WorldWideScience

Sample records for humoral antibody responses

  1. Effects of deceleration on the humoral antibody response in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, R. P.; Caren, L. D.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of hypergravity, simulated by chronic centrifugation, followed by a return to normal G (deceleration) on the immune system of rats were investigated. Two groups of male rats (28 days at 2.1 G, and 3.1 G) were compared to the control group (1.0 G). The animals were immunized by i.p. injections of sheep red blood cells on days 29, 42, and 57, and bled on days 36, 47, and 62. While the centrifuged rats ate and gainedsignificantly less than the control rats, the antibody titers and the organ/body mass ratios for the adrenal glands, kidneys, lungs, heart, and thymus were unaffected by gravity exposures, as were the values of the hematocrit and the white blood cell counts. It is concluded that deceleration does not adversely affect these particular aspects of the immune system.

  2. Porcine humoral immune responses to multiple injections of murine monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Kamstrup, Søren

    2005-01-01

    In humans and cattle, multiple injections of murine monoclonal antibodies (m-mAbs) induce anti-mouse antibody responses. The objectives of the present. study were to investigate whether a similar response could be seen when pigs were subjected to m-mAb therapy, and to study the kinetics of such a...

  3. Humoral Immune Response Kinetics in Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis Infected and Immunized by Trypanosoma cruzi Employing an Immunofluorescence Antibody Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Legey

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. In order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Both didelphids responded with high serological titers to different immunization routes, while the earliest response occurred with the intradermic route. Serological titers of naturally infected P. opossum showed a significant individual variation, while those of D. marsupialis remained stable during the entire follow-up period. The serological titers of the experimentally infected animals varied according to the inoculated strain. Our data suggest that (1 IFAT was sensitive for follow-up of P. opossum in natural and experimental T. cruzi infections; (2 both P. opossum and D. marsupialis are able to mount an efficient humoral immune response as compared to placental mammals; (3 experimentally infected P. opossum and D. marsupialis present distinct patterns of infection, depending on the subpopulation of T. cruzi, (4 the differences observed in the humoral immune responses between P. opossum and D. marsupialis, probably, reflect distinct strategies selected by these animals during their coevolution with T. cruzi.

  4. Adoptive transfer of natural antibodies to non-immunized chickens affects subsequent antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Klomp, M.E.V.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    To determine a regulatory function of natural antibodies in the immune response of chickens, pooled plasma obtained from non-immunized (naive) 15 months old hens was subjected to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen-affinity chromatography. Purified KLH-binding antibodies were adoptively

  5. Chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells show line-specific differences in sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet. Part I: Humoral parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaansen-Tennekes, R; de Vries Reilingh, G; Nieuwland, M G B; Parmentier, H K; Savelkoul, H F J

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based differential immune competence. The parental line of these hens was randomly bred as the control line and was used as well. Recently, we showed that these selection lines differ in their stress reactivity; the low line birds show a higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. To examine maternal effects and neonatal nutritional exposure on nutrient sensitivity, we studied 2 subsequent generations. This also created the opportunity to examine egg production in these birds. The 3 lines were fed 2 different nutritionally complete layer feeds for a period of 22 wk in the first generation. The second generation was fed from hatch with the experimental diets. At several time intervals, parameters reflecting humoral immunity were determined such as specific antibody to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease vaccines; levels of natural antibodies binding lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin; and classical and alternative complement activity. The most pronounced dietary-induced effects were found in the low line birds of the first generation: specific antibody titers to Newcastle disease vaccine were significantly elevated by 1 of the 2 diets. In the second generation, significant differences were found in lipoteichoic acid natural antibodies of the control and low line hens. At the end of the observation period of egg parameters, a significant difference in egg weight was found in birds of the high line. Our results suggest that nutritional differences have immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive humoral immune parameters in birds with high HPA axis reactivity and affect egg production in birds with low HPA axis reactivity.

  6. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis)

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, Trijoedani

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed th...

  7. Prevalence of antibodies and humoral response after seasonal trivalent vaccination against influenza B lineages in an elderly population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan Sanz; Rello, Silvia Rojo; Lejarazu, Raúl Ortiz de

    2017-11-24

    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of antibodies against both Yamagata and Victoria influenza B lineages and to check the response after seasonal trivalent vaccination. Haemagglutination inhibition assays were performed with pre-and post-vaccination serum samples from 174 individuals ≥65 years of age vaccinated with seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines during the 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 vaccine campaigns. 33.9% of individuals showed pre-vaccine protective antibodies (≥1/40) against B/Yamagata lineage and 41.4% against B/Victoria lineage. The annual trivalent vaccine induced significant homologous seroconversion in 14-35.6% of individuals in each vaccine campaign. The population ≥65 years has low-moderate seroprotection against B influenza lineages. Trivalent vaccination induced a slight increase of seroprotection. The trivalent vaccine should be administered to all individuals ≥65 years in all vaccine campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetics of the avian influenza-specific humoral responses in lung are indicative of local antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, de E.D.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Vervelde, L.

    2012-01-01

    The role and kinetics of respiratory immunoglobulins in AIV infection has not been investigated. In this study we determined the numbers of both total antibody secreting cells (ASC) and virus-specific ASC in lung, spleen, blood and bone marrow (BM) following low-pathogenic AIV infection. Antiviral

  9. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  10. Humoral immune response to AAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eCalcedo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV is a member of the family parvoviridae that has been widely used as a vector for gene therapy because of its safety profile, its ability to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells, and its low immunogenicity. AAV has been detected in many different tissues of several animal species but has not been associated with any disease. As a result of natural infections, antibodies to AAV can be found in many animals including humans. It has been shown that pre-existing AAV antibodies can modulate the safety and efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy by blocking vector transduction or by redirecting distribution of AAV vectors to tissues other than the target organ. This review will summarize antibody responses against natural AAV infections, as well as AAV gene therapy vectors and their impact in the clinical development of AAV vectors for gene therapy. We will also review and discuss the various methods used for AAV antibody detection and strategies to overcome neutralizing antibodies in AAV-mediated gene therapy.

  11. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Humoral response markers in GCK MODY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała-Zamorowska, Eliza; Deja, Grażyna; Borowiec, Maciej; Fendler, Wojciech; Małachowska, Beata; Kamińska, Halla; Wyka, Krystyna; Młynarski, Wojciech; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to pancreatic islets in monogenic diabetes remains unknown and the incidence estimation is difficult as the occurrence of autoantibodies in patient is one of the well-known exclusion criteria for further genetic diagnostics. They has been found not only among patients with type 1 diabetes, but also in other types of diabetes: Type 2 diabetes, Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) (16) and monogenic diabetes (MD). Immunological characteristic of GCK MODY patients. The study group included families of 27 adolescent patients with GCK MODY (39 parents and 19 siblings) monitored in the Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology and Diabetes and in the Diabetes Clinic of John Paul II Upper Silesian Child Health Centre in Katowice in the years 2007-2012. All patients and family members with GCK MODY underwent a blood sample drawing for immunological (classic humoral response markers: ICA, GAD, IA-2, IAA) and biochemical diagnostics. Pediatric, diabetes and family medical history was collected from the subjects and parents. Immunological diagnostics was performed in all patients except 1 (96.3%). Immunological diagnostics included 17 (89.5%) parents and 7 (87.5%) siblings with diagnosed GCK MODY. 8 (30.8%) adolescent patients with GCK MODY, 3 subjects (17.64%) among parents (with GCK MODY), as well as 2 subjects (28.57%) among siblings (with GCK MODY) showed a positive antibodies screen. The results of our study in children with GCK MODY and their family members suggest that the occurrence of classic antibodies directed against pancreatic islets antigens is fairly common in patients with GCK MODY. Despite various observations and many legitimate discussions, it is difficult to clarify the pathogenesis of the occurrence of autoantibodies in monogenic diabetes. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  13. Maternal antibody transfer can lead to suppression of humoral immunity in developing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transferred antibodies have been documented in a wide range of taxa and are thought to adaptively provide protection against parasites and pathogens while the offspring immune system is developing. In most birds, transfer occurs when females deposit immunoglobulin Y into the egg yolk, and it is proportional to the amount in the female's plasma. Maternal antibodies can provide short-term passive protection as well as specific and nonspecific immunological priming, but high levels of maternal antibody can result in suppression of the offspring's humoral immune response. We injected adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with one of two antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) or a control and then injected offspring with LPS, KLH, or a control on days 5 and 28 posthatch to examine the impact of maternally transferred antibodies on the ontogeny of the offspring's humoral immune system. We found that offspring of females exposed to KLH had elevated levels of KLH-reactive antibody over the first 17-28 days posthatch but reduced KLH-specific antibody production between days 28 and 36. We also found that offspring exposed to either LPS or KLH exhibited reduced total antibody levels, compared to offspring that received a control injection. These results indicate that high levels of maternal antibodies or antigen exposure during development can have negative repercussions on short-term antibody production and may have long-term fitness repercussions for the offspring.

  14. Chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells show line-specific differences in sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet. Part I: Humoral parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaansen-Tennekes, R.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Parmentier, H.K.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based

  15. Antibody response in cattle after vaccination with inactivated and attenuated rabies vaccines Resposta imune humoral anti-rábica em bovinos imunizados com vacina inativada e atenuada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Cássia RODRIGUES da SILVA

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the absence of current official reports showing the number of cattle infected by rabies, it is estimated that nearly 30,000 bovines are lost each year in Brazil. In order to minimize the important economic losses, control of the disease is achieved by eliminating bat colonies and by herd vaccination. In this study, we compare the antibody response in cattle elicited by vaccination with an attenuated ERA vaccine (AEvac and an inactivated-adjuvanted PV (IPVvac vaccine. The antibody titers were appraised by cell-culture neutralization test and ELISA, and the percentage of seropositivity was ascertained for a period of 180 days. IPVvac elicited complete seropositivity rates from day 30 to day 150, and even on day 180, 87% of the sera showed virus-neutralizing antibody titers (VNA higher than 0.5IU/ml. There were no significant differences between the VNA titers and seropositivity rates obtained with IPVvac in the two methods tested. AEvac, however, elicited significantly lower titers than those observed in the group receiving inactivated vaccine. In addition, the profiles of antirabies IgG antibodies, evaluated by ELISA, and VNA, appraised by cell-culture neutralization test, were slightly different, when both vaccines were compared.A raiva bovina, transmitida principalmente pelo morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus, é endêmica em várias regiões do Brasil, com um crescente número de casos sendo registrados anualmente. O controle desta infecção em bovinos é feito pelo controle de colônias de morcegos hematófagos e pela vacinação dos rebanhos. Embora as vacinas inativadas sejam mais seguras e mais estáveis que as vacinas atenuadas, estas últimas são ainda amplamente utilizadas em muitas regiões do país, por se acreditar que confiram imunidade mais duradoura. Neste estudo, foram comparadas as respostas anticórpicas de dois grupos de bovinos imunizados com uma vacina atenuada e uma inativada disponíveis comercialmente. Os

  16. MF59- and Al(OH3-adjuvanted Staphylococcus aureus (4C-Staph vaccines induce sustained protective humoral and cellular immune responses, with a critical role for effector CD4 T cells at low antibody titers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMonaci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen that may cause invasive life-threatening infections like sepsis and pneumonia. Due to increasing antibiotic-resistance, the development of an effective vaccine against S. aureus is needed. Although a correlate of protection against staphylococcal diseases is not yet established, several findings suggest that both antibodies and CD4 T cells might contribute to optimal immunity. In this study, we show that adjuvanting a multivalent vaccine (4C-Staph with MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion licensed in human vaccines, further potentiated antigen-specific IgG titers and CD4 T cell responses compared to alum and conferred protection in the peritonitis model of S. aureus infection. Moreover, we showed that MF59- and alum-adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines induced persistent antigen-specific humoral and T cell responses, and protected mice from infection up to 4 months after immunization. Furthermore, 4C-Staph formulated with MF59 was used to investigate which immune compartment is involved in vaccine-induced protection. Using CD4 T cell-depleted mice or B cell deficient mice, we demonstrated that both T and B cell responses contributed to 4C-Staph vaccine-mediated protective immunity. However, the role of CD4 T cells seemed more evident in the presence of low antibody responses. This study provides preclinical data further supporting the use of the adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines against S. aureus diseases, and provides critical insights on the correlates of protective immunity necessary to combat this pathogen.

  17. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensdorff-Pouilly, Silvia von; Moreno, Maria; Verheijen, René H. M.

    2011-01-01

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer

  18. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensdorff-Pouilly, Silvia von, E-mail: s.vonmensdorff@vumc.nl; Moreno, Maria [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); Verheijen, René H. M. [Department of Woman & Baby, Division of Surgical & Oncological Gynaecology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-29

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer.

  19. Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term humoral antibody responses by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with oocysts of four strains of Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Andrews, C.D.; Thulliez, P.

    1997-01-01

    Antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 16 pigs orally inoculated with 1000 or 10000 oocysts of one of the four strains (GT-1, ME-49, TS-2, TC-2) of T. gondii. Pigs were euthanized on postinoculation days 103-875 and their tissues were bioassayed for T. gondii. Antibody titers wer...

  1. Ageing and the humoral immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankwater, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)

  2. Humoral and cellular immune responses to synthetic peptides of the Leishmania donovani kinetoplastid membrane protein-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Gasim, S; Ismail, A

    1998-01-01

    as solid-phase ligands in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and as stimulating antigens in lymphoproliferative assays in order to evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to well-defined sequences of the protein. Antibody reactivity against the three peptides was measured in plasma from 63...

  3. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate that the vaccine induced both a humoral and cellular ... Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Plasmid DNA, Vaccine, Spleen cytokines, Humoral and cellular immune responses ... produced in mice. ... were performed and HBsAg specific IgM and IgG ..... and protection elicited against Plasmodium berghei.

  4. [Detection of leptospira by culture of vitreous humor and detection of antibodies against leptospira in vitreous humor and serum of 225 horses with equine recurrent uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU.

  5. Humoral immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in former very low birth weight preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Schlindwein Mariano Ferreira; Maria Cristina Abrão Aued Perin; Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto; Raquel Maria Simão-Gurge; Ana Lucia Goulart; Lily Yin Weckx; Amélia Miyashiro Nunes dos Santos

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Immune response to vaccination in infants born prematurely may be lower than in infants born at full-term. Some clinical factors might be associated with humoral immune response. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in infants born prematurely with those born at full-term and to analyze factors associated with measles and varicella antibody levels. Methods: Prospective study including two groups o...

  6. Mechanisms of humoral immune response against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauch, Renan Marrichi; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus

    2018-01-01

    P. aeruginosa chronic lung infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and is characterized by a biofilm mode of growth, increased levels of specific IgG antibodies and immune complex formation. However, despite being designed to combat...... this infection, such elevated humoral response is not associated with clinical improvement, pointing to a lack of anti-pseudomonas effectiveness. The mode of action of specific antibodies, as well as their structural features, and even the background involving B-cell production, stimulation and differentiation...... into antibody-producing cells in the CF airways are poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this review is to discuss studies that have addressed the intrinsic features of the humoral immune response and provide new insights regarding its insufficiency in the CF context....

  7. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy.While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity.These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  8. Genetic control of the humoral immune response to avian egg white lysozymes in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Chickens from two closely related sublines, GHs-B6 and GHs-B13, differing serologically at the major histocompatibility complex, were significantly different in their humoral response to three avian egg white lysozymes. Specific antisera levels were measured by radioimmunoassay using 125 I-labeled lysozymes. Antibodies elicited in response to these lysozymes are assumed to be directed against sites on these lysozymes where their amino acid sequence differs from that of the recipient G. domesticus egg white lysozyme (HEL). GHs-B6 birds produced a high level of antibody in response to immunization of turkey (TEL), pheasant (PhL) and guinea hen (GHL) lysozymes. GHs-B13 birds produced no detectable antibody to TEL, were intermediate in their response to PhL and equaled the antibody production of GHs-B6 birds in response to GHL. Antisera to each lysozyme were examined for crossreactivity with all other lysozymes by use of a competitive binding assay

  9. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  10. Immunity to rhabdoviruses in rainbow trout: the antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lapatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    to their occasional detrimental effect on rainbow trout farming. Research efforts have been focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in protective immunity. Several specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral parameters are believed to be involved, but only the antibody response has been characterised......, have demonstrated that rainbow trout can produce specific and highly functional antibodies that are able to neutralise virus pathogenicity in vitro as well as in vivo. The apparently more restricted antibody response to IHNV and VHSV antigens in fish compared to mammals could possibly be explained...... aspects of antibody response and antibody reactivity with IHNV and VHSV antigens....

  11. T cell-derived Lymphotoxin is Essential for anti-HSV-1 Humoral Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaiting; Liang, Yong; Sun, Zhichen; Xue, Diyuan; Xu, Hairong; Zhu, Mingzhao; Fu, Yang-Xin; Peng, Hua

    2018-05-09

    B cell-derived lymphotoxin (LT) is required for the development of follicular dendritic cell clusters for the formation of primary and secondary lymphoid follicles, but the role of T cell-derived LT in antibody response has not been well demonstrated. We observed that lymphotoxin-β-receptor (LTβR) signaling is essential for optimal humoral immune response and protection against an acute HSV-1 infection. Blocking the LTβR pathway caused poor maintenance of germinal center B (GC-B) cells and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Using bone marrow chimeric mice and adoptive transplantation, we determined that T cell-derived LT played an indispensable role in the humoral immune response to HSV-1. Up-regulation of IFNγ by the LTβR-Ig blockade impairs the sustainability of Tfh-like cells, thus leading to an impaired humoral immune response. Our findings have identified a novel role of T cell-derived LT in the humoral immune response against HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Immunocompromised people are susceptible for HSV-1 infection and lethal recurrence, which could be inhibited by anti-HSV-1 humoral immune response in the host. This study sought to explore the role of T cell-derived LT in the anti-HSV-1 humoral immune response using LT-LTβR signaling deficient mice and the LTβR-Ig blockade. The data indicate that the T cell-derived LT may play an essential role in sustaining Tfh-like cells and ensure Tfh-like cells' migration into primary or secondary follicles for further maturation. This study provides insights for vaccine development against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Humoral Immune Responses in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is widely distributed in the world and associated with a still increasing number of acute, chronic, malignant and autoimmune disease syndromes. Humoral immune responses to EBV have been studied for diagnostic, pathogenic and protective (vaccine) purposes. These studies use a range of methodologies, from cell-based immunofluorescence testing to antibody-diversity analysis using immunoblot and epitope analysis using recombinant or synthetic peptide-scanning. First, the individual EBV antigen complexes (VCA , MA, EA(D), EA(R) and EBNA) are defined at cellular and molecular levels, providing a historic overview. The characteristic antibody responses to these complexes in health and disease are described, and differences are highlighted by clinical examples. Options for EBV vaccination are briefly addressed. For a selected number of immunodominant proteins, in particular EBNA1, the interaction with human antibodies is further detailed at the epitope level, revealing interesting insights for structure, function and immunological aspects, not considered previously. Humoral immune responses against EBV-encoded tumour antigens LMP1, LMP2 and BARF1 are addressed, which provide novel options for targeted immunotherapy. Finally, some considerations on EBV-linked autoimmune diseases are given, and mechanisms of antigen mimicry are briefly discussed. Further analysis of humoral immune responses against EBV in health and disease in carefully selected patient cohorts will open new options for understanding pathogenesis of individual EBV-linked diseases and developing targeted diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  13. Clinical factors associated with the humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath KD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karthik D Nath,1,2 Julie G Burel,1 Viswanathan Shankar,3 Antonia L Pritchard,1 Michelle Towers,2 David Looke,1,2 Janet M Davies,1 John W Upham1,2 1The University of Queensland (School of Medicine, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background and objective: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are at a high risk of developing significant complications from infection with the influenza virus. It is therefore vital to ensure that prophylaxis with the influenza vaccine is effective in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of the 2010 trivalent influenza vaccine in persons with COPD compared to healthy subjects without lung disease, and to examine clinical factors associated with the serological response to the vaccine. Methods: In this observational study, 34 subjects (20 COPD, 14 healthy received the 2010 influenza vaccine. Antibody titers at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination were measured using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI assay. Primary endpoints included seroconversion (≥4-fold increase in antibody titers from baseline and the fold increase in antibody titer after vaccination. Results: Persons with COPD mounted a significantly lower humoral immune response to the influenza vaccine compared to healthy participants. Seroconversion occurred in 90% of healthy participants, but only in 43% of COPD patients (P=0.036. Increasing age and previous influenza vaccination were associated with lower antibody responses. Antibody titers did not vary significantly with cigarette smoking, presence of other comorbid diseases, or COPD severity. Conclusion: The humoral immune response to the 2010 influenza vaccine was lower in persons with COPD compared to non-COPD controls. The antibody response also declined with increasing age and in those with

  14. Evaluation of antibody responses in american visceral leishmaniasis by ELISA and immunoblot Avaliação da resposta imune humoral na leishmaniose visceral americana pelos métodos ELISA e "immunoblot"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Evans

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL is an important disease among children of northeast Brazil. In order to characterize antibody responses during AVL, sera of hospitalized patients were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot using a Leishmania chagasi antigen preparation. The ELISA was positive (asorbance [greater than or equals to] 0.196 at a serum dilution of 1:1024 in all patients at presentation, and fell to ward control levels over the following year. Only one of 72 control subjects tested positive, and that donor had a sibling with AVL. Immunoblots of the patients' sera recognized multiple bands, the most frequent of which were at approximately 116 kDa, 70 kDa, and 26 kDa. Less frenquently observed were bands at approximately 93 kDa, 74 kDa, 62 kDa, 46 kDa and 32 kDa. The ELISA responses and patterns of banding were distinctive for AVL, and could be used to differentiate patients with AVL from those with Chagas' disease of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sera from six AVL patients followed for up to six weeks after treatment identified no new bands. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of surface iodinated parasite proteins showed one major band and four minor bands, whereas SDS-PAGE of biotinylated prarasite proteins revealed a banding pattern similar to those of patient sera. AVL appears to produce characteristic immunoblot patterns which can be used along with a sensitive screening ELISA to diagnose AVL.A leishmaniose visceral americana é uma doença importante entre crianças do nordeste do Brasil. Com o objetivo de caracterizar a resposta imune humoral durante o curso da doença, foram analisados soros de pacientes hospitalizados, pelos métodos ELISA e Western blot, usando-se preparaçöes de antígenos de Leishmania donovani chagasi. O teste de ELISA foi positivo (absorbância > 0,196, numa diluiçäo de 1: 1024, em todos os pacientes no início da doença, diminuindo no decorrer do ano, para os níveis dos

  15. Failure of orally administered attenuated goose parvovirus strain B to induce a humoral immune response in adult geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Kelemen, M

    1981-01-01

    Two-month-old geese responded with the production of virus neutralising antibodies against virulent goose parvovirus strain B administered either per os or intramuscularly. They were shedding the virus within a short period after exposure. Humoral immune response in geese of the same age was induced by the attenuated goose parvovirus strain B only by intramuscular injection but not with per os administration.

  16. The Hepatitis C Virus Glycan Shield and Evasion of the Humoral Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the induction of effective immune responses, 80% of hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected individuals progress from acute to chronic hepatitis. In contrast to the cellular immune response, the role of the humoral immune response in HCV clearance is still subject to debate. Indeed, HCV escapes neutralizing antibodies in chronically infected patients and reinfection has been described in human and chimpanzee. Studies of antibody-mediated HCV neutralization have long been hampered by the lack of cell-culture-derived virus and the absence of a small animal model. However, the development of surrogate models and recent progress in HCV propagation in vitro now enable robust neutralization assays to be performed. These advances are beginning to shed some light on the mechanisms of HCV neutralization. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the viral targets of anti-HCV-neutralizing antibodies and the mechanisms that enable HCV to evade the humoral immune response. The recent description of the HCV glycan shield that reduces the immunogenicity of envelope proteins and masks conserved neutralizing epitopes at their surface constitutes the major focus of this review.

  17. Pleurodeles Waltl Humoral Immune Response under Spaceflight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascove, Matthieu; Touche, Nadege; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2008-06-01

    The immune system is an important regulatory mechanism affected by spaceflights. In a previous work, we performed a first study of the humoral immune response induced by the immunization of Pleurodeles waltl during a 5 months stay onboard the Mir space station. This analysis indicated that heavy-chain variable domains of specific IgM are encoded by genes of the VHII and VHVI families. However, the contributions of these two families to IgM heavy-chains are different in flown animals [1]. To better understand this immune response modification, we have now determined how individual VH genes have been used to build specific IgM binding sites in animals immunized on earth or in space. This new study revealed quantitative and qualitative modifications in VH genes expression. These data confirm that a spaceflight might affect the humoral response.

  18. Specific Nongluten Proteins of Wheat Are Novel Target Antigens in Celiac Disease Humoral Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While the antigenic specificity and pathogenic relevance of immunologic reactivity to gluten in celiac disease have been extensively researched, the immune response to nongluten proteins of wheat has not been characterized. We aimed to investigate the level and molecular specificity of antibody response to wheat nongluten proteins in celiac disease. Serum samples from patients and controls were screened for IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to a nongluten protein extract from the wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Butte 86. Antibodies were further analyzed for reactivity to specific nongluten proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Immunoreactive molecules were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to nongluten proteins. The main immunoreactive nongluten antibody target proteins were identified as serpins, purinins, α-amylase/protease inhibitors, globulins, and farinins. Assessment of reactivity toward purified recombinant proteins further confirmed the presence of antibody response to specific antigens. The results demonstrate that, in addition to the well-recognized immune reaction to gluten, celiac disease is associated with a robust humoral response directed at a specific subset of the nongluten proteins of wheat. PMID:25329597

  19. Saccharomyces boulardii improves humoral immune response to DNA vaccines against leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marcelle Moura; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Mendonça, Marcelo; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia; Da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo Pouey; Conrad, Neida Lucia; Oliveira, Patrícia Diaz de; Hartwig, Daiane Drawanz; De Leon, Priscila Marques Moura; Moreira, Ângela Nunes

    2017-02-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii may improve the immune response by enhancing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, T-cell proliferation and dendritic cell activation. The immunomodulator effect of this probiotic has never been tested with DNA vaccines, which frequently induce low antibody titers. This study evaluated the capacity of Saccharomyces boulardii to improve the humoral and cellular immune responses using DNA vaccines coding for the leptospiral protein fragments LigAni and LigBrep. BALB/c mice were fed with rodent-specific feed containing 108 c.f.u. of Saccharomycesboulardii per gram. Animals were immunized three times intramuscularly with 100 µg of pTARGET plasmids containing the coding sequences for the above mentioned proteins. Antibody titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Expression levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ and TGF-β were determined by quantitative real-time PCR from RNA extracted from whole blood, after an intraperitoneal boost with 50 µg of the recombinant proteins.Results/Key findings. Antibody titers increased significantly after the second and third application when pTARGET/ligAni and pTARGET/ligBrep were used to vaccinate the animals in comparison with the control group (PSaccharomyces boulardii. The results suggested that Saccharomyces boulardii has an immunomodulator effect in DNA vaccines, mainly by stimulating the humoral response, which is often limited in this kind of vaccine. Therefore, the use of Saccharomyces boulardii as immunomodulator represents a new alternative strategy for more efficient DNA vaccination.

  20. Chronic low-level tritium contamination effects on humoral immune response in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcu, I.; Bejan, A.; Stinga, A.

    1993-01-01

    Using an adaptation of the radioimmunoassay technique, the present study reports on immunochemical parameters of the antibodies synthesized in vivo against bovine serum albumin by rats previously exposed to long-term internal contamination with tritiated water. The corresponding dose range of the irradiation was between 0.6 and 6.2 mGy. A slight increase of a affinity constant of the antibodies produced by the irradiated organisms was found. This experimental fact might sustain the hypothesis of a humoral immune response associated to adaptation increase in cell renewal mechanisms, rather than to selective cell deletion. We also observed a total dissimilarity between the modifications induced by chronic low-dose irradiation and those induced by physiological aging. For old rats the concentration of antibodies is higher by almost an order of magnitude, but they are much less efficient as the decreased value of the affinity constant indicates. (Author)

  1. Profiling Humoral Immune Responses to Clostridium difficile-Specific Antigens by Protein Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Ola H; Hamed, Mohamed R; Dilnot, Elizabeth M; Shone, Clifford C; Marszalowska, Izabela; Lynch, Mark; Loscher, Christine E; Edwards, Laura J; Tighe, Patrick J; Wilcox, Mark H; Monaghan, Tanya M

    2015-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, and spore-forming bacterium that is the leading worldwide infective cause of hospital-acquired and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Several studies have reported associations between humoral immunity and the clinical course of C. difficile infection (CDI). Host humoral immune responses are determined using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Herein, we report the first use of a novel protein microarray assay to determine systemic IgG antibody responses against a panel of highly purified C. difficile-specific antigens, including native toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB, respectively), recombinant fragments of toxins A and B (TxA4 and TxB4, respectively), ribotype-specific surface layer proteins (SLPs; 001, 002, 027), and control proteins (tetanus toxoid and Candida albicans). Microarrays were probed with sera from a total of 327 individuals with CDI, cystic fibrosis without diarrhea, and healthy controls. For all antigens, precision profiles demonstrated ELISA in the quantification of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG. These results indicate that microarray is a suitable assay for defining humoral immune responses to C. difficile protein antigens and may have potential advantages in throughput, convenience, and cost. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Humoral and Cellular Response of Pheasants Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease and Haemorrhagic Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Graczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to define whether and to what extent can prophylactic vaccinations against Newcastle disease (ND and haemorrhagic enteritis (HE affect the humoral and cellular response in pheasants. The evaluation of humoral response was performed on a basis of agglutinin titre after administered antigen and the cellular immunity index was the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction. The pheasants were prophylactically vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND on the 1st, 28th and 56th day of life. Moreover, on the 49th day of life, part of the birds was given in the drinking water a vaccine containing the HEV (Haemorrhagic Enteritis Virus. Fourteen days after the HEV vaccination, the birds were intravenously given 0.5 ml of the 10% SRBC (sheep red blood cells suspension. Simultaneously with the SRBC administration the delayed hypersensitivity test was performed by intradermal administration of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA. It was shown that in pheasants vaccinated with NDV and additionally with HEV, the specific agglutinin anti-SRBC titre was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than in birds vaccinated against ND only. It also appeared that, the antibodies resistant to 2-mercaptoethanol were 43% of the total pool of specific anti-SRBC antibodies in the NDV vaccinated birds, whereas in birds vaccinated also with HEV they were 75%. No significant differences were found in the DTH test. Only in the HEV vaccinated pheasants the tendency to increase the wing index value was noted. The results confirm the observations concerning immunosuppressive effects of simultaneous vaccinations. They also indicate that overloading the pheasants with many antigens (ND and HEV vaccination may weaken the humoral response to administered SRBC.

  3. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  4. Potential use of local and systemic humoral immune response parameters to forecast Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae associated lung lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morante, Beatriz; Segalés, Joaquim; Fraile, Lorenzo; Llardén, Gemma; Coll, Teresa; Sibila, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Immunopathological events are key for the development of enzootic pneumonia (EP), which is macroscopically observed as cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC). This study aimed to investigate the putative association between the humoral immune response against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) and prevalence and extension of CVPC in 1) experimentally infected pigs, 2) slaughtered pigs and 3) sequentially necropsied pigs in a longitudinal study. CVPC was scored by means of the European Pharmacopoeia recommended methodology. Specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were assessed in serum. In addition, mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies were analyzed in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from experimentally challenged pigs. The systemic humoral immune response in experimentally infected pigs was delayed in onset whereas humoral respiratory mucosal immune response appeared more rapidly but declined earlier. Although low, BALF IgG antibodies showed the highest correlation with CVPC scores (r = 0.49, phyopneumoniae seropositive farms compared to the seronegative ones (phyopneumoniae.

  5. Giardiasis in mice: analysis of humoral and cellular immune responses to Giardia muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, R F; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Mitchell, G F

    1982-01-01

    Humoral and cellular immune responses have been evaluated in two inbred strains of mice which differ markedly in their susceptibility to infection with Giardia muris. Serum IgG and IgA antibody levels and IgA levels in intestinal washes were determined by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay using G. muris antigen prepared by sonication of trophozoites, while cell-mediated immunity was assessed by a radiometric ear-assay for delayed-type hypersensitivity. Following infection of BALB/c mice (resistant) and C3H/He mice (susceptible), the IgG and IgA antibody levels in serum progressively increased over the period of study with C3H/He mice having significantly higher titres of IgA antibodies than BALB/c late in the infection. Systemic immunization with G. muris trophozoites resulted in high titres of IgG antibodies in the serum. IgA antibodies were detected in intestinal washes 2 weeks after infection with a subsequent fall in levels in BALB/c mice but a progressive increase levels in C3H/He mice. Prior immunization resulted in IgA antibodies being detected earlier in the intestinal washings after a challenge infection. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to G. muris antigens could not be detected during an infection but a positive response was elicited following antigen priming in mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. The immune responses evaluated in this study were assessed using a whole G. muris trophozoite sonicate and variations in the quantitative aspects of the responses did not account for observed differences in the course of infection in the two strains of mice.

  6. African Trypanosomes Undermine Humoral Responses and Vaccine Development: Link with Inflammatory Responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Stijlemans

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease of great medical and socioeconomical importance. It is caused by strictly extracellular protozoan parasites capable of infecting all vertebrate classes including human, livestock, and game animals. To survive within their mammalian host, trypanosomes have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms and manipulate the entire host immune response, including the humoral response. This report provides an overview of how trypanosomes initially trigger and subsequently undermine the development of an effective host antibody response. Indeed, results available to date obtained in both natural and experimental infection models show that trypanosomes impair homeostatic B-cell lymphopoiesis, B-cell maturation and survival and B-cell memory development. Data on B-cell dysfunctioning in correlation with parasite virulence and trypanosome-mediated inflammation will be discussed, as well as the impact of trypanosomosis on heterologous vaccine efficacy and diagnosis. Therefore, new strategies aiming at enhancing vaccination efficacy could benefit from a combination of (i early parasite diagnosis, (ii anti-trypanosome (drugs treatment, and (iii anti-inflammatory treatment that collectively might allow B-cell recovery and improve vaccination.

  7. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin modulate mouse humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Leiro, J; Delgado, R; Sanmartín, M L; Ubeira, F M

    2003-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of orally administered Vimang (an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica) and mangiferin (the major polyphenol present in Vimang) on mouse antibody responses induced by inoculation with spores of microsporidian parasites. Inoculation induced specific antibody production with an exponential timecourse, peaking after about one month. Vimang significantly inhibited this antibody production from about three weeks post-inoculation, and most markedly by four weeks post-inoculation; by contrast, mangiferin had no significant effect. Determination of Ig isotypes showed that the IgM to IgG switch began about four weeks post-inoculation, with IgG2a predominating. Vimang significantly inhibited IgG production, but had no effect on IgM. Mangiferin did no affect either IgM or IgG2a, but significantly enhanced production of IgG1 and IgG2b. Neither Vimang nor mangiferin enhanced specific antibody secretion by splenic plasma cells from mice inoculated with microsporidian spores, whether administered in vivo before serum extraction or in vitro to the culture medium. Inoculation with spores induced splenomegaly, which was significantly reduced by Vimang and significantly enhanced by mangiferin. These results suggest that components of Mangifera indica extracts may be of potential value for modulating the humoral response in different immunopathological disorders. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Potential use of local and systemic humoral immune response parameters to forecast Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae associated lung lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Garcia-Morante

    Full Text Available Immunopathological events are key for the development of enzootic pneumonia (EP, which is macroscopically observed as cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC. This study aimed to investigate the putative association between the humoral immune response against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae and prevalence and extension of CVPC in 1 experimentally infected pigs, 2 slaughtered pigs and 3 sequentially necropsied pigs in a longitudinal study. CVPC was scored by means of the European Pharmacopoeia recommended methodology. Specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were assessed in serum. In addition, mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies were analyzed in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF from experimentally challenged pigs. The systemic humoral immune response in experimentally infected pigs was delayed in onset whereas humoral respiratory mucosal immune response appeared more rapidly but declined earlier. Although low, BALF IgG antibodies showed the highest correlation with CVPC scores (r = 0.49, p<0.05. In slaughter-aged pigs, both percentage of lungs with CVPC and mean lung lesion score were significantly higher in M. hyopneumoniae seropositive farms compared to the seronegative ones (p<0.001. Similarly, seropositive sequentially necropsied pigs showed more severe CVPC than seronegative ones. Overall, mean serological values might help to forecast prevalence and severity of EP-like lung lesions using a population based approach. Remarkably, the specific systemic humoral immune response was found to be predominated by the IgG2 subclass, suggesting a dominant Th1-mediated immune response to M. hyopneumoniae.

  9. Cigarette smoke-exposed saliva suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarzadeh, A.; Bakhshi, H.; Rezayati, M.T.; Nemati, M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model. The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined. The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model (JPMA 59:760; 2009). (author)

  10. Humoral immune response of the small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Kathryn; Smith, Lauren E; Williams, Rebecca; Cao, Wei; Lee, Mike; Jensen, Allan; Dooley, Helen

    2013-05-01

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest group in which an adaptive immune system based on immunoglobulin-superfamily members is found. This manuscript compares humoral immune function in small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) with that described for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), another member of the Squalomorphi superorder, and nurse shark, the model for humoral immunity in elasmobranchs and a member of the Galeomorphi superorder. Although small-spotted catshark and nurse shark are separated by over 200 million years we found that immunoglobulin isoforms are well conserved between the two species. However, the plasma protein profile of small-spotted catshark was most similar to that of spiny dogfish, with low levels of pentameric IgM, and IgNAR present as a multimer in plasma rather than a monomer. We show that an antigen-specific monomeric IgM response, with a profile similar to that described previously for nurse sharks, can be raised in small-spotted catshark. Lacking polyclonal or monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting catshark IgNAR we investigated phage-display and recombinant Fc-fusion protein expression as alternative methods to look for an antigen-specific response for this isotype. However, we could find no evidence of an antigen-specific IgNAR in the animals tested using either of these techniques. Thus, unlike nurse sharks where antigen-specific monomeric IgM and IgNAR appear together, it seems there may be a temporal or complete 'uncoupling' of these isotypes during a humoral response in the small-spotted catshark. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Humoral immune responses to a single allele PfAMA1 vaccine in healthy malaria-naïve adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond J Remarque

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum: apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 is a candidate malaria vaccine antigen expressed on merozoites and sporozoites. The polymorphic nature of AMA1 may compromise vaccine induced protection. The humoral response induced by two dosages (10 and 50 µg of a single allele AMA1 antigen (FVO formulated with Alhydrogel, Montanide ISA 720 or AS02 was investigated in 47 malaria-naïve adult volunteers. Volunteers were vaccinated 3 times at 4 weekly intervals and serum samples obtained four weeks after the third immunization were analysed for (i Antibody responses to various allelic variants, (ii Domain specificity, (iii Avidity, (iv IgG subclass levels, by ELISA and (v functionality of antibody responses by Growth Inhibition Assay (GIA. About half of the antibodies induced by vaccination cross reacted with heterologous AMA1 alleles. The choice of adjuvant determined the magnitude of the antibody response, but had only a marginal influence on specificity, avidity, domain recognition or subclass responses. The highest antibody responses were observed for AMA1 formulated with AS02. The Growth Inhibition Assay activity of the antibodies was proportional to the amount of antigen specific IgG and the functional capacity of the antibodies was similar for heterologous AMA1-expressing laboratory strains.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730782.

  12. Positive regulation of humoral and innate immune responses induced by inactivated Avian Influenza Virus vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Fatma; Hassanin, Ola

    2015-12-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used for mammals and birds in a trial to eliminate the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) infection from the world. However and up till now the virus is still existed via modulation of its antigenic structure to evade the pressure of host immune responses. For a complete understanding of the immune responses following AI vaccination in chickens, the modulations of the chickens humoral immune responses and interferon-alpha signaling pathway, as a fundamental part of the innate immune responses, were investigated. In our study, we measured the humoral immune response using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. In addition, chicken interferon-alpha pathway components was measured at RNA levels using Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) following one dose of inactivated H5N1 influenza vaccine at 14 days of age. In this study, the protective levels of humoral antibody responses were observed at 14, 21 and 28 days following immunization with inactivated (Re-1/H5N1) AI vaccine. In the chicken spleen cells, up regulation in the chicken interferon-alpha pathway components (MX1 & IRF7) was existed as early as 48 h post vaccination and remained until 28 days post vaccination at the endogenous state. However, after the recall with ex-vivo stimulation, the up regulation was more pronounced in the transcriptional factor (IRF7) compared to the antiviral gene (MX1) at 28 days post vaccination. So far, from our results it appears that the inactivated H5N1 vaccine can trigger the chicken interferon-alpha signaling pathway as well as it can elicit protective humoral antibody responses.

  13. Humoral immune-response against human cytomegalovirus (hcmv)-specific proteins after hcmv infection in lung transplantation as detected with recombinant and naturally-occurring proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, J; Harmsen, M. C.; van der Giessen, M.; van der Bij, W; Prop, J.; de Leij, L; The, T. Hauw

    The humoral immune response to four intracellularly located cytomegalovirus (CMV) proteins was studied in 15 lung transplant recipients experiencing active CMV infections. Five patients had primary infections, and 10 had secondary infections. Antibodies of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG classes

  14. The mechanism of humoral immune response to allogeneic organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Berkos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of antibody-mediated rejection of donor organ remains extremely relevant. The main targets of the antibodies are mainly donor HLA-antigens (Human Leucocyte Antigens, expressed, in particular, by the cells of graft vascular endothelium. This review describes the mechanisms of the development of humoral alloimmunity which are based on B-cell recognition of epitopes of donor HLA-molecules and affinity maturation of B-cell receptors in the germinal centers of peripheral lymphatic system. Monitoring of epitope load and cross-reactivity indicators to evaluate HLA-compatibility of donor and recipient plays an important role in the prevention of allograft humoral rejection.

  15. Evaluation of Different Parameters of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in HIV Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples: Humoral Response Potentially Implicated in Modulating Transmission Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Julia Ruiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the HIV/AIDS pandemic still progresses, understanding the mechanisms governing viral transmission as well as protection from HIV acquisition is fundamental. In this context, cohorts of HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples (SDC represent a unique tool. The present study was aimed to evaluate specific parameters of innate, cellular and humoral immune responses in SDC. Specifically, plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines, HIV-specific T-cell responses, gp120-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, and HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC activity were assessed in nine HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (ESN and their corresponding HIV seropositive partners (HIV+-P, in eighteen chronically infected HIV subjects (C, nine chronically infected subjects known to be HIV transmitters (CT and ten healthy HIV− donors (HD. Very low magnitude HIV-specific cellular responses were found in two out of six ESN. Interestingly, HIV+-P had the highest ADCC magnitude, the lowest IgA levels and the highest IgG/IgA ratio, all compared to CT. Positive correlations between CD4+ T-cell counts and both IgG/IgA ratios and %ADCC killing uniquely distinguished HIV+-P. Additionally, evidence of IgA interference with ADCC responses from HIV+-P and CT is provided. These data suggest for the first time a potential role of ADCC and/or gp120-specific IgG/IgA balance in modulating heterosexual transmission. In sum, this study provides key information to understand the host factors that influence viral transmission, which should be considered in both the development of prophylactic vaccines and novel immunotherapies for HIV-1 infection.

  16. Humoral immune responses of pregnant Guinea pigs Immunized with live attenuated Rhodococcus equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawlood Abass Ali Al- Graibawi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential to increase passive transfer of specific Rhodococcus equi (R.equi humoral immunity to newborn by preparturient vaccination of their dams was investigated in Pregnant Guinea pigs as a pilot study. Attenuated autogenous vaccine was prepared from a Congo red negative (CR- R.equi local isolate mixed with adjuvant (potassium alum sulphate, tested for sterility, safety and potency prior to vaccination .Two groups of pregnant G. pigs were used, the first group was vaccinated twice subcutaneously (S.C with the prepared vaccine at five and three weeks prior parturition, the second group was inoculated with adjuvant plus phosphate buffer saline (PBS twice s.c and kept as control. Offspring from the vaccinated dams had revealed high titers of specific R. equi antibody as detected by tube agglutination (TA and passive haemagglutination (PH test and showed protection against challenge dose. The results revealed that vaccination of pregnant G. pigs with the prepared attenuated vaccine was safe and efficient method to protect their offspring against experimental challenge with virulent R.equi. Vaccination was associated with increased humoral immune response in vaccinated group.

  17. Effect of adjuvants on the humoral immune response to congopain in mice and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateregga John

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated several adjuvants for their effects on the humoral immune response in both mice and cattle using the central domain of congopain (C2, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, as a model for developing a vaccine against animal trypanosomosis. The magnitude and sustainability of the immune response against C2 and the occurrence of a booster effect of infection, an indirect measure of the presence of memory cells, were determined by ELISA, while spectrofluorometry was used to determine and measure the presence of enzyme-inhibiting antibodies. Results Mice immunized with recombinant C2 in TiterMax™, Adjuphos™, purified saponin Quil A™ or Gerbu™ showed the best response according to the evaluation criteria and the latter three were chosen for the cattle vaccination study. The cattle were challenged with T. congolense four and a half months after the last booster. Cattle immunized with recombinant C2 in purified saponin Quil A™ showed the best antibody response according to the measured parameters. Conclusions We identified purified saponin Quil A™ as a good adjuvant for immunizations with C2. The results from this study will be useful in future attempts to develop an effective anti-disease vaccine against African trypanosomosis.

  18. Vaccination with dengue virus-like particles induces humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanfu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of dengue, an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV, has dramatically increased around the world in recent decades and is becoming a severe public health threat. However, there is currently no specific treatment for dengue fever, and licensed vaccine against dengue is not available. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs has shown considerable promise for many viral diseases, but the effect of DENV VLPs to induce specific immune responses has not been adequately investigated. Results By optimizing the expression plasmids, recombinant VLPs of four antigenically different DENV serotypes DENV1-4 were successfully produced in 293T cells. The vaccination effect of dengue VLPs in mice showed that monovalent VLPs of each serotype stimulated specific IgG responses and potent neutralizing antibodies against homotypic virus. Tetravalent VLPs efficiently enhanced specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of DENV. Moreover, vaccination with monovalent or tetravalent VLPs resulted in the induction of specific cytotoxic T cell responses. Conclusions Mammalian cell expressed dengue VLPs are capable to induce VLP-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and being a promising subunit vaccine candidate for prevention of dengue virus infection.

  19. Humoral immune response against native or 60Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do; Seibert, Carla Simone

    2015-01-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or 60 Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  20. Antibody responses in allogeneic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coico, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction of long-lived allogeneic radiation chimeras, free of graft-versus-host disease, has been achieved using serologic elimination of Thy 1 + cells from donor bone marrow. Humoral immune function was not restored in these animals as evidenced by lack of primary antibody responses to a T cell-dependent antigen, namely, sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) both in vivo and in vitro. No evidence for a suppressor cell-mediated mechanism was found. Using separated chimera spleen cell populations and specific helper cell soluble mediators, the functional capabilities of chimera B cells, T cells, and macrophages were assessed. These findings suggested that the failure of chimeras to produce antibody is not the result of impaired B cell, T cell, or macrophage function, but rather, that it is due to ineffective cellular interactions. Physiologic cellular interactions depend upon the sharing of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) determinants between interacting cells. However, the self-recognition repertoire of developing T cells may be influenced by the environment which these cells differentiate such that they learn to recognize host MHC determinants as self. These findings support the interpretation that the immunologic hyporeactivity of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras reflects the role of the host environment in restricting the interactive capabilities of donor-derived cells

  1. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to human leukocyte antigens in Brazilian renal transplant candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Keiko Saito

    Full Text Available Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA. The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.. The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7% patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3% patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1% were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4% were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5% were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples.

  2. Evaluation of the Humoral Immune Response to Human Leukocyte Antigens in Brazilian Renal Transplant Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Patricia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Aparecida, Erica Pereira; da Silva Júnior, Waldir Verissimo; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2014-01-01

    Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO) combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA). The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.). The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7%) patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3%) patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1%) were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4%) were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5%) were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples. PMID:24927116

  3. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to influenza vaccination in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Sarah; Reedy, Stephanie; Barker, Virginia D; Chambers, Thomas M; Adams, Amanda A

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the equine population with recent reports indicating that the percentage of overweight horses may range anywhere from 20.6-51%. Obesity in horses has been linked to more serious health concerns such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is a serious problem in the equine industry given its defining characteristics of insulin dysregualtion and obesity, as well as the involvement of laminitis. Little research however has been conducted to determine the effects of EMS on routine healthcare of these horses, in particular how they respond to vaccination. It has been shown that obese humans and mice have decreased immune responses to vaccination. EMS may have similar effects on vaccine responses in horses. If this is the case, these animals may be more susceptible to disease, acting as unknown disease reservoirs. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EMS on immune responses to routine influenza vaccination. Twenty-five adult horses of mixed-sex and mixed-breed (8-21 years old) horses; 13 EMS and 12 non-EMS were selected. Within each group, 4 horses served as non-vaccinate saline controls and the remaining horses were vaccinated with a commercially available equine influenza vaccine. Vaccination (influenza or saline) was administered on weeks 0 and 3, and peripheral blood samples taken on week 0 prior to vaccination and on weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 post vaccination. Blood samples were used to measure hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and equine influenza specific IgGa, IgGb, and IgGT levels. Blood samples were also used to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for analysis of cell mediated immune (CMI) responses via real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All horses receiving influenza vaccination responded with significant increases (P equine influenza specific antibodies following vaccination compared to saline controls. EMS did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) humoral immune responses as measured

  4. Persistence of specific antibody response in different experimental infections of mice with Toxocara canis larvae Persistência da resposta humoral em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Toxocara canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Toxocara antibody production and persistence were studied in experimental infections of BALB/c mice, according to three different schedules: Group I (GI - 25 mice infected with 200 T. canis eggs in a single dose; Group II (GII 25 mice infected with 150 T. canis eggs given in three occasions, 50 in the 1st, 50 in the 5th and 50 in the 8th days; Group III (GIII - 25 mice also infected with 150 T. canis eggs, in three 50 eggs portions given in the 1st, 14th and 28th days. A 15 mice control group (GIV was maintained without infection. In the 30th, 50th, 60th, 75th, 105th and 180th post-infection days three mice of the GI, GII and GIII groups and two mice of the control group had been sacrificed and exsanguinated for sera obtention. In the 360th day the remainder mice of the four groups were, in the same way, killed and processed. The obtained sera were searched for the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies by an ELISA technique, using T. canis larvae excretion-secretion antigen. In the GI and GII, but not in the GIII, anti-Toxocara antibodies had been found, at least, up to the 180th post-infection day. The GIII only showed anti-Toxocara antibodies, at significant level, in the 30th post-infection day.Estudou-se a cinética de anticorpos anti-Toxocara em camundongos BALB/c infectados experimentalmente segundo três esquemas: Grupo I (GI: 25 camundongos infectados com dose única de 200 ovos embrionados de T. canis; grupo II (GII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, divididos em três doses de 50 ovos, administrados no 1º, 5º e 8º dias; Grupo III (GIII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, administrados em três doses de 50 ovos no 1º, 14º e 28º dias. Um grupo de 15 camundongos foi mantido nas mesmas condições, porém sem infecção, constituindo o grupo controle (GIV. No 30º, 50º, 60º, 75º, 105º e 180º dias pós-infecção três camundongos dos grupos GI, GII e GIII e dois do

  5. DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajadhar Bhakta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of pEGFP (plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-encapsulated PEGylated (meaning polyethylene glycol coated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles (referred to as MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles for the induction of immune responses was investigated in a mouse model. MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles induced enhanced serum antibody and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses, as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-12 levels compared to naked pEGFP when administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular routes. A significant macrophage response, both in size and activity, was also observed when mice were immunized with the nanoparticle formulation. The response was highly specific for the antigen, as the increase in interaction between macrophages and lymphocytes as well as lymphocyte proliferation took place only when they were re-stimulated with recombinant green fluorescence protein (rGFP. Thus the nanoparticle formulation elicited both humoral as well as cellular responses. Cytokine profiling revealed the induction of Th-1 type responses. The results suggest DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate (MgPi nanoparticles may constitute a safer, more stable and cost-efficient DNA vaccine formulation.

  6. Effect of a cephalic irradiation on humoral immunitary response in adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, P.; Marquer, C.

    In connection with the origin and mechanisms of immunitary depression due to irradiation, it is tried to find if changes of humoral immunitary response could be caused by a limited irradiation of central nervous system [fr

  7. Humoral and cell-mediated immune response against human retinal antigens in relation to ocular onchocerciasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lelij, A.; Rothova, A.; Stilma, J. S.; Vetter, J. C.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoimmune mechanisms are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of the chorioretinal changes in ocular onchocerciasis. The humoral autoimmune response was determined by measuring serum levels of autoantibodies, directed against human S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein

  8. Heterologous humoral immune response in patients treated with human growth hormone from different sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.I.; Llera, A.S.; Iacono, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of homologous anti-human growth hormone (anti-hGH) and heterologous anti-bovine growth hormone (anti-bGH) humoral immune responses in hypopituitary patients under hGH therapy has been reported previously. In order to study the influence of the hormone source, both responses were compared by radiobinding assays performed with [ 125 I]hGH or [ 125 I]bGH as tracers. 57 hypopituitary patients treated with extractive hGH, recombinant methionyl hGH or authentic recombinant hGH were studied. A very low incidence of heterologous antibodies was found in patients under recombinant hGH therapy, contrary to the high incidence observed in patients treated with extractive hGH preparations. In addition, immunochemical studies performed with a synthetic peptide (hGH 44-128) indicated that this peptide exhibited, in the anti-bGH/[ 125 I]bGH radioimmunoassay system, higher reactivity than the native hGH, suggesting that such fragment resembled an altered conformation of the hormone. The high heterologous response elicited only by the extractive hGH along with the behaviour of the hGH 44-128 fragment supports the fact that the extraction and purification procedures in extractive preparations may alter slightly the structure of the hGH molecule and trigger a heterologous immune response. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Heterologous humoral immune response in patients treated with human growth hormone from different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.I.; Llera, A.S.; Iacono, R.F. (and others) (Inst. de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-07-01

    The existence of homologous anti-human growth hormone (anti-hGH) and heterologous anti-bovine growth hormone (anti-bGH) humoral immune responses in hypopituitary patients under hGH therapy has been reported previously. In order to study the influence of the hormone source, both responses were compared by radiobinding assays performed with [[sup 125]I]hGH or [[sup 125]I]bGH as tracers. 57 hypopituitary patients treated with extractive hGH, recombinant methionyl hGH or authentic recombinant hGH were studied. A very low incidence of heterologous antibodies was found in patients under recombinant hGH therapy, contrary to the high incidence observed in patients treated with extractive hGH preparations. In addition, immunochemical studies performed with a synthetic peptide (hGH 44-128) indicated that this peptide exhibited, in the anti-bGH/[[sup 125]I]bGH radioimmunoassay system, higher reactivity than the native hGH, suggesting that such fragment resembled an altered conformation of the hormone. The high heterologous response elicited only by the extractive hGH along with the behaviour of the hGH 44-128 fragment supports the fact that the extraction and purification procedures in extractive preparations may alter slightly the structure of the hGH molecule and trigger a heterologous immune response. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effects of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tiamulin and tulathromycin on pig humoral immune responses induced by erysipelas vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Kwit, K; Wierzchosławski, K; Dors, A; Pejsak, Z

    2016-05-28

    It addition to their antimicrobial properties, antibiotics can influence the host immune system (modulation of cytokine secretion, antibody production and T-cell proliferation). In the present study, the authors studied the effects of therapeutic doses of amoxicillin (AMX), ceftiofur (CEF), doxycycline (DOXY), tiamulin (TIAM) and tulathromycin (TUL) on the postvaccinal immune response after pigs had been vaccinated against erysipelas. Because humoral immunity is considered as the most important in the protection against swine erysipelas, the present study focused on the interactions between antibiotics and postvaccinal humoral immunity. One hundred and five, eight-week-old pigs of both sexes were used. Specific antibodies to the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antigen were determined using a commercial ELISA test. In pigs treated with DOXY or CEF or TIAM, a significant reduction in the number of positive pigs was observed four and six weeks after the second dose of vaccine, compared with the remaining vaccinated groups. In pigs treated with CEF, the ELISA score was significantly lower than in non-treated vaccinated pigs. While in vaccinated pigs treated with AMX or TUL, the ELISA score was significantly higher than in pigs treated with the remaining antibiotics and than in non-treated vaccinated controls. The results of the present study indicate that vaccination of pigs against erysipelas in the presence of antibiotics may result in a decrease (CEF, DOXY, TIAM) or enhancement (AMX, TUL) in the production of specific antibodies. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Mechanisms of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae. V. Anamnestic cellular and humoral responses following challenge infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Oliveira, R.; Sher, A.; James, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae display low levels of cellular and humoral immune responses toward schistosomulum antigens, as measured in vitro by lymphocyte blastogenesis and quantitation of anti-larval antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Both responses wane with time after vaccination. However subsequent challenge infection provokes immune responses of classical anamnestic character, being both more rapid in appearance and of greater magnitude. Antigen responsive cells appear in lymph nodes draining the challenge site within 24 hours after infection. Both circulating anti-schistosomulum surface antibodies as well as cytophilic IgE anti-worm antigen antibodies increase substantially by 1 week after challenge. All of the anamnestic circulating antibodies belong to the IgG class. Those findings support the concept that vaccine-induced resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection involves sensitized T and B lymphocytes, and point to the possible role of post-challenge anamnestic responses in the effector mechanism of parasite killing in this model

  12. LMFAO! Humor as a Response to Fear: Decomposing Fear Control within the Extended Parallel Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Eulàlia P.; Szczypka, Glen; Emery, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to analyze fear control responses to the 2012 Tips from Former Smokers campaign using the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). The goal is to examine the occurrence of ancillary fear control responses, like humor. In order to explore individuals’ responses in an organic setting, we use Twitter data—tweets—collected via the Firehose. Content analysis of relevant fear control tweets (N = 14,281) validated the existence of boomerang responses within the EPPM: denial, defensive avoidance, and reactance. More importantly, results showed that humor tweets were not only a significant occurrence but constituted the majority of fear control responses. PMID:29527092

  13. Investigating vision in schizophrenia through responses to humorous stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Tschacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The visual environment of humans contains abundant ambiguity and fragmentary information. Therefore, an early step of vision must disambiguate the incessant stream of information. Humorous stimuli produce a situation that is strikingly analogous to this process: Funniness is associated with the incongruity contained in a joke, pun, or cartoon. Like in vision in general, appreciating a visual pun as funny necessitates disambiguation of incongruous information. Therefore, perceived funniness of visual puns was implemented to study visual perception in a sample of 36 schizophrenia patients and 56 healthy control participants. We found that both visual incongruity and Theory of Mind (ToM content of the puns were associated with increased experienced funniness. This was significantly less so in participants with schizophrenia, consistent with the gestalt hypothesis of schizophrenia, which would predict compromised perceptual organization in patients. The association of incongruity with funniness was not mediated by known predictors of humor appreciation, such as affective state, depression, or extraversion. Patients with higher excitement symptoms and, at a trend level, reduced cognitive symptoms, reported lower funniness experiences. An open question remained whether patients showed this deficiency of visual incongruity detection independent of their ToM deficiency. Humorous stimuli may be viewed as a convenient method to study perceptual processes, but also fundamental questions of higher-level cognition.

  14. Characterization of humoral immune responses to chlamydial HSP60, CPAF, and CT795 in inflammatory and severe trachoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwor, Troy; Kandel, Ram Prasad; Basravi, Sunniya; Khan, Aslam; Sharma, Bassant; Dean, Deborah

    2010-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) remains the leading global cause of preventable blindness. There are limited data on humoral immune responses in trachoma. Evaluating these responses is important for understanding host-pathogen interactions and informing vaccine design. Antibodies to chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) have been associated with infertility and trachomatous scarring. Other proteins, including chlamydial protease-associated factor (CPAF) and a hypothetical protein unique to the family Chlamydiaceae, CT795, elicit strong immune responses in urogenital infections, but their role in trachomatous disease is unknown. This study was conducted to expand on previous cHSP60 findings and evaluate the association of CPAF and CT795 antibodies with ocular Ct infection and disease. Clinical trachoma grading was performed, and conjunctival samples were obtained from individuals with trachomatous trichiasis (TT; one or more inturned eyelashes) or inflammatory trachoma without trichiasis and control subjects without disease, all of whom resided in trachoma-endemic regions of Nepal. Ct infection was determined using commercial PCR. IgG and IgA tear antibodies against cHSP60, CT795, and CPAF fusion proteins were measured by quantitative ELISA. Significantly higher IgG antibody levels were found against cHSP60, CPAF, and CT795 in the inflammatory cases compared with levels in the controls (P < 0.005 for all three). Ct infection was independently associated with IgG antibodies against all three immunogens in the inflammatory cases but not in the controls (P = 0.025, P = 0.03 and P = 0.017, respectively). Only IgG antibodies against CPAF were significantly elevated among the TT cases (P = 0.013). Among individuals with trachoma, IgG antibody responses to CPAF are likely to be both a marker and risk factor for inflammatory trachoma and severe trachomatous disease.

  15. Characterization of humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with human papilloma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clares Pochet, Maria del Carmen; Ferrer Cosme, Belkis Maria; Dominguez Cardosa, Magda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 females infected with the human papilloma virus, attended in the office of Immunology of the Specialty Polyclinic belonging to 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Clinical Surgical Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from June 2009 to June 2010, in order to characterize them according to immune response. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response rosetting assay and quantification of immunoglobulins were used respectively. Women between 25-36 years of age (40 %) infected with this virus, especially those coming from urban areas, prevailed in the series, and a significant decrease of the cellular response as compared to the humoral response was evidenced

  16. Efficient evaluation of humoral immune responses by the use of serum pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternbæk, Louise; Draborg, Anette H.; Nielsen, Christoffer T.

    2017-01-01

    has considered using serum pools as a quick and efficient screening method to confirm or deny hypotheses. Methods We created serum pools from four different patient groups (systemic lupus erythematosus n = 85, rheumatoid arthritis n = 77, Sjögren's syndrome n = 91, systemic sclerosis n = 66) and one......Background Collection and testing of individual serum samples are often used in research to gain knowledge about e.g. the humoral response against bacteria or virus. This is a valid but time-consuming method and might be a waste of valuable serum samples for inefficient research. So far, no study...... healthy control group (n = 67). Each serum pool was analyzed using three well-known immunoassays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), line blot, and immunofluorescence microscopy (anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) screening). The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EA/D-, EBNA-1-, VCA p23-, and gp350...

  17. B-lymphocyte differentiation in lethally irradiated and reconstituted mice. II. Recovery of humoral immune responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozing, J.; Brons, N.H.C.; Benner, R.

    1977-01-01

    The recovery of humoral immune responsiveness was studied in lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted mice. By means of both membrane fluorescence and antibody formation to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as a functional assay, the rate of recovery of the compartments of B and T lymphocytes was determined in various lymphoid organs. The recovery of the immunoglobulin-positive (B) cell compartment after irradiation and reconstitution started in the spleen. This organ was also found to be the first in which the recovery of the B-cell population was completed. The interval between the recovery of the B-cell population in the spleen and that in the other organs tested was found to increase when the irradiated mice were reconstituted with spleen colony cells instead of fetal liver cells. This proved to be caused by the number and nature of the reconstituting hemopoietic stem cells. The immunoglobulin-positive (B) cells were found to appear before SRBC-reactive B cells could be demonstrated in spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. The appearance of T lymphocytes in the various lymphoid organs required even more time. By means of cell transfer experiments, a sequential appearance of the precursors of anti-SRBC IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-plaque-forming cells could be demonstrated in spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches

  18. Nanoparticle-based B-cell targeting vaccines: Tailoring of humoral immune responses by functionalization with different TLR-ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Claudia; Kozlova, Diana; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Yan, Huimin; Epple, Matthias; Überla, Klaus; Temchura, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Induction of an appropriate type of humoral immune response during vaccination is essential for protection against viral and bacterial infections. We recently observed that biodegradable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles coated with proteins efficiently targeted and activated naïve antigen-specific B-cells in vitro. We now compared different administration routes for CaP-nanoparticles and demonstrated that intramuscular immunization with such CaP-nanoparticles induced stronger immune responses than immunization with monovalent antigen. Additional functionalization of the CaP-nanoparticles with TRL-ligands allowed modulating the IgG subtype response and the level of mucosal IgA antibodies. CpG-containing CaP-nanoparticles were as immunogenic as a virus-like particle vaccine. Functionalization of CaP-nanoparticles with T-helper cell epitopes or CpG also allowed overcoming lack of T-cell help. Thus, our results indicate that CaP-nanoparticle-based B-cell targeting vaccines functionalized with TLR-ligands can serve as a versatile platform for efficient induction and modulation of humoral immune responses in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Isocitrate dehydrogenase of Helicobacter pylori potentially induces humoral immune response in subjects with peptic ulcer disease and gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abid Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is a risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. Many of the proteins such as urease, porins, flagellins and toxins such as lipo-polysaccharides have been identified as potential virulence factors which induce proinflammatory reaction. We report immunogenic potentials of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD, an important house keeping protein of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequences of H. pylori ICD were subjected to in silico analysis for regions with predictably high antigenic indexes. Also, computational modelling of the H. pylori ICD as juxtaposed to the E. coli ICD was carried out to determine levels of structure similarity and the availability of surface exposed motifs, if any. The icd gene was cloned, expressed and purified to a very high homogeneity. Humoral response directed against H. pylori ICD was detected through an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 82 human subjects comprising of 58 patients with H. pylori associated gastritis or ulcer disease and 24 asymptomatic healthy controls. The H. pylori ICD elicited potentially high humoral immune response and revealed high antibody titers in sera corresponding to endoscopically-confirmed gastritis and ulcer disease subjects. However, urea-breath-test negative healthy control samples and asymptomatic control samples did not reveal any detectable immune responses. The ELISA for proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 did not exhibit any significant proinflammatory activity of ICD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ICD of H. pylori is an immunogen which interacts with the host immune system subsequent to a possible autolytic-release and thereby significantly elicits humoral responses in individuals with invasive H. pylori infection. However, ICD could not significantly stimulate IL8 induction in a cultured macrophage cell line (THP1 and therefore, may not be a notable proinflammatory agent.

  20. Humoral immune responses of dengue fever patients using epitope-specific serotype-2 virus-like particle antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D Crill

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a serious mosquito-borne pathogen causing significant global disease burden, either as classic dengue fever (DF or in its most severe manifestation dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Nearly half of the world's population is at risk of dengue disease and there are estimated to be millions of infections annually; a situation which will continue to worsen with increasing expansion of the mosquito vectors and epidemic DF/DHF. Currently there are no available licensed vaccines or antivirals for dengue, although significant effort has been directed toward the development of safe and efficacious dengue vaccines for over 30 years. Promising vaccine candidates are in development and testing phases, but a better understanding of immune responses to DENV infection and vaccination is needed. Humoral immune responses to DENV infection are complex and may exacerbate pathogenicity, yet are essential for immune protection. In this report, we develop DENV-2 envelope (E protein epitope-specific antigens and measure immunoglobulin responses to three distinct epitopes in DENV-2 infected human serum samples. Immunoglobulin responses to DENV-2 infection exhibited significant levels of individual variation. Antibody populations targeting broadly cross-reactive epitopes centered on the fusion peptide in structural domain II were large, highly variable, and greater in primary than in secondary DENV-2 infected sera. E protein domain III cross-reactive immunoglobulin populations were similarly variable and much larger in IgM than in IgG. DENV-2 specific domain III IgG formed a very small proportion of the antibody response yet was significantly correlated with DENV-2 neutralization, suggesting that the highly protective IgG recognizing this epitope in murine studies plays a role in humans as well. This report begins to tease apart complex humoral immune responses to DENV infection and is thus important for improving our understanding of dengue disease

  1. Green propolis phenolic compounds act as vaccine adjuvants, improving humoral and cellular responses in mice inoculated with inactivated vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geferson Fischer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants play an important role in vaccine formulations by increasing their immunogenicity. In this study, the phenolic compound-rich J fraction (JFR of a Brazilian green propolis methanolic extract stimulated cellular and humoral immune responses when co-administered with an inactivated vaccine against swine herpesvirus type 1 (SuHV-1. When compared to control vaccines that used aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, the use of 10 mg/dose of JFR significantly increased (p < 0.05 neutralizing antibody titres against SuHV-1, as well as the percentage of protected animals following SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.01. Furthermore, addition of phenolic compounds potentiated the performance of the control vaccine, leading to increased cellular and humoral immune responses and enhanced protection of animals after SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.05. Prenylated compounds such as Artepillin C that are found in large quantities in JFR are likely to be the substances that are responsible for the adjuvant activity.

  2. Humoral immune response of horses experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi/ Resposta imune humoral de eqüinos infectados experimentalmente com Trypanosoma evansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Padilha Cury Thomaz de Aquino

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Six adult horses were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi (106 parasites. Three other adult horses served as negative control. Serum samples of the experimentally infected horses with T. evansi and non-infected controls horses were obtained before inoculation, and daily thereafter until 14 days post infection (DPI. After that time the serum samples were obtained weekly. Sera of the infected and non-infected control horses was tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of antibodies against T. evansi. Both ELISA and IFAT detected trypanosomal antibodies shortly after infection and showed progressive increases in antibodies levels during early stages of infection. The responses started on the eighth and eleventh DPI. Maximum IFAT and ELISA values were reached after four weeks of infection and were maintained at this level until the end of the period of study.Seis eqüinos foram inoculados com 106 tripomastigota sangüícolas de Trypanosoma evansi. Três outros animais foram mantidos como testemunhas. Amostras de soro sangüíneo foram obtidas de todos os animais, antes da inoculação, e diariamente até o 14º dia pós inoculação (DPI; após este período uma vez por semana. Pesquisa de anticorpos anti- T. evansi, foram realizadas através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI e do ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática (ELISA. A resposta imune humoral, detectada através da RIFI e do ELISA, iniciou-se, em média, a partir do oitavo DPI, alcançando títulos máximos após quatro semanas de evolução, e os titulos de anticorpos anti- T. evansi mantiveram-se elevadas até o término das observações.

  3. Development of Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Mimitopes for Characterization of CRF01_AE HIV-1 Antibody Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse V. Schoen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mapping humoral immune responses to HIV-1 over the course of natural infection is important in understanding epitope exposure in relation to elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs, which is considered imperative for effective vaccine design. When analyzing HIV-specific immune responses, the antibody binding profiles may be a correlate for functional antibody activity. In this study, we utilized phage display technology to identify novel mimitopes that may represent Env epitope structures bound by bNAbs directed at V1V2 and V3 domains, CD4 binding site (CD4bs and the membrane proximal external region (MPER of Env. Mimitope sequence motifs were determined for each bNAb epitope. Given the ongoing vaccine development efforts in Thailand, these mimitopes that represent CD4bs and MPER epitopes were used to map immune responses of HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected individuals with known neutralizing responses from two distinct time periods, 1996-98 and 2012-15. The more contemporary cohort showed an increase in binding breadth with binding observed for all MPER and CD4bs mimitopes, while the older cohort showed only 75% recognition of the CD4bs mimitopes and no MPER mimotope binding. Furthermore, mimitope binding profiles correlated significantly with magnitude (p=0.0036 and breadth (p=0.0358 of neutralization of a multi-subtype Tier 1 panel of pseudoviruses. These results highlight the utility of this mimitope mapping approach for detecting human plasma IgG-specificities that target known neutralizing antibody epitopes, and may also provide an indication of the plasticity of antibody binding within HIV-1 Env neutralization determinants.

  4. Carbohydrate fatty acid monosulphate esters are safe and effective adjuvants for humoral responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, L.A.T.; Platenburg, P.; Bajramovic, J.; Veth, J.; Sauerwein, R.; Roeffen, W.; Pohl, M.; Amerongen, G. van; Stittelaar, K.J.; Bosch, J.F. van den

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid sulphate esters (CFASEs) formulated in a squalane-in-water emulsion are effective adjuvants for humoral responses to a wide range of antigens in various animal species but rise in body temperature and local reactions albeit mild or minimal hampers application in humans. In

  5. Lymphatic filariasis-specific immune responses in relation to lymphoedema grade and infection status. II. Humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N. O.; Bloch, P.; Simonsen, P. E.

    2002-01-01

    The filarial-specific humoral responses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgE) to a Brugia pahangi antigen was assessed in 9 groups of adult individuals from a Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic area in north-east Tanzania. In 5 of the groups, individuals were negative for microfilariae (mf) and circulating...... filarial antigen (CFA) and had leg lymphoedema of varying severity ranging from early to more advanced grades. A 6th group had mixed grades of lymphoedema and were actively infected with mf and/or CFA. Three groups of asymptomatic individuals with different infection status (mf+CFA+; mf-CFA+; mf-CFA-) were...... also included. No differences in the antibody levels were observed between the 5 uninfected pathology groups. However, groups with advanced lymphoedema had a significantly higher level of IgG3 as compared to groups with early lymphoedema. A decline in the IgG4/IgE ratios were observed when moving from...

  6. Carbohydrate fatty acid monosulphate esters are safe and effective adjuvants for humoral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, Luuk A Th; Platenburg, Peter Paul L I; Bajramovic, Jeffrey; Veth, Jennifer; Sauerwein, Robert; Roeffen, Will; Pohl, Marie; van Amerongen, Geert; Stittelaar, Koert J; van den Bosch, Johannes F

    2017-05-31

    Carbohydrate fatty acid sulphate esters (CFASEs) formulated in a squalane-in-water emulsion are effective adjuvants for humoral responses to a wide range of antigens in various animal species but rise in body temperature and local reactions albeit mild or minimal hampers application in humans. In rabbits, body temperature increased 1°C one day after intramuscular (IM) injection, which returned to normal during the next day. The effect increased with increasing dose of CFASE but not with the number of injections (up to 5). Antigen enhanced the rise in body temperature after booster immunization (P100-fold after the second immunization. In ferrets immunized with 7.5μg of inactivated influenza virus A/H7N9, CMS adjuvant gave 100-fold increase in HAI antibody titres after the first and 25-fold after the second immunisation, which were 10-20-fold higher than with the MF59-like AddaVax adjuvant. In both models, a single immunisation with CMS adjuvant revealed similar or higher titres than two immunisations with either benchmark, without detectable systemic and local adverse effects. Despite striking chemical similarities with monophospholipid A (MPL), CMS adjuvant did not activate human TLR4 expressed on HEK cells. We concluded that the synthetic CMS adjuvant is a promising candidate for poor immunogens and single-shot vaccines and that rise in body temperature, local reactions or activation of TLR4 is not a pre-requisite for high adjuvanticity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Humoral immune response against native or {sup 60}Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: 0916@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: carlaseibert@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or {sup 60}Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  8. Limited ability of humoral immune responses in control of viremia during infection with SIVsmmD215 strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribiero, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the impact of humoral immunity on SIV replication, 11 rhesus macaques (RMs) were inoculated with the neutralization-sensitive strain SIVsmmD215. Seven RMs were treated every three weeks, with 50 mglkg of an anti-CD20 antibody (Rituxan, gift from Genentech) starting from day -7 p.i., as follows: four RMs were treated for two months, and three were treated for five months. The remaining four RMs were used as controls. Three RMs were completely depleted of CD20 cells. Four RMs only partially depleted CD20 cells in the LNs and intestine. The efficacy of tissue CD20 depletion predicted the ablation of antibody production, with SIVsmm seroconversion being delayed in the animals with complete tissue CD20 depletion, and neutralizing antibody production being significantly delayed and at low levels in all CD20-depleted RMs. There was no significant difference in acute or chronic VLs between CD20-depleted RMs and control monkeys, with a tendency for lower set-point VLs in CD20-depleted RMs. At 6 weeks p.i., cellular immune responses were significantly stronger in CD20 depleted RMs than in controls. After two years p.i., there was no significant difference in survival between CD20-depleted and control RMs. We concluded that CD20 depletion plays no significant role in the control of SIV replication or disease progression in SIVsmmD215-infected RMs.

  9. Differential expression of IgE and IgG4 specific antibody responses in asymptomatic and chronic human filariasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurniawan, A.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R.; Selkirk, M. E.; Partono, F.; Maizels, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    A population of 164 adult individuals resident in an area endemic for Brugia malayi lymphatic filariasis has been studied for humoral immune responses to filarial parasites. Antibody levels to Ag extracted from adult worms were determined for each of the IgG subclasses, for IgM and for IgE. The

  10. Phleum pratense pollen starch granules induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a rat model of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, A; Peltre, G; Dormans, J A M A; Withagen, C E T; Lacroix, G; Bois, F; Steerenberg, P A

    2004-02-01

    Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens are an important cause of allergic symptoms. However, pollen grains are too large to penetrate the deeper airways. Grass pollen is known to release allergen-bearing starch granules (SG) upon contact with water. These granules can create an inhalable allergenic aerosol capable of triggering an early asthmatic response and are implicated in thunderstorm-associated asthma. We studied the humoral (IgE) and bronchial lymph node cells reactivities to SG from timothy grass pollen in pollen-sensitized rats. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized (day 0) and challenged (day 21) intratracheally with intact pollen and kept immunized by pollen intranasal instillation by 4 weeks intervals during 3 months. Blood and bronchial lymph nodes were collected 7 days after the last intranasal challenge. SG were purified from fresh timothy grass pollen using 5 microm mesh filters. To determine the humoral response (IgE) to SG, we developed an original ELISA inhibition test, based on competition between pollen allergens and purified SG. The cell-mediated response to SG in the bronchial lymph node cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]thymidine in a proliferation assay. An antibody response to SG was induced, and purified SG were able to inhibit the IgE ELISA absorbance by 45%. Pollen extract and intact pollen gave inhibitions of 55% and 52%, respectively. A cell-mediated response was also found, as pollen extract, intact pollen and SG triggered proliferation of bronchial lymph node cells. It was confirmed that timothy grass pollen contains allergen-loaded SG, which are released upon contact with water. These granules were shown to be recognized by pollen-sensitized rats sera and to trigger lymph node cell proliferation in these rats. These data provide new arguments supporting the implication of grass pollen SG in allergic asthma.

  11. Polyfunctional HIV-Specific Antibody Responses Are Associated with Spontaneous HIV Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Ackerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elite controllers (ECs represent a unique model of a functional cure for HIV-1 infection as these individuals develop HIV-specific immunity able to persistently suppress viremia. Because accumulating evidence suggests that HIV controllers generate antibodies with enhanced capacity to drive antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC that may contribute to viral containment, we profiled an array of extra-neutralizing antibody effector functions across HIV-infected populations with varying degrees of viral control to define the characteristics of antibodies associated with spontaneous control. While neither the overall magnitude of antibody titer nor individual effector functions were increased in ECs, a more functionally coordinated innate immune-recruiting response was observed. Specifically, ECs demonstrated polyfunctional humoral immune responses able to coordinately recruit ADCC, other NK functions, monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis, and complement. This functionally coordinated response was associated with qualitatively superior IgG3/IgG1 responses, whereas HIV-specific IgG2/IgG4 responses, prevalent among viremic subjects, were associated with poorer overall antibody activity. Rather than linking viral control to any single activity, this study highlights the critical nature of functionally coordinated antibodies in HIV control and associates this polyfunctionality with preferential induction of potent antibody subclasses, supporting coordinated antibody activity as a goal in strategies directed at an HIV-1 functional cure.

  12. Making humor together: phenomenology and interracial humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Barber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains humor through phenomenological concepts and methods. The three major theories of humor: Superiority, Relief, and Incongruity depend on the thwarting of intentional expectations. Since one experiences an incongruity between what is intended and what is actually experienced, the incongruity theory affords the best explanation, but intentionality remains fundamental for all theories. Theorists of humor rightly insist that the enjoyment of humorous incongruity completes the definition of humor, but such enjoyment also depends on a special epoché, usually elicited by the cues of an interlocutor who invites the listener to leap together into the humorous finite province of meaning. In this province, actions and statements, hurtful in everyday life, such as a pie thrown at someone who ducks as the pie hits another, produce laughter. This comic epoché resembles the phenomenological epoché in its distancing from everyday life, and, like the phenomenological epoché, it opens everyday experience to reflection. Although one often experiences and enjoys humor alone, humor is thoroughly intersubjective and more frequently occurs when two persons participate in the humorous epoché together. The opportunities for making humor together are enhanced to the extent the partners differ in their expectations and responses to situations. Those differences, including bodily differences, often result from the complex intersubjective networks, including culture. As in the case of a seemingly solitary activity like reflection, which one learns from others and exercises on one’s own autonomously, one internalizes others’ styles of humor and discovers such internalization through reflection on one’s «because motives». On the basis of these features – intentionality, epoché, and intersubjectivity, the paper concludes by briefly examining an example of interracial humor. Despite the racist character of much interracial humor, the example

  13. Oral administration of type-II collagen peptide 250-270 suppresses specific cellular and humoral immune response in collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Li, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Kun; Jia, Jun-Feng; Zheng, Zhao-Hui; Ding, Jin; Fan, Chun-Mei

    2007-01-01

    Oral antigen is an attractive approach for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Establishment of immune markers and methods in evaluating the effects of antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses will help the application of oral tolerance in the treatment of human diseases. The present article observed the effects of chicken collagen II (CII), the recombinant polymerized human collagen II 250-270 (rhCII 250-270) peptide and synthesized human CII 250-270 (syCII 250-270) peptide on the induction of antigen-specific autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on the specific cellular and humoral immune response in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and mice fed with CII (250-270) prior to immunization with CII. In the study, proliferation, activation and intracellular cytokine production of antigen-specific T lymphocytes were simultaneously analyzed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and flow cytometry at the single-cell level. The antigen-specific antibody and antibody-forming cells were detected by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. CII (250-270) was found to have stimulated the response of specific lymphocytes in PBMC from RA patients, including the increase expression of surface activation antigen marker CD69 and CD25, and DNA synthesis. Mice, fed with CII (250-270) before CII immunization, had significantly lower arthritic scores than the mice immunized with CII alone, and the body weight of the former increased during the study period. Furthermore, the specific T cell activity, proliferation and secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma in spleen cells were actively suppressed in CII (250-270)-fed mice, and the serum anti-CII, anti-CII (250-270) antibody activities and the frequency of specific antibody-forming spleen cells were significantly lower in CII (250-270)-fed mice than in mice immunized with CII alone. These observations suggest that oral administration of CII (250-270) can

  14. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-03

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Bautista-Covarrubias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12 of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment.

  16. Comparison of humoral response in sheep to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of sheep to F. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to F. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. In this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica infection was confirmed. Humoral response to F. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. IgG level of F. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2WPI and displayed a peak at 13WPI. F. gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESP analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed at least 31 bands from 12.0 to 127.6 kDa in FgESP. Western blot indicated that F. gigantica infected sheep sera recognized, in FgESP, at least 30 antigens from 7.8 to 119.2 kDa of which 12 major bands recognized after OWPI. In FhESP and FgESP, F. hepatica infected sheep serum reacted only with the lower molecular mass antigens, while F. gigantica infected sheep serum reacted with the lower and the higher molecular mass antigens. These differences of antigenic recognition might be associated with the difference of susceptibility of sheep. Further investigation must be done to study the mechanism of resistance between the sheep infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica.

  17. Humoral immune responses of experimentally Eimeria ninakholyakimovae-infected goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Lorena; Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Molina, José Manuel; Ferrer, Otilia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Pérez, Davinia; López, Adassa María; Martín, Sergio; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja; Ruiz, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Although cellular immune reactions seem to be crucial for protective immune responses in Eimeria spp. infections, there are also evidences on an active involvement of the humoral counterpart. In the present study, we have analyzed the humoral response of goat kids subjected to primary and challenge infections with Eimeria ninakholyakimovae. Specific levels of IgG and IgM in serum samples and IgA in the ileal mucus were estimated. In infected kids, significantly increased levels of IgG were observed from 3 weeks post infection onwards in addition to an enhancement of specific IgM and secretory IgA levels. A wide range of peptides of sporulated oocyst antigen (SOA) was recognized by specific IgG as determined by immunoblotting. However, no correlations were found between immunoglobulin levels and OPG counts after challenge infection. Overall, these data indicate a significant specific humoral response of E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected goat kids that does not seem to convey immunoprotection. Further studies should be addressed to clarify if the lack of correlation might be associated to the type of antigen used for the immunoenzimatic assays, the age of the animals or other factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Elicits Tuberculosis-specific Humoral Immune Response Independent of Mycobacterial Load in Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Harika eVemula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the tuberculosis (TB causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI with CD4+ T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches towards vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M.tb Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1, a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M.tb. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M.tb under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency and nutrient deprivation and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of Peripheral Blood Mononulear Cells (PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1. This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n=121 as against healthy control (n=62, household contacts (n=89 and non-specific infection controls (n=23. A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins can be explored as antigen

  19. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the immunogenicity and types of immune response of a quality-controlled modified recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) plasmid encoding HBsAg in mice. Methods: The characterized plasmid DNA was used in the immunization of Balb/c mice. Three groups of mice were intramuscularly ...

  20. Differential miRNA expression in B cells is associated with inter-individual differences in humoral immune response to measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Simon, Whitney L; Goergen, Krista M; Grill, Diane E; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Poland, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important mediators of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through RNA degradation and translational repression, and are emerging biomarkers of immune system activation/response after vaccination. We performed Next Generation Sequencing (mRNA-Seq) of intracellular miRNAs in measles virus-stimulated B and CD4+ T cells from high and low antibody responders to measles vaccine. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used for miRNA assessment and the DIANA tool was used for gene/target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis. We identified a set of B cell-specific miRNAs (e.g., miR-151a-5p, miR-223, miR-29, miR-15a-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-103a, and miR-15a/16 cluster) and biological processes/pathways, including regulation of adherens junction proteins, Fc-receptor signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling pathway, growth factor signaling pathway/pathways, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and virus-related processes, significantly associated with neutralizing antibody titers after measles vaccination. No CD4+ T cell-specific miRNA expression differences between high and low antibody responders were found. Our study demonstrates that miRNA expression directly or indirectly influences humoral immunity to measles vaccination and suggests that B cell-specific miRNAs may serve as useful predictive biomarkers of vaccine humoral immune response.

  1. Humoral responses of broiler chickens challenged with NDV following supplemental treatment with extracts of Aloe vera, Alma millsoni, Ganoderma lucidum and Archachatina marginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiezeh, Tony I; Eghafona, Nosahkare'Odeh

    2015-01-01

    The significance of nutritional supplements for immunity has been documented. Locally sourced extracts used in alternative medicine were studied to determine their potential effects on antibody production and humoral responses in viral challenged birds. Three hundred and eighty birds were distributed into 19 groups of 20 birds each. Following acclimatization for 16 days, they were fed with standard broilers feed and water ad libitum. Group A was supplemented with Aloe vera (AV) extract, group B was given Alma millsoni (AM) extract, group C was given Archachatina marginata (AMS) extract and group D was given Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, and group E was the control group. Extract concentrations of 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg were given to three subsets of each treatment group for 30 days. Birds were then challenged with intramuscular administration of 0.2 ml of 50% Embryo Lethal Dose of saline suspension of the challenge strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) on the 30(th) day, and were examined for clinical signs and symptoms. Serum from venous blood was used for antibody and immunological assay. Aloe vera at 50 µg and A. millsoni extracts supplementations yielded a significant antibody titre (p vera enhanced the ability to mount humoral responses against viral infection in broiler chickens.

  2. Enhancement of anamnestic immunospecific antibody response in orally immunized chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayo, Susan; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Zagon, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Production of immunospecific egg yolk antibodies (IgY antibodies) in egg laying hens through oral immunization is an attractive alternative to conventional antibody production in mammals for economic reasons as well as for animal welfare reasons. Oral immunization results in a systemic humoral...... of the immunization in week 18, demonstrating the presence of memory cells following the two initial oral immunizations. Considering that oral immunization results in approximately ten times lower concentrations of immunospecific antibodies in the egg yolk, compared to traditional subcutaneous immunization schemes...

  3. How Does the Agent’s Perceived Intentions Change Consumers Response to the Humorous (Disparagement Humor) Advertisement in Morocco?

    OpenAIRE

    Nejjar, Ichraq

    2012-01-01

    Humorous advertisements are widely used in Morocco. Disparagement humour in particular is gaining popularity within Moroccan advertisers. However, little research has been done in order to assess consumer’s feelings and opinions towards these advertisements. This research will therefore examine female Moroccan’s sentiments and opinions towards disparagement advertisements by employing the persuasion knowledge model as a framework, and specifically focusing on the impact that the perceived adv...

  4. Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression and humoral response in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sumit; Parashar, Deepak; Gupta, Namita; Jagadish, Nirmala; Thakar, Alok; Suri, Vaishali; Kumar, Rajive; Gupta, Anju; Ansari, Abdul S; Lohiya, Nirmal Kumar; Suri, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers are highly aggressive epithelial tumor associated with metastatic potential and high mortality. The tumors are biologically diverse and are of various histotypes. Besides, the detection and diagnosis is a major problem of salivary gland cancer for available treatment modalities. In the present study, we have investigated the association of sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression with salivary gland tumor (SGT). Clinical specimens of benign (n = 16) and malignant tumors (n = 86) were examined for the SPAG9 expression. In addition, the sera and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (n = 72) from available patients were obtained. Our in situ RNA hybridization and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed significant difference (p = 0.0001) in SPAG9 gene and protein expression in benign (63%) and malignant tumor (84%) specimens. Further, significant association was also observed between SPAG9 expression and malignant tumors (P = 0.05). A cut-off value of >10% cells expressing SPAG9 protein designated as positive in IHC, predicted presence of malignant SGT with 83.72% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 83.72% NPV. Humoral response against SPAG9 protein was generated in 68% of SGT patients. A cut-off value of 0.212 OD for anti-SPAG9 antibodies in ELISA predicted presence of malignant SGT with 69.23% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 78.94% NPV. Collectively, our data suggests that the majority of SGT show significant difference and association among benign and malignant tumors for SPAG9 gene and protein expression and also exhibit humoral response against SPAG9 protein. Hence, SPAG9 may be developed as a biomarker for detection and diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. PMID:25941602

  5. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus

    2015-01-01

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens...... or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.......i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post...

  6. Antibody proteases: induction of catalytic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabibov, A G; Friboulet, A; Thomas, D; Demin, A V; Ponomarenko, N A; Vorobiev, I I; Pillet, D; Paon, M; Alexandrova, E S; Telegin, G B; Reshetnyak, A V; Grigorieva, O V; Gnuchev, N V; Malishkin, K A; Genkin, D D

    2002-10-01

    Most of the data accumulated throughout the years on investigation of catalytic antibodies indicate that their production increases on the background of autoimmune abnormalities. The different approaches to induction of catalytic response toward recombinant gp120 HIV-1 surface protein in mice with various autoimmune pathologies are described. The peptidylphosphonate conjugate containing structural part of gp120 molecule is used for reactive immunization of NZB/NZW F1, MRL, and SJL mice. The specific modification of heavy and light chains of mouse autoantibodies with Val-Ala-Glu-Glu-Glu-Val-PO(OPh)2 reactive peptide was demonstrated. Increased proteolytic activity of polyclonal antibodies in SJL mice encouraged us to investigate the production of antigen-specific catalytic antibodies on the background of induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The immunization of autoimmune-prone mice with the engineered fusions containing the fragments of gp120 and encephalitogenic epitope of myelin basic protein (MBP(89-104)) was made. The proteolytic activity of polyclonal antibodies isolated from the sera of autoimmune mice immunized by the described antigen was shown. Specific immune response of SJL mice to these antigens was characterized. Polyclonal antibodies purified from sera of the immunized animals revealed proteolytic activity. The antiidiotypic approach to raise the specific proteolytic antibody as an "internal image" of protease is described. The "second order" monoclonal antibodies toward subtilisin Carlsberg revealed pronounced proteolytic activity.

  7. Multiplexed screening of natural humoral immunity identifies antibodies at fine specificity for complex and dynamic viral targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Krista M; Gray, Julia; Chen, Natalie Y; Liu, Keyi; Park, Minha; Ellsworth, Stote; Tripp, Ralph A; Tompkins, S Mark; Johnson, Scott K; Samet, Shelly; Pereira, Lenore; Kauvar, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Viral entry targets with therapeutic neutralizing potential are subject to multiple escape mechanisms, including antigenic drift, immune dominance of functionally irrelevant epitopes, and subtle variations in host cell mechanisms. A surprising finding of recent years is that potent neutralizing antibodies to viral epitopes independent of strain exist, but are poorly represented across the diverse human population. Identifying these antibodies and understanding the biology mediating the specific immune response is thus difficult. An effective strategy for meeting this challenge is to incorporate multiplexed antigen screening into a high throughput survey of the memory B cell repertoire from immune individuals. We used this approach to discover suites of cross-clade antibodies directed to conformational epitopes in the stalk region of the influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) protein and to select high-affinity anti-peptide antibodies to the glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus. In each case, our screens revealed a restricted VH and VL germline usage, including published and previously unidentified gene families. The in vivo evolution of paratope specificity with optimal neutralizing activity was understandable after correlating biological activities with kinetic binding and epitope recognition. Iterative feedback between antigen probe design based on structure and function information with high throughput multiplexed screening demonstrated a generally applicable strategy for efficient identification of safe, native, finely tuned antibodies with the potential for high genetic barriers to viral escape.

  8. The impact of immunosenescence on humoral immune response variation after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in older subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana H Haralambieva

    Full Text Available Although influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, the factors underlying the reduced vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in this age group are not completely understood. Age and immunosenescence factors, and their impact on humoral immunity after influenza vaccination, are of growing interest for the development of better vaccines for the elderly.We assessed associations between age and immunosenescence markers (T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles - TREC content, peripheral white blood cell telomerase - TERT expression and CD28 expression on T cells and influenza A/H1N1 vaccine-induced measures of humoral immunity in 106 older subjects at baseline and three timepoints post-vaccination.TERT activity (TERT mRNA expression was significantly positively correlated with the observed increase in the influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at Day 28 compared to baseline (p-value=0.025. TREC levels were positively correlated with the baseline and early (Day 3 influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response (p-value=0.042 and p-value=0.035, respectively. The expression and/or expression change of CD28 on CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells at baseline and Day 3 was positively correlated with the influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at baseline, Day 28 and Day 75 post-vaccination. In a multivariable analysis, the peak antibody response (HAI and/or VNA at Day 28 was negatively associated with age, the percentage of CD8+CD28 low T cells, IgD+CD27- naïve B cells, and percentage overall CD20- B cells and plasmablasts, measured at Day 3 post-vaccination. The early change in influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response was positively correlated with the observed increase in influenza A/H1N1-specific HAI antibodies at Day 28 and Day 75 relative to baseline (p-value=0.007 and p-value=0.005, respectively.Our data suggest that influenza-specific humoral immunity is significantly influenced by

  9. Proteomics-Based Characterization of the Humoral Immune Response in Sporotrichosis: Toward Discovery of Potential Diagnostic and Vaccine Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Araujo, Leticia Mendes; Della Terra, Paula Portella; dos Santos, Priscila Oliveira; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Burger, Eva; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii and associated species are agents of human and animal sporotrichosis that cause large sapronoses and zoonoses worldwide. Epidemiological surveillance has highlighted an overwhelming occurrence of the highly pathogenic fungus Sporothrix brasiliensis during feline outbreaks, leading to massive transmissions to humans. Early diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis by demonstrating the presence of a surrogate marker of infection can have a key role for selecting appropriate disease control measures and minimizing zoonotic transmission to humans. We explored the presence and diversity of serum antibodies (IgG) specific against Sporothrix antigens in cats with sporotrichosis and evaluated the utility of these antibodies for serodiagnosis. Antigen profiling included protein extracts from the closest known relatives S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunoblotting enabled us to characterize the major antigens of feline sporotrichosis from sera from cats with sporotrichosis (n = 49), healthy cats (n = 19), and cats with other diseases (n = 20). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based quantitation of anti-Sporothrix IgG exhibited high sensitivity and specificity in cats with sporotrichosis (area under the curve, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1; Psporotrichosis. Two-dimensional immunoblotting revealed six IgG-reactive isoforms of gp60 in the S. brasiliensis proteome, similar to the humoral response found in human sporotrichosis. A convergent IgG-response in various hosts (mice, cats, and humans) has important implications for our understanding of the coevolution of Sporothrix and its warm-blooded hosts. We propose that 3-carboxymuconate cyclase has potential for the serological diagnosis of sporotrichosis and as target for the development of an effective multi-species vaccine against sporotrichosis in animals and humans.

  10. Humoral response of paracoccidioidomycosis sera in hamsters with different Venezuelan isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M Spencer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of paracoccidioidomycosis sera in hamsters with different Venezuelan isolates. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a progressive systemic mycosis caused by the fungus Paraccocidioides brasiliensis (Pb, endemic to Venezuela and Latin America. In this study, eight different Venezuelan isolates obtained from patients with PCM, were inoculated intraperitoneally in Syrian hamsters (Cricetus auratus and studied by immune-serum. Each strain was collected by gently scraping the surface of the culture medium (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and suspended in 3ml of 0.15 M phosphate-buffered saline. The antigen obtained was called Paraccocidioides brasiliensis Crude Antigen (CAP. Immunoblotting results showed that the immune-sera from hamsters recognized at least 3 bands: one over 200 kDa, and two of 80 and 15-20 kDa. This study suggests that IgG anti-CAP can reveal a significant variability in the eight Venezuelan isolates. Sera from 88 infected hamsters were evaluated by ELISA with eight different CAPs and Western blot with CAP 37383. ELISA results showed that, the antigen of the virulent isolate 37383 had the highest percentage (38% of positivity, while the non-virulent isolate 1458 had the lowest one (13.6%. Furthermore, scanning densitometry revealed that the isolate 37383 had less bands than the non-virulent isolates. These results suggest that the ELISA test with CAP 37383 can detect circulating antibodies, and that this virulent isolate may be useful for the diagnosis of PCM, and to monitor disease responses to treatments. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 505-513. Epub 2009 September 30.La Paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM, es una micosis sistémica causada por el hongo Paraccocidioides brasiliensis (Pb, endémica en Venezuela y Latino América. En este estudio ocho diferentes aislados venezolanos, obtenidos de pacientes con PCM, fueron inoculados intraperitonealmente en hámsteres y fueron estudiados por ELISA e inmunoblotting. Los antígenos obtenidos de P

  11. Humoral Immune Response Induced by PLGA Micro Particle Coupled Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanganagouda K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted for evaluating the humoral immune responses induced by Poly Lactide-co-Glycolide Acid (PLGA microspheres coupled inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV vaccine in comparison to an ‘in-house’ prepared inactivated and a live commercial vaccine. PLG microparticles containing inactivated NDV were prepared by a double emulsion technique based on solvent evaporation method. The size of the NDV coupled PLG microparticles was determined by Electron Microscopy. NDV coupled PLG microparticles were spherical having smooth surface, hollow core inside with no pores on the surface. The experiment was conducted in four groups of chickens (n=15. The encapsulation efficiency of NDV coupled PLG microparticles was determined by protein estimation and HA activity in elute. The mean (± SE size of PLG microspheres was found to be 2.409 ± 0.65 µm. The mean percent of encapsulation efficiency of PLG microspheres coupled to NDV was assessed based on the total protein content and HA activity in elute was found to be 8.03 ± 0.50 and 12.5 ± 0.00, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the experiment showed that PLGA coupled NDV vaccine elicited stronger and prolonged humoral immune response in chickens, in comparison to the other tested vaccines, as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition and enzyme linked immuno sorbent asaay titers.

  12. A novel mode of induction of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kenmoku

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila adults have been utilized as a genetically tractable model organism to decipher the molecular mechanisms of humoral innate immune responses. In an effort to promote the utility of Drosophila larvae as an additional model system, in this study, we describe a novel aspect of an induction mechanism for innate immunity in these larvae. By using a fine tungsten needle created for manipulating semi-conductor devices, larvae were subjected to septic injury. However, although Toll pathway mutants were susceptible to infection with Gram-positive bacteria as had been shown for Drosophila adults, microbe clearance was not affected in the mutants. In addition, Drosophila larvae were found to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli with respect to the activation of a sterile humoral response. In particular, pinching with forceps to a degree that might cause minor damage to larval tissues could induce the expression of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin; notably, this induction was partially independent of the Toll and immune deficiency pathways. We therefore propose that Drosophila larvae might serve as a useful model to analyze the infectious and non-infectious inflammation that underlies various inflammatory diseases such as ischemia, atherosclerosis and cancer.

  13. [The humoral immune response in mice induced by recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing HIV-1 gag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Cairong; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Zhenghai

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the humoral immune response induced by recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing HIV-1 gag in mice immunized orally, intranasally, subcutaneously or in the combined way of above three. Fifty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, 10 mice per group. The mice were immunized consecutively three times at two week intervals with 10(9) CFU of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing gag through oral, intranasal, subcutaneous administration or the mix of them. The mice that were immunized orally with Lactococcus lactis containing PMG36e served as a control group. The sera of mice were collected before primary immunization and 2 weeks after each immunization to detect the gag specific IgG by ELISA. Compared with the control group, the higher titer of serum gag specific IgG was detected in the four groups immunized with recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing gag, and it was the highest in the mixed immunization group (PLactococcus lactis expressing gag can induce humoral immune response in mice by oral, intranasal, subcutaneous injection or the mix of them, and the mixed immunization can enhance the immune effects of Lactococcus lactis vector vaccine.

  14. Antibody production in response to staphylococcal MS-1 phage cocktail in patients undergoing phage therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Żaczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties towards applied phages (K rate. Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration. Even in those individual cases with an increased immune response, mostly by induction of IgG and IgM, the presence of antiphage antibodies did not translate into unsatisfactory clinical results of phage therapy. On the other hand, a negative outcome of the treatment occurred in some patients who showed relatively weak production of antiphage antibodies before and during treatment. This may imply that possible induction of antiphage antibodies is not an obstacle to the implementation of phage therapy and support our assumption that the outcome of the phage treatment does not primarily depend on the appearance of antiphage antibodies in sera of patients during therapy. These conclusions are in line with our previous findings. The confirmation of this thesis is of great interest as regards the efficacy of phage therapy in humans.

  15. Antibody Production in Response to Staphylococcal MS-1 Phage Cocktail in Patients Undergoing Phage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żaczek, Maciej; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Owczarek, Barbara; Kopciuch, Agnieszka; Fortuna, Wojciech; Rogóż, Paweł; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies) to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties toward applied phages (K rate). Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration. Even in those individual cases with an increased immune response, mostly by induction of IgG and IgM, the presence of antiphage antibodies did not translate into unsatisfactory clinical results of phage therapy. On the other hand, a negative outcome of the treatment occurred in some patients who showed relatively weak production of antiphage antibodies before and during treatment. This may imply that possible induction of antiphage antibodies is not an obstacle to the implementation of phage therapy and support our assumption that the outcome of the phage treatment does not primarily depend on the appearance of antiphage antibodies in sera of patients during therapy. These conclusions are in line with our previous findings. The confirmation of this thesis is of great interest as regards the efficacy of phage therapy in humans.

  16. Reduced antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens in the presence of Trichuris trichiura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esen, Meral; Mordmüller, Benjamin; de Salazar, Pablo Martinez

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helminth infections are highly prevalent in the tropics and may have an effect on immune responses to vaccines due to their immunomodulatory effect. The prevalence of helminth infections in young children, the target group for malaria and most other vaccines, is high. Therefore we...... assessed the influence of helminth infection on vaccine-induced immune responses in a phase I clinical trial of the malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2. METHODS: Twenty Gabonese preschool-age children were vaccinated with GMZ2, a blood stage malaria vaccine candidate. Humoral immune response against the vaccine...... antigens and parasitological status were assessed. Vaccine-specific antibody concentrations and memory B-cell numbers were compared in worm infected and non-infected participants. RESULTS: Antibody response to GMZ2 was 3.4-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.6, 7.4) higher in Trichuris trichiura negative...

  17. High-throughput profiling of anti-glycan humoral responses to SIV vaccination and challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Campbell

    Full Text Available Recent progress toward an HIV vaccine highlights both the potential of vaccines to end the AIDS pandemic and the need to boost efficacy by incorporating additional vaccine strategies. Although many aspects of the immune response can contribute to vaccine efficacy, the key factors have not been defined fully yet. A particular area that may yield new insights is anti-glycan immune responses, such as those against the glycan shield that HIV uses to evade the immune system. In this study, we used glycan microarray technology to evaluate anti-glycan antibody responses induced by SIV vaccination and infection in a non-human primate model of HIV infection. This comprehensive profiling of circulating anti-glycan antibodies found changes in anti-glycan antibody levels after both vaccination with the Ad5hr-SIV vaccine and SIV infection. Notably, SIV infection produced generalized declines in anti-glycan IgM antibodies in a number of animals. Additionally, some infected animals generated antibodies to the Tn antigen, which is a cryptic tumor-associated antigen exposed by premature termination of O-linked glycans; however, the Ad5hr-SIV vaccine did not induce anti-Tn IgG antibodies. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential contributions that glycan microarrays can make for HIV vaccine development.

  18. Humoral response to blastospores and mycelium in mice injected with different doses of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesón, O E; Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N G; Sirena, A; Perdigón, G

    1992-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence assay was carry out to determine the IgM and IgG antibody responses to yeast and mycelial forms of Candida albicans in mice injected with a 5 x 5(5) and 5 x 10(7) live cells suspensions. Prior adsorption of the serum samples with heat-killed blastospores enabled us to follow the specific antimycelial response which were detected considerably later than expected. Slow level of antibodies were obtained within an infection of 5 x 10(5) cell for both antibody classes and for yeast and mycelial forms. When a 5 x 10(7) cell dose was used for inoculation, maximum titers of antibodies to blastospores and mycelium in non-adsorbed sera appeared almost simultaneously (days 15 and 13, respectively). When serum samples from mice infected with the same dose were previously adsorbed with blastospores, the antimycelium antibodies for both types of Igs, were detected delayed during the infection course. In this case the higher titer for IgG appeared on day 33 and on day 23 for IgM. We suggest that the high titer obtained with the blastospore forms for the 5 x 10(7) cell dose may be due to a major immunogenicity of this forms, for to induce an immune response in the host, or that the delay in the antimycelium antibodies detection could be due to that a blastospore form is the predominant in the infection early stages. Implications of this fact for pathogenesis are discussed.

  19. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed.

  20. Caspase-1 inhibitor regulates humoral responses in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis via IL-6- dependent inhibiton of STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Min; Li, Heng; Li, Xiao-Li; Yue, Long-Tao; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ru-Tao; Chen, Hui; Li, Yan-Bin; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2017-08-24

    We have previously demonstrated that Cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1) inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) by inhibited cellular immune response, via suppressing DC IL-1 β, CD4 + T and γdT cells IL-17 pathways. In this study, we investigated the effect of caspase-1 inhibitor on humoral immune response of EAMG and further explore the underlying mechanisms. An animal model of MG was induced by region 97-116 of the rat AChR α subunit (R97-116 peptide) in Lewis rats. Rats were treated with caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-cmk intraperitoneally (i.p.) every second day from day 13 after the first immunization. Flow cytometry, western blot, immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of caspase-1 inhibitor on humoral immune response of EAMG. The results showed that caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the relative affinity of anti-R97-116 IgG, suppressed germinal center response, decreased follicular helper T cells, and increased follicular regulatory T cells and regulatory B cells. In addition, we found that caspase-1 inhibitor inhibited humoral immunity response in EAMG rats via suppressing IL-6-STAT3-Bcl-6 pathways. These results suggest that caspase-1 inhibitor ameliorates EAMG by regulating humoral immune response, thus providing new insights into the development of myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune diseases therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses induced by scarification vaccination of human volunteers with a new lot of the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, D M; Galloway, A; Sandstrom, G; Bolt, C R; England, M J; Nelson, G O; Williams, J C

    1992-01-01

    Tularemia is a disease caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. We evaluated a new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine for its immunogenicity in human volunteers. Scarification vaccination induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Indications of a positive immune response after vaccination included an increase in specific antibody levels, which were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays, and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to whole F. tularensis bacteria as recall antigens. Vaccination caused a significant rise (P less than 0.05) in immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM titers. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were significantly increased (P less than 0.01) in vaccinees 14 days after vaccination. These data verify that this new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine is immunogenic. Images PMID:1400988

  2. Alphavirus Replicon DNA Vectors Expressing Ebola GP and VP40 Antigens Induce Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufeng Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, and no approved therapeutics or vaccine is currently available. Glycoprotein (GP is the major protective antigen of EBOV, and can generate virus-like particles (VLPs by co-expression with matrix protein (VP40. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV replicon vector DREP to express EBOV GP and matrix viral protein (VP40. EBOV VLPs were successfully generated and achieved budding from 293 cells after co-transfection with DREP-based GP and VP40 vectors (DREP-GP+DREP-VP40. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with DREP-GP, DREP-VP40, or DREP-GP+DREP-VP40 vectors, followed by immediate electroporation resulted in a mixed IgG subclass production, which recognized EBOV GP and/or VP40 proteins. This vaccination regimen also led to the generation of both Th1 and Th2 cellular immune responses in mice. Notably, vaccination with DREP-GP and DREP-VP40, which produces both GP and VP40 antigens, induced a significantly higher level of anti-GP IgG2a antibody and increased IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T-cell responses relative to vaccination with DREP-GP or DREP-VP40 vector alone. Our study indicates that co-expression of GP and VP40 antigens based on the SFV replicon vector generates EBOV VLPs in vitro, and vaccination with recombinant DREP vectors containing GP and VP40 antigens induces Ebola antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. This novel approach provides a simple and efficient vaccine platform for Ebola disease prevention.

  3. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumi; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Miura, Kazutoyo; Milne, Kathryn H; de Cassan, Simone C; Collins, Katharine A; Halstead, Fenella D; Bliss, Carly M; Ewer, Katie J; Osier, Faith H; Hodgson, Susanne H; Duncan, Christopher J A; O'Hara, Geraldine A; Long, Carole A; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i) ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii) immunization and CHMI, and iii) primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i) total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii) responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii) functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA), iv) IgG avidity, and v) isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM). These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other diseases

  4. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi Biswas

    Full Text Available The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii immunization and CHMI, and iii primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA, iv IgG avidity, and v isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM. These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other

  5. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...... fusion proteins constituting different regions of the protein were produced (Chlamydia pneumoniae-Omp2aa23-aa93, Chlamydia psittaci-Omp2aa23-aa94, and Chlamydia trachomatis-Omp2aa23-aa84, aa87-aa547, aa23-aa182, aa167-aa434, aa420-aa547). By an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with serologically defined...... patient sera, Omp2 was found to be a major immunogen of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis infections (P species-specific anti-Omp2 immunoglobulins were detected....

  6. Epitope-based vaccines with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1a functional motif induce a balanced humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Santos

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.

  7. Cocoa-enriched diets modulate intestinal and systemic humoral immune response in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Franch, Angels; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Castellote, Cristina; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that a highly enriched cocoa diet affects both intestinal and systemic immune function in young rats. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether diets containing lower amounts of cocoa could also influence the systemic and intestinal humoral immune response. Fecal and serum samples were collected during the study and, at the end, intestinal washes were obtained and mesenteric lymph nodes and small-intestine walls were excised for gene expression assessment. IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG2c concentrations were quantified in serum whereas S-IgA and S-IgM were determined in feces and intestinal washes. Animals receiving 5 and 10% cocoa for 3 wk showed no age-related increase in serum IgG1 and IgG2a concentrations, and IgG2a values were significantly lower than those in reference animals. Serum IgM was also decreased by the 10% cocoa diet. The 5 and 10% cocoa diets dramatically reduced intestinal S-IgA concentration and modified the expression of several genes involved in IgA synthesis. A diet containing 2% cocoa had no effect on most of the studied variables. The results demonstrate the downregulatory effect of a 5% or higher cocoa diet on the systemic and intestinal humoral immune response in adult rats. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cellular and humoral immune responses in a population from the Baringo District, Kenya to Leishmania promastigote lipophosphoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Hey, A S; Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-sectional house-to-house study in a leishmaniasis-endemic area in Kenya, the cellular and humoral immune response to Leishmania lipophosphoglycan (LPG) was determined. Clinical data, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and plasma were obtained from 50 individuals over the age of eight...

  9. Posintro™-HBsAg, a modified ISCOM including HBsAg, induces strong cellular and humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiött, Asa; Larsson, Kristina; Manniche, Søren

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg vaccine formulation, Posintro™-HBsAg, was compared to two commercial hepatitis B vaccines including aluminium or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the two adjuvant systems MF59 and QS21 in their efficiency to prime both cellular and humoral immune responses. The Posintro™-HBsAg induced...

  10. Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses of Eimeria tenella-Infected Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Parmentier, H.K.; Li, W.K.; Yang, Z.Q.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of polysaccharide extracts from 2 mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on cellular and humoral immune responses of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A total of 150 broiler chicks were assigned to 5

  11. Specific nongluten proteins of wheat are novel target antigens in celiac disease humoral response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy that is generally understood to be triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins of wheat and related cereals. The skin manifestation of the condition is known as dermatitis herpetiformis. Antibody response to native and deamidated seque...

  12. Architectural Insight into Inovirus-Associated Vectors (IAVs and Development of IAV-Based Vaccines Inducing Humoral and Cellular Responses: Implications in HIV-1 Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos A. Hassapis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inovirus-associated vectors (IAVs are engineered, non-lytic, filamentous bacteriophages that are assembled primarily from thousands of copies of the major coat protein gp8 and just five copies of each of the four minor coat proteins gp3, gp6, gp7 and gp9. Inovirus display studies have shown that the architecture of inoviruses makes all coat proteins of the inoviral particle accessible to the outside. This particular feature of IAVs allows foreign antigenic peptides to be displayed on the outer surface of the virion fused to its coat proteins and for more than two decades has been exploited in many applications including antibody or peptide display libraries, drug design, and vaccine development against infectious and non-infectious diseases. As vaccine carriers, IAVs have been shown to elicit both a cellular and humoral response against various pathogens through the display of antibody epitopes on their coat proteins. Despite their high immunogenicity, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against HIV-1 has not yet materialized. One possible limitation of previous efforts was the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies, which exhibited autoreactivity properties. In the past five years, however, new, more potent broadly neutralizing antibodies that do not exhibit autoreactivity properties have been isolated from HIV-1 infected individuals, suggesting that vaccination strategies aimed at producing such broadly neutralizing antibodies may confer protection against infection. The utilization of these new, broadly neutralizing antibodies in combination with the architectural traits of IAVs have driven the current developments in the design of an inovirus-based vaccine against HIV-1. This article reviews the applications of IAVs in vaccine development, with particular emphasis on the design of inoviral-based vaccines against HIV-1.

  13. Carnauba wax nanoparticles enhance strong systemic and mucosal cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-gp140 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio A; Loxley, Andrew; Eatmon, Christy; Van Roey, Griet; Fairhurst, David; Mitchnick, Mark; Dash, Philip; Cole, Tom; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin; Shattock, Robin

    2011-02-01

    Induction of humoral responses to HIV at mucosal compartments without inflammation is important for vaccine design. We developed charged wax nanoparticles that efficiently adsorb protein antigens and are internalized by DC in the absence of inflammation. HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles induced stronger in vitro T-cell proliferation responses than antigen alone. Such responses were greatly enhanced when antigen was co-adsorbed with TLR ligands. Immunogenicity studies in mice showed that intradermal vaccination with HIV-gp140 antigen-adsorbed nanoparticles induced high levels of specific IgG. Importantly, intranasal immunization with HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles greatly enhanced serum and vaginal IgG and IgA responses. Our results show that HIV-gp140-carrying wax nanoparticles can induce strong cellular/humoral immune responses without inflammation and may be of potential use as effective mucosal adjuvants for HIV vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Proteomics-Based Characterization of the Humoral Immune Response in Sporotrichosis: Toward Discovery of Potential Diagnostic and Vaccine Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Messias Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii and associated species are agents of human and animal sporotrichosis that cause large sapronoses and zoonoses worldwide. Epidemiological surveillance has highlighted an overwhelming occurrence of the highly pathogenic fungus Sporothrix brasiliensis during feline outbreaks, leading to massive transmissions to humans. Early diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis by demonstrating the presence of a surrogate marker of infection can have a key role for selecting appropriate disease control measures and minimizing zoonotic transmission to humans.We explored the presence and diversity of serum antibodies (IgG specific against Sporothrix antigens in cats with sporotrichosis and evaluated the utility of these antibodies for serodiagnosis. Antigen profiling included protein extracts from the closest known relatives S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunoblotting enabled us to characterize the major antigens of feline sporotrichosis from sera from cats with sporotrichosis (n = 49, healthy cats (n = 19, and cats with other diseases (n = 20.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based quantitation of anti-Sporothrix IgG exhibited high sensitivity and specificity in cats with sporotrichosis (area under the curve, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1; P<0.0001 versus controls. The two sets of Sporothrix antigens were remarkably cross-reactive, supporting the hypothesis that antigenic epitopes may be conserved among closely related agents. One-dimensional immunoblotting indicated that 3-carboxymuconate cyclase (a 60-kDa protein in S. brasiliensis and a 70-kDa protein in S. schenckii is the immunodominant antigen in feline sporotrichosis. Two-dimensional immunoblotting revealed six IgG-reactive isoforms of gp60 in the S. brasiliensis proteome, similar to the humoral response found in human sporotrichosis.A convergent IgG-response in various hosts (mice, cats, and humans has important implications for our

  15. Quantification of the humoral immune response and hemoplasma blood and tissue loads in cats coinfected with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and feline leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Cattori, Valentino; Geret, Catrina P; Novacco, Marilisa; Meli, Marina L; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2012-08-01

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) is a hemotropic mycoplasma (aka hemoplasma) of domestic cats and wild felids. In a transmission study, we exposed eight specified pathogen-free cats to blood from Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus) infected with CMhm. The cats were coinfected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) from an Iberian lynx or with a prototype FeLV. The goal of the present study was to quantify the humoral immune response to CMhm and to identify potential target tissues and sequestration sites. Antibodies were measured by a recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and blood and tissue loads were quantified using real-time PCR. Seven out of eight cats became CMhm-infected; all of these cats seroconverted between 3 and 13 weeks after inoculation. Antibody levels correlated with the CMhm blood loads. The peak CMhm blood loads were inversely correlated with the incubation period. PCR-positive results were found in all 24 tissues tested but not for all samples. Although all tissues were PCR-positive in one cat euthanized ten weeks after infection, many tissues tested negative in six cats euthanized at week 20 after infection. In several cats, the spleen, lung, liver, heart and aorta contained more copies than expected given the tissue's blood supply, but most tissues contained fewer copies than expected. In conclusion, this is the first study to quantify the humoral immune response and tissue loads in CMhm-FeLV-coinfected cats. The tissue loads appeared to correlate with the duration of infection and with the blood loads, but no evidence of significant CMhm tissue sequestration was found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppression of a thymus dependent humoral response in mice by Concanavalin A in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, H.S.; Ekstedt, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Mice treated with Concanavalin A prior to immunization with sheep erthyrocytes exhibit a markedly reduced plaque forming spleen cell response. This immunosuppressive effect could be reversed by using higher doses of antigen or priming the animals with nonimmunizing doses of antigen prior to Concanavalin A injection designed to either by-pass or enhance thymus derived lymphocyte functions. It was also demonstrated that Concanavalin A in vivo activated the thymus derived lymphocyte subpopulation in the spleen, and this activation was dose dependent and correlated with the immunosuppression observed. Animals injected with Concanavalin A at various times prior to whole body lethal irradiation would not support the plaque forming cell response of adoptively transferred normal syngeneic spleen cells. This effect was shown to be time and dose of Concanavalin A dependent. It was also shown that the route of injection of Concanavalin A prior to irradiation determined the results observed, in that the intravenous route resulted in the suppression of transferred cells, while the intraperitoneal route showed no effect. It is suggested that Concanavalin A induced immunosuppression of the humoral, thymus dependent immune response in mice results for the activation of a subpopulation of thymus derived suppressors cells, and that the effect is short lived, radiation resistant, and dose of Concanavalin A and antigen dependent

  17. Radiosensitivity of antibody responses and radioresistant secondary tetanus antitoxin responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, R.; Terres, G.; Cottier, H.; Hess, M.

    1976-01-01

    Primary tetanus antitoxin responses were increasingly repressed in mice when gamma radiation doses of 100 to 400 rads were delivered by whole-body exposure prior to immunization with fluid tetanus toxoid (FTT). Nearly normal secondary antitoxin responses were obtained in mice exposed to 600 rads of gamma radiation 4 days after secondary antigenic stimulation with FTT. A rapid transition from radiosensitivity of the antibody-forming system on days 1 to 3 was followed by relative radioresistance on day 4 after the booster injection of toxoid. Studies on lymphoid cellular kinetics in popliteal lymph nodes after injection of 3 H--thymidine ( 3 H--TdR) and incorporation of 3 H--L-histidine into circulating antitoxin were carried out. Analysis of tritium radioactivity in antigen--antibody precipitates of serums 2 hr after injection of the labeled amino acid revealed maximum incorporation into antibody around day 7 after the booster in nonirradiated controls and about day 12, i.e., 8 days after irradiation, in experimental mice. The shift from radiosensitivity to relative radioresistance was attributed to a marked peak of plasma-cell proliferation in the medulla of lymph nodes on day 3. Many medullary plasma cells survived and continued to proliferate after exposure to radiation. Germinal centers were destroyed by radiation within 1 day. Since antibody formation continued after exposure to radiation and after the loss of germinal centers, this supports the view that germinal-center cells were involved more in the generation of memory cells than in antibody synthesis

  18. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with. gamma. -irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G. (Agricultural Research Council, Compton (UK). Inst. for Research on Animal Diseases); Hanna, R.E.B. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK))

    1982-05-01

    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy.

  19. Pathogenesis, humoral immune responses and transmission between co-housed animals in a ferret model of human RSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok Fei; Carolan, Louise A; Druce, Julian; Chappell, Keith; Watterson, Daniel; Young, Paul; Korenkov, Daniil; Subbarao, Kanta; Barr, Ian G; Laurie, Karen L; Reading, Patrick C

    2017-11-29

    Small animal models have been used to obtain many insights regarding the pathogenesis and immune responses induced following infection with human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Amongst those described to date, infections in cotton rats, mice, guinea pigs, chinchillas and Syrian hamsters with hRSV strains Long and/or A2 have been well characterised, although clinical isolates have also been examined. Ferrets are also susceptible to hRSV infection but the pathogenesis and immune responses elicited following infection have not been well characterised. Herein, we describe the infection of adult ferrets with hRSV Long or A2 via the intranasal route and characterised virus replication, as well as cytokine induction, in the upper and lower airways. Virus replication and cytokine induction during the acute phase of infection (days 0-15 post-infection) were similar between the two strains and both elicited high levels of F glycoprotein-specific binding and neutralising antibodies following virus clearance (days 16-22 post-infection). Importantly, we demonstrate transmission from experimentally infected donor ferrets to co-housed naïve recipients and have characterised virus replication and cytokine induction in the upper airways of infected contact animals. Together, these studies provide a direct comparison of the pathogenesis of hRSV Long and A2 in ferrets and highlight the potential of this animal model to study serological responses and examine interventions that limit transmission of hRSV. IMPORTANCE Ferrets have been widely used to study pathogenesis, immunity and transmission following human influenza virus infections, however far less is known regarding the utility of the ferret model to study hRSV infections. Following intranasal (IN) infection of adult ferrets with the well characterised Long or A2 strains of hRSV, we report virus replication and cytokine induction in the upper and lower airways, as well as the development of virus-specific humoral responses

  20. Humoral and cellular immune response in mice induced by the classical swine fever virus E2 protein fused to the porcine CD154 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Yusmel; Suárez, Marisela; Caraballo, Rosalina; Sardina, Talía; Brown, Emma; Duarte, Carlos; Lugo, Joanna; Gil, Lázaro; Perez, Danny; Oliva, Ayme; Vargas, Milagros; Santana, Elaine; Valdés, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, María Pilar

    2018-03-01

    The development of subunit vaccines against classical swine fever is a desirable goal, because it allows discrimination between vaccinated and infected animals. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response elicited in inbred BALB/c mice by immunization with a recombinant classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein fused to porcine CD154 antigen (E2CD154) was assessed. This model was used as a predictor of immune response in swine. Mice were immunized with E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50V2 or dissolved in saline on days 1 and 21. Another group received E2His antigen, without CD154, in the same adjuvant. Montanide ISA50V2 or saline served as negative controls for each experimental group. Animals immunized with 12.5 and 2.5 μg/dose of E2CD154 developed the highest titers (>1:2000) of CSFV neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, CSFV specific splenocyte gamma-interferon production, measured after seven and twenty-eight days of immunization, was significantly higher in mice immunized with 12.5 μg of E2CD154. As a conclusion, E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50 V2 was able to induce a potent humoral and an early cellular immune response in inbred BALB/c mice. Therefore, this immunogen might be an appropriate candidate to elicit immune response in swine, control CSF disease and to eliminate CSFV in swine. Copyright © 2018 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Local and systemic humoral immune response in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under a natural amoebic gill disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-López, Mar; Espinosa Ruiz, Cristóbal; Rodger, Hamish D; O'Connor, Ian; MacCarthy, Eugene; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-07-01

    Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the protozoan parasite Neoparamoeba perurans, is one of the most significant infectious diseases for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. The present study investigated the humoral immune response (both local in gill mucus and systemic in serum) of farmed Atlantic salmon naturally infected with N. perurans in commercial sea pens, at two different stages of the disease and after freshwater treatment. Parameters analysed included activity of immune related enzymes (i.e. lysozyme, peroxidase, protease, anti-protease, esterase, alkaline phosphatase), IgM levels, and the terminal carbohydrate profile in the gill mucus. Overall, greater variations between groups were noted in the immune parameters determined in gill mucus than the equivalent in the serum. In gill mucus, IgM levels and peroxidase, lysozyme, esterase and protease activities were decreased in fish showing longer exposure time to the infection and higher disease severity, then showed a sequential increase after treatment. Results obtained highlight the capacity of gills to elicit a local response to the infection, indicate an impaired immune response at the later stages of the disease, and show partial reestablishment of the host immune status after freshwater treatment. In addition to providing data on the humoral response to AGD, this study increases knowledge on gill mucosal humoral immunity, since some of the parameters were analysed for the first time in gill mucus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The immunoglobulin class of anti-hapten antibody secreted during secondary responses in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, J R; Dresser, D W

    1977-05-01

    A comparison has been made of the in vitro and in vivo response of primed mouse spleen cells to the hapten DNP. The responses were analysed in terms of six classes (sub-classes) of humoral antibody directed against the cross-reacting hapten TNP. By comparison with the response in intact mice the adoptive secondary response is delayed by 3 days in addition to being somewhat lesser in magnitude. The timing of the response in vitro is similar to that observed in intact mice. The preponderant class in all three responses was gammaG1 with gammaA and gammaG3 secreting cells consistently comprising the smallest proportion of the total of antibody-secreting cells.

  3. Humoral Responses to Diverse Autoimmune Disease-Associated Antigens in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Malyavantham

    Full Text Available To compare frequencies of autoreactive antibody responses to endogenous disease-associated antigens in healthy controls (HC, relapsing and progressive MS and to assess their associations with clinical and MRI measures of MS disease progression.The study analyzed 969 serum samples from 315 HC, 411 relapsing remitting MS (RR-MS, 128 secondary progressive MS (SP-MS, 33 primary progressive MS (PP-MS and 82 patients with other neurological diseases for autoantibodies against two putative MS antigens CSF114(Glc and KIR4.1a and KIR4.1b and against 24 key endogenous antigens linked to diseases such as vasculitis, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease and primary biliary cirrhosis. Associations with disability and MRI measures of lesional injury and neurodegeneration were assessed.The frequencies of anti-KIR4.1a and anti-KIR4.1b peptide IgG positivity were 9.8% and 11.4% in HC compared to 4.9% and 7.5% in RR-MS, 8.6% for both peptides in SP-MS and 6.1% for both peptides in PP-MS (p = 0.13 for KIR4.1a and p = 0.34 for KIR4.1b, respectively. Antibodies against CSF114(Glc, KIR4.1a and KIR4.1b peptides were not associated with MS compared to HC, or with MS disease progression. HLA DRB1*15:01 positivity and anti-Epstein Barr virus antibodies, which are MS risk factors, were not associated with these putative MS antibodies.Antibody responses to KIR4.1a and KIR4.1b peptides are not increased in MS compared to HC nor associated with MS disease progression. The frequencies of the diverse autoreactive antibodies investigated are similar in MS and HC.

  4. Structure-based stabilization of HIV-1 gp120 enhances humoral immune responses to the induced co-receptor binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Dey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, possesses conserved binding sites for interaction with the primary virus receptor, CD4, and also for the co-receptor, generally CCR5. Although gp120 is a major target for virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, the gp120 variable elements and its malleable nature contribute to evasion of effective host-neutralizing antibodies. To understand the conformational character and immunogenicity of the gp120 receptor binding sites as potential vaccine targets, we introduced structure-based modifications to stabilize gp120 core proteins (deleted of the gp120 major variable regions into the conformation recognized by both receptors. Thermodynamic analysis of the re-engineered core with selected ligands revealed significant stabilization of the receptor-binding regions. Stabilization of the co-receptor-binding region was associated with a marked increase in on-rate of ligand binding to this site as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Rabbit immunization studies showed that the conformational stabilization of core proteins, along with increased ligand affinity, was associated with strikingly enhanced humoral immune responses against the co-receptor-binding site. These results demonstrate that structure-based approaches can be exploited to stabilize a conformational site in a large functional protein to enhance immunogenic responses specific for that region.

  5. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-05-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Humoral immune response to hypervariable region 1 of the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp70) of hepatitis C virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, N; Sekiya, H; Ootsuyama, Y; Nakazawa, T; Hijikata, M; Ohkoshi, S; Shimotohno, K

    1993-01-01

    We recently found that alterations of amino acids in hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp70) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurred sequentially in the chronic phase of hepatitis at intervals of several months. This finding suggests that mutations in HVR1 are involved in the mechanism of persistent chronic HCV infection involving escape from the immunosurveillance system. To explore this possibility, we examined the humoral immune response to HVR1 with our assa...

  7. Separate and combined effect of low doses of ionizing radiation and hydroquinone on humoral immune response in regional lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharetskij, A.N.; Surinov, B.P.; Abramova, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The whole-body exposure of mice to 0.1 Gy γ-radiation resulted in stimulation of T-cell dependent humoral immune response in lymph nodes. At the same enhansement of succeptability of immunocompetent cells to damaging effect of hydroquinone was observed. Under irradiation with doses of 0.5 or 1 Gy which cause dose-dependent immunosupression, hydroquinone induced stimulation of antigene production

  8. Relative roles of the cellular and humoral responses in the Drosophila host defense against three gram-positive bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine T Nehme

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Toll and immune deficiency (imd, are required for survival to bacterial infections in Drosophila. In response to septic injury, these pathways mediate rapid transcriptional activation of distinct sets of effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, which are important components of a humoral defense response. However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense.In order to dissect the relative importance of humoral and cellular defenses after septic injury with three different gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, we used latex bead pre-injection to ablate macrophage function in flies wildtype or mutant for various Toll and imd pathway components. We found that in all three infection models a compromised phagocytic system impaired fly survival--independently of concomitant Toll or imd pathway activation. Our data failed to confirm a role of the PGRP-SA and GNBP1 Pattern Recognition Receptors for phagocytosis of S. aureus. The Drosophila scavenger receptor Eater mediates the phagocytosis by hemocytes or S2 cells of E. faecalis and S. aureus, but not of M. luteus. In the case of M. luteus and E. faecalis, but not S. aureus, decreased survival due to defective phagocytosis could be compensated for by genetically enhancing the humoral immune response.Our results underscore the fundamental importance of both cellular and humoral mechanisms in Drosophila immunity and shed light on the balance between these two arms of host defense depending on the invading pathogen.

  9. Longitudinal evaluation of humoral immune response and merozoite surface antigen diversity in calves naturally infected with Babesia bovis, in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Carlos António; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Alvarez, Dasiel Obregón; Freschi, Carla Roberta; Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa da; Val-Moraes, Silvana Pompeia; Mendes, Natalia Serra; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    Babesiosis is an economically important infectious disease affecting cattle worldwide. In order to longitudinally evaluate the humoral immune response against Babesia bovis and the merozoite surface antigen diversity of B. bovis among naturally infected calves in Taiaçu, Brazil, serum and DNA samples from 15 calves were obtained quarterly, from their birth to 12 months of age. Anti-B. bovis IgG antibodies were detected by means of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to investigate the genetic diversity of B. bovis, based on the genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSA-1, MSA-2b and MSA-2c). The serological results demonstrated that up to six months of age, all the calves developed active immunity against B. bovis. Among the 75 DNA samples evaluated, 2, 4 and 5 sequences of the genes msa-1, msa-2b and msa-2c were obtained. The present study demonstrated that the msa-1 and msa-2b genes sequences amplified from blood DNA of calves positive to B. bovis from Taiaçu were genetically distinct, and that msa-2c was conserved. All animals were serologically positive to ELISA and IFAT, which used full repertoire of parasite antigens in despite of the genetic diversity of MSAs.

  10. Lifelong memory responses perpetuate humoral TH2 immunity and anaphylaxis in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Chu, Derek K; Mandur, Talveer S; Walker, Tina D; Gordon, Melissa E; Chaudhary, Roopali; Koenig, Joshua; Saliba, Sarah; Galipeau, Heather J; Utley, Adam; King, Irah L; Lee, Kelvin; Ettinger, Rachel; Waserman, Susan; Kolbeck, Roland; Jordana, Manel

    2017-12-01

    A number of food allergies (eg, fish, shellfish, and nuts) are lifelong, without any disease-transforming therapies, and unclear in their underlying immunology. Clinical manifestations of food allergy are largely mediated by IgE. Although persistent IgE titers have been attributed conventionally to long-lived IgE + plasma cells (PCs), this has not been directly and comprehensively tested. We sought to evaluate mechanisms underlying persistent IgE and allergic responses to food allergens. We used a model of peanut allergy and anaphylaxis, various knockout mice, adoptive transfer experiments, and in vitro assays to identify mechanisms underlying persistent IgE humoral immunity over almost the entire lifespan of the mouse (18-20 months). Contrary to conventional paradigms, our data show that clinically relevant lifelong IgE titers are not sustained by long-lived IgE + PCs. Instead, lifelong reactivity is conferred by allergen-specific long-lived memory B cells that replenish the IgE + PC compartment. B-cell reactivation requires allergen re-exposure and IL-4 production by CD4 T cells. We define the half-lives of antigen-specific germinal centers (23.3 days), IgE + and IgG 1 + PCs (60 and 234.4 days, respectively), and clinically relevant cell-bound IgE (67.3 days). These findings can explain lifelong food allergies observed in human subjects as the consequence of allergen exposures that recurrently activate memory B cells and identify these as a therapeutic target with disease-transforming potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Complexity of Human Antibody Response to Dengue Virus: Implication for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Yang; Lin, Hong-En; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2017-01-01

    The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) are the leading cause of arboviral diseases in humans. Decades of efforts have made remarkable progress in dengue vaccine development. Despite the first dengue vaccine (dengvaxia from Sanofi Pasteur), a live-attenuated tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccine, has been licensed by several countries since 2016, its overall moderate efficacy (56.5-60.8%) in the presence of neutralizing antibodies during the Phase 2b and 3 trials, lower efficacy among dengue naïve compared with dengue experienced individuals, and increased risk of hospitalization among young children during the follow-up highlight the need for a better understanding of humoral responses after natural DENV infection. Recent studies of more than 300 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against DENV have led to the discovery of several novel epitopes on the envelope protein recognized by potent neutralizing mAbs. This information together with in-depth studies on polyclonal sera and B-cells following natural DENV infection has tremendous implications for better immunogen design for a safe and effective dengue vaccine. This review outlines the progress in our understanding of mouse mAbs, human mAbs, and polyclonal sera against DENV envelope and precursor membrane proteins, two surface proteins involved in vaccine development, following natural infection; analyses of these discoveries have provided valuable insight into new strategies involving molecular technology to induce more potent neutralizing antibodies and less enhancing antibodies for next-generation dengue vaccine development.

  12. Antibody response to booster vaccination with tetanus and diphtheria in adults exposed to perfluorinated alkylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Shamim, Zaiba; Ryder, Lars P; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Heilmann, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) may induce immunosuppression in humans and animal models. In this exploratory study, 12 healthy adult volunteers were recruited. With each subject, serum-PFAS concentrations were measured and their antibody responses prospectively followed for 30 days after a booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus. The results indicated that serum-PFAS concentrations were positively correlated and positively associated with age and male sex. The specific antibody concentrations in serum were increased from Day 4 to Day 10 post-booster, after which a constant concentration was reached. Serum PFAS concentrations showed significant negative associations with the rate of increase in the antibody responses. Interestingly, this effect was particularly strong for the longer-chain PFASs. All significant associations remained significant after adjustment for sex and age. Although the study involved a small number of subjects, these findings of a PFAS-associated reduction of the early humoral immune response to booster vaccination in healthy adults supported previous findings of PFAS immunosuppression in larger cohorts. Furthermore, the results suggested that cellular mechanisms right after antigen exposure should be investigated more closely to identify possible mechanisms of immunosuppression from PFAS.

  13. C3d enhanced DNA vaccination induced humoral immune response to glycoprotein C of pseudorabies virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Tiezhu; Fan Huiying; Tan Yadi; Xiao Shaobo; Ling Jieyu; Chen Huanchun; Guo Aizhen

    2006-01-01

    Murine C3d were utilized to enhance immunogenicity of pseudorabies virus (PrV) gC DNA vaccination. Three copies of C3d and four copies of CR2-binding domain M28 4 were fused, respectively, to truncated gC gene encoding soluble glycoprotein C (sgC) in pcDNA3.1. BALB/c mice were, respectively, immunized with recombinant plasmids, blank vector, and inactivated vaccine. The antibody ELISA titer for sgC-C3d 3 DNA was 49-fold more than that for sgC DNA, and the neutralizing antibody obtained 8-fold rise. Protection of mice from death after lethal PrV (316 LD 5 ) challenge was augmented from 25% to 100%. Furthermore, C3d fusion increased Th2-biased immune response by inducing IL-4 production. The IL-4 level for sgC-C3d 3 DNA immunization approached that for the inactivated vaccine. Compared to C3d, M28 enhanced sgC DNA immunogenicity to a lesser extent. In conclusion, we demonstrated that murine C3d fusion significantly enhanced gC DNA immunity by directing Th1-biased to a balanced and more effective Th1/Th2 response

  14. A study of the localized humoral immune response to implicated microorganisms in juvenile periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken using an in vitro explant culture system to determine the presence of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) in the supernatant fluids (SF) of disease gingival tissue explant cultures. Studies were also undertaken to determine if the de novo biosynthesis of 14 C-immunoglobulins could be observed in the explant cultures of diseased tissues from juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Radiolabeled proteins were detected in the SF and immunodiffusion studies using goat antihuman gamma, alpha or mu chain serum revealed the presence of IgG and IgA but no IgM present in the SF of the JP gingival tissue explant cultures. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma chain serum with Staph protein A isolated IgG fractions of the SF, followed by autoradiography of the IgG precipitation lines demonstrated the biosynthesis of IgG by the JP gingival tissue explant cultures. The serological studies suggested that local immune response in JP was to a polymicrobic infection. The SF of JP showed significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to B. intermedius, C. ochracea, E. nodatum and P. micros as compared to healthy tissues. The local antibody response to the microorganisms tested differed from that observed in the sera of the patients

  15. A recoding method to improve the humoral immune response to an HIV DNA vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoxing Huang

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes a novel strategy to improve HIV DNA vaccine design. Employing a new information theory based bioinformatic algorithm, we identify a set of nucleotide motifs which are common in the coding region of HIV, but are under-represented in genes that are highly expressed in the human genome. We hypothesize that these motifs contribute to the poor protein expression of gag, pol, and env genes from the c-DNAs of HIV clinical isolates. Using this approach and beginning with a codon optimized consensus gag gene, we recode the nucleotide sequence so as to remove these motifs without modifying the amino acid sequence. Transfecting the recoded DNA sequence into a human kidney cell line results in doubling the gag protein expression level compared to the codon optimized version. We then turn both sequences into DNA vaccines and compare induced antibody response in a murine model. Our sequence, which has the motifs removed, induces a five-fold increase in gag antibody response compared to the codon optimized vaccine.

  16. A study of the localized humoral immune response to implicated microorganisms in juvenile periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken using an in vitro explant culture system to determine the presence of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) in the supernatant fluids (SF) of disease gingival tissue explant cultures. Studies were also undertaken to determine if the de novo biosynthesis of {sup 14}C-immunoglobulins could be observed in the explant cultures of diseased tissues from juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Radiolabeled proteins were detected in the SF and immunodiffusion studies using goat antihuman gamma, alpha or mu chain serum revealed the presence of IgG and IgA but no IgM present in the SF of the JP gingival tissue explant cultures. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma chain serum with Staph protein A isolated IgG fractions of the SF, followed by autoradiography of the IgG precipitation lines demonstrated the biosynthesis of IgG by the JP gingival tissue explant cultures. The serological studies suggested that local immune response in JP was to a polymicrobic infection. The SF of JP showed significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to B. intermedius, C. ochracea, E. nodatum and P. micros as compared to healthy tissues. The local antibody response to the microorganisms tested differed from that observed in the sera of the patients.

  17. Cellular and humoral immune responses in sheep vaccinated with candidate antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.; Begg, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Control of Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in ruminants using commercially available vaccine reduces production losses, mortality, fecal shedding and histopathological lesions but does not provide complete protection from infection and interferes with serological diagnosis of Johne's disease and bovine tuberculosis. At this time no recombinant antigens have been found to provide superior protection compared to whole killed or live-attenuated MAP vaccines. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate more candidate MAP antigens. In this study recombinant MAP antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 were formulated with four different MONTANIDE™ (ISA 50V2, 61VG, 71VG, and 201VG) adjuvants and evaluated for their ability to produce specific immune responses in vaccinated sheep. The cellular immune response was measured with an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay and the humoral immune response was measured by antibody detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant vaccine formulation with the antigen MAP2698c and MONTANIDE™ ISA 201VG adjuvant produced strong whole-MAP as well as MAP2698c-specific IFN-γ responses in a high proportion of the vaccinated sheep. The formulation caused less severe injection site lesions in comparison to other formulations. The findings from this study suggest that the MAP2698c + 201VG should be evaluated in a challenge trial to determine the efficacy of this vaccine candidate. PMID:25077074

  18. Effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the thymus-dependent humoral immune response and the polyclonal activation of B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharetskij, A.N.; Surinov, B.P.; Abramova, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on the effect of the low-dose (10 cGy with the dose rate of 1cGy/min) γ-radiation on the indices of the mice system and local immune response are presented. The sheep erythrocytes were used as a thymus-dependent antigen. It is shown that the total irradiation with the above dose rate induced the increase in the primary thymus-dependent humoral immune response on the sheep erythrocytes and polyclonal activation of the B-lymphocytes. The sharp oppression of the antibody formation was observed in the immune response dynamics after the phase of the radiation-induced elevation. The injection of hydroquinone right after the irradiation resulted in elimination of the radiation stimulation of the polyclonal response of the B-cells. The essential decrease in the immunoantilogarithmic radiation effect took place in the animals treated with thymogen. The possible negative consequences of the low-dose ionizing radiation impact on the body immune system are discussed [ru

  19. Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Kammoun-Rebai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. papatasi salivary gland extracts (SGE in individuals living in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL old or emerging foci (OF, EF. OF was characterized by a higher infection prevalence as assessed by higher proportions of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals compared to EF. Subjects were further subdivided into healed, asymptomatic or naïve groups. We showed anti-SGE proliferation in less than 30% of the individuals, regardless of the immune status, in both foci. IFN-γ production was higher in OF and only observed in immune individuals from OF and naïve subjects from EF. Although IL-10 was not detected, addition of anti-human IL-10 antibodies revealed an increase in proliferation and IFN-γ production only in individuals from OF. The percentage of seropositive individuals was similar in immune and naïves groups but was significantly higher in OF. No correlation was observed between anti-saliva immune responses and LST response. High anti-SGE-IgG responses were associated with an increased risk of developing ZCL. No differences were observed for anti-SGE humoral or cellular responses among naïve individuals who converted or not their LST response or developed or not ZCL after the transmission season.These data suggest that individuals living in an old focus characterized by a frequent exposure to sand fly bites and a high prevalence of infection, develop higher anti-saliva IgG responses and IFN-γ levels and a skew towards a Th2-type cellular response, probably in favor of parasite establishment

  20. Clonal progression during the T cell-dependent B cell antibody response depends on the immunoglobulin DH gene segment repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad eTrad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the third complementarity determining region of the Ig H chain is constrained by natural selection of immunoglobulin diversity (DH sequence. To test the functional significance of this constraint in the context of thymus-dependent (TD immune responses, we immunized BALB/c mice with WT or altered DH sequence with 2-phenyloxazolone-coupled chicken serum albumin (phOx-CSA. We chose this antigen because studies of the humoral immune response to the hapten phOx were instrumental in the development of the current theoretical framework on which our understanding of the forces driving TD responses is based. To allow direct comparison, we used the classic approach of generating monoclonal Ab (mAb from various stages of the immune response to phOx to assess the effect of changing the sequence of the DH on clonal expansion, class switching and affinity maturation, which are hallmarks of TD responses. Compared to WT, TD-induced humoral IgM as well as IgG antibody production in the D-altered D-DFS and D-iD strains were significantly reduced. An increased prevalence of IgM producing hybridomas from late primary, secondary, and tertiary memory responses suggested either impaired class switch recombination (CSR or impaired clonal expansion of class switched B cells with phOx reactivity. Neither of the D-altered strains demonstrated the restriction in the VH/VL repertoire, the elimination of VH1 family-encoded antibodies, the focusing of the distribution of CDR-H3 lengths, or the selection for the normally dominant Ox1 clonotype which all are hallmarks of the anti-phOx response in WT mice. These changes in clonal selection and expansion as well as class switch recombination indicate that the genetic constitution of the DH locus, which has been selected by evolution, can strongly influence the functional outcome of a TD humoral response.

  1. Cellular and humoral factors involved in the response of rainbow trout gills to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Moonika Marana; Kania, Per Walter; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth

    2011-01-01

    a significant down-regulating effect on genes incoding IgT, IgM, CD4, CD8, IFN-g, IL-8 and IL-22 in all groups. Immunohistochemistry, using monoclonal antibodies to detect cellular markers, demonstrated active involvement of CD8, MHC II, IgT and IgM positive cells in gill tissue. Putative T-cells (CD8 positive...... cells) were detected in the intraepithelial lymphoid tissue located at the base of gill filaments and in hyperplastic gill tissue but following infection a clear efflux of these cells was detected. MHC II positive cells were distributed across the gill filaments and accumulated in hyperplastic tissue...... in gill arterioles and the lamellar capillaries. The present work indicates an intensive activity and specialized function of immune cells (B-cells, T-cells and macrophages) and humoral elements such as immunoglobulins IgT and IgM which are orchestrated by cytokines in gill tissue reacting against I...

  2. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  3. Safety and persistence of the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by 2 doses of an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza vaccine administered to infants, children and adolescents: Two open, uncontrolled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sicilia, José; Arístegui, Javier; Omeñaca, Félix; Carmona, Alfonso; Tejedor, Juan C; Merino, José M; García-Corbeira, Pilar; Walravens, Karl; Bambure, Vinod; Moris, Philippe; Caplanusi, Adrian; Gillard, Paul; Dieussaert, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    In children, 2 AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine doses given 21 days apart were previously shown to induce a high humoral immune response and to have an acceptable safety profile up to 42 days following the first vaccination. Here, we analyzed the persistence data from 2 open-label studies, which assessed the safety, and humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by 2 doses of this vaccine. The first study was a phase II, randomized trial conducted in 104 children aged 6-35 months vaccinated with the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine containing 1.9 µg haemagglutinin antigen (HA) and AS03B (5.93 mg tocopherol) and the second study, a phase III, non-randomized trial conducted in 210 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years vaccinated with the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine containing 3.75 µg HA and AS03A (11.86 mg tocopherol). Approximately one year after the first dose, all children with available data were seropositive for haemagglutinin inhibition and neutralising antibody titres, but a decline in geometric mean antibody titres was noted. The vaccine induced a cell-mediated immune response in terms of antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cells, which persisted up to one year post-vaccination. The vaccine did not raise any safety concern, though these trials were not designed to detect rare events. In conclusion, 2 doses of the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at 2 different dosages had a clinically acceptable safety profile, and induced high and persistent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in children aged 6-35 months and 3-17 years. These studies have been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00971321 and NCT00964158.

  4. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  5. Fowlpox virus recombinants expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes for the therapy of cervical carcinoma elicit humoral and cell-mediated responses in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Antonia; Pozzi, Eleana; Pacchioni, Sole; Zanotto, Carlo; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli

    2010-04-21

    Around half million new cases of cervical cancer arise each year, making the development of an effective therapeutic vaccine against HPV a high priority. As the E6 and E7 oncoproteins are expressed in all HPV-16 tumour cells, vaccines expressing these proteins might clear an already established tumour and support the treatment of HPV-related precancerous lesions. Three different immunisation regimens were tested in a pre-clinical trial in rabbits to evaluate the humoral and cell-mediated responses of a putative HPV-16 vaccine. Fowlpoxvirus (FP) recombinants separately expressing the HPV-16 E6 (FPE6) and E7 (FPE7) transgenes were used for priming, followed by E7 protein boosting. All of the protocols were effective in eliciting a high antibody response. This was also confirmed by interleukin-4 production, which increased after simultaneous priming with both FPE6 and FPE7 and after E7 protein boost. A cell-mediated immune response was also detected in most of the animals. These results establish a preliminary profile for the therapy with the combined use of avipox recombinants, which may represent safer immunogens than vaccinia-based vectors in immuno-compromised individuals, as they express the transgenes in most mammalian cells in the absence of a productive replication.

  6. Fowlpox virus recombinants expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes for the therapy of cervical carcinoma elicit humoral and cell-mediated responses in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacchioni Sole

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around half million new cases of cervical cancer arise each year, making the development of an effective therapeutic vaccine against HPV a high priority. As the E6 and E7 oncoproteins are expressed in all HPV-16 tumour cells, vaccines expressing these proteins might clear an already established tumour and support the treatment of HPV-related precancerous lesions. Methods Three different immunisation regimens were tested in a pre-clinical trial in rabbits to evaluate the humoral and cell-mediated responses of a putative HPV-16 vaccine. Fowlpoxvirus (FP recombinants separately expressing the HPV-16 E6 (FPE6 and E7 (FPE7 transgenes were used for priming, followed by E7 protein boosting. Results All of the protocols were effective in eliciting a high antibody response. This was also confirmed by interleukin-4 production, which increased after simultaneous priming with both FPE6 and FPE7 and after E7 protein boost. A cell-mediated immune response was also detected in most of the animals. Conclusion These results establish a preliminary profile for the therapy with the combined use of avipox recombinants, which may represent safer immunogens than vaccinia-based vectors in immuno-compromised individuals, as they express the transgenes in most mammalian cells in the absence of a productive replication.

  7. Systemic and Mucosal Antibody Responses to Soluble and Nanoparticle-Conjugated Antigens Administered Intranasally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah E. Howe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs are increasingly being used for drug delivery, as well as antigen carriers and immunostimulants for the purpose of developing vaccines. In this work, we examined how intranasal (i.n. priming followed by i.n. or subcutaneous (s.c. boosting immunization affects the humoral immune response to chicken ovalbumin (Ova and Ova conjugated to 20 nm NPs (NP-Ova. We show that i.n. priming with 20 mg of soluble Ova, a dose known to trigger oral tolerance when administered via gastric gavage, induced substantial systemic IgG1 and IgG2c, as well as mucosal antibodies. These responses were further boosted following a s.c. immunization with Ova and complete Freund’s adjuvant (Ova+CFA. In contrast, 100 µg of Ova delivered via NPs induced an IgG1-dominated systemic response, and primed the intestinal mucosa for secretion of IgA. Following a secondary s.c. or i.n. immunization with Ova+CFA or NP-Ova, systemic IgG1 titers significantly increased, and serum IgG2c and intestinal antibodies were induced in mice primed nasally with NP-Ova. Only Ova- and NP-Ova-primed mice that were s.c.-boosted exhibited substantial systemic and mucosal titers for up to 6 months after priming, whereas the antibodies of i.n.-boosted mice declined over time. Our results indicate that although the amount of Ova delivered by NPs was 1000-fold less than Ova delivered in soluble form, the antigen-specific antibody responses, both systemic and mucosal, are essentially identical by 6 months following the initial priming immunization. Additionally, both i.n.- and s.c.-boosting strategies for NP-Ova-primed mice were capable of inducing a polarized Th1/Th2 immune response, as well as intestinal antibodies; however, it is only by using a heterogeneous prime-boost strategy that long-lasting antibody responses were initiated. These results provide valuable insight for future mucosal vaccine development, as well as furthering our understanding of mucosal antibody responses.

  8. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  9. Recombinant proteins of Zaire ebolavirus induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses and protect against live virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Axel T; Wong, Teri-Ann S; Lieberman, Michael M; Humphreys, Tom; Clements, David E; Bakken, Russell R; Hart, Mary Kate; Pratt, William D; Dye, John M

    2018-05-24

    Infections with filoviruses in humans are highly virulent, causing hemorrhagic fevers which result in up to 90% mortality. In addition to natural infections, the ability to use these viruses as bioterrorist weapons is of significant concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to combat these infections. The pathogenesis of disease involves the dysregulation of the host's immune system, which results in impairment of the innate and adaptive immune responses, with subsequent development of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and death. Questions remain with regard to the few survivors of infection, who manage to mount an effective adaptive immune response. These questions concern the humoral and cellular components of this response, and whether such a response can be elicited by an appropriate prophylactic vaccine. The data reported herein describe the production and evaluation of a recombinant subunit Ebola virus vaccine candidate consisting of insect cell expressed Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) surface glycoprotein (GP) and the matrix proteins VP24 and VP40. The recombinant subunit proteins are shown to be highly immunogenic in mice, yielding both humoral and cellular responses, as well as highly efficacious, providing up to 100% protection against a lethal challenge with live virus. These results demonstrate proof of concept for such a recombinant non-replicating vaccine candidate in the mouse model of EBOV which helps to elucidate immune correlates of protection and warrants further development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immune activation alters cellular and humoral responses to yellow fever 17D vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyanja, Enoch; Ssemaganda, Aloysius; Ngauv, Pearline; Cubas, Rafael; Perrin, Helene; Srinivasan, Divya; Canderan, Glenda; Lawson, Benton; Kopycinski, Jakub; Graham, Amanda S; Rowe, Dawne K; Smith, Michaela J; Isern, Sharon; Michael, Scott; Silvestri, Guido; Vanderford, Thomas H; Castro, Erika; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Singer, Joel; Gillmour, Jill; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nanvubya, Annet; Schmidt, Claudia; Birungi, Josephine; Cox, Josephine; Haddad, Elias K; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Fast, Patricia; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie; Gaucher, Denis

    2014-07-01

    Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort. We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8+ T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination. We showed that YF-17D-induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D-neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity. Registration is not required for observational studies. This study was funded by Canada's Global Health Research Initiative, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP...

  12. [Screening serum response special antibodies of U251 cell line from surface display phage antibody library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Tan, De-Yong; Qian, Wei; Lai, Jian-Hua; Sun, Gui-Lin

    2004-05-01

    U251 cell is a sensitive cell line to serum, which stops at G0 phase of cell cycle in no-serum medium, and recovers growth when the serum is added into no-serum medium. The cell can express corresponding proteins in different phase of cell cycle. Therefore it is very signification for the study of cell cycle regulation mechanism that explores these proteins. In this paper, the mouse antibody phage display library was added into the bottle in which the serum starvation U251 cells had been cultured, and the special antibody phages were absorbed. Then the absorbed antibody phages were amplified by adding E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Amplified antibody phages were added into bottle in which the serum cultured cell after serum starvation (follow named as serum recovered cells) were incubated, so that the cell absorbed the no-special antibody phages for the serum starvation cell and the special antibody phages were in supernatant. The remaining no-special antibody phages in the supernatant were discarded by repeating above program 3-4 times. The pure special antibody phages were gotten, and amplified by adding the host cell E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Then the host bacterium infected special antibody phage was spread on the plate medium with ampicillin, and the monoclonal antibody phages were gotten. Using same as above program, the monoclonal antibody phages absorbed specially for serum recovered U251 cells were obtained when the serum recovered cells instead of serum starvation cells and serum starvation cells instead of serum recovered cells. In this study, ninety-six positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum starvation cells and eighty-two positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum recovered cells were obtained. By using cell immunochemistry assay, two special signification antibodies were obtained. one (No.11) was the strong response in serum starvation cells, the other (No.2) was the strong

  13. Use of the mice passive protection test to evaluate the humoral response in goats vaccinated with Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaswana, P H; Ndumnego, O C; Koehler, S M; Beyer, W; Crafford, J E; van Heerden, H

    2017-09-07

    The Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax in animals. Antibody responses to several antigens of Bacillus anthracis have been described with a large focus on those against protective antigen (PA). The focus of this study was to evaluate the protective humoral immune response induced by the live spore anthrax vaccine in goats. Boer goats vaccinated twice (week 0 and week 12) with the Sterne live spore vaccine and naive goats were used to monitor the anti-PA and toxin neutralizing antibodies at week 4 and week 17 (after the second vaccine dose) post vaccination. A/J mice were passively immunized with different dilutions of sera from immune and naive goats and then challenged with spores of B. anthracis strain 34F2 to determine the protective capacity of the goat sera. The goat anti-PA ELISA titres indicated significant sero-conversion at week 17 after the second doses of vaccine (p = 0.009). Mice receiving undiluted sera from goats given two doses of vaccine (twice immunized) showed the highest protection (86%) with only 20% of mice receiving 1:1000 diluted sera surviving lethal challenge. The in vitro toxin neutralization assay (TNA) titres correlated to protection of passively immunized A/J mice against lethal infection with the vaccine strain Sterne 34F2 spores using immune goat sera up to a 1:10 dilution (r s  ≥ 0.522, p = 0.046). This study suggests that the passive mouse protection model could be potentially used to evaluate the protective immune response in livestock animals vaccinated with the current live vaccine and new vaccines.

  14. Humoral immune response of mice injected with tocopherol after exposure to X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.M.; Petrella, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serum haemagglutination (HA) titers have been determined for irradiated and non-irradiated mice responding to injection of two different concentrations of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) 24 to 48 hours after irradiation and immediate intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 mg DL alpha-tocopherol, the emulsifying vehicle, or saline. Mice maintained on tocopherol-deficient diets for 8 weeks post-weaning and those on regular diets exhibited increased IgG titers during peak response when injected with vitamin E. This partially alleviated the radiation-depression of the primary immune response induced by the smaller SRBC injection. This stimulatory effect was most significant in mice maintained on vitamin E-deficient diets. The HA titers of irradiated and non-irradiated mice maintained on normal rations were determined following a 10-fold increase in the SRBC inoculation. Antibody titer was greater following injection of the higher concentration of SRBC but post-irradiation injection of tocopherol immediately or 24 hours after irradiation did not enhance immune response. At the higher SRBC concentration maximum observed HA titers decreased with increasing dose of radiation; however, tocopherol had no significant dose-reducing effect. Tocopherol toxicity as manifested by depressed HA titers was observed occasionally in non-irradiated mice challenged with the higher concentration of SRBC

  15. Interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar vesicles as synthetic vaccines for potent humoral and cellular immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James J.; Suh, Heikyung; Bershteyn, Anna; Stephan, Matthias T.; Liu, Haipeng; Huang, Bonnie; Sohail, Mashaal; Luo, Samantha; Ho Um, Soong; Khant, Htet; Goodwin, Jessica T.; Ramos, Jenelyn; Chiu, Wah; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2011-03-01

    Vaccines based on recombinant proteins avoid the toxicity and antivector immunity associated with live vaccine (for example, viral) vectors, but their immunogenicity is poor, particularly for CD8+ T-cell responses. Synthetic particles carrying antigens and adjuvant molecules have been developed to enhance subunit vaccines, but in general these materials have failed to elicit CD8+ T-cell responses comparable to those for live vectors in preclinical animal models. Here, we describe interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar vesicles formed by crosslinking headgroups of adjacent lipid bilayers within multilamellar vesicles. Interbilayer-crosslinked vesicles stably entrapped protein antigens in the vesicle core and lipid-based immunostimulatory molecules in the vesicle walls under extracellular conditions, but exhibited rapid release in the presence of endolysosomal lipases. We found that these antigen/adjuvant-carrying vesicles form an extremely potent whole-protein vaccine, eliciting endogenous T-cell and antibody responses comparable to those for the strongest vaccine vectors. These materials should enable a range of subunit vaccines and provide new possibilities for therapeutic protein delivery.

  16. Research on antibodies anti toxoplasma gondii in intraocular fluids (Aqueous and vitreous humor) from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, in the City of Belém, Pará State

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo, Ediclei Lima do; Almeida, Edmundo Frota; Bichara, Cléa Nazaré; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2005-01-01

    Foi realizada pesquisa de anticorpos IgG, IgM e IgA anti-Toxoplasma gondii no soro e fluidos intra-oculares (humor aquoso e vítreo) de pacientes com toxoplasmose ocular. A partir dos resultados obtidos verificou-se que anticorpos IgG e IgA intraocular anti-Toxoplasma gondii podem vir a ser importantes marcadores no diagnóstico de toxoplasmose ocular.Tests were performed for antibodies IgG, IgM and IgA anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum and intraocular fluids (Aqueous and vitreous humo...

  17. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  18. Analysis of cellular and humoral immune responses against cytomegalovirus in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Kine; Hellesen, Alexander; Husebye, Eystein S; Bratland, Eirik

    2016-03-09

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Variants of genes encoding immunologically important proteins such as the HLA molecules are strongly associated with AAD, but any environmental risk factors have yet to be defined. We hypothesized that primary or reactivating infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) could represent an environmental risk factor in AAD, and that CMV specific CD8(+) T cell responses may be dysregulated, possibly leading to a suboptimal control of CMV. In particular, the objective was to assess the HLA-B8 restricted CD8(+) T cell response to CMV since this HLA class I variant is a genetic risk factor for AAD. To examine the CD8(+) T cell response in detail, we analyzed the HLA-A2 and HLA-B8 restricted responses in AAD patients and healthy controls seropositive for CMV antibodies using HLA multimer technology, IFN-γ ELISpot and a CD107a based degranulation assay. No differences between patients and controls were found in functions or frequencies of CMV-specific T cells, regardless if the analyses were performed ex vivo or after in vitro stimulation and expansion. However, individual patients showed signs of reactivating CMV infection correlating with poor CD8(+) T cell responses to the virus, and a concomitant upregulation of interferon regulated genes in peripheral blood cells. Several recently diagnosed AAD patients also showed serological signs of ongoing primary CMV infection. CMV infection does not appear to be a major environmental risk factor in AAD, but may represent a precipitating factor in individual patients.

  19. Suppression of humoral response during the course of Candida albicans infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, J C; Meson, O E; de Valdez, G A; Sirena, A

    1984-10-30

    This paper aims at demonstrating the non-specific immunosuppression as regards thyme-dependent antigens sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) during the course of Candida albicans systemic infection. Three lots of syngeneic/BALB/c mice, 8-12 weeks of age, were used. The first normal lot was inoculated via the intraperitoneal route with a (SRBC) suspension (4 X 10(8) cells ml) in a Hank's balanced saline solution. The primary response of antibodies formed by splenic cells was measured from 4 to 8 days after inoculation using the direct plaque forming cells technique. The second lot was infected by the same route with a suspension of Candida albicans (1 X 10(7) cells). Positive retrocultures from the blood and kidneys of these infected mice were obtained. These yeasts cultivated in a Sabouraud medium were harvested after 20 h at 37 degrees C. Following the same methodology the immune response to SRBC was determined. The serum obtained from infected mice was transferred to a third lot of mice at different intervals during the course of the infection. The immune response to SRBC was done by the direct plaque-forming cells technique. Controls were carried out using normal donors and recipients. A suppression of the immune response was obtained as from the 2nd day of inoculation up to the 28th day. It was not possible to transfer such suppression passively by means of the serum. These results suggest that the systemic infection by Candida albicans induce a non-specific immunosuppression in the organism, already demonstrated in viral infections, bacteria, protozoaria and metazoaria in mammals. In some way, this will contribute to explain the mechanisms of immune response to Candida albicans.

  20.  Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune responses after implantation of a PTFE vascular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Dorobisz, Andrzej; Barć, Piotr; Korta, Krzysztof; Dawiskiba, Tomasz

    2012-07-02

    The experiment was designed in order to determine the immunological processes that occur during the healing in synthetic vascular grafts, especially to establish the differences in the location of the complement system proteins between the proximal and distal anastomosis and the differences in the arrangement of inflammatory cells in those anastomoses. The understanding of those processes will provide a true basis for determining risk factors for complications after arterial repair procedures. The experiment was carried out on 16 dogs that underwent implantation of unilateral aorto-femoral bypass with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). After 6 months all animals were euthanized to dissect the vascular grafts. Immunohistochemical assays and electron microscopic examinations were performed. Immunohistochemical findings in the structure of neointima between anastomoses of vascular prostheses demonstrated significant differences between humoral and cellular responses. The area of proximal anastomosis revealed the presence of fibroblasts, but no macrophages were detected. The histological structure of the proximal anastomosis indicates that inflammatory processes were ended during the prosthesis healing. The immunological response obtained in the distal anastomosis corresponded to the chronic inflammatory reaction with the presence of macrophages, myofibroblasts and deposits of complement C3. The identification of differences in the presence of macrophages and myofibroblasts and the presence of the C3 component between the anastomoses is the original achievement of the present study. In the available literature, no such significant differences have been shown so far in the humoral and cellular immune response caused by the presence of an artificial vessel in the arterial system.

  1. Pathogen-mimicking vaccine delivery system designed with a bioactive polymer (inulin acetate) for robust humoral and cellular immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunny; Kesharwani, Siddharth S; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Bakkari, Mohammed Ali; Tummala, Hemachand

    2017-09-10

    New and improved vaccines are needed against challenging diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, Ebola, influenza, AIDS, and cancer. The majority of existing vaccine adjuvants lack the ability to significantly stimulate the cellular immune response, which is required to prevent the aforementioned diseases. This study designed a novel particulate based pathogen-mimicking vaccine delivery system (PMVDS) to target antigen-presenting-cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells. The uniqueness of PMVDS is that the polymer used to prepare the delivery system, Inulin Acetate (InAc), activates the innate immune system. InAc was synthesized from the plant polysaccharide, inulin. PMVDS provided improved and persistent antigen delivery to APCs as an efficient vaccine delivery system, and simultaneously, activated Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) on APCs to release chemokine's/cytokines as an immune-adjuvant. Through this dual mechanism, PMVDS robustly stimulated both the humoral (>32 times of IgG1 levels vs alum) and the cell-mediated immune responses against the encapsulated antigen (ovalbumin) in mice. More importantly, PMVDS stimulated both cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells of cell-mediated immunity to provide tumor (B16-ova-Melanoma) protection in around 40% of vaccinated mice and significantly delayed tumor progression in rest of the mice. PMVDS is a unique bio-active vaccine delivery technology with broader applications for vaccines against cancer and several intracellular pathogens, where both humoral and cellular immune responses are desired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gut Microbiota Co-microevolution with Selection for Host Humoral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore coevolution between the gut microbiota and the humoral immune system of the host, we used chickens as the model organism. The host populations were two lines (HAS and LAS developed from a common founder that had undergone 40 generations of divergent selection for antibody titers to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and two relaxed sublines (HAR and LAR. Analysis revealed that microevolution of host humoral immunity contributed to the composition of gut microbiota at the taxa level. Relaxing selection enriched some microorganisms whose functions were opposite to host immunity. Particularly, Ruminococcaceae and Oscillospira enriched in high antibody relaxed (HAR and contributed to reduction in antibody response, while Lactobacillus increased in low antibody relaxed (LAR and elevated the antibody response. Microbial functional analysis showed that alterations were involved in pathways relating to the immune system and infectious diseases. Our findings demonstrated co-microevolution relationships of host-microbiota and that gut microorganisms influenced host immunity.

  3. Kinetics of circulating antibody response to Trichomonas vaginalis: clinical and diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton Nu, Phuong Anh; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Nguyen, Vu Quoc Huy; Fiori, Pier Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Persistence of antibodies against pathogens after antimicrobial treatment is a marker of therapy failure or evolution to a chronic infection. The kinetics of antibody production decrease following antigen elimination is highly variable, and predicting the duration of soluble immunity in infectious diseases is often impossible. This hampers the development and use of immunoassays for diagnostic and seroepidemiological purposes. In the case of Trichomonas vaginalis infection, the kinetics of antibody levels decrease following therapy has never been studied. We thus investigated the clearance of circulating anti-T. vaginalis IgGs after pharmacological treatment in patients affected by trichomoniasis. 18 female patients affected by acute trichomoniasis were enrolled in this study. After metronidazole therapy administration, subjects were followed up monthly up to 5 months, and serum levels of anti-T. vaginalis IgGs were measured by ELISA. We showed that a successful therapy is characterised by a relatively fast decline of specific antibodies, until turning into negative by ELISA in 1-3 months. In a few patients we observed that the persistence of anti-T. vaginalis antibodies was associated with an evolution to chronic infection, which may be due to treatment failure or to reinfection by untreated sexual partners. Our results describe the direct correlation between the decline of a specific humoral anti-T. vaginalis response and an effective antimicrobial therapy. These findings may facilitate the follow-up approach to circumvent limitations in developing new diagnostic tools and techniques routinely used in microbiology laboratories to assess the presence of T. vaginalis in clinical samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Caracterización de las respuestas inmunocelular y humoral en pacientes con virus del papiloma humano Characterization of humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with human papilloma virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Clares Pochet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 30 féminas con infección por el virus del papiloma humano, atendidas en la consulta de Inmunología del Policlínico de Especialidades perteneciente al Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturnino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde junio del 2009 hasta igual mes del 2010, a fin de caracterizarlas según la respuesta inmunitaria. Para evaluar la respuesta inmune celular y humoral se empleó el test de rosetas y la cuantificación de inmunoglobulinas, respectivamente. En la serie prevaleció la infección por el virus antes mencionado en las mujeres de 25-35 años (40,0 %, en especial las procedentes de la zona urbana y se evidenció una disminución de la respuesta celular significativa con relación a la humoral.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 females infected with the human papilloma virus, attended in the office of Immunology of the Specialty Polyclinic belonging to "Saturnino Lora" Provincial Clinical Surgical Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from June 2009 to June 2010, in order to characterize them according to immune response. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response rosetting assay and quantification of immunoglobulines were used respectively. Women between 25-36 years of age (40 % infected with this virus, especially those coming from urban areas, prevailed in the series, and a significant decrease of the cellular response as compared to the humoral response was evidenced.

  5. Multi-epitope Models Explain How Pre-existing Antibodies Affect the Generation of Broadly Protective Responses to Influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika I Zarnitsyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of next-generation influenza vaccines that elicit strain-transcendent immunity against both seasonal and pandemic viruses is a key public health goal. Targeting the evolutionarily conserved epitopes on the stem of influenza's major surface molecule, hemagglutinin, is an appealing prospect, and novel vaccine formulations show promising results in animal model systems. However, studies in humans indicate that natural infection and vaccination result in limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA, and the level of stem-specific antibody elicited is insufficient to provide broad strain-transcendent immunity. Here, we use mathematical models of the humoral immune response to explore how pre-existing immunity affects the ability of vaccines to boost antibodies to the head and stem of HA in humans, and, in particular, how it leads to the apparent lack of boosting of broadly cross-reactive antibodies to the stem epitopes. We consider hypotheses where binding of antibody to an epitope: (i results in more rapid clearance of the antigen; (ii leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which inhibit B cell activation through Fcγ receptor-mediated mechanism; and (iii masks the epitope and prevents the stimulation and proliferation of specific B cells. We find that only epitope masking but not the former two mechanisms to be key in recapitulating patterns in data. We discuss the ramifications of our findings for the development of vaccines against both seasonal and pandemic influenza.

  6. Results of investigations of non-specific humoral-type response in workers exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Loch, T.

    1989-12-01

    In the group of 30 workers exposed to beryllium a statistically significant increase in the level of immunoglobulins of class A was found in comparison with the control group (p<0.01). This may be an early indicator of a process taking place in the respiratory system. Results of measurement of immunoglobulins, as non-specific indicators, are of limited value in the evaluation of the influence of the occupational factor; at the same time they point to the usefulness of testing for the specific indicators of humoral reactivity in persons whose work involves contact with beryllium or its compounds. (author)

  7. Intranasal Immunization with Pressure Inactivated Avian Influenza Elicits Cellular and Humoral Responses in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana P C Barroso

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling. Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus.

  8. The humoral immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with acute reactive arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Mordhorst, CH

    1994-01-01

    . trachomatis cysteine rich outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were detected in 10 patients. Thus 40% of the patients presented antibodies specific for C. trachomatis. There was no correlation between acute reactive arthritis and antibodies to heat-shock proteins GroEL, GroES and DnaK....

  9. Annually repeated influenza vaccination improves humoral responses to several influenza virus strains in healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. de Bruijn (Iris); E.J. Remarque (Edmond); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); S. le Cessie (Saskia); N. Masurel (Nic); G.L. Ligthart (Gerard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of annually repeated influenza vaccination on antibody formation is still under debate. In this study the effect of annually repeated influenza vaccination on haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody formation in the elderly is investigated. Between 1990 and 1993 healthy

  10. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV-1-Specific Antibody Response and Function after DNA Prime and Recombinant Adenovirus 5 Boost HIV Vaccine in HIV-Infected Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes S Gach

    Full Text Available Little is known about the humoral immune response against DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus 5 (rAd5 boost HIV vaccine among HIV-infected patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART. Previous studies emphasized cellular immune responses; however, current research suggests both cellular and humoral responses are likely required for a successful therapeutic vaccine. Thus, we aimed to understand antibody response and function induced by vaccination of ART-treated HIV-1-infected patients with immune recovery. All subjects participated in EraMune 02, an open-label randomized clinical trial of ART intensification followed by a six plasmid DNA prime (envA, envB, envC, gagB, polB, nefB and rAd5 boost HIV vaccine with matching inserts. Antibody binding levels were determined with a recently developed microarray approach. We also analyzed neutralization efficiency and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC. We found that the DNA prime-rAd5 boost vaccine induced a significant cross-clade HIV-specific antibody response, which correlated with antibody neutralization efficiency. However, despite the increase in antibody binding levels, the vaccine did not significantly stimulate neutralization or ADCC responses. This finding was also reflected by a lack of change in total CD4+ cell associated HIV DNA in those who received the vaccine. Our results have important implications for further therapeutic vaccine design and administration, especially in HIV-1 infected patients, as boosting of preexisting antibody responses are unlikely to lead to clearance of latent proviruses in the HIV reservoir.

  12. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A.; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L.; Nascimento, N.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (N V) and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (Ir V). Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD 50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique. (author)

  13. A novel therapeutic hepatitis B vaccine induces cellular and humoral immune responses and breaks tolerance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Pascale; Dembek, Claudia; Kuklick, Larissa; Jäger, Clemens; Tedjokusumo, Raindy; von Freyend, Miriam John; Drebber, Uta; Janowicz, Zbigniew; Melber, Karl; Protzer, Ulrike

    2013-02-06

    Therapeutic vaccines are currently being developed for chronic hepatitis B and C. As an alternative to long-term antiviral treatment or to support only partially effective therapy, they should activate the patient's immune system effectively to fight and finally control the virus. A paradigm of therapeutic vaccination is the potent induction of T-cell responses against key viral antigens - besides activation of a humoral immune response. We have evaluated the potential of a novel vaccine formulation comprising particulate hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) and core antigen (HBcAg), and the saponin-based ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant for its ability to stimulate T and B cell responses in C57BL/6 mice and its ability to break tolerance in syngeneic HBV transgenic (HBVtg) mice. In C57BL/6 mice, the vaccine induced multifunctional HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T cells detected by staining for IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2, as well as high antibody titers against both antigens. Vaccination of HBVtg animals induced potent HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in spleens and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in livers as well as anti-HBs seroconversion two weeks post injection. Vaccination further reduced HBcAg expression in livers of HBVtg mice without causing liver damage. In summary, this study demonstrates therapeutic efficacy of a novel vaccine formulation in a mouse model of immunotolerant, chronic HBV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibody response between pigs of Piau and a commercial breed naturally infected with Porcine circovirus 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.S. Bulos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian pig population is made up of several naturalized breeds; among them the Piau breed is known for its rusticity and large fat stores. The naturalized breeds, in comparison with commercial ones, may have an increased resistance to diseases circulating in their territory. Thus, this study aimed to verify if there are differences between the serologic profile against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 of Piau pigs and that of a commercial breed from a farm naturally infected by PCV2. The serum viral load was measured by qPCR, and levels of anti-PCV2 antibodies were measured by ELISA. The results showed that the serum viral load was similar across all animals. However, Piau piglets showed higher levels of antibodies compared to commercial piglets (P= 0.05, while sows of the commercial breed showed higher levels than the Piau breed (P< 0.01. There was not a statistical difference between pigs of different production stages in the seroprevalence of PCV2 or the blood viral load. This work demonstrates that, with regard to a natural PCV2 infection, the Piau breed has a different humoral immune response compared to the response developed by the commercial pigs. The results support the importance of conservation of native breeds.

  15. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  16. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Datta, Soma; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2007-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 μM) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge

  17. Adaptação e validação da Escala de Senso de Humor Situacional Adaptación y validez de la Escala de Sentido del Humor Situacional Adaptation and validation of the Situational Humor Response Questionaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Benevides Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou desenvolver uma versão em português brasileiro do Situational Humor Response Questionaire (SHRQ, com adaptação transcultural e avaliação das medidas psicométricas em amostra brasileira. O instrumento em português de Portugal foi vertido para o português brasileiro passando pelas etapas de adaptação semântica, comparação das versões, validade de face e de conteúdo. O instrumento foi aplicado a 621 sujeitos. Foi feita extração de fatores com rotação oblíqua, análise das cargas fatoriais e consistência interna. Foram apontados três fatores: humor com amigos e colegas (α=0,70; influências sobre o humor (α=0,70; e humor em situações adversas (α =0,55. A consistência interna sugere que para o contexto brasileiro podem ser aperfeiçoados os itens de forma a aumentar o grau de precisão do fator. Contudo, o instrumento apresenta consistência interna aceitável.El estudio visó desarrollar una versión en portugués brasileño del Situational Humor Response Questionaire (SHRQ, con adaptación transcultural y evaluación de las medidas psicométricas en muestra brasileña. El instrumento en portugués de Portugal fue traducido para el portugués brasileño pasando por las etapas de adaptación semántica, comparación de las versiones, validez facial y de contenido. El instrumento fue aplicado en 621 sujetos. Fue hecha la extracción de factores con rotación oblicua, análisis de las cargas factoriales y consistencia interna. Fueron apuntados tres factores: humor con amigos y compañeros (α=0,70; influencias sobre el humor (α=0,70; y humor en situaciones adversas (α=0,55. La consistencia interna sugiere que para el contexto brasileño pueden ser perfeccionados los ítems para aumentar el grado de precisión del factor. Sin embargo, el instrumento presenta consistencia interna aceptable.This study aimed to develop a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire (SHRQ, with

  18. Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, P.; Gengozian, N.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 μg benzol[a]pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  19. Diminished humoral responses against and reduced gene expression levels of human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Michaud, Henri-Alexandre; Zeng, Xue; Debbaneh, Maya; Arron, Sarah T; Jones, R Brad; Ormsby, Christopher E; Nixon, Douglas F; Liao, Wilson

    2014-09-16

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial, chronic disease of skin affecting 2-3% of the world's population. Genetic studies of psoriasis have identified a number of susceptibility genes that are involved in anti-viral immunity. Furthermore, physiological studies have also found an increase in anti-viral proteins in psoriatic skin. These findings suggest the presence of an anti-viral state in psoriatic skin. However, the triggers for this anti-viral cascade and its consequences for host immunity are not known. Endogenous retroviruses have previously been described in many autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. In the present study we examined the humoral immune response against human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) proteins and the cutaneous expression levels of multiple HERV-K genes in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. In psoriatic sera we observed a significant decrease in IgM response against three HERV-K proteins: Env surface unit (SU), Env transmembrane protein (TM), and Gag capsid (CA) in comparison to sera obtained from blood bank healthy controls. A decrease in IgG response was also observed against CA. Furthermore, using quantitative RT-PCR we observed a decrease in the expression of HERV-K Env, Gag, Pol and Rec as well as ERV-9 genes in lesional psoriatic skin as compared to healthy skin. Together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory, anti-viral state in psoriasis is associated with diminished expression of HERV-K gene transcripts and a concomitant decrease in humoral responses to HERV-K. Our results indicate that a simple model where continuous, minimally changing HERV-K expression serves as an antigenic trigger in psoriasis might not be correct and further studies are needed to decipher the possible relationship between psoriasis and HERVs.

  20. The effect of infectious dose on humoral and cellular immune responses in Chlamydophila caviae primary ocular infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipovic

    Full Text Available Following infection, the balance between protective immunity and immunopathology often depends on the initial infectious load. Several studies have investigated the effect of infectious dose; however, the mechanism by which infectious dose affects disease outcomes and the development of a protective immune response is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate how the infectious dose modulates the local and systemic humoral and the cellular immune responses during primary ocular chlamydial infection in the guinea pig animal model. Guinea pigs were infected by ocular instillation of a Chlamydophila caviae-containing eye solution in the conjunctival sac in three different doses: 1×102, 1×104, and 1×106 inclusion forming units (IFUs. Ocular pathology, chlamydial clearance, local and systemic C. caviae-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed. All inocula of C. caviae significantly enhanced the local production of C. caviae-specific IgA in tears, but only guinea pigs infected with the higher doses showed significant changes in C. caviae-specific IgA levels in vaginal washes and serum. On complete resolution of infection, the low dose of C. caviae did not alter the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within guinea pigs' submandibular lymph node (SMLN lymphocytes while the higher doses increased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within the SMLN lymphocytes. A significant negative correlation between pathology intensity and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within SMLN lymphocyte pool at selected time points post-infection was recorded for both 1×104, and 1×106 IFU infected guinea pigs. The relevance of the observed dose-dependent differences on the immune response should be further investigated in repeated ocular chlamydial infections.

  1. Nod2 is required for antigen-specific humoral responses against antigens orally delivered using a recombinant Lactobacillus vaccine platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Bumgardner

    Full Text Available Safe and efficacious orally-delivered mucosal vaccine platforms are desperately needed to combat the plethora of mucosally transmitted pathogens. Lactobacillus spp. have emerged as attractive candidates to meet this need and are known to activate the host innate immune response in a species- and strain-specific manner. For selected bacterial isolates and mutants, we investigated the role of key innate immune pathways required for induction of innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses. Co-culture of murine macrophages with L. gasseri (strain NCK1785, L. acidophilus (strain NCFM, or NCFM-derived mutants-NCK2025 and NCK2031-elicited an M2b-like phenotype associated with TH2 skewing and immune regulatory function. For NCFM, this M2b phenotype was dependent on expression of lipoteichoic acid and S layer proteins. Through the use of macrophage genetic knockouts, we identified Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, the cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2 receptor, and the inflammasome-associated caspase-1 as contributors to macrophage activation, with NOD2 cooperating with caspase-1 to induce inflammasome derived interleukin (IL-1β in a pyroptosis-independent fashion. Finally, utilizing an NCFM-based mucosal vaccine platform with surface expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Gag or membrane proximal external region (MPER, we demonstrated that NOD2 signaling is required for antigen-specific mucosal and systemic humoral responses. We show that lactobacilli differentially utilize innate immune pathways and highlight NOD2 as a key mediator of macrophage function and antigen-specific humoral responses to a Lactobacillus acidophilus mucosal vaccine platform.

  2. Antibody and B cell responses to Plasmodium sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna N Dups

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies are capable of blocking infection of the liver by Plasmodium sporozoites. Accordingly the induction of anti-sporozoite antibodies is a major aim of various vaccine approaches to malaria. In recent years our knowledge of the specificity and quantities of antibodies required for protection has been greatly expanded by clinical trials of various whole sporozoite and subunit vaccines. Moreover, the development of humanized mouse models and transgenic parasites have also aided our ability to assess the specificity of antibodies and their ability to block infection. Nonetheless, considerable gaps remain in our knowledge - in particular in understanding what antigens are recognized by infection blocking antibodies and in knowing how we can induce robust, long-lived antibody responses. Maintaining high levels of circulating antibodies is likely to be of primary importance, as antibodies must block infection in the short time it takes for sporozoites to reach the liver from the skin. It is clear that a better understanding of the development of protective B cell-mediated immunity will aid the development and refinement of malaria vaccines.

  3. Evidence against a systemic humoral factor controlling the intestinal compensatory response following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.G.; Osborne, J.W.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City

    1981-01-01

    The investigation was devised to determine whether changes noted in the unirradiated duodenum and colon of single rats after X-irradiation of only the exteriorized rat jejunum and ileum are mediated by a systemic humoral factor. Littermate Holtzman male rats were joined in parabiosis and one month later, the temporarily exteriorized jejunum and ileum of one member was exposed to 1.000 R of 250 kVp X-irradiation. Two days after X-irradiation, and 1, 12 and 24 h after 1 μCi/g bodyweight 3 H-thymidine was injected i.p. rats were sacrificed and appropriate tissues removed. Single rats which had the exteriorized jejunum and ileum irradiated were studied from 1-3 days after irradiation. Crypt cell migration rates were determined employing autoradiography. Tritium content and columnar cell migration rate in duodenum and colon of unirradiated rats compared to irradiated rats indicated that irradiation of one member of the pair had no effect on tritium incorporation or epithelial cell migration in the duodenum or colon of the unirradiated partner. Epithelial cell proliferation and crypt cell migration were increased in unirradiated duodenum and colon of single intestine-irradiated rats. Essentially the same changes were seen in the irradiated member of a parabiotic pair, but none of these changes were noted in the unirradiated member. The absence of stimulation in the unirradiated parabiont suggests that either a systemic humoral factor is not present after X-irradiation or is not present in sufficient concentration to be detected by these methods. (orig./MG)

  4. Complexity of Human Antibody Response to Dengue Virus: Implication for Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Tsai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV are the leading cause of arboviral diseases in humans. Decades of efforts have made remarkable progress in dengue vaccine development. Despite the first dengue vaccine (dengvaxia from Sanofi Pasteur, a live-attenuated tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccine, has been licensed by several countries since 2016, its overall moderate efficacy (56.5–60.8% in the presence of neutralizing antibodies during the Phase 2b and 3 trials, lower efficacy among dengue naïve compared with dengue experienced individuals, and increased risk of hospitalization among young children during the follow-up highlight the need for a better understanding of humoral responses after natural DENV infection. Recent studies of more than 300 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against DENV have led to the discovery of several novel epitopes on the envelope protein recognized by potent neutralizing mAbs. This information together with in-depth studies on polyclonal sera and B-cells following natural DENV infection has tremendous implications for better immunogen design for a safe and effective dengue vaccine. This review outlines the progress in our understanding of mouse mAbs, human mAbs, and polyclonal sera against DENV envelope and precursor membrane proteins, two surface proteins involved in vaccine development, following natural infection; analyses of these discoveries have provided valuable insight into new strategies involving molecular technology to induce more potent neutralizing antibodies and less enhancing antibodies for next-generation dengue vaccine development.

  5. Immunomodulatory activity of andrographolide on macrophage activation and specific antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Dong, Sheng-fu; Liu, Chun-hong; Italiani, Paola; Sun, Shu-hui; Xu, Jing; Boraschi, Diana; Ma, Shi-ping; Qu, Di

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of andrographolide on both innate and adaptive immune responses. Methods: Andrographolide (10 μg/mL in vitro or 1 mg/kg in vivo) was used to modulate LPS-induced classical activated (M1) or IL-4-induced alternative activated (M2) macrophages in vitro and humor immune response to HBsAg in vivo. Cytokine gene expression profile (M1 vs M2) was measured by real-time PCR, IL-12/IL-10 level was detected by ELISA, and surface antigen expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, whereas phosphorylation level of ERK 1/2 and AKT was determined by Western blot. The level of anti-HBs antibodies in HBsAg immunized mice was detected by ELISA, and the number of HBsAg specific IL-4-producing splenocyte was enumerated by ELISPOT. Results: Andrographolide treatment in vitro attenuated either LPS or IL-4 induced macrophage activation, inhibited both M1 and M2 cytokines expression and decreased IL-12/IL-10 ratio (the ratio of M1/M2 polarization). Andrographolide down-regulated the expression of mannose receptor (CD206) in IL-4 induced macrophages and major histocompability complex/costimulatory molecules (MHC I, CD40, CD80, CD86) in LPS-induced macrophages. Correspondingly, anti-HBs antibody production and the number of IL-4-producing splenocytes were reduced by in vivo administration of andrographolide. Reduced phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and AKT were observed in macrophages treated with andrographolide. Conclusion: Andrographolide can modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses by regulating macrophage phenotypic polarization and Ag-specific antibody production. MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways may participate in the mechanisms of andrographolide regulating macrophage activation and polarization. PMID:20139902

  6. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with γ-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with γ-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with γ-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given γ-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the safety and adjuvant effect of a detoxified listeriolysin O mutant on the humoral response to dengue virus antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, K G; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; Mellado-Sánchez, G; Ruiz-Ramos, R; Sánchez-Vargas, L A; Thomas-Dupont, P; Izaguirre-Hernández, I Y; Téllez-Sosa, J; Martínez-Barnetche, J; Wood, L; Paterson, Y; Cedillo-Barrón, L; López-Franco, O; Vivanco-Cid, H

    2017-04-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) has been proposed as a potential carrier or adjuvant molecule in the vaccination field. However, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of LLO are the major limitations for this purpose. Here, we have performed a preclinical safety evaluation and characterized a new potential adjuvant application for a non-cytolytic LLO mutant (dtLLO) to enhance and modulate the immune response against the envelope (E) protein from dengue virus. In addition, we have studied the adjuvant effects of dtLLO on human immune cells and the role of membrane cholesterol for the binding and proinflammatory property of the toxoid. Our in-vivo results in the murine model confirmed that dtLLO is a safer molecule than wild-type LLO (wtLLO), with a significantly increased survival rate for mice challenged with dtLLO compared with mice challenged with wtLLO (P < 0·001). Histopathological analysis showed non-toxic effects in key target organs such as brain, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lung after challenge with dtLLO. In vitro, dtLLO retained the capacity of binding to plasma membrane cholesterol on the surface of murine and human immune cells. Immunization of 6-8-week-old female BALB/c mice with a combination of dtLLO mixed with E protein elicited a robust specific humoral response with isotype diversification of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a). Finally, we demonstrated that cholesterol and lipid raft integrity are required to induce a proinflammatory response by human cells. Taken together, these findings support a potential use of the dtLLO mutant as a safe and effective adjuvant molecule in vaccination. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  8. Humoral and cellular immune responses to glucose regulated protein 78 - a novel Leishmania donovani antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja T R; Ismail, Ahmed; Gaafar, Ameera

    2002-01-01

    The recently cloned glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) of Leishmania donovani has been suggested as a new and promising Leishmania vaccine candidate. We assessed antibody and T-cell reactivity to GRP78 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in lymphoproliferative assays. Serological...... with a positive leishmanin skin test showed antibody reactivity to recombinant GRP78 (rGRP78). In lymphoproliferative assays, 9 of 13 isolates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals previously infected with L. donovani and one of three individuals previously infected with L. major showed...... in an area endemic for malaria but free of leishmaniasis and plasma from healthy Danes was negative in the assay. GRP78 antibody was detected in 10% and 5% of plasma samples from Sudanese and Ghanaian malaria patients, respectively, whereas 35% of plasma samples from otherwise healthy Sudanese individuals...

  9. Humoral immune response and spreading of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in experimentally infected ponies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Maršálek, M.; Langerová, I.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 197, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-6 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ponies * Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II * PCR * Antibodies * Experimental infection Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  10. Contribution of humoral immune responses to the antitumor effects mediated by anthracyclines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hannani, D.; Locher, C.; Yamazaki, T.; Colin-Minard, V.; Vetizou, M.; Aymeric, L.; Viaud, S.; Sánchez, Daniel; Smyth, M. J.; Bruhna, P.; Kroemer, G.; Zitvogel, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2013), s. 50-58 ISSN 1350-9047 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14608S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : antibodies * immunogenic cell death * chemotherapy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 8.385, year: 2013

  11. Humoral immune response against proteins E6 and E7 in cervical carcinoma patients positive for human papilloma virus type 16 during treatment and follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baay, M. F.; Duk, J. M.; Burger, M. P.; de Bruijn, H. W.; Stolz, E.; Herbrink, P.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the humoral immune response to transforming proteins E6 and E7 of human papillomavirus type 16 before and after treatment and during follow-up, consecutive serum samples from 36 cervical cancer patients whose tumours were found to contain human papillomavirus type 16 DNA by use of the

  12. Humoral immune response against proteins E6 and E7 in cervical carcinoma patients positive for human papilloma virus type 16 during treatment and follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baay, MFD; Duk, JM; Burger, MPM; de Bruijn, HWA; Stolz, E; Herbrink, P

    To investigate the humoral immune response to transforming proteins E6 and E7 of human papillomavirus type 16 before and after treatment and during follow-up, consecutive serum samples from 36 cervical cancer patients whose tumours were found to contain human papillomavirus type 16 DNA by use of the

  13. Cellular immune responses against CT7 (MAGE-C1) and humoral responses against other cancer-testis antigens in multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Nikoletta; Gnjatic, Sacha; Ritter, Erika; Mangone, Michael; Austin, Wayne; Reyner, Karina; Jayabalan, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Jagannath, Sundar; Bhardwaj, Nina; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Old, Lloyd J; Cho, Hearn Jay

    2010-01-29

    The type I melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) proteins CT7 (MAGE-C1) and MAGE-A3 are commonly expressed in multiple myeloma (MM), and their expression correlates with increased plasma cell proliferation and poor clinical outcome. They belong to the cancer-testis antigen (CTAg) group of tumor-associated proteins, some of which elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients. CT7 and MAGE-A3 are promising antigenic targets for therapeutic tumor vaccines in myeloma; therefore, it is critical to determine if they are immunogenic in MM patients. We analyzed cellular and humoral immune responses against CTAgs in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias: MM, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Bone marrow lymphocytes from two of four untreated MM patients exhibited CT7-specific cellular immune responses as measured by an autologous cellular immunity assay, the first such immune response to CT7 to be reported in cancer patients. Sera from 24 patients were screened by ELISA for humoral immune responses to CTAgs. Two patients with MM demonstrated positive titers, one for MAGE-A1 and the other for SSX1. These data demonstrate that CTAgs, particularly CT7, are immunogenic in MM patients and merit further exploration as targets of immunological therapy in MM.

  14. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we

  15. Synthetic double-stranded RNAs are adjuvants for the induction of T helper 1 and humoral immune responses to human papillomavirus in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Stahl-Hennig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands are being considered as adjuvants for the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, as in the design of vaccines. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytoidylic acid (poly I:C, a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, is recognized by TLR3 and other intracellular receptors. Poly ICLC is a poly I:C analogue, which has been stabilized against the serum nucleases that are present in the plasma of primates. Poly I:C(12U, another analogue, is less toxic but also less stable in vivo than poly I:C, and TLR3 is essential for its recognition. To study the effects of these compounds on the induction of protein-specific immune responses in an animal model relevant to humans, rhesus macaques were immunized subcutaneously (s.c. with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH or human papillomavirus (HPV16 capsomeres with or without dsRNA or a control adjuvant, the TLR9 ligand CpG-C. All dsRNA compounds served as adjuvants for KLH-specific cellular immune responses, with the highest proliferative responses being observed with 2 mg/animal poly ICLC (p = 0.002 or 6 mg/animal poly I:C(12U (p = 0.001 when compared with immunization with KLH alone. Notably, poly ICLC -- but not CpG-C given at the same dose -- also helped to induce HPV16-specific Th1 immune responses while both adjuvants supported the induction of strong anti-HPV16 L1 antibody responses as determined by ELISA and neutralization assay. In contrast, control animals injected with HPV16 capsomeres alone did not develop substantial HPV16-specific immune responses. Injection of dsRNA led to increased numbers of cells producing the T cell-activating chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 as detected by in situ hybridization in draining lymph nodes 18 hours after injections, and to increased serum levels of CXCL10 (p = 0.01. This was paralleled by the reduced production of the homeostatic T cell-attracting chemokine CCL21. Thus, synthetic dsRNAs induce an innate chemokine response and act as adjuvants

  16. Severe antiphospholipid antibody syndrome - response to plasmapheresis and rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Ehrchen, Jan; Goerge, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis, recurrent abortions and detection of antiphospholipid antibodies. In fulminant cases, involvement of multiple organs can lead to significant morbidity and even fatal outcomes, so that a rapid, interdisciplinary treatment is needed. Here, we describe the case of a 39-year-old woman with a severe hard-to-treat APS with arterial occlusion and progressive skin necrosis, who was successfully treated with a combination therapy with plasmapheresis and rituximab. The treatment led to complete remission of the skin lesions for over a year. Clinical response correlated with a long-lasting reduction of antiphospholipid antibodies and B-cell depletion. This case demonstrates the use of antiphospholipid antibodies for monitoring APS-activity and shows that this severe vascular disease requires rigorous therapeutic approaches.

  17. Conserved synthetic peptides from the hemagglutinin of influenza viruses induce broad humoral and T-cell responses in a pig model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Vergara-Alert

    Full Text Available Outbreaks involving either H5N1 or H1N1 influenza viruses (IV have recently become an increasing threat to cause potential pandemics. Pigs have an important role in this aspect. As reflected in the 2009 human H1N1 pandemia, they may act as a vehicle for mixing and generating new assortments of viruses potentially pathogenic to animals and humans. Lack of universal vaccines against the highly variable influenza virus forces scientists to continuously design vaccines à la carte, which is an expensive and risky practice overall when dealing with virulent strains. Therefore, we focused our efforts on developing a broadly protective influenza vaccine based on the Informational Spectrum Method (ISM. This theoretical prediction allows the selection of highly conserved peptide sequences from within the hemagglutinin subunit 1 protein (HA1 from either H5 or H1 viruses which are located in the flanking region of the HA binding site and with the potential to elicit broader immune responses than conventional vaccines. Confirming the theoretical predictions, immunization of conventional farm pigs with the synthetic peptides induced humoral responses in every single pig. The fact that the induced antibodies were able to recognize in vitro heterologous influenza viruses such as the pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1, two swine influenza field isolates (SwH1N1 and SwH3N2 and a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian virus, confirm the broad recognition of the antibodies induced. Unexpectedly, all pigs also showed T-cell responses that not only recognized the specific peptides, but also the pH1N1 virus. Finally, a partial effect on the kinetics of virus clearance was observed after the intranasal infection with the pH1N1 virus, setting forth the groundwork for the design of peptide-based vaccines against influenza viruses. Further insights into the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the protection afforded will be necessary to optimize future vaccine formulations.

  18. Conserved peptides within the E2 region of Hepatitis C virus induce humoral and cellular responses in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shenawy Reem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reason(s why human antibodies raised against hepatitis C virus (HCV E2 epitopes do not offer protection against multiple viral infections may be related to either genetic variations among viral strains particularly within the hypervariable region-1 (HVR-1, low titers of anti E2 antibodies or interference of non neutralizing antibodies with the function of neutralizing antibodies. This study was designed to assess the immunogenic properties of genetically conserved peptides derived from the C-terminal region of HVR-1 as potential therapeutic and/or prophylactic vaccines against HCV infection. Goats immunized with E2-conserved synthetic peptides termed p36 (a.a 430–446, p37(a.a 517–531 and p38 (a.a 412–419 generated high titers of anti-p36, anti-p37 and anti-P38 antibody responses of which only anti- p37 and anti- p38 were neutralizing to HCV particles in sera from patients infected predominantly with genotype 4a. On the other hand anti-p36 exhibited weak viral neutralization capacity on the same samples. Animals super-immunized with single epitopes generated 2 to 4.5 fold higher titers than similar antibodies produced in chronic HCV patients. Also the studied peptides elicited approximately 3 fold increase in cell proliferation of specific antibody-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from immunized goats. These results indicate that, besides E1 derived peptide p35 (a.a 315–323 described previously by this laboratory, E2 conserved peptides p37 and p38 represent essential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection.

  19. Antibody responses in humans infected with newly emerging strains of West Nile Virus in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Chabierski

    Full Text Available Infection with West Nile Virus (WNV affects an increasing number of countries worldwide. Although most human infections result in no or mild flu-like symptoms, the elderly and those with a weakened immune system are at higher risk for developing severe neurological disease. Since its introduction into North America in 1999, WNV has spread across the continental United States and caused annual outbreaks with a total of 36,000 documented clinical cases and ∼1,500 deaths. In recent years, outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease also have been reported in Europe. The WNV strains isolated during these outbreaks differ from those in North America, as sequencing has revealed that distinct phylogenetic lineages of WNV concurrently circulate in Europe, which has potential implications for the development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic tests. Here, we studied the human antibody response to European WNV strains responsible for outbreaks in Italy and Greece in 2010, caused by lineage 1 and 2 strains, respectively. The WNV structural proteins were expressed as a series of overlapping fragments fused to a carrier-protein, and binding of IgG in sera from infected persons was analyzed. The results demonstrate that, although the humoral immune response to WNV in humans is heterogeneous, several dominant peptides are recognized.

  20. Previous 60-Co radiation from Paratrygon aiereba mucus induces the production of highly responsive antibodies and a better immune response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack, E-mail: gabiortegacoelho@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Costa, Andrea da; Rodrigues, Jaqueline Pollizeli; Galisteo Júnior, Andrés Jimenez; Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco de, E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br, E-mail: raquelaires@itpacporto.com.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratório de Protozoologia; Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: seibertcs@uft.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)

  1. Previous 60-Co radiation from Paratrygon aiereba mucus induces the production of highly responsive antibodies and a better immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack

    2017-01-01

    Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)

  2. Human antibody and antigen response to IncA antibody of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P Y; Hsu, M C; Huang, C T; Li, S Y

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of C. trachomatis worldwide has underscored the importance of identifying specific immunogenic antigens in facilitating diagnosis as well as vaccine development. The aim of this study is to evaluate IncA antibody and antigen production in natural human infections. Our temporal expression study showed that IncA transcription and protein expression could be detected as early as 4 hours after the start of infection. Antibody responses could be detected in urine and genital swab samples from C. trachomatis-positive patients. It is especially interesting to note that the IncA antigen could be detected in urine. In conclusion, we have identified IncA as an important antigen in human. The potential applicability of the IncA antibody or antigen in the diagnosis as well as to vaccine development for C. trachomatis is also discussed.

  3. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  4. Ranitidine improves postoperative suppression of antibody response to preoperative vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the histamine-2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 72 hours) on postoperative serum antibody responses to preoperative immunization with six limit of flocculation tetanus toxoid and six limit of flocculation diphtheria toxoid was assessed...... in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study in 26 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The preoperative antitetanus antibody level was less than 0.1 IU/ml in all patients, and they were inoculated with both antigens 48 hours before surgery. Serum samples for analysis of antitetanus toxoid...... and antidiphtheria toxoid were drawn before skin incision and on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. Ranitidine significantly increased the postoperative antibody response to tetanus toxoid, (p less than 0.01) and insignificantly increased that to diphtheria toxoid vaccination (p less than 0...

  5. Negative regulation of humoral immunity due to interplay between the SLAMF1, SLAMF5, and SLAMF6 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninghai eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the SLAMF-associated protein (SAP is involved in differentiation of TFH cells and antibody responses, the precise requirements of SLAMF receptors in humoral immune responses are incompletely understood. By analyzing mice with targeted disruptions of the SLAMF1, SLAMF5 and SLAMF6 genes, we found that both T-dependent and T-independent antibody responses were twofold higher compared to those in single knockout mice. These data suggest a suppressive synergy of SLAMF1, SLAMF5 and SLAMF6 in humoral immunity, which contrasts the decreased antibody responses resulting from a defective GC reaction in the absence of the adapter SAP. In adoptive co-transfer assays, both [Slamf1+5+6]-/- B and T cells were capable of inducing enhanced antibody responses, but more pronounced enhancement was observed after adoptive transfer of [Slamf1+5+6]-/- B cells compared to that of [Slamf1+5+6]-/- T cells. In support of [Slamf1+5+6]-/- B cell intrinsic activity, [Slamf1+5+6]-/- mice also mounted significantly higher antibody responses to T-independent type 2 antigen. Furthermore, treatment of mice with anti-SLAMF6 monoclonal antibody results in severe inhibition of the development of TFH cells and GC B cells, confirming a suppressive effect of SLAMF6. Taken together, these results establish SLAMF1, SLAMF5 and SLAMF6 as important negative regulators of humoral immune response, consistent with the notion that SLAM family receptors have dual functions in immune responses.

  6. Novel chimeric virus-like particles vaccine displaying MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain induce specific humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Zheng, Xuexing; Gai, Weiwei; Wong, Gary; Wang, Hualei; Jin, Hongli; Feng, Na; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Weijiao; Li, Nan; Zhao, Guoxing; Li, Junfu; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, Yuwei; Hu, Guixue; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has continued spreading since its emergence in 2012 with a mortality rate of 35.6%, and is a potential pandemic threat. Prophylactics and therapies are urgently needed to address this public health problem. We report here the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of chimeric virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the receptor binding domain (RBD) of MERS-CoV. In this study, a fusion of the canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 structural protein gene with the RBD of MERS-CoV can self-assemble into chimeric, spherical VLP (sVLP). sVLP retained certain parvovirus characteristics, such as the ability to agglutinate pig erythrocytes, and structural morphology similar to CPV virions. Immunization with sVLP induced RBD-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. sVLP-specific antisera from these animals were able to prevent pseudotyped MERS-CoV entry into susceptible cells, with neutralizing antibody titers reaching 1: 320. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-2 secreting cells induced by the RBD were detected in the splenocytes of vaccinated mice by ELISpot. Furthermore, mice inoculated with sVLP or an adjuvanted sVLP vaccine elicited T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated immunity. Our study demonstrates that sVLP displaying the RBD of MERS-CoV are promising prophylactic candidates against MERS-CoV in a potential outbreak situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  8. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.

    1987-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120

  9. Non-MHC Antigenic Targets of the Humoral Immune Response in Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiuheng; Reed, Elaine F.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing body of data supporting a role for non-HLA antibodies in acute and chronic rejection of solid organ transplants. While many of these non-HLA antigens remain poorly defined, the principle antigenic targets are expressed on cells of the allograft including endothelium and epithelium. These non-HLA antigens are classified as either alloantigens, such as the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) or MICB, or tissue-specific autoantigens such as vim...

  10. Immunoproteomics analysis of the murine antibody response to vaccination with an improved Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Twine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis is the causative agent of a spectrum of diseases collectively known as tularemia. An attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS has been shown to be efficacious in humans, but safety concerns have prevented its licensure by the FDA. Recently, F. tularensis LVS has been produced under Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP guidelines. Little is known about the immunogenicity of this new vaccine preparation in comparison with extensive studies conducted with laboratory passaged strains of LVS. Thus, the aim of the current work was to evaluate the repertoire of antibodies produced in mouse strains vaccinated with the new LVS vaccine preparation.In the current study, we used an immunoproteomics approach to examine the repertoire of antibodies induced following successful immunization of BALB/c versus unsuccessful vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with the new preparation of F. tularensis LVS. Successful vaccination of BALB/c mice elicited antibodies to nine identified proteins that were not recognized by antisera from vaccinated but unprotected C57BL/6 mice. In addition, the CGMP formulation of LVS stimulated a greater repertoire of antibodies following vaccination compared to vaccination with laboratory passaged ATCC LVS strain. A total of 15 immunoreactive proteins were identified in both studies, however, 16 immunoreactive proteins were uniquely reactive with sera from the new formulation of LVS.This is the first report characterising the antibody based immune response of the new formulation of LVS in the widely used murine model of tularemia. Using two mouse strains, we show that successfully vaccinated mice can be distinguished from unsuccessfully vaccinated mice based upon the repertoire of antibodies generated. This opens the door towards downselection of antigens for incorporation into tularemia subunit vaccines. In addition, this work also highlights differences in the humoral immune response to

  11. Humoral response to 2 inactivated bluetongue virus serotype-8 vaccines in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolari, P; Bruckner, L; Fricker, R; Kaufmann, C; Mudry, M; Griot, C; Meylan, M

    2010-01-01

    Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) has caused disease in domestic ruminants in several countries of northern Europe since 2006. In 2008 a mass-vaccination program was launched in most affected countries using whole virus inactivated vaccines. To evaluate 2 inactivated vaccines (Bovilis BTV 8; BTVPUR AlSap8) for immunogenicity and safety against BTV-8 in South American camelids (SAC) in a field trial. Forty-two SAC (25 Alpacas, 17 Llamas) aged between 1 and 16 years. The animals were vaccinated twice at intervals of 21 days. They were observed clinically for adverse local, systemic, or both reactions throughout the trial. Blood samples collected on days 0, 14, 21, 43, and 156 after vaccination were tested for the presence of BTV-8 virus by real time-polymerase chain reaction and of specific antibodies by competitive ELISA and a serum neutralization test. All vaccinated animals developed antibodies to BTV-8 after the 2nd administration of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed except for moderate local swellings at the injection site, which disappeared within 21 days. Slightly increased body temperatures were only observed in the first 2 days after vaccination. The BTV was not detected in any of the samples analyzed. The administration of the 2 inactivated commercial vaccines was safe and induced seroconversion against BTV-8 in all vaccinated animals. The results of this study suggest that 2 doses injected 3 weeks apart is a suitable vaccination regimen for SAC.

  12. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 3. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A (H5N1) strain neuraminidase expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. Murugan Subathra Ponsekaran Santhakumar Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu Syed Sultan Beevi Sunil K Lal. Articles Volume 39 ...

  13. Antibody response to routine measles vaccination among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-02-08

    Feb 8, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Despite a global decline in mortality and morbidity from measles in the last decade, outbreaks continue to occur in some parts of the world including Nigeria. Objective: To determine antibody response to routine measles vacci- nation in Nigerian children and evaluate vaccine potency.

  14. Discordance of epstein-barr virus (ebv) specific humoral and cellular immunity in patients with malignant lymphomas : Elevated antibody titers and lowered invitro lymphocyte-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Napel, C. H. H.; The, T. Hauw; van Egten-Bijker, J; de Gast, G. C.; Halie, M. R.; Langenhuysen, M. M. A. C.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between specific viral cellular and humoral immunity to the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) was investigated in thirty-one untreated patients with malignant lymphoma (ML) and sex- and age-matched controls. In vitro reactivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes to heatinactivated purified EBV,

  15. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  16. Long-term persistence of robust antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses in recovered patients infected with SARS coronavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisheng Li

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the individuals infected with SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV spontaneously recovered without clinical intervention. However, the immunological correlates associated with patients' recovery are currently unknown. In this report, we have sequentially monitored 30 recovered patients over a two-year period to characterize temporal changes in SARS-CoV-specific antibody responses as well as cytotoxic T cell (CTL responses. We have found persistence of robust antibody and CTL responses in all of the study subjects throughout the study period, with a moderate decline one year after the onset of symptoms. We have also identified two potential major CTL epitopes in N proteins based on ELISPOT analysis of pooled peptides. However, despite the potent immune responses and clinical recovery, peripheral lymphocyte counts in the recovered patients have not yet been restored to normal levels. In summary, our study has, for the first time, characterized the temporal and dynamic changes of humoral and CTL responses in the natural history of SARS-recovered individuals, and strongly supports the notion that high and sustainable levels of immune responses correlate strongly with the disease outcome. Our findings have direct implications for future design and development of effective therapeutic agents and vaccines against SARS-CoV infection.

  17. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy...

  18. Duration of antibody response following vaccination against feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Harris, Matthew; Hosie, Margaret J; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Recently, two point-of-care (PoC) feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody test kits (Witness and Anigen Rapid) were reported as being able to differentiate FIV-vaccinated from FIV-infected cats at a single time point, irrespective of the gap between testing and last vaccination (0-7 years). The aim of the current study was to investigate systematically anti-FIV antibody production over time in response to the recommended primary FIV vaccination series. Methods First, residual plasma from the original study was tested using a laboratory-based ELISA to determine whether negative results with PoC testing were due to reduced as opposed to absent antibodies to gp40. Second, a prospective study was performed using immunologically naive client-owned kittens and cats given a primary FIV vaccination series using a commercially available inactivated whole cell/inactivated whole virus vaccine (Fel-O-Vax FIV, three subcutaneous injections at 4 week intervals) and tested systematically (up to 11 times) over 6 months, using four commercially available PoC FIV antibody kits (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo [detects antibodies to p15/p24], Witness FeLV/FIV [gp40], Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV [p24/gp40] and VetScan FeLV/FIV Rapid [p24]). Results The laboratory-based ELISA showed cats from the original study vaccinated within the previous 0-15 months had detectable levels of antibodies to gp40, despite testing negative with two kits that use gp40 as a capture antigen (Witness and Anigen Rapid kits). The prospective study showed that antibody testing with SNAP Combo and VetScan Rapid was positive in all cats 2 weeks after the second primary FIV vaccination, and remained positive for the duration of the study (12/12 and 10/12 cats positive, respectively). Antibody testing with Witness and Anigen Rapid was also positive in a high proportion of cats 2 weeks after the second primary FIV vaccination (8/12 and 7/12, respectively), but antibody levels declined below the level of detection in

  19. Evaluation of anti-rabies vaccination and supplementation with probiotic in the humoral immune response in cattle / Avaliação da vacinação anti-rábica e da suplementação com probiótico na resposta imune humoral em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Souza Lima de Souza Reis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the humoral immune response of a new rabies vaccine developed by the Instituto Butantan (potency of 3.27 UI/ml in primovaccinated cattle and the effect of probiotic on this response. Thirty-four 15-month old Nelore cattle were randomly divided into 2 groups (17 animals/group. All the animals were vaccinated on day 0 (zero and then animals in one group received probiotic added to a mineral mixture (GP while the others were given only the mineral mixture (GC. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 75 and 150 for rabies neutralizing antibodies titers by seroneutralization assay on BHK21 cells (RFFIT. Protective antibody titers (?0.5 UI/mL were found in 82.4% of the animals from GP and in 76.5% of the animals from GC and no statistical difference (p > 0.05 between antibody titers in GP and GC was detected on days 75 and 150. It was also observed that in both groups antibody titers was decreased on day 150 (p Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta imune humoral a uma nova vacina anti-rábica, desenvolvida no Instituto Butantan em bovinos primovacinados e o efeito do probiótico nesta resposta. Trinta e quatro bovinos da raça Nelore com idade de 15 meses foram divididos aleatoriamente em 2 grupos (17 bovinos/grupo: os animais foram vacinados no dia zero e um dos grupos recebeu uma mistura mineral com probiótico (GP, enquanto o outro apenas a mistura (GC. Colheu-se sangue dos animais nos dias 0, 75 e 150 após a vacinação para determinação dos títulos de anticorpos anti-rábicos neutralizantes pela técnica de soroneutralização em células BHK21 (RFFIT. Foram encontrados títulos de anticorpos protetores ( ? 0,5 UI/mL em 82,4% dos animais do grupo GP e 76,5% do grupo GC. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 nos títulos de anticorpos entre os soros coletados dos dois grupos de animais nos dias 75 e 150. Verificou-se também que para ambos os grupos no dia 150 houve uma redução significativa (p < 0,01 nos títulos de

  20. Antibody and Cytokine Responses of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Vaccinated with Recombinant Chlamydial Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) with Two Different Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Desclozeaux, Marion; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Developing a vaccine against Chlamydia is key to combating widespread mortalities and morbidities associated with this infection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In previous studies, we have shown that two or three doses of a Recombinant Major Outer Membrane Protein (rMOMP) antigen-based vaccine, combined with immune stimulating complex (ISC) adjuvant, results in strong cellular and humoral immune responses in koalas. We have also separately evaluated a single dose vaccine, utilising a tri-adjuvant formula that comprises polyphosphazine based poly I: C and host defense peptides, with the same antigen. This formulation also produced strong cellular and humoral immune responses in captive koalas. In this current study, we directly compared the host immune responses of two sub-groups of wild Chlamydia negative koalas in one population vaccinated with the rMOMP protein antigen and adjuvanted with either the ISC or tri-adjuvant formula. Overall, both adjuvants produced strong Chlamydia-specific cellular (IFN-γ and IL-17A) responses in circulating PBMCs as well as MOMP-specific and functional, in vitro neutralising antibodies. While the immune responses were similar, there were adjuvant-specific immune differences between the two adjuvants, particularly in relation to the specificity of the MOMP epitope antibody responses.

  1. Antibody and Cytokine Responses of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus Vaccinated with Recombinant Chlamydial Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP with Two Different Adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahneaz Ali Khan

    Full Text Available Developing a vaccine against Chlamydia is key to combating widespread mortalities and morbidities associated with this infection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus. In previous studies, we have shown that two or three doses of a Recombinant Major Outer Membrane Protein (rMOMP antigen-based vaccine, combined with immune stimulating complex (ISC adjuvant, results in strong cellular and humoral immune responses in koalas. We have also separately evaluated a single dose vaccine, utilising a tri-adjuvant formula that comprises polyphosphazine based poly I: C and host defense peptides, with the same antigen. This formulation also produced strong cellular and humoral immune responses in captive koalas. In this current study, we directly compared the host immune responses of two sub-groups of wild Chlamydia negative koalas in one population vaccinated with the rMOMP protein antigen and adjuvanted with either the ISC or tri-adjuvant formula. Overall, both adjuvants produced strong Chlamydia-specific cellular (IFN-γ and IL-17A responses in circulating PBMCs as well as MOMP-specific and functional, in vitro neutralising antibodies. While the immune responses were similar, there were adjuvant-specific immune differences between the two adjuvants, particularly in relation to the specificity of the MOMP epitope antibody responses.

  2. Humoral and cellular immune responses to Yersinia pestis Pla antigen in humans immunized with live plague vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Lyapina, Anna M; Khizhnyakova, Maria A; Zaitsev, Sergey S; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Arseneva, Tatiana E; Trukhachev, Alexey L; Lebedeva, Svetlana A; Telepnev, Maxim V; Ulianova, Onega V; Lyapina, Elena P; Ulyanov, Sergey S; Motin, Vladimir L

    2018-06-01

    To establish correlates of human immunity to the live plague vaccine (LPV), we analyzed parameters of cellular and antibody response to the plasminogen activator Pla of Y. pestis. This outer membrane protease is an essential virulence factor that is steadily expressed by Y. pestis. PBMCs and sera were obtained from a cohort of naïve (n = 17) and LPV-vaccinated (n = 34) donors. Anti-Pla antibodies of different classes and IgG subclasses were determined by ELISA and immunoblotting. The analysis of antibody response was complicated with a strong reactivity of Pla with normal human sera. The linear Pla B-cell epitopes were mapped using a library of 15-mer overlapping peptides. Twelve peptides that reacted specifically with sera of vaccinated donors were found together with a major cross-reacting peptide IPNISPDSFTVAAST located at the N-terminus. PBMCs were stimulated with recombinant Pla followed by proliferative analysis and cytokine profiling. The T-cell recall response was pronounced in vaccinees less than a year post-immunization, and became Th17-polarized over time after many rounds of vaccination. The Pla protein can serve as a biomarker of successful vaccination with LPV. The diagnostic use of Pla will require elimination of cross-reactive parts of the antigen.

  3. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Godi

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain.We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12-15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine.The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses.These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the preferred humoral immune

  4. The CARD8 p.C10X mutation associates with a low anti-glycans antibody response in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Francis; Sendid, Boualem; Broly, Franck; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Sarazin, Aurore; Standaert-Vitse, Annie; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Poulain, Daniel; Jouault, Thierry

    2013-03-18

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with elevated anti-glycans antibody response in 60% of CD patients, and 25% of healthy first-degree relatives (HFDRs), suggesting a genetic influence for this humoral response. In mice, anti-glucan antibody response depends on the NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we explored the effect of mutated CARD8, a component of the inflammasome, on anti-glycans antibody response in human. The association between p.C10X mutation (rs2043211) of the CARD8 gene and the levels of anti-glycans antibody response was examined in 39 CD families. The family-based QTDT association test was used to test for the genetic association between CARD8 p.C10X mutation and anti-glycan antibodies in the pedigrees. The difference in antibody responses determined by ELISA was tested in a subgroup of CD probands (one per family) and in a subgroup of HFDRs using the Wilcoxon Kruskal Wallis non-parametric test. The QTDT familial transmission tests showed that the p.C10X mutation of CARD8 was significantly associated with lower levels of antibody to mannans and glucans but not chitin (p=0.024, p=0.0028 and p=0.577, for ASCA, ALCA and ACCA, respectively). These associations were independent of NOD2 and NOD1 genetic backgrounds. The p.C10X mutation significantly associated or displayed a trend toward lower ASCA and ALCA levels (p=0.038 and p=0.08, respectively) only in the subgroup of CD probands. Such associations were not significant for ACCA levels in both subgroups of CD probands and of HFDRs. Our results show that ASCA and ALCA but not ACCA levels are under the influence of CARD8 genotype. Alteration of CARD8, a component of inflammasome, is associated with lower levels of antibodies directed to mannans and glucans at least in CD patients.

  5. Early and late humoral rejection: a clinicopathologic entity in two times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péfaur, J; Díaz, P; Panace, R; Salinas, P; Fiabane, A; Quinteros, N; Chea, R; Naranjo, E; Wurgaft, A; Beltran, E; Elgueta, S; Wegmann, M E; Gajardo, J G; Contreras, L

    2008-11-01

    Humoral rejection is an important cause of early and late graft loss. The late variant is difficult to diagnose and treat. There is a close correlation between sclerosing nephropathy and anti-HLA antibodies. We analyzed 113 renal allograft recipients between August 2004 and April 2007. Acute humoral rejection was defined as acute graft dysfunction in presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) detected by flow panel reactive antibodies (PRA) and/or C4d positive pericapilary tubules (PTC) detected histopathologically by immunofluorescent or immunoperoxidase at less than 3 months postransplantation. Late humoral rejection was defined as dysfunction occurring after 3 months postransplantation with histopathologic glomerulopathy or vasculopathy and positive C4d PTC. We included all patients who were diagnosed with early or late graft dysfunction and underwent biopsy, all of which were examined for C4d. Four patients had acute humoral rejection treated with IVIG or plasmapheresis. The patient and graft survivals were 100% and serum creatinine averaged 1.7 mg/dL. Three recipients experienced late humoral rejection at 3 to 10 years posttransplantation All received high-dose IVIG; one also was treated with thymoglobulin. Immunosuppression was switched to tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. Only one patient recovered renal function; the others returned to dialysis. Among seven patients only one had an actual PRA (>20%) and three showed 10% to 20%. However, six had a positive historical PRA of 10% to 50%. In conclusion, Recognition of acute humoral rejection has contributed to graft rescue by controlling alloantibody production through new specific immunosuppressive therapies in contrast with the clinical response to acute therapy, treatment of a chronic entity has shown poor outcomes, probably because antibody mediated chronic graft damage is already present when the late diagnosis is established by biopsy.

  6. Antibody response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae: protection of host and influence on outbreaks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eDumke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans of all ages, the cell wall-less and genome-reduced species Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. The well-documented occurrence of major peaks in the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia cases reported world-wide, the multifaceted clinical manifestations of infection and the increasing number of resistant strains provide reasons for ongoing interest in the pathogenesis of mycoplasmal disease. The results of recent studies have provided insights into the interaction of the limited virulence factors of the bacterium with its host. In addition, the availability of complete M. pneumoniae genomes from patient isolates and the development of proteomic methods for investigation of mycoplasmas have not only allowed characterization of sequence divergences between strains but have also shown the importance of proteins and protein parts for induction of the immune reaction after infection. This review focuses on selected aspects of the humoral host immune response as a factor that might influence the clinical course of infections, subsequent protection in cases of re-infections and changes of epidemiological pattern of infections. The characterization of antibodies directed to defined antigens and approaches to promote their induction in the respiratory mucosa are also preconditions for the development of a vaccine to protect risk populations from severe disease due to M. pneumoniae.

  7. Systematic investigation of the role of surfactant composition and choice of oil: Design of a nanoemulsion-based adjuvant inducing concomitant humoral and CD4+ T-cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Neustrup, Malene Aaby; Harloff-Helleberg, Stine

    2017-01-01

    humoral immune responses. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need for new adjuvants, which potentiate humoral and CMI responses. The purpose was to design an oil-in-water nanoemulsion adjuvant containing a synthetic CMI-inducing mycobacterial monomycoloyl glycerol (MMG) analogue to concomitantly induce...... humoral and CMI responses. METHODS: The influence of emulsion composition was analyzed using a systematic approach. Three factors were varied: i) saturation of the oil phase, ii) type and saturation of the applied surfactant mixture, and iii) surfactant mixture net charge. RESULTS: The emulsions were...... colloidally stable with a droplet diameter of 150-250 nm, and the zeta-potential correlated closely with the net charge of the surfactant mixture. Only cationic emulsions containing the unsaturated surfactant mixture induced concomitant humoral and CMI responses upon immunization of mice with a Ct antigen...

  8. Evaluation of Influenza-Specific Humoral Response by Microbead Array Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Keynan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Quantitation and determination of antigen specificity of systemic and mucosal immune responses to influenza vaccination is beneficial for future vaccine development. Previous methods to acquire this information were costly, time consuming and sample exhaustive. The benefits of suspension microbead array (MBA analysis are numerous. The multiplex capabilities of the system conserve time, money and sample, while generating statistically powerful data.

  9. Human antibody responses to Schistosoma mansoni: does antigen directed, isotype restriction result in the production of blocking antibodies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Dunne

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available After treatment young Kenyan schoolchildren are highly susceptible to reinfection with Schistosoma mansoni. Older children and adults are resistant to reinfection. There is no evidence that this age related resistance is due to a slow development of protective immunological mechanisms, rather, it appears that young children are susceptible because of the presence of blocking antibodies which decline with age, thus allowing the expression of protective responses. Correlations between antibody responses to different stages of the parasite life-cycle suggest that, in young children, antigen directed, isotype restriction of the response against cross-reactive polysaccharide egg antigens results in an ineffectual, or even blocking antibody response to the schistosomulum.

  10. Specificity and polyreactivity of the antibody response during natural HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2006-01-01

    The specificity and polyreactivity of the antibody response in natural HIV-1 infection were studied. First, to investigate the overall antibody response, overlapping linear peptides were used to screen sera taken from HIV-1-infected individuals. The polyclonal antibody response was relatively stable during long-term infection, compared with acute infection, and mostly directed against immunodominant regions. Low level, transient antibody responses were detected against membrane proximal exter...

  11. The role of metalloproteinase ADAM17 in regulating ICOS ligand-mediated humoral immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marczynska, Joanna; Ozga, Aleksandra; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    results in spleen and lymph node enlargement, as well as increased levels of Ag-specific class-switched Ig production following immunization with OVA together with anti-CD40 mAbs and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. Moreover, we demonstrate that the costimulatory ligand ICOS ligand (ICOSL) is selectively...... downregulated on the surface of B cells in an ADAM17-specific manner, although it is not proteolitically processed by recombinant ADAM17 in vitro. Finally, we show that higher cell surface levels of ICOSL in ADAM17(ex/ex) mice may contribute to the development of excessive Ab responses. Therefore, our data...... suggest a functional link between ADAM17 and ICOSL in controlling adaptive immune responses....

  12. Differential Antibody Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Neutralizing Epitopes in the Context of Multivalent Scaffolds and Native-Like gp140 Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Morris

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs have provided valuable insights into the humoral immune response to HIV-1. While rationally designed epitope scaffolds and well-folded gp140 trimers have been proposed as vaccine antigens, a comparative understanding of their antibody responses has not yet been established. In this study, we probed antibody responses to the N332 supersite and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER in the context of heterologous protein scaffolds and native-like gp140 trimers. Ferritin nanoparticles and fragment crystallizable (Fc regions were utilized as multivalent carriers to display scaffold antigens with grafted N332 and MPER epitopes, respectively. Trimeric scaffolds were also identified to stabilize the MPER-containing BG505 gp140.681 trimer in a native-like conformation. Following structural and antigenic evaluation, a subset of scaffold and trimer antigens was selected for immunization in BALB/c mice. Serum binding revealed distinct patterns of antibody responses to these two bNAb targets presented in different structural contexts. For example, the N332 nanoparticles elicited glycan epitope-specific antibody responses that could also recognize the native trimer, while a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer generated a stronger and more rapid antibody response to the trimer apex than its parent gp140.664 trimer. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS of mouse splenic B cells revealed expansion of antibody lineages with long heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3 loops upon activation by MPER scaffolds, in contrast to the steady repertoires primed by N332 nanoparticles and a soluble gp140.664 trimer. These findings will facilitate the future development of a coherent vaccination strategy that combines both epitope-focused and trimer-based approaches.

  13. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  14. Experimental parameters differentially affect the humoral response of the cholera-toxin-based murine model of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, S.; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have developed a murine model of IgE-mediated food allergy based on oral coadministration of antigen and cholera toxin (CT) to establish a maximal response for studying immunopathogenic mechanisms and immunotherapeutic strategies. However, for studying subtle...... interested in characterizing the individual effects of the parameters in the CT-based model: CT dose, antigen type and dose, and number of immunizations. Methods: BALB/c mice were orally sensitized weekly for 3 or 7 weeks with graded doses of CT and various food antigens (soy-trypsin inhibitor, ovalbumin...... of the antibody response depended on the type of antigen and number of immunizations. Conclusions: The critical parameters of the CT-based murine allergy model differentially control the intensity and kinetics of the developing immune response. Adjustment of these parameters could be a key tool for tailoring...

  15. Role of Natural Immunomodulator (Aloe Vera in Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera belongs to a group of Liliaceae family plant and cultivated worldwide. It possesses acemannan (acetylated mannan, which has a significant pharmacological property. The acemannan has an immunomodulatory activity when administered to animals. The major immunomodulating effect includes the activation of immune effector cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of cytokines, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. In particular, this extract can modulate the differentiation capacity of CD4+T cells to mature into Th1 subsets and enhance the innate cytokine response. As a consequence, this extract will have a profound effect in controlling disease, caused by intracellular infectious agents (bacteria and viruses. However, further studies are needed to determine the immunomodulating effects of Aloe vera in multi-component extracts equivalent to what are being used commonly in traditional medicine.

  16. The antibody response against human and chimeric anti-TNF therapeutic antibodies primarily targets the TNF binding region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, K. A.; Hart, M. H.; de Groot, E. R.; Kruithof, S.; Aarden, L. A.; Wolbink, G. J.; Rispens, T.

    2015-01-01

    In a subset of patients, anti tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapeutic antibodies are immunogenic, resulting in the formation of antidrug antibodies (ADAs). Neutralising ADAs compete with TNF for its binding site and reduces the effective serum concentration, causing clinical non-response. It is

  17. Galleria mellonella larvae are capable of sensing the extent of priming agent and mounting proportionatal cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gongqing; Xu, Li; Yi, Yunhong

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are useful models for studying the innate immunity of invertebrates or for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrated that prior exposure of G. mellonella larvae to high doses (1×10(4), 1×10(5) or 1×10(6) cells/larva) of heat-killed Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 increases the resistance of larvae to a lethal dose (50 cells/larva) of viable P. luminescens TT01 infection administered 48h later. We also found that the changes in immune protection level were highly correlated to the changes in levels of cellular and humoral immune parameters when priming the larvae with different doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01. Priming the larvae with high doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01 resulted in significant increases in the hemocytes activities of phagocytosis and encapsulation. High doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01 also induced an increase in total hemocyte count and a reduction in bacterial density within the larval hemocoel. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that genes coding for cecropin and gallerimycin and galiomycin increased in expression after priming G. mellonella with heat-killed P. luminescens TT01. All the immune parameters changed in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the insect immune system is capable of sensing the extent of priming agent and mounting a proportionate immune response. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistent humoral immune defect in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated children with HIV-1 infection: loss of specific antibodies against attenuated vaccine strains and natural viral infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Vincent; Scherpbier, Henriëtte; Pajkrt, Dasja; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Zaaijer, Hans; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy era, a loss of specific antibodies was seen. Our objective with this study was to describe the loss of specific antibodies during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: In a prospective, single-center, cohort study of

  19. Acquired Antibody Responses against Plasmodium vivax Infection Vary with Host Genotype for Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Amanda; Muskus, Carlos; Duque, Victoria; Agudelo, Olga; Liu, Pu; Takagi, Akihide; Ntumngia, Francis B.; Adams, John H.; Sim, Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Corradin, Giampietro; Velez, Ivan D.; Wang, Ruobing

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphism of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) is associated with susceptibility to and the severity of Plasmodium vivax malaria in humans. P. vivax uses DARC to invade erythrocytes. Individuals lacking DARC are ‘resistant’ to P. vivax erythrocytic infection. However, susceptibility to P. vivax in DARC+ individuals is reported to vary between specific DARC genotypes. We hypothesized that the natural acquisition of antibodies to P. vivax blood stages may vary with the host genotype and the level of DARC expression. Furthermore, high parasitemia has been reported to effect the acquisition of immunity against pre-erythrocytic parasites. We investigated the correlation between host DARC genotypes and the frequency and magnitude of antibodies against P. vivax erythrocytic stage antigens. Methodology/Findings We assessed the frequencies and magnitudes of antibody responses against P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoite and erythrocytic antigens in Colombian donors from malaria-endemic regions. The frequency and level of naturally-acquired antibodies against the P. vivax erythrocytic antigens merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP1) and Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) varied with the host DARC genotypes. Donors with one negative allele (FY*B/FY*Bnull and FY*A/FY*Bnull) were more likely to have anti-PvMSP1 and anti-PvDBP antibodies than those with two positive alleles (FY*B/FY*B and FY*A/FY*B). The lower IgG3 and IgG1 components of the total IgG response may account for the decreased responses to P. vivax erythrocytic antigens with FY*A/FY*B and FY*B/FY*B genotypes. No such association was detected with P. falciparum erythrocytic antigens, which does not use DARC for erythrocyte invasion. Conclusion/Significance Individuals with higher DARC expression, which is associated with higher susceptibility to P. vivax infection, exhibited low frequencies and magnitudes of P. vivax blood-stage specific antibody responses. This may indicate that one of the

  20. Acquired antibody responses against Plasmodium vivax infection vary with host genotype for duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Maestre

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC is associated with susceptibility to and the severity of Plasmodium vivax malaria in humans. P. vivax uses DARC to invade erythrocytes. Individuals lacking DARC are 'resistant' to P. vivax erythrocytic infection. However, susceptibility to P. vivax in DARC+ individuals is reported to vary between specific DARC genotypes. We hypothesized that the natural acquisition of antibodies to P. vivax blood stages may vary with the host genotype and the level of DARC expression. Furthermore, high parasitemia has been reported to effect the acquisition of immunity against pre-erythrocytic parasites. We investigated the correlation between host DARC genotypes and the frequency and magnitude of antibodies against P. vivax erythrocytic stage antigens.We assessed the frequencies and magnitudes of antibody responses against P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoite and erythrocytic antigens in Colombian donors from malaria-endemic regions. The frequency and level of naturally-acquired antibodies against the P. vivax erythrocytic antigens merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP1 and Duffy binding protein (PvDBP varied with the host DARC genotypes. Donors with one negative allele (FY*B/FY*Bnull and FY*A/FY*Bnull were more likely to have anti-PvMSP1 and anti-PvDBP antibodies than those with two positive alleles (FY*B/FY*B and FY*A/FY*B. The lower IgG3 and IgG1 components of the total IgG response may account for the decreased responses to P. vivax erythrocytic antigens with FY*A/FY*B and FY*B/FY*B genotypes. No such association was detected with P. falciparum erythrocytic antigens, which does not use DARC for erythrocyte invasion.Individuals with higher DARC expression, which is associated with higher susceptibility to P. vivax infection, exhibited low frequencies and magnitudes of P. vivax blood-stage specific antibody responses. This may indicate that one of the primary mechanisms by which P. vivax evades

  1. Evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses to a DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhao; Juan, Long; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is finding a method for the specific inhibition of the inflammatory disease processes without the induction of generalized immunosuppression. Of note, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters that may restore immunological tolerance remains a high priority. pcDNA-CCOL2A1 is a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen(CCII). This vaccine was developed by our laboratory and has been shown to exhibit efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard" treatment, methotrexate (MTX). Here, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-CII IgG antibodies, quantified the expression levels of Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, and performed flow cytometric analyses of different T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Tc, Ts, Treg, and CD4(+)CD29(+)T cells to systemically evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal rats. Similar to our observations at maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, vaccination of normal rats with 300 μg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine did not induce the production of anti-CII IgG. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(IL-23p40), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, regulated on activation in normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in vaccinated normal rats relative to that in controls(P > 0.05). However, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels were significantly increased on days 10 and 14, while interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly decreased on days 28 and 35 after vaccination(P 0.05), with the exception of Treg cells, which were significantly

  2. Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is a Mucosal Inductive Site for Virus-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuercher, A. W.; Coffin, S. E.; Thurnheer, M. CH.; Fundová, Petra; Cebra, J. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 168, - (2002), s. 1796-1803 ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : lymphoid tissue * virus-specific * humoral Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.014, year: 2002

  3. Neural-humoral responses during head-up tilt in healthy young white and black women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara S Jarvis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30±4 vs. 32±6 yrs; means±SD had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL, 30° and 60° head-up tilt (HUT, and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107±6 vs. 101±9 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP: 62±4 vs. 56±7 mmHg were higher in white women (both p< 0.05. ΔDBP (60° HUT-BL was greater in black women compared to white (p< 0.05. Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance was similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16±10 vs. 14±9 bursts/min, p< 0.05 and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39±8 vs. 34±13 bursts/min, p< 0.05 from BL. Noradrenaline was higher in white women (BL: 210±87 vs. 169±50 pg/ml; 60° HUT: 364±102 vs. 267±89 pg/ml, p< 0.05. Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and Δaldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1±5.0 vs. 14.4±3.7 pg/ml, p< 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4±0.0 vs. 1.6±3.6pg/ml, p=0.065; Δaldosterone: -0.9±5.1 vs. 3.8±7.5 ng/ml; p=0.069. These results suggest that young normotensive white women rely on sympathetic neural more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress.

  4. Neural-humoral responses during head-up tilt in healthy young white and black women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara S.; Shibata, Shigeki; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30 ± 4 vs. 32 ± 6 years; means ± SD) had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL), 30 and 60° head-up tilt (HUT), and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107 ± 6 vs. 101 ± 9 mmHg) and diastolic BP (DBP: 62 ± 4 vs. 56 ± 7 mmHg) were higher in white women (both p < 0.05). Δ DBP (60° HUT-BL) was greater in black women compared to white (p < 0.05). Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance were similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16 ± 10 vs. 14 ± 9 bursts/min, main effect p < 0.05) and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39 ± 8 vs. 34 ± 13 bursts/min, p < 0.05 from BL). Noradrenaline was higher in white women during 60° HUT (60° HUT: 364 ± 102 vs. 267 ± 89 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and Δ aldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1 ± 5.0 vs. 14.4 ± 3.7 pg/ml, p < 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4 ± 0.0 vs. 1.6 ± 3.6 pg/ml, p = 0.065; Δ aldosterone: −0.9 ± 5.1 vs. 3.8 ± 7.5 ng/ml; p = 0.069). These results suggest that young normotensive white women may rely on sympathetic neural activity more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress. PMID:24624092

  5. Antibody Response against Parvovirus in Patients with Inflammatory Rheumatological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Raeisi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some viral infections have been suggested to trigger or cause autoimmune diseases. One of these viruses is parvovirus B19 which can have various rheumatologic manifestations. In this study we investigated the association between parvovirus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic lupus erythematosis(SLE, systemic sclerosis(SSc and undifferentiated arthritis at the Rheumatological Clinic, Imam Khomeini hospital. Methods: In this sectional case-control study, IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 were measured with ELISA in 41 patients with RA, 28 patients with SLE, 13 patients with SSc, 8 patients with undifferentiated arthritis as well as 90 healthy controls. The ELISA kit (DRG, Germany was semi-quantitative and qualititative. Results: Parvovirus B19 IgM was detected in one patient with RA, one with SSc and four in the control group. IgG anti- B19-specific antibody was detected in 58.5% of RA patients, 67.9% of SLE patients, 69. 2% of SSc patients, 87.5% of undifferentiated arthritis patients as compared to 53.3% of controls. The results were compared between the patient and control groups(p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, there was no significant correlation for the antibody titer against parvovirus B19 in the patient and control group. The highly positive response of IgG against parvovirus in undifferentiated arthritis implies the need for more research.

  6. Cocoa Diet and Antibody Immune Response in Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Camps-Bossacoma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of cocoa to interact with the immune system in vitro and in vivo has been described. In the latter context, a cocoa-enriched diet in healthy rats was able to modify the immune system’s functionality. This fact could be observed in the composition and functionality of lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Consequently, immune effector mechanisms, such as antibody synthesis, were modified. A cocoa-enriched diet in young rats was able to attenuate the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig G, IgM, and IgA and also the intestinal IgM and IgA secretion. Moreover, in immunized rats, the intake of cocoa decreased specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2c, and IgM concentrations in serum. This immune-regulator potential was then tested in disease models in which antibodies play a pathogenic role. A cocoa-enriched diet was able to partially prevent the synthesis of autoantibodies in a model of autoimmune arthritis in rats and was also able to protect against IgE and T helper 2-related antibody synthesis in two rat models of allergy. Likewise, a cocoa-enriched diet prevented an oral sensitization process in young rats. In this review, we will focus on the influence of cocoa on the acquired branch of the immune function. Therefore, we will focus on how a cocoa diet influences lymphocyte function both in the systemic and intestinal immune system. Likewise, its potential role in preventing some antibody-induced immune diseases is also included. Although further studies must characterize the particular cocoa components responsible for such effects and nutritional studies in humans need to be carried out, cocoa has potential as a nutraceutical agent in some hypersensitivity status.

  7. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris: Heritabilities and associations with parasitological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Göring, Harald Heinz Herbert; Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-07-30

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post infection (p.i.). Parasite specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly (P<0.001) elevated after 7 and 14 weeks of infection, whereas parasite specific IgG2 levels only changed slightly at 14 weeks p.i.. However, the observed association between specific antibody isotype levels and faecal egg counts and macroscopic worm load was weak. The relative heritabilities of the different parasite specific isotypes were assessed and resulted in significant heritability estimates for parasite specific IgG1 and IgA. The highest heritabilities were found for A. suum specific IgG1 (h(2)=0.41 and 0.46 at 7 and 14 weeks p.i., respectively). Thus, the present study demonstrates that host genetic factors influence the IgG1 and IgA antibody isotype responses specific to two of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes of swine whereas specific antibody levels were poorly associated with egg excretion and the presence of macroscopic worms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Humoral and cellular responses to casein in patients with food protein-induced enterocolitis to cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubet, Jean Christoph; Bencharitiwong, Ramon; Ross, Andrew; Sampson, Hugh A; Berin, M Cecilia; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy manifesting within 1 to 4 hours of food ingestion with repetitive emesis and lethargy. We sought to characterize immune responses to casein in children with FPIES caused by cow's milk (CM). Total IgE and IgM, CM-specific IgG, and casein-specific IgE, IgG, IgG 4 , and IgM levels, as well as immunoglobulin free light chains, were measured in both patients with active and those with resolved CM-FPIES. Proliferating casein/T-effector cell counts were measured in children with CM-FPIES, children with IgE-mediated CM allergy, and those tolerating CM. Cytokine concentrations in the supernatants were quantified. Serum cytokine and tryptase levels were measured before and after a positive oral food challenge (OFC) result and compared with levels in those with a negative OFC result. We found low levels of CM and casein-specific IgG and casein-specific IgG 4 in patients with CM-FPIES versus those tolerating CM (P casein stimulation in children with CM-FPIES, results were similar to those in control subjects. Significantly lower secretion of IL-10 and higher secretion of IL-9 by casein-stimulated T cells were found in patients with CM-FPIES versus those with IgE-mediated CM allergy. Lower baseline serum levels of IL-10 and higher tryptase levels were found in active CM-FPIES versus resolved CM-FPIES. We found a significant increase in serum IL-10 and IL-8 levels after a positive OFC result. We confirm the paucity of humoral response in patients with CM-FPIES. IL-10 might play a key role in acquisition of tolerance in patients with CM-FPIES. Increased serum IL-8 levels in patients with active FPIES suggest neutrophil involvement. Elevated baseline serum tryptase levels in patients with active FPIES suggest low-grade intestinal mast cell activation or increased mast cell load. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Oct2 and Obf1 as facilitators of B:T cell collaboration during a humoral immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M Corcoran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oct2 protein, encoded by the Pou2f2 gene, was originally predicted to act as a DNA binding transcriptional activator of immunoglobulin (Ig in B lineage cells. This prediction flowed from the earlier observation that an 8 bp sequence, the octamer motif, was a highly conserved component of most Ig gene promoters and enhancers, and evidence from over-expression and reporter assays confirmed Oct2-mediated, octamer-dependent gene expression. Complexity was added to the story when Oct1, an independently encoded protein, ubiquitously expressed from the Pou2f 1 gene, was characterised and found to bind to the octamer motif with almost identical specificity, and later, when the co-activator Obf1 (OCA-B, Bob.1, encoded by the Pou2af1 gene, was cloned. Obf1 joins Oct2 (and Oct1 on the DNA of a subset of octamer motifs to enhance their transactivation strength. While these proteins variously carried the mantle of determinants of Ig gene expression in B cells for many years, such a role has not been borne out for them by characterisation of mice lacking functional copies of the genes, either as single or as compound mutants. Instead, we and others have shown that Oct2 and Obf1 are required for B cells to mature fully in vivo, for B cells to respond to the T cell cytokines IL5 and IL4, and for B cells to produce IL6 normally during a T cell dependent immune response. We show here that Oct2 affects Syk gene expression, thus influencing B cell receptor signalling, and that Oct2 loss blocks Slamf1 expression in vivo as a result of incomplete B cell maturation. Upon IL4 signalling, Stat6 up-regulates Obf1, indirectly via Xbp1, to enable plasma cell differentiation. Thus, Oct2 and Obf1 enable B cells to respond normally to antigen receptor signals, to express surface receptors that mediate physical interaction with T cells, or to produce and respond to cytokines that are critical drivers of B cell and T cell differentiation during a humoral immune response.

  10. Epigenetics of peripheral B cell differentiation and the antibody response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eZan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications, such as histone post-translational modifications, DNA methylation, and alteration of gene expression by non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, are heritable changes that are independent from the genomic DNA sequence. These regulate gene activities and, therefore, cellular functions. Epigenetic modifications act in concert with transcription factors and play critical roles in B cell development and differentiation, thereby modulating antibody responses to foreign- and self-antigens. Upon antigen encounter by mature B cells in the periphery, alterations of these lymphocytes epigenetic landscape are induced by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response. Such alterations instruct B cells to undergo immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination (CSR and somatic hypermutation (SHM, as well as differentiation to memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells for the immune memory. Inducible histone modifications, together with DNA methylation and miRNAs modulate the transcriptome, particularly the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, which is essential for CSR and SHM, and factors central to plasma cell differentiation, such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1. These inducible B cell-intrinsic epigenetic marks guide the maturation of antibody responses. Combinatorial histone modifications also function as histone codes to target CSR and, possibly, SHM machinery to the Ig loci by recruiting specific adaptors that can stabilize CSR/SHM factors. In addition, lncRNAs, such as recently reported lncRNA-CSR and an lncRNA generated through transcription of the S region that form G-quadruplex structures, are also important for CSR targeting. Epigenetic dysregulation in B cells, including the aberrant expression of non-coding RNAs and alterations of histone modifications and DNA methylation, can result in aberrant antibody responses to foreign antigens

  11. Differential Antibody Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Neutralizing Epitopes in the Context of Multivalent Scaffolds and Native-Like gp140 Trimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles D; Azadnia, Parisa; de Val, Natalia; Vora, Nemil; Honda, Andrew; Giang, Erick; Saye-Francisco, Karen; Cheng, Yushao; Lin, Xiaohe; Mann, Colin J; Tang, Jeffrey; Sok, Devin; Burton, Dennis R; Law, Mansun; Ward, Andrew B; He, Linling; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-02-28

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have provided valuable insights into the humoral immune response to HIV-1. While rationally designed epitope scaffolds and well-folded gp140 trimers have been proposed as vaccine antigens, a comparative understanding of their antibody responses has not yet been established. In this study, we probed antibody responses to the N332 supersite and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) in the context of heterologous protein scaffolds and native-like gp140 trimers. Ferritin nanoparticles and fragment crystallizable (Fc) regions were utilized as multivalent carriers to display scaffold antigens with grafted N332 and MPER epitopes, respectively. Trimeric scaffolds were also identified to stabilize the MPER-containing BG505 gp140.681 trimer in a native-like conformation. Following structural and antigenic evaluation, a subset of scaffold and trimer antigens was selected for immunization in BALB/c mice. Serum binding revealed distinct patterns of antibody responses to these two bNAb targets presented in different structural contexts. For example, the N332 nanoparticles elicited glycan epitope-specific antibody responses that could also recognize the native trimer, while a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer generated a stronger and more rapid antibody response to the trimer apex than its parent gp140.664 trimer. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mouse splenic B cells revealed expansion of antibody lineages with long heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) loops upon activation by MPER scaffolds, in contrast to the steady repertoires primed by N332 nanoparticles and a soluble gp140.664 trimer. These findings will facilitate the future development of a coherent vaccination strategy that combines both epitope-focused and trimer-based approaches. IMPORTANCE Both epitope-focused and trimer-based strategies are currently being explored in HIV-1 vaccine development, which aims to elicit broadly neutralizing

  12. Building Resilience through Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Debra Vande; Van Brockern, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Research on resilience suggests that a sense of humor helps to stress-proof children in conflict. Reports on a workshop for educators and youth workers convened to explore ways humor is being used to foster positive development and resilience with troubled youth. Describes applications of humor front-line professionals report as useful in their…

  13. c-Myb Regulates the T-Bet-Dependent Differentiation Program in B Cells to Coordinate Antibody Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Piovesan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Humoral immune responses are tailored to the invading pathogen through regulation of key transcription factors and their networks. This is critical to establishing effective antibody-mediated responses, yet it is unknown how B cells integrate pathogen-induced signals to drive or suppress transcriptional programs specialized for each class of pathogen. Here, we detail the key role of the transcription factor c-Myb in regulating the T-bet-mediated anti-viral program. Deletion of c-Myb in mature B cells significantly increased serum IgG2c and CXCR3 expression by upregulating T-bet, normally suppressed during Th2-cell-mediated responses. Enhanced expression of T-bet resulted in aberrant plasma cell differentiation within the germinal center, mediated by CXCR3 expression. These findings identify a dual role for c-Myb in limiting inappropriate effector responses while coordinating plasma cell differentiation with germinal center egress. Identifying such intrinsic regulators of specialized antibody responses can assist in vaccine design and therapeutic intervention in B-cell-mediated immune disorders. : Piovesan et al. examine how B cells establish transcriptional programs that result in tailored responses to invading pathogens. The authors find that the transcription factor c-Myb represses the T-bet-mediated anti-viral program in B cells. c-Myb limits inappropriate effector responses while coordinating plasma cell differentiation with germinal center egress. Keywords: B cells, c-Myb, T-bet, immunoglobulin, CXCR3, plasma cell, germinal center

  14. Unpolarized release of vaccinia virus and HIV antigen by colchicine treatment enhances intranasal HIV antigen expression and mucosal humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies.

  15. Mechanisms of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice vaccinated with irradiated cercaria- I. analysis of antibody and T-lymphocyte responses in mouse strains developing differing levels of immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.L.; Labine, M.; Sher, A.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of cellular and humoral responses directed against schistosomula were examined in mice of three inbred strains which demonstrate differences in the degree of resistance induced by immunization with irradiated cercariae. T-Cell reactivity was observed during the first 4 weeks after vaccination but declined to control levels thereafter. Anti-schistosomulum antibody was first detected 2 weeks after vaccination, peaked by 6 weeks, and persisted as late as 15 weeks. In sera obtained at 6 weeks, antibody activity was detected in affinity chromatography-purified fractions containing IgM, IgA, IgG 1 , IgG 2 /sub a/, and IgG 3 immunoglobulins. In general, the cellular and humoral responses observed in C57Bl/6J mice, which consistently developed a high level of immunity after vaccination, were not significantly different from those observed in C3H/HeJ or CBA/J mice, which achieved only low to moderate levels of immunity. Thus, although antibody production appears to correlate more closely than T lymphocyte responsiveness with the typical long-term resistance pattern observed in this model, the absence of striking differences in parasite-specific antibody levels between mice of these different strains suggests that additional mechanisms may be involved in the development of immunity after vaccination

  16. Normal and sublethally irradiated stem and granulocyte progenitor cell regeneration in an in vivo culture system. The cellular response to humoral factors released through the action of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacVittie, T.

    1977-01-01

    The in vivo diffusion chamber (DC) method of marrow culture was used to determine if the injection of host mice with cyclophosphamide (CY) caused, through its cytoxic action, the release of a humoral factor(s) capable of initiating stem cell (CFU-s) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cell (CFU-c) proliferation. Host mice were injected with CY 1-4 days prior to 800 rad of 60 Co WBI and implantation of DCs containing normal or 400 rad sublethally irradiated (SLI) marrow cells. The greatest proliferative response within CFU-s and CFU-c populations occurred in those mice injected with CY 3 days prior to implant. The marked CFU-s and CFU-c regeneration was initiated during the initial 24 hr of culture in both normal and SLI marrow cells. Thereafter growth rates were approximately the same. SLI marrow, however, showed a greater response to the humoral effects of CY injection than did normal marrow. These data provided evidence that CY induced the release of a diffusible factor(s) capable of accelerating regeneration of normal and sublethally irradiated CFU-s and CFU-c, the magnitude of which was dependent upon the time elapsed between CY injected and implantation of DCs. The marked proliferative response of the SLI stem and progenitor cells to the humoral stimulation may be indicative of the heterogeneity of both CFU-s and CFU-c populations surviving sublethal radiation exposure. The target cells may have possessed a differential sensitivity to the factor(s) initiating cell proliferation

  17. Augmentation of cellular and humoral immune responses to HPV16 and HPV18 E6 and E7 antigens by VGX-3100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Morrow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated the immunogenicity of VGX-3100, a multicomponent DNA immunotherapy for the treatment of Human Papillomavirus (HPV16/18-positive CIN2/3 in a phase 1 clinical trial. Here, we report on the ability to boost immune responses with an additional dose of VGX-3100. Patients completing our initial phase 1 trial were offered enrollment into a follow on trial consisting of a single boost dose of VGX-3100. Data show both cellular and humoral immune responses could be augmented above pre-boost levels, including the induction of interferon (IFNγ production, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα production, CD8+ T cell activation and the synthesis of lytic proteins. Moreover, observation of antigen-specific regulation of immune-related gene transcripts suggests the induction of a proinflammatory response following the boost. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR sequencing suggests the localization of putative HPV-specific T cell clones to the cervical mucosa, which underscores the putative mechanism of action of lesion regression and HPV16/18 elimination noted in our double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2B trial. Taken together, these data indicate that VGX-3100 drives the induction of robust cellular and humoral immune responses that can be augmented by a fourth “booster” dose. These data could be important in the scope of increasing the clinical efficacy rate of VGX-3100.

  18. Mouse-specific antibody responses to a monoclonal antibody during repeated immunoscintigraphy investigations: Comparison of antibody titres and imaging studies in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, M.V.; Gribben, S.J.; Markham, A.J.; Perkins, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    As a model for human mouse-specific antibody responses in patients undergoing immunoscintigraphy, we have investigated in rats the production of mouse-specific antibodies (MA) to the mouse monoclonal antibody 791T/36. At intervals of between 5 and 16 weeks the rats were given repeated cycles of intravenous (IV) injections of antibody with or without a simultaneous intradermal (ID) injection. The IV dose was 60 μg/kg, a dose similar to that used in many clinical immunoscintigraphy studies. The ID injection was 2 μg, which mimicks the skin test dose often given in clinical imaging protocols. The study was carried out with both 131 I-labelled antibody and with antibody labelled with 111 In by DTPA chelation. MA was measured with a passive haemagglutination assay using sheep red blood cells coated with the monoclonal antibody. Of rats given ID injections of unlabelled antibody at the same time as the IV imaging doses, 9/20 produced MA during 4 cycles of injections. In contrast, only 2/16 rats given only the IV dose produced MA. Both 131 I- and 111 In-labelled antibody appeared equally immunogenic with 5/18 and 6/18 overall responders, respectively. The production of MA was associated with a significant perturbation in the biodistribution of the IV dose of labelled antibody as seen by gamma-camera imaging of the rats given 111 In-labelled antibody. There was clearance of immune complexes to the liver, this organ accumulating up to 90% of the whole body count rate of radiolabel. MA titres of between 1/100 and 1/78000 caused equal perturbation of biodistribution, although below 1/100 the effect was more variable. (orig.)

  19. Humoral immune responses during experimental infection with Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica in goats and comparison of their excretory/secretory products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novobilský, A.; Kašný, M.; Mikeš, L.; Kovařčík, K.; Koudela, Břetislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 2 (2007), s. 357-364 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) FRVŠ 805/G3/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : giant liver fluke * sheep liver fluke * humoral immune responses in goats Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  20. The Mycoplasma hominis P120 membrane protein contains a 216 amino acid hypervariable domain that is recognized by the human humoral immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1997-01-01

    In the antigenically heterogeneous species Mycoplasma hominis a monoclonal antibody, mAb 26.7D, was previously found to recognize a 120 kDa polypeptide from M. hominis 7488. This antibody did not react with the type strain PG21. The homologous gene from M. hominis PG21 was cloned and sequenced an...... response. Such a variable domain may be important in evasion of the host's immune response, and thus aid survival of the micro-organism....

  1. The humoral immune response to recombinant nucleocapsid antigen of canine distemper virus in dogs vaccinated with attenuated distemper virus or DNA encoding the nucleocapsid of wild-type virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griot-Wenk, M E; Cherpillod, P; Koch, A; Zurbriggen, R; Bruckner, L; Wittek, R; Zurbriggen, A

    2001-06-01

    This study compared the humoral immune response against the nucleocapsid-(N) protein of canine distemper virus (CDV) of dogs vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine against parvo-, adeno-, and parainfluenza virus and leptospira combined with either the attenuated CDV Onderstepoort strain (n = 15) or an expression plasmid containing the N-gene of CDV (n = 30). The vaccinations were applied intramuscularly three times at 2-week intervals beginning at the age of 6 weeks. None of the pre-immune sera recognized the recombinant N-protein, confirming the lack of maternal antibodies at this age. Immunization with DNA vaccine for CDV resulted in positive serum N-specific IgG response. However, their IgG (and IgA) titres were lower than those of CDV-vaccinated dogs. Likewise, DNA-vaccinated dogs did not show an IgM peak. There was no increase in N-specific serum IgE titres in either group. Serum titres to the other multivalent vaccine components were similar in both groups.

  2. Effect of prolonged continuous irradiation of humoral immunity of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Muksinova, K.N.; Skukovskaya, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the content and function of cell populations and subpopulations involved in the humoral response of mice to the thymus-dependent antigen were investigated. The effect was followed during a prolonged continuous exposure to 137 C gamma-emitter (total dose - 5 Gy and daily dose - 12 cGy for 22 hours) and after its termination. The data obtained give evidence for a decrease of the pool of polypotent lymphocyte precursors (CFUs), stable moderate hypoplasia of central and peripheral organs of the immune system, distinct inhibition of antibody production at the expense of reduced activity of precursors of lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and T-helpers. In the remote post-irradiation period residual radiation damage was seen in polypotent and committed precursors of lymphocytes and T-helpers, which was responsible for the trend towards the decline of antibody production, hypoplasia in the spleen and lymph nodes being persistent

  3. Resposta imune-humoral e celular em bovinos da raça Nelore imunizados com extrato de larvas (L2 e L3 de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 Immune humoral and cellular response of nelore bovines immunized with larvae extract (L2 and L3 of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Luis Mello Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    , making it difficult to industrial use. Nowadays, the chemical control is utilized against dermatobiosis, therefore it leads to rising toxic chemicals in the animals and environment. The immunological challenge with D. hominis larval extract may represent an important altervative for this parasitosis control. Humoral and cellular immune responses were tested in bovine using an antigenic extract prepared with D. hominis larvae. Three groups of 10 months old Nelore females were used. The first group (A received immunogenic larval extract of D. hominis with fifteen-days interval between injections; the group (B was the control and has not received any sort of treatment; and the group (C received an ectoparasitecide treatment based on Dichlorvos associated to Cypermetrina. Aditionally, leucogram and levels of IgG against D. hominis by immunoassay technique were evaluated. As for the humoral immunity, animals from group A presented higher IgG production against D. hominis with maximum levels of circulating antibodies at the 45th day after the first injection. These animals also showed higher production of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes than those from groups B and C. The number of D. hominis larvae nodules observed in animals from the group C was 148.3% larger than those from group A and B. The evidence concerning both cellular and humoral immune responses as well as the reduction on nodules number are an indication that the immunization against D. hominis was partially protective for the immunized bovines.

  4. Evaluation of antibody response to polysaccharide vaccine and switched memory B cells in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Gholamhossein; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Khodadad, Ahmad; Hashemi, Mojtaba; Mohammadinejad, Payam; Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Najafi, Mehri; Farhmand, Fatemeh; Motamed, Farzaneh; Soleimani, Khadije; Soheili, Habib; Parvaneh, Nima; Darabi, Behzad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Mirminachi, Babak; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract, whose etiologies are still unknown. This study was performed to evaluate the humoral immune response in terms of B cell functions in selected IBD patients. Eighteen pediatric patients with IBD, including 12 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and six with Crohn disease (CD), were enrolled in this study. The pneumococcal vaccine was injected in all patients, and the IgG antibody level to the polysaccharide antigen was measured before and 4 weeks after injection. The B cell switch-recombination process was evaluated. Five patients with IBD (three CD and two UC) had defects in B cell switching, which was significantly higher than in controls (p=0.05). Ten patients had a specific antibody deficiency and exhibited a higher frequency of bacterial infection than the healthy group. The mean increased level of IgG after vaccination was lower in IBD patients (82.9±32.5 µg/mL vs 219.8±59.0 µg/mL; p=0.001). Among the patients who had an insufficient response, no significant difference in the number of switched memory B-cell was observed. A defect in B lymphocyte switching was observed in pediatric IBD patients, and especially in those patients with CD. Owing to an increased risk of bacterial infections in those patients with antibody production defects, pneumococcal vaccination could be recommended. However, not all patients can benefit from the vaccination, and several may require other prophylactic methods.

  5. Characterization of broadly neutralizing antibody responses to HIV-1 in a cohort of long term non-progressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Nuria; McKee, Krisha; Lynch, Rebecca M; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Jimenez, Laura; Grau, Eulalia; Yuste, Eloísa; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Alcamí, José

    2018-01-01

    Only a small fraction of HIV-1-infected patients develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), a process generally associated to chronic antigen stimulation. It has been described that rare aviremic HIV-1-infected patients can generate bNAbs but this issue remains controversial. To address this matter we have assessed bNAb responses in a large cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) with low or undetectable viremia. Samples from the LTNP cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (87 elite and 42 viremic controllers) and a control population of 176 viremic typical-progressors (TPs) were screened for bNAbs using Env-recombinant viruses. bNAb specificities were studied by ELISA using mutated gp120, neutralization assays with mutated viruses, and peptide competition. Epitope specificities were also elucidated from the serum pattern of neutralization against a panel of diverse HIV-1 isolates. Broadly neutralizing sera were found among 9.3% LTNPs, both elite (7%) and viremic controllers (14%). Within the broadly neutralizing sera, CD4 binding site antibodies were detected by ELISA in 4/12 LTNPs (33%), and 16/33 of TPs (48%). Anti-MPER antibodies were detected in 6/12 LTNPs (50%) and 14/33 TPs (42%) whereas glycan-dependent HIV-1 bNAbs were more frequent in LTNPs (11/12, 92%) as compared to TPs (12/33, 36%). A good concordance between standard serum mapping and neutralization-based mapping was observed. LTNPs, both viremic and elite controllers, showed broad humoral immune responses against HIV-1, including activity against many major epitopes involved in bNAbs-mediated protection.

  6. Antibody response to Giardia muris trophozoites in mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, M F

    1986-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia muris colonizes the mouse small intestinal lumen. This parasite is cleared immunologically from the intestine of normal mice. In contrast, T-lymphocyte-deficient (nude) mice have an impaired immunological response to G. muris and become chronically infected. In the present study, trophozoites were harvested from the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and nude mice and examined for surface-bound mouse immunoglobulins by immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, but not IgM, were detected on trophozoites obtained from BALB/c mice, from day 10 of the infection onwards. Trophozoites from nude mice showed very little evidence of surface-bound mouse immunoglobulin at any time during the 5-week period immediately following infection of these animals with G. muris cysts. Intestinal G. muris infection was cleared by the BALB/c mice but not by the nude animals. The data suggest that parasite-specific IgA and IgG bind to G. muris trophozoites in the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Intestinal antibodies that bind to trophozoite surfaces are likely to play an important part in the clearance of G. muris infection by immunocompetent mice. The inability of nude mice to clear this infection at a normal rate is likely to be due to impairment of Giardia-specific intestinal antibody production.

  7. Novel thermal-sensitive hydrogel enhances both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses by intranasal vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Youbin; Wu, Shipo; Hou, Lihua; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Meng; Su, Zhiguo; Wu, Jie; Chen, Wei; Ma, Guanghui

    2012-08-01

    A novel thermal sensitive hydrogel was formulated with N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC) and α, β-glycerophosphate (α, β-GP). A serial of hydrogels containing different amount of GP and HTCC with diverse quarternize degree (QD, 41%, 59%, 79.5%, and 99%) were prepared and characterized by rheological method. The hydrogel was subsequently evaluated for intranasal vaccine delivery with adenovirus based Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein antigen (Ad-GPZ). Results showed that moderate quarternized HTCC (60% and 79.5%) hydrogel/antigen formulations induced highest IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody titers in serum, as well as mucosal IgA responses in lung wash, which may attributed to the prolonged antigen residence time due to the thermal-sensitivity of this hydrogel. Furthermore, CD8(+) splenocytes for IFN-γ positive cell assay and the release profile of Th1/Th2 type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-4) showed that hydrogel/Ad-GPZ generated an overwhelmingly enhanced Th1 biased cellular immune response. In addition, this hydrogel displayed low toxicity to nasal tissue and epithelial cells even by frequently intranasal dosing of hydrogel. All these results strongly supported this hydrogel as a safe and effective delivery system for nasal immunization. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  9. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  10. Cell-Mediated and Humoral Immune Responses after Immunization of Calves with a Recombinant Multiantigenic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Subunit Vaccine at Different Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    and 12 relative to the first vaccination. Vaccine-induced immune responses, the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) cytokine secretion and antibody responses, were followed for 20 weeks. In general, the specific responses were significantly elevated in all three vaccination groups after the first booster...

  11. The cellular bases of antibody responses during dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Yam-Puc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic or memory B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections.This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events like the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation and germinal centers (GCs formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs, till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated.

  12. Dual antibody therapy to harness the innate anti-tumor immune response to enhance antibody targeting of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Cariad; Marabelle, Aurelien; Houot, Roch; Kohrt, Holbrook E

    2015-04-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving field that offers a novel paradigm for cancer treatment: therapies focus on enhancing the immune system's innate and adaptive anti-tumor response. Early immunotherapeutics have achieved impressive clinical outcomes and monoclonal antibodies are now integral to therapeutic strategies in a variety of cancers. However, only recently have antibodies targeting innate immune cells entered clinical development. Innate immune effector cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumor immunity. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) are important innate immune mechanisms for tumor eradication. These cytolytic processes are initiated by the detection of a tumor-targeting antibody and can be augmented by activating co-stimulatory pathways or blocking inhibitory signals on innate immune cells. The combination of FDA-approved monoclonal antibodies with innate effector-targeting antibodies has demonstrated potent preclinical therapeutic synergy and early-phase combinatorial clinical trials are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P yeast autolysate supplementation. Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Aqueous humor penetration of topical bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% in rabbits: response to authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Lin J-E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Joan-En Chang-Lin, Amy L Batoosingh, David A Hollander, Rhett M Schiffman, Diane D-S Tang-LiuAllergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USAWe read with great interest the recent article by Ogundele and Jasek,1 in which the authors concluded that bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.01% (Lumigan®; Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA produced lower bimatoprost acid concentration than bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% (Lumigan; Allergan, Inc in the aqueous humor of rabbits. This conclusion was made based on two treatment time points (30 and 90 minutes with a small sample size (n = 4 at each time point and with large variability. 

  15. IRON AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN PIGS FED PHYTASE-ADDED RATIONS WITH LOWER PHOSPHORUS LEVELS FERRO E IMUNIDADE HUMORAL EM SUÍNOS ALIMENTADOS COM FITASE E NÍVEIS REDUZIDOS DE FÓSFORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Batista Brito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Endogenous enzymes such as phytase have been widely used in swine production to increase phosphorus, amino acid and energy availability from feeds. This study aimed to evaluate the immune system through quantification of blood components associated to iron metabolism and determine humoral immune response elements in pigs fed phytase-added diets without micro minerals and vitamins and partial or total deletion of inorganic phosphorus. Forty-eight crossbred females with initial weight of 60 kg were randomly sorted into six groups of eight animals each, as follows: G1 -standard (complete ration (control group; G2 - standard ration except that micromineral and vitamin supplement was deleted; G3 - group 2 ration with phytase, G4 - group 2 ration less 1/3 of inorganic P with phytase, G5 -  group 2 ration less 2/3 of inorganic P with phytase and G6 - group 2 ration without inorganic P with phytase. Statistical difference (p>0,05 was not recorded neither in white cells and platelet counts nor hemoglobin, serum iron levels, considering all the animals in all treatments. Nevertheless, pigs up to 100 kg that consumed diet without micro minerals and vitamins, total deletion of inorganic P and phytase addition presented increased ferritin levels (p>0,05 when compared to animals fed similar diet with inorganic phosphorus and phytase. The enzyme guaranteed maintenance of iron stocks even in the absence of supplementation. Such difference was not recorded with 120-kg animals fed similar rations. Average total protein, IgG and IgM levels were not influenced by phytase, mineral and vitamin supplementation or inorganic phosphorus levels. The results demonstrate that decrease of inorganic phos-phorus, withdrawal of vitamin and mineral supplements and phytase addition in diets of finishing pigs do not lead to significant changes in hematological, biochemical and humoral immune response parameters.

  16. Oral antibiotics enhance antibody responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin in orally but not muscularly immunized chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kazuki; Okumura, Shouta; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the crucial role of gut microbiota in triggering and modulating immune response. We aimed to determine whether the modification of gut microbiota by oral co-administration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and neomycin, would lead to changes in the antibody response to antigens in chickens. Neonatal chickens were given or not given ampicillin and neomycin (0.25 and 0.5 g/L, respectively) in drinking water. At 2 weeks of age, the chicks were muscularly or orally immunized with antigenic keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and then serum anti-KLH antibody levels were examined by ELISA. In orally immunized chicks, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced antibody responses (IgM, IgA, IgY) by 2-3-fold compared with the antibiotics-free control, while the antibiotics did not enhance antibody responses in the muscularly immunized chicks. Concomitant with their enhancement of antibody responses, the oral antibiotics also lowered the Lactobacillus species in feces. Low doses of antibiotics (10-fold and 100-fold lower than the initial trial), which failed to change the fecal Lactobacillus population, did not modify any antibody responses when chicks were orally immunized with KLH. In conclusion, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced the antibody response to orally exposed antigens in chickens. This enhancement of antibody response was associated with a modification of the fecal Lactobacillus content, suggesting a possible link between gut microbiota and antibody response in chickens. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B; Specht, L; Henrichsen, J

    1989-01-01

    response to pneumococcal type antigens was similar in healthy adults and in patients with early stage HD before therapy. After treatment, postvaccination antibody response became negligible. Even up to 7 years after cessation of therapy patients were not able to raise a significant antibody response....

  18. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  19. Association between plasma antibody response and protection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss immersion vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Raida

    Full Text Available A key hallmark of the vertebrate adaptive immune system is the generation of antigen-specific antibodies from B cells. Fish are the most primitive gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates possessing an adaptive immune system. Vaccination of rainbow trout against enteric redmouth disease (ERM by immersion in Yersinia ruckeri bacterin confers a high degree of protection to the fish. The immune mechanisms responsible for protection may comprise both cellular and humoral elements but the role of specific immunoglobulins in this system has been questioned and not previously described. The present study demonstrates significant increase in plasma antibody titers following immersion vaccination and significantly reduced mortality during Y. ruckeri challenge.Rainbow trout were immersion-vaccinated, using either a commercial ERM vaccine (AquaVac™ ERM vet or an experimental Y. ruckeri bacterin. Half of the trout vaccinated with AquaVac™ ERM vet received an oral booster (AquaVac™ ERM Oral vet. Sub-groups of the fish from each group were subsequently exposed to 1 x 10⁹ CFU Y. ruckeri/ml either eight or twenty-six weeks post vaccination (wpv. All vaccinated groups showed 0% mortality when challenged, which was highly significant compared to the non-vaccinated controls (40 and 28% mortality eight and twenty-six weeks post vaccination (wpv, respectively (P<0.0001. Plasma samples from all groups of vaccinated fish were taken 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 26 wpv. and Y. ruckeri specific IgM antibody levels were measured with ELISA. A significant increase in titers was recorded in vaccinated fish, which also showed a reduced bacteremia during challenge. In vitro plasma studies showed a significantly increased bactericidal effect of fresh plasma from vaccinated fish indicating that plasma proteins may play a role in protection of vaccinated rainbow trout.

  20. Appreciation of humor is decreased among patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Posen, Jennie; Giladi, Nir; Manor, Yael; Mayanz, Connie; Mirelman, Anat; Gurevich, Tanya

    2012-02-01

    To test whether appreciation of humor might be a non-motor function affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-nine PD patients and 38 healthy controls participated in this study. Appreciation of humor and effect of the presentation method utilized were assessed. Sense of humor was evaluated by the sense of humor questionnaire (SHQ-6). Humor appreciation was tested using three methods of presentation: videos, audio sketches and pictorial cartoons, each portraying both obvious and non-obvious humor content. Depression, anxiety, cognition, disease severity and quality of life were measured by standardized questionnaires and correlated with humor outcomes. Patients with PD rated humor content lower than controls on every method of presentation as well as on the SHQ-6 (p = 0.004). The greatest between-group difference was noted when the material was presented visually via pictorial cartoons (p < 0.0001). In addition, obvious humor content was rated higher than non-obvious content by the PD group in all three presentation methods (p < 0.05). The degree of depression and anxiety did not influence these results. Patients with PD have a decreased sense of humor compared to healthy controls. Utilizing audio methods of presentation and humor in an obvious mode appears to be the preferred approach for eliciting responses to humor in a PD population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The humoral response to Plasmodium falciparum VarO rosetting variant and its association with protection against malaria in Beninese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentley Graham

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capacity of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to bind uninfected erythrocytes (rosetting is associated with severe malaria in African children. Rosetting is mediated by a subset of the variant surface antigens PfEMP1 targeted by protective antibody responses. Analysis of the response to rosette-forming parasites and their PfEMP1 adhesive domains is essential for understanding the acquisition of protection against severe malaria. To this end, the antibody response to a rosetting variant was analysed in children recruited with severe or uncomplicated malaria or asymptomatic P. falciparum infection. Methods Serum was collected from Beninese children with severe malaria, uncomplicated malaria or P. falciparum asymptomatic infection (N = 65, 37 and 52, respectively and from immune adults (N = 30 living in the area. Infected erythrocyte surface-reactive IgG, rosette disrupting antibodies and IgG to the parasite crude extract were analysed using the single variant Palo Alto VarO-infected line. IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 to PfEMP1-varO-derived NTS-DBL1α1, CIDRγ and DBL2βC2 recombinant domains were analysed by ELISA. Antibody responses were compared in the clinical groups. Stability of the response was studied using a blood sampling collected 14 months later from asymptomatic children. Results Seroprevalence of erythrocyte surface-reactive IgG was high in adults (100% and asymptomatic children (92.3% but low in children with severe or uncomplicated malaria (26.1% and 37.8%, respectively. The IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 antibody responses to the varO-derived PfEMP1 domains were significantly higher in asymptomatic children than in children with clinical malaria in a multivariate analysis correcting for age and parasite density at enrolment. They were essentially stable, although levels tended to decrease with time. VarO-surface reactivity correlated positively with IgG reactivity to the rosetting domain varO-NTS-DBL1α1. None of the

  2. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  3. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NVantibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  4. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    antibody response in the offspring, bat in this case in the absence of oral tolerance. This indicates that, under certain conditions, factors involved in spontaneous antibody production can be transmitted from mother to offspring. Understanding the immune response to soya protein ingested under healthy...... by ELISA, and to the presence of oral tolerance detected as a suppressed antibody and cell-proliferation response upon immunisation with soya protein. F0 mice generated soya-specific antibodies, while oral tolerance to the same soya proteins was also clearly induced. When F0 dams were transferred to soya...

  5. Characterization of the Apa antigen from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a conserved Mycobacterium antigen that elicits a strong humoral response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioffré, A; Echeverría-Valencia, G; Arese, A; Morsella, C; Garbaccio, S; Delgado, F; Zumárraga, M; Paolicchi, F; Cataldi, A; Romano, M I

    2009-12-15

    Johne's disease or paratuberculosis is widespread in almost all countries and remains difficult to eradicate. Nowadays, diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MPTB) infection is one of the main concerns. In this work, we evaluated the expression, biochemical properties and antigenicity of the Apa antigen, encoded by the gene annotated as MAP1569, in the MPTB genome. We confirmed its expression in MPTB and its glycosylation by the ConA binding assay. Although the MPTB-Apa is not an immunodominant antigen, MPTB-infected cattle showed a strong humoral response to recombinant Apa by Western blot and ELISA. Milk was also a suitable sample to be tested by ELISA. We comparatively analysed the humoral cross-reactivity to the Apa from MPTB (MPTB-Apa) and the orthologue from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT-Apa, identical to that from Mycobacterium bovis) in both infected and control cows. Response of M. bovis- and MPTB-infected animals against MT-Apa was similar (P=0.6985) but the response of the M. bovis-infected ones to MPTB-Apa was differential, being significantly diminished (PApa stimulation in the IFNgamma release assay, we found no significant differences when compared infected herds with non-infected ones (P=0.34). This antigen, in contrast to bovine Purified Protein Derivative (PPDb), was strongly represented in avian PPD (PPDa), as shown by the recognition of BALB/c mice hyperimmune sera against MPTB-Apa by Dot-blot immunoassay. We therefore demonstrated the antigenicity of Apa in MPTB-infected animals and a differential response to the recombinant antigen when compared to M. bovis-infected animals. These traits herein described, added to the usefulness of milk samples to detect IgG anti-Apa, could be important for routine screening in dairy cattle, considering a multiantigenic approach to overcome the lack of immunodominance.

  6. Humoral immunity response to human endogenous retroviruses K/W differentiates between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arru, G; Mameli, G; Deiana, G A; Rassu, A L; Piredda, R; Sechi, E; Caggiu, E; Bo, M; Nako, E; Urso, D; Mariotto, S; Ferrari, S; Zanusso, G; Monaco, S; Sechi, G; Sechi, L A

    2018-03-31

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) K/W seem to play a role in fostering and exacerbation of some neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Given these findings, the immunity response against HERV-K and HERV-W envelope surface (env-su) glycoprotein antigens in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was investigated for ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease patients and in healthy controls. Four antigenic peptides derived respectively from HERV-K and HERV-W env-su proteins were studied in 21 definite or probable ALS patients, 26 possible or definite relapsing-remitting MS patients, 18 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 39 healthy controls. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was set up to detect specific antibodies (Abs) against env-su peptides. Amongst the measured levels of Abs against the four different HERV-K peptide fragments, only HERV-K env-su 19-37 was significantly elevated in ALS compared to other groups, both in serum and CSF. Instead, amongst the Abs levels directed against the four different HERV-W peptide fragments, only HERV-W env-su 93-108 and HERV-W env-su 248-262 were significantly elevated, in the serum and CSF of the MS group compared to other groups. In ALS patients, the HERV-K env-su 19-37 Abs levels were significantly correlated with clinical measures of disease severity, both in serum and CSF. Increased circulating levels of Abs directed against the HERV-W env-su 93-108 and HERV-W env-su 248-262 peptide fragments could serve as possible biomarkers in patients with MS. Similarly, increased circulating levels of Abs directed against the HERV-K env-su 19-37 peptide fragment could serve as a possible early novel biomarker in patients with ALS. © 2018 EAN.

  7. A Recombinant Trivalent Fusion Protein F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) Augments Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses and Imparts Full Protection against Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shailendra K; Batra, Lalit; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Plague is one of the most dangerous infections in humans caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite of an overwhelming research success, no ideal vaccine against plague is available yet. It is well established that F1/LcrV based vaccine requires a strong cellular immune response for complete protection against plague. In our earlier study, we demonstrated that HSP70(II) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the humoral and cellular immunity of F1/LcrV vaccine candidates individually as well as in combinations in a mouse model. Here, we made two recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II). The caf1 and lcrV genes of Y. pestis and hsp70 domain II of M. tuberculosis were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Both the recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II) were cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant fusion proteins F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were purified using Ni-NTA columns and formulated with alum to evaluate the humoral and cell mediated immune responses in mice. The protective efficacies of F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were determined following challenge of immunized mice with 100 LD50 of Y. pestis through intraperitoneal route. Significant differences were noticed in the titers of IgG and it's isotypes, i.e., IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 in anti- F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) sera in comparison to anti-F1-LcrV sera. Similarly, significant differences were also noticed in the expression levels of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α in splenocytes of F1-LcrV-HSP(II) immunized mice in comparison to F1-LcrV. Both F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) provided 100% protection. Our research findings suggest that F1-LcrV fused with HSP70 domain II of M. tuberculosis significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses in mouse model.

  8. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  9. Characterization of isotypes of antibody response against leishmania parasite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elassad, Asma M.S.; Ghalib, Hashim W [Medical Parasitology Project NIH/Sudan, Khartoum (Sudan); Younis, Saddia A [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1994-12-01

    In this study an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) was developed to detect IgG,IgM and IgA response in visceral leishmaniasis patients (VL) against L.donovain and L. major antigens compared to control groups; cutaneous leishmaniasis patients (CL), mucosal leishmaniasis patients (ML), patients with other tropical diseases and healthy controls.Highly specific IgG were found in VL patients with test specificity (93.7%) and sensitivity(93.4%). A moderate IgG were found in VL patients but non-specific while no IgA were detected in all studied groups. Also VL patients showed high specificity and sensitivity (95.2 and 96.6% respectively) against L.major antigen.The distribution of IgG subclasses (IgG1,IgG2,IgG3 and IgG4) antibodies in VL patients were assayed.IgG3 showed the highest specificity and sensitivity and titers followed by IgG1.Also the diagnostic value of ELIZA test for different leishmaniasis forms were discussed. (Author). 18 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Characterization of isotypes of antibody response against leishmania parasite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elassad, Asma M.S.; Ghalib, Hashim W.; Younis, Saddia A.

    1994-01-01

    In this study an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) was developed to detect IgG,IgM and IgA response in visceral leishmaniasis patients (VL) against L.donovain and L. major antigens compared to control groups; cutaneous leishmaniasis patients (CL), mucosal leishmaniasis patients (ML), patients with other tropical diseases and healthy controls.Highly specific IgG were found in VL patients with test specificity (93.7%) and sensitivity(93.4%). A moderate IgG were found in VL patients but non-specific while no IgA were detected in all studied groups. Also VL patients showed high specificity and sensitivity (95.2 and 96.6% respectively) against L.major antigen.The distribution of IgG subclasses (IgG1,IgG2,IgG3 and IgG4) antibodies in VL patients were assayed.IgG3 showed the highest specificity and sensitivity and titers followed by IgG1.Also the diagnostic value of ELIZA test for different leishmaniasis forms were discussed. (Author)

  11. Kinetics of antibody response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice bitten by Phlebotomus papatasi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Vlkova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects transmitting Leishmania parasites. In bitten hosts, sand fly saliva elicits specific immune response and the humoral immunity was shown to reflect the intensity of sand fly exposure. Thus, anti-saliva antibodies were suggested as the potential risk marker of Leishmania transmission. In this study, we examined the long-term kinetics and persistence of anti-Phlebotomus papatasi saliva antibody response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We also tested the reactivity of mice sera with P. papatasi salivary antigens and with the recombinant proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sera of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice experimentally bitten by Phlebotomus papatasi were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-saliva IgE, IgG and its subclasses. We detected a significant increase of specific IgG and IgG1 in both mice strains and IgG2b in BALB/c mice that positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. papatasi females. Using western blot and mass spectrometry we identified the major P. papatasi antigens as Yellow-related proteins, D7-related proteins, antigen 5-related proteins and SP-15-like proteins. We therefore tested the reactivity of mice sera with four P. papatasi recombinant proteins coding for most of these potential antigens (PpSP44, PpSP42, PpSP30, and PpSP28. Each mouse serum reacted with at least one of the recombinant protein tested, although none of the recombinant proteins were recognized by all sera. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirmed the concept of using anti-sand fly saliva antibodies as a marker of sand fly exposure in Phlebotomus papatasi-mice model. As screening of specific antibodies is limited by the availability of salivary gland homogenate, utilization of recombinant proteins in such studies would be beneficial. Our present work demonstrates the feasibility of this implementation. A combination of recombinant salivary proteins is recommended for evaluation of intensity of

  12. Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovetich, N A; Dale, J A; Hudak, M A

    1990-02-01

    The benefits of humor in reducing anxiety were investigated in a laboratory study, in which subjects were falsely led to believe that they would receive a shock in 12 min. Participants were 53 undergraduate students with either high or low sense of humor as measured by the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire of Martin and Lefcourt (1984). During the anticipatory period, subjects listened to either a humorous tape, a nonhumorous tape, or no tape. Dependent variables were repeated measures of self-reported anxiety, heart rate, and zygomatic facial activity. Anxiety increased over the anticipatory period, as predicted. A significant interaction between condition and time indicated that subjects from the humor condition consistently rated themselves as less anxious and reported less increase in stress as the shock approached. A three-way interaction concentrating on the final 3 min. indicated a tendency for subjects with low sense of humor to have higher heart rates in the no-tape condition than in the humorous or nonhumorous tape conditions. Analysis for zygomatic activity indicated more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor and by subjects in the humor condition. Also, the humorous tape elicited more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor.

  13. CONSISTENT HUMORAL IMMUNITY CONDITION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC GENERALIZED PERIODONTITIS ON THE BACKGROUND OF PARASITIC INVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Saval'eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the results of the immunity humoral chain investigation in patients with the chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP, severity level I-II, in combination with parasitosis. The purpose of the investigation is to verify the role and place of humoral immunity in CGP pathology in patients with parasitosis. Materials and methods. Immunologic investigations were conducted among 540 patients with the chronic generalized periodontitis, severity level I-II, on the background of parasitic invasions (gisrdiasis, enterobiasis, toxocarosis – (principle groups. The experimental group consisted of 90 CGP patients, severity level I-II, without parasitic invasions. The control group consisted of 30 people without the parodontium pathology and the chronic pathology of other organs and systems, who were considered practically healthy during the investigation. Humoral immunity condition in CGP patients was estimated by the content level of antibodies against etiological inflectional agents in the blood serum and the common antigenic determinant (CAD of microbes, antimicrobial IgG- antibodies affinity, by the content of IgА. IgМ, IgЕ, CIC, complement activity. Results and conclusions. It is noted that increasing of IgE, CIC and complement levels in blood are the peculiarity of immune structures in the organism of CGP patients with parasitosis, compared with CGP patients without parasitosis. While investigating the qualitative characteristics of the produced antimicrobial antibodies, it was found that in CGP patients, I-II severity level, with parasitosis the antibodies affinity was significantly lower than in CGP patients without parasitosis. Weak antibody immune response to the microbial factor and low produced antimicrobial antibodies affinity, apparently, explain the impossibility for the patient to neutralize and eliminate the bacteria, populating the periodontal pockets, as well as to maintain normal mouth cavity biocenosis. The obtained

  14. PREPARATION OF CONJUGATE FOR USE IN AN ELISA FOR HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS IN LAYER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mansoor, S. U. Rahman, I. Hussain, M. H. Rasool and M. A. Zahoor

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed for the detection of antibodies against Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS virus. Virus identification was done through haemaggluti- nation inhibition (HI test using known antisera. Antichicken immunoglobulins were raised in goats and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation technique. These goat-antichicken immunoglobulins were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Twenty-seven serum samples were collected from a layers flock vaccinated against EDS and specific antibodies were determined by using a horseradish conjugate.

  15. Humoral and cellular responses to Pneumocystis carinii, CMV, and herpes simplex in patients with AIDS and in controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Nielsen, P B; Ødum, Niels

    1988-01-01

    The titers of IgG and IgA to Pneumocystis carinii in 36 AIDS patients did not differ significantly from those in 31 controls. Only 2/15 patients (13%) with P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) had titers of IgM antibodies greater than or equal to 5, which is significantly less frequent than in 32 controls...

  16. Characterization of humoral responses to soluble trimeric HIV gp140 from a clade A Ugandan field isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visciano, Maria Luisa; Tagliamonte, Maria; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been generated by several groups and such molecules have been shown to induce antibodies with neutr...

  17. Seasonal variations in antibody response to a Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), employing a recombinant peptide capture antigen (R32tet32) was used to detect antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in 169 ...

  18. Immunoglobulin GM and KM genes and measles vaccine-induced humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Larrabee, Beth R; Schaid, Daniel J; Poland, Gregory A

    2017-10-04

    Identifying genetic polymorphisms that explain variations in humoral immunity to live measles virus vaccine is of great interest. Immunoglobulin GM (heavy chain) and KM (light chain) allotypes are genetic markers known to be associated with susceptibility to several infectious diseases. We assessed associations between GM and KM genotypes and measles vaccine humoral immunity (neutralizing antibody titers) in a combined cohort (n=1796) of racially diverse healthy individuals (age 18-41years). We did not discover any significant associations between GM and/or KM genotypes and measles vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titers. African-American subjects had higher neutralizing antibody titers than Caucasians (1260mIU/mL vs. 740mIU/mL, p=7.10×10 -13 ), and those titers remained statistically significant (p=1.68×10 -09 ) after adjusting for age at enrollment and time since last vaccination. There were no statistically significant sex-specific differences in measles-induced neutralizing antibody titers in our study (p=0.375). Our data indicate a surprising lack of evidence for an association between GM and KM genotypes and measles-specific neutralizing antibody titers, despite the importance of these immune response genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Humoral Immune Responses to Surface and Virulence-Associated Chlamydia abortus Proteins in Ovine and Human Abortions by Use of a Newly Developed Line Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Jürgen Benjamin; Simnacher, Ulrike; Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maile, Julia; Soutschek, Erwin; Walder, Gernot; Boden, Katharina; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia abortus is the causative agent of enzootic abortion of ewes and poses a significant zoonotic risk for pregnant women. Using proteomic analysis and gene expression library screening in a previous project, we identified potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis, of which nine were scrutinized here with a strip immunoassay. We have shown that aborting sheep exhibited a strong antibody response to surface (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G) and virulence-associated (CPAF, TARP, SINC) antigens. While the latter disappeared within 18 weeks following abortion in a majority of the animals, antibodies to surface proteins persisted beyond the duration of the study. In contrast, nonaborting experimentally infected sheep developed mainly antibodies to surface antigens (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G), all of which did not persist. We were also able to detect antibodies to these surface antigens in C abortus-infected women who had undergone septic abortion, whereas a group of shepherds and veterinarians with occupational exposure to C abortus-infected sheep revealed only sporadic immune responses to the antigens selected. The most specific antigen for the serodiagnosis of human C abortus infections was Pmp13G, which showed no cross-reactivity with other chlamydiae infecting humans. We suggest that Pmp13G-based serodiagnosis accomplished by the detection of antibodies to virulence-associated antigens such as CPAF, TARP, and SINC may improve the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal C abortus infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. SUPPRESSION OF HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSES BY 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-p-DIOXIN INTERCALATED IN SMECTITE CLAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Stephen A.; Johnston, Cliff T.; Pinnavaia, Thomas J.; Kaminski, Norbert E.; Teppen, Brian J.; Li, Hui; Khan, Bushra; Crawford, Robert B.; Kovalova, Natalia; Kim, Seong-Su; Shao, Hua; Gu, Cheng; Kaplan, Barbara L.F.

    2018-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant found in soils and sediments. Because of its exceptionally low water solubility, this compound exists predominantly in the sorbed state in natural environments. Clay minerals, especially expandable smectite clays, are one of the major component geosorbents in soils and sediments that can function as an effective adsorbent for environmental dioxins, including TCDD. In this study, TCDD was intercalated in the smectite clay saponite by an incipient wetness method. The primary goal of this study was to intercalate TCDD in natural K-saponite clay and evaluate its immunotoxic effects in vivo. The relative bioavailability of TCDD was evaluated by comparing the metabolic activity of TCDD administered in the adsorbed state as an intercalate in saponite and freely dissolved in corn oil. This comparison revealed nearly identical TCDD-induced suppression of humoral immunity, a well-established and sensitive sequela, in a mammalian (mouse) model. This result suggests that TCDD adsorbed by clays is likely to be available for biouptake and biodistribution in mammals, consistent with previous observations of TCDD in livestock exposed to dioxin-contaminated ball clays that were used as feed additives. Adsorption of TCDD by clay minerals does not appear to mitigate risk associated with TCDD exposure substantially. PMID:21994089

  1. Suppression of humoral immune responses by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin intercalated in smectite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Stephen A; Johnston, Cliff T; Pinnavaia, Thomas J; Kaminski, Norbert E; Teppen, Brian J; Li, Hui; Khan, Bushra; Crawford, Robert B; Kovalova, Natalia; Kim, Seong-Su; Shao, Hua; Gu, Cheng; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2011-12-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant found in soils and sediments. Because of its exceptionally low water solubility, this compound exists predominantly in the sorbed state in natural environments. Clay minerals, especially expandable smectite clays, are one of the major component geosorbents in soils and sediments that can function as an effective adsorbent for environmental dioxins, including TCDD. In this study, TCDD was intercalated in the smectite clay saponite by an incipient wetness method. The primary goal of this study was to intercalate TCDD in natural K-saponite clay and evaluate its immunotoxic effects in vivo. The relative bioavailability of TCDD was evaluated by comparing the metabolic activity of TCDD administered in the adsorbed state as an intercalate in saponite and freely dissolved in corn oil. This comparison revealed nearly identical TCDD-induced suppression of humoral immunity, a well-established and sensitive sequela, in a mammalian (mouse) model. This result suggests that TCDD adsorbed by clays is likely to be available for biouptake and biodistribution in mammals, consistent with previous observations of TCDD in livestock exposed to dioxin-contaminated ball clays that were used as feed additives. Adsorption of TCDD by clay minerals does not appear to mitigate risk associated with TCDD exposure substantially. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Active immunization with the peptide epitope vaccine Aβ3-10-KLH induces a Th2-polarized anti-Aβ antibody response and decreases amyloid plaques in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Meng, Yuan; Zhang, Hui-Yi; Yin, Wen-Chao; Yan, Yi; Cao, Yun-Peng

    2016-11-10

    Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is effective in preventing Aβ deposition, facilitating plaque clearance, and improving cognitive functions in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Developing a safe and effective AD vaccine requires a delicate balance between inducing adequate humoral immune responses and avoiding T cell-mediated autoimmune responses. In this study, we designed 2 peptide epitope vaccines, Aβ3-10-KLH and 5Aβ3-10, prepared respectively by coupling Aβ3-10 to the immunogenic carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or by joining 5 Aβ3-10 epitopes linearly in tandem. Young APP/PS1 mice were immunized subcutaneously with Aβ3-10-KLH or 5Aβ3-10 mixed with Freund's adjuvant, and the immunopotencies of these Aβ3-10 peptide vaccines were tested. Aβ3-10-KLH elicited a robust Th2-polarized anti-Aβ antibody response and inhibited Aβ deposition in APP/PS1 mice. However, 5Aβ3-10 did not induce an effective humoral immune response. These results indicated that Aβ3-10-KLH may be a safe and efficient vaccine for AD and that conjugating the antigen to a carrier protein may be more effective than linking multiple peptide antigens in tandem in applications for antibody production and vaccine preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vaccination of horses with Lyme vaccines for dogs induces short-lasting antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra; Asbie, Sanda; Rohde, Jennifer; Glaser, Amy; Wagner, Bettina

    2017-07-24

    Borrelia burgdorferi can induce Lyme disease. Approved Lyme vaccines for horses are currently not available. In an effort to protect horses, veterinarians are using Lyme vaccines licensed for dogs. However, data to assess the response of horses to, or determine the efficacy of this off-label vaccine use are missing. Here, antibodies against outer surface protein A (OspA), OspC, and OspF were quantified in diagnostic serum submissions from horses with a history of vaccination with canine Lyme vaccines. The results suggested that many horses respond with low and often short-lasting antibody responses. Subsequently, four experimental vaccination trials were performed. First, we investigated antibody responses to three canine vaccines in B. burgdorferi-naïve horses. One killed bacterin vaccine induced antibodies against OspC. OspA antibodies were low for all three vaccines and lasted less than 16weeks. The second trial tested the impact of the vaccine dose using the OspA/OspC inducing bacterin vaccine in horses. A 2mL dose produced higher OspA and OspC antibody values than a 1mL dose. However, the antibody response again quickly declined, independent of dose. Third, the horses were vaccinated with 2 doses of a recombinant OspA vaccine. Previous vaccination and/or environmental exposure enhanced the magnitude and longevity of the OspA antibody response to about 20weeks. Last, the influence of intramuscular versus subcutaneous vaccine administration was investigated for the recombinant OspA vaccine. OspA antibody responses were not influenced by injection route. The current work highlights that commercial Lyme vaccines for dogs induce only transient antibody responses in horses which can also be of low magnitude. Protection from infection with B. burgdorferi should not be automatically assumed after vaccinating horses with Lyme vaccines for dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  6. Experimental sepsis impairs humoral memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötschke

    Full Text Available Patients with sepsis are often immune suppressed, and experimental mouse models of sepsis also display this feature. However, acute sepsis in mice is also characterized by a generalized B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation, resulting in a marked increase in serum antibody concentration. Its effects on humoral memory are not clearly defined. We measured the effects of experimental sepsis on long-term immunological memory for a defined antigen: we induced colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP 8 weeks after 2 rounds of immunization with ovalbumin. Four weeks later, the antigen-specific bone marrow plasma cell count had doubled in immunized non-septic animals, but remained unchanged in immunized septic animals. Sepsis also caused a decrease in antigen-specific serum antibody concentration. We conclude that sepsis weakens humoral memory by impeding the antigen-specific plasma cell pool's development, which is not complete 8 weeks after secondary immunization.

  7. Eosinophils: important players in humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  8. EBOV Protection Is Supported by T Cell-Dependent Humoral Responses But Is Not Requisite for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-03

    guinea pigs , or nonhuman primates with virus-8 like particles (eVLP) expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP) elicited full protection. More recently, we...aliquoted. For neutralization assays, serum dilutions beginning at 1:10 were incubated 325 at 37⁰C for 1hr with rVSV and 5% v/v guinea pig complement...germinal center formation. 81 Production of high affinity class-switched antibodies is dependent upon germinal center (GC) formation 82 within the spleen

  9. Suppression of the immune response to ovalbumin in vivo by anti-idiotypic antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinevich, A.S.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions of suppression of the immune response to a food allergin (ovalbumin) were studied with the aid of anti-idiotypic (AID) antibodies. Hen ovalbumin was used and the experiments were performed on mice. Antibodies were isolated from the resulting protein fractions and tested for inhibitor activity by the method of direct radioimmunologic analysis. The test system consisted of the reaction of binding the globulin fraction to the total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin from mice and a 125 I-labeled total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin of the same animals

  10. Antibody response to equine coronavirus in horses inoculated with a bovine coronavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Kanno, Toru; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kokado, Hiroshi

    2017-11-17

    A vaccine for equine coronavirus (ECoV) is so far unavailable. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is antigenically related to ECoV; it is therefore possible that BCoV vaccine will induce antibodies against ECoV in horses. This study investigated antibody response to ECoV in horses inoculated with BCoV vaccine. Virus neutralization tests showed that antibody titers against ECoV increased in all six horses tested at 14 days post inoculation, although the antibody titers were lower against ECoV than against BCoV. This study showed that BCoV vaccine provides horses with antibodies against ECoV to some extent. It is unclear whether antibodies provided by BCoV vaccine are effective against ECoV, and therefore ECoV challenge studies are needed to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine in the future.

  11. Antibody response to the lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens of Salmonella typhi during typhoid infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, R.S.W.; Chau, P.Y.; Lam, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Serum antibody responses to the lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens of S. typhi in typhoid patients were studied using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique with 125 I labelled anti-immunoglobulin antibody. Sera from 24 adult typhoid patients and 20 non-typhoid adult controls were compared. As a group, sera from typhoid patients showed increased IgA, IgG and IgM immunoglobulin levels and gave significantly higher anti-LPS and anti-protein antibody titres in all three major immunoglobulin classes than did non-typhoid controls. Levels of antibodies against LPS or protein in sera of typhoid patients were highly variable with a skew distribution. A good correlation was found between antibody titres to the LPS antigen and those to a protein antigen. No correlation, however, was found between the anti-LPS antibody titres measured by radioimmunoassay and the anti-O antibody titres measured by the Widal agglutination test. Titration of anti-LPS or anti-protein antibodies by radioimmunoassay was found to be more sensitive and specific than Widal test for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever. The advantages of measuring antibody response by radioimmunoassay over conventional Widal test are discussed. (author)

  12. Schistosoma mansoni Infection Can Jeopardize the Duration of Protective Levels of Antibody Responses to Immunizations against Hepatitis B and Tetanus Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Diana K; Ndombi, Eric M; Carter, Jennifer M; Omondi, Amos; Kittur, Nupur; Kavere, Emmy; Korir, Harrison K; Flaherty, Briana; Karanja, Diana; Colley, Daniel G

    2016-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease of major public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunoregulation begins early in schistosome infection and is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to parasite and bystander antigens, suggesting that a schistosome infection at the time of immunization could negatively impact the induction of protective vaccine responses. This study examined whether having a Schistosoma mansoni infection at the time of immunization with hepatitis B and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines impacts an individual's ability to achieve and maintain protective antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen or TT. Adults were recruited from Kisumu Polytechnic College in Western Kenya. At enrollment, participants were screened for schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and assigned to groups based on helminth status. The vaccines were then administered and helminth infections treated a week after the first hepatitis B boost. Over an 8 month period, 3 blood specimens were obtained for the evaluation of humoral and cytokine responses to the vaccine antigens and for immunophenotyping. 146 individuals were available for final analysis and 26% were S. mansoni positive (Sm+). Schistosomiasis did not impede the generation of initial minimum protective antibody levels to either hepatitis B or TT vaccines. However, median hepatitis B surface antibody levels were significantly lower in the Sm+ group after the first boost and remained lower, but not significantly lower, following praziquantel (PZQ) treatment and final boost. In addition, 8 months following TT boost and 7 months following PZQ treatment, Sm+ individuals were more likely to have anti-TT antibody levels fall below levels considered optimal for long term protection. IL-5 levels in response to in vitro TT stimulation of whole blood were significantly higher in the Sm+ group at the 8 month time period as well. Individuals with schistosomiasis at the start the immunizations were capable of

  13. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  14. Persistent Low-Level Replication of SIVΔnef Drives Maturation of Antibody and CD8 T Cell Responses to Induce Protective Immunity against Vaginal SIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Adnan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals. Multiple parameters of CD8 T cell function temporally correlated with maturation of protection, including polyfunctionality, phenotypic differentiation, and redistribution to gut and lymphoid tissues. Importantly, we also demonstrate the induction of a tissue-resident memory population of SIV-specific CD8 T cells in the vaginal mucosa, which was dependent on ongoing low-level antigenic stimulation. Moreover, we show that vaginal and serum antibody titers inversely correlated with post-challenge peak viral load, and we correlate the accumulation and affinity maturation of the antibody response to the duration of the vaccination period as well as to the SIVΔnef antigenic load. In conclusion, maturation of SIVΔnef-induced CD8 T cell and antibody responses, both propelled by viral persistence in the gut mucosa and secondary lymphoid tissues, results in protective immune responses that are able to interrupt viral transmission at mucosal portals of entry as well as potential sites of viral dissemination.

  15. Persistent Low-Level Replication of SIVΔnef Drives Maturation of Antibody and CD8 T Cell Responses to Induce Protective Immunity against Vaginal SIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Sama; Reeves, R Keith; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E; Yu, Yi; Camp, Jeremy V; Li, Qingsheng; Connole, Michelle; Li, Yuan; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Li, Wenjun; Keele, Brandon F; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Haase, Ashley T; Johnson, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals. Multiple parameters of CD8 T cell function temporally correlated with maturation of protection, including polyfunctionality, phenotypic differentiation, and redistribution to gut and lymphoid tissues. Importantly, we also demonstrate the induction of a tissue-resident memory population of SIV-specific CD8 T cells in the vaginal mucosa, which was dependent on ongoing low-level antigenic stimulation. Moreover, we show that vaginal and serum antibody titers inversely correlated with post-challenge peak viral load, and we correlate the accumulation and affinity maturation of the antibody response to the duration of the vaccination period as well as to the SIVΔnef antigenic load. In conclusion, maturation of SIVΔnef-induced CD8 T cell and antibody responses, both propelled by viral persistence in the gut mucosa and secondary lymphoid tissues, results in protective immune responses that are able to interrupt viral transmission at mucosal portals of entry as well as potential sites of viral dissemination.

  16. Improved humoral and cellular immune response against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatites B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A.; Nielsen, H.V.; Bryder, K.

    1998-01-01

    response and a uniform strong anti-HBs CTL response already 1 week p.i. in all mice. DNA vaccination with the chimeric MN V2/HBsAg plasmid elicited humoral responses against both viruses within 3-6 weeks which peaked at 6-12 weeks and remained stable for at least 25 weeks. In addition, specific CTL...... responses were induced in all mice against both MN V3 and HBsAg already within the first 3 weeks, lasting at least 11 weeks. Thus, HBsAg acts as a `genetic vaccine adjuvant' augmenting and accelerating the cellular and humoral immune response against the inserted MN V3 loop. Such chimeric HIV-HbsAg plasmid...

  17. Improved humoral and cellular immune responses against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A; Nielsen, H V; Bryder, K

    1998-01-01

    response and a uniform strong anti-HBs CTL response already 1 week p.i. in all mice. DNA vaccination with the chimeric MN V3/HBsAg plasmid elicited humoral responses against both viruses within 3-6 weeks which peaked at 6-12 weeks and remained stable for at least 25 weeks. In addition, specific CTL...... responses were induced in all mice against both MN V3 and HBsAg already within the first 3 weeks, lasting at least 11 weeks. Thus, HBsAg acts as a 'genetic vaccine adjuvant' augmenting and accelerating the cellular and humoral immune response against the inserted MN V3 loop. Such chimeric HIV-HBsAg plasmid...

  18. Enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. While measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are le...

  19. An unexpected antibody response to an engineered influenza virus modifies CD8+ T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul G; Brown, Scott A; Yue, Wen; So, Jenny; Webby, Richard J; Doherty, Peter C

    2006-02-21

    The ovalbumin(323-339) peptide that binds H2I-A(b) was engineered into the globular heads of hemagglutinin (H) molecules from serologically non-cross-reactive H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, the aim being to analyze recall CD4+ T cell responses in a virus-induced respiratory disease. Prime/challenge experiments with these H1ova and H3ova viruses in H2(b) mice gave the predicted, ovalbumin-specific CD4+ T cell response but showed an unexpectedly enhanced, early expansion of viral epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in spleen and a greatly diminished inflammatory process in the virus-infected respiratory tract. At the same time, the primary antibody response to the H3N2 challenge virus was significantly reduced, an effect that has been associated with preexisting neutralizing antibody in other experimental systems. Analysis of serum from the H1ova-primed mice showed low-level binding to H3ova but not to the wild-type H3N2 virus. Experiments with CD4+ T cell-depleted and Ig-/- mice indicated that this cross-reactive Ig is indeed responsible for the modified pathogenesis after respiratory challenge. Furthermore, the effect does not seem to be virus-dose related, although it does require infection. These findings suggest intriguing possibilities for vaccination and, at the same time, emphasize that engineered modifications in viruses may have unintended immunological consequences.

  20. Respuesta humoral y consecuencias reproductivas en ovejas desafiadas con Brucella ovis al final de la gestación Immune response and reproductive consequences in experimentally infected ewes with Brucella ovis during late pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Paolicchi

    2013-03-01

    . ovis. Sera of sheep and their offspring were analyzed by different serological tests. Samples of cervicovaginal mucus, placenta and milk were studied by bacteriology. A Brucella genus-specific PCR assay was carried out in placenta and milk samples. Placenta samples were hystopathologically processed. G1 females gave birth to live lambs, but one died hours postpartum. Serological techniques employed detected antibodies in serum of inoculated pregnant animal 5 days postchallenge. Sera of female controls G1 and G2 remained negative throughout the study. Cervicovaginal mucus of infected ewes in G1 and G2 yielded negative results to bacteriology, but B. ovis was isolated from milk. The PCR assay was positive for the placenta and milk from inoculated pregnant ewes. Histopathology revealed necrotic suppurative placentitis in one placenta. However, although results demonstrated that B. ovis can invade the placenta and mammary gland, this bacterium did not cause abortion when it was inoculated intravenously at 15 days prepartum. B. ovis infection induced an early humoral response in pregnant ewes, but their lambs remained seronegative, indicating that there was no transfer of antibodies in infancy. Placenta colonization and milk excretion of B. ovis involves a potential source of infection for lambs, which could play a role as latent carriers of infection.

  1. A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirick, G R; Bradt, B M; Denardo, S J; Denardo, G L

    2004-12-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ((90)yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ((131)I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) anti-CD20 MAbs for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, assays were developed to determine HAGA (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to ''humanize'' MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades.

  2. A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirick, G. R.; Bradt, B. M.; Denardo, S. J.; Denardo, G. L.

    2004-01-01

    The United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ( 9 0yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ( 1 31I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) antiCD20 MAns for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgikin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, essays were developed to determine HAGE (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to humanize MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades

  3. A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirick, G. R.; Bradt, B. M.; Denardo, S. J.; Denardo, G. L. [Calfornia Univ., Sacramento (United States). Davis Medical Center

    2004-12-01

    The United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ({sup 9}0yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ({sup 1}31I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) antiCD20 MAns for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgikin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, essays were developed to determine HAGE (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to humanize MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades.

  4. Protective immunization with B16 melanoma induces antibody response and not cytotoxic T cell response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarzotti, M.; Sriyuktasuth, P.; Klimpel, G.R.; Cerny, J.

    1986-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice immunized with three intraperitoneal injections of syngeneic, irradiated B16 melanoma cells, became resistant to B16 tumor challenge. Immunized mice had high levels of serum antibody against a membrane antigen of B16 cells. The B16 antigen recognized by the anti-B16 sera formed a major band of 90 KD in gel electrophoresis. The anti-B16 antibody was partially protective when mixed with B16 cells and injected into normal recipient mice. Surprisingly, B16 resistance mice were incapable of generating cytotoxic T cells (CTL) specific for the B16 tumor. Both spleen and lymph node cell populations from immunized mice did not generate B16-specific CTL. Allogeneic mice (DBA/2 or C3H) were also unable to generate B16-specific CTL: however, alloreactive CTL produced in these strains of mice by immunization with C57BL/6 lymphocytes, did kill B16 target cells. Interestingly, spleen cells from syngeneic mice immunized with B16 tumor produced 6-fold more interleukin-2 (IL-2) than normal spleen cells, in vitro. These data suggest that immunization with B16 tumor activates a helper subset of T cells (for antibody and IL-2 production) but not the effector CTL response

  5. Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Elsner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is an emerging infectious disease and already by far the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Similar to many other infections, infection with B. burgdorferi results in strong antibody response induction, which can be used clinically as a diagnostic measure of prior exposure. However, clinical studies have shown a sometimes-precipitous decline of such antibodies shortly following antibiotic treatment, revealing a potential deficit in the host's ability to induce and/or maintain long-term protective antibodies. This is further supported by reports of frequent repeat infections with B. burgdorferi in endemic areas. The mechanisms underlying such a lack of long-term humoral immunity, however, remain unknown. We show here that B. burgdorferi infected mice show a similar rapid disappearance of Borrelia-specific antibodies after infection and subsequent antibiotic treatment. This failure was associated with development of only short-lived germinal centers, micro-anatomical locations from which long-lived immunity originates. These showed structural abnormalities and failed to induce memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells for months after the infection, rendering the mice susceptible to reinfection with the same strain of B. burgdorferi. The inability to induce long-lived immune responses was not due to the particular nature of the immunogenic antigens of B. burgdorferi, as antibodies to both T-dependent and T-independent Borrelia antigens lacked longevity and B cell memory induction. Furthermore, influenza immunization administered at the time of Borrelia infection also failed to induce robust antibody responses, dramatically reducing the protective antiviral capacity of the humoral response. Collectively, these studies show that B. burgdorferi-infection results in targeted and temporary immunosuppression of the host and bring new insight into the mechanisms underlying the failure

  6. Screening response to hepatitis c virus antibodies among diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2; hence, this study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of HCV antibodies among diabetic patients attending the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, north ...

  7. Memory B-Cell and Antibody Responses Induced by Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahrendorf, W.; Scholzen, A.; Bijker, E.M.; Teirlinck, A.C.; Bastiaens, G.J.H.; Schats, R.; Hermsen, C.C.; Visser, L.G.; Langhorne, J.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunization of healthy volunteers during receipt of chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (CPS-immunization) induces sterile protection from malaria. Antibody responses have long been known to contribute to naturally acquired immunity against malaria, but their

  8. HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffar, O.K.; Smithgall, M.D.; Moran, P.A.; Travis, B.M.; Zarling, J.M.; Hu, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS

  9. Characterization of humoral responses to soluble trimeric HIV gp140 from a clade A Ugandan field isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visciano, Maria Luisa; Tagliamonte, Maria; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Heyndrickx, Leo; Vanham, Guido; Jansson, Marianne; Fomsgaard, Anders; Grevstad, Berit; Ramaswamy, Meghna; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2013-07-08

    Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been generated by several groups and such molecules have been shown to induce antibodies with neutralizing activity against homologous and heterologous viruses. In the present study, we generated a recombinant trimeric soluble gp140, derived from a previously identified Ugandan A-clade HIV field isolate (gp14094UG018). Antibodies elicited in immunized rabbits show a broad binding pattern to HIV envelopes of different clades. An epitope mapping analysis reveals that, on average, the binding is mostly focused on the C1, C2, V3, V5 and C5 regions. Immune sera show neutralization activity to Tier 1 isolates of different clades, demonstrating cross clade neutralizing activity which needs to be further broadened by possible structural modifications of the clade A gp14094UG018. Our results provide a rationale for the design and evaluation of immunogens and the clade A gp14094UG018 shows promising characteristics for potential involvement in an effective HIV vaccine with broad activity.

  10. Humoral Immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in Normal and Dystrophic Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. We examined 72 naive serum samples and 26 serum samples obtained from dogs that had received AAV gene transfer. Our data demonstrated that AAV-6 neutralizing antibody was the most prevalent antibody in dogs irrespective of age, gender, disease status (dystrophic or not), and prior parvovirus vaccination history. Surprisingly, high-level anti-AAV-6 antibody was detected at birth in newborn puppies. Further, a robust antibody response was induced in affected, but not normal newborn dogs following systemic AAV gene transfer. Taken together, our data have provided an important baseline on the seroprevalence of AAV-6, 8, and 9 neutralizing antibodies in normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. These results will help guide translational AAV gene-therapy studies in dog models of muscular dystrophy. PMID:22040468

  11. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Andrea Kaeslin

    Full Text Available To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group.Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS based on SWATH technology was performed.Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes.Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  12. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  13. Smoking and periodontal disease: discrimination of antibody responses to pathogenic and commensal oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, L; Steffen, M J; Stevens, J; Badger, E; Tempro, P; Fuller, B; McGuire, A; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Thomas, M V; Ebersole, J L

    2011-04-01

    Smoking is an independent risk factor for the initiation, extent and severity of periodontal disease. This study examined the ability of the host immune system to discriminate commensal oral bacteria from pathogens at mucosal surfaces, i.e. oral cavity. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody reactive with three pathogenic and five commensal oral bacteria in 301 current smokers (age range 21-66 years) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical features of periodontal health were used as measures of periodontitis. Antibody to the pathogens and salivary cotinine levels were related positively to disease severity; however, the antibody levels were best described by the clinical disease unrelated to the amount of smoking. The data showed a greater immune response to pathogens than commensals that was related specifically to disease extent, and most noted in black males. Significant correlations in individual patient responses to the pathogens and commensals were lost with an increasing extent of periodontitis and serum antibody to the pathogens. Antibody to Porphyromonas gingivalis was particularly distinct with respect to the discriminatory nature of the immune responses in recognizing the pathogens. Antibody responses to selected pathogenic and commensal oral microorganisms differed among racial groups and genders. The antibody response to the pathogens was related to disease severity. The level of antibody to the pathogens, and in particular P. gingivalis, was correlated with disease severity in black and male subsets of patients. The amount of smoking did not appear to impact directly serum antibody levels to these oral bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  14. HIV-specific antibodies but not t-cell responses are associated with protection in seronegative partners of HIV-1-infected individuals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Marie; Pean, Polidy; Lopalco, Lucia; Nouhin, Janin; Phoung, Viseth; Ly, Nary; Vermisse, Pierre; Henin, Yvette; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Burastero, Samuele E; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Carcelain, Guislaine; Pancino, Gianfranco

    2006-08-01

    To study biological factors related to protection against HIV-1 infection in Cambodia, we recruited 48 partners of HIV-1-infected patients who remained uninfected (exposed uninfected individuals, EUs) despite unprotected sexual intercourse for more than 1 year and 49 unexposed controls (UCs). HIV-1-specific antibodies (IgA anti-gp41 and IgG anti-CD4-gp120 complex), T-cell responses, and cellular factors that may be involved in protection (peripheral blood mononuclear cell [PBMC] resistance to HIV-1 infection and beta-chemokine production) were evaluated. Anti-HIV-1 antibodies were higher in EUs than those in UCs (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04 for anti-gp41 and anti-CD4-gp120, respectively). We observed a decreased susceptibility to a primary Cambodian isolate, HIV-1KH019, in EU PBMCs as compared with UC PBMCs (P = 0.03). A weak T-cell response to one pool of HIV-1 Gag peptides was found by ELISpot in 1 of 19 EUs. Whereas T-cell specific immunity was not associated to protection, our results suggest that HIV-specific humoral immunity and reduced cell susceptibility to infection may contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection in Cambodian EUs.

  15. Immune recognition surface construction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitope-specific antibody responses in tuberculosis patients identified by peptide microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Valentini

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: These data reveal the heterogeneity of epitope-dependent humoral immune responses in TB patients, partly due to geographical setting. These findings expose a new avenue for mining clinically meaningful vaccine targets, diagnostic tools, and the development of immunotherapeutics in TB disease management or prevention.

  16. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides supplementation does not increase the vaccine antibody response in preterm infants in a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jolice P.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2013-01-01

    In preterm infants, a decreased immunological response and lower serological effectiveness are observed after immunizations due to ineffectiveness of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. To determine the effect of 80% neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain

  17. Murine B cell development and antibody responses to model antigens are not impaired in the absence of the TNF receptor GITR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Sinik Teodorovic

    Full Text Available The Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumor necrosis factor Receptor GITR, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been shown to be important in modulating immune responses in the context of T cell immunity. B lymphocytes also express GITR, but a role of GITR in humoral immunity has not been fully explored. To address this question, we performed studies to determine the kinetics of GITR expression on naïve and stimulated B cells and the capacity of B cells to develop and mount antibody responses in GITR(-/- mice. Results of our studies indicate that all mature B cells express GITR on the cell surface, albeit at different levels. Expression of GITR on naïve mature B cells is upregulated by BCR signaling, but is counteracted by helper T cell-related factors and other inflammatory signals in vitro. In line with these findings, expression of GITR on germinal center and memory B cells is lower than that on naïve B cells. However, the expression of GITR is strongly upregulated in plasma cells. Despite these differences in GITR expression, the absence of GITR has no effect on T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses to model antigens in GITR(-/- mice, or on B cell activation and proliferation in vitro. GITR deficiency manifests only with a slight reduction of mature B cell numbers and increased turnover of naïve B cells, suggesting that GITR slightly contributes to mature B cell homeostasis. Overall, our data indicate that GITR does not play a significant role in B cell development and antibody responses to T-dependent and independent model antigens within the context of a GITR-deficient genetic background.

  18. Cytokine profiles and antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated higher ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 and IFN-γ/IL-12 were also observed in the symptomatic children while the asymptomatic controls had higher IL-12/IL-10 ratio. The mean concentration levels of anti-P. falciparum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 antibodies were statistically significantly higher in the individuals >5 years of age than <5 ...

  19. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in pigs following primary and challenge-exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Riber, Ulla; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2012-01-01

    not boosted by the re-inoculation, since identical intestinal IgA responses developed in response to the inoculation in both the susceptible CC pigs and the protected RE pigs. A memory recall cell-mediated immune response developed in RE pigs which was significantly stronger compared to the primary response...... responses are likely mediators of protective immunity against L. intracellularis, with CD8+ effector cells and CD4+CD8+ double positive memory T cells as main contributors to the antigen-specific IFN-γ production....

  20. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides supplementation does not increase the vaccine antibody response in preterm infants in a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolice P van den Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, a decreased immunological response and lower serological effectiveness are observed after immunizations due to ineffectiveness of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 80% neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS] in combination with 20% pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS on antibody concentrations after DTaP-IPV-Hib immunization in preterm infants. DESIGN: In this randomized clinical trial, preterm infants with gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500 g received enteral supplementation with scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS or placebo (maltodextrin between days 3 and 30 of life. Blood samples were collected at 5 and 12 months of age. RESULTS: In total, 113 infants were included. Baseline and nutritional characteristics were not different in both groups. Geometric mean titers were not different after prebiotic supplementation at 5 months, Ptx (37/44 EU/ml, FHA (78/96 EU/ml, Prn (78/80 EU/ml, Diphtheria (0.40/0.57 IU/ml, Tetanus (0.74/0.99 IU/ml and Hib (0.35/0.63 µg/ml, and at 12 months Ptx (55/66 EU/ml, FHA (122/119 EU/ml, Prn (116/106 Eu/ml, Diphtheria (0.88/1.11 IU/ml, Tetanus (1.64/1.79 IU/ml and Hib (2.91/2.55 µg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Enteral supplementation of neutral (scGOS/lcFOS and acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS does not improve the immunization response in preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN16211826 ISRCTN16211826.

  1. Humor in psychiatric healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, B

    1988-01-01

    The oft-quoted aphorism that "laughter is the best medicine" is examined. Specifically, three big drops in the shower of claims regarding the benefits of humor in treating physical and mental disorders are evaluated. First, studies of the effects of mirth and laughter on the physiology of the body reveal both good and bad news. The meager evidence of the salutary effects of positive emotions on the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune and neuroendocrine systems, though apparently supportable on more or less scientific, rational and subjective grounds, needs much better verification from more extensive, replicable, and empirical research. Second, despite numerous claims, in the context of behavioral or psychosomatic medicine, that a joyful, optimistic, or humorous attitude can render a salubrious effect, almost to the extent of preventing illness and curing physical disease, the jury is still out and issuing dire warnings regarding too ready acceptance of this largely anecdotal evidence. Much careful "clinical trial" research needs to be mounted to determine the conditions under which humor works best, if at all. The type of patient, the kind of humor, the type and severity of illness, the psychosocial contexts-all of these factors should be considered. Third, the infusion of humor into psychotherapy is great news for some therapists and awful news for others. A number of more balanced approaches point up the probability that when mirth is incorporated into therapy judiciously, appropriately, and meaningfully it can be of value.

  2. B Cells and B Cell Blasts Withstand Cryopreservation While Retaining Their Functionality for Producing Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Fecher

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In individuals who have once developed humoral immunity to an infectious/foreign antigen, the antibodies present in their body can mediate instant protection when the antigen re-enters. Such antigen-specific antibodies can be readily detected in the serum. Long term humoral immunity is, however, also critically dependent on the ability of memory B cells to engage in a secondary antibody response upon re-exposure to the antigen. Antibody molecules in the body are short lived, having a half-life of weeks, while memory B cells have a life span of decades. Therefore, the presence of serum antibodies is not always a reliable indicator of B cell memory and comprehensive monitoring of humoral immunity requires that both serum antibodies and memory B cells be assessed. The prevailing view is that resting memory B cells and B cell blasts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC cannot be cryopreserved without losing their antibody secreting function, and regulated high throughput immune monitoring of B cell immunity is therefore confined to—and largely limited by—the need to test freshly isolated PBMC. Using optimized protocols for freezing and thawing of PBMC, and four color ImmunoSpot® analysis for the simultaneous detection of all immunoglobulin classes/subclasses we show here that both resting memory B cells and B cell blasts retain their ability to secrete antibody after thawing, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of B cell immune monitoring using cryopreserved PBMC.

  3. B Cells and B Cell Blasts Withstand Cryopreservation While Retaining Their Functionality for Producing Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, Philipp; Caspell, Richard; Naeem, Villian; Karulin, Alexey Y; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2018-05-31

    In individuals who have once developed humoral immunity to an infectious/foreign antigen, the antibodies present in their body can mediate instant protection when the antigen re-enters. Such antigen-specific antibodies can be readily detected in the serum. Long term humoral immunity is, however, also critically dependent on the ability of memory B cells to engage in a secondary antibody response upon re-exposure to the antigen. Antibody molecules in the body are short lived, having a half-life of weeks, while memory B cells have a life span of decades. Therefore, the presence of serum antibodies is not always a reliable indicator of B cell memory and comprehensive monitoring of humoral immunity requires that both serum antibodies and memory B cells be assessed. The prevailing view is that resting memory B cells and B cell blasts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cannot be cryopreserved without losing their antibody secreting function, and regulated high throughput immune monitoring of B cell immunity is therefore confined to-and largely limited by-the need to test freshly isolated PBMC. Using optimized protocols for freezing and thawing of PBMC, and four color ImmunoSpot ® analysis for the simultaneous detection of all immunoglobulin classes/subclasses we show here that both resting memory B cells and B cell blasts retain their ability to secrete antibody after thawing, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of B cell immune monitoring using cryopreserved PBMC.

  4. Clinical and immunological relevance of antibodies in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, N K; Baranwal, A K

    2016-12-01

    The two important issues affecting recipients of solid organ transplants and of importance to immunologists are (i) sensitization of the recipient to HLA antigens and the resultant humoral immune response leading to the development of anti-HLA antibodies; and ii) development of robust assays for early detection of humoral rejection post-transplant. Evidence from several studies clearly indicates that presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies especially donor specific leads to early graft loss and high titres of DSA may even lead to hyperacute or accelerated acute rejection. Long-term graft survival too is adversely affected by the presence of either pre- or post-transplant DSA. HLA matching status of the recipient - donor pair - is an important factor in the modulation of humoral response following transplantation and in a way affects de novo development of DSA. Data collected over the past decade clearly indicate significantly lower level of DSAs in optimally matched donor-recipient pairs. HLA mismatches especially those on HLA-DR and HLA-C loci have wider implications on post-transplant graft survival. The presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies leads to endothelial damage in the newly grafted organ through complement dependent or independent pathways. Although detection of C4d deposition in renal biopsies serves as an important indicator of humoral rejection, its absence does not preclude the presence of DSAs and humoral rejection, and hence, it cannot be relied upon in every case. The emergence of epitope-based screening for anti-HLA antibodies on Luminex platform with high degree of sensitivity has revolutionized the screening for anti-HLA antibodies and DSAs. Studies indicate that humoral response to non-HLA antigens might also have a detrimental effect on allograft survival. High titres of such circulating antibodies may even lead to hyperacute rejection. Pre-emptive testing of solid organ recipients, especially kidney transplant recipients for anti

  5. Autologous albumin enhances the humoral immune response to capsular polysaccharide covalently co-attached to bacteria-sized latex beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colino, Jesus; Duke, Leah; Snapper, Clifford M.

    2014-01-01

    Abundant autologous proteins, like serum albumin, should be immunologically inert. However, individuals with no apparent predisposition to autoimmune disease can develop immune responses to autologous therapeutic proteins. Protein aggregation is a potential major trigger of these responses. Adsorption of proteins to particles provides macromolecular size and may generate structural changes in the protein, resembling aggregation. Using aldehyde/sulfate latex beads coated with murine serum albumin (MSA), we found that mice mounted MSA-specific IgG responses that were dependent on CD4+ T cells. IgG were specific for MSA adsorbed to solid surfaces and non-cross-reactive with human, bovine or pig albumins. T cells induced in response to MSA, augmented the primary and induced boosted secondary IgG and IgM responses specific for the T cell-independent antigen, capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 (PPS14), when the latter was attached to the same bead. Similar to the anti-MSA IgG response, the boosted PPS14-specific IgG secondary response was CD4+ T cell-dependent, displayed a typical carrier effect, and was enhanced by, but did not require, Toll-like receptor stimulation. These results provide a potential mechanism for the induction of responses to autoantigens unable to induce specific T cell responses, and provide new insights into polysaccharide-specific immunity. PMID:24481921

  6. Systemic and mucosal immunization with Candida albicans hsp90 elicits hsp90-specific humoral response in vaginal mucosa which is further enhanced during experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raska, Milan; Belakova, Jana; Horynova, Milada; Krupka, Michal; Novotny, Jiri; Sebestova, Martina; Weigl, Evzen

    2008-08-01

    The Candida albicans heat shock protein 90 kDa (hsp90-CA) is an important target for protective antibodies in disseminated candidiasis of experimental mice and humans. Hsp90-CA is present in the cell wall of Candida pseudohyphae or hyphae--typical pathogenic morphotypes in both mucosal and systemic Candida infections. However, the potential protective effects of hsp90-CA-specific antibodies in vaginal candidiasis has not yet been reported. In the present study we used various vaccine formulations (recombinant hsp90-CA protein and hsp90-CA-encoding DNA vaccine) and routes of administration (intradermal, intranasal, and intravenous) to induce both hsp90-CA-specific systemic and vaginal mucosa immune responses in experimental BALB/c mice. The results showed that intradermal recombinant hsp90-CA protein priming, followed by intranasal or intradermal recombinant hsp90-CA protein boosting induced significant increases in both serum and vaginal hsp90-CA-specific IgG and IgA antibodies compared to the control group, as well as enhanced hsp90-CA-specific splenocyte responses in vitro. In the intradermally boosted group, subsequent experimental vaginal Candida infection induced additional increases in the hsp90-CA specific IgG isotype, suggesting that Candida has the ability to induce a local hsp90-specific antibody (IgG) response during vulvovaginal candidiasis. Further work is required to elucidate the importance of immunity to highly conserved antigens during infection of the human female reproductive tract where a balance between immunity to and tolerance for commonly antigens such as hsp90 is necessary for the maintenance of fertility.

  7. A novel rapid direct haemagglutination-inhibition assay for measurements of humoral immune response against non-haemagglutinating Fowlpox virus strains in vaccinated chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambura, Philemon N; Mzula, Alexanda

    2017-10-01

    Fowlpox (FP) is a serious disease in chickens caused by Fowlpox virus (FPV). One method currently used to control FPV is vaccination followed by confirmation that antibody titres are protective using the indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The direct haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is not done because most FPV strains do not agglutinate chicken red blood cells (RBCs). A novel FPV strain TPV-1 which agglutinates chicken RBCs was discovered recently and enabled a direct HI assay to be conducted using homologous sera. This study is therefore aimed at assessing the direct HI assay using a recently discovered novel haemagglutinating FPV strain TPV-1 in chickens vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing a non-haemagglutinating FPV.Chicks vaccinated with FPV at 1 day-old had antibody geometric mean titres (GMT) of log 2 3.7 at 7 days after vaccination and log 2 8.0 at 28 days after vaccination when tested in the direct HI. Chickens vaccinated at 6 weeks-old had antibody geometric mean titres (GMT) of log 2 5.0 at 7 days after vaccination and log 2 8.4 at 28 days after vaccination when tested in the direct HI. The GMT recorded 28 days after vaccination was slightly higher in chickens vaccinated at 6-week-old than in chicks vaccinated at one-day-old. However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). All vaccinated chickens showed "takes". No antibody response to FPV and "takes" were detected in unvaccinated chickens (GMT 0.05). These findings indicate that a simple and rapid direct HI assay using the FPV TPV-1 strain as antigen may be used to measure antibody levels in chickens vaccinated with non-haemagglutinating strains of FPV, and that the titres are comparable to those obtained by indirect IHA.

  8. The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…

  9. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  11. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  12. Studies on the genetic control of murine humoral response to immunization with a peptidoglycan-containing fraction extracted from Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannat, A; Feingold, N; Caffin, J C; Serre, A

    1979-01-01

    A peptidoglycan containing fraction (fraction "5") extracted from Brucella melitensis has been injected in low infra-vaccinating doses into inbred mice. The genetic control of the resulting anti-Brucella humoral response has been studied in the C57BL/6 "good responder" X DBA2 "low responder" model. The results observed in F1, F2 and reciprocal backcrosses show that the "good responder" character, although transmitted as a dominant trait, is under polygenic control and independent of H2 haplotype, Ig allotype, sexual chromosoms or the "d" coat color gene. On the other hand, the phenotypic expression of at least one of the genes involved is sex-limited and influenced by hormonal environmental factors. Moreover the expression in females of one of these sex-dependent genes is associated with the "b" coat color gene. These results are discussed in terms of their possible relevance in spontaneous or vaccinal resistance to experimental brucellosis, of the relative role of the peptidoglycan and lipoprotein moieties in fraction "5" and of the possible importance of sex-dependent and chromosome 4-linked genetic factors for B-cell functions.

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi in marsupial didelphids (Philander frenata and Didelhis marsupialis: differences in the humoral immune response in natural and experimental infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legey Ana Paula

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Philander frenata and Didelphis marsupialis harbor parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease and on the contrary to D. marsupialis, P. frenata maintains parasitism by T. cruzi II subpopulations. Here we compared the humoral immune response of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi II group, employing SDS-PAGE/Western blot techniques and by an Indirect immunofluorescence assay. We also studied the histopathological pattern of naturally and experimentally infected P. frenata with T. cruzi. P. frenata sera recognized more antigens than D. marsupialis, and the recognition pattern did not show any change over the course of the follow up of both didelphid species. Polypeptides of 66 and 90kDa were the most prominent antigens recognized by both species in the soluble and enriched membrane fractions. P. frenata recognized intensely also a 45kDa antigen. Our findings indicate that: 1 there were no quantitative or qualitative differences in the patent or subpatent phases in the recognition pattern of P. frenata; 2 the significant differences in the recognition pattern of parasitic antigens by P. frenata and D. marsupialis sera suggest that they probably "learned" to live in harmony with T. cruzi by different strategies; 3 although P. frenata do not display apparent disease, tissular lesions tended to be more severe than has been described in D. marsupialis; and 4 Both didelphids probably acquired infection by T. cruzi after their evolutionary divergence.

  14. Equine allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells elicit antibody responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzanite, Lynn M; Fortier, Lisa A; Antczak, Douglas F; Cassano, Jennifer M; Brosnahan, Margaret M; Miller, Donald; Schnabel, Lauren V

    2015-04-12

    This study tested the hypothesis that Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) incompatible equine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) would induce cytotoxic antibodies to donor MHC antigens in recipient horses after intradermal injection. No studies to date have explored recipient antibody responses to allogeneic donor MSC transplantation in the horse. This information is critical because the horse is a valuable species for assessing the safety and efficacy of MSC treatment prior to human clinical application. Six MHC heterozygote horses were identified as non-ELA-A2 haplotype by microsatellite typing and used as allogeneic MHC-mismatched MSC recipients. MHC homozygote horses of known ELA-A2 haplotype were used as MSC and peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) donors. One MHC homozygote horse of the ELA-A2 haplotype was the recipient of ELA-A2 donor MSCs as an MHC-matched control. Donor MSCs, which were previously isolated and immunophenotyped, were thawed and culture expanded to achieve between 30x10(6) and 50x10(6) cells for intradermal injection into the recipient's neck. Recipient serum was collected and tested for the presence of anti-donor antibodies prior to MSC injection and every 7 days after MSC injection for the duration of the 8-week study using the standard two-stage lymphocyte microcytotoxicity dye-exclusion test. In addition to anti-ELA-A2 antibodies, recipient serum was examined for the presence of cross-reactive antibodies including anti-ELA-A3 and anti-RBC antibodies. All MHC-mismatched recipient horses produced anti-ELA-A2 antibodies following injection of ELA-A2 MSCs and developed a wheal at the injection site that persisted for the duration of the experiment. Anti-ELA-A2 antibody responses were varied both in terms of strength and timing. Four recipient horses had high-titered anti-ELA-A2 antibody responses resulting in greater than 80% donor PBL death in the microcytotoxicity assays and one of these horses also developed antibodies that cross

  15. Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B; Propson, B; Göricke, S; Jacobi, H; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Humor is a complex behavior which includes cognitive, affective and motor responses. Based on observations of affective changes in patients with cerebellar lesions, the cerebellum may support cerebral and brainstem areas involved in understanding and appreciation of humorous stimuli and expression of laughter. The aim of the present study was to examine if humor appreciation, perception of humorous stimuli, and the succeeding facial reaction differ between patients with cerebellar degeneration and healthy controls. Twenty-three adults with pure cerebellar degeneration were compared with 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects. No significant difference in humor appreciation and perception of humorous stimuli could be found between groups using the 3 Witz-Dimensionen Test, a validated test asking for funniness and aversiveness of jokes and cartoons. Furthermore, while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, and video sketches, facial expressions of subjects were videotaped and afterwards analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Using depression as a covariate, the number, and to a lesser degree, the duration of facial expressions during laughter were reduced in cerebellar patients compared to healthy controls. In sum, appreciation of humor appears to be largely preserved in patients with chronic cerebellar degeneration. Cerebellar circuits may contribute to the expression of laughter. Findings add to the literature that non-motor disorders in patients with chronic cerebellar disease are generally mild, but do not exclude that more marked disorders may show up in acute cerebellar disease and/or in more specific tests of humor appreciation.

  16. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  17. Circulating CXCR5+PD-1+ response predicts influenza vaccine antibody responses in young adults but not elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Reuter, Morgan A.; Dolfi, Douglas V.; Mansfield, Kathleen D.; Aung, Htin; Badwan, Osama Z.; Kurupati, Raj K.; Kannan, Senthil; Ertl, Hildegund; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Betts, Michael R.; Canaday, David H.; Wherry, E. John

    2014-01-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recommended for all adults annually, the incidence of vaccine failure, defined as weak or absent increase in neutralizing antibody titers, is increased in the elderly compared to young adults. The T follicular helper subset of CD4 T cells (Tfh) provides B cell help in germinal centers and is necessary for class-switched antibody responses. Previous studies suggested a role for circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh) following influenza vaccination in adu...

  18. PF4-HIT antibody (KKO) complexes activate broad innate immune and inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Lydia A; Rao, Roshni; Polumuri, Swamy K; Arepally, Gowthami M; Keire, David A; Verthelyi, Daniela; Sommers, Cynthia D

    2017-11-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated complication of heparin anticoagulation therapy resulting in thrombocytopenia frequently accompanied by thrombosis. Current evidence suggests that HIT is associated with antibodies developed in response to multi-molecular complexes formed by platelet factor 4 (PF4) bound to heparin or cell surface glycosaminoglycans. These antibody complexes activate platelets and monocytes typically through FcγRIIA receptors increasing the production of PF4, inflammatory mediators, tissue factor and thrombin. The influence of underlying events in HIT including complex-induced pro-inflammatory cell activation and structural determinants leading to local inflammatory responses are not fully understood. The stoichiometry and complex component requirements were determined by incubating fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with different concentrations of unfractionated heparin (H), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), PF4- and anti-PF4-H complex antibodies (KKO). Cytokine mRNA or protein were measured by qRT-PCR or Meso Scale Discovery technology, respectively. Gene expression profile analysis for 594 genes was performed using Nanostring technology and analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. The data show that antibodies magnify immune responses induced in PBMCs by PF4 alone or in complex with heparin or LMWH. We propose that following induction of HIT antibodies by heparin-PF4 complexes, binding of the antibodies to PF4 is sufficient to induce a local pro-inflammatory response which may play a role in the progression of HIT. In vitro assays using PBMCs may be useful in characterizing local inflammatory and innate immune responses induced by HIT antibodies in the presence of PF4 and different sources of heparins. The findings and conclusions in this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and are not being formally disseminated by the Food and Drug Administration. Thus, they should not be

  19. Ontogeny of adaptive antibody response to a model antigen in captive altricial zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess L Killpack

    Full Text Available Based on studies from the poultry literature, all birds are hypothesized to require at least 4 weeks to develop circulating mature B-cell lineages that express functionally different immunoglobulin specificities. However, many altricial passerines fledge at adult size less than four weeks after the start of embryonic development, and therefore may experience a period of susceptibility during the nestling and post-fledging periods. We present the first study, to our knowledge, to detail the age-related changes in adaptive antibody response in an altricial passerine. Using repeated vaccinations with non-infectious keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH antigen, we studied the ontogeny of specific adaptive immune response in altricial zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. Nestling zebra finches were first injected at 7 days (7d, 14 days (14d, or 21 days post-hatch (21d with KLH-adjuvant emulsions, and boosted 7 days later. Adults were vaccinated in the same manner. Induced KLH-specific IgY antibodies were measured using ELISA. Comparisons within age groups revealed no significant increase in KLH-specific antibody levels between vaccination and boost in 7d birds, yet significant increases between vaccination and boost were observed in 14d, 21d, and adult groups. There was no significant difference among age groups in KLH antibody response to priming vaccination, yet KLH antibody response post-boost significantly increased with age among groups. Post-boost antibody response in all nestling age groups was significantly lower than in adults, indicating that mature adult secondary antibody response level was not achieved in zebra finches prior to fledging (21 days post-hatch in zebra finches. Findings from this study contribute fundamental knowledge to the fields of developmental immunology and ecological immunology and strengthen the utility of zebra finches as a model organism for future studies of immune ontogeny.

  20. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Sonja; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Pang, Dandan; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Dionigi, Alberto; Argüello Gutiérrez, Catalina; Brdar, Ingrid; Brzozowska, Dorota; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chłopicki, Władysław; Collins, Matthew; Ďurka, Róbert; Yahfoufi, Najwa Y El; Quiroga-Garza, Angélica; Isler, Robert B; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Ramis, TamilSelvan; Saglam, Betül; Shcherbakova, Olga V; Singh, Kamlesh; Stokenberga, Ieva; Wong, Peter S O; Torres-Marín, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor) were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226). The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years) and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK) showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  1. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Heintz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226. The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  2. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  3. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  4. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  5. Antibody response to the lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens of Salmonella typhi during typhoid infection. I. Measurement of serum antibodies by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, R S.W.; Chau, P Y; Lam, S K [Hong Kong Univ.; La Brooy, J T; Rowley, D [Adelaide Univ. (Australia)

    1981-12-01

    Serum antibody responses to the lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens of S. typhi in typhoid patients were studied using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique with /sup 125/I labelled anti-immunoglobulin antibody. Sera from 24 adult typhoid patients and 20 non-typhoid adult controls were compared. As a group, sera from typhoid patients showed increased IgA, IgG and IgM immunoglobulin levels and gave significantly higher anti-LPS and anti-protein antibody titres in all three major immunoglobulin classes than did non-typhoid controls. Levels of antibodies against LPS or protein in sera of typhoid patients were highly variable with a skew distribution. A good correlation was found between antibody titres to the LPS antigen and those to a protein antigen. No correlation, however, was found between the anti-LPS antibody titres measured by radioimmunoassay and the anti-O antibody titres measured by the Widal agglutination test. Titration of anti-LPS or anti-protein antibodies by radioimmunoassay was found to be more sensitive and specific than Widal test for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever. The advantages of measuring antibody response by radioimmunoassay over conventional Widal test are discussed.

  6. Activated human nasal epithelial cells modulate specific antibody response against bacterial or viral antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Yueh Yeh

    Full Text Available Nasal mucosa is an immune responsive organ evidenced by eliciting both specific local secretory IgA and systemic IgG antibody responses with intra-nasal administration of antigens. Nevertheless, the role of nasal epithelial cells in modulating such responses is unclear. Human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs obtained from sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were cultured in vitro and firstly were stimulated by Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLPs in order to examine their role on antibody production. Secondly, both antigens of immunodominant protein IDG60 from oral Streptococcus mutans and hemagglutinin (HA from influenza virus were tested to evaluate the specific antibody response. Stimulated hNECs by BLPs exhibited a significant increase in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP. Conditioned medium of stimulated hNECs has effects on enhancing the proliferation of CD4+ T cells together with interferon-γ and IL-5 production, increasing the costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells and augmenting the production of IDG60 specific IgA, HA specific IgG, IgA by human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Such production of antigen specific IgG and IgA is significantly counteracted in the presence of IL-6 and TSLP neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, properly stimulated hNECs may impart immuno-modulatory effects on the antigen-specific antibody response at least through the production of IL-6 and TSLP.

  7. Characterization of the immune response and evaluation of the protective capacity of rSsnA against Streptococcus suis infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Tarradas, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    were evaluated. Moreover the composition of peripheral blood leukocyte populations was studied in infected animals. The results show that the immunization of piglets with rSsnA elicits a significant humoral antibody response. However, the antibody response is not reflected in protection of pigs...

  8. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  9. The Attitudes of University Faculty toward Humor as a Pedagogical Tool: Can We Take a Joke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, John; Eastep, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in a College of Education responded to a mixed methods questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward the use of humor as a pedagogical tool. Quantitative data and coding of open response questions revealed that instructors overall considered humor to be an integral part of their teaching plan and that humor relaxes students,…

  10. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper...

  11. Antibody responses of ponies to initial and challenge infections of Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, T R; Chapman, M R; Torbert, B J; McClure, J R

    1983-05-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA) was developed using Strongylus vulgaris third stage larvae (L3) as antigens. Observations using the IFA indicate that a species-specific antibody response to S. vulgaris L3 develops in S. vulgaris-infected ponies and that some surface L3 antigens are shared by adult worms. Sequential antibody levels against S. vulgaris were measured in strongyle-naive and in immune ponies following initial and challenge infections using the IFA and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibody levels measured by IFA increased faster following initial infections than did levels measured by IHA. Antibody levels appear to increase following challenge infections of immune ponies when measured with the IFA, but not with the IHA. Significant differences in antibody titers were not seen between ponies which developed colic following challenge infections and those that did not develop colic. Antibodies were not detectable in ponies unexposed to larval migrations, but which received surgical implantation of S. vulgaris adults into the cecum.

  12. Vaccine Induced Antibody Response to Foot and Mouth Disease in Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Seropositive Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şevik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR are two important infectious diseases of cattle. Inactivated FMD vaccines are the most powerful tools to protect animals against FMD. Previous studies showed that recombinant IBR-FMD viruses protected cattle from virulent BHV-1 challenge and induced protective levels of anti-FMDV antibodies. FMD is considered to be endemic in Turkey and inactivated oil adjuvanted vaccines are used for the immunization of cattle. Previous studies showed that seroprevalence of IBR in the Turkey’s dairy herd more than 50%. In this study, antibody response in IBR seropositive cattle following vaccination against FMD was investigated. IBR seropositive (n=208 and IBR seronegative (n=212 cattle were vaccinated with oil-adjuvanted bivalent vaccine (containing O1 Manisa, A22 Iraq FMDV strains. Solid-phase competitive ELISA (SPCE was used to measure antibodies produced in cattle. Protective level of antibody against serotype O was detected in 77.4% and serotypes A in 83.6% of IBR seropositive cattle. Protective level of antibody against serotype O antibody was detected in 49% and serotypes A in 66.9% of IBR seronegative cattle. The differences between the protection rates against both serotype O (P=0.0001 and serotype A (P=0.0001 in IBR seropositive and seronegative animals were statistically important (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.01. Results showed that after FMD vaccination, IBR seropositive animals produced high titres of antibodies than seronegative animals.

  13. Profiling of humoral response to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and vaccination measured by a protein microarray in persons with and without history of seasonal vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Reimerink, Johan; Mulder, Paul G H; van Beek, Janko; Meijer, Adam; de Bruin, Erwin; Friesema, Ingrid; de Jong, Menno D; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Peeters, Marcel F; Rossen, John W A; Koopmans, Marion

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influence of prior seasonal influenza vaccination on the antibody response produced by natural infection or vaccination is not well understood. METHODS: We compared the profiles of antibody responses of 32 naturally infected subjects and 98 subjects vaccinated with a 2009 influenza

  14. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  15. Felix Hoppe-Seyler Lecture 1997. Protective antibody responses against viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, R M

    1997-08-01

    Neutralizing antibody responses against the acute cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have been studied in mice to evaluate their general characteristics including specificity, self-/non-self discrimination and memory. IgM responses are generated very early, by day 3 to 4, in a T helper cell-independent fashion and without VSV having polyclonal activating capacities. The order of the glycoprotein tips on the virus envelope (multiple, 8-10 nm distance, paracrystalline) exhibiting the neutralizing determinants are key to this prompt response. These paracrystalline identical multimeric antigens are characteristic of infectious agents and are always reacted against by B cells. Self-antigens that are accessible to B cells in the intact host are either monomeric in serum or mobile multimers on cell surfaces; these configurations need contact dependent or contact independent T help, respectively. Because T help is tolerant against self-antigens, no anti-self B cell responses are usually induced against monomeric self-antigens. If collagen or DNA (rigid multimeric self-antigens) become accessible, however, they may become targets of auto-antibody responses. The antibody repertoire against VSV is partially contained in the germline and partially is generated by somatic mutation; they seem not to undergo affinity-maturation. In any case protection against lethal infection is dependent upon strictly T helper cell dependent IgG generated by day 6 to 7 and reaches a protective level of about 1-10 micrograms/ml. Interesting affinity/avidity and onrate above a minimal threshold are of no apparent advantage for protection in vivo. Maintenance of these antibody levels by antigen depots, and not the presence of memory B cells alone, is key to providing protective immunological memory. Collectively these data suggest that studying biologically important protective antibody responses may modify some of the parameters that have been defined by studying hapten specific antibody

  16. Effects of different levels of dietary crude protein and threonine on performance, humoral immune responses and intestinal morphology of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Abbasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the effects of different dietary crude protein (CP and threonine (Thr levels on the performance, immune responses and jejunal morphology of broiler chicks. A total of 432 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments including three different CP dietary levels (90, 95, and 100% of Ross 308 recommendations and Thr (100, 110, and 120% of Ross specifications dietary levels. Performance parameters were recorded for the starter (1-12 days, grower (13-24 days and finisher (25-42 days periods. Birds were subjected to different antigen inoculations to evaluate antibody responses. At day 42 of age, two randomly-selected birds per replicate were slaughtered to measure carcass traits. Although Thr dietary supplementation had no marked effect on Newcastle antibody titers, particularly the supplementation of Thr up to 110% of Ross specifications improved (p<0.05 antibody titers against sheep red blood cells during both primary and secondary responses. Reduction of dietary CP level resulted in significant decrease in villus height (p<0.05 and crypt depth (p<0.01 in jejunal epithelial cells, but the supplementation of low-CP diets with Thr up to 110 and 120% of the recommended values allowed overcoming these changes. Except for the starter period, reducing dietary CP level to 90% of Ross recommendations had no harmful effects on performance parameters; however, the best values were obtained with diets containing 110% Thr. The present results indicate that it is possible to reduce dietary CP level up to 10% after the starter period without any detrimental impact on growth performance, and dietary Thr supplementation up to 110% of Ross values may compensate for low CP-induced growth delay in broiler chicks.

  17. Effect of increased CRM₁₉₇ carrier protein dose on meningococcal C bactericidal antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucia H; Blake, Milan S

    2012-04-01

    New multivalent CRM(197)-based conjugate vaccines are available for childhood immunization. Clinical studies were reviewed to assess meningococcal group C (MenC) antibody responses following MenC-CRM(197) coadministration with CRM(197)-based pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Infants receiving a total CRM(197) carrier protein dose of ∼50 μg and concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine tended to have lower MenC geometric mean antibody titers and continued to have low titers after the toddler dose. Nevertheless, at least 95% of children in the reported studies achieved a MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer of ≥ 1:8 after the last infant or toddler dose. SBA was measured using an assay with a baby rabbit or human complement source. Additional studies are needed to assess long-term antibody persistence and MenC CRM(197) conjugate vaccine immunogenicity using alternative dosing schedules.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of increasing dietary vitamin E in combination with different fat sources on performance, humoral immune responses and antioxidant status of weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    involved a total of 180 pigs of 20 litters. Nine pigs of each litter were allotted to 9 dietary treatments in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design, which was conducted in 20 replicates. The 9 experimental groups were fed 50 g/kg diet of tallow, sunflower oil...... of mucosal samples. When compared to tallow, pigs fed sunflower oil had higher antibody response to sheep red blood cells at days 49 (P

  19. Enhanced humoral and HLA-A2-restricted dengue virus-specific T-cell responses in humanized BLT NSG mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Smita; Pazoles, Pamela; Woda, Marcia; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A; Mathew, Anuja

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of humans, and animal models that recapitulate human immune responses or dengue pathogenesis are needed to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. We recently described an animal model for dengue virus (DENV) infection using humanized NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice (NSG) engrafted with cord blood haematopoietic stem cells. We sought to further improve this model by co-transplantation of human fetal thymus and liver tissues into NSG (BLT-NSG) mice. Enhanced DENV-specific antibody titres were found in the sera of BLT-NSG mice compared with human cord blood haematopoietic stem cell-engrafted NSG mice. Furthermore, B cells generated during the acute phase and in memory from splenocytes of immunized BLT-NSG mice secreted DENV-specific IgM antibodies with neutralizing activity. Human T cells in engrafted BLT-NSG mice secreted interferon-γ in response to overlapping DENV peptide pools and HLA-A2 restricted peptides. The BLT-NSG mice will allow assessment of human immune responses to DENV vaccines and the effects of previous immunity on subsequent DENV infections. PMID:22384859

  20. Dissection of antibody specificities induced by yellow fever vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vratskikh

    Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever (YF vaccine has an excellent record of efficacy and one dose provides long-lasting immunity, which in many cases may last a lifetime. Vaccination stimulates strong innate and adaptive immune responses, and neutralizing antibodies are considered to be the major effectors that correlate with protection from disease. Similar to other flaviviruses, such antibodies are primarily induced by the viral envelope protein E, which consists of three distinct domains (DI, II, and III and is presented at the surface of mature flavivirions in an icosahedral arrangement. In general, the dominance and individual variation of antibodies to different domains of viral surface proteins and their impact on neutralizing activity are aspects of humoral immunity that are not well understood. To gain insight into these phenomena, we established a platform of immunoassays using recombinant proteins and protein domains that allowed us to dissect and quantify fine specificities of the polyclonal antibody response after YF vaccination in a panel of 51 vaccinees as well as determine their contribution to virus neutralization by serum depletion analyses. Our data revealed a high degree of individual variation in antibody specificities present in post-vaccination sera and differences in the contribution of different antibody subsets to virus neutralization. Irrespective of individual variation, a substantial proportion of neutralizing activity appeared to be due to antibodies directed to complex quaternary epitopes displayed on the virion surface only but not on monomeric E. On the other hand, DIII-specific antibodies (presumed to have the highest neutralizing activity as well as broadly flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies were absent or present at very low titers. These data provide new information on the fine specificity as well as variability of antibody responses after YF vaccination that are consistent with a strong influence of individual

  1. Antibody responses of swine following infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, João Carlos; Strait, Erin L; Raymond, Matthew; Ramirez, Alejandro; Minion, F Chris

    2014-11-07

    Several mycoplasma species possessing a range of virulence have been described in swine. The most commonly described are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma flocculare. They are ubiquitious in many pig producing areas of the world, and except for M. hyopneumoniae, commercial antibody-based assays are lacking for most of these. Antibody cross-reactivity among these four mycoplasma species is not well characterized. Recently, the use of pen-based oral fluids for herd surveillance is of increasing interest. Thus, this study sought to measure pig antibody responses and the level of cross-reactivity in serum and pen-based oral fluids after challenge with four species of swine mycoplasmas. Four groups of four mycoplasma-free growing pigs were separately inoculated with the different mycoplasma species. Pen-based oral fluids and serum samples were collected weekly until necropsy. Species-specific Tween 20 ELISAs were used to measure antibody responses along with four other commercial M. hyopneumoniae ELISAs. Animals from all groups seroconverted to the challenge species of mycoplasma and no evidence of cross-contamination was observed. A delayed antibody response was seen with all but M. hyorhinis-infected pigs. Cross-reactive IgG responses were detected in M. hyopneumoniae- and M. flocculare-infected animals by the M. hyorhinis Tween 20 ELISA, while sera from M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare-infected pigs were positive in one commercial assay. In pen-based oral fluids, specific anti-M. hyopneumoniae IgA responses were detected earlier after infection than serum IgG responses. In summary, while some antibody-based assays may have the potential for false positives, evidence of this was observed in the current study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B.; Specht, L.; Henrichsen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase in antib......Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase...

  3. Clinical management and humoral immune responses to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis among three patients who received solid organs from a donor with rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, N M; Orciari, L A; Niezgoda, M; Selvaggi, G; Stosor, V; Lyon, G M; Wallace, R M; Gabel, J; Stanek, D R; Jenkins, P; Shiferaw, M; Yager, P; Jackson, F; Hanlon, C A; Damon, I; Blanton, J D; Recuenco, S; Franka, R

    2015-06-01

    The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through organ transplantation. In 2013, a man developed rabies 18 months after receiving a kidney from a donor with rabies, who was not known to have been infected when the organs were procured. Three additional persons who received organs from the same donor (liver, kidney, heart), all of whom were not vaccinated for rabies before transplantation, received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and 5 doses of rabies vaccine as soon as the diagnosis of rabies was made in the donor (18 months after their transplant surgeries). We describe their clinical management. As the 3 recipients were all on immunosuppressive medications, post-vaccination serologic testing was performed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). An acceptable antibody response to administration of rabies vaccine was defined as detection of RVNAs at a concentration ≥0.1 IU/mL from a serum specimen collected ≥7 days after the fifth vaccine dose. All 3 recipients demonstrated an acceptable antibody response despite their immunosuppressed states. More than 36 months have passed since their transplant surgeries, and all 3 recipients have no evidence of rabies. The survival of 3 previously unvaccinated recipients of solid organs from a donor with rabies is unexpected. Although the precise factors that led to their survival remain unclear, our data suggest that PEP can possibly enhance transplant safety in settings in which donors are retrospectively diagnosed with rabies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Clinical management and humoral immune responses to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis among three patients who received solid organs from a donor with rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, N.M.; Orciari, L.A.; Niezgoda, M.; Selvaggi, G.; Stosor, V.; Lyon, G.M.; Wallace, R.M.; Gabel, J.; Stanek, D.R.; Jenkins, P.; Shiferaw, M.; Yager, P.; Jackson, F.; Hanlon, C.A.; Damon, I.; Blanton, J.D.; Recuenco, S.; Franka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through organ transplantation. In 2013, a man developed rabies 18 months after receiving a kidney from a donor with rabies, who was not known to have been infected when the organs were procured. Three additional persons who received organs from the same donor (liver, kidney, heart), all of whom were not vaccinated for rabies before transplantation, received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and 5 doses of rabies vaccine as soon as the diagnosis of rabies was made in the donor (18 months after their transplant surgeries). We describe their clinical management. Methods As the 3 recipients were all on immunosuppressive medications, post-vaccination serologic testing was performed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). An acceptable antibody response to administration of rabies vaccine was defined as detection of RVNAs at a concentration ≥0.1 IU/mL from a serum specimen collected ≥7 days after the fifth vaccine dose. Results All 3 recipients demonstrated an acceptable antibody response despite their immunosuppressed states. More than 36 months have passed since their transplant surgeries, and all 3 recipients have no evidence of rabies. Conclusions The survival of 3 previously unvaccinated recipients of solid organs from a donor with rabies is unexpected. Although the precise factors that led to their survival remain unclear, our data suggest that PEP can possibly enhance transplant safety in settings in which donors are retrospectively diagnosed with rabies. PMID:25851103

  5. HIV-1 subtype C superinfected individuals mount low autologous neutralizing antibody responses prior to intrasubtype superinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Debby

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role of antibodies in protection against intra-subtype HIV-1 superinfection remains to be understood. We compared the early neutralizing antibody (NAb responses in three individuals, who were superinfected within one year of primary infection, to ten matched non-superinfected controls from a Zambian cohort of subtype C transmission cases. Sequence analysis of single genome amplified full-length envs from a previous study showed limited diversification in the individuals who became superinfected with the same HIV-1 subtype within year one post-seroconversion. We hypothesized that this reflected a blunted NAb response, which may have made these individuals more susceptible to superinfection. Results Neutralization assays showed that autologous plasma NAb responses to the earliest, and in some cases transmitted/founder, virus were delayed and had low to undetectable titers in all three superinfected individuals prior to superinfection. In contrast, NAbs with a median IC50 titer of 1896 were detected as early as three months post-seroconversion in non-superinfected controls. Early plasma NAbs in all subjects showed limited but variable levels of heterologous neutralization breadth. Superinfected individuals also exhibited a trend toward lower levels of gp120- and V1V2-specific IgG binding antibodies but higher gp120-specific plasma IgA binding antibodies. Conclusions These data suggest that the lack of development of IgG antibodies, as reflected in autologous NAbs as well as gp120 and V1V2 binding antibodies to the primary infection virus, combined with potentially competing, non-protective IgA antibodies, may increase susceptibility to superinfection in the context of settings where a single HIV-1 subtype predominates.

  6. Antibody Responses to Marburg Virus in Egyptian Rousette Bats and Their Role in Protection against Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Nadia; Jansen Van Vuren, Petrus; Markotter, Wanda; Paweska, Janusz T

    2018-02-10

    Egyptian rousette bats (ERBs) are reservoir hosts for the Marburg virus (MARV). The immune dynamics and responses to MARV infection in ERBs are poorly understood, and limited information exists on the role of antibodies in protection of ERBs against MARV infection. Here, we determine the duration of maternal immunity to MARV in juvenile ERBs, and evaluate the duration of the antibody response to MARV in bats naturally or experimentally infected with the virus. We further explore whether antibodies in previously naturally exposed bats is fully protective against experimental reinfection with MARV. Maternal immunity was lost in juvenile ERBs by 5 months of age. Antibodies to MARV remained detectable in 67% of experimentally infected bats approximately 4 months post inoculation (p.i.), while antibodies to MARV remained present in 84% of naturally exposed bats at least 11 months after capture. Reinfection of seropositive ERBs with MARV produced an anamnestic response from day 5 p.i. Although PCR-defined viremia was present in 73.3% of reinfected ERBs, replicating virus was recovered from the serum of only one bat on day 3 p.i. The negative PCR results in the salivary glands, intestines, bladders and reproductive tracts of reinfected bats, and the apparent absence of MARV in the majority of swabs collected from these bats suggest that reinfection may only play a minor role in the transmission and maintenance of MARV amongst ERBs in nature.

  7. Neurofilament light antibodies in serum reflect response to natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Sandra; van der Star, Baukje J; Bosca, Isabel; Raffel, Joel; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Watchorn, Jonathan; Kuhle, Jens; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David; Malaspina, Andrea; Puentes, Fabiola

    2014-09-01

    Increased levels of antibodies to neurofilament light protein (NF-L) in biological fluids have been found to reflect neuroinflammatory responses and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate whether levels of serum antibodies against NF-L correlate with clinical variants and treatment response in MS. The autoantibody reactivity to NF-L protein was tested in serum samples from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) (n=22) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) (n=26). Two other cohorts of RRMS patients under treatment with natalizumab were analysed cross-sectionally (n=16) and longitudinally (n=24). The follow-up samples were taken at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, and the NF-L antibody levels were compared against baseline levels. NF-L antibodies were higher in MS clinical groups than healthy controls and in RRMS compared to SPMS patients (ptreatment compared with baseline measurements (p=0.001). Drug efficacy in MS treatment indicates the potential use of monitoring the content of antibodies against the NF-L chain as a predictive biomarker of treatment response in MS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Laccase 1 gene from Plutella xylostella (PxLac1) and its functions in humoral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Hua; Hu, Rong-Min; Ye, Xi-Qian; Huang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Shi, Min

    Laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) is a phenoloxidase found in many insect species. The Laccase 1 gene from Plutella xylostella (PxLac1) was cloned, and its expression patterns and functions were determined using qPCR and RNAi methods. The results showed that the expression levels of PxLac1 were consistently high in all larval stages, and the most abundant was in the midgut during the 4th instar stage. Moreover, the expression of PxLac1 was up-regulated in response to bacterial infection, and decreased 24 h after being parasitized by Cotesia vestalis. Further analyses indicated that the effect of parasitization on PxLac1 was induced by active C. vestalis Bracovirus (CvBV). Haemocyte-free hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity was suppressed when PxLac1 was treated with RNAi. Our results provide evidence for a connection between the Laccase 1 gene and insect immunity, and revealed that parasitoid polydnavirus suppresses host PO activity via PxLac1 regulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Immunization Strategies Producing a Humoral IgG Immune Response against Devil Facial Tumor Disease in the Majority of Tasmanian Devils Destined for Wild Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Pye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD is renowned for its successful evasion of the host immune system. Down regulation of the major histocompatabilty complex class I molecule (MHC-I on the DFTD cells is a primary mechanism of immune escape. Immunization trials on captive Tasmanian devils have previously demonstrated that an immune response against DFTD can be induced, and that immune-mediated tumor regression can occur. However, these trials were limited by their small sample sizes. Here, we describe the results of two DFTD immunization trials on cohorts of devils prior to their wild release as part of the Tasmanian Government’s Wild Devil Recovery project. 95% of the devils developed anti-DFTD antibody responses. Given the relatively large sample sizes of the trials (N = 19 and N = 33, these responses are likely to reflect those of the general devil population. DFTD cells manipulated to express MHC-I were used as the antigenic basis of the immunizations in both trials. Although the adjuvant composition and number of immunizations differed between trials, similar anti-DFTD antibody levels were obtained. The first trial comprised DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination of ISCOMATRIX™, polyIC, and CpG with up to four immunizations given at monthly intervals. This compared to the second trial whereby two immunizations comprising DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination ISCOMATRIX™, polyICLC (Hiltonol® and imiquimod were given a month apart, providing a shorter and, therefore, more practical protocol. Both trials incorporated a booster immunization given up to 5 months after the primary course. A key finding was that devils in the second trial responded more quickly and maintained their antibody levels for longer compared to devils in the first trial. The different adjuvant combination incorporating the RNAase resistant polyICLC and imiquimod used in the second trial is likely to be responsible. The seroconversion in the majority of

  10. Immunization Strategies Producing a Humoral IgG Immune Response against Devil Facial Tumor Disease in the Majority of Tasmanian Devils Destined for Wild Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Ruth; Patchett, Amanda; McLennan, Elspeth; Thomson, Russell; Carver, Scott; Fox, Samantha; Pemberton, David; Kreiss, Alexandre; Baz Morelli, Adriana; Silva, Anabel; Pearse, Martin J.; Corcoran, Lynn M.; Belov, Katherine; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Woods, Gregory M; Lyons, A. Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is renowned for its successful evasion of the host immune system. Down regulation of the major histocompatabilty complex class I molecule (MHC-I) on the DFTD cells is a primary mechanism of immune escape. Immunization trials on captive Tasmanian devils have previously demonstrated that an immune response against DFTD can be induced, and that immune-mediated tumor regression can occur. However, these trials were limited by their small sample sizes. Here, we describe the results of two DFTD immunization trials on cohorts of devils prior to their wild release as part of the Tasmanian Government’s Wild Devil Recovery project. 95% of the devils developed anti-DFTD antibody responses. Given the relatively large sample sizes of the trials (N = 19 and N = 33), these responses are likely to reflect those of the general devil population. DFTD cells manipulated to express MHC-I were used as the antigenic basis of the immunizations in both trials. Although the adjuvant composition and number of immunizations differed between trials, similar anti-DFTD antibody levels were obtained. The first trial comprised DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination of ISCOMATRIX™, polyIC, and CpG with up to four immunizations given at monthly intervals. This compared to the second trial whereby two immunizations comprising DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination ISCOMATRIX™, polyICLC (Hiltonol®) and imiquimod were given a month apart, providing a shorter and, therefore, more practical protocol. Both trials incorporated a booster immunization given up to 5 months after the primary course. A key finding was that devils in the second trial responded more quickly and maintained their antibody levels for longer compared to devils in the first trial. The different adjuvant combination incorporating the RNAase resistant polyICLC and imiquimod used in the second trial is likely to be responsible. The seroconversion in the majority of devils in these anti

  11. The Complexity of a Dengue Vaccine: A Review of the Human Antibody Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, Jacky; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yet, there are no vaccines or specific antivirals available to prevent or treat the disease. Several dengue vaccines are currently in clinical or preclinical stages. The most advanced vaccine is the chimeric tetravalent CYD-TDV vaccine of Sanofi Pasteur. This vaccine has recently cleared Phase III, and efficacy results have been published. Excellent tetravalent seroconversion was seen, yet the protective efficacy against infection was surprisingly low. Here, we will describe the complicating factors involved in the generation of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine. Furthermore, we will discuss the human antibody responses during infection, including the epitopes targeted in humans. Also, we will discuss the current understanding of the assays used to evaluate antibody response. We hope this review will aid future dengue vaccine development as well as fundamental research related to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. PMID:26065421

  12. The Complexity of a Dengue Vaccine: A Review of the Human Antibody Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Flipse

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yet, there are no vaccines or specific antivirals available to prevent or treat the disease. Several dengue vaccines are currently in clinical or preclinical stages. The most advanced vaccine is the chimeric tetravalent CYD-TDV vaccine of Sanofi Pasteur. This vaccine has recently cleared Phase III, and efficacy results have been published. Excellent tetravalent seroconversion was seen, yet the protective efficacy against infection was surprisingly low. Here, we will describe the complicating factors involved in the generation of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine. Furthermore, we will discuss the human antibody responses during infection, including the epitopes targeted in humans. Also, we will discuss the current understanding of the assays used to evaluate antibody response. We hope this review will aid future dengue vaccine development as well as fundamental research related to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.

  13. Antibody response to booster vaccination with tetanus and diphtheria in adults exposed to perfluorinated alkylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Shamim, Zaiba; Ryder, Lars P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) may induce immunosuppression in humans and animal models. In this exploratory study, 12 healthy adult volunteers were recruited. With each subject, serum-PFAS concentrations were measured and their antibody responses...... prospectively followed for 30 days after a booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus. The results indicated that serum-PFAS concentrations were positively correlated and positively associated with age and male sex. The specific antibody concentrations in serum were increased from Day 4 to Day 10 post......-booster, after which a constant concentration was reached. Serum PFAS concentrations showed significant negative associations with the rate of increase in the antibody responses. Interestingly, this effect was particularly strong for the longer-chain PFASs. All significant associations remained significant after...

  14. Relationship between exposure to vector bites and antibody responses to mosquito salivary gland extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Albin; Pascual, Aurélie; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  15. Variable Domain N-Linked Glycans Acquired During Antigen-Specific Immune Responses Can Contribute to Immunoglobulin G Antibody Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur S. van de Bovenkamp

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G (IgG can contain N-linked glycans in the variable domains, the so-called Fab glycans, in addition to the Fc glycans in the CH2 domains. These Fab glycans are acquired following introduction of N-glycosylation sites during somatic hypermutation and contribute to antibody diversification. We investigated whether Fab glycans may—in addition to affecting antigen binding—contribute to antibody stability. By analyzing thermal unfolding profiles of antibodies with or without Fab glycans, we demonstrate that introduction of Fab glycans can improve antibody stability. Strikingly, removal of Fab glycans naturally acquired during antigen-specific immune responses can deteriorate antibody stability, suggesting in vivo selection of stable, glycosylated antibodies. Collectively, our data show that variable domain N-linked glycans acquired during somatic hypermutation can contribute to IgG antibody stability. These findings indicate that introducing Fab glycans may represent a mechanism to improve therapeutic/diagnostic antibody stability.

  16. Characterization of antibody response in neuroinvasive infection caused by Toscana virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, A; Ficarelli, S; Ayhan, N; Morini, S; Raumer, L; Bartoletti, M; Mastroianni, A; Prati, F; Schivazappa, S; Cenni, P; Vocale, C; Rossini, G; Gaibani, P; Sambri, V; Landini, M P; Lewis, R E; Charrel, R N; Varani, S

    2017-11-01

    Among sandfly-borne pathogens, Toscana virus (TOSV) is a prominent cause of summer meningitis in Mediterranean Europe. Here, we assessed the kinetics of anti-TOSV antibodies over time in 41 patients diagnosed with TOSV meningitis or meningoencephalitis in northeastern Italy. Acute and follow-up serum samples were collected up to 20 months after diagnosis of TOSV infection and tested for the presence of specific antibody using immunoenzymatic and indirect immunofluorescence assays. In addition, maturation of anti-TOSV IgG over time was evaluated as well as production of neutralizing antibodies. Specific IgM and IgG response was present at diagnosis in 100% of patients; TOSV-specific IgM and IgG were detected in patients' sera up to 6 and 20 months after diagnosis, respectively. The avidity index (AI) increased over the first month after infection in 100% of patients and most cases exceeded 60% by Day 30 post infection. The AI subsequently plateaued then declined at 20 months after diagnosis. Finally, neutralization assay to TOSV was performed in 217 sera collected from 41 patients; 69.6% of tested samples resulted in reactive and moderate levels of neutralizing antibodies observed during all phases of infection despite high titres of total anti-TOSV IgG. Specific antibody response develops rapidly and is long-lasting for neuroinvasive TOSV infection. Serodiagnosis of neuroinvasive TOSV requires simultaneous detection of specific IgM and IgG. Moderate levels of neutralizing antibodies were maintained over the study period, while the protective role of antibodies lacking neutralizing activity is unclear and requires further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  18. Increased IgD milk antibody responses in a patient with Down's syndrome, pulmonary hemosiderosis and cor pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, S; Nussbaum, E; Wittner, R; DeWeck, A L; Heiner, D C

    1983-10-01

    IgD antibody responses to cow's milk were investigated in a two-year-old black boy with evidence of pulmonary hemosiderosis and pulmonary hypertension. Initially a broad spectrum of immunologic responses to cow's milk were observed including IgD, IgE, and precipitin antibodies. Specific IgD antibody responses to cow's milk could be modulated in terms of challenge or elimination and correlated with the clinical course. It is possible that IgD antibodies may be important in milk-related pulmonary hemosiderosis.

  19. Association of microRNAs with antibody response to mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  20. Diagnostic and immunological aspects of the antibody response to human cytomegalvirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, Jaap Michiel

    1985-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis were initiated with three main aims: First, to develop a practical and sensitive method for serodiagnosis of Human cytomegoal virus ( CMV)-infections and to determine the relative diagnostic value of IgM and IgG antibody responses to distinct CMV-antigens.

  1. A life-style physical activity intervention and the antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, J.E.; Ring, C.; Bosch, J.A.; Eves, F.; Drayson, M.T.; Calver, R.; Say, V.; Allen, D.; Burns, V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether a life-style physical activity intervention improved antibody response to a pneumococcal vaccination in sedentary middle-aged women. Methods: Eighty-nine sedentary women completed a 16-week exercise (physical activity consultation, pedometer, telephone/e-mail prompts; n

  2. T cell responsiveness correlates differentially with antibody isotype levels in clinical and asymptomatic filariasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Paxton, W. A.; Kruize, Y. C.; Sartono, E.; Kurniawan, A.; van het Wout, A.; Selkirk, M. E.; Partono, F.; Maizels, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the relationships among T and B cell responses, active infection, and clinical manifestations in lymphatic filariasis, filarial-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IgG antibody isotypes, and IgE levels were determined in an exposed population: 31 asymptomatic amicrofilaremics, 43

  3. Clinical Manifestations of an Anti-Drug Antibody Response: Autoimmune Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Steven J

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies can be generated against a therapeutic protein upon administration to human subjects. When the therapeutic protein closely mimics one of the subject's endogenous proteins, those antibodies might bind to the endogenous protein in addition to the therapeutic protein. This scenario results when tolerance to the endogenous protein is broken. The consequences of breaking tolerance include an autoimmune response where antibodies are generated against the endogenous protein. These autoantibodies could have significant clinical relevance depending on several factors, including the redundancy of action of the endogenous protein as well as the concentration, binding affinity, and neutralizing potential of the antibodies. The consequences of a therapeutic-protein-induced autoimmune reaction can be challenging to manage as the stimulus for further perpetuation of the immune response can shift from the therapeutic protein to the endogenous protein. The potential for inducing an autoimmune response is one of the reasons that the immune response to a therapeutic protein should be monitored if it persists through the end of the study.

  4. Directional Selection for Specific Sheep Cell Antibody Responses Affects Natural Rabbit Agglutinins of Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotter, P.F.; Ayoub, J.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2005-01-01

    Agglutination data from generations 8 through 19 indicate that bidirectional selection for specific SRBC antibody responses was successful in a line cross of ISA × Warren medium heavy layers. After 11 generations titers of the high SRBC selected line (H line) were nearly 1:32,000; those of the low

  5. Antibody Responses to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Taiwanese Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Lai

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Taiwanese elderly adults with COPD, even in advanced age, can mount a significant antibody response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. This study may support the existing recommendation that pneumococcal vaccine be offered to persons ≥ 65 years old with COPD. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3: 196-203

  6. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...

  7. High-throughput sequencing of natively paired antibody chains provides evidence for original antigenic sin shaping the antibody response to influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yann-Chong; Blum, Lisa K; Kongpachith, Sarah; Ju, Chia-Hsin; Cai, Xiaoyong; Lindstrom, Tamsin M; Sokolove, Jeremy; Robinson, William H

    2014-03-01

    We developed a DNA barcoding method to enable high-throughput sequencing of the cognate heavy- and light-chain pairs of the antibodies expressed by individual B cells. We used this approach to elucidate the plasmablast antibody response to influenza vaccination. We show that >75% of the rationally selected plasmablast antibodies bind and neutralize influenza, and that antibodies from clonal families, defined by sharing both heavy-chain VJ and light-chain VJ sequence usage, do so most effectively. Vaccine-induced heavy-chain VJ regions contained on average >20 nucleotide mutations as compared to their predicted germline gene sequences, and some vaccine-induced antibodies exhibited higher binding affinities for hemagglutinins derived from prior years' seasonal influenza as compared to their affinities for the immunization strains. Our results show that influenza vaccination induces the recall of memory B cells that express antibodies that previously underwent affinity maturation against prior years' seasonal influenza, suggesting that 'original antigenic sin' shapes the antibody response to influenza vaccination. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. It's in the way that you use it: attachment and the dyadic nature of humor during conflict negotiation in romantic couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterheld, Heike A; Simpson, Jeffry A; Oriña, M Minda

    2013-04-01

    In a behavioral observation study with dating couples, we examined (a) how attachment orientations predict humor use and (b) how people respond to their partners' use of humor. Couples were videotaped while trying to resolve a relationship conflict. Each discussion was rated on several theoretically relevant dimensions. Highly avoidant individuals used more aggressive humor and less affiliative humor during their discussions, whereas highly anxious individuals used more self-defeating humor. Individuals also tailored their humor use to partners who were highly anxious and distressed. Aggressive humor was received more negatively by partners who sought more care. Affiliative humor was favorably received, especially when partners were more distressed, whereas self-defeating humor elicited negative responses from highly distressed partners. Both highly anxious and avoidant individuals reacted unfavorably when they were the recipients of the humor styles they used most often. The implications of these results for our understanding of relationships and humor are discussed.

  9. Correlation of pharmacodynamic activity, pharmacokinetics, and anti-product antibody responses to anti-IL-21R antibody therapeutics following IV administration to cynomolgus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaulding Vikki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-IL-21R antibodies are potential therapeutics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This study evaluated correlations between the pharmacodynamic (PD activity, pharmacokinetics, and anti-product antibody responses of human anti-IL-21R antibodies Ab-01 and Ab-02 following IV administration to cynomolgus monkeys. Methods The PD assay was based on the ability of recombinant human IL-21 (rhuIL-21 to induce expression of the IL-2RA gene in cynomolgus monkey whole blood samples ex vivo. Monkeys screened for responsiveness to rhuIL-21 stimulation using the PD assay, were given a single 10 mg/kg IV dosage of Ab-01, Ab-02, or a control antibody (3/group, and blood samples were evaluated for PD activity (inhibition of IL-2RA expression for up to 148 days. Anti-IL-21R antibody concentrations and anti-product antibody responses were measured in serum using immunoassays and flow cytometry. Results Following IV administration of Ab-01 and Ab-02 to cynomolgus monkeys, PD activity was observed as early as 5 minutes (first time point sampled. This PD activity had good correlation with the serum concentrations and anti-product antibody responses throughout the study. The mean terminal half-life (t1/2 was ~10.6 and 2.3 days for Ab-01 and Ab-02, respectively. PD activity was lost at ~5-13 weeks for Ab-01 and at ~2 weeks for Ab-02, when serum concentrations were relatively low. The estimated minimum concentrations needed to maintain PD activity were ~4-6 nM for Ab-01 and ~2.5 nM for Ab-02, and were consistent with the respective KD values for binding to human IL-21R. For Ab-01, there was noticeable inter-animal variability in t1/2 values (~6-14 days and the resulting PD profiles, which correlated with the onset of anti-product antibody formation. While all three Ab-01-dosed animals were positive for anti-Ab-01 antibodies, only one monkey (with the shortest t1/2 and the earliest loss of PD activity had evidence of neutralizing anti-Ab-01

  10. Low-Dose Priming before Vaccination with the Phase I Chloroform-Methanol Residue Vaccine against Q Fever Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Coxiella burnetii▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, David M.; England, Marilyn J.; Bolt, Christopher R.; Williams, Jim C.

    2008-01-01

    Although the phase I Coxiella burnetii cellular vaccine is completely efficacious in humans, adverse local and systemic reactions may develop if immune individuals are inadvertently vaccinated. The phase I chloroform-methanol residue (CMRI) vaccine was developed as a potentially safer alternative. Human volunteers with no evidence of previous exposure to C. burnetii received a subcutaneous vaccination with the CMRI vaccine in phase I studies under protocol IND 3516 to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. This clinical trial tested escalating doses of the CMRI vaccine, ranging from 0.3 to 60 μg, followed by a booster dose of 30 μg, in a placebo-controlled study. Although priming doses of the CMRI vaccine did not induce a specific antibody detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, booster vaccination stimulated the production of significant levels of anti-C. burnetii antibody. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) of vaccinees responded to C. burnetii cellular antigen in vitro in a vaccine dose-dependent manner. After the booster dose, PBCs were activated by recall antigen in vitro, regardless of the priming dose. These findings suggest that vaccination with the CMRI vaccine can effectively prime the immune system to mount significant anamnestic responses after infection. PMID:18701647

  11. Low-dose priming before vaccination with the phase I chloroform-methanol residue vaccine against Q fever enhances humoral and cellular immune responses to Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, David M; England, Marilyn J; Bolt, Christopher R; Williams, Jim C

    2008-10-01

    Although the phase I Coxiella burnetii cellular vaccine is completely efficacious in humans, adverse local and systemic reactions may develop if immune individuals are inadvertently vaccinated. The phase I chloroform-methanol residue (CMRI) vaccine was developed as a potentially safer alternative. Human volunteers with no evidence of previous exposure to C. burnetii received a subcutaneous vaccination with the CMRI vaccine in phase I studies under protocol IND 3516 to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. This clinical trial tested escalating doses of the CMRI vaccine, ranging from 0.3 to 60 microg, followed by a booster dose of 30 microg, in a placebo-controlled study. Although priming doses of the CMRI vaccine did not induce a specific antibody detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, booster vaccination stimulated the production of significant levels of anti-C. burnetii antibody. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) of vaccinees responded to C. burnetii cellular antigen in vitro in a vaccine dose-dependent manner. After the booster dose, PBCs were activated by recall antigen in vitro, regardless of the priming dose. These findings suggest that vaccination with the CMRI vaccine can effectively prime the immune system to mount significant anamnestic responses after infection.

  12. MINOR HUMAN-ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO A MOUSE AND CHIMERIC MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY AFTER A SINGLE IV INFUSION IN OVARIAN-CARCINOMA PATIENTS - A COMPARISON OF 5 ASSAYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUIST, MR; KENEMANS, P; VANKAMP, GJ; Haisma, Hidde

    The human anti-(mouse Ig) antibody (HAMA) response was measured in serum of 52 patients suspected of having ovarian carcinoma who had received an i.v. injection of either the murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) OV-TL 3 F(ab')(2) (n = 28, 1 mg) or the chimeric mouse/human mAb MOv18 (cMOv18; n = 24, 3

  13. Minor human antibody response to a mouse and chimeric monoclonal antibody after a single i.v. infusion in ovarian carcinoma patients: a comparison of five assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, M. R.; Kenemans, P.; van Kamp, G. J.; Haisma, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    The human anti-(mouse Ig) antibody (HAMA) response was measured in serum of 52 patients suspected of having ovarian carcinoma who had received an i.v. injection of either the murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) OV-TL 3 F(ab')2 (n = 28, 1 mg) or the chimeric mouse/human mAb MOv18 (cMOv18; n = 24, 3 mg).

  14. Toxoplasma gondii: humoral and cellular immune response of BALB/c mice immunized via intranasal route with rTgROP2 Toxoplasma gondii: avaliação da resposta imune humoral e celular de camundongos BALB/c imunizados pela via nasal com rTgROP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Igarashi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TgROP2 is an intracellular protein associated with rhoptries of Toxoplama gondii and an antigen component of a candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of rTgROP2 to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice via intranasal injection. TgROP2 partial coding sequence was (196-561 amplified by PCR from genomic T. gondii RH strain DNA and cloned into the pTrcHis expression vector. Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 cells transformed with pTrcHis-TgROP2 showed high levels (~1 mg.mL-1 of recombinant protein after 4 hours of IPTG induction. Recombinant TgROP2 exhibited an apparent Mr equal to 54 kDa. In order to test immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, 10 BALB/c mice received 10 µg of rROP2 protein + 10 µg of Quil-A via intranasal injection. Doses were administered at days 0, 21, and 42. Three animals were euthanized and used to evaluate cell-ular immune response on day 62. Five (50% and two (20% out of ten animals produced IgG (DO mean = 0.307; cut-off = 0.240 and IgA (DO mean = 0.133, cut-off = 0.101, respectively, by ELISA on day 62. The proliferation of splenocytes revealed high stimulation index (SI when co-cultured with 5, 10 and 15 µg.mL-1 of rTgROP2. These results indicate that intranasal immunization with recombinant protein ROP2 plus Quil-A can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice.TgROP2 é uma proteína localizada nas roptrias do Toxoplasma gondii, sendo um antígeno candidato a componente de uma vacina contra a toxoplasmose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da TgROP2 recombinante em estimular a resposta imune celular e humoral de camundongos BALB/c após estímulo intranasal. A sequência da TgROP2 foi amplificada pela PCR a partir da cepa RH e clonada em vetor de expressão pTrc-His. Após a transformação em Escherichia coli- Rosetta 2, a pTrcHis-TgROP2 exibiu alto nível de expressão após 4 horas de indu

  15. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of modeling humor, and if we can do that, it will provide us with lots of information about our cognitive abilities in general, such as reasoning, remembering, understanding situations, and understand...

  16. Clinical response to adalimumab: relationship to anti-adalimumab antibodies and serum adalimumab concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, Geertje M.; Wijbrandts, Carla A.; Nurmohamed, Michael T.; Stapel, Steven; Lems, Willem F.; Aarden, Lucien; Dijkmans, Ben A. C.; Tak, Paul Peter; Wolbink, Gerrit Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not respond, or lose initial response, to adalimumab treatment. One explanation for non-response is that patients develop anti-adalimumab antibodies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of formation of antibody

  17. Role of the Antigen Capture Pathway in the Induction of a Neutralizing Antibody Response to Anthrax Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Verma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxin neutralizing antibodies represent the major mode of protective immunity against a number of toxin-mediated bacterial diseases, including anthrax; however, the cellular mechanisms that lead to optimal neutralizing antibody responses remain ill defined. Here we show that the cellular binding pathway of anthrax protective antigen (PA, the binding component of anthrax toxin, determines the toxin neutralizing antibody response to this antigen. PA, which binds cellular receptors and efficiently enters antigen-presenting cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, was found to elicit robust anti-PA IgG and toxin neutralizing antibody responses. In contrast, a receptor binding-deficient mutant of PA, which does not bind receptors and only inefficiently enters antigen-presenting cells by macropinocytosis, elicited very poor antibody responses. A chimeric protein consisting of the receptor binding-deficient PA mutant tethered to the binding subunit of cholera toxin, which efficiently enters cells using the cholera toxin receptor rather than the PA receptor, elicited an anti-PA IgG antibody response similar to that elicited by wild-type PA; however, the chimeric protein elicited a poor toxin neutralizing antibody response. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the antigen capture pathway can dictate the magnitudes of the total IgG and toxin neutralizing antibody responses to PA as well as the ratio of the two responses.

  18. Treatment-responsive limbic encephalitis identified by neuropil antibodies: MRI and PET correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M.; Vitaliani, Roberta; Taylor, Robert A.; Liebeskind, David S.; Voloschin, Alfredo; Houghton, David J.; Galetta, Steven L.; Dichter, Marc; Alavi, Abass; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Dalmau, Josep

    2007-01-01

    had dramatic clinical and neuroimaging responses to immunotherapy or tumour resection; two patients had neurological relapse and improved with immunotherapy. Overall, the phenotype associated with the novel neuropil antibodies includes dominant behavioural and psychiatric symptoms and seizures that often interfere with the evaluation of cognition and memory, and brain MRI or FDG-PET abnormalities less frequently restricted to the medial temporal lobes than in patients with classical paraneoplastic or VGKC antibodies. When compared with patients with VGKC antibodies, patients with these novel antibodies are more likely to have CSF inflammatory abnormalities and systemic tumours (teratoma and thymoma), and they do not develop SIADH-like hyponatraemia. Although most autoantigens await characterization, all share intense expression by the neuropil of hippocampus, with patterns of immunolabelling characteristic enough to suggest the diagnosis of these disorders and predict response to treatment. PMID:15888538

  19. Anti-α-galactosidase A antibody response to agalsidase beta treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, William R; Linthorst, Gabor E; Germain, Dominique P

    2012-01-01

    Agalsidase beta, a form of recombinant human α-galactosidase A (αGAL), is approved for use as enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease. An immunogenic response against a therapeutic protein could potentially impact its efficacy or safety. The development of anti-αGAL IgG antibodies...... was evaluated in 571 men and 251 women from the Fabry Registry who were treated with agalsidase beta. Most men developed antibodies (416 of 571, 73%), whereas most women did not (31 of 251, 12%). Women were also significantly more likely to tolerize than men; whereas 18 of 31 women tolerized (58%, 95%CI: 52......%-64%), only 47 of 416 men tolerized during the observation period (11%, 95% CI: 8%-15%). Patients who eventually tolerized had lower median peak anti-αGAL IgG antibody titers than patients who remained seropositive at their most recent assessment (400 versus 3200 in men, 200 versus 400 in women, respectively...

  20. Wildtype p53-specific Antibody and T-Cell Responses in Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Stryhn, Anette; Justesen, Sune

    2011-01-01

    patients. Detection of antibodies against wt p53 protein has been used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker and discovery of new T-cell epitopes has enabled design of cancer vaccination protocols with promising results. Here, we identified wt p53-specific antibodies in various cancer patients......(264-272) in breast cancer patients and against HLA-A*01:01 binding peptide wt p53(226-234) and HLA-B*07:02 binding peptide wt p53(74-82) in renal cell cancer and breast cancer patients, respectively. Finally, we analyzed antibody and T-cell responses against wt p53 15-mer peptides in patients with metastatic renal...

  1. Distinct human antibody response to the biological warfare agent Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, John J; Vigil, Adam; DeShazer, David; Waag, David M; Felgner, Philip; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2012-10-01

    The genetic similarity between Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis) had led to the general assumption that pathogenesis of each bacterium would be similar. In 2000, the first human case of glanders in North America since 1945 was reported in a microbiology laboratory worker. Leveraging the availability of pre-exposure sera for this individual and employing the same well-characterized protein array platform that has been previously used to study a large cohort of melioidosis patients in southeast Asia, we describe the antibody response in a human with glanders. Analysis of 156 peptides present on the array revealed antibodies against 17 peptides with a > 2-fold increase in this infection. Unexpectedly, when the glanders data were compared with a previous data set from B. pseudomallei infections, there were only two highly increased antibodies shared between these two infections. These findings have implications in the diagnosis and treatment of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei infections.

  2. Avaliação da resposta humoral à vacina pneumocócica 7-valente em crianças com Aids Evaluación de la vacuna neumocócica 7-valente en la respuesta humoral de niños con SIDA Evaluation of humoral response to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de Camargo Costa

    2008-10-01

    Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, en 2002-2003. La dosis de anticuerpos IgG contra los polisacáridos de la cápsula neumocócica fue realizada por medio de ensayo inmuno enzimático (ELISA. Los anticuerpos fueron dosificados inmediatamente antes y un mes después de la aplicación de la segunda dosis de la vacuna. Se utilizaron dos criterios para evaluar la respuesta a la vacuna: títulos de anticuerpos ? 1,3 ?g/mL en la serología post-inmunización y aumento ?4 veces en los títulos de la serología post-inmunización con relación a la pre-inmunización. RESULTADOS: Para el primer criterio (?1,3 ?g/mL, 26 (65% niños obtuvieron respuesta serológica con la vacuna, 12 (30% de ellas presentaron títulos de IgG post-inmunización en niveles de por lo menos 1,3 ?g/mL para todos los serotipos. Para el segundo criterio (incremento >4 veces en los títulos para cuatro serotipos o mas, se obtuvo respuesta serológica en 15 (37,5% niños. CONCLUSIONES: La respuesta frente a la vacuna fue considerada satisfactoria, con aumento estadísticamente significativo de los títulos geométricos promedios post-vacunales con relación a los pre-vacunales para todos los serotipos estudiados.OBJECTIVE: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a major cause of death in HIV-infected children. The objective of the study was to assess the quantitative antibody response to the seven pneumococcal serotypes of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a group of HIV-infected children. METHODS: Study comprising 40 HIV-infected children aged between 2 and 9 years followed up in a specialized outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2002 and 2003. Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA was used to measure IgG antibody titers against pneumococcus capsule. Antibodies were measured immediately before and 1 month after the second dose of the vaccine. Two response criteria were used: IgG titers >1.3 µg/mL in the post-immunization serology and an increase of at least 4-fold in post- compared to pre

  3. A Rationally Designed TNF-α Epitope-Scaffold Immunogen Induces Sustained Antibody Response and Alleviates Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available The TNF-α biological inhibitors have significantly improved the clinical outcomes of many autoimmune diseases, in particular rheumatoid arthritis. However, the practical uses are limited due to high costs and the risk of anti-drug antibody responses. Attempts to develop anti-TNF-α vaccines have generated encouraging data in animal models, however, data from clinical trials have not met expectations. In present study, we designed a TNF-α epitope-scaffold immunogen DTNF7 using the transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin, named DTT as a scaffold. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that the grafted TNF-α epitope is entirely surface-exposed and presented in a native-like conformation while the rigid helical structure of DTT is minimally perturbed, thereby rendering the immunogen highly stable. Immunization of mice with alum formulated DTNF7 induced humoral responses against native TNF-α, and the antibody titer was sustained for more than 6 months, which supports a role of the universal CD4 T cell epitopes of DTT in breaking self-immune tolerance. In a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, DTNF7-alum vaccination markedly delayed the onset of collagen-induced arthritis, and reduced incidence as well as clinical score. DTT is presumed safe as an epitope carrier because a catalytic inactive mutant of diphtheria toxin, CRM197 has good clinical safety records as an active vaccine component. Taken all together, we show that DTT-based epitope vaccine is a promising strategy for prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  4. Antibody responses to tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C Y; Molrine, D C; Antin, J H; Wheeler, C; Guinan, E C; Weinstein, H J; Phillips, N R; McGarigle, C; Harvey, S; Schnipper, C; Ambrosino, D M

    1997-07-01

    Accelerated granulocyte and platelet recovery following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are well documented. We hypothesize that functional immunity may also be enhanced in PBSCT and performed a phase II trial of immunizations in patients with lymphoma undergoing autologous transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow. Seventeen BMT and 10 PBSCT recipients were immunized at 3, 6, 12, and 24-months post-transplantation with Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB)-conjugate and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines. IgG anti-HIB and anti-TT antibody concentrations were measured and compared between the two groups. Geometric mean IgG anti-HIB antibody concentrations were significantly higher for PBSCT recipients compared to BMT recipients at 24 months post-transplantation (11.3 micrograms/ml vs 0.93 microgram/ml, P = 0.051) and following the 24 month immunization (66.2 micrograms/ml vs 1.30 micrograms/ml, P = 0.006). Similar results were noted for IgG anti-TT antibody with significantly higher geometric mean antibody concentrations in the PBSCT group at 24 months post-transplantation (182 micrograms/ml vs 21.6 micrograms/ml, P = 0.039). Protective levels of total anti-HIB antibody were achieved earlier in PBSCT recipients compared with those of BMT recipients. PBSCT recipients had higher antigen-specific antibody concentrations following HIB and TT immunizations. These results suggest enhanced recovery of humoral immunity in PBSCT recipients and earlier protection against HIB with immunization.

  5. Mycobacterium leprae antigens involved in human immune responses. I. Identification of four antigens by monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, W.J.; Hellqvist, L.; Basten, A.; Raison, R.L.

    1985-12-01

    Four distinct antigens were identified in soluble sonicates of Mycobacterium leprae by using a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity studies with other mycobacterial species were conducted by using ELISA and immunoblot assays, and demonstrated that determinants on two of the antigens were present in many mycobacteria, whereas the other two were limited in distribution. Competitive inhibition experiments with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies showed cross-inhibition between antibodies identifying two of the four antigenicbands. These two bands, of M/sub tau/ 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD, were resistant to protease treatment after immunoblotting. In contrast the two other bands of 16 and 70 KD were protease-sensitive. Although all four bands reacted with some human lepromatous leprosy sera in immunoblots, the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands were most prominent. Lepromatous leprosy sera also inhibited the binding of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to each of the four antigens, with the mean titer causing 50% inhibition being higher for antibodies reacting with the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands. These findings indicated that all four antigens were involved in the human B cell response to M. leprae.

  6. Mycobacterium leprae antigens involved in human immune responses. I. Identification of four antigens by monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, W.J.; Hellqvist, L.; Basten, A.; Raison, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four distinct antigens were identified in soluble sonicates of Mycobacterium leprae by using a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity studies with other mycobacterial species were conducted by using ELISA and immunoblot assays, and demonstrated that determinants on two of the antigens were present in many mycobacteria, whereas the other two were limited in distribution. Competitive inhibition experiments with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies showed cross-inhibition between antibodies identifying two of the four antigenicbands. These two bands, of M/sub tau/ 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD, were resistant to protease treatment after immunoblotting. In contrast the two other bands of 16 and 70 KD were protease-sensitive. Although all four bands reacted with some human lepromatous leprosy sera in immunoblots, the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands were most prominent. Lepromatous leprosy sera also inhibited the binding of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to each of the four antigens, with the mean titer causing 50% inhibition being higher for antibodies reacting with the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands. These findings indicated that all four antigens were involved in the human B cell response to M. leprae

  7. Opposite effects of total lymphoid irradiation on T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the primary antibody response to the dinitrophenylated heterologous protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and to the trinitrophenylated polysaccharide antigen, Brucella abortus (TNP-BA), was studied in BALB/c mice. The antibody response to both antigens was diminished in comparison with nonirradiated mice when antigens were injected within 3 days after TLI. When the mice were immunized 30 days after completion of TLI the antibody response to DNP-KLH in CFA was still diminished, but the antibody response to TNP-BA was enhanced 5- to 10-fold as compared with that of control animals. The opposite effect of TLI on the two antibody responses was also observed in a syngeneic primary adoptive transfer system.

  8. Antibody Response is More Likely to Pneumococcal Proteins Than to Polysaccharide After HIV-associated Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Green, Nicola; Goldblatt, David

    2015-01-01

    to at least 1 protein compared to 51% of non-IPD controls. HIV IPD cases responded to more proteins than non-IPD controls (8.6 ± 8.4 vs 4.2 ± 7.6 proteins; P = .01), and had a significantly higher probability of yielding an antibody response to the proteins PiaA, PsaA, and PcpA. Twenty-two percent of HIV......-infected individuals with IPD had a serotype-specific antibody response. Younger age at the time of IPD was the only predictor of a serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody response, whereas we did not identify predictors of a protein-specific antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses occurred more frequently...

  9. Impact of a Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 vaccine on antibody responses in adult Malians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Dicko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1 of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is a leading blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate. Protection of Aotus monkeys after vaccination with AMA1 correlates with antibody responses.A randomized, controlled, double-blind phase 1 clinical trial was conducted in 54 healthy Malian adults living in an area of intense seasonal malaria transmission to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-C1 malaria vaccine. AMA1-C1 contains an equal mixture of yeast-expressed recombinant proteins based on sequences from the FVO and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum, adsorbed on Alhydrogel. The control vaccine was the hepatitis B vaccine (Recombivax. Participants were enrolled into 1 of 3 dose cohorts (n = 18 per cohort and randomized 2:1 to receive either AMA1-C1 or Recombivax. Participants in the first, second, and third cohorts randomized to receive AMA1-C1 were vaccinated with 5, 20 and 80 microg of AMA1-C1, respectively. Vaccinations were administered on days 0, 28, and 360, and participants were followed until 6 months after the final vaccination. AMA1-C1 was well tolerated; no vaccine-related severe or serious adverse events were observed. AMA1 antibody responses to the 80 microg dose increased rapidly from baseline levels by days 14 and 28 after the first vaccination and continued to increase after the second vaccination. After a peak 14 days following the second vaccination, antibody levels decreased to baseline levels one year later at the time of the third vaccination that induced little or no increase in antibody levels.Although the AMA1-C1 vaccine candidate was well-tolerated and induced antibody responses to both vaccine and non-vaccine alleles, the antibody response after a third dose given at one year was lower than the response to the initial vaccinations. Additionally, post-vaccination increases in anti-AMA1 antibody levels were not associated with significant changes in in vitro growth inhibition of P. falciparum

  10. Antibody responses of cervids (Cervus elaphus) following experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection and the implications for immunodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Noel P; Surujballi, Om P; Prescott, John F; Duncan, J Robert; Waters, W Ray; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena

    2008-11-01

    Captive and free-ranging wildlife animals are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current antemortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, is impractical for routine use with many wild animals. Antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because the animals are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. This report characterizes the antibody responses of red deer-elk hybrids (Cervus elaphus) against Mycobacterium bovis and subsequently evaluates the diagnostic performance of select antigens in a rapid-test format. Sequential serum samples were collected from 10 animals experimentally infected with M. bovis and 5 noninfected animals over a 7-month period postinfection (p.i.). Samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoblot analyses, and multiantigen print immunoassays for seroreactivity to mycobacterial antigens. Although all infected animals produced antibodies to M. bovis protein antigens, there was significant animal-to-animal variation in the kinetics and magnitudes of responses and the antigens recognized. The most frequently recognized antigens included MPB83, ESAT-6, CFP10, and MPB70. Responses to some antigens, such as MPB83, were consistently detected as early as 4 weeks after inoculation, whereas other antigens were detected only much later (>140 days p.i.). Antibody responses were boosted by injection of tuberculin for intradermal tuberculin skin testing. Comparison of single-antigen (fluorescence polarization assay) with multiantigen (CervidTB STAT-PAK) rapid tests demonstrated that a highly sensitive and specific serodiagnostic test for tuberculosis in cervids will require multiple and carefully selected seroreactive antigens covering a broad spectrum of antibody specificities.

  11. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  12. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minozzi, G.; Parmentier, H.K.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Bed'hom, B.; Gourichon, D.; Minvielle, F.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background - The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab) to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three

  13. Enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary; Waters, Ryan A; Rieder, Elizabeth; Pega, Juan; Perez-Filguera, Mariano; Golde, William T

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. While measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. Determining the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will facilitate analyses of B cell mediated immunity. We tested the hypothesis that using the virus as the molecular probe could be achieved by adding tags to the surface of the FMDV capsid, and that would enhance sensitivity in assays for anti-FMDV antibody responses. The use of a FLAG-tagged virus in these assays failed to yield improvement whereas chemically biotinylating the virus capsid resulted in significant enhancement of the signal. Here we describe methods using biotinylated virus for measuring anti-viral antibody in serum and antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in blood that are sensitive and specific. Finally, we describe using the biotinylated virus in flow cytometry where such assays should greatly enhance the analysis of anti-virus antibody producing B cells, allowing the investigator to focus on only the FMDV specific B cells when analyzing the development of the B cell response to either infection or vaccination. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Humoral immunity in tuberculin skin test anergy and its role in high-risk persons exposed to active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinales, Liliana; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Yunis, Maria; Granados, Julio; Almeciga, Ingrid; Clavijo, Olga; Awad, Carlos; Collazos, Vilma; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés; Bañales-Mendez, José Luis; Vazquez-Castañeda, Lilia; Stern, Joel N; Romero, Viviana; Fridkis-Hareli, Masha; Frindkis-Hareli, Masha; Terreros, Daniel; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Yunis, Edmond J

    2010-02-01

    The most common test to identify latent tuberculosis is the tuberculin skin test that detects T cell responses of delayed type hypersensitivity type IV. Since it produces false negative reactions in active tuberculosis or in high-risk persons exposed to tuberculosis patients as shown in this report, we studied antibody profiles to explain the anergy of such responses in high-risk individuals without active infection. Our results showed that humoral immunity against tuberculin, regardless of the result of the tuberculin skin test is important for protection from active tuberculosis and that the presence of high antibody titers is a more reliable indicator of infection latency suggesting that latency can be based on the levels of antibodies together with in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of the purified protein derivative. Importantly, anti-tuberculin IgG antibody levels mediate the anergy described herein, which could also prevent reactivation of disease in high-risk individuals with high antibody titers. Such anti-tuberculin IgG antibodies were also found associated with blocking and/or stimulation of in vitro cultures of PBMC with tuberculin. In this regard, future studies need to establish if immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can generate a broad spectrum of reactions either toward Th1 responses favoring stimulation by cytokines or by antibodies and those toward diminished responses by Th2 cytokines or blocking by antibodies; possibly involving mechanisms of antibody dependent protection from Mtb by different subclasses of IgG. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cellular and humoral immunity after vaccination or natural mumps infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kihei; Hagihara, Kimiko; Oishi, Tomohiro; Miyata, Ippei; Akaike, Hiroto; Ogita, Satoko; Ohno, Naoki; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2017-08-01

    This study measured cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and serum antibody to clarify the basis of breakthrough after vaccination and reinfection after mumps. From a pool of 54 college students, 17 seronegative subjects and 14 subjects with intermediate level of antibodies against mumps were vaccinated with a monovalent mumps vaccine, and CMI was assessed using interferon-γ release assay. CMI positivity according to pre-existing antibody level, defined as titer  0.05), respectively. Vaccination or even natural mumps infection did not always induce both cellular and humoral immunity. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  17. Anti-HIV Antibody Responses and the HIV Reservoir Size during Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulggi A Lee

    Full Text Available A major challenge to HIV eradication strategies is the lack of an accurate measurement of the total burden of replication-competent HIV (the "reservoir". We assessed the association of anti-HIV antibody responses and the estimated size of the reservoir during antiretroviral therapy (ART.We evaluated anti-HIV antibody profiles using luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS assay in relation to several blood-based HIV reservoir measures: total and 2-LTR DNA (rtPCR or droplet digital PCR; integrated DNA (Alu PCR; unspliced RNA (rtPCR, multiply-spliced RNA (TILDA, residual plasma HIV RNA (single copy PCR, and replication-competent virus (outgrowth assay. We also assessed total HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (rtPCR. Spearman correlations and linear regressions were performed using log-transformed blood- or tissue-based reservoir measurements as predictors and log-transformed antibody levels as outcome variables.Among 51 chronically HIV-infected ART-suppressed participants (median age = 57, nadir CD4+ count = 196 cells/mm3, ART duration = 9 years, the most statistically significant associations were between antibody responses to integrase and HIV RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (1.17 fold-increase per two-fold RNA increase, P = 0.004 and between antibody responses to matrix and integrated HIV DNA in resting CD4+ T cells (0.35 fold-decrease per two-fold DNA increase, P = 0.003. However, these associations were not statistically significant after a stringent Bonferroni-adjustment of P<0.00045. Multivariate models including age and duration of ART did not markedly alter results.Our findings suggest that anti-HIV antibody responses may reflect the size of the HIV reservoir during chronic treated HIV disease, possibly via antigen recognition in reservoir sites. Larger, prospective studies are needed to validate the utility of antibody levels as a measure of the total body burden of HIV during treatment.

  18. Interplay of HIV-1 phenotype and neutralizing antibody response in pathogenesis of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, G; Leitner, T; Hodara, V; Jansson, M; Karlsson, A; Wahlberg, J; Rossi, P; Uhlén, M; Fenyö, E M; Albert, J

    1996-06-01

    A majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals display a rapid loss of CD4+ lymphocytes with fast progression towards overt acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a small proportion of individuals infected by HIV-1 remain immunologically intact for many years. In order to identify factors that might influence the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, 21 Italian mothers and 11 Swedish homosexual men were studied for the presence of autologous neutralizing antibodies in serum, biological phenotype of virus isolates and envelope variable region 3 (V3) sequences. The results were compared to the risk of mother-to-child transmission and progression of the disease. The presence of a neutralizing antibody response to the autologous virus as well as a virus with slow replicative capacity were linked both to low risk of mother-to-child transmission and non-progression of the disease. Patients whose peripheral blood mononuclear cells contained a mutation in the tip of the V3 loop (Arg318 to serine, lysine or leucine) significantly more often had neutralizing antibodies to autologous virus isolates containing arginine at this position. Thus, it appears that the interplay and balance between neutralizing antibody response of the host and the biological phenotype of HIV-1 strongly influence pathogenesis.

  19. Steroid-Responsive Chronic Schizophreniform Syndrome in the Context of Mildly Increased Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Tebartz van Elst

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSchizophreniform syndromes can be divided into primary forms from polygenic causes or secondary forms due to immunological, epileptiform, monogenic, or degenerative causes. Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT is a secondary immunological form associated with increased thyroid antibodies, such as antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and shows a good response to corticosteroids.Case presentationWe present the case of a 41-year-old woman suffering from a schizophreniform syndrome. Starting at the age of 35, she developed psychotic exacerbations with formal thought disorder, acoustic hallucinations, cenesthopathic experiences, and loss of ego boundaries. At the same time, she began to suffer from chronic sexual delusions and olfactory hallucinations, which did not respond to neuroleptic medication. Her levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were slightly increased, and the blood–brain barrier was disturbed. An electroencephalogram (EEG showed intermittent generalized slowing, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI depicted mild temporolateral atrophy. High-dose corticosteroid treatment led to convincing improvement of attentional performance and the disappearance of delusions and olfactory hallucinations.ConclusionSREAT can mimic typical symptoms of schizophreniform syndromes. The increased titer of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies in combination with the EEG slowing, blood–brain barrier dysfunction, and the cMRI alterations were the basis for suspecting an immunological cause in our patient. Chronic delusions, olfactory hallucinations, and cognitive deficits were successfully treated with corticosteroids. The occurrence of secondary immunological forms of schizophreniform syndromes demonstrates the need for innovative immunosuppressive treatment options.

  20. Vibrio cholerae O1 secretes an extracellular matrix in response to antibody-mediated agglutination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Baranova

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae O1 is one of two serogroups responsible for epidemic cholera, a severe watery diarrhea that occurs after the bacterium colonizes the human small intestine and secretes a potent ADP-ribosylating toxin. Immunity to cholera is associated with intestinal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies, which are known to inhibit V. cholerae motility and promote bacterial cell-cell crosslinking and aggregation. Here we report that V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes produce an extracellular matrix (ECM when forcibly immobilized and agglutinated by ZAC-3 IgG, an intestinally-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb against the core/lipid A region of LPS. ECM secretion, as demonstrated by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy, occurred within 30 minutes of antibody exposure and peaked by 3 hours. Non-motile mutants of V. cholerae did not secrete ECM following ZAC-3 IgG exposure, even though they were susceptible to agglutination. The ECM was enriched in O-specific polysaccharide (OSP but not Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. Finally, we demonstrate that ECM production by V. cholerae in response to ZAC-3 IgG was associated with bacterial resistant to a secondary complement-mediated attack. In summary, we propose that V. cholerae O1, upon encountering anti-LPS antibodies in the intestinal lumen, secretes an ECM (or O-antigen capsule possibly as a strategy to shield itself from additional host immune factors and to exit an otherwise inhospitable host environment.

  1. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  2. Humoral immunity to memory antigens and pathogens is maintained in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Nadezhda A; Dominguez-Medina, C Coral; Faustini, Sian E; Cook, Charlotte N; McClean, Andrew; Jesky, Mark D; Perez-Toledo, Marisol; Morgan, Matthew D; Richter, Alexandra G; Ferro, Charles J; Cockwell, Paul; Moss, Paul A; Henderson, Ian R; Harper, Lorraine; Cunningham, Adam F

    2018-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of infection and poorer responses to vaccination. This suggests that CKD patients have an impaired responsiveness to all antigens, even those first encountered before CKD onset. To examine this we evaluated antibody responses against two childhood vaccine antigens, tetanus (TT) and diphtheria toxoids (DT) and two common pathogens, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SEn) in two independent cohorts consisting of age-matched individuals with and without CKD. Sera were evaluated for antigen-specific IgG titres and the functionality of antibody to SEn was assessed in a serum bactericidal assay. Surprisingly, patients with CKD and control subjects had comparable levels of IgG against TT and DT, suggesting preserved humoral memory responses to antigens encountered early in life. Lipopolysaccharide-specific IgG titres and serum bactericidal activity in patients with CKD were also not inferior to controls. CMV-specific IgG titres in seropositive CKD patients were similar or even increased compared to controls. Therefore, whilst responses to new vaccines in CKD are typically lower than expected, antibody responses to antigens commonly encountered prior to CKD onset are not. The immunodeficiency of CKD is likely characterised by failure to respond to new antigenic challenges and efforts to improve patient outcomes should be focussed here.

  3. Respons Antibodi Sekunder Terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam Petelur Pascavaksinasi Ulangan dengan Vaksin Tetelo Aktif (NEWCASTLE DISEASESECONDARY ANTIBODY RESPONSE AFTER REVACCINATION IN LAYER WITH THE ACTIVE ND VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Budi Kurnianto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Revaccination is required in order to preventNewcastle Disease (ND reccurence inlayers chickens. Oneof vaccine for ND revaccination is freeze-died ND active vaccine containing e” 106,5EID50. Revaccinationisdone to trigger a faster secondary antibody responses in layers and can achieve protective antibody titersagainst ND that can be monitored by a hemagglutinationinhibition (HI. The aim of this study was todetermine the ND secondary antibody responses in layers after revaccination with ND active vaccine.Antibody titer of 20 layers chickens of 20 week old were determined before revaccinations (week 0 andafter revaccinations (week 1 until week 9. The first vaccination was conducted using ND-IB (NewcastleDisease-Infectious Bronchitis at the age of 2 days through eye drops and subcutaneous injection at the ageof 5 days using a dose of 1 ampoule.Vaccination is repeated at the age of 20 weeks at a dose of 1 ½ ampoule through drinking water. Blood samples were collected on the wing vein (venous cutane ulnar and left for 5-10 minutes at room temperature.Sera were then collected and stored at -20oC until use. HI antibody titerwas determined by micro titeration system. The HI mean titers were analyzed by Duncan test. The studyresults showed that antibody titer before revaccination was3,47 HI log 2 and the HI titers after revaccinationwere 4,02; 5,22; 6,52; 7,85; 8,4; 8,6; 7,7; 5,92; dan 3,87 HI log 2 respectivelly at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and9.The NDV revaccination with ND active vaccine significantly (P <0.01 increased in antibody titer inlayers starting from week 1 to week 6, but decreased following week 7 to week-9. It can be concluded thatrevaccinantion with ND active vaccine increases the antibody titers in layer chickens.

  4. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  5. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  6. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  7. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how