on clashing combinations of word play. And a great range of mathematical lore is best understood within a concept of a sudden drop from one sense of certainty to another (essentially a Gotcha on the audience. Innumeracy repeatedly exemplifies Gotchas on the great unwashed and unmathematical majority. Extensive empirical evidence over the last quarter century allows us to synthesize these Paulos observations into the idea that inculcated mathematical humor has strong propensities to complex Intellectual, Advocate, and Crusader humor forms. However, the Paulos humors do not include the Sympathetic Pain humor form, the inclusion of which may increase teaching effectiveness.

  3. The immunomodulatory effect of Zingiber cassumunar ethanolic extract on phagocytic activity, nitrit oxide and reaxtive oxygen intermediate secretions of macrophage in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkhasanah; Santoso, R. D.; Fauziah, R.

    2017-11-01

    Immunomodulators could protect the body from a variety of infectious agents and boost immunity. Zingiber cassumunar rhizome or bangle potentially showed as an immunomodulator through increasing of macrophage activity in vitro. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Z. cassumunar rhizome ethanolic extract on phagocytic activity, nitrite oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) secretions in macrophages in vivo. A total of 200 g of Z. cassumunar rhizome was powdered, macerated in 96% ethanol and evaporated to get concentrated extract. Mice were divided into 5 groups as follow: the normal group was given by water only, the negative control group was given by a 0.94% CMC-Na suspension, the treatment groups were given by 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kgBW, respectively, of Z. cassumunar ethanolic extract. The extract was administered orally for 7 days. On the 8th day the mice were injected intraperitoneally 0.7 mg/kg BW of lipopolysaccharide. Four hours later macrophage was isolated. Furthermore, the determination of the phagocytic activity, NO and ROI secretions levels of macrophage were performed. The treatments of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW of Z. cassumunar ethanolic extract significantly increase the ROI and NO secretions levels (p0.05) of macrophage. Z. cassumunar ethanolic extract have immunomodulatory effect in vivo.

  4. Effect of Immunoglobulin Therapy on the Rate of Infections in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and or Treated with Immunomodulatory Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are few data available regarding the prevalence of infection in multiple myeloma (MM patients in conjunction with newer generations of immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide or post autologous stem cell transplantation.  We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients with MM from March 2006 to June 2009 at our institution. All patients received thalidomide and steroid therapy for at least 6 months. Nine patients received bortezomib and 11 lenalidomide subsequently to thalidomide, because of disease progression and 22 patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation.   The median age was 64 years (range 37-86, with a female–to-male ratio of 18:29. The median residual-serum IgG-level at time of infection was 3.2 g/L, IgA 0.3 g/L and IgM 0.2 g/L. Most patients suffered from recurrent moderate to severe infections. All patients except 3 received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy with a significant decline of the rate of infection thereafter. Our analysis shows that IVIG appears to be an effective strategy to prevent infection in MM patients. Further studies to confirm these findings are warranted.

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of pCramoll and rCramoll on peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) infected and non-infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; Alves, Neyla Maria Pereira; de Castro, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; da Paz, Nathalia Varejão Nogueira; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) play important roles in host defense against Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogens. In this study we evaluated the potentials of native (pCramoll or Cramoll 1,4) and recombinant (rCramoll) lectins from seeds of Cratylia mollis as immunomodulatory tools on mice PECs infected and non-infected with S. aureus. Both lectins significantly enhanced nitric oxide, superoxide and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α). pCramoll and rCramoll downregulated the induction of TNF-α and IL-6 and upregulated the expression of IL-1β, IFN-γ in S. aureus infected PECs. Phagocytic activity of S. aureus was also enhanced in 27.1% and 22.47% by pCramoll and rCramoll, respectively. Our results showed that pCramoll induced stronger effects than rCramoll, which could be explained by the different hemagglutinating activities of C. mollis isolectins and nature fragmentation, although the biologic meaning should be studied in detail using in vivo models. Future works will be focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in these actions, using in vitro and in vivo models, to support the use of these lectins as biotechnological tool in immunological studies.

  6. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on humoral and cellular immunity in pigs vaccinated against Aujeszky's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoszcze, M.; Roszkowski, J.

    1991-01-01

    An effect of ionizing radiation on the immune response in pigs of both sexes weighing 35 kg vaccinated with an attenuated Aujeszky's disease virus was investigated. Ionizing radiation in a dose of 200 or 400 r reduced the number of IgM and IgG antibodies produced in vaccinated pigs. Additionally, the 400 r dose delyed the cellular immune response. No effect of the radiation on a clinical course of postvaccinal reaction was found

  8. The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…

  9. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  10. Effective humoral immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Czirják, László; Hóbor, Renáta; Illes, Zsolt; Bánáti, Miklós; Rajczy, Katalin; Tordai, Attila; Füst, George

    2013-07-01

    Controversy exists about the effectiveness of vaccine-induced immune response in patients with immunoregulatory disorders. Our aim was to determine the antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus in patients with either of two autoimmune diseases. 279 patients with SLE (205 females, aged 45.0 ± 13.8 years), 158 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) (101 females, aged 55 ± 18.7 years) and 208 healthy subjects (122 females, aged 48 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled. Serum concentrations of diphtheria-antitoxin-IgG (A-DIPHTH) and tetanus-antitoxoid-IgG (A-TET) were determined with ELISA. Equal proportions of healthy subjects, as well as patients with SLE or MG exhibited proper antibody responses and immune protection against diphtheria and tetanus. In all three test groups, serum concentration of A-DIPHTH decreased significantly (p60-years-old) subjects. There were no significant differences among the groups in the age-related changes of A-TET and A-DIPHTH except that in diphtheria and tetanus infections in patients with SLE or MG is comparable to the healthy population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. n Vitro Immunomodulatory Effect of R10 Fraction of Garlic on Viability and Production of TNF-? in CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ghazanfari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: -cells, especially CD8+ T lymphocytes are the most important cells in anti-tumor response. Previously R10 fraction of garlic extract was reported as an immuno-modulator which induced an effective cellular immunity and Th1 responses. In this study the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of R10 on CD8+ T cells viability and production of TNF-? were evaluated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, using monoclonal antibodies attached to magnetic beads with isolating columns by magnetic bead method, CD8+ T cells from spleen cells of Balb/C mice were isolated. R10 fraction based on molecular weight was prepared using Ultra filtration. MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. TNF-? level was meas-ured in the supernatant of culture of CD8+ T cells by ELISA. Obtained data was compared and analyzed using Nonparametric Test and Keraskel & Wanny's Test tests.. Results: The findings indicate that all dilutions of R10 fraction increased cell viability of CD8+ T cells in comparison with the negative control group and in the presence of ConA with dilution of 1:50 of R10 fraction significantly increased cell viability of CD8+ T Cells com-pared to ConA alone. Secretion of TNF-? significantly increased by all dilutions of R10 frac-tion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that R10 fraction of garlic can be used as an Immuno-modulator drug candidate for induction of cellular Immunity in tumor therapy. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 20 (4:273-279

  12. Mining the Human Gut Microbiota for Immunomodulatory Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva-Zatorsky, Naama; Sefik, Esen; Kua, Lindsay; Pasman, Lesley; Tan, Tze Guan; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Yanortsang, Tsering Bakto; Yang, Liang; Jupp, Ray; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe; Kasper, Dennis L

    2017-02-23

    Within the human gut reside diverse microbes coexisting with the host in a mutually advantageous relationship. Evidence has revealed the pivotal role of the gut microbiota in shaping the immune system. To date, only a few of these microbes have been shown to modulate specific immune parameters. Herein, we broadly identify the immunomodulatory effects of phylogenetically diverse human gut microbes. We monocolonized mice with each of 53 individual bacterial species and systematically analyzed host immunologic adaptation to colonization. Most microbes exerted several specialized, complementary, and redundant transcriptional and immunomodulatory effects. Surprisingly, these were independent of microbial phylogeny. Microbial diversity in the gut ensures robustness of the microbiota's ability to generate a consistent immunomodulatory impact, serving as a highly important epigenetic system. This study provides a foundation for investigation of gut microbiota-host mutualism, highlighting key players that could identify important therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  14. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  15. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  16. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  17. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Hu, Qing; Franklin, Jason N; McMahen, Rebecca; Dagnino, Sonia; Higgins, Christopher P; Strynar, Mark J; DeWitt, Jamie C

    2017-01-23

    2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate was designed to replace perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been mostly phased out of U.S. production due to environmental persistence, detectable human and wildlife serum concentrations, and reports of systemic toxicity. In rodent models, PFOA exposure suppresses T cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) and vaccine responses in exposed humans. To determine replacement compound effects on TDAR and related parameters, male and female C57BL/6 mice were gavaged with 0, 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Mice immunized with antigen on day 24 were evaluated for TDAR and splenic lymphocyte subpopulations five days later. Serum and urine were collected for test compound concentrations and liver peroxisome proliferation was measured. Relative liver weight at 10 and 100 mg/kg and peroxisome proliferation at 100 mg/kg were increased in both sexes. TDAR was suppressed in females at 100 mg/kg. T lymphocyte numbers were increased in males at 100 mg/kg; B lymphocyte numbers were unchanged in both sexes. Females had less serum accumulation and higher clearance than males, and males had higher urine concentrations than females at all times and doses. While this PFOA-replacement compound appears less potent at suppressing TDAR relative to PFOA, it produces detectable changes in parameters affected by PFOA; further studies are necessary to determine its full immunomodulatory profile and potential synergism with other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances of environmental concern. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  19. Immunomodulatory effects of macrolide antibiotics - part 2: advantages and disadvantages of long-term, low-dose macrolide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, J; de Graaff, C S; van der Werf, T S; Boersma, W G

    2011-01-01

    The available evidence for long-term, low-dose treatment with 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, COPD, chronic sinusitis, and asthma is reviewed with special attention to possible adverse effects and the emergence of resistance during long-term macrolide treatment. Macrolide maintenance therapy has been proven to be of benefit in diffuse panbronchiolitis and CF, presumably due to an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action in addition to its direct antimicrobial effect. Solid evidence to justify this treatment regimen for non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma, or sinusitis is still lacking, although a beneficial effect of long-term macrolide therapy has been found in small clinical trials on these subjects. Data from randomized trials of long-term macrolide treatment in COPD are conflicting. A sufficiently long duration of treatment and the careful selection of patients appears to be crucial. Aside from its beneficial effects, possible side effects of macrolide treatment should be taken into account, the most important of these being gastrointestinal upset and cardiac arrhythmias. Development of macrolide resistance among respiratory pathogens is very common during long-term macrolide treatment. Whether this finding is clinically significant is a matter of debate. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Characterisation of the Immunomodulatory Effects of Meningococcal Opa Proteins on Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and CD4+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jones

    Full Text Available Opa proteins are major surface-expressed proteins located in the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane, and are potential meningococcal vaccine candidates. Although Opa proteins elicit high levels of bactericidal antibodies following immunisation in mice, progress towards human clinical trials has been delayed due to previous findings that Opa inhibits T cell proliferation in some in vitro assays. However, results from previous studies are conflicting, with different Opa preparations and culture conditions being used. We investigated the effects of various Opa+ and Opa- antigens from N. meningitidis strain H44/76 in a range of in vitro conditions using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and purified CD4+ T cells, measuring T cell proliferation by CFSE dilution using flow cytometry. Wild type recombinant and liposomal Opa proteins inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation after stimulation with IL-2, anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and these effects were reduced by mutation of the CEACAM1-binding region of Opa. These effects were not observed in culture with ex vivo PBMCs. Opa+ and Opa- OMVs did not consistently exert a stimulatory or inhibitory effect across different culture conditions. These data do not support a hypothesis that Opa proteins would be inhibitory to T cells if given as a vaccine component, and T cell immune responses to OMV vaccines are unlikely to be significantly affected by the presence of Opa proteins.

  1. Immunomodulatory Effects of Macrolide Antibiotics - Part 2 : Advantages and Disadvantages of Long-Term, Low-Dose Macrolide Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, J.; de Graaff, C. S.; van der Werf, T. S.; Boersma, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    The available evidence for long-term, low-dose treatment with 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, COPD, chronic sinusitis, and asthma is reviewed with special attention to possible adverse effects and the emergence of resistance during long-term macrolide

  2. Effects of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley on the immunomodulatory response in ICR mice and in Molt-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min; Hong, Seung-Heon; Um, Jae-Young

    2010-07-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a unicellular and microscopic algae that is currently used in a variety of forms of tablets, capsules and liquid as a biological response modifier. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley for its potential reduction of the immobility time in ICR mice and on the cytokine regulation in human T cell line, Molt-4. After a forced swimming test, the changes in aspects of blood biochemical parameters due to the administration of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley were examined. The effect of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by the malted barley-treated group for 14 days on the immobility time was significantly reduced in comparison with that of the control group (P cells. These results indicate that hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley is useful for immune function improvements, enhanced physical stamina, and as a candidate for an anti-fatigue or antidepressant agent.

  3. Immunomodulatory pretreatment with Kalanchoe pinnata extract and its quercitrin flavonoid effectively protects mice against fatal anaphylactic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, E A; Da-Silva, S A G; Muzitano, M F; Silva, P M R; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2008-12-10

    Previously, we reported the immunosuppressive action of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) in mice. In the present study, we report on the protective effect of Kp in fatal anaphylactic shock, likewise a Th2-driven immunopathology, and the identification of its active component. Mice daily treated with oral Kp during hypersensitization with ovalbumin were all protected against death when challenged with the allergen, as compared with the 100% mortality in the untreated group. A single intraperitoneal dose 3 h prior to challenge was partially effective. Oral protection was accompanied by a reduced production of OVA-specific IgE antibodies, reduced eosinophilia, and impaired production of the IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-alpha cytokines. In vitro, Kp prevented antigen-induced mast cell degranulation and histamine release. Oral treatment with the quercitrin flavonoid isolated from Kp prevented fatal anaphylaxis in 75% of the animals. These findings indicate that oral treatment with Kp effectively downmodulates pro-anaphylactic inducing immune responses. Protection achieved with quercitrin, although not maximal, suggests that this flavonoid is a critical component of Kp extract against this extreme allergic reaction.

  4. Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberio, Silvana A; Pereira, Antônio Luís A; Dutra, Richard P; Reis, Aramys S; Araújo, Maria José A M; Mattar, Nadia S; Silva, Lucilene A; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce S; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel F; Guerra, Rosane N M; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2011-11-04

    Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The present study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of M. fasciculata geopropolis against oral pathogens, its effects on S. mutans biofilms, and the chemical contents of the extracts. A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was also analyzed for its activity on S. mutans and its immunotoxicological potential. Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs) of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Ethanol (70%, v/v) and chlorhexidine (0.12%, w/w) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were assayed by spectrophotometry. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs. Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S. mutans and C. albicans, but presented no activity against L. acidophilus. The MBCs for HAE-2 and HAE-3 against S. mutans were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. HAE-2 was fractionated, and its chloroform fraction had an MBC of 14.57 mg/mL. HAE-2 also exhibited bactericidal effects on S. mutans biofilms after 3 h of treatment. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were observed among the samples. Signs toxic effects were not observed after application of the geopropolis-based gel, but an increase in the production of IL-4 and IL-10, anti-inflammatory cytokines, was detected. In summary, geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata can

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and perfluoroalkyl acids in East Greenland ringed seals (Pusa hispida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Milton; Gebhard, Erika; Jasperse, Lindsay; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Bossi, Rossana; De Guise, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    To better elucidate the potential immune-related health effects of exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in ringed seals (Pusa hispida), a sentinel Arctic species, we assessed 1) associations between mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and in vivo tissue contaminant burdens, and 2) the concentration-response effects of in vitro exposure to PFASs and PCB congeners on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Upon in vitro contaminant exposure, the non-coplanar PCB congeners CB 138, 153, and 180, but not the coplanar CB 169, significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferation between 10 and 20 µg g −1 ww. The respective in vitro EC 50 values for these congeners were 13.3, 20.7, 20.8, and 54.6 µg g −1 ww. No modulation of lymphocyte proliferation was observed upon in vitro exposure to two individual PFASs, perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), at concentrations up to 1000 ng g-1. In addition, no significant correlations were found between lymphocyte proliferation and any blood or blubber contaminant measured. Taken together, these data suggest this population of ringed seals is not currently at high risk of altered lymphocyte proliferation from exposure to the POPs or PFASs in this study. - Highlights: • Assess relationships between tissue contaminants and changes in immune function. • Risk for contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in East Greenland ringed seal is low. • Weight of evidence suggest non-coplanar PCBs are immunotoxic at high concentrations.

  6. Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberio Silvana A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The present study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of M. fasciculata geopropolis against oral pathogens, its effects on S. mutans biofilms, and the chemical contents of the extracts. A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was also analyzed for its activity on S. mutans and its immunotoxicological potential. Methods Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Ethanol (70%, v/v and chlorhexidine (0.12%, w/w were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were assayed by spectrophotometry. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs. Results Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S. mutans and C. albicans, but presented no activity against L. acidophilus. The MBCs for HAE-2 and HAE-3 against S. mutans were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. HAE-2 was fractionated, and its chloroform fraction had an MBC of 14.57 mg/mL. HAE-2 also exhibited bactericidal effects on S. mutans biofilms after 3 h of treatment. Significant differences (p Conclusions In summary, geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata can exert antimicrobial action against S. mutans and C. albicans, with significant inhibitory activity against S. mutans biofilms. The extract with the highest flavonoid concentration, HAE-2, presented the

  7. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P yeast autolysate supplementation. Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and perfluoroalkyl acids in East Greenland ringed seals (Pusa hispida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Milton, E-mail: Milton.levin@uconn.edu [Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3089 (United States); Gebhard, Erika; Jasperse, Lindsay [Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3089 (United States); Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Eulaers, Igor [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bossi, Rossana [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); De Guise, Sylvain [Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3089 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To better elucidate the potential immune-related health effects of exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in ringed seals (Pusa hispida), a sentinel Arctic species, we assessed 1) associations between mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and in vivo tissue contaminant burdens, and 2) the concentration-response effects of in vitro exposure to PFASs and PCB congeners on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Upon in vitro contaminant exposure, the non-coplanar PCB congeners CB 138, 153, and 180, but not the coplanar CB 169, significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferation between 10 and 20 µg g{sup −1} ww. The respective in vitro EC{sub 50} values for these congeners were 13.3, 20.7, 20.8, and 54.6 µg g{sup −1} ww. No modulation of lymphocyte proliferation was observed upon in vitro exposure to two individual PFASs, perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), at concentrations up to 1000 ng g-1. In addition, no significant correlations were found between lymphocyte proliferation and any blood or blubber contaminant measured. Taken together, these data suggest this population of ringed seals is not currently at high risk of altered lymphocyte proliferation from exposure to the POPs or PFASs in this study. - Highlights: • Assess relationships between tissue contaminants and changes in immune function. • Risk for contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in East Greenland ringed seal is low. • Weight of evidence suggest non-coplanar PCBs are immunotoxic at high concentrations.

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of diclofenac in leukocytes through the targeting of Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga, Núria; David, Miren; Bielańska, Joanna; González, Teresa; Parra, David; Soler, Concepció; Comes, Núria; Valenzuela, Carmen; Felipe, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    Kv1.3 plays a crucial role in the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. While Kv1.3 is responsible for the voltage-dependent potassium current in T-cells, in macrophages this K(+) current is generated by the association of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5. Patients with autoimmune diseases show a high number of effector memory T cells that are characterized by a high expression of Kv1.3 and Kv1.3 antagonists ameliorate autoimmune disorders in vivo. Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in patients who suffer from painful autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we show that diclofenac impairs immune response via a mechanism that involves Kv1.3. While diclofenac inhibited Kv1.3 expression in activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, Kv1.5 remained unaffected. Diclofenac also decreased iNOS levels in Raw 264.7 cells, impairing their activation in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced macrophage migration and IL-2 production in stimulated Jurkat T-cells were also blocked by pharmacological doses of diclofenac. These effects were mimicked by Margatoxin, a specific Kv1.3 inhibitor, and Charybdotoxin, which blocks both Kv1.3 and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)3.1). Because Kv1.3 is a very good target for autoimmune therapies, the effects of diclofenac on Kv1.3 are of high pharmacological relevance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunomodulatory effects of total intravenous and balanced inhalation anesthesia in patients with bladder cancer undergoing elective radical Cystectomy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofra Maria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although surgery and anesthesia induce immunesuppression, remains largely unknown whether various anesthetic techniques have different immunosuppressive effects on cancer patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of total intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion (TIVA-TCI and balanced inhalation anesthesia (BAL on the peri-operative levels of inflammatory cytokines and regulatory T cells (Tregs in patients with bladder cancer undergoing surgery. Methods Twenty eight consecutive patients with bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive TIVA-TCI (n = 14 or BAL (n = 14. Before the induction of anesthesia (T0, 6–8 hours (T1 post-surgery, and 5 days post-surgery (T2, Tregs and serum levels of interleukin -1beta (IL-1β, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin −2 (IL-2, interleukin −6 (IL-6, and interleukin −10 (IL-10 were measured. Results In the peri-operative period all cancer patients showed a marked and significant increase in IL-6. Moreover, TIVA-TCI patients also showed a higher increase in IFN-γ, whereas in BAL patients Tregs were reduced by approximately 30% during surgery. The incidence of infections, metastases, and death was similar in both groups. Conclusions The increase in the Th1 response in the TIVA-TCI group and the reduction in Tregs in the BAL group seem to balance the immunosuppressive effect induced by IL-6. Therefore TIVA-TCI and BAL can be both used in major surgery in patients with bladder cancer without worsening the outcome.

  11. The value of humor in psycotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chazenbalk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns. 

  12. Effects of a humor-centered activity on disruptive behavior in patients in a general hospital psychiatric ward

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Higueras; Hugo Carretero-Dios; José P. Muñoz; Esther Idini; Ana Ortiz; Francisco Rincón; David Prieto-Merino; María M. Rodríguez del Águila

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio cuasi-experimental es analizar lo efectos de una actividad centrada en el humor sobre las conductas disruptivas de pacientes hospitalizados en un servicio de Psiquiatría. Se han comparado, teniendo en cuenta dos grupos homogéneos de pacientes hospitalizados en un servicio de Psiquiatría de hospital general (unidad de agudos), dos periodos temporales de 83 días cada uno, siendo el período 1 el de línea base, y el período 2, el de intervención. Para am...

  13. Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Seaweeds in LPS Challenged Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar as Determined by Deep RNA Sequencing of the Head Kidney Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P.; Kals, Jeroen; Blanco Garcia, Ainhoa; Dirks, Ron P.; Poelman, Marnix

    2018-01-01

    Seaweeds may represent immuno-stimulants that could be used as health-promoting fish feed components. This study was performed to gain insights into the immunomodulatory effects of dietary seaweeds in Atlantic salmon. Specifically tested were 10% inclusion levels of Laminaria digitata (SW1) and a commercial blend of seaweeds (Oceanfeed®) (SW2) against a fishmeal based control diet (FMC). Differences between groups were assessed in growth, feed conversion ratio and blood parameters hematocrit and hemoglobin. After a LPS challenge of fish representing each of the three groups, RNAseq was performed on the head kidney as major immune organ to determine transcriptomic differences in response to the immune activation. Atlantic salmon fed with dietary seaweeds did not show major differences in performance in comparison with fishmeal fed fish. RNAseq resulted in ∼154 million reads which were mapped against a NCBI Salmo salar reference and against a de novo assembled S. salar reference for analyses of expression of immune genes and ontology of immune processes among the 87,600 cDNA contigs. The dietary seaweeds provoked a more efficient immune response which involved more efficient identification of the infection site, and processing and presentation of antigens. More specifically, chemotaxis and the chemokine-mediated signaling were improved and therewith the defense response to Gram-positive bacterium reduced. Specific Laminaria digitata effects included reduction of the interferon-gamma-mediated signaling. Highly upregulated and specific for this diet was the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene protein. The commercial blend of seaweeds caused more differential expression than Laminaria digitata and improved immune processes such as receptor-mediated endocytosis and cell adhesion, and increased the expression of genes involved in response to lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory response. Particularly, expression of many important immune

  14. Impact of Humor Advertising in Radio and Print Advertising - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    The use of humour in advertising is the effective way of communication in any emotion to sell the products. Humor increase attention and attract more consumers so it became an effective advertising in any medium of advertising. Researchers and Advertisers more interested towards humor advertising more than century, but no review paper regarding impact of humor in radio and print advertising are published. Aim of this paper to get detailed review on impact of humor in radio and print advertisi...

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of supercritical fluid CO2 extracts from freeze-dried powder of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QingFeng TANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to take full advantage of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm resources, the supercritical CO2 fluid freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae (fdTML extraction on the immune systems of mice was carried out. The results about the effects of supercritical CO2 fluid fdTML extraction on carbon expurgation and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages experiments of mice indicated that the fdTML extraction enhanced observably carbon expurgatory index, phagocytic rate and phagocytic index. The fdTML extraction could stimulate response of delayed hypersensitivity. The proliferation of ConA-induced mitogenic reponse for spleen lymphocyte was also increased. The amount of hemolytic antibody in mice serum increased compared with those of the control group mice. The half of hemolysis values in serum of treated mice increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, serum NO content in all treatment groups was higher than that of the control group whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity was only significantly higher relative to the control group. Our findings suggest that supercritical CO2 fluid the fdTML extraction has potential as a health food supplement.

  16. Structural characterization of blackberry wine polysaccharides and immunomodulatory effects on LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro Caillot, Adriana Rute; de Lacerda Bezerra, Iglesias; Palhares, Laís Cristina Gusmão Ferreira; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Chavante, Suely Ferreira; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi

    2018-08-15

    Three polysaccharide fractions were isolated from blackberry wine. The crude extract BWPs was obtained with ethanol precipitation and freeze-thawing process, it was then submitted to Fehling treatment, giving soluble BWPFs and insoluble BWPFp fractions. These fractions were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Major polysaccharides were identified for each fraction: mannan, type II arabinogalactan and type I rhamnogalacturonan for BWPs, a mannan formed by a major chain of α-Manp(1 → 6)-linked units, O-2 substituted with α-d-Manp(1 → 2)-linked side chains for BWPFp and a AG II formed by a major chain of β-d-Galp(1 → 3)-linked, substituted at O-6 by side chains of the β-d-Galp(1 → 6)-linked, which then are substituted at O-3 by non-reducing units of α-l-Araf and a RG I, formed by [→4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→] n for BWPFs. Anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fractions were evaluated in RAW 264.7 cells. Fractions markedly reduced nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) in LPS-treated cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of high-protein diet with resveratrol supplementation on radiation-induced acute-phase inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ok; Park, HyunJin; Chun, Mison; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that a high-protein diet and/or resveratrol supplementation will improve acute inflammatory responses in rats after receiving experimental abdominal radiation treatment (ART). Based on our previous study, the period of 10 days after ART was used as an acute inflammation model. Rats were exposed to a radiation dose of 17.5 Gy and were supplied with a control (C), 30% high-protein diet (HP), resveratrol supplementation (RES), or HP with RES diet ([HP+RES]). At day 10 after ART, we measured profiles of lipids, proteins, and immune cells in blood. The levels of clusters of differentiating 4(+) (CD4(+)) cells and regulatory T cells, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine were also measured. ART caused significant disturbances of lipid profiles by increasing triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The proinflammatroy cytokine levels were also increased by ART. All the experimental diets (HP, RES, and [HP+RES]) significantly decreased levels of TG, monocytes, proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-OHdG, whereas the platelet counts were increased. In addition, the HP and [HP+RES] diets decreased the concentrations of plasma LDL-C and total cholesterol. Also, the HP and RES diets decreased regulatory T cells compared with those of the control diet in ART group. Further, the HP diet led to a significant recovery of white blood cell counts, as well as increased percentages of lymphocyte and decreased percentages of neutrophils. In summary, RES appeared to be significantly effective in minimizing radiation-induced damage to lipid metabolism and immune responses. Our study also demonstrated the importance of dietary protein intake in recovering from acute inflammation by radiation.

  18. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  19. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.

  20. Effects of a humor-centered activity on disruptive behavior in patients in a general hospital psychiatric ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Higueras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio cuasi-experimental es analizar lo efectos de una actividad centrada en el humor sobre las conductas disruptivas de pacientes hospitalizados en un servicio de Psiquiatría. Se han comparado, teniendo en cuenta dos grupos homogéneos de pacientes hospitalizados en un servicio de Psiquiatría de hospital general (unidad de agudos, dos periodos temporales de 83 días cada uno, siendo el período 1 el de línea base, y el período 2, el de intervención. Para ambos periodos, se codificaron y registraron un total de diez conductas disruptivas. En los 83 días del periodo de intervención, y con una frecuencia de dos días semanales, dos actores profesionales llevaban a cabo las actividades centradas en el humor. Se calculó un Indice de Disrupción Global (IGD, teniendo en cuenta conjuntamente todas las conductas disruptivas, al igual que un Indice de Disrupción Específico (IDE para cada una de las conductas disruptivas. Usando para las comparaciones la corrección de Bonferroni, los resultados indican que el IGD descendió significativamente durante el periodo de intervención, siendo tres las conductas disruptivas que mostraron un descenso significativo (intentos de fuga, autolesiones y peleas.

  1. Immuno-modulatory properties of prebiotics extracted from Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The immuno-modulatory potential was evaluated by monitoring the effects of oral administration of the extract on immunological, haematological and lipid profiles of Rattus norvegicus, while the prebiotic components were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), following liquid-liquid fractionation of the ...

  2. The effect of nano-selenium particles and sodium selenite on humoral immunity indices of quails using foods contaminated with aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Talebi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of inhibition of aflatoxin B1 by various sources of selenium and to compare the effect of nano selenium and sodium selenite on humoral immunity of quails. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design (CRD using six treatments and four replicates of ten quail chicks per replicate. Two hundred forty quails were divided in six groups vis. control: without aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group2: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group3: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm nano selenium. Group4: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm sodium selenite. Group5: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm nano selenium. Group6: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm sodium selenite. To evaluate the humoral immunity response 0.2­ml of sheep red blood cell (SRBC solution was injected into breast muscle of quails at day 35 and blood sampling was conducted after a week. Newcastle vaccine was injected at day 28 and the antibody titer was determined after two weeks. The highest level of titer of antibody against the SRBC solution was related to the group which received 0.06 ppm nano selenium (p

  3. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further.

  4. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of modeling humor, and if we can do that, it will provide us with lots of information about our cognitive abilities in general, such as reasoning, remembering, understanding situations, and understand...

  5. Humor as Camouflage of Televised Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…

  6. The ameliorative effects of Averroha carambola on humoral response to sheep erythrocytes in non-treated and cyclophosphamide-immunocompromised mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadma Wahab

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Immunomodulators are being used as an adjuvant in conditions of immunodeficiency in cancer and to a limited extent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The results obtained in this study indicate that A. carambola possesses potential immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity.

  7. Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Chaudhary, Narendra; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Yong; Shin, Tai-Sun; Kim, Jong-Deog

    2014-06-01

    The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-κB inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-α- and NF-κB-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  8. Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03, Alone and in Combination, on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Allergic Asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Gabrieli, Arianna; De Grandi, Roberta; Toscano, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 alone and in combination and their immunomodulatory activity in asthmatic subjects. Subjects affected by allergic asthma were recruited. Initially, LS01 and BR03 were analyzed for their growth compatibility by a broth compatibility assay. To study the antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains, an agar diffusion assay was performed. Finally, cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with LS01 and BR03 was determined by means of specific quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The growth of some clinical pathogens were slightly inhibited by LS01 and LS01-BR03 co-culture supernatant not neutralized to pH 6.5, while only the growth of E. coli and S. aureus was inhibited by the supernatant of LS01 and LS01-BR03 neutralized to pH 6.5. Furthermore, LS01 and BR03 combination was able to decrease the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by PBMCs, leading to an intense increase in IL-10 production. L. salivarius LS01 and B. breve BR03 showed promising probiotic properties and beneficial immunomodulatory activity that are increased when the 2 strains are used in combination in the same formulation.

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps sinensis: enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mei-Chun; Chang, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Tso-Lin; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2007-06-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is widely used as a traditional medicine for treatment of a wide variety of diseases or to maintain health. The immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides prepared from submerged cultured C. sinensis BCRC36421 was investigated in human peripheral blood. Results demonstrated that Fr. A (exo-polysaccharides, 0.025 approximately 0.1 mg/ml) induced the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 dose-dependently. Fr. A, as low as 0.025 mg/ml, could significantly augment surface expression of CD11b in monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Functional assay revealed that Fr. A (0.05 mg/ml) also elevated phagocytosis in monocytes and PMN. On the other hand, Fr. B (intracellular polysaccharides) only moderately induced TNF-alpha release, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis at the same concentrations. Our results indicate that the immunomodulatory components of submerged cultured C. sinensis mainly reside in the culture filtrate.

  10. Immunomodulatory effect of APS and PSP is mediated by Ca2+-cAMP and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixue; Liu, Zijing; Zhou, Lijng; Long, Tingting; Zhou, Xing; Bao, Yixi

    2017-01-01

    This study is to investigate the role of second messengers and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in the immunomodulatory activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) in macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with APS, PSP, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or NiCl 2 . Power-spectral method was used to detect protein kinase C (PKC) and Griess reaction to detect nitric oxide (NO). ELISA was conducted to detect cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), diglycerides (DAG), inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed to detect calcium level. qRT-PCR and Western blot was used to detect mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB. APS and PSP significantly increased the concentrations of intracellular second messengers (NO, cAMP, DAG, IP3, Ca 2+ ) and the activity of PKC in macrophages (pAPS and PSP (pAPS and PSP mediated immunomodulatory activities in macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  12. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  13. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  14. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  15. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  16. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  17. Effects of subclinical inflammation on C-reactive protein and haptoglobin levels as well as specific humoral immunity in dogs vaccinated against canine distemper and parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiszewski, Przemysław; Kostro, Krzysztof; Lisiecka, Urszula

    2018-03-05

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of subclinical inflammation on specific humoral immunity in dogs vaccinated with Nobivac® DHP based on serum levels of CRP and Hp. Dogs from the group I were administered Nobivac® DHP, the vaccine against distemper, infectious hepatitis and parvovirus whereas group II animals received subcutaneous turpentine oil to induce subclinical inflammation, followed by Nobivac® DHP after 24 h. Animals in group III received only turpentine oil in the way and amount identical to that as in group II. Nobivac DHP relatively poorly induced the immune inflammatory response showing good immunogenic properties, which was evidenced by only a double increase in mean CRP and Hp levels associated with antigenic stimulation in group I. In group II, serum neutralization (SN) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) results were quite closely correlated with serum levels of CPR and Hp. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of vaccinations in dogs can be significantly affected by subclinical inflammations, which is indicated by a correlation between serum CRP and Hp levels versus antibody titres for canine distemper and parvovirus in both experimental groups of dogs (group I and II). The correlation of mean CRP and Hp values in dogs with subclinical inflammation and after vaccination with the kinetics of increasing antibody titres against distemper and parvovirus in group II dogs reflects the severity of inflammatory response and the extent of specific humoral immunity. Routine determinations of serum CRP and Hp levels as the indices of inflammation severity can be the essential biochemical markers for assessment of dogs' health in the period preceding specific immunoprophylaxis and efficacy of the vaccine.

  18. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8 probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.

  19. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  20. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis)

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, Trijoedani

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed th...

  1. IMMUNO-MODULATORY PROPERTIES OF PREBIOTICS EXTRACTED FROM vernonia amygdalina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ezeonu; Ae, Asuquo; Bn, Ukwah; Po, Ukoha

    2016-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina , commonly called bitter-leaf, is widely consumed in many parts of Africa, and Nigeria, in particular. The leaf extract has been reported to have antimicrobial, anti-plasmodial, anti-helminthic, as well as prebiotic properties, but its immuno-modulatory effects have not been well-studied, neither have the prebiotics been identified. This study evaluated the immuno-modulatory properties of the aqueous leaf extract and identified the prebiotic components. The immuno-modulatory potential was evaluated by monitoring the effects of oral administration of the extract on immunological, haematological and lipid profiles of Rattus norvegicus , while the prebiotic components were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), following liquid-liquid fractionation of the extract. Consumption of the extract caused significant increases in CD4+-, white blood cell-, total lymphocyte- and high density lipid (HDL) counts; decreases in low density lipid (LDL) and triglycerides and no significant effect on haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) in the blood of test animals. The water-soluble fraction of the extract contained most of the phyto-constituents of the extract and Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis of the fraction revealed the presence of fructo-oligosaccharide and galacto-oligosaccharide prebiotics. The results from this study have shown that the aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina has positive immune-modulatory and haematologic effects and contains some important prebiotic compounds.

  2. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  3. Enhanced granulocyte growth on peritoneal cell-coated membranes following irradiation: a dual effect of humoral stimulation and repair of x ray-induced damage to the microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.R.; Pfrimmer, W.J.; Boggs, D.R.; Carpe, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental model of the hematopoietic microenvironment was created by allowing a peritoneal cell coating to form on a disk of cellulose acetate placed in the peritoneal cavity of mice. An effective microenvironment capable of supporting colony growth, primarily granulocytic, was established if the cellulose acetate disk was in the peritoneum for 3 to 5 days. Its effectiveness was hampered by transferring it to another mouse or by exposure to toxic agents such as a propylene glycol-ethanol mixture or irradiation. An exponential dose-related decrease in colony formation was seen with increasing doses or irradiation of the microenvironment before colonization. After a low dose of irradiation, recovery of colony support capacity occurred over a 6-day period. Enhancement of colony growth was seen when cell injection was delayed for 2 to 3 days after irradiation. The effects of irradiation on the cellular stroma were separated from the systemic changes in the host by transferring an established hematopoietic microenvironment to a secondary host. It was shown that there are two distinct effects of irradiation on granulocytic colony growth; one was a short-lived period, 2 to 3 days of stimulation, presumably humoral, and the other was dose-dependent reversible microenvironment damage

  4. Uma tipologia do discurso de humor (o politico do humor e o humor politico)

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Ivane Laurete

    1995-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão Propõe-se uma leitura de textos humorísticos sob a ótica da Análise do Discurso, recortando-se "tipos" de humor e propondo uma leitura das características do humor político. Tematizam-se questões basilares da Análise do Discurso que estruturam teoricamente o trabalho, expondo reflexões sobre o riso e o risível, e os diferentes processos possivelmente causadores do riso. Discute-se a possibili...

  5. Immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) and Mucuna pruriens (L.) In male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, F; Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Atta, A; Fatima, H

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum roots and Mucuna pruriens seeds in male albino rats. The roots of A. pyrethrum and seeds of M. pruriens were extracted with methanolic solvent (70:30) and administered at dose concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight to healthy male rats. The immune system of rats was suppressed by injecting carbon tetrachloride to animals in the toxic control group and test group animals. Cell-mediated immune response of animals was examined by performing neutrophil adhesion test and the humoral immune response was evaluated by determining serum immunoglobulin levels of the animals under study. The administration of methanolic extracts of A. pyrethrum roots and M. pruriens seeds significantly (p less than 0.05) increased the neutrophil adhesion to the nylon fiber. Increase in % neutrophil adhesion was observed in animals treated with 200 mg of each plant extract. Significant (p less than 0.05) improvement in immunoglobulin levels was recorded in the extract treated group animals, showing that the root extract of A. pyrethrum and seed extract of M. pruriens have immunomodulatory potential. We therefore conclude that the tested extracts can be used as immunomodulatory agents to stimulate the immune system.

  6. Experimental sepsis impairs humoral memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötschke

    Full Text Available Patients with sepsis are often immune suppressed, and experimental mouse models of sepsis also display this feature. However, acute sepsis in mice is also characterized by a generalized B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation, resulting in a marked increase in serum antibody concentration. Its effects on humoral memory are not clearly defined. We measured the effects of experimental sepsis on long-term immunological memory for a defined antigen: we induced colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP 8 weeks after 2 rounds of immunization with ovalbumin. Four weeks later, the antigen-specific bone marrow plasma cell count had doubled in immunized non-septic animals, but remained unchanged in immunized septic animals. Sepsis also caused a decrease in antigen-specific serum antibody concentration. We conclude that sepsis weakens humoral memory by impeding the antigen-specific plasma cell pool's development, which is not complete 8 weeks after secondary immunization.

  7. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability), and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the r...

  8. Humor adds the creative touch to CQI teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, J W

    1994-07-01

    The health care industry is looking to continuous quality improvement as a process to both improve patient care and promote cost effectiveness. Interdisciplinary teams are learning to work together and to use data-driven problem solving. Humor adds a creative and welcome touch to the process that makes it easier and more fun to work in teams. The team leader or facilitator who uses humor along the journey sanctions the risk-taking behavior that accompanies creative solutions to tough problems.

  9. Decoding Humor Experiences from Brain Activity of People Viewing Comedy Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  10. Immunomodulatory activity of andrographolide on macrophage activation and specific antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Dong, Sheng-fu; Liu, Chun-hong; Italiani, Paola; Sun, Shu-hui; Xu, Jing; Boraschi, Diana; Ma, Shi-ping; Qu, Di

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of andrographolide on both innate and adaptive immune responses. Methods: Andrographolide (10 μg/mL in vitro or 1 mg/kg in vivo) was used to modulate LPS-induced classical activated (M1) or IL-4-induced alternative activated (M2) macrophages in vitro and humor immune response to HBsAg in vivo. Cytokine gene expression profile (M1 vs M2) was measured by real-time PCR, IL-12/IL-10 level was detected by ELISA, and surface antigen expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, whereas phosphorylation level of ERK 1/2 and AKT was determined by Western blot. The level of anti-HBs antibodies in HBsAg immunized mice was detected by ELISA, and the number of HBsAg specific IL-4-producing splenocyte was enumerated by ELISPOT. Results: Andrographolide treatment in vitro attenuated either LPS or IL-4 induced macrophage activation, inhibited both M1 and M2 cytokines expression and decreased IL-12/IL-10 ratio (the ratio of M1/M2 polarization). Andrographolide down-regulated the expression of mannose receptor (CD206) in IL-4 induced macrophages and major histocompability complex/costimulatory molecules (MHC I, CD40, CD80, CD86) in LPS-induced macrophages. Correspondingly, anti-HBs antibody production and the number of IL-4-producing splenocytes were reduced by in vivo administration of andrographolide. Reduced phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and AKT were observed in macrophages treated with andrographolide. Conclusion: Andrographolide can modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses by regulating macrophage phenotypic polarization and Ag-specific antibody production. MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways may participate in the mechanisms of andrographolide regulating macrophage activation and polarization. PMID:20139902

  11. Immunomodulatory Effect of Agave tequilana Evaluated on an Autoimmunity Like-SLE Model Induced in Balb/c Mice with Pristane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Nava, Zúlima Jannette; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio Ruperto; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel Lucila; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique

    2017-05-25

    In this work, the immunomodulatory activity of the acetone extract and the fructans obtained from Agave tequilana were evaluated, on the systemic autoimmunity type-SLE model generated by the administration of 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD, also known as pristane) on Balb/c female mice. The systemic autoimmunity type-SLE was observed seven months after the application of TMPD, in which the animals from the negative control group (animals with damage and without any other treatment) developed articular inflammation, proteinuria, an increment of the antinuclear antibody titters and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines levels (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α e IFN-γ) as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The administration of the different treatments and the extracts of A. tequilana , provoked the decrease of: articular inflammation, the development of proteinuria, ssDNA/dsDNA antinuclear antibody titters and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10. The phytochemical analysis of the acetone extract identified the presence of the following compounds: β-sitosterol glycoside; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (phytol); octadecadienoic acid-2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester; stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one; cycloartenone and cycloartenol. Therefore, A. tequilana contains active compounds with the capacity to modify the evolution of the systemic autoimmunity type-SLE on a murine model.

  12. Immunomodulatory Effect of Agave tequilana Evaluated on an Autoimmunity Like-SLE Model Induced in Balb/c Mice with Pristane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúlima Jannette Gutiérrez Nava

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the immunomodulatory activity of the acetone extract and the fructans obtained from Agave tequilana were evaluated, on the systemic autoimmunity type-SLE model generated by the administration of 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD, also known as pristane on Balb/c female mice. The systemic autoimmunity type-SLE was observed seven months after the application of TMPD, in which the animals from the negative control group (animals with damage and without any other treatment developed articular inflammation, proteinuria, an increment of the antinuclear antibody titters and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines levels (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α e IFN-γ as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The administration of the different treatments and the extracts of A. tequilana, provoked the decrease of: articular inflammation, the development of proteinuria, ssDNA/dsDNA antinuclear antibody titters and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10. The phytochemical analysis of the acetone extract identified the presence of the following compounds: β-sitosterol glycoside; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (phytol; octadecadienoic acid-2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester; stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one; cycloartenone and cycloartenol. Therefore, A. tequilana contains active compounds with the capacity to modify the evolution of the systemic autoimmunity type-SLE on a murine model.

  13. Effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the thymus-dependent humoral immune response and the polyclonal activation of B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharetskij, A.N.; Surinov, B.P.; Abramova, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on the effect of the low-dose (10 cGy with the dose rate of 1cGy/min) γ-radiation on the indices of the mice system and local immune response are presented. The sheep erythrocytes were used as a thymus-dependent antigen. It is shown that the total irradiation with the above dose rate induced the increase in the primary thymus-dependent humoral immune response on the sheep erythrocytes and polyclonal activation of the B-lymphocytes. The sharp oppression of the antibody formation was observed in the immune response dynamics after the phase of the radiation-induced elevation. The injection of hydroquinone right after the irradiation resulted in elimination of the radiation stimulation of the polyclonal response of the B-cells. The essential decrease in the immunoantilogarithmic radiation effect took place in the animals treated with thymogen. The possible negative consequences of the low-dose ionizing radiation impact on the body immune system are discussed [ru

  14. "Everyone's a Comedian." No Really, They Are: Using Humor in the Online and Traditional Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Victoria D.; Wortley, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The effects of the incorporation of instructor humor in both the traditional and online classroom settings was examined. Students react to instructor humor in positive ways that demonstrate both increased engagement with the material and increased information recall following the use of instructor humor in lecture. Challenges of instructor and…

  15. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. EFFECTS OF FLUNIXIN MEGLUMINE CONJUNCTIVAL SHOT OVER THE HUMOR AQUEOUS PROTEIN OF DOGS SUBMITTED TO THE PARACENTESIS OF THE ANTERIOR CHAMBER AVALIAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS DA FLUNIXINA MEGLUMINA, POR VIA SUBCONJUNTIVAL, SOBRE A CONCENTRAÇÃO E PADRÃO PROTEICO DO HUMOR AQUOSO DE CÃES SUBMETIDOS À PARACENTESE DA CÂMARA ANTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diniz Galera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Flunixin meglumine effects, over aqueous humor proteins of eyes on dogs who were submitted to paracentesis of the anterior chamber, were evaluated. To ten adult dogs clinically healthy were given a subconjunctival shot with flunixin meglumine (1.1mg/Kg on the right eye and sterilized saline solution 0.9% on the left eye, with the same volume. After general anesthesia, were submitted to two paracentesis of the both eyes to collect 0.2mL of first and second aqueous. The samples were submitted to Bradford test, wich proteins concentrations were  15.98mg/dL ± 4.48 e 11.46mg/dL ± 2.72 for the right and the left eyes, respectively, on the first paracentesis and 119.8mg/dL ± 6.74 e 120.63mg/dL ± 22.4 for the right and the left eyes, on the second paracentesis. There was no significant statistically differences between the protein values of the treated eyes in comparison with the control one. When compared, the proteins concentrations between the first and second paracentesis of the right and left eyes, statistic differences were found between these two moments (p<0.001. SDS-PAGE showed differences in the protein patterns of aqueous humor in result of the paracentesis.

    KEY WORDS: Aqueous humor, eye, flunixin meglumine, paracentesis, proteíns.

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da flunixina meglumina, pela via subconjuntival, sobre as proteínas do humor aquoso de olhos de cães submetidos à paracentese da câmara anterior. Dez animais adultos, clinicamente sadios, receberam, por aplicação subconjuntival, flunixina meglumina (1,1mg/kg no olho direito e solução salina estéril a 0,9% no olho esquerdo, em igual volume. Mediante anestesia geral, foram submetidos a duas paracenteses de ambos os olhos para coleta de 0,2mL de aquoso primário e secundário, respectivamente. As amostras foram submetidas ao Teste de Bradford, cujas concentrações proteicas (média e desvio-padrão obtidas foram de 15

  18. Humor Styles and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model of Generalized Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that sense of humor may play a role in anxiety. The present study builds upon this work by exploring how individual differences in various humor styles, such as affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor, may fit within a contemporary research model of anxiety. In this model, intolerance of uncertainty is a fundamental personality characteristic that heightens excessive worry, thus increasing anxiety. We further propose that greater intolerance of uncertainty may also suppress the use of adaptive humor (affiliate and self-enhancing, and foster the increased use of maladaptive self-defeating humor. Initial correlational analyses provide empirical support for these proposals. In addition, we found that excessive worry and affiliative humor both served as significant mediators. In particular, heightened intolerance of uncertainty lead to both excessive worry and a reduction in affiliative humor use, which, in turn, increased anxiety. We also explored potential humor mediating effects for each of the individual worry content domains in this model. These analyses confirmed the importance of affiliative humor as a mediator for worry pertaining to a wide range of content domains (e.g., relationships, lack of confidence, the future and work. These findings were then discussed in terms of a combined model that considers how humor styles may impact the social sharing of positive and negative emotions.

  19. Humor appreciation of captionless cartoons in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gender. We administered Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT), a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons by Mordillo. Each set of stimuli consisted of two almost identical drawings, one of which was funny due to the alteration of a detail in the cartoon, whereas the other was not funny. Severity of psychopathology was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Results No significant effect for group, gender or group × gender interaction was found on the PHAT scores. In OCD patients, humor appreciation was not significantly associated with age of onset, duration of illness, and obsessions, but correlated significantly with compulsions. Conclusions Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons in OCD, does not seem to be deficient compared to healthy subjects but may be related to illness characteristics. PMID:22103926

  20. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  2. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  3. Humor in the eye tracker: attention capture and distraction from context cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W; Van Baaren, Rick; Van Knippenberg, Ad

    2010-01-01

    The humor effect refers to a robust finding in memory research that humorous information is easily recalled, at the expense of recall of nonhumorous information that was encoded in close temporal proximity. Previous research suggests that memory retrieval processes underlie this effect. That is, free recall is biased toward humorous information, which interferes with the retrieval of nonhumorous information. The present research tested an additional explanation that has not been specifically addressed before: Humor receives enhanced attention during information encoding, which decreases attention for context information. Participants observed humorous, nonhumorous positive, and nonhumorous neutral texts paired with novel consumer brands, while their eye movements were recorded using eye-tracker technology. The results confirmed that humor receives prolonged attention relative to both positive and neutral nonhumorous information. This enhanced attention correlated with impaired brand recognition.

  4. Evaluation of the safety and adjuvant effect of a detoxified listeriolysin O mutant on the humoral response to dengue virus antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, K G; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; Mellado-Sánchez, G; Ruiz-Ramos, R; Sánchez-Vargas, L A; Thomas-Dupont, P; Izaguirre-Hernández, I Y; Téllez-Sosa, J; Martínez-Barnetche, J; Wood, L; Paterson, Y; Cedillo-Barrón, L; López-Franco, O; Vivanco-Cid, H

    2017-04-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) has been proposed as a potential carrier or adjuvant molecule in the vaccination field. However, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of LLO are the major limitations for this purpose. Here, we have performed a preclinical safety evaluation and characterized a new potential adjuvant application for a non-cytolytic LLO mutant (dtLLO) to enhance and modulate the immune response against the envelope (E) protein from dengue virus. In addition, we have studied the adjuvant effects of dtLLO on human immune cells and the role of membrane cholesterol for the binding and proinflammatory property of the toxoid. Our in-vivo results in the murine model confirmed that dtLLO is a safer molecule than wild-type LLO (wtLLO), with a significantly increased survival rate for mice challenged with dtLLO compared with mice challenged with wtLLO (P < 0·001). Histopathological analysis showed non-toxic effects in key target organs such as brain, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lung after challenge with dtLLO. In vitro, dtLLO retained the capacity of binding to plasma membrane cholesterol on the surface of murine and human immune cells. Immunization of 6-8-week-old female BALB/c mice with a combination of dtLLO mixed with E protein elicited a robust specific humoral response with isotype diversification of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a). Finally, we demonstrated that cholesterol and lipid raft integrity are required to induce a proinflammatory response by human cells. Taken together, these findings support a potential use of the dtLLO mutant as a safe and effective adjuvant molecule in vaccination. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  5. Cerita Humor Pak Andir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohim Rohim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the meaning of comic tale "Pak Andir" with the perspective of hermeneutics. This study is focused on exploring the main character with the theory of functional models and aktan, developed by Greimas. The source of data is the story of "Pak Andir" from the community of South Bengkulu. From the analysis, it is concluded that the behavior of the husband as the central character has made the wife a victim. The husband’s arrogance in strictly practicing the patriarchal tradition makes the wife have no courage to be herself. The wife’s claim at the end of the story is a positive thing, but it's too late. As a form of appreciation of literary work, the meaning of these stories need to be disseminated to the public, especially the residents in Bengkulu, that the husband and wife’s attitudes ares incorrect and need to be avoided. This study attempts to describe the meaning of comic tale "Pak Andir" with the perspective of hermeneutics. This study is focused on exploring the main character with the theory of functional models and aktan, developed by Greimas. The source of data is the story of "Pak Andir" from the community of South Bengkulu. From the analysis, it is concluded that the behavior of the husband as the central character has made the wife a victim. The husband’s arrogance in strictly practicing the patriarchal tradition makes the wife have no courage to be herself. The wife’s claim at the end of the story is a positive thing, but it's too late. As a form of appreciation of literary work, the meaning of these stories need to be disseminated to the public, especially the residents in Bengkulu, that the husband and wife’s attitudes ares incorrect and need to be avoided Key Words: comic tale; aktan model; functional model; hermeneutic Abstrak: Penelitian ini berusaha mendeskripsikan makna cerita humor “Pak Andir” dengan perspektif hermeneutika. Kajian ini difokuskan untuk mengeksplorasi tokoh utama

  6. Comparison of the effects of IV administration of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin E(2) concentration in aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Margi A; Payton, Mark E

    2012-05-01

    To compare the effects of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine administered IV on the concentration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis. 15 adult dogs with ophthalmically normal eyes. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Treatment groups were saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL, IV), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, IV), and flunixin meglumine (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Each dog was anesthetized, treatment was administered, and aqueocentesis was performed on each eye at 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Aqueous humor samples were frozen at -80°C until assayed for PGE(2) concentration with an enzyme immunoassay kit. For all 4 treatment groups, PGE(2) concentration was significantly higher in samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, compared with that in samples obtained 30 minutes after treatment, which indicated aqueocentesis-induced PGE(2) synthesis. For aqueous humor samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, PGE(2) concentration did not differ significantly among groups treated with saline solution, meloxicam, and carprofen; however, the PGE(2) concentration for the group treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than that for each of the other 3 treatment groups. Flunixin meglumine was more effective than meloxicam or carprofen for minimizing the PGE(2) concentration in the aqueous humor of dogs with experimentally induced uveitis. Flunixin meglumine may be an appropriate pre-medication for use prior to intraocular surgery in dogs.

  7. Humor in advertising: a review on use of television radio and print advertising media

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Television advertising is a most common commercial activity used in advertising medium. Humor in advertising contains an important aspect on changing attitude of the consumer, improves buying behavior and creates new patterns for buying any goods and services. Humor in television advertising is the effective and convenient way to attract the any consumers because they are emotional based content and makes the consumer to special for satisfaction. Compared to all emotions humor advertising is ...

  8. Efeitos adversos metabólicos de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor Metabolic side effects of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Ribeiro Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Um aumento na incidência de obesidade e diabetes melito entre pacientes psiquiátricos foi observado ainda na década de 60, como resultado indesejável do uso de antipsicóticos. Nos anos 80 e 90, a reabilitação da clozapina, a síntese dos demais antipsicóticos atípicos e a disseminação do uso do lítio e do ácido valpróico chamaram novamente a atenção para os efeitos metabólicos desses medicamentos. Este estudo tem por objetivo revisar a literatura médica a respeito dos efeitos adversos metabólicos associados ao uso de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma extensa pesquisa nas bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS até outubro de 2005. CONCLUSÃO: Os efeitos adversos metabólicos permanecem como problemas importantes da psicofarmacologia. Ganho de peso clinicamente relevante ocorre com freqüência em pacientes em uso de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor, principalmente naqueles em uso de clozapina, olanzapina, lítio e ácido valpróico. A clozapina e a olanzapina associam-se também a uma maior incidência de diabetes melito e dislipidemias, seja devido ao ganho de peso, seja por ação deletéria direta sobre o metabolismo da glicose. A incidência de obesidade e outros distúrbios metabólicos é menor com a risperidona, se comparada à olanzapina ou à clozapina. Carbamazepina associa-se a menor ganho de peso, se comparada ao lítio ou ao ácido valpróico. Drogas como o haloperidol, a ziprasidona, o aripiprazol e a lamotrigina não estão associadas a ganho importante de peso ou a maior incidência de diabetes melito e são alternativas para pacientes mais propensos a desenvolver tais efeitos adversos.BACKGROUND: An increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in psychiatric patients using antipsychotic drugs was observed as early as the 1960's. In the 1980's and 1990's, rehabilitation of clozapine, synthesis of other atypical antipsychotics, and spread of the

  9. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  10. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties of the Nigella sativa L. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Labib

    2005-12-01

    A larger number of medicinal plants and their purified constituents have been shown beneficial therapeutic potentials. Seeds of Nigella sativa, a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been employed for thousands of years as a spice and food preservative. The oil and seed constituents, in particular thymoquinine (TQ), have shown potential medicinal properties in traditional medicine. In view of the recent literature, this article lists and discusses different immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic potentials for the crude oil of N. sativa seeds and its active ingredients. The published findings provide clear evidence that both the oil and its active ingredients, in particular TQ, possess reproducible anti-oxidant effects through enhancing the oxidant scavenger system, which as a consequence lead to antitoxic effects induced by several insults. The oil and TQ have shown also potent anti-inflammatory effects on several inflammation-based models including experimental encephalomyelitis, colitis, peritonitis, oedama, and arthritis through suppression of the inflammatory mediators prostaglandins and leukotriens. The oil and certain active ingredients showed beneficial immunomodulatory properties, augmenting the T cell- and natural killer cell-mediated immune responses. Most importantly, both the oil and its active ingredients expressed anti-microbial and anti-tumor properties toward different microbes and cancers. Coupling these beneficial effects with its use in folk medicine, N. sativa seed is a promising source for active ingredients that would be with potential therapeutic modalities in different clinical settings. The efficacy of the active ingredients, however, should be measured by the nature of the disease. Given their potent immunomodulatory effects, further studies are urgently required to explore bystander effects of TQ on the professional antigen presenting cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, as well as its modulatory effects upon Th1

  11. Effect of UV-A and UV-B irradiation on the metabolic profile of aqueous humor in rabbits analyzed by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessem, May-Britt; Bathen, Tone F; Cejková, Jitka; Midelfart, Anna

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate metabolic changes in aqueous humor from rabbit eyes exposed to either UV-A or -B radiation, by using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and unsupervised pattern recognition methods. Both eyes of adult albino rabbits were irradiated with UV-A (366 nm, 0.589 J/cm(2)) or UV-B (312 nm, 1.667 J/cm(2)) radiation for 8 minutes, once a day for 5 days. Three days after the last irradiation, samples of aqueous humor were aspirated, and the metabolic profiles analyzed with (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The metabolic concentrations in the exposed and control materials were statistically analyzed and compared, with multivariate methods and one-way ANOVA. UV-B radiation caused statistically significant alterations of betaine, glucose, ascorbate, valine, isoleucine, and formate in the rabbit aqueous humor. By using principal component analysis, the UV-B-irradiated samples were clearly separated from the UV-A-irradiated samples and the control group. No significant metabolic changes were detected in UV-A-irradiated samples. This study demonstrates the potential of using unsupervised pattern recognition methods to extract valuable metabolic information from complex (1)H NMR spectra. UV-B irradiation of rabbit eyes led to significant metabolic changes in the aqueous humor detected 3 days after the last exposure.

  12. Effects of Episodic Variations in Web-Based Avian Influenza Education: Influence of Fear and Humor on Perception, Comprehension, Retention and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Sorcar, Piya; Um, Sujung; Chung, Heedoo; Lee, Young Sung

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide empirical evidence on the role of a web-based avian influenza (AI) education program for mass communication and also ultimately help young children learn and develop healthy behaviors against AI and all types of influenza, an education program with two episodic variations (i.e. fear and humor) has been developed and examined…

  13. Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide from Chlorophytum borivilianum Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes (Liliaceae is an ayurvedic Rasayana herb with immunostimulating properties. The polysaccharide fraction (CBP derived from hot water extraction of C. borivilianum (CB, comprising of ~31% inulin-type fructans and ~25% acetylated mannans (of hot water-soluble extract, was evaluated for its effect on natural killer (NK cell activity (in vitro. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, isolated from whole blood on a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient, were tested in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of each C. borivilianum fraction for modulation of NK cell cytotoxic activity toward K562 cells. Preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation against P388 cells was performed to establish non-cytotoxic concentrations of the different fractions. Testing showed the observed significant stimulation of NK cell activity to be due to the CBP of C. borivilianum. Furthermore, in vivo evaluation carried out on Wistar strain albino rats for humoral response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs and immunoglobulin-level determination using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, exhibited an effectiveness of C. borivilianum aqueous extract in improving immune function. Present results provide useful information for understanding the role of CBP in modulating immune function.

  14. Immunomodulatory Potential of Patchouli Alcohol Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate and purify patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene constituent of Pogostemon cablin, and investigate its immunomodulatory potential in Kunming mice. Methods: PA was prepared from an ethanol aqueous extract of P. cablin by silica gel column chromatography, and further purified by ...

  15. Humor in Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in…

  16. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  17. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  18. Central neurotoxicity of immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmeel H. Patel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs currently used in the treatment of multiple myeloma, are thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. One of the most common side effects of thalidomide is neurotoxicity, predominantly in the form of peripheral neuropathy. We report 6 cases of significant central neurotoxicity associated with IMiD therapy. Treatment with thalidomide (1 patient, lenalidomide (4 patients, and pomalidomide (1 patient was associated with various clinical manifestations of central neurotoxicity, including reversible coma, amnesia, expressive aphasia, and dysarthria. Central neurotoxicity should be recognized as an important side effect of IMiD therapy.

  19. Central neurotoxicity of immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Urmeel H; Mir, Muhammad A; Sivik, Jeffrey K; Raheja, Divisha; Pandey, Manoj K; Talamo, Giampaolo

    2015-02-24

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) currently used in the treatment of multiple myeloma, are thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. One of the most common side effects of thalidomide is neurotoxicity, predominantly in the form of peripheral neuropathy. We report 6 cases of significant central neurotoxicity associated with IMiD therapy. Treatment with thalidomide (1 patient), lenalidomide (4 patients), and pomalidomide (1 patient) was associated with various clinical manifestations of central neurotoxicity, including reversible coma, amnesia, expressive aphasia, and dysarthria. Central neurotoxicity should be recognized as an important side effect of IMiD therapy.

  20. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected

  1. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  2. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  3. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  4. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  5. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Combined Exercises on Humoral Immune and Hematological Index in Inactive Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Old age is associated with irregularities in many aspects of body immune system function. During this period, the immune responses decline with increasing age. In other words, with decreasing number of immune cells, which are responsible for detecting and direct attack to contaminated cells, the immune response decreases and results in failure of the immune system. As sports activities could affect the immune system and old age is associated with progressive immune failure, the study of the effects of exercise on the immune system function in old age becomes important. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of selected combined exercises (aerobic and resistance training on the serum level of cortisol and immunoglobulins in inactive elderly men. Methods & Materials: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method. Their age and body mass index ranged 60–70 years and 22–25 kg/m2, respectively. Then, they were randomly assigned into 2 groups (experimental [n=12] and control [n=12]. The experimental group started the combined training exercise, and the control group continued their inactive usual routines. The combined training exercise (aerobic-resistance included running on a treadmill for 20 minutes per session, 3 sessions per week, for 8 weeks, with an intensity of 60% to 70% HRR. Furthermore, the resistance training comprised 10 circling stationary movements of leg flexion, leg extension, leg press, scott, underarm stretch, chest press, iron cross with dumbbells, biceps flexion, triceps extension, and rowing motion with rope. This training included an intensity of 60% to 70% of one maximum repetition with extra load and 10 repetitions in 2 successive times with 30 seconds rest between each repetition and 2 minutes’ rest between each movement. In this study, the blood samples were taken 24 hours before the exercise and 24 hours after the last session of

  6. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

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    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  7. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  8. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  9. Effect of intravitreal methotrexate and rituximab on interleukin-10 levels in aqueous humor of treated eyes with vitreoretinal lymphoma.

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    Harish Raja

    Full Text Available Intraocular cytokines are promising diagnostic biomarkers of vitreoretinal lymphoma. Here, we evaluate the utility of IL-10, IL-6 and IL-10/IL-6 for discriminating lymphoma from uveitis and report the effects of intraocular methotrexate and rituximab on aqueous cytokine levels in eyes with lymphoma. This is a retrospective case series including 10 patients with lymphoma and 7 patients with uveitis. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney analysis was performed to determine statistical significance of difference in interleukin levels between lymphoma and uveitis. Compared to eyes with uveitis, eyes with lymphoma had higher levels of IL-10 (U = 7.0; two-tailed p = 0.004 and IL-10/IL-6 (U = 6.0; two-tailed p = 0.003, whereas IL-6 levels were more elevated, although insignificant, in those patients with uveitis than in lymphoma (U = 15.0; two-tailed p = ns. Using a receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify threshold values diagnostic for lymphoma, optimal sensitivity and specificity improved to 80.0% and 100%, respectively, for IL-10>7.025 pg/ml and 90.0% and 100.0%, respectively, for IL-10/IL-6>0.02718. In patients in whom serial interleukin levels were available, regular intravitreal treatment with methotrexate and rituximab was associated with reduction in IL-10 levels over time. In conclusion, optimal IL-10 and IL-10/IL-6 threshold values are associated with a diagnostic sensitivity ≥80% and specificity of 100%. Therefore, these cytokines may serve as a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of lymphoma. While negative IL-10 and IL-10/IL-6 values do not exclude a diagnosis of lymphoma, elevated levels do appear to be consistent with lymphoma clinically. Moreover, elevated levels of IL-10 in the setting of a clinically quiet eye may point to impending disease recurrence. Lastly, once lymphoma is diagnosed, IL-10 levels can be monitored over time to assess disease activity and therapeutic response.

  10. Effect of intravitreal methotrexate and rituximab on interleukin-10 levels in aqueous humor of treated eyes with vitreoretinal lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Harish; Snyder, Melissa R; Johnston, Patrick B; O'Neill, Brian P; Caraballo, Juline N; Balsanek, Joseph G; Peters, Brian E; Decker, Paul A; Pulido, Jose S

    2013-01-01

    Intraocular cytokines are promising diagnostic biomarkers of vitreoretinal lymphoma. Here, we evaluate the utility of IL-10, IL-6 and IL-10/IL-6 for discriminating lymphoma from uveitis and report the effects of intraocular methotrexate and rituximab on aqueous cytokine levels in eyes with lymphoma. This is a retrospective case series including 10 patients with lymphoma and 7 patients with uveitis. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney analysis was performed to determine statistical significance of difference in interleukin levels between lymphoma and uveitis. Compared to eyes with uveitis, eyes with lymphoma had higher levels of IL-10 (U = 7.0; two-tailed p = 0.004) and IL-10/IL-6 (U = 6.0; two-tailed p = 0.003), whereas IL-6 levels were more elevated, although insignificant, in those patients with uveitis than in lymphoma (U = 15.0; two-tailed p = ns). Using a receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify threshold values diagnostic for lymphoma, optimal sensitivity and specificity improved to 80.0% and 100%, respectively, for IL-10>7.025 pg/ml and 90.0% and 100.0%, respectively, for IL-10/IL-6>0.02718. In patients in whom serial interleukin levels were available, regular intravitreal treatment with methotrexate and rituximab was associated with reduction in IL-10 levels over time. In conclusion, optimal IL-10 and IL-10/IL-6 threshold values are associated with a diagnostic sensitivity ≥80% and specificity of 100%. Therefore, these cytokines may serve as a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of lymphoma. While negative IL-10 and IL-10/IL-6 values do not exclude a diagnosis of lymphoma, elevated levels do appear to be consistent with lymphoma clinically. Moreover, elevated levels of IL-10 in the setting of a clinically quiet eye may point to impending disease recurrence. Lastly, once lymphoma is diagnosed, IL-10 levels can be monitored over time to assess disease activity and therapeutic response.

  11. THE BENEFITS OF SURFING HUMOR ON INTERNET TO INCREASE ENGLISH COMPETENCE AND CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING OF STUDENTS IN ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF UNNES

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    Farah Firgia Lutfi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfing humor on internet has got a lot of negative responses although the doers claim that it is fun. This research is focusing on the humor which is using English as the main language. However, previous researches have confirmed that there are witty and social sides of humor. Those two sides are important foundations to learn English further. The present paper aims to spot beneficial effects of self -humor exposure from Internet towards English competence and cross cultural understanding of students in English Department of Semarang State University. The way to ‗get‘ a humor content is divided into two, humor comprehension and humor perception. Humor comprehension has cognitive benefits that increase English competence. Humor appreciation has sociological benefits to increase cross cultural understanding. Thus, we are comparing English ability and social behavior of students with different intensity of self-humor exposure. Data were collected through interview. Students with high intensity and interest to self-humor exposure showed relatively higher English competence and tolerance to different ideas. The explanation will give broader idea of how learning English through humor brings positive values. Further research about the effects of humor in studying English is needed.

  12. Humor and Comparatives in Ads for High- and Low-Involvement Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bob T. W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of humor in advertising, comparative advertising, and consumer involvement with the product. Finds that humorous ads are more eye catching but less impressive and less sufficient in information than nonhumorous ads. Finds the performance of comparative ads is generally negative and especially so in the high…

  13. The Potency of Humor and Instructional Self-Efficacy on Art Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Palmer, Teri

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was sparked by a keen interest in art teachers who practice humor in challenging school environments. Stressors unique to art education can cause teachers to lose heart in such a way that their ability to perform is compromised. To teach effectively, teachers must maintain resilience to cope with stress. Pedagogical humor,…

  14. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

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    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  15. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  16. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  17. Humor Use Moderates the Relation of Stressful Life Events With Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi L; Russek, Leslie N; Dillon, Melissa M

    2017-06-01

    Three studies examined humor and adjustment to stressful events. In Study 1, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome ( N = 22) reported on mental and physical adjustment, social interaction, and reappraisal of their illness. Dispositional humor was associated with reduced distress and fewer physical symptoms. Study 2 ( N = 109) examined undergraduates' reports of stressful events. Dispositional, self-enhancing, affiliative, and self-defeating humor showed direct effects on distress, which were mediated by social interaction and reappraisal. Moreover, dispositional and aggressive humor showed stress-buffering effects. Study 3 ( N = 105) examined undergraduates' adjustment to the September 11, 2001, attacks at 1 and 3 months postattack. At T1, affiliative humor showed a stress-buffering effect on distress. Social interaction mediated the relation of self-enhancing humor with reduced T1 distress, and mediated relations of aggressive and self-defeating humor with greater distress. Relations of T1 dispositional and self-defeating humor to changes in T2 distress were mediated by reappraisal.

  18. Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Antonio González-Ynfante

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  19. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

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    Marc Gelkopf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  20. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

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    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  1. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

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    Sergio Arancibia

    Full Text Available Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH. This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH. FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer

  2. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH). This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH). FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α) by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Lésbicas sem humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Kullick

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a construção social e cultural de um estereótipo sobre lésbicas, baseado na percepção de que elas não possuem senso de humor. Analisa-se como lésbicas são retratadas por comediantes, programas de TV,  quadrinhos e na literatura, e compara essas representações a outros  estereótipos, como aqueles relacionados a alemães e gays extravagantes. Ao investigar as relações entre masculinidade, feminilidade e falta de humor, demonstra-se que considerar lésbicas como incompatíveis com o riso e a graça significa caracterizá-las como destituídas de humanidade. The article Humorless lesbians examines the social and cultural construction of a lesbian stereotype, based on the perception that they lack sense of humor. It is analyzed how lesbians are portrayed by comedians, TV shows, comic strips, and in literature. These representations are compared to other stereotypes such as those related to Germans and campy gays. By investigating the relations between masculinity, femininity and humorlessness, it is demonstrated that considering lesbians as incompatible with laughter and fun means to depicting them as deprived of humanity.

  4. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  5. Immunomodulatory Nature and Site Specific Affinity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: a Hope in Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Lotfinegad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, their differentiation properties to various specialized tissue types, ease of in vitro and in vivo expansion and specific migration capacity, make them to be tested in different clinical trials for the treatment of various diseases. The immunomodulatory effects of MSCs are less identified which probably has high clinically significance. The clinical trials based on primary research will cause better understanding the ability of MSCs in immunomodulatory applications and site specific migration in the optimization of therapy. So, this review focus on MSCs functional role in modulating immune responses, their ability in homing to tumor, their potency as delivery vehicle and their medical importance.

  6. Immunomodulatory Nature and Site Specific Affinity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: a Hope in Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfinegad, Parisa; Shamsasenjan, karim; Movassaghpour, Aliakbar; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppressive ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), their differentiation properties to various specialized tissue types, ease of in vitro and in vivo expansion and specific migration capacity, make them to be tested in different clinical trials for the treatment of various diseases. The immunomodulatory effects of MSCs are less identified which probably has high clinically significance. The clinical trials based on primary research will cause better understanding the ability of MSCs in immunomodulatory applications and site specific migration in the optimization of therapy. So, this review focus on MSCs functional role in modulating immune responses, their ability in homing to tumor, their potency as delivery vehicle and their medical importance. PMID:24409403

  7. Virtuous laughter: we should teach medical learners the art of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Simon

    2015-05-11

    There is increasing recognition of the stress and burnout suffered by critical care workers. Physicians have a responsibility to teach learners the skills required not only to treat patients, but to cope with the demands of a stressful profession. Humor has been neglected as a strategy to help learners develop into virtuous and resilient physicians. Humor can be used to reduce stress, address fears, and to create effective health care teams. However, there are forms of humor which can be hurtful or discriminatory. In order to maximize the benefits of humor and to reduce its harms, we need to teach and model the effective and virtuous use of humor in the intensive care unit.

  8. The immunomodulatory activities of licorice polysaccharides (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) in CT 26 tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeka, Peter Amwoga; Bian, YuHong; Githaiga, Peter Mwitari; Zhao, Ying

    2017-12-15

    The increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has kindled the need for scientific evaluation of the mechanism of action of CAMs. Although, licorice, a common ingredient in many Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has attracted great attention for its antitumor and immunomodulatory activities, the mechanism of action of its polysaccharides is still unclear. Here we report the immunomodulatory activity of licorice polysaccharides in vivo. The differential anticancer activities of licorice polysaccharides by tumorigenesis and immunomodulation was evaluated in vivo. Six weeks old, 120 CT-26 tumor bearing BALB/c mice, weighing 20 ± 2 g were used. They were randomly divided into six groups, three groups receiving high molecular weight (fraction A), low molecular weight (fraction B) polysaccharides and crude extract (fraction C); positive, negative and normal groups receiving cytoxin, saline and normal diet respectively. Weight of mice and tumors was determined and tumorigenicity assay calculated to determine the anticancer effects. Immunomodulatory potential was determined by immune organ indices, immune cell population and serum cytokine levels using immune organ weight and index, flow cytometry and cytokine/chemokine bead panel kit respectively. Licorice polysaccharides exhibited immunomodulatory activities in CT 26 tumor bearing BALB/c mice. The polysaccharides significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased immune organ index. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory effect was evident with activation of CD4 + and CD8 + immune cells population. The polysaccharides also affected the production of various cytokines, by increasing IL 2, IL 6, IL 7 levels and a decreasing TNFα levels. In summary, licorice polysaccharide especially of low molecular weight exhibit anticancer and immunomodulatory activities by suppressing tumor growth and improving general health of mice. They also augment the thymus/spleen index and population of T lymphocytes

  9. Characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides derived from Dendrobium tosaense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Chan; Lu, Ting-Jang; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2014-10-13

    Dendrobium tosaense is a medicinal Dendrobium species widely used in traditional medicine. This study demonstrated some structural characterizations and immunomodulatory activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides derived from the stem of D. tosaense (DTP). DTP was fractioned using DEAE-650 M anion-exchange gel filtration chromatography, producing one neutral polysaccharide fraction (DTP-N), which was investigated for its structural characteristics, using HPAEC-PAD, HP-SEC, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. DTP and DTP-N consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose in ratios of 1:9.1:150.7 and 1:12.2:262.5, respectively. DTP-N comprised (1 → 4)Man as its main backbone, and its average molecular weight was 220 kDa. We also investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DTP administered orally to BALB/c mice for 3 weeks. DTP substantially boosted the population of splenic natural killer (NK) cells, NK cytotoxicity, macrophage phagocytosis, and cytokine induction in splenocytes. This is the first study to demonstrate the structural characteristics of an active polysaccharide derived from D. tosaense and its immunopharmacological effects in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being ...

  11. STRATEGI PRAGMATIK BAHASA HUMOR DALAM ACARA “MARIO TEGUH GOLDEN WAYS” DI METRO TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enie Hendrajati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech humor in MTGW program is assumed as a "good practice" of pragmatic strategy to entertain, inspire and motivate audience. The focus and objective of this study is to get a description of the pragmatic strategy of harmonizing word choice, sentence, and humorous language in MTGW program. How pragmatic strategies have implications for the use of words, sentences, and language styles so that the audience feel entertained and laughed. This research uses desciptive qualitative approach. Data in the form of humorous languages is collected by listening and recording. The method of analysis is padan and agih. The word data, sentence, and style of the humorous language are linked and compared to other words, sentences, and language styles in terms of humorous sense between sentences produced and comparator sentences. As a result, the pragmatic strategy MT uses in the MTGW program on Metro TV is to harmonize between lingual units of words, sentences, and language styles with humor and courtesy. MT uses a locusive and illocusive strategy with humorous tones and politeness in choosing, organizing and producing every word, sentence, and style of humor. Through the choice of words, sentences, and language style, the MT uses pragmatic strategies in conveying his message as a motivator and the perlocutionary effect is that the audience becomes interested or entertained.

  12. Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Gerard J.; Ross, Ted M.; Evans, Thomas G.; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The “Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy” session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials. PMID:25148426

  13. Challenges and future in vaccines, drug development, and immunomodulatory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Heather M; Nau, Gerard J; Ross, Ted M; Evans, Thomas G; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M; Flynn, JoAnne L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The "Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy" session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials.

  14. Development of immunotoxicity testing strategies for immunomodulatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Thomas T; Evans, Ellen W

    2012-01-01

    The ICH S8 immunotoxicity testing guideline for human pharmaceuticals was published in 2006 and was intended to provide guidance for assessing the immunotoxicity potential of low-molecular-weight drugs that are not intended to alter the immune system. For drugs intended to modulate the immune system, immunotoxicity testing strategies are generally developed on a case-by-case approach since the targets, intended patient population, and mechanisms of action of the test compound will determine the type of testing needed. Some of the general principles of ICH S8, however, may be applied to immunotoxicity testing strategies for immunomodulatory drugs. A weight-of-evidence approach using factors discussed in ICH S8 in concert with an assessment of the potential value of additional immunotoxicity testing should be considered. For most situations, immunotoxicity studies with immunomodulatory compounds evaluate off-target effects on the immune system and exaggerated pharmacology. The potential use of data from these studies and considerations such as translatability to humans are discussed.

  15. Aqueous Humor Antimicrobial Activity: In Vitro Analysis after Topical 0.5% Chloramphenicol Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagini, Carlo; Dragoni, Annalisa; Orsolini, Giampaolo; Fiore, Tito; Beccasio, Alfredo; Spadea, Leopoldo; Moretti, Amedeo; Mencacci, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    To assess aqueous humor antimicrobial activity in vitro after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application. This investigation included 63 eyes from 65 cataract surgery patients. The study group of 48 eyes received preoperatively four topical applications of 0.5% chloramphenicol. The control group of 15 eyes was given no topical applications. Aqueous humor samples were collected for in vitro antimicrobial analysis using Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pasteurella multocida organisms by means of disk diffusion test. No inhibition halo was observed around all aqueous humor samples from all chloramphenicol-treated patients, irrespective of the sample quantity added to the paper disks, with no significant difference from aqueous humor from untreated control patients. Aqueous humor displayed no bactericidal effect against any of the microorganisms evaluated after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application.

  16. Immunomodulatory effect of cimetidine on the proliferative responses of splenocytes from T. cruzi-infected rats Efeito imunomodulatório da cimetidina sobre a resposta blastogênica de esplenócitos de ratos infectados por T. cruzi

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    M.N. Sato

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory effect of cimetidine (CIM, a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist, was evaluated in respect to the blastogenic response to Con A of Wistar Furth (WF rats infected by the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi. Enhancement of blastogenesis of normal splenocytes was observed at a concentration of 10-3M. However, the splenocytes from infected animals responded to concentrations of CIM ranging from 10-8 to 10-3M. The mitogenic response to Con A of cells from infected animals was restored in the presence of CIM. The results show that CIM modulates the "in vitro" proliferative response of cells from T. cruzi-infected rats and suggest an immunoregulatory role of histamine and/or of cells that express H2 receptors in this infection.O efeito imunomodulatório da Cimetidine (CIM, um antagonista do receptor de histamina-tipo 2, foi avaliado na resposta blastogênica a Con A em células de ratos Wistar Furth (WF infectados pela cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi. Foi observado que apenas na concentração de 10-3M de Cimetidine houve amplificação da resposta blastogênica de esplenócitos normais a Con A. Entretanto, a capacidade mitogênica de esplenócitos de animais infectados foi restaurada na presença de molaridades da droga que variaram entre 10-8 a 10-3. Os resultados demonstraram que a CIM tem o potencial de modular a resposta mitogênica de células de animais infectados pelo T. cruzi, sugerindo um papel imunoregulatório da histamina e/ou células que expressam receptores H2 nesta infecção.

  17. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  18. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  20. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Mechanism of Tanshinone IIA for Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan II A is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. It has been demonstrated to have pleiotropic effects for atherosclerosis. From the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanism perspective, this paper reviewed major progresses of Tan IIA in antiatherosclerosis research, including immune cells, antigens, cytokines, and cell signaling pathways.

  2. Chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells show line-specific differences in sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet. Part I: Humoral parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaansen-Tennekes, R; de Vries Reilingh, G; Nieuwland, M G B; Parmentier, H K; Savelkoul, H F J

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based differential immune competence. The parental line of these hens was randomly bred as the control line and was used as well. Recently, we showed that these selection lines differ in their stress reactivity; the low line birds show a higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. To examine maternal effects and neonatal nutritional exposure on nutrient sensitivity, we studied 2 subsequent generations. This also created the opportunity to examine egg production in these birds. The 3 lines were fed 2 different nutritionally complete layer feeds for a period of 22 wk in the first generation. The second generation was fed from hatch with the experimental diets. At several time intervals, parameters reflecting humoral immunity were determined such as specific antibody to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease vaccines; levels of natural antibodies binding lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin; and classical and alternative complement activity. The most pronounced dietary-induced effects were found in the low line birds of the first generation: specific antibody titers to Newcastle disease vaccine were significantly elevated by 1 of the 2 diets. In the second generation, significant differences were found in lipoteichoic acid natural antibodies of the control and low line hens. At the end of the observation period of egg parameters, a significant difference in egg weight was found in birds of the high line. Our results suggest that nutritional differences have immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive humoral immune parameters in birds with high HPA axis reactivity and affect egg production in birds with low HPA axis reactivity.

  3. Effect of cesium radioisotope on humoral immune status in Ukrainian children with clinical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome related to Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, M R; Kuznetsova, L V; Bojenko, V B

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine humoral immune status in Ukrainian children with clinical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome 23 years after the Chernobyl disaster. The test population consisted of 95 participants: 75 rural patients aged 4-18, who lived in a contaminated area exposed to natural environmental radiation (falling under three groups) and 20 healthy urban participants from Kiev aged 5-15 as a control group. Internal radiation activity has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. B-lymphocytes population was analyzed with monoclonal antibody against antigen CD22(+). Serum immunoglobulins were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. p < 0.05 was considered significant. The percentage of CD22(+) in study groups is increased significantly in comparison to control group at p < 0.05. Reduced serum immunoglobulins levels have developed in the majority of the participants. Humoral immune status of study groups with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome residing in a contaminated area has changed.

  4. Immunomodulatory Effect of Flavonoids of Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) Leaves via the NF-κB Signal Pathway in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dazhi; Xu, Mengyi; Ren, Mengyue; Pan, Enshan; Luo, Chaohua; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Qingfa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the immunoregulatory effect of flavonoids of blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaves (FBL). The flavonoids of blueberry leaves were prepared with 70% ethanol and were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-Tof-MS). The immunoregulatory effect and possible regulatory mechanisms of FBL were investigated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 cells. According to the results of UPLC/Q-Tof-MS, nine flavonoids of blueberry leaves were identified. FBL showed a significant reduction in the production of TNF- α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. FBL significantly decreased the expression of NF- κ B p65 and P-NF- κ B p65 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Our study showed the immunoregulatory effect of FBL through the suppression of TNF- α via the NF- κ B signal pathway.

  5. The First Joke: Exploring the Evolutionary Origins of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Polimeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is a complex cognitive function which often leads to laughter. Contemporary humor theorists have begun to formulate hypotheses outlining the possible innate cognitive structures underlying humor. Humor's conspicuous presence in the behavioral repertoire of humankind invites adaptive explanations. This article explores the possible adaptive features of humor and ponders its evolutionary path through hominid history. Current humor theories and previous evolutionary ideas on humor are reviewed. In addition, scientific fields germane to the evolutionary study of humor are examined: animal models, genetics, children's humor, humor in pathological conditions, neurobiology, humor in traditional societies and cognitive archeology. Candidate selection pressures and associated evolutionary mechanisms are considered. The authors conclude that several evolutionary-related topics such as the origins of language, cognition underlying spiritual feelings, hominid group size, and primate teasing could have special relevance to the origins of humor.

  6. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p iris melanocytes. However, the reduced TYR activity in the aqueous of Moxifloxacin-treated eyes was possibly due to the presence of a higher drug concentration, which inhibits TYR activity. Consistently, immunoblotting analysis of the aqueous humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble

  7. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  8. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms "Allium sativum," "Garlic," "Allicin," "Ajoene," "Leishmania," "in vitro," "in vivo," and "clinical trial," alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biedron R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis L. due to its origin in Brazilian rain forest, is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which also comprises medicinal mushrooms such as Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. AbM has been used in traditional medicine locally and also recently as a health food worldwide. Since it has been found to possess immunomodulatory properties, its biological and health-related effects, as well as its isolated active ingredients e.g. beta-glucans, have been examined by scientists. Otherinvestigations have been performed with mixed mushroom products, such as AndoSanTM, which contains mostly AbM, but also the two other mushrooms above. AbM-related benefits reviewed here include effects against cancer, infections, inflammation, allergy/ asthma and diabetes. Effects of AndoSanTMand other AbM-based extracts have been compared in a bacterial sepsis model.

  10. Immunomodulatory Effect of Flavonoids of Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Leaves via the NF-κB Signal Pathway in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhi Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to explore the immunoregulatory effect of flavonoids of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaves (FBL. Methods. The flavonoids of blueberry leaves were prepared with 70% ethanol and were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-Tof-MS. The immunoregulatory effect and possible regulatory mechanisms of FBL were investigated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results. According to the results of UPLC/Q-Tof-MS, nine flavonoids of blueberry leaves were identified. FBL showed a significant reduction in the production of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. FBL significantly decreased the expression of NF-κB p65 and P-NF-κB p65 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. Our study showed the immunoregulatory effect of FBL through the suppression of TNF-α via the NF-κB signal pathway.

  11. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields stimulation modulates autoimmunity and immune responses: a possible immuno-modulatory therapeutic effect in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guerriero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines. Transcranial electromagnetic brain stimulation is a non-invasive novel technique used recently to treat different neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease. Despite its proven value, the mechanisms through which EMF brain-stimulation exerts its beneficial action on neuronal function remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that its beneficial effects may be due to a neuroprotective effect on oxidative cell damage. On the basis of in vitro and clinical studies on brain activity, modulation by ELF-EMFs could possibly counteract the aberrant pro-inflammatory responses present in neurodegenerative disorders reducing their severity and their onset. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of the published literature on EMFs and outline the most promising effects of ELF-EMFs in developing treatments of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, we review data supporting the role of ELF-EMF in generating immune-modulatory responses, neuromodulation, and potential neuroprotective benefits. Nonetheless, we reckon that the underlying mechanisms of interaction between EMF and the immune system are still to be completely understood and need further studies at a molecular level.

  12. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, P.-C.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Lee, K.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4 + T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4 + T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni

  13. Problems and challenges in the development and validation of human cell-based assays to determine nanoparticle-induced immunomodulatory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi François

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing use of nanomaterials, the need for methods and assays to examine their immunosafety is becoming urgent, in particular for nanomaterials that are deliberately administered to human subjects (as in the case of nanomedicines. To obtain reliable results, standardised in vitro immunotoxicological tests should be used to determine the effects of engineered nanoparticles on human immune responses. However, before assays can be standardised, it is important that suitable methods are established and validated. Results In a collaborative work between European laboratories, existing immunological and toxicological in vitro assays were tested and compared for their suitability to test effects of nanoparticles on immune responses. The prototypical nanoparticles used were metal (oxide particles, either custom-generated by wet synthesis or commercially available as powders. Several problems and challenges were encountered during assay validation, ranging from particle agglomeration in biological media and optical interference with assay systems, to chemical immunotoxicity of solvents and contamination with endotoxin. Conclusion The problems that were encountered in the immunological assay systems used in this study, such as chemical or endotoxin contamination and optical interference caused by the dense material, significantly affected the data obtained. These problems have to be solved to enable the development of reliable assays for the assessment of nano-immunosafety.

  14. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  15. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  16. Sociolinguistics features of humor in american linguoculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...

  17. Oral Serum-Derived Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Has Immunomodulatory Effects on the Colon of Mice that Spontaneously Develop Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pérez-Bosque

    Full Text Available Dietary immunoglobulin concentrates prepared from animal plasma can modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. Previous studies have revealed that supplementation with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI ameliorates colonic barrier alterations in the mdr1a-/- genetic mouse model of IBD. Here, we examine the effects of SBI on mucosal inflammation in mdr1a-/- mice that spontaneously develop colitis. Wild type (WT mice and mice lacking the mdr1a gene (KO were fed diets supplemented with either SBI (2% w/w or milk proteins (Control diet, from day 21 (weaning until day 56. Leucocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN and in lamina propria were determined, as was mucosal cytokine production. Neutrophil recruitment and activation in MLN and lamina propria of KO mice were increased, but were significantly reduced in both by SBI supplementation (p < 0.05. The increased neutrophil recruitment and activation observed in KO mice correlated with increased colon oxidative stress (p < 0.05 and SBI supplementation reduced this variable (p < 0.05. The Tact/Treg lymphocyte ratios in MLN and lamina propria were also increased in KO animals, but SBI prevented these changes (both p < 0.05. In the colon of KO mice, there was an increased production of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 (2-fold, IL-6 (26-fold and IL-17 (19-fold, and of chemokines MIP-1β (4.5-fold and MCP-1 (7.2-fold. These effects were significantly prevented by SBI (p < 0.05. SBI also significantly increased TGF-β secretion in the colon mucosa, suggesting a role of this anti-inflammatory cytokine in the modulation of GALT and the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory response during the onset of colitis.

  18. Effects of feeding an immunomodulatory supplement to heat-stressed or actively cooled cows during late gestation on postnatal immunity, health, and growth of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibiel, Amy L; Fabris, Thiago F; Corrá, Fabiana N; Torres, Yazielis M; McLean, Derek J; Chapman, James D; Kirk, David J; Dahl, Geoffrey E; Laporta, Jimena

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress during late gestation negatively affects the physiology, health, and productivity of dairy cows as well as the calves developing in utero. Providing cows with active cooling devices, such as fans and soakers, and supplementing cows with an immunomodulating feed additive, OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corporation), improves immune function and milk yield of cows. It is unknown if maternal supplementation of OG combined with active cooling during late gestation might benefit the developing calf as well. Herein we evaluated markers of innate immune function, including immune cell counts, acute phase proteins, and neutrophil function, of calves born to multiparous dams in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Dams were supplemented with OG or a bentonite control (NO) beginning at 60 d before dry off and exposed to heat stress with cooling (CL) or without active cooling (HT) during the dry period (∼46 d). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and fed 6.6 L of their dams' colostrum in 2 meals. Calf body weight and rectal temperature were recorded, and blood samples were collected at birth (before colostrum feeding) and at 10, 28, and 49 d of age. Calves born to either CL dams or OG dams were heavier at birth than calves born to HT or NO dams, respectively. Concentrations of serum amyloid A were higher in the blood of calves born to OG dams relative to NO and for HT calves relative to CL calves. In addition, calves born to cooled OG dams had greater concentrations of plasma haptoglobin than calves born to cooled control dams. Neutrophil function at 10 d of age was enhanced in calves born to cooled OG dams and lymphocyte counts were higher in calves born to OG dams. Together these results suggest that adding OG to maternal feed in combination with active cooling of cows during late gestation is effective in mitigating the negative effects of in utero heat stress on postnatal calf growth and immune competence. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  19. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Rutkowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin and Thomas C. Veatch as well as their possible application to the study of humorous names. The second part of the paper provides an analysis of the humorous effects of proper names which includes anthroponyms, toponyms, trade names, football team names and names in literature. The first section of this part concentrates on names in which humour is unintentional and seems to be induced by the context, while the second section focuses on names which are intentionally humourous, i.e. supposed to amuse from the moment of their creation. The author argues that the incongruity theory can provide a useful framework for the study of the different mechanisms responsible of the semantic shifts which determine the variation of pragmatic values of proper names.

  20. Immunomodulatory effect of non-viable components of probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus on holoxenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditu, L M; Chifiriuc, M C; Bezirtzoglou, E; Marutescu, L; Bleotu, C; Pelinescu, D; Mihaescu, G; Lazar, V

    2014-01-01

    Competition of probiotic bacteria with other species from the intestinal microbiota involves different mechanisms that occur regardless of probiotics' viability. The objective of this paper was to assess the cytokine serum levels in holoxenic mice after oral administration of non-viable components (NVC) of Enterococcus faecium probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in comparison to NVC of unstimulated E. faecium probiotic culture. Probiotic E. faecium CMGb 16 culture, grown in the presence of heat-inactivated cultures of E. coli and B. cereus CMGB 102, was subsequently separated into supernatant (SN) and heat-inactivated cellular sediment (CS) fractions by centrifugation. Each NVC was orally administered to holoxenic mice (balb C mouse strain), in three doses, given at 24 hours. Blood samples were collected from the retinal artery, at 7, 14, and 21 days after the first administration of the NVC. The serum concentrations of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) interleukins were assessed by ELISA method. After the oral administration of SN component obtained from the probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated cultures of B. cereus CMGB 102 and E. coli O28, the serum concentrations of IL-12 were maintained higher in the samples collected at 7 and 14 days post-administration. No specific TNF-α profile could be established, depending on stimulated or non-stimulated probiotic culture, NVC fraction, or harvesting time. The obtained results demonstrate that non-viable fractions of probiotic bacteria, stimulated by other bacterial species, could induce immunostimulatory effects mediated by cytokines and act, therefore, as immunological adjuvants.

  1. Combined administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate boosted immunomodulatory, disease resistance and growth enhancing effects of Lactobacillus plantarum in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doan, Hien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Tapingkae, Wanaporn; Tongsiri, Sudaporn; Khamtavee, Pimporn

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigates the effects of combined or singular administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate (LWMSA) and Lactobacillus plantarum on innate immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Three hundred and twenty fish were supplied and randomly stocked in sixteen glass tanks (150 L) assigned to four treatments as follows: 0 g kg -1 LMWSA (Control, Diet 1), 10 g kg -1 LMWSA (Diet 2), 10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum (Diet 3), and 10 g kg -1 LMWSA + 10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum (Diet 4). Following 30 and 60 days of the feeding trial, serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and alternative complement activities as well as growth performance parameters (specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio) were measured. Serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and alternative complement activities of fish were significantly stimulated by both LMWSA and L. plantarum diets, however, the highest innate immune response were observed in fish fed synbiotic diet. At the end of the experiment, eight fish per replication were randomly selected for a challenge test against Streptococcus agalactiae. The survival rate of the fish fed supplemented diets was significantly greater than the control treatment and the highest post challenge survival rate was observed in synbiotic diet. Furthermore, SGR and FCR were significantly improved in fish fed supplemented diets after 60 days and the highest growth performance was observed in fish fed synbiotic diet. These results suggest combined LMWSA and L. plantarum can be considered as a promising immunostimulant and growth enhancer in Nile tilapia diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Personality modulates amygdala and insula connectivity during humor appreciation: An event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Philipp; Bitsch, Florian; Nagels, Arne; Straube, Benjamin; Falkenberg, Irina

    2017-11-12

    Previous research and theory implicate that personality traits, such as extraversion and neuroticism, influence the processing of humor, as indicated by alterations in the activation of fronto-temporal and mesocorticolimbic brain regions during humor processing. In the current study, we sought to complement these findings by testing whether inter-individual differences in functional connectivity of humor-related brain regions are modulated by stable personality characteristics during humor processing. Using fMRI techniques, we studied 19 healthy subjects during the processing of standardized humorous and neutral cartoons. In order to isolate the specific effects of humor appreciation, subjective funniness ratings, collected during the scanning procedure, were implemented in the analysis as parametric modulation. Two distinct clusters in the right amygdala and the left insula were identified. Seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis investigating the effects of personality on inter-individual differences in functional connectivity revealed that amygdala and insula connectivity with brain areas previously related to humor comprehension (e.g. middle temporal gyrus) and appreciation (e.g. caudate nucleus) were significantly modulated by personality dimensions. These results underscore the sensitivity of humor processing to moderating influences, such as personality, and call attention to the importance of brain connectivity measures for the investigation of inter-individual differences in the processing of humor.

  3. Amniotic membrane-derived stem cells: immunomodulatory properties and potential clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insausti CL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carmen L Insausti,1 Miguel Blanquer,1 Ana M García-Hernández,1 Gregorio Castellanos,2 José M Moraleda11Unidad de Trasplante Hematopoyético y Terapia Celular, 2Servicio de Cirugía, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, IMIB, Campus Mare Nostrum, Universidad de Murcia, El Palmar, Murcia, SpainAbstract: Epithelial and mesenchymal cells isolated from the amniotic membrane (AM possess stem cell characteristics, differentiation potential toward lineages of different germ layers, and immunomodulatory properties. While their expansion and differentiation potential have been well studied and characterized, knowledge about their immunomodulatory properties and the mechanisms involved is still incomplete. These mechanisms have been evaluated on various target cells of the innate and the adaptive system and in animal models of different inflammatory diseases. Some results have evidenced that the immunomodulatory effect of AM-derived cells is dependent on cell-cell contact, but many of them have demonstrated that these properties are mediated through the secretion of suppressive molecules. In this review, we present an update on the described immunomodulatory properties of the derived amniotic cells and some of the proposed involved mechanisms. Furthermore, we describe some assays in animal models of different inflammatory diseases which reveal the potential use of these cells to treat such diseases.Keywords: epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, cell therapy, immunomodulation

  4. Immunomodulatory effect of Rhaphidophora korthalsii on mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... spleen and bone marrow cell suspension, red blood cells were removed by incubating and ..... target in the innate immunity can be identified by evaluating the .... because thymus is the major primary lymphoid organ for.

  5. The comparison of immunomodulatory effects of peripheral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... this, cells U937 in junior elderly (with cool environmental physical activities) ..... therapy. Am. Heart. J. 154: 655-661. Bridges CB, Harper SA, Fukuda K, Uyeki .... functional status of patients in geriatric medical long-term care.

  6. [Immunomodulatory properties of stem mesenchymal cells in autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Berná, Isabel; Santiago-Díaz, Carlos; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan

    2015-01-20

    Autoimmune diseases are a cluster of disorders characterized by a failure of the immune tolerance and a hyperactivation of the immune system that leads to a chronic inflammation state and the damage of several organs. The medications currently used to treat these diseases usually consist of immunosuppressive drugs that have significant systemic toxic effects and are associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells have immunomodulatory properties, a feature that make them candidates to be used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we reviewed the role of this therapy in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis, as well as the potential risks associated with its use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  8. An evolutionary perspective on the immunomodulatory role of hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers-Auty, J

    2015-11-01

    Most preclinical studies on endogenous hydrogen sulphide signalling have given little consideration to the fact that the human body contains more bacterial cells than human cells, and that evolution provides the context for all biology. Whether hydrogen sulphide is pro or anti-inflammatory is heavily debated within the literature, yet researchers have not fully considered that invasive bacteria produce hydrogen sulphide, often at levels far above the endogenous levels of the host. Here I argue that if hydrogen sulphide is an endogenous signalling molecule with immunomodulatory functions, then it must have evolved in the presence of virulent bacteria which produce hydrogen sulphide. This context leads to two competing theories about the evolution of endogenous hydrogen sulphide signalling. The detectable emission theory proposes that bacteria produce hydrogen sulphide as part of normal metabolism and hosts which evolved to detect and respond to this hydrogen sulphide would gain a selective survival advantage. This predicts that the endogenous production of hydrogen sulphide is a mechanism which amplifies the bacterial hydrogen sulphide signal. The opposing protective agent theory predicts that bacterial hydrogen sulphide is an effective defence against the bactericidal mechanisms of the host's immune response. In this case, endogenous hydrogen sulphide production is either at inconsequential levels to alter the immune response, or is involved in the inflammation resolution process. Evidence suggests that the direct interactions of hydrogen sulphide with the bactericidal mechanisms of the innate immune system are most congruent with the protective agent theory. Therefore, I argue that if hydrogen sulphide is an immunomodulatory endogenous signalling molecule its effects are most likely anti-inflammatory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and immunotoxicity assessment of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Laura Dill; Spindeldreher, Sebastian; Kiessling, Andrea; Allenspach, Roy; Hey, Adam; Muller, Patrick Y; Frings, Werner; Sims, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) licensed for human use or in clinical development are indicated for treatment of patients with cancer and inflammatory/autoimmune disease and as such, are designed to directly interact with the immune system. A major hurdle for the development and early clinical investigation of many of these immunomodulatory mAbs is their inherent risk for adverse immune-mediated drug reactions in humans such as infusion reactions, cytokine storms, immunosuppression and autoimmunity. A thorough understanding of the immunopharmacology of a mAb in humans and animals is required to both anticipate the clinical risk of adverse immunotoxicological events and to select a safe starting dose for first-in-human (FIH) clinical studies. This review summarizes the most common adverse immunotoxicological events occurring in humans with immunomodulatory mAbs and outlines non-clinical strategies to define their immunopharmacology and assess their immunotoxic potential, as well as reduce the risk of immunotoxicity through rational mAb design. Tests to assess the relative risk of mAb candidates for cytokine release syndrome, innate immune system (dendritic cell) activation and immunogenicity in humans are also described. The importance of selecting a relevant and sensitive toxicity species for human safety assessment in which the immunopharmacology of the mAb is similar to that expected in humans is highlighted, as is the importance of understanding the limitations of the species selected for human safety assessment and supplementation of in vivo safety assessment with appropriate in vitro human assays. A tiered approach to assess effects on immune status, immune function and risk of infection and cancer, governed by the mechanism of action and structural features of the mAb, is described. Finally, the use of immunopharmacology and immunotoxicity data in determining a minimum anticipated biologic effect Level (MABEL) and in the selection of safe human

  10. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  11. Therapeutic Potential of HDPs as Immunomodulatory Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Hancock, Robert E.W.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most significant advances in medical history is the discovery and development of antibiotics, which in the middle of last century was flourishing and appeared to be the ultimate solution to the treatment of life-threatening human bacterial diseases. However, lately there has been a huge...... decline in the rate of discovery of new antimicrobial intervention strategies in parallel with an increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens; if these circumstances do not change we will continue to approach the end of the antibiotic era. Facing this dark future, scientists are considering new...... strategies for intervention tailored around the appropriate (selective) stimulation of the host’s immune system, and particularly rapid acting innate immunity, as an alternative to direct targeting of microbial pathogens. One recent player in such an immunomodulatory strategy is the naturally occurring host...

  12. The influence of humor styles in coping strategies in Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Roberto Lillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003 which is centered in adaptive strengths such as optimism, faith, courage, as well as humor (Martin 2003, quoted in Martin et al., 2003. Sense of humor has been considered as an unidimensional construct (Omar, 1995 and the consequencies has been some errors in the assesment, as a result of a problem of validity. The present study seeks to introduce certain aspects that have not been considered in the past, so much the potential beneficial effects, as the deleterious forms of the sense of humor as for the psychological well-being. Four dimensions of the sense of humor were assesed (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003, version Lillo, 2006 relating to the uses or functions in everyday life and the ways of people cope (Fridenberg and Lewis, 1991, version Richaud de Minzi. 2003. They were also significant relationships among styles of humor and ways of coping that could explain the importance of the construct sense of humor, as an important resource to be used. Although it is necessary to highlight that it is not sought to embrace all the components of the sense of humor, but rather it is focused in the interpersonal functions and intrapsíquicas that adolescents use in daily life. These functions are considered most relevant to the well-being. Measuring these aspects of the humor, it is expected that they can explain a greater proportion of the variance as for the ways of people cope. 

  13. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Calamus rotang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C. rotang root in human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg as an antigen. Materials and Methods: Variable doses of root aqueous extract (0.5 – 30 mg/ml, 100 µl was administered to human whole blood and PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg; 20 µg/ml, 10 µl as specific antigen in order to estimate the total blood counts in human whole blood and nitric oxide production and CD14 FITC surface marker from human PBMC. Results: Overall, the results showed that roots aqueous extract of C. rotang showed remarkable increase in the number of blood counts in human whole blood at lower doses (0.5 mg/ml. In addition, root aqueous extract of C. rotang also showed the same pattern in case of nitric oxide production and estimation of CD14 FITC surface marker in human PBMC. Conclusion: Altogether, the results suggest that root aqueous extract of C. rotang showed immunomodulatory activity.

  14. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  15. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor

  16. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we

  17. Sense of humor at work: assessment and associations with health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is about health-related sense of humor measurement and associations between a sense of humor and health. Two sense of humor measures were developed, the QOHC and the HCL. The QOHC measures four humorous coping styles, aimed at acquiring positive affective states: antecedent-focused

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  19. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  20. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of modeling humor, and if we can do that, it will provide us with lots of information about our cognitive abilities in general, such as reasoning, remembering, understanding situations, and understand...

  1. The Serious Business of Humor : A qualitative study of humor as a management tool

    OpenAIRE

    N Schönfeldt, Sara; Miznikova, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    This research was initiated due to the novelty of the topic. Humor is a common phenomenon in the daily interaction of many people; however this study is particularly interested in humor as used by managers. As a preconception to the study it was assumed that appropriately used humor results in benefits for a leader, thus we wish to explore how managers in Swedish organizations reason about if and how humor can be used as a management tool. For this purpose we employed qualitative research wit...

  2. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product's quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur "improv" comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search.

  3. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Amir

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur improv comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP. Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search.

  4. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  5. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search. PMID:27932965

  6. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Prashanth, Keelara V Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be a significant immune booster. Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses superior immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic; these effects are attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds. AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic. In order to evaluate the biological activity of fructans present in AGE, both high molecular weight (>3.5 kDa; HF) and low molecular weight (immunomodulators such as zymosan and mannan. This study clearly demonstrates that garlic fructans also contribute to the immunomodulatory properties of AGE, and is the first such study on the biological effects of garlic fructans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility of a Humor Training to Promote Humor and Decrease Stress in a Subclinical Sample: A Single-Arm Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tagalidou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the feasibility of a humor training for a subclinical sample suffering from increased stress, depressiveness, or anxiety. Based on diagnostic interviews, 35 people were invited to participate in a 7-week humor training. Evaluation measures were filled in prior training, after training, and at a 1-month follow-up including humor related outcomes (coping humor and cheerfulness and mental health-related outcomes (perceived stress, depressiveness, anxiety, and well-being. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVAs. Within-group comparisons of intention-to-treat analysis showed main effects of time with large effect sizes on all outcomes. Post hoc tests showed medium to large effect sizes on all outcomes from pre to post and results remained stable until follow-up. Satisfaction with the training was high, attrition rate low (17.1%, and participants would highly recommend the training. Summarizing the results, the pilot study showed promising effects for people suffering from subclinical symptoms. All outcomes were positively influenced and showed stability over time. Humor trainings could be integrated more into mental health care as an innovative program to reduce stress whilst promoting also positive emotions. However, as this study was a single-arm pilot study, further research (including also randomized controlled trials is still needed to evaluate the effects more profoundly.

  8. Immunomodulatory Activity of Alcohol Extract of Terminalia chebula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2011-01-02

    Jan 2, 2011 ... Purpose: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of the alcohol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) ..... indicates a higher secretion of melatonin. (Mol. Wt. 248 ... especially the immune, nervous, and.

  9. Rhetorical Charms: The Promise and Pitfalls of Humor and Ridicule as Strategies to Counter Extremist Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Goodall

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a brief account of the uses of humor, in particular satire and ridicule, to counter extremist narratives and heroes.  We frame the appeals of humor as “rhetorical charms,” or stylistic seductions based on surprising uses of language and/or images designed to provoke laughter, disrupt ordinary arguments, and counter taken-for-granted truths, that contribute to new sources of influence to the globally wired world of terrorism.  We offer two recent examples of how the Internet in particular changed the narrative landscape in ways that offer potent evidence of uses of humor to remake extremist heroes into objects of derision.  We also caution those who would make use of humor as a strategic communication device to take into account the negative side effects and unexpected consequences that can accompany such uses. 

  10. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Bast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a “food substitute” at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain.

  11. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Elizabeth S.; Berry, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a “food substitute” at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain. PMID:24498514

  12. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  13. N-acetylcysteine and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate: immunomodulatory effects on mononuclear cell culture N-acetilcisteína e frutose-1,6-bisfosfato: efeito imunomodulador em cultura de células mononucleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Obalski de Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a complex syndrome caused by an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response. Inflammatory cytokines play a pivotal role in septic shock pathogenesis. Therapeutic strategies have been tested in order to modulate the excessive generation or function of sepsis mediators. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC and its association with fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP on T-lymphocytes proliferation, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples were isolated from healthy individuals. T-lymphocytes were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 96 hours and submitted to different concentrations of NAC or NAC associated with FBP. RESULTS: NAC (10 and 15 mM and NAC (15 mM associated with FBP reduced T-lymphocytes proliferation. IL-1β levels rose in the presence of both NAC (15 mM and NAC with FBP (1.25 mM. MCP-1 levels were reduced only by NAC (15 mM associated with FBP (1.25 mM. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that both NAC itself and NAC associated with FBP inhibit cellular proliferation, acting as potent immunomodulatory agents, which corroborates its use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.INTRODUÇÃO: A sepse é uma síndrome complexa causada pela resposta inflamatória sistêmica descontrolada. As citocinas inflamatórias representam papel central na patogênese do choque séptico. Têm sido testadas estratégias terapêuticas a fim de modular a geração ou a função excessiva de mediadores na sepse. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito terapêutico da N-acetilcisteína (NAC e sua associação com a frutose-1,6-bisfosfato (FBP sobre a proliferação de linfócitos T e a geração de interleucina-1β (IL-1β e proteína quimiotática de monócitos 1 (MCP-1 em cultura celular. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram isoladas células mononucleares de

  14. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  15. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  16. Immunomodulatory Nature and Site Specific Affinity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: a Hope in Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lotfinegad, Parisa; Shamsasenjan, karim; Movassaghpour, Aliakbar; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Immunosuppressive ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), their differentiation properties to various specialized tissue types, ease of in vitro and in vivo expansion and specific migration capacity, make them to be tested in different clinical trials for the treatment of various diseases. The immunomodulatory effects of MSCs are less identified which probably has high clinically significance. The clinical trials based on primary research will cause better understanding the ability of MSCs ...

  17. Experience of Using Immunomodulatory Therapy in Comprehensive Treatment of Chronic Tonsillitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory therapy is an important part of treating patients with chronic tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococcus group A, on the background of antibiotic therapy it allows us to achieve a more effective elimination of the pathogen. Administration of Imupret in the comprehensive treatment for exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis of streptococcal origin leads to the rapid disappearance of clinical manifestations of the disease, high frequency of pathogen elimination, reduces the incidence of chronic tonsillitis exa­cerbations.

  18. Immunomodulatory Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Heyes, Richard; Iarocci, Andrew; Tchoukalova, Yourka; Lott, David G.

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to summarize contemporary evidence of the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in promoting vascularized composite allotransplant (VCA) tolerance. An extensive literature review was performed to identify pertinent articles of merit. Prospective preclinical trials in mammal subjects receiving VCA (or skin allograft) with administration of MSCs were reviewed. Prospective clinical trials with intravascular delivery of MSCs in human popul...

  19. Antibacterial, Antiproliferative, and Immunomodulatory Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized with Fucans from the Alga Dictyota mertensii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Medeiros Fernandes-Negreiros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles containing fucans from Dictyota mertensii (Martius Kützing using an environmentally friendly method and to characterize their structure as well as antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial effects. Fucan-coated silver nanoparticles (FN were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared analysis, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. They were evaluated for their effect on cell viability, minimum inhibitory bactericidal concentration, and release of nitric oxide and cytokines. The FN were successfully synthesized using an environmentally friendly method. They were size-stable for 16 months, of a spherical shape, negative charge (−19.1 mV, and an average size of 103.3 ± 43 nm. They were able to inhibit the proliferation of the melanoma tumor cell line B16F10 (60%. In addition, they had immunomodulatory properties: they caused an up to 7000-fold increase in the release of nitric oxide and cytokines (IL-10; IL-6 and TNF-α up to 7000 times. In addition, the FN showed inhibitory effect on Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, with MIC values of 50 µg/mL. Overall, the data showed that FN are nanoparticles with the potential to be used as antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial agents.

  20. Isolation of immunomodulatory triterpene acids from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaby, Lasse; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik Wind; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2011-02-01

    A previously published systematic review and a metaanalysis have concluded that the consumption of standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) can reduce pain in osteoarthritis patients. Synovial inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and mainly to involve infiltration of the synovial membrane by macrophages. Therefore, the immunomodulatory effect of standardized rose hip powder of Rosa canina L. was investigated and active principles isolated using the Mono Mac 6 cell line as a model for human macrophages. Treatment of Mono Mac 6 cells with the residue of a crude dichloromethane extract of rose hip powder significantly and concentration dependently inhibited the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release. Through bioassay-guided fractionation the immunomodulatory effect of the dichloromethane extract was correlated to a mixture of three triterpene acids; oleanolic acid, betulinic acid and ursolic acid (IC(50) 21 ± 6 µm). Further studies revealed that only oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, but not betulinic acid, could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells when tested separately. Combination of either oleanolic acid or ursolic acid with betulinic acid enhanced the immunomodulatory effect of the two triterpene acids. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Is an Ideal Sense of Humor Gendered? A Cross-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Sümeyra; Faghihi, Nafiseh; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2018-01-01

    To explore lay conceptions of characteristics of an ideal sense of humor as embodied in a known individual, our study examined elicited written narratives by male and female participants from three different countries of origin: United States, Iran, and Turkey. As reported in an earlier previous study with United States-based participants (Crawford and Gressley, 1991), our study also found that the embodiment of an ideal sense of humor was predominantly a male figure. This effect was more pronounced for male than for female participants but did not differ by country. Relative mention of specific humor characteristics differed by participant gender and by country of origin. Whereas all groups mentioned creativity most often as a component of an ideal sense of humor, this attribute was mentioned significantly more often by Americans than by the other two groups; hostility/sarcasm was also mentioned significantly more often by Americans than Turkish participants who mentioned it more often than Iranian participants. Caring was mentioned significantly more often by Americans and Iranians than by Turkish participants. These findings show a shared pattern of humor characteristics by gender but group differences in the relative prominence given to specific humor characteristics. Further work is needed to corroborate the group differences observed and to pinpoint their source.

  2. Humor, laughter, and the cerebellum: insights from patients with acute cerebellar stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B; Andrzejewski, K; Göricke, S; Wondzinski, E; Siebler, M; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2013-12-01

    Extent of cerebellar involvement in cognition and emotion is still a topic of ongoing research. In particular, the cerebellar role in humor processing and control of laughter is not well known. A hypermetric dysregulation of affective behavior has been assumed in cerebellar damage. Thus, we aimed at investigating humor comprehension and appreciation as well as the expression of laughter in 21 patients in the acute or subacute state after stroke restricted to the cerebellum, and in the same number of matched healthy control subjects. Patients with acute and subacute cerebellar damage showed preserved comprehension and appreciation of humor using a validated humor test evaluating comprehension, funniness and aversiveness of cartoons ("3WD Humor Test"). Additionally, there was no difference when compared to healthy controls in the number and intensity of facial reactions and laughter while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, or video sketches measured by the Facial Action Coding System. However, as depression scores were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar stroke, a concealing effect of accompanying depression cannot be excluded. Current findings add to descriptions in the literature that cognitive or affective disorders in patients with lesions restricted to the cerebellum, even in the acute state after damage, are frequently mild and might only be present in more sensitive or specific tests.

  3. The role of formyl peptide receptors for immunomodulatory activities of antimicrobial peptides and peptidomimetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Holdfeldt, André; Forsman, Huamei

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as immunomodulators has become generally accepted. Nevertheless, only very few AMP-based compounds have progressed into clinical trials. This paradox may be explained by the fact, that some of the intrinsic properties...... displaying analogous immunomodulatory activity profiles. Neutrophils play key roles in host defense as major effector cells in clearance of pathogens by phagocytosis and by regulating other processes of innate immunity as well as promotion of resolution of inflammation. Several aspects of these effects...... are correlated to their expression of formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) that have been shown to be targets of both natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides. In the present review recent findings highlighting the role of FPRs in mediating immunomodulatory activities of natural and synthetic AMPs as well...

  4. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  5. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy.While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity.These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  7. Humor as Wisdom for Reframing Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Uk

    2018-04-01

    Human beings inevitably experience anxiety but attempt to avoid facing it through various forms of self-deception. This avoidance can lead to pathological symptoms. Young and middle-aged adults may be especially susceptible to suffering from anxiety because they are often single-mindedly pursuing means of achieving security. For these and others who fail to embrace life with warm enthusiasm, humor can serve to alleviate stress. This article views humor as a characteristic disposition of older adults-their humor signifying a sense of integrity and wisdom that often accompanies the aging process. Humor binds together feelings of despair and joy and contributes to a faithful reframing of faith and life. This article proposes that individuals acquire humor by perceiving the world as if on a journey to an exotic new place, seeing with new eyes even the most mundane of everyday objects and events. This capacity to perceive beauty in the ordinary world reflects a wisdom of older adults potentially available even to the young.

  8. Incorporation of membrane-bound, mammalian-derived immunomodulatory proteins into influenza whole virus vaccines boosts immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Paul C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza epidemics continue to cause morbidity and mortality within the human population despite widespread vaccination efforts. This, along with the ominous threat of an avian influenza pandemic (H5N1, demonstrates the need for a much improved, more sophisticated influenza vaccine. We have developed an in vitro model system for producing a membrane-bound Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccine (CYT-IVAC. Numerous cytokines are involved in directing both innate and adaptive immunity and it is our goal to utilize the properties of individual cytokines and other immunomodulatory proteins to create a more immunogenic vaccine. Results We have evaluated the immunogenicity of inactivated cytokine-bearing influenza vaccines using a mouse model of lethal influenza virus challenge. CYT-IVACs were produced by stably transfecting MDCK cell lines with mouse-derived cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2 and IL-4 fused to the membrane-anchoring domain of the viral hemagglutinin. Influenza virus replication in these cell lines resulted in the uptake of the bioactive membrane-bound cytokines during virus budding and release. In vivo efficacy studies revealed that a single low dose of IL-2 or IL-4-bearing CYT-IVAC is superior at providing protection against lethal influenza challenge in a mouse model and provides a more balanced Th1/Th2 humoral immune response, similar to live virus infections. Conclusion We have validated the protective efficacy of CYT-IVACs in a mammalian model of influenza virus infection. This technology has broad applications in current influenza virus vaccine development and may prove particularly useful in boosting immune responses in the elderly, where current vaccines are minimally effective.

  9. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms “Allium sativum,” “Garlic,” “Allicin,” “Ajoene,” “Leishmania,” “in vitro,” “in vivo,” and “clinical trial,” alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26721553

  10. Identity of the immunomodulatory proteins from garlic (Allium sativum) with the major garlic lectins or agglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Fatima; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2010-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), an important medicinal spice, displays a plethora of biological effects including immunomodulation. Although some immunomodulatory proteins from garlic have been described, their identities are still unknown. The present study was envisaged to isolate immunomodulatory proteins from raw garlic, and examine their effects on certain cells of the immune system (lymphocytes, mast cells, and basophils) in relation to mitogenicity and hypersensitivity. Three protein components of approximately 13 kD (QR-1, QR-2, and QR-3 in the ratio 7:28:1) were separated by Q-Sepharose chromatography of 30 kD ultrafiltrate of raw garlic extract. All the 3 proteins exhibited mitogenic activity towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes, murine splenocytes and thymocytes. The mitogenicity of QR-2 was the highest among the three immunomodulatory proteins. QR-1 and QR-2 displayed hemagglutination and mannose-binding activities; QR-3 showed only mannose-binding activity. Immunoreactivity of rabbit anti-QR-1 and anti-QR-2 polyclonal antisera showed specificity for their respective antigens as well as mutual cross-reactivity; QR-3 was better recognized by anti-QR-2 (82%) than by anti-QR-1 (55%). QR-2 induced a 2-fold higher histamine release in vitro from leukocytes of atopic subjects compared to that of non-atopic subjects. In all functional studies, QR-2 was more potent compared to QR-1. Taken together, all these results indicate that the two major proteins QR-2 and QR-1 present in a ratio of 4:1 in raw garlic contribute to garlic's immunomodulatory activity, and their characteristics are markedly similar to the abundant Allium sativum agglutinins (ASA) I and II, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Whole vitreous humor dissection for vitreodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-05-24

    The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection.

  12. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan

    2012-11-01

    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  13. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  14. [Humor in Medicine - The Art of Leaping Over the Shadows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Humor and laughter are integral parts of human life and communication - and so of course they occur in medical contacts.Humor is defined as a personality based cognitive emotional style of processing situations, characterized by the ability to find positive aspects even in negative situations, and the ability to communicate this point of view to others and to cheer them up. Humor can support healing processes and coping with illness. Humor and jokes reduce anxiety and stress (for patients and doctors). Humorous people have a more realistic, flexible and less fearful behaviour. Humor helps to overcome negative experience. Humor can help the patient to gain new views towards the disease and a healthy distance towards occurring symptoms. Humor improves the relationship between patient and doctor. But beware: jokes can also be used to express fears, aggression or shame. Therefore it is worthwhile to listen carefully to what patients want to express. Humor reduces the risk of burnout. In contact with patients, it is important to give their humor room, to use it and respond to it, more than making jokes. Humor can be trained. Humor training and creation of a humorous atmosphere in health care facilities should also be supported by health insurance funds, institutions' sponsors and public authorities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Mecanismos de humor verbal en Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simarro Vázquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to characterize samples of verbal humor published on the social network Twitter. To do so, an analysis of 81 humorous texts published under the hashtag #otegi during 1 March 2016, on which date Arnaldo Otegi was released from prison after six years, was carried out. A pragmatic study of the tweets was performed, opting for the General Theory of Verbal Humor as a basis. The examination conducted reveals that the manner of presentation of opposing scripts, the logical mechanisms availed of to resolve this kind of incongruity, the special narrative strategies selected and the linguistic choices made are determined at all times by the circumstances in which the texts are presented and the upper limit constraint of 140 characters per Twitter publication.

  16. Discovery of the target for immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Half a century ago, the sedative thalidomide caused a serious drug disaster because of its teratogenicity and was withdrawn from the market. However, thalidomide, which has returned to the market, is now used for the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma (MM) under strict control. The mechanism of thalidomide action had been a long-standing question. We developed a new affinity bead technology and identified cereblon (CRBN) as a thalidomide-binding protein. We found that CRBN functions as a substrate receptor of an E3 cullin-Ring ligase complex 4 (CRL4) and is a primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity. Recently, new thalidomide derivatives, called immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), have been developed by Celgene. Among them, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide (Pom) were shown to exert strong therapeutic effects against MM. It was found that Len and Pom both bind CRBN-CRL4 and recruit neomorphic substrates (Ikaros and Aiolos). More recently it was reported that casein kinase 1a (Ck1a) was identified as a substrate for CRBN-CRL4 in the presence of Len, but not Pom. Ck1a breakdown explains why Len is specifically effective for myelodysplastic syndrome with 5q deletion. It is now proposed that binding of IMiDs to CRBN appears to alter the substrate specificity of CRBN-CRL4. In this review, we introduce recent findings on IMiDs.

  17. [Uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis : Optimization of immunomodulatory therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligenhaus, A; Tappeiner, C; Walscheid, K; Heinz, C

    2016-05-01

    Uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA-associated uveitis) is a vision-threatening disorder with a high complication rate. Besides early diagnosis within screening programs an adequate therapy is essential for improvement of the long-term prognosis. Corticosteroid therapy is often insufficient. In addition to conventional immunosuppression, immunomodulatory drugs, so-called biologicals, are novel highly effective treatment modalities. A systematic search of the literature was carried out for biologicals currently used in the treatment of JIA-associated uveitis. Review of current publications, summary of treatment guidelines and discussion of treatment options for therapy refractive patients. In accordance with the current recommendations tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are administered if uveitis inactivity cannot be achieved with topical corticosteroids and in the next stage with immunosuppressants (methotrexate preferred). According to the currently available data adalimumab is then preferred. When the effectiveness of TNF inhibitors ceases during long-term administration and/or recurrences, other biological response modifiers are attractive treatment options (e. g. lymphocyte inhibitors or specific receptor antagonists). The TNF inhibitors are of major importance for the treatment of JIA-associated uveitis. Prospective studies and registries would be desirable in order to be able to compare the value of TNF inhibitors and other biologicals and for optimization of treatment recommendations.

  18. Immunomodulatory activity and partial characterisation of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Yi, Yang; Zhang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhen-Cheng; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Wei

    2014-08-29

    Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant's polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP) fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg-·d⁻¹ of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55×10⁴ Da and 4.41×10⁵ Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  19. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg−·d−1 of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55 × 104 Da and 4.41 × 105 Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  20. Humor comprehension and appreciation: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Angela; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nocetti, Luca; Baraldi, Patrizia; Nichelli, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Humor is a unique ability in human beings. Suls [A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons. In P. E. Goldstein & J. H. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humour. Theoretical perspectives and empirical issues. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 81-100] proposed a two-stage model of humor: detection and resolution of incongruity. Incongruity is generated when a prediction is not confirmed in the final part of a story. To comprehend humor, it is necessary to revisit the story, transforming an incongruous situation into a funny, congruous one. Patient and neuroimaging studies carried out until now lead to different outcomes. In particular, patient studies found that right brain-lesion patients have difficulties in humor comprehension, whereas neuroimaging studies suggested a major involvement of the left hemisphere in both humor detection and comprehension. To prevent activation of the left hemisphere due to language processing, we devised a nonverbal task comprising cartoon pairs. Our findings demonstrate activation of both the left and the right hemispheres when comparing funny versus nonfunny cartoons. In particular, we found activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and the left cerebellum. These areas were also activated in a nonverbal task exploring attribution of intention [Brunet, E., Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., & Decety, J. A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task. Neuroimage, 11, 157-166, 2000]. We hypothesize that the resolution of incongruity might occur through a process of intention attribution. We also asked subjects to rate the funniness of each cartoon pair. A parametric analysis showed that the left amygdala was activated in relation to subjective amusement. We hypothesize that the amygdala plays a key role in giving humor an emotional dimension.

  1. Bromfenac 0.09% bioavailability in aqueous humor, prophylactic effect on cystoid macular edema, and clinical signs of ocular inflammation after phacoemulsification in a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Palacio,1 Lourdes Fernández De Ortega,2 Francisco R Bustos,3 Eduardo Chávez,4 Aldo A Oregon-Miranda,5 Arieh R Mercado-Sesma5 1Anterior Segment Department, Fundación Hospital Nuestra Señora de la Luz, México City, México; 2Anterior Segment Department, Asociación Para Evitar la Ceguera en México, Hospital Dr Luis Sánchez Bulnes, México; 3Anterior Segment Department, Antiguo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; 4Anterior Segment Department, Instituto de Oftalmología, Fundación de Asistencia Privada Conde de Valenciana, IAP, México; 5Clinical Research Department, Laboratorios Sophia, SA de CV, Zapopan, Jalisco, México Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor bioavailability and clinical efficacy of bromfenac 0.09% vs nepafenac on the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME after phacoemulsification.Material and methods: A Phase II, double-blind, masked, active-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial of 139 subjects, randomized to either a bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution (n=69 or nepafenac 0.1% (n=70. Subjects instilled a drop three times a day for a period of 30 days. Follow-up visits were on days 2, 7, 15, 30, and 60. Biomicroscopy, clinical ocular signs, and assessment of posterior segment were performed. The primary efficacy endpoints included the presence of CME evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Safety evaluation included intraocular pressure, transaminase enzymes, lissamine green, and fluorescein stain.Results: The demographic and efficacy variables were similar between groups at baseline. The presence of pain, photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, cellularity, and corneal edema disappeared by day 30 in both groups. The central retinal thickness did not show significant changes after treatment when compared to baseline as follows: in the bromfenac group (247.2±32.9 vs 252.0±24.9 µm; P=0.958 and in nepafenac group (250.8±34

  2. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  3. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  4. Angustia y humor en Papelucho de Marcela Paz

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    Los estudios clásicos sobre el humor identifican una interrelación estrecha entre humor y angustia. En la serie narrativa Papelucho, esta interacción es constante en la trama de las distintas novelas. Este trabajo describe la interacción entre humor y angustia que se da en la obra y reflexiona sobre su sentido. Se concluye que la serie propone el humor como estrategia para enfrentar los hechos angustiantes ineludibles en la vida.

  5. "A Nigger Joke":Black Humor in Toni Morrison's Sula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宗诗

    2016-01-01

    #%With irony at its core, black humor is a weapon for the powerless to fight against those in power. In Sula, Morrison ex-ploits irony to reveal the oppression that racism and sexism impose upon the black people. This paper mainly intends to explore the black humor in Sula from verbal humor, ridiculous events and distorted characters, and analyze the function of black humor.

  6. Immunomodulatory interplay of the microbiome and therapy of rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Barbara E; Amsterdam, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Modulation of the immune system by microbes, especially from the gastrointestinal tract, is increasingly considered a key factor in the onset, course and outcome of rheumatic diseases. The interplay of the microbiome, along with genetic predisposition and environmental exposure, is thought to be an important trigger for rheumatic diseases. Improved identification of the relationship of disease-specific genetic alterations and rheumatic diseases has potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Treatment of rheumatic disorders is influenced by microbial actions but this interplay can be challenging due to variable and unpredictable responses to therapies. Expanded knowledge of the microbiome now allows clinicians to more precisely select ideal medication regimens and to predict response to and toxicity from drugs. Rheumatic diseases and associated therapies were among the earliest microbiome interactions investigated, yet it is notable that current research is focused on clinical and immunological associations but, in comparison, a limited number of studies regarding the microbiome's impact on treatment for rheumatic diseases have been published. In the coming years, further knowledge of immunomodulating interactions between the microbiome and the immune system will aid our understanding of autoimmunity and will be increasingly important in selection of therapeutic agents for patients with autoimmune and rheumatic diseases. In this review, recent literature regarding the bidirectional immunomodulatory effects of the microbiome with rheumatic diseases and current understanding and gaps regarding the drug-microbiome interface in the management of these disorders is presented.

  7. Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of PR-39 derived peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J A Veldhuizen

    Full Text Available The porcine cathelicidin PR-39 is a host defence peptide that plays a pivotal role in the innate immune defence of the pig against infections. Besides direct antimicrobial activity, it is involved in immunomodulation, wound healing and several other biological processes. In this study, the antimicrobial- and immunomodulatory activity of PR-39, and N- and C-terminal derivatives of PR-39 were tested. PR-39 exhibited an unexpected broad antimicrobial spectrum including several Gram positive strains such as Bacillus globigii and Enterococcus faecalis. Of organisms tested, only Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to PR-39. Truncation of PR-39 down to 15 (N-terminal amino acids did not lead to major loss of activity, while peptides corresponding to the C-terminal part of PR-39 were hampered in their antimicrobial activity. However, shorter peptides were all much more sensitive to inhibition by salt. Active peptides induced ATP leakage and loss of membrane potential in Bacillus globigii and Escherichia coli, indicating a lytic mechanism of action for these peptides. Finally, only the mature peptide was able to induce IL-8 production in porcine macrophages, but some shorter peptides also had an effect on TNF-α production showing differential regulation of cytokine induction by PR-39 derived peptides. None of the active peptides showed high cytotoxicity highlighting the potential of these peptides for use as an alternative to antibiotics.

  8. Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Activities of PR-39 Derived Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Schneider, Viktoria A. F.; Agustiandari, Herfita; van Dijk, Albert; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Johanna L. M.; Bikker, Floris J.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2014-01-01

    The porcine cathelicidin PR-39 is a host defence peptide that plays a pivotal role in the innate immune defence of the pig against infections. Besides direct antimicrobial activity, it is involved in immunomodulation, wound healing and several other biological processes. In this study, the antimicrobial- and immunomodulatory activity of PR-39, and N- and C-terminal derivatives of PR-39 were tested. PR-39 exhibited an unexpected broad antimicrobial spectrum including several Gram positive strains such as Bacillus globigii and Enterococcus faecalis. Of organisms tested, only Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to PR-39. Truncation of PR-39 down to 15 (N-terminal) amino acids did not lead to major loss of activity, while peptides corresponding to the C-terminal part of PR-39 were hampered in their antimicrobial activity. However, shorter peptides were all much more sensitive to inhibition by salt. Active peptides induced ATP leakage and loss of membrane potential in Bacillus globigii and Escherichia coli, indicating a lytic mechanism of action for these peptides. Finally, only the mature peptide was able to induce IL-8 production in porcine macrophages, but some shorter peptides also had an effect on TNF-α production showing differential regulation of cytokine induction by PR-39 derived peptides. None of the active peptides showed high cytotoxicity highlighting the potential of these peptides for use as an alternative to antibiotics. PMID:24755622

  9. "A joke a day keeps the doctor away?" Meta-analytical evidence of differential associations of habitual humor styles with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martha; Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2018-02-12

    Humor and mental health are interconnected as is evidenced by a large number of studies. However, associations are only small and inconsistent as the operationalization of humor poses a methodological challenge. The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) differentiates four humor styles that might be beneficial or harmful to mental health. The aim of the present study was to meta-analytically aggregate studies using the HSQ to assess the associations of different humor styles with four areas of mental health (self-esteem, life satisfaction, optimism, depression). An extensive electronic database literature search identified 37 studies that reported correlations between the HSQ scales and the four areas of mental health in 45 independent samples (total N = 12,734). In total, 16 meta-analyses were conducted. Moderating effects of participant age, sex, and geographic region were examined via subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Humor styles differed in terms of their associations with mental health. Health-promoting humor styles were overall positively correlated with mental health (small-to-medium effect sizes). Self-defeating humor was overall negatively correlated with mental health. Aggressive humor was overall unrelated with mental health. Moderator analyses suggested geographic differences (Eastern vs. Western samples) and sex differences for some of these associations. Fostering specific humor styles may be beneficial for mental health. In addition, observing the habitual use of humor styles might help therapists to develop a better understanding of their clients. Differences in the utilization and the correlates of humor styles in Eastern and Western societies, and sex differences, need to be addressed in future research. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  11. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  12. Humor in Human-Computer Interaction : A Short Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Niculescu, Andreea; Valitutti, Alessandro; Banchs, Rafael E.; Joshi, Anirudha; Balkrishan, Devanuj K.; Dalvi, Girish; Winckler, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a short survey on humor in human-computer interaction. It describes how humor is designed and interacted with in social media, virtual agents, social robots and smart environments. Benefits and future use of humor in interactions with artificial entities are discussed based on

  13. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  15. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  16. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  17. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  18. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  19. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  20. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)