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  1. Conceptualising humiliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, M.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; van Beest, I.

    2017-01-01

    Humiliation lacks an empirically derived definition, sometimes simply being equated with shame. We approached the conceptualisation of humiliation from a prototype perspective, identifying 61 features of humiliation, some of which are more central to humiliation (e.g. losing self-esteem) than others

  2. Conceptualising humiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshout, Maartje; Nelissen, Rob M A; van Beest, Ilja

    2017-12-01

    Humiliation lacks an empirically derived definition, sometimes simply being equated with shame. We approached the conceptualisation of humiliation from a prototype perspective, identifying 61 features of humiliation, some of which are more central to humiliation (e.g. losing self-esteem) than others (e.g. shyness). Prototypical humiliation involved feeling powerless, small, and inferior in a situation in which one was brought down and in which an audience was present, leading the person to appraise the situation as unfair and resulting in a mix of emotions, most notably disappointment, anger, and shame. Some of the features overlapped with those of shame (e.g. looking like a fool, losing self-esteem, presence of an audience) whereas other features overlapped with those of anger (e.g. being brought down, unfairness). Which specific features are present may determine whether the humiliation experience becomes more shame- or anger-like (or a combination thereof).

  3. Affective dimensions of intergroup humiliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leidner

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame, and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger. Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed.

  4. Human dignity, humiliation, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2009-09-01

    Modern human rights instruments ground human rights in the concept of human dignity, without providing an underlying theory of human dignity. This paper examines the central importance of human dignity, understood as not humiliating people, in traditional Jewish ethics. It employs this conception of human dignity to examine and criticize U.S. use of humiliation tactics and torture in the interrogation of terrorism suspects.

  5. On feeling humiliated : The experience of humiliation in interpersonal, intragroup, and intergroup contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, L.

    2017-01-01

    Humiliation is an intensely negative and complex emotion. This dissertation focused on the determinants, strength, emotion relations, and consequences of feelings of humiliation in different contexts. In an interpersonal context (Chapter 2), we found that negative audience behaviour (laughter)

  6. 42 CFR 456.716 - DUR Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... most effectively lead to improvement in the quality of drug therapy. The DUR board recommendations must... review, evaluation, and intervention. (4) Medical quality assurance. (b) Board composition. At least one... predetermined standards that pharmacies not using approved software must use in conducting prospective DUR. (2...

  7. Avoiding humiliations in the clinical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hollnagel, Hanne

    2007-06-01

    To explore potentials for avoiding humiliations in clinical encounters, especially those that are unintended and unrecognized by the doctor. Furthermore, to examine theoretical foundations of degrading behaviour and identify some concepts that can be used to understand such behaviour in the cultural context of medicine. Finally, these concepts are used to build a model for the clinician in order to prevent humiliation of the patient. Empirical studies document experiences of humiliation among patients when they see their doctor. Philosophical and sociological analysis can be used to explain the dynamics of unintended degrading behaviour between human beings. Skjervheim, Vetlesen, and Bauman have identified the role of objectivism, distantiation, and indifference in the dynamics of evil acts, pointing to the rules of the cultural system, rather than accusing the individual of bad behaviour. Examining the professional role of the doctor, parallel traits embedded in the medical culture are demonstrated. According to Vetlesen, emotional awareness is necessary for moral perception, which again is necessary for moral performance. A better balance between emotions and rationality is needed to avoid humiliations in the clinical encounter. The Awareness Model is presented as a strategy for clinical practice and education, emphasizing the role of the doctor's own emotions. Potentials and pitfalls are discussed.

  8. The Problem of Humiliation in Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Schwartz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of vituperative feedback from peer reviewers. We argue that such feedback is morally unacceptable, insofar as it humiliates authors and damages their dignity. We draw from social-psychological research to explore those aspects of the peer-review process in general and the anonymity of blind reviewing in particular…

  9. Systemic humiliation as daily social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothbart, Daniel; Poder, Poul

    2017-01-01

    and capacities of these people. Drawing upon recent developments in social identity theory, moral philosophy, sociological theory, and clinical psychology, we argue that systemic humiliation generates social pain that is experienced as annulment of one’s inherent value; it is an affront to suffering persons...

  10. Constituents from Bupleurum montanum (Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae

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    M. Benahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Bupleurum montanum (Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae afforded five compounds, quercitin 1, tamarexetin 2, isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside 3, kaempferol-3-O-β-rutinoside 4, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Protocatechuic acid 5. The structural elucidation was performed mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectrum data.

  11. Toward a psychology of humiliation in asymmetric conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Clark

    2017-04-01

    Humiliation is often cited in attempts to understand the origins of asymmetric conflicts, especially conflicts involving terrorism. This article reviews common usage, expert opinion, and experiences in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts to suggest a construct definition of humiliation as a combination of anger and shame. Following appraisal theory, this definition distinguishes between the situational appraisals associated with humiliation (insult and injury; failure to retaliate) and the emotional experience of humiliation (in which the combination of anger and shame may be more synergism than summation). Research on humiliation has barely begun and focuses on interpersonal relations; a crucial issue is whether interpersonal humiliation is the same experience as the intergroup humiliation salient in accounts of terrorism and terrorists. Also important is the prediction that the targets of terrorist attack will experience humiliation if the terrorists are unknown or unreachable; thus failure to retaliate may humiliate the strong as well as the weak in asymmetric conflict. Better understanding of humiliation may be useful for understanding both terrorist violence and government reactions to this violence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Injured Body: Humiliation and Fragmentation

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    Graciela Mayet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Simone de Beauvoir’s nouvelles and Titus Andronicus by Shakespeare present us opposite and complementary corporeal nature. In the first case, two women about their sixties are in front of the personal drama of their lost which happen through the years of ageing. It is a kind of fragmentation of existence. Ageing is the most authentic state of the human condition because the human being can only hang on to himself. In Titus Andronicus, are shown mutilations, murderers as fragmentation of biological body and social body. Individualism of modernity doesn’t forgive the bodies deteriorated by the years. In the early modernity, in the times of Elizabeth the First, like in the Ancient Rome, it wasn’t spared humiliations and violence towards the enemy body in order to impose power and authority. In this Shakespeare’s play, the fragmentation of the other’s body and murder are the emergence of social and individual violence.

  13. REPRESENTASI PEREMPUAN PADA LUKISAN DI BAK TRUK

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    Obed Bima Wicandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The backs of dump trucks have transformed to not only as a transportation mechanism, but also as visual communication media. This phenomena goes along with the many advertisements that utilizes this kind of medium in promoting certain products. But the backs of dump trucks become a promotional medium because of the already many paintings painted on them, which they are originally plain on the right, left, and the back sides. Women become figures that many portray as their painted subjects. This article focuses more on the painting phenomena that uses the female figures through a gender study, to see whether woman representations in the paintings of the backs of trucks are signified as having imbalanced gender relations. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Bak truk telah menjelma tidak saja menjadi alat transportasi namun juga media komunikasi visual seiring dengan semakin banyaknya iklan yang memanfaatkan media ini dalam mempromosikan suatu produk. Namun perjalanan bak truk menjadi media promosi diawali oleh bertebarannya lukisan yang memanfaatkan bak truk yang semula kosong di sisi kanan, kiri maupun belakang truk. Perempuan menjadi figur yang banyak dipakai sebagai objek lukis. Tulisan ini lebih menyoroti fenomena lukisan yang banyak mengambil figur perempuan dalam kajian gender, untuk melihat apakah representasi perempuan dalam lukisan di bak truk tersebut dimaknai sebagai adanya ketimpangan dalam relasi gender. Kata kunci: representasi, perempuan, bak truk, lukisan, relasi gender.

  14. The effect of the introduction of a nationwide DUR system where local DUR systems are operating--The Korean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mira; Park, Young-Taek; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Jung, Chai Young; Kim, Sukil

    2015-11-01

    Outpatient clinics in Korea usually have local DUR (drug utilisation review) systems, which are integrated with EMRs or health insurance claims submission systems. Whenever, the government announces a list of drug contraindications, each local DUR system loads the list and applies it in practice. In December 2010, a nationwide DUR system was introduced. This study is to investigate the impact of the nationwide DUR system on prescribing practices where local DUR systems are already operating. Between January 2009 and December 2012 the monthly number of drugs per prescription was retrieved from the health insurance claims data warehouse at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA). The monthly proportions of 3 DDI (drug-drug interaction) pairs, 6 drug-age contraindications, and 3 drug-pregnancy contraindications from January 2007 to December 2012, at the outpatient clinic level, were also retrieved. An interrupted time series analysis was used for controlling government announcements of drug contraindications. There was no difference in the number of drugs per prescription before and after the introduction of the nationwide DUR system. Most proportions of the 3 DDI pairs, 6 drug-age contraindications, and 3 drug-pregnancy contraindications, were significantly reduced following the government announcement of drug contraindications in the short term and/or long term. The number of drugs per prescription was not related to the nationwide DUR introduction in places where local DUR systems are operating. The introduction of duplicate guidelines, in locations where the guidelines were already well followed, is considered to be the main reason for this. Furthermore, the Doctor's ignorance of alerts, and their continued substitution of regulated drugs, for non-regulated drugs, likely played a role in nullifying the effectiveness of the nationwide DUR system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced tocopherol levels during early germination events in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Laura; Alegre, Leonor; Tijero, Verónica; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-10-01

    Most angiosperms accumulate vitamin E in the form of tocopherols in seeds, exerting a protective antioxidant role. However, several palm trees principally accumulate tocotrienols, rather than tocopherols, in seeds, as it occurs in other monocots. To unravel the protective role of either tocopherols or tocotrienols against lipid peroxidation during seed germination in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis; seed viability, natural and induced germination capacity, seed water content, malondialdehyde levels (as an indicator of the extent of lipid peroxidation) and vitamin E levels (including both tocopherols and tocotrienols) were examined at various germination phases in a simulated, natural seed bank. At the very early stages of germination (operculum removal), malondialdehyde levels increased 2.8-fold, to decrease later up to 74%, thus indicating a transient lipid peroxidation at early stages of germination. Tocopherol levels were absent in quiescent seeds and did not increase during operculum removal, but increased later presumably dampening malondialdehyde accumulation. Thereafter, tocopherols continued increasing, while lipid peroxidation levels decreased. By contrast, tocotrienols levels remained constant or even decreased as germination progressed, showing no correlation with lipid peroxidation levels. We hypothesize that despite their high tocotrienol content, seeds synthesize tocopherols during germination to protect lipids from peroxidation events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

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    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly naturalized plant, Rivina humilis L., was found recently in the central part of Taiwan. This plant represents a new record of this genus and species for Taiwan. This Neotropical plant, native to the southern USA, Mexico, the Caribbean islands, and Central and South America, is described and illustrated in this report.

  17. Seeing and being seen: narcissistic pride and narcissistic humiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, John

    2006-08-01

    Seeing and being seen are important aspects of narcissism, where self-consciousness is always a feature, and one which becomes acute when a patient loses the protection of a narcissistic relationship and is obliged to tolerate a degree of separateness. Having felt hidden and protected, he now feels conspicuous and exposed to a gaze which makes him vulnerable to humiliation. This often has a devastating and unbearable quality to it, particularly when it is felt to arise in retaliation to the patient's own use of gaze to establish a superiority which allowed the patient to look down on others. The need to avoid or cut short such humiliation may be so acute that the patient cannot deal with guilt and other emotions connected with loss which might otherwise be bearable. The author argues that development is impeded unless the patient is able to gain support to make the humiliation better understood and hence better tolerated. He describes some sessions from an analysis to illustrate how, in some analytic situations, much of the patient's concern and many of his defensive manoeuvres aim to reduce or to reverse experiences of humiliation. An understanding of the mechanisms involved seemed to enable some development to proceed.

  18. Socratic Pedagogy: Perplexity, Humiliation, Shame and a Broken Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghossian, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses and rebuts the claim that the purpose of the Socratic method is to humiliate, shame, and perplex participants. It clarifies pedagogical and exegetical confusions surrounding the Socratic method, what the Socratic method is, what its epistemological ambitions are, and how the historical Socrates likely viewed it. First, this…

  19. Beethoven, Ludwig van: Violinkonzert D-Dur op. 61

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Beethoven, Ludwig van: Violinkonzert D-Dur op. 61 (Kadenz: Alfred Schnittke). Romanzen für Violine und Orchester op. 40 und 50. Estonian National Symphony Orchestra, Arvo Volmer". Globe GLO 5155, distribution Talis (CD:153F). 1996. TT:1h 01'56"

  20. Comparison of a travoprost BAK-free formulation preserved with polyquaternium-1 with BAK-preserved travoprost in ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Paredes, Tania; Goldberg, Ivan; Coote, Michael; Wells, Anthony; Volksone, Lasma; Pillai, Manju R; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Denis, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate that the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of travoprost 0.004% preserved with polyquaternium-1 (travoprost benzalkonium chloride [BAK]-free) is non-inferior to that of travoprost 0.004% preserved with benzalkonium chloride (travoprost BAK) in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. A total of 371 patients randomly received travoprost BAK-free (n=185) or travoprost BAK (n=186) dosed once daily in the evening for 3 months. Patients were evaluated at 9 am, 11 AM, and 4 PM at baseline, weeks 2 and 6, and month 3. Intraocular pressure was also evaluated 36 and 60 hours after the month 3 visit. Travoprost BAK-free is non-inferior to travoprost BAK. The 95% upper confidence limits for the difference in mean IOP at month 3 (primary efficacy) were 0.5 mmHg, 0.6 mmHg, and 0.5 mmHg, at 9 AM, 11 AM, and 4 PM, respectively. Mean IOP reductions from baseline ranged from 7.6 to 8.7 mmHg in the travoprost BAK-free group and from 7.7 to 9.2 mmHg in the travoprost BAK group. At 36 and 60 hours after the last dose, mean IOP remained 6.8 mmHg and 5.7 mmHg below baseline in the travoprost BAK-free group, vs 7.3 mmHg and 6.0 mmHg in the travoprost BAK group, respectively. The safety profile of travoprost BAK-free was similar to that of travoprost BAK. Travoprost BAK-free safely and effectively lowers IOP in eyes with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This BAK-free formulation has comparable safety, efficacy, and duration of IOP-lowering effect to travoprost preserved with BAK. Travoprost BAK-free is an effective option for IOP reduction while avoiding BAK exposure.

  1. Duration of IOP reduction with travoprost BAK-free solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Ronald L; Peace, James H; Smith, Stephen E; Walters, Thomas R; Dubiner, Harvey B; Weiss, Mark J; Ochsner, Katherine I

    2008-01-01

    To compare the duration of action of travoprost ophthalmic solution 0.004% (Travatan Z) formulated without benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to travoprost ophthalmic solution 0.004% formulated with BAK (Travatan). This was a prospective, randomized, double-masked study. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were randomized to receive 2 weeks of once-daily therapy with travoprost BAK-free or travoprost with BAK. Patients received the last dose of medication on day 13 and then intraocular pressure (IOP) was assessed every 12 hours for 60 hours. Statistical analysis included change in IOP from baseline for each group and comparison of mean IOP between groups. Of the 109 patients enrolled, 106 patients completed the study. Untreated mean baseline IOP at 8 AM was 26.9 mm Hg in the travoprost BAK-free group and 27.1 mm Hg in the travoprost with BAK group. At 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours after the last dose, mean IOP in the travoprost BAK-free group was 18.7, 17.2, 19.5, 18.7, and 20.8 mm Hg, respectively; whereas mean IOP in the travoprost with BAK group was 18.5, 16.8, 19.7, 18.0, and 20.8 mm Hg, respectively. Mean IOP at all time points after the last dose of medication was >6 mm Hg lower than the 8 AM baseline in both groups. Between-group differences were within +/-0.6 mm Hg at all postdose time points. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 treatment groups at baseline or at any postdose time point. Drug-related side effects were uncommon, mild in intensity, and comparable between groups. Travoprost without BAK has similar IOP-lowering efficacy and safety compared with travoprost preserved with BAK. Both formulations of travoprost have a prolonged duration of action, with statistically and clinically significant reductions from baseline persisting up to 60 hours after the last dose.

  2. Humiliation as an intense emotional experience: Evidence from the electro-encephalogram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, M.; Jonas, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Humiliation, the emotion associated with being lowered in status in the eyes of others, seems to be very intense. As such, humiliation has been implied to play an important role in the escalation of inter-individual and inter-group conflict. Here, we provide the first clear empirical evidence that

  3. When Is Humiliation More Intense? The Role of Audience Laughter and Threats to the Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta H. Fischer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In personal accounts, humiliation is often reported as a very intense, painful, negative emotion. We report two scenario studies in which we explored two factors that may contribute to the intense character of humiliation: (1 unwanted, negative public exposure, and (2 a threat to central aspects of one's identity. Study 1 (N = 115 assessed emotional reactions to a public insult when an audience responded with either laughter or not and when someone from the audience offered support after the insult or no support was offered. Results showed that the intensity of humiliation increased when people laughed after the insult. However, support offered after the insult had no effect on reported humiliation. Study 2 (N = 99 focused on threats to different self-related values and showed stronger reports of humiliation when central self-related values were threatened than when less central self-related values were threatened. Study 2 also replicated the audience-effect from Study 1, but only when central self-related values were threatened and not when less central self-related values were threatened. Limitations of these studies (e.g., the use of scenarios and potential avenues for future research, such as the (long-term consequences of humiliation and humiliation in the context of social media, are discussed.

  4. "Teaching by humiliation" and mistreatment of medical students in clinical rotations: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M; Caldwell, Patrina Hy; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Barrett, Jenny

    2015-08-17

    To generate a contemporary understanding of "teaching by humiliation" as experienced by medical students in Australia. In this pilot study, we surveyed final-stage medical students from two Australian medical schools about their experiences of teaching by humiliation during their adult and paediatric clinical rotations. The students were invited to complete the anonymous survey at the end of their paediatric rotation in Semester 2 of 2013. We used descriptive statistics to analyse quantitative data, and a grounded theory approach to analyse qualitative data. Student reports of experiencing or witnessing teaching by humiliation during their adult and paediatric clinical rotations. Of 151 students invited to participate, 146 (96.7%) completed the survey. Most students reported experiencing (108; 74.0%) or witnessing (118; 83.1%) teaching by humiliation during adult clinical rotations. Smaller but still sizeable proportions had experienced (42; 28.8%) or witnessed (64; 45.1%) it during their paediatric clinical rotation. The humiliating and intimidating behaviours students experienced were mostly more subtle than overt and included aggressive and abusive questioning techniques. The students' responses to these practices ranged from disgust and regret about entering the medical profession to endorsement of teachers' public exposure of a student's poor knowledge. Practices associated with humiliating medical students persist in contemporary medical education. These practices need to be eradicated, given the evidence that they affect students' learning and mental health and are dissonant with formal professionalism curricula. Interventions are needed to interrupt the transgenerational legacy and culture in which teaching by humiliation is perpetuated.

  5. The novel Candida albicans transporter Dur31 Is a multi-stage pathogenicity factor.

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    François L Mayer

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most frequent cause of oral fungal infections. However, the exact pathogenicity mechanisms that this fungus employs are largely unknown and many of the genes expressed during oral infection are uncharacterized. In this study we sought to functionally characterize 12 previously unknown function genes associated with oral candidiasis. We generated homozygous knockout mutants for all 12 genes and analyzed their interaction with human oral epithelium in vitro. Eleven mutants caused significantly less epithelial damage and, of these, deletion of orf19.6656 (DUR31 elicited the strongest reduction in pathogenicity. Interestingly, DUR31 was not only involved in oral epithelial damage, but in multiple stages of candidiasis, including surviving attack by human neutrophils, endothelial damage and virulence in vivo. In silico analysis indicated that DUR31 encodes a sodium/substrate symporter with 13 transmembrane domains and no human homologue. We provide evidence that Dur31 transports histatin 5. This is one of the very first examples of microbial driven import of this highly cytotoxic antimicrobial peptide. Also, in contrast to wild type C. albicans, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to actively increase local environmental pH, suggesting that Dur31 lies in the extracellular alkalinization hyphal auto-induction pathway; and, indeed, DUR31 was required for morphogenesis. In agreement with this observation, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to assimilate the polyamine spermidine.

  6. The Novel Candida albicans Transporter Dur31 Is a Multi-Stage Pathogenicity Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, François L.; Wilson, Duncan; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Miramón, Pedro; Große, Katharina; Hube, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent cause of oral fungal infections. However, the exact pathogenicity mechanisms that this fungus employs are largely unknown and many of the genes expressed during oral infection are uncharacterized. In this study we sought to functionally characterize 12 previously unknown function genes associated with oral candidiasis. We generated homozygous knockout mutants for all 12 genes and analyzed their interaction with human oral epithelium in vitro. Eleven mutants caused significantly less epithelial damage and, of these, deletion of orf19.6656 (DUR31) elicited the strongest reduction in pathogenicity. Interestingly, DUR31 was not only involved in oral epithelial damage, but in multiple stages of candidiasis, including surviving attack by human neutrophils, endothelial damage and virulence in vivo. In silico analysis indicated that DUR31 encodes a sodium/substrate symporter with 13 transmembrane domains and no human homologue. We provide evidence that Dur31 transports histatin 5. This is one of the very first examples of microbial driven import of this highly cytotoxic antimicrobial peptide. Also, in contrast to wild type C. albicans, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to actively increase local environmental pH, suggesting that Dur31 lies in the extracellular alkalinization hyphal auto-induction pathway; and, indeed, DUR31 was required for morphogenesis. In agreement with this observation, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to assimilate the polyamine spermidine. PMID:22438810

  7. Medical miracles and the longue durée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, Jacalyn

    2005-01-01

    The hematologist-historian author became interested in the nature 'medical miracles', following a request to write a report on a set of bone marrows that was sent to the Vatican as a possible miracle cure in a cause for canonization. She questioned the prevalence of medical miracles, their structure, and relationship to other 'official' miracles that are recognized by the Church. Evidence was drawn from a variety of sources: oral testimony of pilgrims at feast day celebrations, ex voto paintings, and 160 miracle files in 67 canonization records of the Vatican Archives. Some changes can be detected through time, but the results also testify to remarkable longue durée in the healing experience: the patterns of suffering and despair, the gestures of pleading, the presence of beds and dreams, the astonishment of the caregivers, and above all the simultaneous recourse to medicine and religion both.

  8. Ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with either BAK-preserved latanoprost or BAK-free travoprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Katz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Katz1, Clark L Springs2, E Randy Craven3, Michela Montecchi-Palmer41Huron Ophthalmology, Ypsilanti, MI, USA; 2Indiana University Eye Care, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Specialty Eye Care, Denver, CO, USA; 4Alcon Research Ltd., Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK may adversely affect ocular surface health. This study evaluated symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD in patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved therapy to lower their intraocular pressure, who either continued that therapy or switched to a BAK-free therapy.Methods: Eligible adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma that had been controlled with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy (Xalatan® for at least one month and had a score of ≥ 13 (0 = none, 100 = most severe on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire were entered into this prospective, double-masked, randomized, active-controlled, multicenter trial. By random assignment, patients either continued with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or transitioned to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (Travatan Z® ophthalmic solution. OSDI scores were assessed again after six and 12 weeks.Results: For the 678 evaluable patients, mean change in OSDI score from baseline to week 12 favored the travoprost 0.004% BAK-free group, but was not statistically different between groups (P = 0.10. When patients with mild OSD at baseline were assessed after 12 weeks, the mean OSDI score was significantly lower (P = 0.04 in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (score = 11.6 ± 10.8 units than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (score = 14.4 ± 11.9 units, and a significantly larger percentage (P < 0.01 improved to normal OSDI scores in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (62.9% of group than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (47.0% of group. Patients pretreated with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% for >24 months were significantly more likely (P

  9. Kalinnikov: Sinfonie Nr.2 A-Dur, Ouvertüre Zar Boris / Hanspeter Krellmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krellmann, Hanspeter

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Kalinnikov: Sinfonie Nr.2 A-Dur, Ouvertüre Zar Boris, Die Zeder und die Palme. Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" (AD: 1989) Chandos / Koch Records CD 8805 (WD: 59'40") DDD

  10. Dinlerin intihar olgusuna bakışı

    OpenAIRE

    SÜMER, Necati

    2015-01-01

    Dinlerin intihar olgusuna bakışını ele alan bu tez, giriş ve dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Giriş kısmında çalışma hakkında genel bilgiler, intihar ve onunla ilişkili kavramlar, intihar üzerine bazı teoriler, antik ve ilkel toplumlardaki intihar olgusu üzerinde durulmuştur. Birinci bölümde, Yahudilikte hayat ve ölüm anlayışı ele alınarak, bu dinin intihara bakışı ve Yahudilik tarihinde meydana gelen intiharlar incelenmiştir. Bu bölümde ayrıca Yahudi din otoriteleri ve mezheplerinin inti...

  11. Pan-pan Girls: Humiliating Liberation in Postwar Japanese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Sakamoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some literary representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japan. ‘Pan-pan’ is a derogatory term for street prostitutes who (mostly served the soldiers of the occupying forces. Immediately after World War II, the Japanese government established the RAA (Recreation Amusement Association and employed several thousand women to provide sexual services for foreign soldiers, ostensibly to protect Japanese women of middle and upper classes from rape and other violence. When the RAA was closed down in 1946 due to the US concern over widespread VD, many of the women who lost their jobs went out on the street and became private and illegal prostitutes – the pan-pan girls. With their red lipstick, cigarettes, nylon stockings and high-heel shoes, often holding onto the arms of tall, uniformed American GIs, the ‘pan-pan girls’ became a symbol of the occupation, and have been textually reproduced throughout the postwar period. This paper analyses the images and representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japanese literature, to consider how the ‘pan-pan girls’ have functioned as a metaphor for the occupation and contributed to the public memory construction of the occupation. I identify some major codes of representations (victimisation, humiliation, and national trauma; eroticism and decadence; sexual freedom and materialism and argue that the highly gendered and sexualised bodies of the ‘pan-pan girls’ have continued to allow simplistic and selective remembering of the occupation at the expense of recalling the pivotal role of Japanese patriarchy in the postwar period.

  12. Comparative in vitro toxicology study of travoprost polyquad-preserved, travoprost BAK-preserved, and latanoprost BAK-preserved ophthalmic solutions on human conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Riancho, Luisa; Liang, Hong; Baudouin, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    To compare the toxicological profile of a new formulation of travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution (travoprost PQ), containing the preservative polyquaternium-1(PQ, polyquad), with the commercially available formulation of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-preserved travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution (travoprost BAK) and BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% ophthalmic solution (latanoprost BAK). Human conjunctival epithelial cells were incubated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), BAK 0.015%, BAK 0.020%, PQ 0.001%, travoprost PQ preserved with PQ 0.001%, travoprost preserved with BAK 0.015%, or latanoprost preserved with BAK 0.020%. Six toxicological assays were used to assess: cell viability (neutral red, Alamar blue), apoptosis (YO-PRO-1, Hoechst 33342), and oxidative stress (H(2)DCF-DA, hydroethidine). Apoptosis and oxidative stress were each reported according to cell viability as observed with neutral red and Alamar blue for a total of 10 analyses per treatment depending on the cell viability test used to interpret apoptosis and oxidative stress responses. There were no significant differences in toxicity between cells exposed to PBS and cells exposed to travoprost PQ (10/10 analyses) or PQ 0.001% (9/10 analyses). Ten out of 10 analyses revealed that travoprost PQ produced significantly less cytotoxicity than latanoprost BAK (p solution in 9 of 10 analyses (p < 0.0001). A panel of in vitro toxicity analyses supports the safety of travoprost PQ. Travoprost PQ may be better for ocular surface health than BAK-preserved formulations of latanoprost or travoprost but clinical studies are required to validate these comparisons.

  13. PEMIKIRAN GUS DUR TENTANG PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER DAN KEARIFAN LOKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LukLuk Nur Mufidah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Education which emphasized on cognition domain should be changed by balancing it with skills (psychomotor and attitudes (affective. It is intended that education is able to produce savvy generations who have high moral standards. To that end, KH Abdurrahman Wahid -or better known as Gus Dur- had a concept of character building in education by promoting morality in education. Character building in education is the education which is based on local wisdom. Local wisdom is social norms and values contained in tradition and customs as well as in Islamic teachings that govern how a balance should be established between carrying capacity of the natural environment, lifestyle, and the needs of human beings. In the language of Gus Dur, local wisdom was called the indigenization of Islam in which the teachings of Islam and local traditions were used as a moral basis in the real life of people. Because the cultivation of moral values could be done through education, the local wisdom should be the basic concept of education process. Customs become an integral part in daily life, while religion becomes a way of life to conform to the guidance of Allah. Local wisdom formed from local traditions and locality of religious teachings was able to provide life lessons that were useful for the development process of maturity through the educational process.           الملخص: إن التربية المفضّلة الجانب المعرفي – كما يقع الآن -  لابد من تركها، ويكون البديل هو الموازنة بين الجانب المعرفي والجانب النفسحركي والمهني. والهدف من هذا تخريج الطلاب أو الأجيال الأذكياء المتأدّبين المتخلّقين. وفي هذا كان لكياهي الحاج عبد الرحمن وحيد المعروف بغوسدور فكرة عن التربية الخلقية وهي التربية التي

  14. BAK overexpression mediates p53-independent apoptosis inducing effects on human gastric cancer cells

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    Liu Jun

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a novel pro-apoptotic gene of the Bcl-2 family. It has been reported that gastric tumors have reduced BAK levels when compared with the normal mucosa. Moreover, mutations of the BAK gene have been identified in human gastrointestinal cancers, suggesting that a perturbation of BAK-mediated apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effects of gene transfer mediated elevations in BAK expression on human gastric cancer cells in vitro. Methods Eukaryotic expression vector for the BAK gene was constructed and transferred into gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-45 (wild-type p53 and MKN-28 (mutant-type p53. RT-PCR and Western Blotting detected cellular BAK gene expression. Cell growth activities were detected by MTT colorimetry and flow cytometry, while apoptosis was assayed by electronic microscopy and TUNEL. Western Blotting and colorimetry investigated cellular caspase-3 activities. Results BAK gene transfer could result in significant BAK overexpression, decreased in vitro growth, cell cycle G0/G1 arrest, and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In transferred cells, inactive caspase-3 precursor was cleaved into the active subunits p20 and p17, during BAK overexpression-induced apoptosis. In addition, this process occurred equally well in p53 wild-type (MKN-45, or in p53 mutant-type (MKN-28 gastric cancer cells. Conclusions The data presented suggests that overexpression of the BAK gene can lead to apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, which does not appear to be dependent on p53 status. The action mechanism of BAK mediated apoptosis correlates with activation of caspase-3. This could be served as a potential strategy for further development of gastric cancer therapies.

  15. BAK overexpression mediates p53-independent apoptosis inducing effects on human gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Qiang-Song; Zheng, Li-Duan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Jun; Qian, Wei

    2004-01-01

    BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer) is a novel pro-apoptotic gene of the Bcl-2 family. It has been reported that gastric tumors have reduced BAK levels when compared with the normal mucosa. Moreover, mutations of the BAK gene have been identified in human gastrointestinal cancers, suggesting that a perturbation of BAK-mediated apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effects of gene transfer mediated elevations in BAK expression on human gastric cancer cells in vitro. Eukaryotic expression vector for the BAK gene was constructed and transferred into gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-45 (wild-type p53) and MKN-28 (mutant-type p53). RT-PCR and Western Blotting detected cellular BAK gene expression. Cell growth activities were detected by MTT colorimetry and flow cytometry, while apoptosis was assayed by electronic microscopy and TUNEL. Western Blotting and colorimetry investigated cellular caspase-3 activities. BAK gene transfer could result in significant BAK overexpression, decreased in vitro growth, cell cycle G 0 /G 1 arrest, and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In transferred cells, inactive caspase-3 precursor was cleaved into the active subunits p20 and p17, during BAK overexpression-induced apoptosis. In addition, this process occurred equally well in p53 wild-type (MKN-45), or in p53 mutant-type (MKN-28) gastric cancer cells. The data presented suggests that overexpression of the BAK gene can lead to apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, which does not appear to be dependent on p53 status. The action mechanism of BAK mediated apoptosis correlates with activation of caspase-3. This could be served as a potential strategy for further development of gastric cancer therapies

  16. Water deficit mechanisms in perennial shrubs Cerasus humilis leaves revealed by physiological and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zepeng; Ren, Jing; Zhou, Lijuan; Sun, Lina; Wang, Jiewan; Liu, Yulong; Song, Xingshun

    2016-01-01

    Drought (Water deficit, WD) poses a serious threat to extensively economic losses of trees throughout the world. Chinese dwarf cherry ( Cerasus humilis ) is a good perennial plant for studying the physiological and sophisticated molecular network under WD. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of WD on C. humilis through physiological and global proteomics analysis and improve understanding of the WD resistance of plants. Currently, physiological parameters were applied to investigate C. humilis response to WD. Moreover, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to identify differentially expressed proteins in C. humilis leaves subjected to WD (24 d). Furthermore, we also examined the correlation between protein and transcript levels. Several physiological parameters, including relative water content and Pn were reduced by WD. In addition, the malondialdehyde (MDA), relative electrolyte leakage (REL), total soluble sugar, and proline were increased in WD-treated C. humilis . Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 46 protein spots (representing 43 unique proteins) differentially expressed in C. humilis leaves under WD. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, ROS scavenging, carbohydrate metabolism, transcription, protein synthesis, protein processing, and nitrogen and amino acid metabolisms, respectively. WD promoted the CO 2 assimilation by increase light reaction and Calvin cycle, leading to the reprogramming of carbon metabolism. Moreover, the accumulation of osmolytes (i.e., proline and total soluble sugar) and enhancement of ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione s-transferase pathway in leaves could minimize oxidative damage of membrane and other molecules under WD. Importantly, the regulation role of carbohydrate metabolisms (e. g. glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathways, and TCA) was enhanced. These findings provide key candidate proteins for genetic improvement of perennial plants metabolism under

  17. Disappearing population of Betula humilis Schrk. on the Maliszewskie Lake, NE Poland

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    Chrzanowska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Betula humilis Schrk. is an endangered glacial relict inhabiting wet meadows, natural and drained fens. One of its declining populations is located on the Maliszewskie Lake (the Wizna swamp, north-eastern Poland. The goal of the present study was to estimate the number of B. humilis individuals in this locality. In the Maliszewskie Lake population, 59 ramets, grouped into three clusters, were found. Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci were chosen to genotype 52 ramets. The analysis revealed that all the shoots within the single cluster had the same genotypes at the loci considered. This means that each cluster constituted one genetically distinct individual; thus, there were only three individuals of B. humilis in the studied population. The maintenance of the B. humilis population in the Maliszewskie Lake area requires urgent active protection involving removal of the shading vegetation. In fact, the entire Maliszewskie Lake is worthy of protection because of its hitherto unexplained origin and the occurrence of many endangered bird species.

  18. Humiliated Self, Bad Self or Bad Behavior? The Relations between Moral Emotional Appraisals and Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver-Kuhalampi, Mia; Figueiredo, Ana; Sortheix, Florencia; Fontaine, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    It has often been found in the literature that guilt motivates reparative behavior and that shame elicits aggressive reactions. However, recent research suggests that it is not the experience of shame, but rather the experience of humiliation that triggers aggressive reactions. The present study focuses on the role of shame, guilt and humiliation…

  19. Multiobjective Bak-Sneppen model on a small-world network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elettreby, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Small-world networks (SWN) are relevant to biological systems. We study the dynamics of the Bak-Sneppen (BS) model on small-world network, including the concepts of extremal dynamics, multiobjective optimization and coherent noise. We find that the small-world structure stabilizes the system. Also, it is more realistic to augment the Bak-Sneppen model by these concepts

  20. Multiobjective Bak-Sneppen model on a small-world network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elettreby, M.

    2004-09-01

    Small-world networks (SWN) are relevant to biological systems. We study the dynamics of the Bak-Sneppen (BS) model on small-world network, including the concepts of extremal dynamics, multiobjective optimization and coherent noise. We find that the small-world structure stabilizes the system. Also, it is more realistic to augment the Bak-Sneppen model by these concepts. (author)

  1. Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi / Andreas K. W. Meyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meyer, Andreas K. W.

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". DG 2 CD 445857-2 (WD: 138'37")

  2. Long-term exposure to political violence: The particular injury of persistent humiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; McNeely, Clea; Olsen, Joseph A; Belli, Robert F; Doty, Samuel Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the association between exposure to political violence over a 25-year period and adult functioning among a population that has experienced protracted and severe political conflict. Instead of aggregating exposure to political violence across time and type of exposure, as is commonly done, the event history calendar pioneered in this study assessed exposure to five forms of political violence annually from 1987 to 2011 in a representative sample of 1788 adults, aged 37 on average, in the occupied Palestinian territories (West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip). This method allowed for the identification of trajectories of exposure to political violence from childhood to adulthood using latent profile analysis. We then correlated the trajectories of exposure to measures of economic, political, community, family, psychological, and health functioning. As expected, being shot at, having one's home raided, being hit or kicked, being verbally abused, and witnessing someone close being humiliated were all elevated during periods of heightened political conflict (the first intifada (1987-1993) and, less so, the second intifada (2000-2005)). In addition, 12% of women and men reported high and persistent levels of exposure to humiliation (being verbally abused and/or witnessing someone close being humiliated) across the entire 25-year period. These individuals lived predominantly in neighborhoods with a high Israeli military presence. Compared to those who experienced periodic exposure to political violence, persistently humiliated men and women reported significantly lower health, economic, political, and psychological functioning, as well as higher social cohesion and political expression. Relevant literatures are reviewed when concluding that persistent humiliation is a neglected form of political violence that is best represented as a direct (versus structural), acute (versus chronic), macro (versus micro), and high-grade (versus low

  3. Mahler: Sinfonie Nr. 8 Es-Dur (Sinfonie der Tausend) / Norbert Rüdell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüdell, Norbert

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Mahler: Sinfonie Nr. 8 Es-Dur (Sinfonie der Tausend). Estonian Boys' Choir, Brunnsbo Children's Choir, Gothenburg Opera Chorus, Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Choir, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus, Gothenburg Opera Chorus, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. BIS/Disco-Center CD 700 (WD:72'18")

  4. Shame, pride and humiliation: emotional counterpoints in the experience of female labor migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ariza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of 12 in-depth interviews with Dominican immigrant workers in the low reproductive sectors in Madrid in 2014 (domestic service and care, a description is provided of the place occupied by shame, pride and humiliation as key social emotions.  From a sociological perspective, these emotions constitute a kind of gyroscope that reports on the status of social ties, as well as the quality of structurally-rooted social interaction. Humiliation, a darker version of shame, has been linked to migration due to the socially degraded jobs immigrants often perform. Although in contexts of acute social asymmetry, the condition of service inherent to domestic and care work often entails painful feelings, the success of the family economic project as well as small achievements in the field of employment constitute a source of deep satisfaction for immigrant women.

  5. Experimental effect of temperature and sedimentation on bleaching of the two Red Sea corals Stylophora pistillata and Acropora humilis

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    MOHAMMED S.A. AMMAR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammar MSA, Obuid-Allah AH, Al-Hammady MAM. 2013. Experimental effect of temperature and sedimentation on bleaching of the two Red Sea corals Stylophora pistillata and Acropora humilis. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 73-83. At 26°C (the control sample, the loss of zooxanthellae by each of the two studied corals Stylophora pistillata and Acropora humilis was very low. Cell viability of the two studied corals was similar at 26 and 29°C, but depicted a sharp decline of zooxanthellae lost at 31°C through time. As the temperature increased to 35°C, the loss of zooxanthellae from each host increased both with time and temperature elevation. The coral A. humilis had a higher decrease in its zooxanthellae densities than S. pistillata at the same treatment. Bleaching temperature threshold was 33°C or less for the two species S. pistillata and A. humilis where 51% of their zooxanthellae were lost after 24 h of exposure. In samples exposed to sediment concentration of 0.1 mg/cm2/L, zooxanthellae densities of A. humilis and S. pistillata did not show any decrease after 1 day. However, after 1 days of exposure to 0.5 mg/cm2/L, zooxanthellae densities were significantly different from those of the controls. Increases in sediment concentration to 1 mg/cm2/L caused a decrease in zooxanthellae densities that vary greatly over time. Measurements of zooxanthellae densities of A. humilis and S. pistillata at this stage revealed a highly significant difference between exposed and control sample. At 1 g/cm2/L, the number of zooxanthellae lost from A. humilis was higher than those lost from S. pistillata at same time. It is suggested that, the normal sedimentation rate for A. humilis and S. pistillata to be in an order of 1 mg/cm2/L or less.

  6. 110 Years of Humiliation From 1839 to 1949: China’s Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Oksenberg 1997). Detrimental to its sovereignty, the West made decisions that adversely affected China’s interests. They concluded that the lack of...emotions: anger, shame, guilt , fear, hatred, a desire for revenge, embarrassment, dishonor, rejection, betrayal, or diminishment (Jacobson 2013, 67...China, humiliation can last for more than a century at the national level, which may directly influence the decisions and policies of the party and

  7. Phytochemical investigation of leaves and fruits extracts of Chamaerops humilis L.

    OpenAIRE

    H. Benmehdi; O. Hasnaoui; O. Benali; F. Salhi

    2011-01-01

    The major aim of this work is the research of the bioactif compounds isolated from the Chamaerops humilis L. From this perspective, phytochemical study was undertaken on this western Mediterranean plant. Phytochemical Screening based on tests of colouration and precipitation were undertaken by three solvents with different polarities such as water, ethanol and diethylether. The tests carried out on leaves and fruits show presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins. However, less ...

  8. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  9. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  10. N-(1-Pyrenyl Maleimide Induces Bak Oligomerization and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Jurkat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Rong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available N-(1-pyrenyl maleimide (NPM is a fluorescent reagent that is frequently used as a derivatization agent for the detection of thio-containing compounds. NPM has been shown to display a great differential cytotoxicity against hematopoietic cancer cells. In this study, the molecular mechanism by which NPM induces apoptosis was examined. Here, we show that treatment of Jurkat cells with NPM leads to Bak oligomerization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, and release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytosol. Induction of Bak oligomerization appears to play a critical role in NPM-induced apoptosis, as downregulation of Bak by shRNA significantly prevented NPM-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of caspase 8 by Z-IETD-FMK and/or depletion of Bid did not affect NPM-induced oligomerization of Bak. Taken together, these results suggest that NPM-induced apoptosis is mediated through a pathway that is independent of caspase-8 activation.

  11. Tyrosine-610 in the Receptor Kinase BAK1 Does Not Play a Major Role in Brassinosteroid Signaling or Innate Immunity

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    Vijayata Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1 functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1, which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR, respectively, which are involved in immunity. BAK1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that can autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. It was previously reported that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 in the carboxy-terminal domain of BAK1 is required for its function in BR signaling and immunity. However, the functional role of Tyr-610 in vivo has recently come under scrutiny. Therefore, we have generated new BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants for functional studies. We first produced transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag in the homozygous bak1-4 bkk1-1 double null background. In a complementary approach, we expressed untagged BAK1 and BAK1 (Y610F in the bak1-4 null mutant. Neither BAK1 (Y610F transgenic line had any obvious growth phenotype when compared to wild-type BAK1 expressed in the same background. In addition, the BAK1 (Y610F-Flag plants responded similarly to plants expressing BAK1-Flag in terms of brassinolide (BL inhibition of root elongation, and there were only minor changes in gene expression between the two transgenic lines as monitored by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. In terms of plant immunity, there were no significant differences between plants expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag and BAK1-Flag in the growth of the non-pathogenic hrpA- mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, untagged BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants were as responsive as plants expressing BAK1 (in the bak1-4 background and wild-type Col-0 plants toward treatment with the EF-Tu- and flagellin-derived peptide epitopes elf18- and flg22, respectively, as measured by reactive

  12. Proapoptotic Bak and Bax guard against fatal systemic and organ-specific autoimmune disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kylie D.; Lin, Ann; Robb, Lorraine; Josefsson, Emma C.; Henley, Katya J.; Gray, Daniel H. D.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Roberts, Andrew W.; Strasser, Andreas; Huang, David C. S.; Waring, Paul; O’Reilly, Lorraine A.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of the “intrinsic” apoptotic pathway is associated with the development of cancer and autoimmune disease. Bak and Bax are two proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family with overlapping, essential roles in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Their activity is critical for the control of cell survival during lymphocyte development and homeostasis, best demonstrated by defects in thymic T-cell differentiation and peripheral lymphoid homeostasis caused by their combined loss. Because most bak−/−bax−/− mice die perinatally, the roles of Bax and Bak in immunological tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease remain unclear. We show that mice reconstituted with a Bak/Bax doubly deficient hematopoietic compartment develop a fatal systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disease characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibodies, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, and vasculitis. Importantly, these mice also develop a multiorgan autoimmune disease with autoantibodies against most solid glandular structures and evidence of glandular atrophy and necrotizing vasculitis. Interestingly, similar albeit less severe pathology was observed in mice containing a hematopoietic compartment deficient for only Bak, a phenotype reminiscent of the disease seen in patients with point mutations in BAK. These studies demonstrate a critical role for Bak and an ancillary role for Bax in safeguarding immunological tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease. This suggests that direct activators of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, such as BH3 mimetics, may be useful for treatment of diverse autoimmune diseases. PMID:23349374

  13. BIM-Mediated Membrane Insertion of the BAK Pore Domain Is an Essential Requirement for Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Weber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BAK activation represents a key step during apoptosis, but how it converts into a mitochondria-permeabilizing pore remains unclear. By further delineating the structural rearrangements involved, we reveal that BAK activation progresses through a series of independent steps: BH3-domain exposure, N-terminal change, oligomerization, and membrane insertion. Employing a “BCL-XL-addiction” model, we show that neutralization of BCL-XL by the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 resulted in death only when cells were reconstituted with BCL-XL:BAK, but not BCL-2/ BCL-XL:BIM complexes. Although this resembles the indirect model, release of BAK from BCL-XL did not result in spontaneous adoption of the pore conformation. Commitment to apoptosis required association of the direct activator BIM with oligomeric BAK promoting its conversion to a membrane-inserted pore. The sequential nature of this cascade provides multiple opportunities for other BCL-2 proteins to interfere with or promote BAK activation and unites aspects of the indirect and direct activation models.

  14. Distribution des durées de séjour par Diagnosis Related Group

    OpenAIRE

    Eggli, Yves; Koehn, Véronique; Paccaud, Fred; Moyard M. (Collab.),

    1988-01-01

    Ce cahier fournit les principales informations concernant les durées de séjour et le nombre de sorties observées dans 33 hôpitaux suisses pour l'années 1984. La description des clientèles hospitalières est fondée sur les "Diagnosis Related Groups" (DRG), qui forment une classification de 472 groupes de patients hospitalisés. [Auteurs, p. 1

  15. A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the core genetic components of salt and osmotic stress responses in Braya humilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengshan Zhao

    Full Text Available Braya humilis is a member of the Euclidieae tribe within the family Brassicaceae. This species exhibits a broad range of adaptations to different climatic zones and latitudes as it has a distribution that ranges from northern Asia to the arctic-alpine regions of northern North America. In China, B. humilis is mainly found on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and in adjacent arid regions. In this study, we sequenced a sample from an arid region adjacent to the QTP using the Illumina platform generating a total of 46,485 highly accurate unigenes, of which 78.41% were annotated by BLASTing versus public protein databases. The B. humilis transcriptome is characterized by a high level of sequence conservation compared with its close relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. We also used reciprocal blast to identify shared orthologous genes between B. humilis and four other sequenced Brassicaceae species (i.e. A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Capsella rubella, and Thellungiella parvula. To enable precise characterization of orthologous genes, the early-diverging basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda was also included. A total of 6,689 orthologous genes were identified before stricter criteria for the determination of e-values, amino acid hit lengths, and identity values was applied to further reduce this list. This led to a final list of 381 core orthologous genes for B. humilis; 39 out of these genes are involved in salt and osmotic stress responses and estimations of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios for this species and A. thaliana orthologs show that these genes are under purifying selection in B. humilis. Expression of six genes was detected in B. humilis seedlings under salt and osmotic stress treatments. Comparable expression patterns to their counterparts in Arabidopsis suggest that these orthologous genes are both sequence and functional conservation. The results of this study demonstrate that the environmental adaptations of B. humilis are mainly the

  16. Ground penetrating radar survey across the Bok Bak fault, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuniarti Ulfa; Nur Fathin Mohd Jamel; Mardiana Samsuardi

    2013-01-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was done across the Bok Bak Fault zone in Baling, Kedah in order to investigate the shallow subsurface geology of the Bok Bak fault zone, its extension and associated weak zones within the study area. GPR data acquisition was compared with visual inspection on the slope of the outcrop. Ten GPR profiles were acquired using 250 MHz GPR frequency. Basic data processing and filtering to reduce some noise and unwanted signal was done using MALA RAMAC Ground Vision software. The data penetrate around 2 meters in depth for all survey lines. In most lines shows clear images of shallowest Bok Bak Fault (NW trending) as detected at distance of 28 m horizontal marker. It also exhibits several sets of faults as a result of Bok Bak Fault deformation, including the conjugate NE trending fault (Lubok Merbau Fault). Active seismicity encompasses the Malay-Thai Peninsular trigger the changes of Bok Bak Fault dipping direction, steeper dips of conjugate faults and faults or fractures rotational movement. (author)

  17. Interaction between Na-K-ATPase and Bcl-2 proteins BclXL and Bak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Peter K; Alqahtani, Tariq; Flues, Karin; Meller, Jaroslaw; Adragna, Norma C

    2015-01-01

    In silico analysis predicts interaction between Na-K-ATPase (NKA) and Bcl-2 protein canonical BH3- and BH1-like motifs, consistent with NKA inhibition by the benzo-phenanthridine alkaloid chelerythrine, a BH3 mimetic, in fetal human lens epithelial cells (FHLCs) (Lauf PK, Heiny J, Meller J, Lepera MA, Koikov L, Alter GM, Brown TL, Adragna NC. Cell Physiol Biochem 31: 257-276, 2013). This report establishes proof of concept: coimmunoprecipitation and immunocolocalization showed unequivocal and direct physical interaction between NKA and Bcl-2 proteins. Specifically, NKA antibodies (ABs) coimmunoprecipitated BclXL (B-cell lymphoma extra large) and BAK (Bcl-2 antagonist killer) proteins in FHLCs and A549 lung cancer cells. In contrast, both anti-Bcl-2 ABs failed to pull down NKA. Notably, the molecular mass of BAK1 proteins pulled down by NKA and BclXL ABs appeared to be some 4-kDa larger than found in input monomers. In silico analysis predicts these higher molecular mass BAK1 proteins as alternative splicing variants, encoding 42 amino acid (aa) larger proteins than the known 211-aa long canonical BAK1 protein. These BAK1 variants may constitute a pool separate from that forming mitochondrial pores by specifically interacting with NKA and BclXL proteins. We propose a NKA-Bcl-2 protein ternary complex supporting our hypothesis for a special sensor role of NKA in Bcl-2 protein control of cell survival and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Parus humilis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 29 primer pairs were further tested in 30 individuals, of which, seven were ... turing polyacrylamide gels, bands with a size of 50–350 bp were analysed using ... wise linkage disequilibrium (LD) and Hardy–Weinberg equi- librium (HWE) ...

  19. Growth, biomass, and production of two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae) and their role in the food web of Lake Tana (Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Growth, biomass and production of two small barbs (Barbus humilis and Barbus tanapelagius) and their role in the food web of Lake Tana were investigated. From length–frequency distribution of trawl monitoring surveys growth coefficient, F' values were estimated at 3.71–4.17 for B. humilis and

  20. Growth, biomass, and production of two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae) and their role in the food web of Lake Tana (Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Growth, biomass and production of two small barbs (Barbus humilis and Barbus tanapelagius) and their role in the food web of Lake Tana were investigated. From length–frequency distribution of trawl monitoring surveys growth coefficient, Φ′ values were estimated at 3.71–4.17 for B. humilis and

  1. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK induces apoptosis or necrosis, but has no major influence on the cell cycle of Jurkat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pozarowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAK is a cationic detergent with a very slow turnover. Because of its strong antibacterial activities, BAK is widely used especially in dentistry and ophthalmology. It is the most commonly used preservative in topical ophthalmic medications. Due to chronicity and widespread use of such treatments, BAK’s side effects are of great importance. BAK toxicity for adherent cells, probably related to its pro-oxidative activities, is time- and dose-dependent. Although lymphocytes often infiltrate superficial eye tissues, the BAK influence on them is yet to be established. The aim of this study was to check BAK cytotoxicity on T lymphocytic Jurkat line cells and to verify the suggestion that BAK can induce G2M cell blocks. A dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect of BAK on lymphoid cells in relatively low concentrations was shown in this study. In lower concentrations, it shows a moderate apoptotic and minimal antiproliferative effect on Jurkat cells, while in higher concentrations it shows a rapid necrotic effect. No G2M cell blocks were observed. Our findings could suggest lymphoid dysfunction during intensive, prolonged topical BAK treatment, even at dosages relatively non-toxic to epithelial eye cells. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 225–230

  2. Cycloheximide Can Induce Bax/Bak Dependent Myeloid Cell Death Independently of Multiple BH3-Only Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Goodall

    Full Text Available Apoptosis mediated by Bax or Bak is usually thought to be triggered by BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family. BH3-only proteins can directly bind to and activate Bax or Bak, or indirectly activate them by binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby relieving their inhibition of Bax and Bak. Here we describe a third way of activation of Bax/Bak dependent apoptosis that does not require triggering by multiple BH3-only proteins. In factor dependent myeloid (FDM cell lines, cycloheximide induced apoptosis by a Bax/Bak dependent mechanism, because Bax-/-Bak-/- lines were profoundly resistant, whereas FDM lines lacking one or more genes for BH3-only proteins remained highly sensitive. Addition of cycloheximide led to the rapid loss of Mcl-1 but did not affect the expression of other Bcl-2 family proteins. In support of these findings, similar results were observed by treating FDM cells with the CDK inhibitor, roscovitine. Roscovitine reduced Mcl-1 abundance and caused Bax/Bak dependent cell death, yet FDM lines lacking one or more genes for BH3-only proteins remained highly sensitive. Therefore Bax/Bak dependent apoptosis can be regulated by the abundance of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1, independently of several known BH3-only proteins.

  3. The Arabidopsis Malectin-Like/LRR-RLK IOS1 Is Critical for BAK1-Dependent and BAK1-Independent Pattern-Triggered Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Huang, Pin-Yao; Chien, Hsiao-Chiao; Chu, Po-Wei; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), and CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1) recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). A reverse genetics approach on genes responsive to the priming agent β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) revealed IMPAIRED OOMYCETE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (IOS1) as a critical PTI player. Arabidopsis thaliana ios1 mutants were hypersusceptible to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria. Accordingly, ios1 mutants showed defective PTI responses, notably delayed upregulation of the PTI marker gene FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1, reduced callose deposition, and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation upon MAMP treatment. Moreover, Arabidopsis lines overexpressing IOS1 were more resistant to bacteria and showed a primed PTI response. In vitro pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, coimmunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry analyses supported the existence of complexes between the membrane-localized IOS1 and BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1)-dependent PRRs FLS2 and EFR, as well as with the BAK1-independent PRR CERK1. IOS1 also associated with BAK1 in a ligand-independent manner and positively regulated FLS2-BAK1 complex formation upon MAMP treatment. In addition, IOS1 was critical for chitin-mediated PTI. Finally, ios1 mutants were defective in BABA-induced resistance and priming. This work reveals IOS1 as a novel regulatory protein of FLS2-, EFR-, and CERK1-mediated signaling pathways that primes PTI activation. PMID:27317676

  4. Reconstitution of proapoptotic BAK function in liposomes reveals a dual role for mitochondrial lipids in the BAK-driven membrane permeabilization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeta, Olatz; Landajuela, Ane; Gil, David; Taneva, Stefka; Di Primo, Carmelo; Sot, Begoña; Valle, Mikel; Frolov, Vadim A; Basañez, Gorka

    2011-03-11

    BAK is a key effector of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) whose molecular mechanism of action remains to be fully dissected in intact cells, mainly due to the inherent complexity of the intracellular apoptotic machinery. Here we show that the core features of the BAK-driven MOMP pathway can be reproduced in a highly simplified in vitro system consisting of recombinant human BAK lacking the carboxyl-terminal 21 residues (BAKΔC) and tBID in combination with liposomes bearing an appropriate lipid environment. Using this minimalist reconstituted system we established that tBID suffices to trigger BAKΔC membrane insertion, oligomerization, and pore formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that tBID-activated BAKΔC permeabilizes the membrane by forming structurally dynamic pores rather than a large proteinaceous channel of fixed size. We also identified two distinct roles played by mitochondrial lipids along the molecular pathway of BAKΔC-induced membrane permeabilization. First, using several independent approaches, we showed that cardiolipin directly interacts with BAKΔC, leading to a localized structural rearrangement in the protein that "primes" BAKΔC for interaction with tBID. Second, we provide evidence that selected curvature-inducing lipids present in mitochondrial membranes specifically modulate the energetic expenditure required to create the BAKΔC pore. Collectively, our results support the notion that BAK functions as a direct effector of MOMP akin to BAX and also adds significantly to the growing evidence indicating that mitochondrial membrane lipids are actively implicated in BCL-2 protein family function.

  5. Drug utilisation review (DUR) of the third generation cephalosporins. Focus on ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, A; Armour, C L

    1995-09-01

    Six parenteral third generation cephalosporins have been introduced into clinical use in the past 10 years. The 3 most frequently available agents are cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. These 3 third generation cephalosporins are characterised by a broad spectrum of activity and increased stability to beta-lactamases compared with the first and second generation cephalosporins. However, there are growing numbers of reports of resistance to these agents with increasing use. The major differences in the properties of the 3 agents are the long half-life of ceftriaxone and its dual route of elimination. Ceftazidime is best restricted to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections where other agents are contraindicated or ineffective. Cefotaxime and ceftriaxone can be used in nosocomial Gram-negative infections where P. aeruginosa can be ruled out. The types and incidences of adverse drug reactions are not different for the 3 agents. A number of drug utilisation review (DUR) studies of these agents in the hospital setting have reported a considerable incidence of inappropriate use and substantial avoidable costs. There are methodological problems with most of the DUR studies, especially the criteria and the methods of cost estimation. The use of pharmacoeconomic methodology could ensure more realistic cost estimation; however, outcome data are, in most cases, not available.

  6. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California - release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic strains of the African endoparasitoids Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were released to suppress the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California from 2006 – 2016. Both parasitoid species were recovered post-release within the same fruit season; ho...

  7. The small barbs Barbus humilis and B. trispilopleura of Lake Tana (Ethiopia): Are they ecotypes of the same species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Rutjes, H.A.; Graaf, de M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Four species of ‘small barbs’ (Barbus, subgenus Enteromius Cope, 1869) are known from Lake Tana, isolated in the Ethiopian highlands: B. humilis, B. trispilopleura, B. pleurogramma (all Boulenger, 1902) and B. tanapelagius de Graaf, 2000. However, only three species appear valid from cluster

  8. Efficacy, safety, and improved tolerability of travoprost BAK-free ophthalmic solution compared with prior prostaglandin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Charles Henry

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available J Charles Henry1, James H Peace2, Jeanette A Stewart3,4, William C Stewart3,41Little Rock Eye Clinic, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Diabetic Eye Medical Clinic, Inglewood, CA, USA; 3PRN Pharmaceutical Research Network, LLC, Dallas,TX, USA; 4Carolina Eye Institute, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USAPurpose: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of changing to travoprost BAK-free from prior prostaglandin therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.Design: Prospective, multi-center, historical control study.Methods: Patients treated with latanoprost or bimatoprost who needed alternative therapy due to tolerability issues were enrolled. Patients were surveyed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI to evaluate OSD symptoms prior to changing to travoprost BAK-free dosed once every evening. Patients were re-evaluated 3 months later.Results: In 691 patients, travoprost BAK-free demonstrated improved mean OSDI scores compared to either latanoprost or bimatoprost (p < 0.0001. Patients having any baseline OSD symptoms (n = 235 demonstrated significant improvement after switching to travoprost BAK-free (p < 0.0001. In 70.2% of these patients, symptoms were reduced in severity by at least 1 level. After changing medications to travoprost BAK-free, mean intraocular pressure (IOP was significantly decreased (p < 0.0001. Overall, 72.4% preferred travoprost BAK-free (p < 0.0001, travoprost BAK-free vs prior therapy. Travoprost BAK-free demonstrated less conjunctival hyperemia than either prior therapy (p < 0.0001.Conclusions: Patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved prostaglandin analog who are changed to travoprost BAK-free have clinically and statistically significant improvement in their OSD symptoms, decreased hyperemia, and equal or better IOP control.Keywords: glaucoma, prostaglandin analog, travoprost, latanoprost, bimatoprost, preservative, benzalkonium chloride

  9. Reflexiones sobre la actualidad del relativismo cultural: respuesta a Nicolás Sánchez Durá

    OpenAIRE

    Jacorzynski, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Este ensayo propone entablar una discusión con las tesis contenidas en el artículo de Nicolás Sánchez Durá, "Actualidad del relativismo cultural". En primer lugar, se analizan el etnocentrismo y el relativismo como dos respuestas éticas distintas al fenómeno de la diversidad cultural. En segundo lugar, se desarrollan la formulación del relativismo y el concepto de cultura propuestos por Sánchez Durá para analizarlos a la luz de la epistemología elaborada por el Wittgenstein tardío. En tercer ...

  10. Physiological adaptations to osmotic stress and characterization of a polyethylene glycol-responsive gene in Braya humilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lirong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Braya humilis (Brassicaceae is a widely distributed plant in arid and semi-arid regions of northern Asia. This plant is well adapted to extremely arid conditions and is a promising candidate species to discover novel drought tolerance strategies. However, not much information about the mechanism(s mediating drought resistance in this species is currently available. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize the physiological traits and expression patterns of a polyethylene glycol (PEG-responsive gene in B. humilis responding to different levels of osmotic stress induced by PEG-6000. Several important physiological parameters were examined, including the levels of relative water content, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzyme activity. A tolerance threshold between 20 and 30% PEG-6000 was identified for B. humilis. The water status and oxidative damage below this threshold were maintained at a relatively constant level during the 12 h of treatment. However, once the threshold was exceeded, the water status and oxidative damage were obviously affected after treatment for 4 h. The soluble protein results suggest that B. humilis maintains a vigorous resistance to osmotic stress and that it may play a greater role in osmotic regulation at late stages of stress. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase may be important at preventing oxidative damage in plants at early stages of stress, while peroxidase may be more involved in some biological processes that resist osmotic stress at the late stage, especially in severely damaged plants. Furthermore, a PEG-responsive gene, BhCIPK12, was identified by differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR, cloned, and characterized by quantitative real-time PCR. We hypothesized that this gene may play an important role in mediating osmotic stress or drought resistance in plants. Altogether, these results provide valuable insights into the mechanism

  11. Icons of Just Is: Justice, Suffering, and the Artwork of Samuel Bak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Phillips

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines select paintings by Holocaust survivor and painter Samuel Bak from his recent Just Is series. The essay explores ways Bak’s art bears witness to suffering. He creatively interrogates and reanimates the iconic figure of Lady Justice and the biblical principle of the lex talionis (“eye for an eye” in order to fashion alternative icons fit for an age of atrocity and loss. Bak’s artwork gives visual expression to Theodor Adorno’s view of the precariousness of art after Auschwitz. It is art’s responsibility to attend to the burden of real suffering experiences (the burden of the empirical and to think in contradictions, which renders art both adequate and inadequate in standing up against the injustice of other’s suffering. Through inventive juxtaposition of secular and sacred symbols, Bak displays the paradox of representation after the Holocaust and art’s precarious responsibility giving voice to suffering. Bak fashions visual spaces in which barbarity and beauty coincide and collide. He invites viewers into this space and into dialogue about justice’s standing and promises. Do Bak's remade icons of Just Is lament a permanent loss of justice and peace, or do they point tentatively to possibilities of life lived in a damaged world with an alternative Just Is? Bak’s artwork prompts such vexing questions for his viewers to contemplate and leaves them to decide what must be done.

  12. A BAX/BAK and cyclophilin D-independent intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Zamorano

    Full Text Available Most intrinsic death signals converge into the activation of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members BAX and BAK at the mitochondria, resulting in the release of cytochrome c and apoptosome activation. Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress leads to apoptosis through the upregulation of a subset of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, activating BAX and BAK at the mitochondria. Here we provide evidence indicating that the full resistance of BAX and BAK double deficient (DKO cells to ER stress is reverted by stimulation in combination with mild serum withdrawal. Cell death under these conditions was characterized by the appearance of classical apoptosis markers, caspase-9 activation, release of cytochrome c, and was inhibited by knocking down caspase-9, but insensitive to BCL-X(L overexpression. Similarly, the resistance of BIM and PUMA double deficient cells to ER stress was reverted by mild serum withdrawal. Surprisingly, BAX/BAK-independent cell death did not require Cyclophilin D (CypD expression, an important regulator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Our results suggest the existence of an alternative intrinsic apoptosis pathway emerging from a cross talk between the ER and the mitochondria.

  13. Forms of Religious Glocalization: Orthodox Christianity in the Longue Durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Roudometof

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article advocates a “glocal turn” in the religion–globalization problematic. It proposes a model of multiple glocalizations in order to analyze the historically constituted relationship between world religions and local cultures. First, the conceptual evolution from globalization to glocalization is discussed with special reference to the study of the religion. Second, the necessity for adopting the perspective of the longue durée with regard to the study of Eastern Orthodox Christianity is explained. Third, an outline of four forms of religious glocalization is proposed. Each of these forms is presented both analytically as well as through examples from the history of Eastern Christianity (from the 8th to the 21st century. It is argued that this approach offers a model for analyzing the relation between religion, culture and society that does not succumb to the Western bias inherent in the conventional narrative of western modernization and secularization.

  14. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils of Deverra scoparia Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudi, R.; Dehak, K.; Hadj Mahammed, M.; Didi Ouldelhadj, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oils of the aerial part of the plant Deverra scoparia Coss. &Dur. The extraction of essential oils was carried out by hydrodistillation. The composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS). 22 constituents were identified, representing 84.63% of the essential oil. The major compounds are: α-bornyl acetate (31.99%) andα-pinene (12.05%). The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH and ABTS. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil wasmore effective than the two references tested,ascorbic acidand Trolox (author)

  15. New species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associated with Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Almeida Garcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen, 1908 induces leaf galls on Andira humilis (Fabaceae in the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna of Bahia, Mato Grosso and São Paulo states, Brazil. Larva, pupa, female, and male of this new species of gall midge are described and illustrated in this paper. Keywords: Cerrado, Gall maker, Insect–plant interaction, Neotropical region, Taxonomy

  16. Alpha-Tocopheryl succinate causes mitochondrial permeabilization by preferential formation of Bak channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, L.; Dong, L.F.; Vališ, Karel; Freeman, R.; Ralph, S.J.; Turánek, J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2010), s. 782-794 ISSN 1360-8185 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520702; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Vitamin E succinate * apoptosis * Noxa-Bak Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.397, year: 2010

  17. First experience with BAK-free travoprost 0.004% in topical glaucoma medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gado AS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Salah Gado, Tamer Ahmed MackyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptObjectives: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (Travatan Z®, Alcon Laboratories, Inc, Fort Worth, TX is a new formulation that was developed with the aim of creating a formulation of travoprost that would maintain the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering efficacy and have an improved overall safety profile, particularly improved ocular surface tolerability.Methods: Thirty newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients were treated with BAK-free travoprost 0.004%. IOP readings were recorded at baseline before initiating treatment, at 4–6 weeks, and after 12 weeks of starting treatment. In addition, patient demographics, subjective symptoms (ie, burning, foreign-body sensation, itching, and stinging, and objective clinical signs such as conjunctival hyperemia were collected. Subjective symptoms were evaluated using a four-point scale ranging from “no symptoms,” “mild symptoms,” “moderate symptoms” to “severe symptoms.” As for clinical signs, severity of conjunctival hyperemia was evaluated. All other adverse events were collected.Results: BAK-free travoprost 0.004% provided an IOP decrease in all patients, with an overall mean of 28.3 ± 2.1 mmHg at baseline to a mean of 18.7 ± 1.6 mmHg at 4–6 weeks, and a mean of 18.4 ± 1.4 mmHg after 12 weeks. Both subjective symptoms and objective clinical signs were very few after treatment.Conclusion: The results demonstrate that BAK-free travoprost 0.004% is an effective, well tolerated, and safe medication in POAG patients.Keywords: primary open-angle glaucoma, POAG, benzalkonium chloride, Travatan

  18. PENGARUH PENINGKATAN SUHU TERHADAP KELIMPAHAN ZOOXANTHELLAE PADA KARANG PORITES CYLINDRICA DALAM BAK TERKONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul, Waris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAK ABDUL WARIS. Pengaruh Peningkatan Suhu Terhadap Kelimpahan Zooxanthellae Pada Karang Porites cylindrical Dalam Bak Terkontrol. Dibawah Bimbingan oleh CHAIR RANI dan SUPRIADI. Karang Porites merupakan salah satu genus karang yang tidak rentan dalam menerima pengaruh dari peningkatan suhu dan jika mengalami bleaching mereka cenderung pulih dengan sedikit atau tidak ada peningkatan kematian. Spesies karang yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu P.cylindrica. Penelitian ini bert...

  19. Bax and Bak Do Not Exhibit Functional Redundancy in Mediating Radiation-Induced Endothelial Apoptosis in the Intestinal Mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotolo, Jimmy A.; Maj, Jerzy G.; Feldman, Regina; Ren, Decheng; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Cheng, Emily H.-Y.; Kolesnick, Richard; Fuks, Zvi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To address in vivo the issue of whether Bax and Bak are functionally redundant in signaling apoptosis, capable of substituting for each other. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to whole-body radiation, and endothelial cell apoptosis was quantified using double immunostaining with TUNEL and anti-CD31 antibody. Crypt survival was determined at 3.5 days after whole-body radiation by the microcolony survival assay. Actuarial animal survival was calculated by the product-limit Kaplan-Meier method, and autopsies were performed to establish cause of death. Results: Radiation exposure of Bax- and Bak-deficient mice, both expressing a wild-type acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) phenotype, indicated that Bax and Bak are both mandatory, though mutually independent, for the intestinal endothelial apoptotic response. However, neither affected epithelial apoptosis at crypt positions 4-5, indicating specificity toward endothelium. Furthermore, Bax deficiency and Bak deficiency each individually mimicked ASMase deficiency in inhibiting crypt lethality in the microcolony assay and in rescuing mice from the lethal gastrointestinal syndrome. Conclusions: The data indicate that Bax and Bak have nonredundant functional roles in the apoptotic response of the irradiated intestinal endothelium. The observation that Bax deficiency and Bak deficiency also protect crypts in the microcolony assay provides strong evidence that the microvascular apoptotic component is germane to the mechanism of radiation-induced damage to mouse intestines, regulating reproductive cell death of crypt stem cell clonogens

  20. Overview of the [corrected] travoprost /timolol BAK-free fixed combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Realini, Tony

    2012-04-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness globally, representing a significant public health concern. More than 60 million people are affected by glaucoma worldwide; as this population ages, the number is expected to increase. Glaucoma is a collection of heterogeneous diseases sharing common clinical characteristics. The goal of treatment is to prevent significant visual dysfunction through reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). This is a review of the current literature about combination therapeutic regimens for the reduction of IOP, focusing on the risk : benefit profile of a fixed-combination therapy using travoprost and timolol. Since the debut of prostaglandin analogues in the 1990s, only modest innovation has occurred in glaucoma pharmacology. A growing body of research has established that the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK) might not be the benign contributor expected of excipient ingredients. Thus, BAK-free treatments were developed, with the goal of IOP reduction without furthering ocular surface disease symptoms. The BAK-free travoprost/timolol combination represents an important addition to glaucoma medication options and may fill an unmet need in this therapeutic arena.

  1. R.H. Moreno-Durán: fantasía y verdad. Valoración múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Luz Mary; Espinosa, Germán; García Ponce, Juan; Restrepo Forero, Gabriel Adolfo; Jaramillo Zuluaga, Jaime Eduardo; Palacios Rozo, Marco Antonio; Gutiérrez Girardot, Rafael; Raymond L., Williams; Balza, José; Torres Duque, Óscar; Fajardo, Diógenes; Carandell, José María; Cohen, Marcelo; Olaciregui, Julio; Goloboff, Gerardo Mario

    2005-01-01

    Pocos escritores colombianos han explorado diversos géneros literarios con resultados satisfactorios; Moreno-Durán destaca en el panorama artístico de Colombia al cosechar logros en una amplia producción creativa que incluye novelas, cuentos, ensayos y en los últimos tiempos el teatro. / Contenido. Preliminares; Capítulo 1 - R.H. Moreno-Durán: a fondo; Capítulo 2 - R.H. Moreno-Durán: en breve; Anexos.

  2. Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9357 (WD: 68'20") DDD (WD:114'36")

  3. Conjunctiva-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (CALT) Reactions to Antiglaucoma Prostaglandins with or without BAK-Preservative in Rabbit Acute Toxicity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbe, Antoine; Riancho, Luisa; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) is closely associated with ocular surface immunity. This study investigated the effects of antiglaucoma prostaglandin analogs with or without benzalkonium chloride (BAK) preservative on organized CALT using an acute toxic model. A total of 48 albino rabbits were used and seven groups of treatments were constituted. Solutions (50 µl) of PBS, 0.02%BAK, 0.02%BAK+latanoprost, 0.015%BAK+travoprost, 0.005%BAK+bimatoprost, BAK-freetravoprost preserved with the SofZia® system or BAK-freetafluprost were instilled 15 times at 5-min intervals in both eyes. CALT changes were analyzed using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), immunohistology in cryosections for detecting MUC-5AC+ mucocytes and CD45+ hematopoietic cells. Antiglaucoma eye drops stimulated inflammatory cell infiltration in the CALT, and seemed to be primarily related to the concentration of their BAK content. The CALT reaction after instillation of BAK-containing eye drops was characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration in the dome and intrafollicular layers and by cell circulation inside the lymph vessels. CD45 was strongly expressed in the CALT after instillation of all BAK-containing solutions at 4 h and decreased at 24 h. The number of MUC-5AC+ mucocytes around the CALT structure decreased dramatically after instillation of BAK-containing solutions. This study showed for the first time the in vivo aspect of rabbit CALT after toxic stimuli, confirming the concentration-dependent toxic effects of BAK. IVCM-CALT analysis could be a pertinent tool in the future for understanding the immunotoxicologic challenges in the ocular surface and would provide useful criteria for evaluating newly developed eye drops. PMID:22442734

  4. " Blaming, shaming, humiliation": Stigmatising medical interactions among people with non-epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Catherine; Lian, Olaug S

    2017-01-01

    Background : People with non-epileptic seizures (NES) describe challenging relationships with health professionals, and explain negative interactions as common and expected. Despite these difficulties, little is known about how people with NES experience difficult healthcare encounters. Methods : Using a thematic discourse analysis approach, we analysed the free-text survey responses of 135 people with NES and asked: what kind of challenges do people living with this condition encounter when interacting with health professionals, and how do they experience the consequences of difficult interactions? We explore their experiences by interpreting the latent meaning of participants' texts from a social-constructionist perspective on health and illness. Results : The overarching narrative depicts a fundamental breakdown in patient-provider relationships. According to our data, the negative experiences of study participants emerge from more than practitioners' lack of awareness of NES and access to information about the condition - to the extent that it is available. In examining the challenges people with NES encounter when interacting with health professionals, their main experiences centre on blame and humiliation. When exploring their experiences, theories of stigma serve as a useful theoretical framework. Conclusions : Normative judgements arising from psychogenic understandings of NES are stigmatising and restrict professional displays of respectful (patient-centred) care. Those with the condition depict being negatively stereotyped, illegitimated and held morally culpable by health professionals. Perceived to lack medical, moral and credible status, participants describe practitioners who treat them with disrespect, and some recount conduct that defies all ethical and professional obligations and standards. These encounters can have wide-ranging adverse consequences for patients: emotionally, physically, and for their future healthcare. The quality of healthcare

  5. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Bax and Bak Oligomerization Prevents Genotoxic Cell Death and Promotes Neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xin; Brahmbhatt, Hetal; Mergenthaler, Philipp; Zhang, Zhi; Sang, Jing; Daude, Michael; Ehlert, Fabian G R; Diederich, Wibke E; Wong, Eve; Zhu, Weijia; Pogmore, Justin; Nandy, Jyoti P; Satyanarayana, Maragani; Jimmidi, Ravi K; Arya, Prabhat; Leber, Brian; Lin, Jialing; Culmsee, Carsten; Yi, Jing; Andrews, David W

    2017-04-20

    Aberrant apoptosis can lead to acute or chronic degenerative diseases. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) triggered by the oligomerization of the Bcl-2 family proteins Bax/Bak is an irreversible step leading to execution of apoptosis. Here, we describe the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of Bax/Bak oligomerization that prevent MOMP. We demonstrate that these molecules disrupt multiple, but not all, interactions between Bax dimer interfaces thereby interfering with the formation of higher-order oligomers in the MOM, but not recruitment of Bax to the MOM. Small-molecule inhibition of Bax/Bak oligomerization allowed cells to evade apoptotic stimuli and rescued neurons from death after excitotoxicity, demonstrating that oligomerization of Bax is essential for MOMP. Our discovery of small-molecule Bax/Bak inhibitors provides novel tools for the investigation of the mechanisms leading to MOMP and will ultimately facilitate development of compounds inhibiting Bax/Bak in acute and chronic degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis is BAK-dependent, but BAX and BIM-independent in breast tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Miller

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel (Taxol-induced cell death requires the intrinsic cell death pathway, but the specific participants and the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies indicate that a BH3-only protein BIM (BCL-2 Interacting Mediator of cell death plays a role in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. We show here that BIM is dispensable in apoptosis with paclitaxel treatment using bim(-/- MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the bim(-/- mouse breast tumor model, and shRNA-mediated down-regulation of BIM in human breast cancer cells. In contrast, both bak (-/- MEFs and human breast cancer cells in which BAK was down-regulated by shRNA were more resistant to paclitaxel. However, paclitaxel sensitivity was not affected in bax(-/- MEFs or in human breast cancer cells in which BAX was down-regulated, suggesting that paclitaxel-induced apoptosis is BAK-dependent, but BAX-independent. In human breast cancer cells, paclitaxel treatment resulted in MCL-1 degradation which was prevented by a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. A Cdk inhibitor, roscovitine, blocked paclitaxel-induced MCL-1 degradation and apoptosis, suggesting that Cdk activation at mitotic arrest could induce subsequent MCL-1 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. BAK was associated with MCL-1 in untreated cells and became activated in concert with loss of MCL-1 expression and its release from the complex. Our data suggest that BAK is the mediator of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and could be an alternative target for overcoming paclitaxel resistance.

  7. BRI1 and BAK1 interact with G proteins and regulate sugar-responsive growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuancheng; Chen, Liangliang; Li, Shengjun; Zhang, Yueying; Xu, Ran; Liu, Zupei; Liu, Wuxia; Kong, Jingjing; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Cheng, Beijiu; Zheng, Leiying; Li, Yunhai

    2018-04-18

    Sugars function as signal molecules to regulate growth, development, and gene expression in plants, yeasts, and animals. A coordination of sugar availability with phytohormone signals is crucial for plant growth and development. The molecular link between sugar availability and hormone-dependent plant growth are largely unknown. Here we report that BRI1 and BAK1 are involved in sugar-responsive growth and development. Glucose influences the physical interactions and phosphorylations of BRI1 and BAK1 in a concentration-dependent manner. BRI1 and BAK1 physically interact with G proteins that are essential for mediating sugar signaling. Biochemical data show that BRI1 can phosphorylate G protein β subunit and γ subunits, and BAK1 can phosphorylate G protein γ subunits. Genetic analyses suggest that BRI1 and BAK1 function in a common pathway with G-protein subunits to regulate sugar responses. Thus, our findings reveal an important genetic and molecular mechanism by which BR receptors associate with G proteins to regulate sugar-responsive growth and development.

  8. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  9. Seasonal, Sex- and Plant Size-Related Effects on Photoinhibition and Photoprotection in the Dioecious Mediterranean Dwarf Palm, Chamaerops humilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melanie; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type ecosystems plants are exposed to several adverse environmental conditions throughout the year, ranging from drought stress during the warm and dry summers to chilling stress due to the typical drop in temperatures during winters. Here we evaluated the ecophysiological response, in terms of photoinhibition and photoprotection, of the dioecious Mediterranean palm, Chamaerops humilis to seasonal variations in environmental conditions. Furthermore, we considered as well the influence of plant size, maturity, and sexual dimorphism. Results showed evidence of winter photoinhibition, with a marked decrease of the F v /F m ratio below 0.7 between January and March, which was coincident with the lowest temperatures. During this period, the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and zeaxanthin levels increased, which might serve as a photoprotection mechanism, owing the full recovery from winter photoinhibition during spring. Furthermore, mature plants showed lower chlorophyll levels and higher β-carotene levels per unit of chlorophyll than juvenile plants, and females displayed lower leaf water contents and higher photoinhibition than males during summer, probably due to increased reproductive effort of females. However, neither low temperatures during winter nor reproductive events in females during the summer led to irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. We conclude that (i) the Mediterranean dwarf palm, C. humilis, suffers from photoinhibition during winter, but this is transient and does not lead to irreversible damage, and (ii) females from this plant species are more sensitive than males to photoinhibition during reproductive events.

  10. Seasonal, sex- and plant size-related effects on photoinhibition and photoprotection in the dioecious Mediterranean dwarf palm, Chamaerops humilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Morales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean-type ecosystems plants are exposed to several adverse environmental conditions throughout the year, ranging from drought stress during the warm and dry summers to chilling stress due to the typical drop in temperatures during winters. Here we evaluated the ecophysiological response, in terms of photoinhibition and photoprotection, of the dioecious Mediterranean palm, Chamaerops humilis to seasonal variations in environmental conditions. Furthermore, we considered as well the influence of plant size, maturity and sexual dimorphism. Results showed evidence of winter photoinhibition, with a marked decrease of the Fv/Fm ratio below 0.7 between January and March, which was coincident with the lowest temperatures. During this period, the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and zeaxanthin levels increased, which might serve as a photoprotection mechanism, owing the full recovery from winter photoinhibition during spring. Furthermore, mature plants showed lower chlorophyll levels and higher β-carotene levels per unit of chlorophyll than juvenile plants, and females displayed lower leaf water contents and higher photoinhibition than males during summer, probably due to increased reproductive effort of females. However, neither low temperatures during winter nor reproductive events in females during the summer led to irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. We conclude that (i the Mediterranean dwarf palm, C. humilis, suffers from photoinhibition during winter, but this is transient and does not lead to irreversible damage, and (ii females from this plant species are more sensitive than males to photoinhibition during reproductive events.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) cytoplasmic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jian; Ma, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yuna; Zhao, Huadong; Hong, Dapeng; Yan, Liming; Lou, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The cytoplasmic domain of BRI1-associated kinase 1 from A. thaliana has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution. BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) is a member of the plant receptor-like kinase (RLK) superfamily. BAK1 has been shown to initiate brassinosteroid (BR) signalling and innate immune responses in plants by forming receptor complexes with both brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1) and flagellin-sensing 2 (FLS2). To gain a better understanding of the structural details and the mechanism of action of the BAK1 kinase domain, recombinant BAK1 cytoplasmic domain has been expressed, purified and crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. A 2.6 Å resolution data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal at 100 K. This crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.3, b = 75.6, c = 71.9 Å, β = 93.1°. Assuming the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å 3 Da −1

  12. Tyrosine-610 in the receptor kinase BAK1 does not play a major role in brassinosteroid signaling or innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING ...

  13. CD44 and Bak expression in IL-6 or TNF-alpha gene knockout mice after whole lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Minako; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Ohta, Toshie; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Imai, Takashi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2008-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie radiation pneumonitis, we examined whether knockout of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or the interleukin (IL)-6 gene could give mice an inherent resistance to radiation in the acute phase of alveolar damage after thoracic irradiation. The temporal expression of inflammation (CD44) and apoptosis (Bak) markers in lung after thoracic irradiation was measured to determine the degree of alveolar damage. At 4 weeks post-irradiation (10 Gy), small inflammatory foci were observed in all mice, but there were no obvious histological differences between control (C57BL/6JSlc), TNF-alpha knockout (TNF KO), and IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice. However, immunohistochemical analysis of CD44 and Bak expression over a time course of 2 weeks highlighted significant differences between the three groups. C57BL/6JSlc and TNF KO mice had increased numbers of both CD44-positive and Bak-positive cells after irradiation, while the IL-6 KO mice showed stable levels of CD44 and Bak. In conclusion, the radioresistant status of IL-6 KO mice in the acute phase of alveolar damage after irradiation suggested an important role for IL-6 in radiation pneumonitis. (author)

  14. Reproduction and pollination of the endangered dwarf bear-poppy Arctomecon humilis (Papaveraceae)across a quarter century: unraveling of a pollination web?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT.—Arctomecon humilis, a rare gypsophile of the extreme northeastern Mojave Desert, is restricted to a few isolated populations in Washington County, Utah, USA. At several times in the past quarter century, we have studied the breeding system and reproductive success of this endangered specie...

  15. Effect of metal stress on photosynthetic pigments in the Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens Cladonia humilis and Stereocaulon japonicum growing in Cu-polluted sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Yoshitani, Azusa; Itoh, Kiminori

    2013-11-01

    To understand the ecology and physiology of metal-accumulating lichens growing in Cu-polluted sites, we investigated lichens near temple and shrine buildings with Cu roofs in Japan and found that Stereocaulon japonicum Th. Fr. and Cladonia humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon grow in Cu-polluted sites. Metal concentrations in the lichen samples collected at some of these sites were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). UV-vis absorption spectra of pigments extracted from the lichen samples were measured, and the pigment concentrations were estimated from the spectral data using equations from the literature. Secondary metabolites extracted from the lichen samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector. We found that S. japonicum and C. humilis are Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens. Differences in pigment concentrations and their absorption spectra were observed between the Cu-polluted and control samples of the 2 lichens. However, no correlation was found between Cu and pigment concentrations. We observed a positive correlation between Al and Fe concentrations and unexpectedly found high negative correlations between Al and pigment concentrations. This suggests that Al stress reduces pigment concentrations. The concentrations of secondary metabolites in C. humilis growing in the Cu-polluted sites agreed with those in C. humilis growing in the control sites. This indicates that the metabolite concentrations are independent of Cu stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term effect of BAK-free travoprost on ocular surface and intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients after transition from latanoprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Makoto; Otani, Shin-ichiro; Kozaki, Jun; Unoki, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Masamitsu; Minami, Keiichiro; Miyata, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-free travoprost after transition from BAK-preserved latanoprost. This was a prospective, open-label, multicenter study in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who had been treated with latanoprost monotherapy for at least 3 months. The main outcome measures were superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK), hyperemia, and intraocular pressure (IOP). At baseline, 1, 3, and 12 months, hyperemia, SPK, and IOP were consecutively assessed. Hyperemia was assessed using a 4-grade scale. SPK was assessed by fluorescence staining observed by Area-Density classification. The IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. One hundred and fourteen patients participated in this study. Twenty-eight patients discontinued medications by 1 month. Sixty-seven patients completed the study. Transition from latanoprost to BAK-free travoprost showed no significant effect on hyperemia at 1 month, but showed significant decreases at 3 and 12 months compared with baseline (Preduction after the change in regimen compared with baseline (P<0.05). Treatment for 12 months with BAK-free travoprost after BAK-preserved latanoprost resulted in fewer ocular surface complications, as indicated by the reduced prevalence of SPK and decreased hyperemia, and no clinically relevant changes in IOP. BAK-free travoprost may have beneficial effects on the ocular surface while showing IOP-lowering efficacy comparable with BAK-preserved eye drops.

  17. Perceived discrimination, humiliation, and mental health: a mixed-methods study among Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Hunter M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Foster, Jennifer W; Burgos Minaya, Rosa Y; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    Many Haitian migrants live and work as undocumented laborers in the Dominican Republic. This study examines the legacy of anti-Haitian discrimination in the Dominican Republic and association of discrimination with mental health among Haitian migrants. This study used mixed methods to generate hypotheses for associations between discrimination and mental health of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 Haitian and 18 Dominican community members and clinicians. One hundred and twenty-seven Haitian migrants participated in a pilot cross-sectional community survey. Instruments included culturally adapted Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and a locally developed function impairment scale. Haitian migrants described humiliation (imilyasyon) as a reason for mental distress and barrier to health care. Dominicans reported that discrimination (discriminación) was not a current social problem and attributed negative social interactions to sociocultural, behavioral, and biological differences between Dominicans and Haitians. These qualitative findings were supported in the quantitative analyses. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression severity and functional impairment. Perceived mistreatment by Dominicans was associated with a 6.6-point increase in BDI score (90% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 9.9). Knowing someone who was interrogated or deported was associated with a 3.4-point increase in BAI score (90% CI: 0.22, 6.64). Both qualitative and quantitative methods suggest that perceived discrimination and the experience of humiliation contribute to Haitian migrant mental ill-health and limit access to health care. Future research should evaluate these associations and identify intervention pathways for both improved treatment access and reduction of discrimination-related health risk factors.

  18. Acceptable risk of contact allergy in the general population assessed by CE-DUR--a method to detect and categorize contact allergy epidemics based on patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Schnuch, Axel

    2009-01-01

    of persons eligible for patch testing each year based on patch test sales data. A reverse CE-DUR was performed to make delineations between the 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population and the corresponding theoretical prevalences of contact allergy observed among patients...

  19. Roussel. Sinfonien Nr. 3 g-Moll op. 42 und Nr. 4 A-Dur op. 5, Neeme Järvi / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Roussel. Sinfonien Nr. 3 g-Moll op. 42 und Nr. 4 A-Dur op. 53, Bacchus et Ariane op. 43 (Zweite Orchestersuite). Sinfonietta für Streichorchester d-Moll op. 52. Detroit Symphony Orchester, N. Järvi". Chandos/Koch CD 7007(WD: 70'10") DDD

  20. Paternal breed effects on expression of IGF-II, BAK1 and BCL2-L1 in bovine preimplantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Joupari, Morteza Daliri

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effects of the paternal breed on the early embryonic development and relative expression of the maternally imprinted gene, IGF-II, and the apoptosis-related genes BAK1 and BCL2-L1 in in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos derived from two unrelated paternal breeds (Holstein......Summary The effects of the paternal breed on early embryo and later pre- and postnatal development are well documented. Several recent studies have suggested that such paternal effects may be mediated by the paternally induced epigenetic modifications during early embryogenesis. The objective...... and Brown Swiss). The degree of correlation of IGF-II expression pattern with embryo developmental competence and apoptosis-related genes was also investigated. The relative abundance of IGF-II, BCL2-L1 and BAK1 transcripts in day 8 embryos was measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain...

  1. FUNGSI BAK AIR CIGAROKROK DAN PASIRGOMBONG KAITANNYA DENGAN TAMBANG EMAS COKOTOK ABAD XX The Function of Cigarokrok and Pasirgombong Water Tubs and Its Relation with the History of Cikotok Gold Mining in 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie Latifundia

    2016-07-01

    Abstrak Tujuan tulisan ini berupaya mengungkap dan mendokumentasikan bak air Cigarokrok dan bak air Pasirgombong yang dibangun pada masa kolonial dikaitkan dengan sejarah tambang emas Cikotok. Data diperoleh berdasarkan hasil penelitian  arkeologis tentang  pola persebaran situs-situs di kawasan Kecamatan Cibeber, Kabupaten Lebak, Provinsi Banten pada tahun 2007 dengan metode survei yang dilengkapi studi kepustakaan dan wawancara. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dua bak penampung dan pembagi air ini dibangun zaman Belanda bersamaan dengan pembangunan pabrik tambang emas Cikotok. Kedua bak air memiliki nilai sejarah dan arkeologi yang masih terus berfungsi dan dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat sampai saat ini. Fungsi bangunan bak air Cigarokrok adalah tempat atau wadah penampung dan pembagi air untuk kebutuhan air bersih sehari-hari bagi warga yang ada di kompleks perumahan dinas perusahaan tambang emas Cikotok, perkantoran tambang emas Cikotok, dan masyarakat sekitar. Sedang fungsi bak air Pasirgombong merupakan bak atau kolam penampung air untuk dialirkan ke mesin (turbin pembangkit listrik tenaga air (PLTA, dan kemudian aliran listrik tersebut disalurkan untuk penggerak mesin-mesin yang terdapat di pabrik tambang emas Cikotok. Selain itu, listrik tersebut dimanfaatkan untuk penerang rumah-rumah penduduk masyarakat Cikotok dan sekitarnya. Bak air Cigarokrok dan bak air Pasirgombong menjadi bukti fisik bangunan masa kejayaan tambang emas Cikotok yang dibangun masa kolonial dengan bentuk dan fungsi masih bertahan dan berlanjut hingga sekarang ini sebagai warisan budaya yang perlu dilestarikan untuk dipelihara dan dilindungi.   Kata Kunci: air, bak air, tambang emas, kawasan Cikotok

  2. Assessment of prey overlap between a native (Polistes humilis) and an introduced (Vespula germanica) social wasp using morphology and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Marta L; Reeson, Andrew F; Cooper, Steven J B; Perry, Kym D; Austin, Andrew D

    2004-07-01

    Abstract In newly invaded communities, interspecific competition is thought to play an important role in determining the success of the invader and its impact on the native community. In southern Australia, the native Polistes humilis was the predominant social wasp prior to the arrival of the exotic Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Both species forage for similar resources (water, pulp, carbohydrate and protein prey), and concerns have arisen about potential competition between them. The aim of this study was to identify the protein foods that these wasps feed on. As many prey items are masticated by these wasps to the degree that they cannot be identified using conventional means, morphological identification was complemented by sequencing fragments of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. GenBank searches using blast and phylogenetic analyses were used to identify prey items to at least order level. The results were used to construct complete prey inventories for the two species. These indicate that while P. humilis is restricted to feeding on lepidopteran larvae, V. germanica collects a variety of prey of invertebrate and vertebrate origin. Calculated values of prey overlap between the two species are used to discuss the implications of V. germanica impacting on P. humilis. Results obtained are compared to those gained by solely 'conventional' methods, and the advantages of using DNA-based taxonomy in ecological studies are emphasized.

  3. Mediamania? Contemporary German Poetry in the Age of New Information Technologies: Thomas Kling and Durs Grünbein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erk Grimm

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the preoccupation with information technologies as a dominant theme of German poetry in the 1980s and 1990s. Outlining the historical shift from a critique of mass media to the ironic affirmation of hi-tech media, the investigation seeks an understanding of its driving forces. The analysis of Enzensberger's polemical essays on the culture industry shows the parallels and the difference in attitude between him and younger poets of the 1980s. A concise account of their publications illuminates the development of an aesthetically demanding poetry that kept aloof from the mass media. In their rejection of a common quotidian or sentimental tone, poets such as Thomas Kling and Durs Grunbein created new idioms and challenging forms while concentrating on hi-tech media as an epochal phenomenon. The sober reflection and technical terminology originate in a materialistic attitude, driven by the desire to regain the power of sophisticated aesthetic expression and to compensate for the loss of experience caused by the simulation of the past.The essay closes with a critical interpretation of the "mediamania" of the 1990s by giving heed to the fashionable remixing of poetic idioms that leaves the false impression of a new school of media poets.

  4. A Study of the Pelagic Larval Duration of Acropora humilis, Coral Recruitment and Connectivity in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha

    2011-12-12

    Combined knowledge of the pelagic larval duration of coral species and coral recruitment patterns can provide evidence of inter-reef connectivity and indicate a reef’s ability to recover. We attempted to determine the maximum pelagic larval duration of Acropora humilis. Larvae were reared in a controlled environment unfavorable for settlement. The larvae lived in a pelagic state for a maximum of 29 days, although this is probably an underestimate of actual longevity for this species. Given the information available from the literature with respect to larval dispersal rates, it is not expected that larvae with this longevity will disperse further than 10-20 km from their natal reef, if at all. A long-term recruitment monitoring project was also set up on Abu Shosha Reef, which suffered nearly complete coral loss due to a bleaching event in summer of 2010. In April 2011, 60 settlement plates were placed on the reef. In July, a total of 102 living scleractinian recruits were counted on the plates. While pocilloporids were the most dominant recruits on the reef (57.8%), about 20.6% of living recruits belonged to Acroporidae, a family whose live cover on the reef is extremely low (0.67%). However, the overall mean density of recruits was very low (1.7 living recruits/100cm2) compared to similar studies around the world despite the spawning season having just ended. Fish surveys showed herbivore biomass to be very low compared to other reef systems in the world, but densities were significantly higher than another reef in the Red Sea with about 10 times more live coral cover. Recovery from bleaching for Abu Shosha and similar reefs in the region may be very slow relative to rates observed in other parts of the world if recruitment rates and herbivore communities remain low.

  5. Avr4 promotes Cf-4 receptor-like protein association with the BAK1/SERK3 receptor-like kinase to initiate receptor endocytosis and plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Jelle; Liebrand, Thomas W H; Bi, Guozhi; Evrard, Alexandre; Bye, Ruby R; Mbengue, Malick; Kuhn, Hannah; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-04-01

    The first layer of plant immunity is activated by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and proteins (RLPs) that detect infectious pathogens. Constitutive interaction with the SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1 (SOBIR1) RLK contributes to RLP stability and kinase activity. As RLK activation requires transphosphorylation with a second associated RLK, it remains elusive how RLPs initiate downstream signaling. We employed live-cell imaging, gene silencing and coimmunoprecipitation to investigate the requirement of associated kinases for functioning and ligand-induced subcellular trafficking of Cf RLPs that mediate immunity of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum. Our research shows that after elicitation with matching effector ligands Avr4 and Avr9, BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1/SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE 3 (BAK1/SERK3) associates with Cf-4 and Cf-9. BAK1/SERK3 is required for the effector-triggered hypersensitive response and resistance of tomato against C. fulvum. Furthermore, Cf-4 interacts with SOBIR1 at the plasma membrane and is recruited to late endosomes upon Avr4 trigger, also depending on BAK1/SERK3. These observations indicate that RLP-mediated resistance and endocytosis require ligand-induced recruitment of BAK1/SERK3, reminiscent of BAK1/SERK3 interaction and subcellular fate of the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) RLK. This reveals that diverse classes of cell surface immune receptors share common requirements for initiation of resistance and endocytosis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Presence of the tunicate Asterocarpa humilis on ship hulls and aquaculture facilities in the coast of the Biobío Region, south central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pinochet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-native ascidians are important members of the fouling community associated with artificial substrata and man-made structures. Being efficient fouling species, they are easily spread by human-mediated transports (e.g., with aquaculture trade and maritime transports. This is exemplified by the ascidian Asterocarpa humilis which displays a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere and has been recently reported in the Northern Hemisphere (NW Europe. In continental Chile, its first report dates back from 2000 for the locality of Antofagasta (23°S. Although there was no evidence about the vectors of introduction and spread, nor the source, some authors suggested maritime transport by ship hulls and aquaculture devices as putative introduction pathways and vectors. In the present study, we report for the first time the presence of A. humilis on the hull of an international ship in a commercial port in Concepción bay (36°S, south central Chile. We also found one individual associated to a seashell farm, 70 km far from Concepción bay. Further individuals were subsequently identified within Concepción bay: one juvenile settled upon international harbor pilings and a dozen individuals along aquaculture seashell longlines. For the first specimens sampled, species identification was ascertained using both morphological criteria and molecular barcoding, using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and a nuclear gene (ribosomal RNA 18S. The nuclear 18S gene and the mitochondrial gene COI clearly assigned the specimens to A. humilis, confirming our morphological identification. Two haplotypes were obtained with COI corresponding to haplotypes previously obtained with European and Northern Chilean specimens. The present study thus reports for the first time the presence of A. humilis in the Araucanian ecoregion, documenting the apparent expansion of this non-native tunicate in Chile over 2,000 km, spanning over three ecoregions

  7. Incidencia de Chrysobothris sp. en cedro (Cedrela odorata) y caoba (Swietenia humilis) con o sin asocio a guineo (Musa balbissiana ABB) en Rivas, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, N Yilber; Bustos-Pérez, Irnan; González-Martínez, Álvaro José; Chavarría-Ñamendi, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    Se analizó la incidencia de Chrysobothris sp. en cedro (Cedrela odorata) y caoba (Swietenia humilis) durante el periodo entre febrero a noviembre de 2014 bajo un Sistema Agroforestal “Taungya” en el departamento de Rivas, Nicaragua. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas de Chrysobothris sp. en cedro y caoba asociados o no asociados a guineo (Musa balbissiana ABB). La preferencia de Chrysobothris sp. fue tres veces mayor en cedro que caoba. El daño de la larva en el tallo p...

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the conformational dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana BRI1 and BAK1 receptor-like kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Alexander S; Bender, Kyle W; Huber, Steven C; Shukla, Diwakar

    2017-07-28

    The structural motifs responsible for activation and regulation of eukaryotic protein kinases in animals have been studied extensively in recent years, and a coherent picture of their activation mechanisms has begun to emerge. In contrast, non-animal eukaryotic protein kinases are not as well understood from a structural perspective, representing a large knowledge gap. To this end, we investigated the conformational dynamics of two key Arabidopsis thaliana receptor-like kinases, brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1) and BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1), through extensive molecular dynamics simulations of their fully phosphorylated kinase domains. Molecular dynamics simulations calculate the motion of each atom in a protein based on classical approximations of interatomic forces, giving researchers insight into protein function at unparalleled spatial and temporal resolutions. We found that in an otherwise "active" BAK1 the αC helix is highly disordered, a hallmark of deactivation, whereas the BRI1 αC helix is moderately disordered and displays swinging behavior similar to numerous animal kinases. An analysis of all known sequences in the A. thaliana kinome found that αC helix disorder may be a common feature of plant kinases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Light exposure enhances urea absorption in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, and up-regulates the protein abundance of a light-dependent urea active transporter, DUR3-like, in its ctenidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christabel Y L; Hiong, Kum C; Boo, Mel V; Choo, Celine Y L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2018-04-19

    Giant clams live in nutrient-poor reef waters of the Indo-Pacific and rely on symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium spp., also known as zooxanthellae) for nutrients. As the symbionts are nitrogen deficient, the host clam has to absorb exogenous nitrogen and supply it to them. This study aimed to demonstrate light-enhanced urea absorption in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa , and to clone and characterize the urea active transporter DUR3-like from its ctenidium (gill). The results indicate that T. squamosa absorbs exogenous urea, and the rate of urea uptake in the light was significantly higher than that in darkness. The DUR3-like coding sequence obtained from its ctenidium comprised 2346 bp, encoding a protein of 782 amino acids and 87.0 kDa. DUR3-like was expressed strongly in the ctenidium, outer mantle and kidney. Twelve hours of exposure to light had no significant effect on the transcript level of ctenidial DUR3-like However, between 3 and 12 h of light exposure, DUR3-like protein abundance increased progressively in the ctenidium, and became significantly greater than that in the control at 12 h. DUR3-like had an apical localization in the epithelia of the ctenidial filaments and tertiary water channels. Taken together, these results indicate that DUR3-like might participate in light-enhanced urea absorption in the ctenidium of T. squamosa When made available to the symbiotic zooxanthellae that are known to possess urease, the absorbed urea can be metabolized to NH 3 and CO 2 to support amino acid synthesis and photosynthesis, respectively, during insolation. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Humilhação social - um problema político em psicologia Social Humiliation - a Political problem into psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moura Gonçalves Filho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo opera com resultados de uma pesquisa de psicologia social desenvolvida em regime participante e envolvendo mulheres que na Vila Joanisa - SP assumiram comunitariamente o trabalho de Centros de Juventude. Dedicamo-nos aqui ao exame de um problema político e psicológico, a humilhação social, uma modalidade de angústia disparada pelo impacto traumático da desigualdade de classes: para assim caracterizá-lo, recorremos à investigação marxista e à psicanálise.This paper is based upon participant research carried out in Vila Joanisa, a desinfranchised and poor district of São Paulo. As a social psychologist, the author has worked in Youth Centers, community-based groups both organized and coordinated by women. The aim of this paper is to discribe and discuss social humiliation, defined as a singular kind of anguish triggered by class inequality trauma. The psychological and political concepts of social humiliation were integrated into a theoretical framework informed by marxism and psychoanalisis.

  11. Cürufa Olan Bakır Kayıplarında Farklı Kroze Kullanımının Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    RÜŞEN, Aydın

    2017-01-01

    Bakır işletmelerinde ergitme aşamasında cürufa olan bakır kayıpları sektördeki önemli problemlerdenbiridir. Bu çalışmada, Eti Bakır İşletmelerinden (EBİ) temin edilen flaş fırın cürufu ve flaş fırın matı eşitmiktarlarda alınarak farklı oranlarda kolemanit (2CaO·3B2O3·5H2O) ilavesi (%0, %2, %4 ve %6) ilekarıştırılıp alumina (Al2O3) krozelerde 1250oC’de ve azot atmosferi altında 2 saat boyunca ergitmedeneylerine tabi tutulmuştur. Böylece, alümina kroze (AK) kullanılan deneylerde cürufa olan bak...

  12. A differential equation for the asymptotic fitness distribution in the Bak-Sneppen model with five species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemm, Eckhard

    2015-09-01

    The Bak-Sneppen model is an abstract representation of a biological system that evolves according to the Darwinian principles of random mutation and selection. The species in the system are characterized by a numerical fitness value between zero and one. We show that in the case of five species the steady-state fitness distribution can be obtained as a solution to a linear differential equation of order five with hypergeometric coefficients. Similar representations for the asymptotic fitness distribution in larger systems may help pave the way towards a resolution of the question of whether or not, in the limit of infinitely many species, the fitness is asymptotically uniformly distributed on the interval [fc, 1] with fc ≳ 2/3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment

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    Falah M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masoumeh Falah,1,2 Mohammad Najafi,2 Massoud Houshmand,3 Mohammad Farhadi1 1ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Biochemistry Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran Abstract: Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. Keywords: age-related hearing impairment (ARHI, presbycusis, biomarker, treatment

  14. Cancer-selective death of human breast cancer cells by leelamine is mediated by bax and bak activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Anuradha; Kim, Su-Hyeong; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Arlotti, Julie A; Eiseman, Julie; Shiva, Sruti S; Rigatti, Lora H; Singh, Shivendra V

    2017-02-01

    The present study is the first to report inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and suppression of self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells (bCSC) by a pine bark component (leelamine). Except for a few recent publications in melanoma, anticancer pharmacology of this interesting phytochemical is largely elusive. Leelamine (LLM) dose-dependently inhibited viability of MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative), MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive), and SUM159 (triple-negative) human breast cancer cells in association with apoptotic cell death induction. To the contrary, a normal mammary epithelial cell line derived from fibrocystic breast disease and spontaneously immortalized (MCF-10A) was fully resistant to LLM-mediated cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. LLM also inhibited self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells. Apoptosis induction by LLM in breast cancer cells was accompanied by a modest increase in reactive oxygen species production, which was not due to inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. Nevertheless, ectopic expression of manganese superoxide dismutase conferred partial protection against LLM-induced cell death but only at a lower yet pharmacologically relevant concentration. Exposure of breast cancer cells to LLM resulted in (a) induction and/or activation of multidomain proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak, (b) caspase-9 activation, and (c) cytosolic release of cytochrome c. Bax and Bak deficiency in immortalized fibroblasts conferred significant protection against cell death by LLM. Intraperitoneal administration of LLM (7.5 mg/kg; 5 times/wk) suppressed the growth of orthotopic SUM159 xenografts in mice without any toxicity. In conclusion, the present study provides critical preclinical data to warrant further investigation of LLM. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nuevos hallazgos documentales y biográficos sobre Alonso Xuárez maestro de Sebastián Durón

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    de la Fuente Charfolé, José Luis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alonso Xuárez was no minor composer in the musical field of his time. The quality and effectiveness of his compositions makes them deserving of a leading place in Spanish and European music of the 17th century. In spite of this almost nothing is known about this composer prior to his being appointed to teach in the chapel of Cuenca cathedral. Virtually all the currently available data is of a secondary and collateral nature and arises from research into his disciple the organist Sebastián Durón, the renowned opera composer and teacher at the Capilla Real of Charles II.

    Alonso Xuárez no fue un compositor menor dentro del panorama musical de su tiempo. La calidad y eficacia de su música merece estar en primera línea de la música española y europea del siglo XVII. Sin embargo, el desconocimiento de este músico es casi completo con anterioridad a su nombramiento en el magisterio de capilla de la catedral de Cuenca. Prácticamente todos los datos expuestos hasta el momento han sido restos secundarios y colaterales desprendidos de otras investigaciones realizadas sobre la figura de su discípulo, el reputado compositor de teatro lírico y maestro de la Capilla Real de Carlos II, el organista Sebastián Durón.

  16. Coordinación de las protecciones de la subestación de distribución en el sistema Durán norte

    OpenAIRE

    Tinoco Tinoco, Misael Patricio; Sanchez Yela, Darwin Horacio

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla el estudio de la coordinación de protecciones aplicados a la subestación de distribución “DURÁN NORTE”, ubicada en el cantón Durán en la parte norte de la cuidad del mismo nombre. Partiendo primero desde la descripción de las instalaciones, para conocer los elementos que la componen; posteriormente, se realiza un estudio de flujo de carga en condiciones de máxima y mínima carga y un estudio de cortocircuito de la subestación aplicados a la barra de 69kV y 13.8kV...

  17. A comparative study of a preservative-free latanoprost cationic emulsion (Catioprost) and a BAK-preserved latanoprost solution in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daull, Philippe; Buggage, Ronald; Lambert, Grégory; Faure, Marie-Odile; Serle, Janet; Wang, Rong-Fang; Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a common preservative in eye drops, can induce ocular surface toxicity that may decrease glaucoma therapy compliance. The ocular hypotensive effect, pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles, and local tolerance of a preservative-free latanoprost 0.005% cationic emulsion (Catioprost(®)), and a BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% solution (Xalatan(®)), were compared. The ocular hypotensive effect was evaluated in monkeys with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) induced by laser photocoagulation of the trabecular meshwork. Each monkey (n=8) received both latanoprost formulations once daily for 5 consecutive treatment days in a crossover design with at least a 2-week washout period between treatments. IOP was measured at baseline (on day 1, no instillation), on vehicle treatment day (day 0), and on treatment days 1, 3, and 5 before drug instillation and then hourly for 6 h. In rabbits, the ocular and systemic concentrations of latanoprost free acid were determined following a single instillation and the local tolerance of twice daily instillations over 28 days was assessed. Both the preservative-free and BAK-preserved latanoprost formulations shared the same efficacy profile with the maximum IOP reduction occurring 2 h after each morning dose (-15%, -20%, and -26%; -15%, -23%, and -23% on days 1, 3, and 5, respectively) and lasting through 24 h. The equivalence in efficacy was confirmed by the PK data demonstrating similar area under the curves (AUCs). While both formulations were well tolerated, the incidence of conjunctival hyperemia was reduced by 42% with the BAK-free latanoprost cationic emulsion. In animal models, a preservative-free latanoprost cationic emulsion was as effective as Xalatan(®) for lowering IOP with an improved ocular tolerance profile.

  18. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nicola J; Balmanno, Kathryn; Cook, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway.

  19. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Darling

    Full Text Available Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway.

  20. Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model in the upper critical dimension: Induced criticality in lower-dimensional subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti-Naserabadi, H.; Najafi, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    We present extensive numerical simulations of Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model on the hypercubic lattice in the upper critical dimension Du=4 . After re-extracting the critical exponents of avalanches, we concentrate on the three- and two-dimensional (2D) cross sections seeking for the induced criticality which are reflected in the geometrical and local exponents. Various features of finite-size scaling (FSS) theory have been tested and confirmed for all dimensions. The hyperscaling relations between the exponents of the distribution functions and the fractal dimensions are shown to be valid for all dimensions. We found that the exponent of the distribution function of avalanche mass is the same for the d -dimensional cross sections and the d -dimensional BTW model for d =2 and 3. The geometrical quantities, however, have completely different behaviors with respect to the same-dimensional BTW model. By analyzing the FSS theory for the geometrical exponents of the two-dimensional cross sections, we propose that the 2D induced models have degrees of similarity with the Gaussian free field (GFF). Although some local exponents are slightly different, this similarity is excellent for the fractal dimensions. The most important one showing this feature is the fractal dimension of loops df, which is found to be 1.50 ±0.02 ≈3/2 =dfGFF .

  1. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bxmarket hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  2. Efeito alelopático de Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic effect of Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Periotto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito alelopático de caules e folhas de Andira humilis na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de plântulas de rabanete e alface. Para os experimentos de germinação foram preparados extratos aquosos de caules e folhas de A. humilis nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (p/v. Foram realizadas quatro réplicas de trinta sementes de alface ou de rabanete, distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com papel-filtro umedecido com 5mL dos extratos, mantidas a 27 ºC e na ausência de luz. As contagens das sementes germinadas foram realizadas a cada 12h, calculando-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação. Extratos de caules e folhas reduziram significativamente a velocidade e a percentagem de germinação, em relação ao grupo controle. Os experimentos de crescimento foram realizados com quatro réplicas de oito sementes germinadas de alface ou de rabanete, a 27 ºC, na ausência de luz e em papel-filtro como substrato, sendo avaliadas as concentrações 0, 4 e 12% (p/v. Plântulas de alface e rabanete sofreram inibição significativa em seus comprimentos, pelos extratos de folhas. Extratos de caules a 4 e 12% (p/v não causaram inibição do crescimento em rabanete. A interferência dos extratos na germinação e no crescimento em alface e rabanete foi desassociada de qualquer efeito do potencial osmótico e do pH, indicando, portanto, atividade alelopática.The objective of this study was to evaluate allelopathic effects of stems and leaves of Andira humilis in the germination and growth of radish and lettuce. For the germination's experiments, aqueous extracts of stems and leaves of A. humilis in the concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (w/v were done. Were employed four replicates of thirty seeds of lettuce and radish. The seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts. The experiments were conducted at 27 ºC in light absence. The counting of

  3. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  4. P53, K-RAS, β-CATENIN, C-KIT and BAK mutations in the lung cancer of Chinese and Japanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuo Xing; Nobotoshi Nawa; Kazuhiro Tanabe; Tadashi Hongyo; Li- Ya Li; Jing-Tian Tang; Mitsunori Ohta

    2005-01-01

    Seventeen Chinese (Beijing) and 24 Japanese (Osaka) lung cancer cases were analyzed for mutations of p53, K-ras, β-catenin, c-kit and bak genes by PCR-SSCP analysis followed by direct sequencing. Significantly higher mutation frequency of p53 gene, one of key genes for radiation sensitivity, was found in Chinese cases (11/17; 64.7 %) than Japanese cases (8/24; 33.3 %) (p< O.O5). Fourteen of the 16 mutations found in the Chinese cases were transitions at exon 4,5 and intron 4. In the Japanese cases, of the total of 11 mutations, 5 were transitions and 5 were transversions and one was deletion. Six β-catenin mutations were found in 6 Chinese cases (35.3 % ) at codon 53 and 58, and 4 were found in 3 Japanese cases (12.5 %). C-kit mutations were detected in 5 Chinese cases (29.4 %), while no mutations were found in Japanese cases (p< O.O5). No K-ras mutation was found in both Chinese and Japanese cases. For the first time, we report on bak mutation in human lung cancer in Chinese (2/17; 11.8% ) and Japanese cases (2/24; 8.3% ). C-kit and bak genes are also definitive factors to radiosensitivity. These data thus suggest that there were apparent differences in frequency and/or mutational types of p53, β-catenin and c-kit? genes between Chinese and Japanese cases. The differences can be attributed to factors such as lifestyles including smoking and racial and/or environmental factors, and also to the prediction of the response to radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Análisis funcional de la vivienda de interés social: El Recreo, cantón Durán 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Silvia Alcívar Macías

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la vivienda de interés social en el Ecuador, y caso concreto en la ciudadela de El Recreo, cantón Durán, de la Provincia del Guayas Ecuador, pretende conocer los estándares de funcionabilidad y confort para las familias de bajo poder adquisitivo. El levantamiento de información fue realizado en el periodo comprendido entre los meses de octubre a diciembre del 2016, se aplicó técnica de encuesta muestreo en cinco estratos correspondientes a las 5 etapas que conforman la ciudadela El Recreo, constituyéndose entonces en un tipo de muestreo simple disperso, donde se entrevistó a 300 familias para medir el grado de confort y funcionabilidad de las viviendas. Posteriormente a la tabulación de los datos obtenidos se procedió al diseño de gráficos estadísticos, que permitieron realizar un análisis descriptivo y dinámico para diagnosticar la situación funcional y de confort de las viviendas

  6. Action de Paenibacillus polymyxa SGK2 sur quelques champignons de la fusariose du blé dur (Triticum durum en Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Lounaci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Les tests ont porté sur l’action de P. polymyxa SGK2 à l’égard de F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. verticillioides et M. nivale agents de la fusariose du blé dur en Algérie. La technique de confrontation directe en boîtes de Petri met en évidence une action inhibitrice caractérisée par un ralentissement de la croissance mycélienne. Après 7 jours d’incubation, un arrêt à distance des colonies du pathogène est observé. Nous étions également attachés à rechercher le (ou les moyen utilisé par P. polymyxa SGK2 pour inhiber la croissance des mycètes tests. Cette capacité naturelle agit par la synthèse d'une (ou des substance constitutive inhibitrice de la croissance des quatre champignons sur le milieu King B, d'une (ou des substance inductible inhibitrice de la croissance du F. culmorum et F. graminearum sur le même milieu, et d'une (ou des substance volatile inhibitrice de la croissance des quatre mycètes sur les milieux King B et PDA.

  7. Effets oestrogéniques du macéré aqueux des feuilles de Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don Dur & Schinz chez la rate ovariectomisée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawadogo l;

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oestrogenic effects of macerated aqueous extracts of the leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda (G. Don Dur & Schinz on ovariectomized rat. Estrogenic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda have been evaluated by uterotrophic assay. Ovariectomized mice were used and treated subcutaneously during seven days with 50, 100, 200 mg.kg-1 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda and with 100, 200 mg.kg-1 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda plus 25 mg.kg-1 of oestradiol 17-β. Estrogenic activity was analysed by uterine dry and wet weight, surrenal gland wet weight, vaginal opening, protein and cholesterol level in uteri horn. Administration of extracts to the doses of 100 and 200 mg.kg-1 exhibits increase of uterine dry and wet weight, surrenal gland wet weight, vaginal opening, protein levels and decrease of level of cholesterol in uterine horn. The results suggest that, aqueous extracts of Holarrhena fl oribunda possesses estrogenic type effect. But when 100 and 200 mg.kg-1 of Holarrhena fl oribunda were given alone with 25 mg.kg-1 of estradiol 17-β, the estrogenic effect was slight. These results supposed that H. fl oribunda is a weak phytoestrogen and the aqueous extracts of the leaves behad as partial agonistic

  8. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 targets selective Bcl-2 proteins and efficiently induces apoptosis via Bak/Bax if Mcl-1 is neutralized

    OpenAIRE

    van Delft, Mark F.; Wei, Andrew H.; Mason, Kylie D.; Vandenberg, Cassandra J.; Chen, Lin; Czabotar, Peter E.; Willis, Simon N.; Scott, Clare L.; Day, Catherine L.; Cory, Suzanne; Adams, Jerry M.; Roberts, Andrew W.; Huang, David C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Since apoptosis is impaired in malignant cells overexpressing pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins, drugs mimicking their natural antagonists, BH3-only proteins, might overcome chemoresistance. Of seven putative BH3 mimetics tested, only ABT-737 triggered Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis. Despite its high affinity for Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, many cell types proved refractory to ABT-737. We show that this resistance reflects its inability to target another pro-survival relative, Mcl-1. Down-regulation of Mc...

  9. Basic study of small-scale consumption of natural gas in the Netherlands in 1995 (BAK 1995). Consumer looks for balance between comfort and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, R.; Weegink, R.

    1996-01-01

    From the results of the title study it appears that households in the Netherlands consumed 120 million m 3 natural gas more in 1995 than in 1994. The averaged consumption, however, was a little bit lower in 1995 than in 1994. The consumption of natural gas for cooking purposes and for water heating was the same. The small decrease of the average consumption was caused by space heating. BAK is an annual survey among circa 3,300 households in the Netherlands. Next to data on consumption, also appliances are inventorized as well as consumption patterns and behavioral aspects. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Interplay of Plasma Membrane and Vacuolar Ion Channels, Together with BAK1, Elicits Rapid Cytosolic Calcium Elevations in Arabidopsis during Aphid Feeding[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Thomas R.; Avramova, Marieta; Canham, James; Higgins, Peter; Bilkey, Natasha; Mugford, Sam T.; Pitino, Marco; Toyota, Masatsugu

    2017-01-01

    A transient rise in cytosolic calcium ion concentration is one of the main signals used by plants in perception of their environment. The role of calcium in the detection of abiotic stress is well documented; however, its role during biotic interactions remains unclear. Here, we use a fluorescent calcium biosensor (GCaMP3) in combination with the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) as a tool to study Arabidopsis thaliana calcium dynamics in vivo and in real time during a live biotic interaction. We demonstrate rapid and highly localized plant calcium elevations around the feeding sites of M. persicae, and by monitoring aphid feeding behavior electrophysiologically, we demonstrate that these elevations correlate with aphid probing of epidermal and mesophyll cells. Furthermore, we dissect the molecular mechanisms involved, showing that interplay between the plant defense coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1), the plasma membrane ion channels GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE 3.3 and 3.6 (GLR3.3 and GLR3.6), and the vacuolar ion channel TWO-PORE CHANNEL1 (TPC1) mediate these calcium elevations. Consequently, we identify a link between plant perception of biotic threats by BAK1, cellular calcium entry mediated by GLRs, and intracellular calcium release by TPC1 during a biologically relevant interaction. PMID:28559475

  11. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Hastanesi Yoğun Bakım Ünitesi plazmaferez uygulamaları

    OpenAIRE

    polat, mümin; ceylan, berit; Alanoğlu, Güçhan; Eroğlu, Füsun; Sipahi, Tansu

    2010-01-01

    Terapötik aferez çeşitlerinden en sık kullanılan, tedavi amaçlı plazma değişimi, tam kanın hastadan alınarak bir cihaz vasıtası ile komponentlerine ayrılması ve bu komponentlerden şekilli elemanların diğer bir plazma kaynağı ile (doğal veya yapay) birlikte hastaya geri verilmesidir. Hastanemiz yoğun bakım ünitesinde 1 yıl içerisinde plazmaferez uyguladığımız olguları retrospektif olarak değerlendirdik. Toplam 11 olguya 56 seans plazmaferez yapılmıştır. 3 olgunun Gullian Barre Sendromu (%27.2)...

  12. Hastanede takipli gebelerin yenidoğan bakımı ile ilgili bilgi düzeyleri ve etkileyen faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Önsüz, Muhammet Fatih; Köse, Onur Özlem; Demir, Figen

    2014-01-01

    AMAÇ: Bu araştırmada bir hastanenin obstetrik polikliniğinde takip edilen gebelerin yenidoğan bakımı konusundaki bilgi düzeylerinin ve etkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştı. GEREÇ VE YÖNTEMLER: Tanımlayıcı tipteki bu araştırma bir hastanenin Obstetrik Polikliniği’nde takipli ve araştırmaya katılmayı kabul eden 118 gebe ile yürütüldü. Araştırmanın verileri 23 soru ve iki bölümden oluşan anket formunun yüzyüze gözlem altında uygulanması yoluyla toplandı. Verilerin is...

  13. Académica Maria Mélida Durán Merchán - Académico Miguel Trias Fargas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available

    MARÍA MÉLIDA DURÁN

    Una de las secciones especialmente nostálgicas pero a su vez más trascendentales es esta de Obituarios en la revista “Medicina”. Acostumbra ser uno de los nichos literarios de la prolífica y versátil pluma del Académico Efraím Otero o de la pulida pero algo menos abundante del también Académico Zoilo Cuéllar.

    Puede ser esta sección de igual manera la semilla biográfica para aquellos ilustres médicos colombianos que por esta Institución pasaron, que llamamos “necrológica”, para darle un toque menos fúnebre y más alegre, pues destaca lo mucho de positivo que tuvo la vida de quien se escribe.

    Nos duele hacerlo hoy sobre María Mélida Durán Merchán, a quien me costó trabajo dejar de decirle “de Rueda”, en referencia a su compañero de tantas luchas y padre de su hijo Marcelo, el urólogo de Marly, Manuel Rueda Salazar.

    Y repito que siento consternación al hacerlo pues su edad distaba mucho de la de aquel personaje a quien se refería el Académico Laurentino Muñoz al conversar con su amigo Germán Arciniegas, un par de intelectuales a quienes la senectud no quitó vitalidad alguna. Vio pasar a algún conocido que rondaba en los cien años y dijo: “¿no es ese el que murió el año pasado?”...

    MIGUEL TRIAS FARGAS

    Nacido en Barcelona, Cataluña, el 9 de agosto de 1924, llegó el doctor Trías a Colombia a muy corta edad; se graduó como médico en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y se especializó en Cirugía del Tórax en importantes instituciones de Inglaterra y Francia.

    Ejerció con brillo dicha especialidad en los Hospitales San Carlos, Santa Clara y San José de la ciudad de Bogotá, así como en la Fundación Shaio, a cuyo nacimiento contribuyó. Su trascendental labor en la Asociación Pro Bienestar de la Familia Colombiana, Profamilia, que dirigió desde 1973 hasta 1994, y en la Fundación Pro Derecho a

  14. [Polymorphisms of KITLG, SPRY4, and BAK1 genes in patients with testicular germ cell tumors and individuals with infertility associated with AZFc deletion of the Y chromosome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, M V; Ivkin, E V; Simonova, O A; Rudenko, V V; Chernykh, V B; Mikhaylenko, D S; Loran, O B

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common form of solid cancer in young men. Testicular cancer is represented by testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) derived from embryonic stem cells with different degrees of differentiation in about 95% of cases. The development of these tumors is related to the formation of a pool of male germ cells and gametogenesis. Clinical factors that are predisposed to the development of germ-cell tumors include cryptorchidism and testicular microlithiasis, as well as infertility associated with the gr/gr deletion within the AZFс locus. KITLG, SPRY4, and BAK1 genes affect the development of the testes and gametogenesis; mutations and polymorphisms of these genes lead to a significant increase in the risk of the TGCT development. To determine the relationship between gene polymorphisms and the development of TGCTs, we developed a system for detection and studied the allele and genotype frequencies of the KITLG (rs995030, rs1508595), SPRY4 (rs4624820, rs6897876), and BAK1 (rs210138) genes in fertile men, patients with TGCTs, and patients with infertility that have the AZFс deletion. A significant association of rs995030 of the KITLG gene with the development of TGCTs (p = 0.029 for the allele G, p = 0.0124 for the genotype GG) was revealed. Significant differences in the frequencies of the studied polymorphisms in patients with the AZFc deletion and the control group of fertile men were not found. We showed significant differences in the frequencies for the combination of all high-risk polymorphisms in the control group, patients with the AZFc deletion and patients with TGCTs (p (TGCTs-AZF-control) = 0.0207). A fivefold increase in the frequency of the combination of all genotypes in the TGCT group (p = 0.0116; OR = 5.25 [1.44-19.15]) and 3.7-fold increase was identified in patients with the AZFc deletion (p = 0.045; OR = 3.69 [1.11-12.29]) were revealed. The genotyping of patients with infertility caused by the AZFc deletion can be used to

  15. Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Human Hepatoma Cell Apoptosisvia Bax/Bak Triggered Cytochrome C Release and Caspase-9/Caspase-8 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2 has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death in a variety of cancer cells. However, the details of the signal transduction cascade involved in G-Rh2-induced cell death is unclear. In this manuscript we elucidate the molecular mechanism of G-Rh2-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells by demonstrating that G-Rh2 causes rapid and dramatic translocation of both Bak and Bax, which subsequently triggers mitochondrial cytochrome c release and consequent caspase activation. Interestingly, siRNA-based gene inactivation of caspase-8 effectively delays caspase-9 activation and apoptosis induced by G-Rh2, indicating that caspase-8 also plays an important role in the G-Rh2-induced apoptosis program. Taken together, our results indicate that G-Rh2 employs a multi pro-apoptotic pathway to execute cancer cell death, suggesting a potential role for G-Rh2 as a powerful chemotherapeutic agent.

  16. The Hermeneutical Horizon and the Ethnohistoric Value in the Philological Annotation of the «Libro de los ritos» (1579 Written by friar Diego Durán (OP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Vargas Montes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The following discussion offers a panorama of the hermeneutical horizon from which the philological annotation apparatus of the Libro de los ritos critical edition was created. The book, written by the Dominican friar Diego Durán in 1579, describes the religious life of the Nahua people with emphasis in the Mexicas or Aztecs of the postclassical period. Also, this work offers some considerations about the ethnohistorical value of the Libro de los ritos and explains how this idea was used as a hypothesis to create the philological annotation apparatus of the critical edition. The value of the analysis of this experience is the contribution that it offers to the discussion between philologists about the proper methodology that must be used for the critical annotation of the Indian chronicles, documents that conserve the memory of the Native American people.

  17. Vers une prévision de la durée de vie des polymères géosynthétiques : Principes de base, Etat de l'art

    OpenAIRE

    BARTOLOMEO, P

    2003-01-01

    Cette étude bibliographique dresse un bilan des connaissances sur la durabillité des matériaux géosynthétiques à base de polymères. Les causes et les mécanismes qui affectent plus particulièrement les polyéthylènes, polypropylènes, polyesters et PVC sont abordés en détail. L'accent est d'abord mis sur la nécessité d'identifier des critères de durée de vie pertinents, et les difficultés que l'on rencontre quand on cherche des extrapolations entre les essais accélérés et les conditions naturell...

  18. “recolección, manejo y transformación de la pollinaza en abono orgánico en el cantón durán”

    OpenAIRE

    Benites Zari, Fátima Mariana; Lozano Salcedo, Laura Alejandra; Torres Nazareno, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en realizar un estudio de factibilidad de manejo de residuos avícolas (pollinaza) a fin de proyectar la creación de un centro de recolección, manejo y transformación en abono orgánico compost para el sector agrícola del cantón de Durán en el año 2014, debido a la gran cantidad de basura que se genera en el cantón, y la falta de gestión eficiente en la zona. La población objetivo de nuestro proyecto son las empresas e industrias del sector agrícola en ...

  19. Efficacy and safety of preservative-free latanoprost eyedrops, compared with BAK-preserved latanoprost in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouland, Jean-François; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Fekih, Lamia El; Delval, Laurent; Renault, Didier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2013-02-01

    To compare efficacy (intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction) and safety of preservative-free latanoprost (T2345) to benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-preserved latanoprost (BPL; Xalatan) in ocular hypertension (OHT) or primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. Prospective, international, multicentre, randomised, investigator-masked, parallel-group trial. After a wash-out period, POAG or OHT patients, previously managed by BPL monotherapy, randomly received T2345 or BPL (one drop into the affected eye(s)) once daily from D0 to D84. Change in IOP was measured at 09:00 (±1 h) from D0 to D84 in the worse eye. Mean IOP reduction (D0-D84) was -8.6±2.6 mm Hg (-36%) on T2345 and -9.0±2.4 mm Hg (-38%) on BPL, confirming non-inferiority of T2345 to BPL. Non-inferiority of T2345 was observed from D15. The most frequent ocular adverse event, drug intolerance, was reported in 1 (0.5%) patient on T2345 versus 4 (2.1%) patients on BPL. Moderate to severe conjunctival hyperaemia was less frequent on T2345 than on BPL at D42 (20.2% vs 30.6%; p=0.003) and D84 (21.4% vs 29.1%; p=0.02). Upon instillation, the global subjective ocular symptom score was significantly lower on T2345 than BPL on D42 (0.15 vs 0.41; p=0.001) and D84 (0.18 vs 0.46; p=0.001). Preservative-free latanoprost has the same efficacy as BPL, with improved local tolerance.

  20. The receptor-like kinase SERK3/BAK1 is required for basal resistance against the late blight pathogen phytophthora infestans in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Chaparro-Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans causes late blight, an economically important disease, on members of the nightshade family (Solanaceae, such as the crop plants potato and tomato. The related plant Nicotiana benthamiana is a model system to study plant-pathogen interactions, and the susceptibility of N. benthamiana to Phytophthora species varies from susceptible to resistant. Little is known about the extent to which plant basal immunity, mediated by membrane receptors that recognise conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, contributes to P. infestans resistance.We found that different species of Phytophthora have varying degrees of virulence on N. benthamiana ranging from avirulence (incompatible interaction to moderate virulence through to full aggressiveness. The leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK BAK1/SERK3 is a major modulator of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI in Arabidopsis thaliana and N. benthamiana. We cloned two NbSerk3 homologs, NbSerk3A and NbSerk3B, from N. benthamiana based on sequence similarity to the A. thaliana gene. N. benthamiana plants silenced for NbSerk3 showed markedly enhanced susceptibility to P. infestans infection but were not altered in resistance to Phytophthora mirabilis, a sister species of P. infestans that specializes on a different host plant. Furthermore, silencing of NbSerk3 reduced the cell death response triggered by the INF1, a secreted P. infestans protein with features of PAMPs.We demonstrated that N. benthamiana NbSERK3 significantly contributes to resistance to P. infestans and regulates the immune responses triggered by the P. infestans PAMP protein INF1. In the future, the identification of novel surface receptors that associate with NbSERK3A and/or NbSERK3B should lead to the identification of new receptors that mediate recognition of oomycete PAMPs, such as INF1.

  1. Projeto de cadeia de suprimentos ágeis e verdes: estudos exploratórios em uma empresa de bens de consumo não duráveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Reis Galdino Takahashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Novas tendências em gestão da cadeia de suprimentos têm fomentado grandes discussões na área, incluindo os paradigmas de alinhamento dinâmico e de gestão sustentável de cadeias. O primeiro prega que se deve gerenciar dinamicamente diferentes tipologias de cadeias (e.g. totalmente flexíveis, ágeis, enxutas e de reabastecimento contínuo a fim de responder adequadamente a comportamentos específicos dos clientes. O segundo preconiza que o projeto e a gestão dessas cadeias devem considerar questões ambientais e sociais, em complementação aos aspectos econômicos. Recentemente, alguns autores têm combinado essas tendências em um novo modelo conceitual visando melhor gerenciar trade-offs de sustentabilidade quando do projeto de cadeias de suprimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho é testar algumas das hipóteses levantadas por tal modelo em cadeias ágeis. Por meio de simulações em uma multinacional de bens de consumo não duráveis, foi possível verificar que o modelo proposto possui coerência e potencial para ajudar as empresas a projetar cadeias ágeis e verdes.

  2. Sağlığımız Bakımından Omega-3 Yağ Asitleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Demir

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Bu derlemede omega-3 yağ asitlerinin insan sağlığına faydaları üzerinde durulmuştur. Beslenme canlıların büyümeleri, gelişmeleri ve yaşamlarını sürdürebilmeleri için gerekli olan gıdaları dış ortamdan alıp kullanmaları süreci olarak tanımlanırken; sağlıklı beslenme, besinlerin yeterli ve dengeli olarak alınması şeklinde tanımlanmaktadır. Son yıllarda yeterli ve dengeli beslenmenin önemi anlaşılmış ve beslenme alışkanlıkları değişmeye başlamıştır. Yağlar, insan organizması için gerekli olan en önemli unsurlardan bir tanesidir. Bunlar yüksek enerji kaynağı olmayıp aynı zamanda yağda çözünen vitaminleri bulundurmaları, proteinlerle birleşerek lipoproteinleri oluşturmaları ve kan lipit düzeylerinde rol oynamaları bakımından oldukça önemlidir. Doymuş yağ asitleri oda sıcaklığında katı halde bulundukları için vücutta birikebilirler. Çoklu doymamış yağ asitleri ise oda sıcaklığında sıvı haldedirler ve aynı zamanda insan hayatının devamlılığı için de çok önemlidirler. Bundan dolayı temel yağ asitleri olarak adlandırılarak omega- 6, omega-3 yağ asitleri olmak üzere iki gruba ayrılırlar, omega-6'ların ana kaynağı yüksek oranda linoleik asit içeren mısır ve soya fasülyesi yağıdır. Omega-3 ise keten tohumu, ceviz ve özellikle planktonlar ile yağlı balıklarda bol miktarda bulunur, keten tohumu ve cevizde alfa-linoleik asit, balık yağlarında ise eikosapentaenoik asit (EPA ve dekosahegzaenoik asit (DHA en önemli yağ asitleridir. EPA ve DHA nm mutlaka dışarıdan alınması gerekir Çünkü vücut tarafından sentezlenemedikleri için esansiyel yağ asitleri olarak adlandırılırlar. Yapılan araştırmalarda insanlarda kalp krizi ve diğer hastalıkların riskini azaltma yararının yalnızca tatlı ve tuzlu su ortamlarındaki hayvanlarda ve diğer bitkilerde bulunan kendine özel omega-3 yağ asitleri ile ilgili oldu

  3. Birgivi’nin Tasavvuf ve Tarikatlere Bakışı / The Understanding of Tasawwuf and Tariqat in al-Birgiwi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Demircigil

    2017-09-01

    husustaki bakış açısı ve sergilediği mücadeleyle ilgili lehte ve aleyhte değerlendirmelerde bulunulmuştur. Bu değerlendirmelerin ana temasını onun, temelde dini toplum hayatından ayrı düşündüğü, örf ve adetlere itibar etmediği ve selefi çizginin etkisinde kaldığı yönündeki tenkitler oluşturmaktadır. Ne var ki bu tenkitlerin önemli bir kısmı, Birgivî’nin kitaplarında konuyla ilgili serdettiği yaklaşımlarının bütün halinde incelenmemesinden kaynaklanmakta olup, ya eksik ya da hatalıdır. Bu nedenle, Birgivî’nin çalışmalarında konuyla ilgili dillendirdiği görüşler ayrıntılı olarak ele alındığında  söz konusu yaklaşımlarıyla ilgili kimi tespitlerin gerçekte olduğundan farklı bir portre ortaya çıkardığı görülmektedir. Biz bu makalemizde, eserlerinde serdettiği mülahazalarından yola çıkarak Birgivî’nin tasavvuf ve tarikatlara bakışını ayrıntılı olarak ele alacak ve bu hususla ilgili görüş ve iddiaları inceleyecek, ardından konuyla ilgili tespitlerimizi ortaya koyacağız.

  4. Okul Müdürlerinin Yönetimle İlgili Görüş ve Uygulamalarının Yönetim Kuramları Bakımından Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Alan yazında yer alan örgüt ve yönetim kuramları yöneticilerinin uygulamaları, görüşleri ve araştırmalar tarafından şekillendirilmiş, ortaya çıkan bu görüş ve uygulamalar da yeni yöneticilerin uygulama ve davranışlarında yol gösterici bir rol üstlenmişlerdir. Okul müdürlerinin yönetim uygulama ve görüşlerinin yönetim kuramları bakımından değerlendirilmesinin önemli olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu nedenle araştırmanın amacı, okul müdürlerinin yönetim uygulamalarının yönetim kuramları bakımından değ...

  5. The history of soil erosion: Interpreting historical sources, buried soils and colluvial sediments as archives of past soil erosion and human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus

    2015-04-01

    of human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée.

  6. Kan basıncı ölçüm aletlerimiz ne kadar doğru ölçüyor: kurumsal sürekli bakım programı

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Rauf Onur; Dişcigil, Güzel; Başak, Okay; Kaplan, Hülya; Çeçen, Serpil; Bozkaya, Ayfer

    2006-01-01

    Amaç: Sfigmomanometre fizik muayenenin önemli bir parçasıdır ve kan basıncı kontrolünün temel taslarından birisidir. Sfigmomanometrelerin dogru ölçüm yapabilmesi için kalibrasyonlarının ve bakımlarının yapılması gerekmektedir. Bu çalısma, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi'nde kullanımda olan sfigmomanometrelerin degerlendirmesini yapmak ve aletlerin düzenli aralıklarla kontrolünü saglayabilmek için bir program olusturabilmek mevcut sorunları saptamak amacıyla yapılmıstır. ...

  7. The BH3 α-Helical Mimic BH3-M6 Disrupts Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, and MCL-1 Protein-Protein Interactions with Bax, Bak, Bad, or Bim and Induces Apoptosis in a Bax- and Bim-dependent Manner*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Sun, Jiazhi; Doi, Kenichiro; Sung, Shen-Shu; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yin, Hang; Rodriguez, Johanna M.; Becerril, Jorge; Berndt, Norbert; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Wang, Hong-Gang; Sebti, Saïd M.

    2011-01-01

    A critical hallmark of cancer cell survival is evasion of apoptosis. This is commonly due to overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1, which bind to the BH3 α-helical domain of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bak, Bad, and Bim, and inhibit their function. We designed a BH3 α-helical mimetic BH3-M6 that binds to Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 and prevents their binding to fluorescently labeled Bak- or Bim-BH3 peptides in vitro. Using several approaches, we demonstrate that BH3-M6 is a pan-Bcl-2 antagonist that inhibits the binding of Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 to multi-domain Bax or Bak, or BH3-only Bim or Bad in cell-free systems and in intact human cancer cells, freeing up pro-apoptotic proteins to induce apoptosis. BH3-M6 disruption of these protein-protein interactions is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Using caspase inhibitors and Bax and Bak siRNAs, we demonstrate that BH3-M6-induced apoptosis is caspase- and Bax-, but not Bak-dependent. Furthermore, BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-XL/Bim, Bcl-2/Bim, and Mcl-1/Bim protein-protein interactions and frees up Bim to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells that depend for tumor survival on the neutralization of Bim with Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, or Mcl-1. Finally, BH3-M6 sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitor CEP-1612. PMID:21148306

  8. The BH3 alpha-helical mimic BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, and MCL-1 protein-protein interactions with Bax, Bak, Bad, or Bim and induces apoptosis in a Bax- and Bim-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Sun, Jiazhi; Doi, Kenichiro; Sung, Shen-Shu; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yin, Hang; Rodriguez, Johanna M; Becerril, Jorge; Berndt, Norbert; Hamilton, Andrew D; Wang, Hong-Gang; Sebti, Saïd M

    2011-03-18

    A critical hallmark of cancer cell survival is evasion of apoptosis. This is commonly due to overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and Mcl-1, which bind to the BH3 α-helical domain of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bak, Bad, and Bim, and inhibit their function. We designed a BH3 α-helical mimetic BH3-M6 that binds to Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1 and prevents their binding to fluorescently labeled Bak- or Bim-BH3 peptides in vitro. Using several approaches, we demonstrate that BH3-M6 is a pan-Bcl-2 antagonist that inhibits the binding of Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 to multi-domain Bax or Bak, or BH3-only Bim or Bad in cell-free systems and in intact human cancer cells, freeing up pro-apoptotic proteins to induce apoptosis. BH3-M6 disruption of these protein-protein interactions is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Using caspase inhibitors and Bax and Bak siRNAs, we demonstrate that BH3-M6-induced apoptosis is caspase- and Bax-, but not Bak-dependent. Furthermore, BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-X(L)/Bim, Bcl-2/Bim, and Mcl-1/Bim protein-protein interactions and frees up Bim to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells that depend for tumor survival on the neutralization of Bim with Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, or Mcl-1. Finally, BH3-M6 sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitor CEP-1612.

  9. Cumulus Humilis: Wireless Mesh Networking for Gliders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, Roel; Meratnia, Nirvana

    Digital communication between gliders would be beneficial because exchange of information has the potential to provide insight not only to the pilot but also other pilots and people on the ground. However, such a communication does not exist. In this paper we present a solution for the exchange of

  10. Humility Through Humiliation in Continuity Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Efrat

    2016-01-01

    For freshly minted MDs, residency represents a period of transition from being a medical student to becoming a physician. This evolution is often fraught. Continuity clinic-a mandatory component of pediatric residency training-can be a battleground for this tribulation. This essay explores the author's journey from the first days of her continuity clinic to the last. The author recounts her struggles, her fears, her certainty of being an imposter, and her steps towards becoming a pediatrician.

  11. Resident physicians in Mexico: tradition or humiliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a great history and tradition in relation to the training of resident physicians, but what we find behind this process?, Power relations implied and not implied, unnoticed or ignored for convenience by the academic and health institutions, with the aggravation of forgetting its commitment to the training of men and women "professionals" and limited to meet another indicator of "human resources for health." The resident physician in academic and scientific training is immersed in this dehumanized maelstrom and ends up becoming a character for the domain of knowledge as power, forgetting that his act and its rationale lies in the principle of "primum non nocere" to that we would add: nor your person, nor your fellowman, much less whom you have the moral, ethical and civic responsibility to convey some of your knowledge and your experience, that is, part of your essence”.

  12. The Chechen War: Another Russian Humiliation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perrin

    2001-01-01

    ...." Thus began the Chechen War in December 1994, sparked by an out-of-control, breakaway republic and fueled by the Kremlin's need to maintain integrity of the Russian Federation and to control strategic resources...

  13. Cardiovascular Parameters of Nigerian Physiotherapy Students Dur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination and tests are routine academic task during which students engage in mental exercis-es, writing, and/or practical demonstrations under pressure with stress placed on the cardiovascu-lar system. This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular parameters of students before, during and after an ...

  14. Une intervention en centres d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée visant à réduire les problèmes de santé mentale liés au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vézina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Une intervention visant la diminution des contraintes de l’environnement psychosocial du travail et de leurs effets sur la santé mentale a été mise en place à l’hiver 2002. Cette intervention se résume en cinq étapes : l’engagement du milieu et la constitution d’une équipe d’intervention, l’identification des contraintes, l’élaboration des plans d’action, l’actualisation des plans d’action et l’évaluation de l’intervention. La recherche se déroule dans douze centres d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD et inclut l’ensemble du personnel soignant en contact direct avec la clientèle (N = 493. Un devis quasi-expérimental avec quatre groupes expérimentaux, huit groupes témoins et des mesures avant et après l’intervention a été utilisé.La description des phases de développement et d’implantation de la démarche d’intervention est présent��e ainsi que l’évaluation à 12 mois des effets de l’intervention sur la prévalence des contraintes psychosociales au travail et des problèmes de santé mentale.An intervention aimed at reducing adverse occupational psychosocial factors and their mental health effects was begun during the winter of 2002. This intervention can be summarized in five steps: commitment of stakeholders and setting up of an intervention team, identification of adverse occupational psychosocial factors, development of an action plan, implementation of the action plans, and evaluation of the intervention. The study was conducted in twelve residential and extended care centres (CHSLD and included all care-giving staff in direct contact with patients (N= 493. A quasi-experimental design was used with four experimental groups and eight control groups, and with pre- and post-intervention measurements.The description of the intervention’s development and implementation phases and the evaluation at 12 months of the effects of the intervention on the prevalence of

  15. Kadın Üniversite Gençliği ve Mezunlarına Yönelik Cinsel Saldırı Mağdur Araştırması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Kayı

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmamızda ülkemizde üniversite gençliği ve mezunlarına yönelik olarak kadınlarda hangi oranlarda cinsel şiddet eylemlerinin gerçekleştiği, kimler tarafından, nerede, ne zaman uygulandığı, adli makamlara ne derece yansıdığı, yansımıyorsa nedenleri ve mağdurların etkilenme dereceleri araştırılmıştır. Araştırmamıza üniversite öğrencisi ve mezunu toplam 700 kadın katılmıştır. İddia ettiğimiz veriler literatürlerle uyumlu olarak kadınların bu eylemlere yüksek oranlarda maruz, kaldığını ve özellikle temas içeren cinsel şiddet türlerinin sanılanın aksine yabancılar tarafından değil, çoğunlukla tanıdık kişilerce gerçekleştirildiği, çok büyük oranının adli makamlara yansımadığını ortaya koymuştur. Sözel, görsel ve dokunsal cinsel şiddet türlerinden herhangi birine maruz kalma oranı kadınlarda % 84 tür. Basit cinsel içerikli dokunuştan zorla cinsel ilişkiye kadar uzanan dokunsal cinsel şiddet türlerine maruz kalma oranı ise % 44.8 olarak bulunmuştur. Mağduriyet oranının yüksekliğinin yanı sıra adli makamlara iletilme oranlarının düşük olması, özellikle adli tıp açısından olayı ispatlama zorluğunu aşacak çalışmaların (etkin muayene ve delillerin değerlendirilmesi önemini ortaya koymaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Cinsel şiddet, kadın, mağdur.

  16. CERN : Nouveaux records lors d'une période d'exploitation au PS/SPS ; Un nouveau rôle pour les ISR ; Deuxième région d'intersection pour le système pp du SPS ; Détermination de la durée de vie du charme ; Calcul en Sicile et au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    CERN : Nouveaux records lors d'une période d'exploitation au PS/SPS ; Un nouveau rôle pour les ISR ; Deuxième région d'intersection pour le système pp du SPS ; Détermination de la durée de vie du charme ; Calcul en Sicile et au CERN

  17. ‘Historiography and the retracing of Latin American art history’: The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History by Ray Hernández-Durán, Politics, History, and Art in Nineteenth-Century Mexico, London and New York: Routledge, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mattos Avolese

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History presents an account of the cultural and political circumstances that led to the installation of the first gallery of colonial art at the Academy of San Carlos in mid-nineteenth century Mexico City, and to the associated publication of the first art historical account of colonial Mexico. The author proposes that these two endeavors relate closely to the ambitions of the Mexican conservative elite to create a Mexican corporate identity based on the colonial past. Ray Hernández-Durán also argues that the gallery and the associated book can be seen as the starting point for the construction of the field of Latin American art history as we know it today.

  18. Estado ecológico del sistema estuarino del Río Guayas, Cantón Durán, Ecuador: Simulación numérica de su dinámica fluvial y principios ecológicos para el diseño de actuaciones de restauración y/o recuperación

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya Carbo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    46 p. El cantón Durán está emplazado en una zona de transición entre el agua dulce del río Guayas y el agua salobre del mar, las principales actividades de la región son la agricultura, ganadería, y las industrias; con la llegada del invierno, la región se somete a inundaciones que producen complicaciones socioeconómicas debido al uso antrópico de áreas inundables, además el río Guayas presenta un pobre estado de conservación ecológico (RQI, Riparian Quality Index=30), debido en gran parte...

  19. Ectopic overexpression of LAPTM5 results in lysosomal targeting and induces Mcl-1 down-regulation, Bak activation, and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Youn Jun

    Full Text Available Human lysosomal-associated protein multispanning membrane 5 (LAPTM5 was identified by an ordered differential display-polymerase chain reaction (ODD-PCR as an up-regulated cDNA fragment during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA-induced differentiation of U937 cells into monocytes/macrophages. After TPA-treatment, the levels of LAPTM5 mRNA and protein increased and reached a maximum at 18-36 h. In healthy human tissues, LAPTM5 mRNA was expressed at high levels in hematopoietic cells and tissues, at low levels in the lung and fetal liver, and was not detected in other non-hematopoietic tissues. LAPTM5 mRNA was detected in immature malignant cells of myeloid lineage, such as K562, HL-60, U937, and THP-1 cells, and in unstimulated peripheral T cells, but was absent or barely detectable in lymphoid malignant or non-hematopoietic malignant cells. The LAPTM5 level in HL-60 cells increased more significantly during TPA-induced monocyte/macrophage differentiation than during DMSO-induced granulocyte differentiation. Ectopic expression of GFP-LAPTM5 or LAPTM5 in HeLa cells exhibited the localization of LAPTM5 to the lysosome. In HeLa cells overexpressing LAPTM5, the Mcl-1 and Bid levels declined markedly and apoptosis was induced via Bak activation, Δψm loss, activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3, and PARP degradation without accompanying necrosis. However, these LAPTM5-induced apoptotic events except for the decline of Bid level were completely abrogated by concomitant overexpression of Mcl-1. The pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk could suppress the LAPTM5-induced apoptotic sub-G1 peak by ~40% but failed to block the induced Δψm loss, whereas the broad-range inhibitor of cathepsins (Cathepsin Inhibitor I could suppress the LAPTM5-induced apoptotic sub-G1 peak and Δψm loss, by ~22% and ~23%, respectively, suggesting that the LAPTM5-mediated Δψm loss was exerted at least in part in a cathepsin-dependent manner. Together, these results

  20. Tıbbi İlaçlar ve Kişisel Bakım Ürünlerinin (PPCPs Triticum aestivum L. Üzerinde Antioksidan Enzim Aktivitelerine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etem OSMA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma tıbbi ilaç ve kişisel bakım ürünlerinin ekmeklik buğday (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostaja bitkisi üzerindeki antioksidan enzim aktiviteleri hakkındadır. Araştırmada günlük hayatta sıklıkla tüketilen Acetaminophen, Caffein, Gemfibrozil ve β-estradiol olmak üzere dört farklı tıbbi ilaç etken maddesi kullanılmıştır. Ekim yapılacak toprağa 15 mg, 50 mg, 200 mg Acetaminophen, Gemfibrozil ve β-estradiol ile bunun yanı sıra 50 mg, 100 mg, 300 mg şeklinde farklı konsantrasyonlarda Caffein karıştırılmıştır. Daha sonra, hazırlanan 650 g toprağın üzerine 7 g buğday tohumu ekilmiş, bunun üzeri ise 100 g toprak ile kaplanmıştır. Çimlenen buğdaylar, 15 gün sonra hasat edilmiştir. Hasat edilen örneklere ekstraksiyon işlemi uygulandıktan sonra, örneklerde katalaz (CAT, peroksidaz (POD, süperoksit dismutaz (SOD gibi antioksidan enzim aktiviteleri belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar incelendiğinde buğdayda; CAT değerlerinin 1.525-2.350 EU g¯¹ FW, POD değerlerinin 37.200-59.600EU g¯¹ FW, SOD değerlerinin de 38-52,8 EU g¯¹ FW arasında olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kontrol örnekleri ile farklı konsantrasyonlarda yetiştirilen örnekler arasındaki ilişki %95 güven aralığında istatistiksel olarak değerlendirilmiş, anlamlı farklılıklar belirlenmiştir. Çalışmada, Acetaminophen, Caffein, Gemfibrozil ve β-estradiol uygulanan örneklerde konsantrasyon artışına bağlı olarak kontrol grubuna kıyasla antioksidan enzim aktivitelerinde artış olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

  1. Ectopic overexpression of LAPTM5 results in lysosomal targeting and induces Mcl-1 down-regulation, Bak activation, and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Hyejin; Jang, Won Young; Lee, Ji Young; Fukui, Kiyoshi; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-01-01

    Human lysosomal-associated protein multispanning membrane 5 (LAPTM5) was identified by an ordered differential display-polymerase chain reaction (ODD-PCR) as an up-regulated cDNA fragment during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation of U937 cells into monocytes/macrophages. After TPA-treatment, the levels of LAPTM5 mRNA and protein increased and reached a maximum at 18–36 h. In healthy human tissues, LAPTM5 mRNA was expressed at high levels in hematopoietic cells and tissues, at low levels in the lung and fetal liver, and was not detected in other non-hematopoietic tissues. LAPTM5 mRNA was detected in immature malignant cells of myeloid lineage, such as K562, HL-60, U937, and THP-1 cells, and in unstimulated peripheral T cells, but was absent or barely detectable in lymphoid malignant or non-hematopoietic malignant cells. The LAPTM5 level in HL-60 cells increased more significantly during TPA-induced monocyte/macrophage differentiation than during DMSO-induced granulocyte differentiation. Ectopic expression of GFP-LAPTM5 or LAPTM5 in HeLa cells exhibited the localization of LAPTM5 to the lysosome. In HeLa cells overexpressing LAPTM5, the Mcl-1 and Bid levels declined markedly and apoptosis was induced via Bak activation, Δψm loss, activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3, and PARP degradation without accompanying necrosis. However, these LAPTM5-induced apoptotic events except for the decline of Bid level were completely abrogated by concomitant overexpression of Mcl-1. The pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) could suppress the LAPTM5-induced apoptotic sub-G1 peak by ~40% but failed to block the induced Δψm loss, whereas the broad-range inhibitor of cathepsins (Cathepsin Inhibitor I) could suppress the LAPTM5-induced apoptotic sub-G1 peak and Δψm loss, by ~22% and ~23%, respectively, suggesting that the LAPTM5-mediated Δψm loss was exerted at least in part in a cathepsin-dependent manner. Together, these results demonstrate that

  2. Experience in Rearing Common Carder Bees (Bombus pascuorum Scop., with Some Notes on Three Similar Species: Shrill Carder Bee (B. sylvarum L., Red-shanked Carder Bee (B. ruderarius Müll., and Brown-banded Carder Bee (B. humilis Ill. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Ptáček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearing method under controlled conditions known for Bombus terrestris was successful in initiating egg-laying for 83% of B. pascuorum queens. After larvae had hatched, fresh pollen pellets needed to be inserted into brood pockets daily. After the first workers had emerged, colony development was advanced by placing them outdoors and supplying them with a sugar solution and pollen. The bees were able to use tightly pressed pollen from small plastic pots inserted near the brood. This feeding resulted in large colonies that produced dozens of young queens. In contrast, colonies managed in the laboratory were unable to utilize pollen in a similar manner. They raised only a few workers and several queens. Mating young queens was easy. It was stimulated by daylight, but in the case of B. humilis by direct sunshine. Several B. pascuorum and B. sylvarum queens were overwintered and began the new generation under artificial conditions. However, a lack of fresh pollen limited the development of colonies outside of the vegetation period.

  3. Bakü İçeri Şeher’de Selçuklular Döneminden Kalma İki Mescit: Sınıg Gala (Muhammed (1078 Ve Aşur (1169 Mescitleri (Two Masjid Around Baku İçeri Şeher Remaining From Seljuks: Sinig Gala (Muhammed (1078 And Ashur (1169 Masjids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan UYKUR

    2012-12-01

    small scaled buildings,they don't raise anything new, they are both important in order toclosely trail the architectural line of the period. Bakü’de bugün İçeri Şeher adıyla anılan eski Bakü yerleşiminde küçük ölçeklerde inşa edilmiş çok sayıda mescit bulunmaktadır. Bu makalede Selçuklular’ın Anadolu dışında Azerbaycan Bakü’de bıraktığı maddi kültür izlerinden en erken tarihli iki örnek ele alınmıştır. Çalışmada Türk dünyasında az bilinen bu iki eserin tarih, bani, plân, mimari ve bezeme gibi yönleriyle ayrıntılı biçimde ele alınması amaç edinilmiştir. Bu sebeple Bakü ve çevresindeki yapılarda: gerekli ölçümler, teknik çizimler ve fotoğraflama işlemleri yapılmıştır. Bunun ardından Bakü Berpa Arşivi’nde, Ahundov Kütüphanesi’nde ve Türkiye kütüphanelerinde kaynak araştırmaları ile çalışma tamamlanmıştır1. Türkler Anadolu’yu iskân edinmeleri ile başlattıkları süreçte elde ettikleri siyasi/askeri başarılarının yanında; belleklerinde getirdikleri estetik hissi, mimari anlayışı ve sanat biçimlerini de yeni yurtlarında uygulamışlardır. Bu hareketlilik boyunca geçtikleri güzergahlarda meydana getirdikleri kentlerde bıraktıkları izlerden, Anadolu öncesindeki kültürel mirasın örneklerini bulmak mümkündür.Her iki yapının da Selçuklular’dan günümüze ulaşabilmiş en erken tarihli iki eser olması Türk mimarisindeki gelişimin izlenmesi bakımından önemlidir. Selçuklular’ın Bakü’ye gelmesinden sonra inşa edilen ilk yapı olan Sınıg Gala Mescidi statik problemleri olan, sert kaba görüntülü ve yapıdan bağımsız büyük minaresiyle dikkat çekmektedir. Aşur Mescidi ise, çift katlı cephe düzenlemesi ve harimi bölen bezemeli destek kemeriyle az daha gelişmiş mimari arayışın bir ürünüdür. Ancak her iki kübik yapıda göze çarpan kusur; ağır, basık/karanlık başarısız bir mekan uygulamasıdır. Sonuç olarak, k

  4. Sıklık Bakımının Doğal Sarıçam (Pinus sylvestris L. Meşcerelerinde Çap ve Göğüs Yüzeyi Üzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer ÖNCÜL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, idare süresi sonunda işletme amacına uygun nitelikte ve ekonomik getirisi yüksek meşcereler oluşturabilmek için, sıklık çağındaki doğal sarıçam meşcerelerinde bakım tedbirleri sonucu, hektarda olması gereken göğüs yüzeyi miktarını ve birey sayısını belirlemek amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla Sarıkamış ve Ardahan’da belirlenen iki deneme alanında (18-20 yaş aralığında dört işlem (kontrol, zayıf, orta ve kuvvetli müdahale işlemi ve üç tekerrürden oluşan her biri 500 m²’lik toplam 24 parsel oluşturulmuştur. Zayıf müdahale parselinde alandaki toplam göğüs yüzeyinin %10-15’i, orta müdahale parselinde %20-25’i ve kuvvetli müdahale parselinde ise %30-35’i çıkarılmış, kontrol parsellerinde herhangi bir müdahale yapılmamıştır.  Deneme parsellerindeki bireylerde 2010 yılı ilkbaharında başlangıç çap değerleri ölçülmüş ve işlemlere göre müdahale kesimleri yapılarak, 2013 yılı ilkbaharındaki çap değerleri ile karşılaştırılıp her iki müdahale yılı arasındaki gelişim farkı tespitleri yapılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre; yapılan sıklık bakımı müdahalelerinin gelişmeye etkisinin olduğu ve bu etkinin çap ve göğüs yüzeyi değerleri açısından en iyi gelişiminin kuvvetli müdahale işleminde gerçekleştiği tespit edilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda, genel olarak 18-20 yaşlarındaki doğal sarıçam meşcerelerinde sıklık bakımı yapılan alanlarda ilk sıklık bakımı kesimlerinde hektardaki birey sayısının 3000-4000 adet civarında tutulması çap ve göğüs yüzeyi açısından en iyi sonucu vermektedir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Çap, göğüs yüzeyi, sarıçam, sıklık bakımı.

  5. II. Abdülhamit İstanbul’unda Yabancı Okullara Genel Bakış / General Overview of Foreign Schools in Istanbul during Sultan Abdulhamit II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Tekin

    2017-06-01

    ğitime dönük atılımlar gerçekleştirmiştir. Ancak bu çabalar yeterli olmamış ve misyonerlerin kurmuş oldukları yabancı okullar hem sayısal hem de nitelik ve tesir anlamında tehlikeli siyasal ve toplumsal tesirler icra etmeye devam etmiştir. Bir milletin kaderinde önemli rol oynayan yabancı okulların serencamına toplu bir bakış atarak dikkatleri çekmek istedik.

  6. Müslüman Tüketicilerin İsraf Kavramına Bakışı: Türkiye, Katar ve Endonezya Ölçeğinde Kültürlerarası Bir Mukayese / The Perspective of Muslim Consumers on Extravagance: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study in Turkey, Qatar and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Terzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Perspective of Muslim Consumers on Extravagance: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study in Turkey, Qatar and Indonesia Abstract Islam encourages people to earn halal -or lawful- and sets certain rules on spending. In Quran spending in the way of Allah is praised (57:7 and besides this, eating, drinking and spending extravagantly is forbidden (6:141; 4:6; 7:31; 17:29. In Quran the term “extravagance” refers to various meanings (10:12; 3:146-147; 10:83; 5:32; 7:80-81; 7:31; 17:29. In daily life it means excessive or unnecessary expenditure or outlay of resources. In this regard the viewpoint of Muslim individuals on such phenomena which is forbidden in Quran becomes more crucial. A survey is conducted in Turkey, Qatar and Indonesia to compare the viewpoint of individuals which are adherents of the same religion but from different cultures. Müslüman Tüketicilerin İsraf Kavramına Bakışı: Türkiye, Katar ve Endonezya Ölçeğinde Kültürlerarası Bir Mukayese Öz İslam dini insanın helal yollardan kazanç elde etmesini teşvik etmiş, harcama noktasında belli kurallar getirmiştir. Kuran’da Allah yolunda harcama övülmüş (57:7, harcamada aşırıya gitmek (6:141; 4:6, ihtiyaçtan fazla yiyip içmek (7:31, israf etmek (17:29 yasaklanmıştır. Kuran’da birçok yerde geçen “israf” terimi çeşitli manalarda kullanılmış olsa da (bkz: 10:12; 3:146-147; 10:83; 5:32; 7:80-81; 7:31; 17:29 günlük hayatta gereksiz yere para, zaman, emek vb.ni harcama, savurganlık olarak ifade edilmektedir. Bu bakımdan Kuran’da yasaklanmış bir davranış biçimi olan israf olgusuna Müslüman bireylerin bakış açısı önemli hale gelmektedir. Bu bakış açısını ölçmek amacıyla Türkiye, Katar ve Endonezya’da anket çalışması yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda israf kavramının bireysel ve toplumsal olmak üzere iki boyutu tespit edilmiş, bu boyutlar çerçevesinde kültürler arasında çeşitli y

  7. Cevher Hazırlama ve Proses Metalurjisi ile İlgili Anılar 3. BÖLÜM Bakır, Kobalt, Çinko ve Nikel Metalürjisi ve Öğrenim Üzerine Notlar

    OpenAIRE

    REY, Maurice; KARAHAN, Sabri

    1989-01-01

    1930 yılından önce Katanga'da bakır ve kobalt üzerine yapılan hidrometalurjik araştırmalar, liç tesislerinden atılan artıklardan seçimli çöktürme yoluyla metal eldesini ve uranyum cevherlerinin hidroklorik asitle liç edilmesini içermektedir. Liége'de, 1932-1939 yılları arasında, çinko elektrolizinde kurşun anodların korozyonu ve eser miktardaki kobaltın etkisi araştırılmış, daha sonra da Yeni Kaledonya'dan getirilen yüksek tenörlü nikel matlarının elektrolitik rafinasyonu incel...

  8. Sermo humilis and lyricism in Italianesi by Saverio La Ruina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Albanese

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Italianesi, the theatrical monologue composed in 2011 and performed by Calabrian storyteller Saverio La Ruina, that presents in first person the life story of Tonino Cantisani, born in 1951 in an Albanian prison camp to an Italian soldier and an Albanian mother. Although Tonino is a fictional creation, through his protagonist La Ruina gives voice to a true story, a postwar tragedy of denied identity that official histories on both sides of the Cold War have preferred to forget. Suspected of subversion because of their ties to Italy, mother and son are incarcerated by the Albanian communist regime for over forty years, until the death of dictator Enver Hoxha opens the borders and compels Tonino to migrate to Italy. But while he had spent the first half of his life ostracized as an Italian in Albania, he discovers that his new homeland marginalizes him as well, shunning him as an Albanian in Italy. But Tonino and those he represents are redeemed through the profound, haunting simplicity of the Calabro-Italian dialect that La Ruina has invented for him, inserted in a narrative architecture based on a rhetoric of reticence and modesty, where words and silence joined to minimal, essential gestures and movements create a unique, organic discourse of great evocative power.

  9. Humiliation in the virtual world: Definitions and conceptualization

    OpenAIRE

    Dilmaç, Julie Alev

    2014-01-01

    The cyberspace represents a platform for social relations which permit to be in touch with the World, to be “seen” by others and to “see” others. As new technologies emerge, ways of viewing are revised, especially through screens: though it has facilitated communication, the main innovation of the virtual world has been seeing, hearing and showing everything with the individual at the center of permanent interactions. But this overexposure can be dangerous: in attempting to be as much a part ...

  10. The Longue Durée of Black Lives Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alondra

    2016-10-01

    Black Lives Matter was first articulated just a few years ago, but it has been the leitmotif of antiracist struggles for generations. The Movement for Black Lives extends the work of previous movements that challenged forms of oppression that act on Black bodies with impunity. It should be understood in the context of Ida B. Wells' anti-lynching campaign, Fannie Lou Hamer's reproductive justice demands, and the Black Panther Party's health activism. The 50th anniversary of the Black Panther Party is an occasion to recall that its work confronted the callous neglect and the corporeal surveillance and abuse of poor Black communities. Similar demands have been the centrifugal force of social movements that for centuries have refused to have Black lives cast beyond the human boundary.

  11. A comprehensive analysis of the geomagnetic storms occurred dur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ghamry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards. Egyptian geomagnetic observatories observed multiple geomagnetic storms during 18 February to 2 March 2014. During this period, four interplanetary shocks successively hit the Earth’s magnetosphere, leading to four geomagnetic storms. The storm onsets occurred on 18, 20, 23 and 27 February. A non-substorm Pi2 pulsation was observed on 26 February. This Pi2 pulsation was detected in Egyptian observatories (Misallat and Abu Simbel, Kakioka station in Japan and Carson City station in US with nearly identical waveforms. Van Allen Probe missions observed non-compressional Pc4 pulsations on the recovery phase of the third storm. This Pc4 event is may be likely attributed to the decay of the ring current in the recovery phase.

  12. et de blé dur (Triticum durum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mai 2017 ... Study of the genetic diversity of some varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat. (Triticum durum Desf.) ...... Crop adaptation to climate change,1e éd. Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 595 p. Zeven AC,1998. Landraces: a review of definitions and classifications. Euphytica 104(2) : 127-139.

  13. Dora Bruder and the Longue Durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Weiner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modiano's methods in Dora Bruder recall the Annales historiographer's rejection of the history of events in favor of the "long duration," but with human history as its object. Modiano's long duration draws out repetitions and variations between his own life and Dora's as he reconstructs and imagines it, between Dora and fictional characters, between Dora's story and the lives of Holocaust victims and survivors known and unknown. Moreover, the author encourages the reader to take part in the uncanny connections the novel makes, through movements of the imagination not unlike Modiano's own. In so doing, we approach Dora and those who shared her fate through their lives rather than their death, restoring to them the everyday freedom of their thoughts and actions alongside our own.

  14. consumers' understanding and use of textile eco-labels dur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    textile industry to introduce greener technology textiles (Momberg ... E mail: daleen.vandermerwe@nwu.ac.za. — Ms N le Roux ..... African market, as such products are relatively unavailable and ...... Beauty 2(1&2):117-138. CLEVELAND, M.

  15. Doyumsuz Tüketim Arzusu ve Çevre Sorununa Kuran Çerçevesinde Bakış / A View Within the Quran’s Perspective to the Desire of Over- Consumption and Enviromental Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Demir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Özet Tarihin belki de bütün dönemlerinde bir çevre sorunundan söz etmek mümkündür. Ancak özellikle modern dönemdeki çevre sorunu öncekilerden gerek mahiyet gerekse nitelik bakımından çok farklı boyutlardadır. Öncelikle Batıda, Rönesans sonrası bilim alanındaki gelişmeler, sanayi devrimi ve kapitalist dünya ekonomisine geçiş, muazzam bir tüketim ve beraberinde çevre sorununu getirdi. Ahlakî ve dinî değerlerin bir kenara itilerek reddedildiği, maddeye sahip olup onu tüketme düşüncesinin bütün hedeflerin önüne geçtiği bir dünyada doğanın da çaresiz kalacağı muhakkaktır. Dolayısıyla çevre sorununun oluşumunda, tüketimin sınırsızlığı ile tabiî kaynakların sınırlılığı arasındaki diyalektiğin önemli bir rol oynadığını ifade etmek gerekir. Ele alıp irdeleyeceğimiz bu problemlerin ortaya çıkmasında kanaatimizce metafizik değerlerin terk edilmesi önemli bir yer işgal etmektedir. Bu bağlamda Kur’an’ın üretim ve tüketim ile çevre tasavvuru oldukça önemli bir muhteva ortaya koymaktadır. İşte bu makalede doyumsuz tüketim arzusu, çevre sorunu, metafizik değerlerin önemi ele alınarak değerlendirilecektir. A View Within the Quran’s Perspective to the Desire of Over- Consumption and Enviromental Issue Abstract It is possible to say that the enviromental issue has existed almost in all period of history. However, enviromental issue in modern times is very different from others in terms of both content and quality. Firstly, in the West, developments in science after Renaissance, the Industrial Revolotion and transition to capitalistic world economy brought along a huge consumer as well as many enviromental isssues. Nature is definetly helpless in the world in which men often refuse religious and moral values; it is also an important thing to have materials and consume them. Thus, it must be stated that dialectics play an important role in occurence of

  16. Kıl Keçi ve Saanen x Kıl Keçi Melezlerinin (F1, G1, Üretici Şartlarında Döl Verim Özellikleri Bakımından Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Tozlu Çelik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma, Amasya ili Sarılar köyünde (40°54'23"N, 35°08'dk5"E özel bir işletmede 2011-2012 yılları arasında yetiştirilen Saanen x Kıl keçi melezleri (F1, G1 ve Kıl keçilerinde döl verimi özelliklerini tespit etmek ve bu özellikler üzerine genotip ve yıl faktörlerinin etkisini ortaya koymak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmada döl verim özelliklerinden 2011 yılı için sadece ikiz doğuran keçi oranı bakımından genotipler arasında istatistiki farklılık belirlenmiştir. İkiz doğuran keçi oranı Kıl keçilerle, F1 melezlerinde benzer bulunmuş ve G1 melezlerinde ise her iki genotipten farklı bulunmuştur. 2012 yılında genotipler arasında kısır kalan keçi, ikiz doğuran keçi ve ölü doğum yapan keçi oranı bakımından istatistiki farklılıklar olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kısırlık oranının, Saanen x Kıl keçi F1, G1 melezlerinde Kıl keçilerinden daha yüksek olduğu belirlenmiştir. İkiz doğuran keçi oranı F1 genotipinde yüksek, G1 genotipinde ve Kıl keçilerinde benzer bulunmuştur.

  17. Développement d’un modèle statistique de prédiction de la durée de vie du rachis lombaire, dépendant de la contrainte appliquée, de l’âge et de la densité osseuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Ayari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available École de technologie supérieure, 1100, rue Notre-Dame Du fait de l’inhomogénéité densimétrique et structurale des vertèbres entre les individus et du fait que la résistance osseuse dépende de la densité osseuse et de la continuité du réseau trabéculaire, qui change avec l’âge, on ne peut pas considérer que le comportement en fatigue des vertèbres dépende uniquement de la contrainte appliquée. Dans cette étude, un modèle de prédiction de durée de vie est proposé permettant d’évaluer le nombre de cycles de fatigue avant dommage en fonction de la contrainte appliquée, de la densité osseuse et de l’âge du spécimen. Vu leur grande dispersion, les résultats des essais de fatigue publiés par Brinckmann (1988 ont été classifiés afin de pouvoir être analysés par la méthode des plans d’expériences. Un modèle non linéaire présentant un coefficient de détermination R2 de 94 % est établi. En comparant les valeurs prédites par ce modèle avec les résultats des essais de fatigue de Hansson (1987, on constate une certaine cohérence entre les résultats. Cette étude justifie l’hypothèse que la densité osseuse et l’âge outre la contrainte appliquée ont un effet sur la fatigue du rachis.Due to vertebral densimetric and structural inhomogeneity between individuals and the fact that bone strength varies with bone density and discontinuities within the trabecular lattice which changes with age, vertebral fatigue behavior cannot be considered as depending only on the cyclic stress. In this study, a lifetime prediction model is proposed for evaluating the number of cycles before damage as a function of the cyclic stress, bone density and age of the specimen. Due to their large dispersion, the results of the fatigue tests published by Brinckmann (1988 have been classified for analysis using the experiment design method. A nonlinear model presenting a coefficient of determination R2 of 94% has been

  18. Dini ve Kültürel Çoğulculukta Varoluş Mücadelesine Bir Bakış: Malezya Tecrübesi / An Overview towards the Existence Struggle in Religious and Cultural Pluralism: Malaysia Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Kayadibi

    2016-11-01

    Dini ve Kültürel Çoğulculukta Varoluş Mücadelesine Bir Bakış: Malezya Tecrübesi Öz Malezya sosyo-kültürel yapısı itibari ile çok dinli, çok dilli ve çok kültürlü toplumların barış ve huzur içerisinde yaşayabilme özelliğini göstermesinden dolayı birçok ülkeye örnek oluşturabilecek nadide birlikteliklerden biridir. Bu çok kültürlülük, çok dinlilik ve çok dillilik özelliklerini bir zenginlik olarak görüp, birlikte güçlü bir toplum oluşturabilmenin çabası içerisindedir. Birçok sahada, örneğin İslam Ekonomisi ve Bankacılığı, Helal Gıda, modern bir devlette İslam Hukuku kurallarının uygulanabilme özelliğinde öncü rol oynayabilen, hatta merkez ülke olma yarışında ciddi çalışmaları vardır. Tarihi tecrübe açısından Malezya, konum itibariyle ciddi işgallerin merkezi olmuş, birçok sömürge devletinin izlerini atabilmenin, sömürge psikolojisinden kurtulabilmenin, yaralarını sarabilmenin mücadelesini veren bir ülkedir. Geçmişte sömürge ülkelerinden kalan acı hatıraya rağmen Osmanlı devletinden gördüğü kardeş ve dost yardımlar hafızasının derinliklerinde sağlam izler bırakmıştır. Şimdi ise farklı etnik yapısını huzur ve barış içerisinde birlikte götürebilmenin mücadelesini veren ve diğer ülkelere de örnek oluşturabilecek model bir yapıya sahiptir. Bunun yanında Malezya’yı Türkiye ile karşılaştırmaya çalışmak yanlış sonuçlar doğurabilir. Sömürge geçmişi olmayan, gayr-i Müslim nüfusu neredeyse yok denecek kadar az olan Türkiye’nin Malezya ile kıyaslanması düşünülemez. Bu makalemizde çok dinli toplumlarda Müslümanlar incelenirken Malezya örnek olarak alınacak, onların yaşamları, tarihi ve sosyal evreleri, dini hayatın yaşanmasında sorunların olup olmadığı, milli bir bilinç oluşturmak için nasıl bir strateji geliştirildiği, topyekûn bir bakış açısı ile problemlerin neler olduğu ve ne tür

  19. Axel Olrik’in Epik Yasaları Işığında Oğuz Kağan Destanı’na Bir Bakış A Glance At Oghuz Khagan Saga In The Light Of Axel Olrik’s Epic Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat ÇİFTÇİ

    2013-07-01

    üzündeki varlığını, toplumsal bir mutabakat ile mümkün kılmıştır. Bu mutabakatın belli görüngüleri vardır ve bunlar daha çok kültürel formlarla karşımıza çıkar. Milletlerin toplumsal varlıklarını ortaya koymada karşımıza çıkan ilk verileri ve anlam yüklenmelerini destanlar temerküz eder. Bu bakımdan, destanlara milletlerin toplumsal hafızasının kodları olarak odaklanmak gerekir. İnsanoğlunun ilk atasından bu yana yeryüzünde ortaya koyduğu çabanın birtakım ana amaçlar ve temalar etrafında söz konusu olduğu bir gerçektir. Bu yüzden, barındırdığı arketipler bakımından destanların önemi büyüktür. Bu arketiplerin sadece geçmişi okumakla kalmayıp günümüze de ışık tutacak birtakım içermelere sahip olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu da, milletlerin ve toplumların kültürel görüngülerinin köklerine ulaşmak açısından bazı imkânlar oluşturmaktadır. Türk destanlarına bakıldığında, milletleşme yolunda önemli bir adım sayılacak Oğuz Kağan Destanı’nın bizleri karşıladığı görülür. Destanları anlamak ve anlamlandırmak için bazı farklı yöntemler söz konusu edilmektedir. Bu yöntemlerden birini, Tarihi-Coğrafi Fin Okulunun yöntemlerinden biri olan Axel Olrik’in “Epik Kanunlar Teorisi” oluşturmaktadır. Bu teori, mitolojik ürünlere evrensel bir standardizasyonla yaklaşmaya çalışmakta ve onları belli ilkeler çerçevesinde değerlendirmektedir. Bu makale, Türk tarihinin mitolojik uzantıları açısından sembolik olarak oldukça yüklü olan Oğuz Kağan Destanı’nı, Axel Olrik’in söz konusu epik yasaları ışığında okumayı amaçlamakta olup elde edilen bulguları, destan ve mahiyeti bağlamında tartışmaya çalışmaktadır.

  20. Türkiye Türkçesi Ağızlarında Özellikleri Bakımından Yağış Türlerine Verilen Adlar The Names That Given to Kinds of Precipitation in Turkey Turkish Dialects for Their Charateristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim EMİROĞLU

    2012-09-01

    rkçeye geçmemiş pek çok sözcük halkın dilinde yaşamakta ve kullanılmaktadır. Ağızlarda renk, yemek, organ, akrabalık, hastalık, hayvan, ölçü birimleri, giysi vb. adlar bakımından yüzlerce sözcük bulunmaktadır. Bunlar içerisinde yağış adları da önemli bir yer tutar. Bu çalışmada Türkiye Türkçesi ağızlarında yer alan yağış adları, çeşitli özellikleri göz önünde bulundurularak sınıflandırılmıştır. Yağış türlerinden yağmur ve kar yağışı için kullanılan isimler, bu yağışların sürekliliği, miktarı, hızı; tane veya damlaların büyüklüğü-küçüklüğü; yağışın düştüğü zaman (mevsim, ay, gün, saat vb.; yağışın yönü, diğer tabiat olaylarıyla ( rüzgâr, güneş, sis vb. eş zamanlı meydana gelmesi gibi özellikler dikkate alınarak verilmiştir. Tespit edilen ve sınıflandırılan yağış adları üzerinden çeşitli yorum ve değerlendirmelere ulaşılmıştır. Araştırma, Türklerin, görünüşte aynı sanılan yağış türlerini, bu türlerin çeşitli özelliklerine bakarak farklı adlandırmalarla ustalıklı bir biçimde birbirinden ayırdıklarını göstermektedir. Çalışmanın verileri Derleme Sözlüğü taranarak elde edilmiştir. Ancak Standart Türkçedeki kullanımları da tespit etmek için Büyük Türkçe Sözlük (TDK-BTS taranmıştır. Çalışmanın sonunda, ek olarak, tespit edilen ve özellikleri bakımından sınıflandırılan sözcüklerin anlamlarını içeren bir sözlük bulunmaktadır. Elde edilen veriler, Türkçenin yağış türlerini adlandırmak bakımından söz varlığının zenginliğini ortaya koymaktadır. Ağızlarda geçen yağış adları ile ilgili bu sözcüklerin birçoğunun Standart Türkçeye kazandırılması gerekir.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN BAK PENDARATAN LOMPAT JAUH DALAM PEMBELAJARAN PENJASORKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probo Winasis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to produce learning tools penjasorkes middle school students through the development of long jump landing tub. This research is a development. The data collection was conducted using questionnaires obtained from the evaluation experts and kueioner students and use the results of field observations. Technical analysis of the data used is descriptive percentage. The average yield on the expert validation trials small group obtained a percentage of 85%, the average yield of the student questionnaire on small group trial was obtained by 82.37%. Of the average yield of expert validation in a large group trial was obtained by 94%, while the average yield kueioner students in a large group trial was obtained by 93.36%. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the development of the long jump landing tub is suitable for use in penjasorkes learning for students of SMP N 1 Ajibarang.

  2. Environmental education and quality of life | Bak | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17 (1997) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Basic Survey Small-scale Natural Gas Consumption (BAK 1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, R.E.J.; Weegink, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The annual title survey shows for 1995 that Dutch households consumed more than 120 million m 3 of natural gas, which is higher than in 1994. The average consumption per dwelling slightly decreased. Gas consumption for cooking and hot water remained the same. The slight decrease in the average consumption is caused by space heating. The decrease seemed to halt last year, but still continues for the time being. However, it is too early to refer to it as a trend. 3 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Rancang Bangun Pengering Surya Tipe Bak Untuk Biji Kopi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Syah

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. The main aim of this study was to design and develop hybrid dryer in which heat sources are coming from coffee husks furnace and solar collectors used for coffee beans drying. We also tested its performance and calculated the energy consumption produced and total costs required to perform coffee beans drying. The study consisted of three stages; (1 structural and functional design of drying chamber, furnace and solar collector, (2 dryer construction and development, (3 functional test. The overall results of this study showed that solar collector was effectively working properly during the ten days drying. Yet, this developed dryer is still heavily influenced by the weather, and thus the use of biomass as an energy supplement is needed. The average air temperature produced by the dryer ranges between 36.2 oC to 48.6 oC, while the relative humidity (RH ranging from 43.6% -72.6%.

  5. Bak4bio framework - Brasilian army knife for bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Andreatta, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Orientador : Prof. Dr. Alessandro Brawerman Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Educação Profissional e Tecnológica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioinformática. Defesa: Curitiba, 09/05/2013 Inclui referências Área de concetração: Bioinformática Resumo:No desenvolvimento de software para a área de Bioinformática, pesquisadores consideram vários fatores para definir as tecnologias e metodologias utilizadas em um determinado projeto, não sendo raro enco...

  6. BOOK REVIEW Shemsw Bak, (2014). Sanhat: An official of ancient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world

    2016-05-30

    May 30, 2016 ... were expected to accept the sustained deceit that the people of Kemet were white. ... Kiswahili, Portuguese, Wolof and Zulu – seven languages widely ... the king of upper Palestine gives him his eldest daughter in marriage, ... Perhaps, it is in their reverence for death and the dead that the people of Kemet.

  7. Fıkıh ve Siyaseti Şer’iyye Bağlamında Küresel Helal Belgelendirme Çalışmalarına Eleştirel Bir Bakış / A Critical View on Global Halal Certification Activities in Terms of Fiqh and Siyasah Shar’iyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yalçın

    2017-06-01

    Müslümanlar için helal, dini bakımdan yasaklanmamış, izin verilmiş manasında kullanılmakta; haram ve mekruh terimine karşıt, mubah ve caiz terimlerine yakın anlamlar ifade etmektedir. Sanayi öncesi dönemde helal ve haramı ayırt etmek günümüze göre daha basit iken günümüzde sanayi ve teknolojinin getirdiği yeniliklerle ortaya çıkan kompleks ürünler ve bu ürünlerin her yere ulaşabilmesi sebebiyle daha zor ve karmaşık hale gelmiştir. Bu durum Müslümanların satın aldığı ürünlere olan güvenini sarsmış ve giderek karşılaşılan helalliği şüpheli ürünlerin sayısını artırmıştır. Tarihte muhtesiplerin pazar denetimi Müslüman halk için bir güvence oluştururken günümüzde bu denetim ve güvence helal belgelendirme yöntemiyle sağlanmaya çalışılmaktadır. Yarım asırdan bu tarafa helal belgelendirme çalışmaları gelişerek devam etmesine rağmen bu çalışmalar henüz etkin ve yaygın bir helal güvence sağlayacak düzeyde değildir. Fıkhi ihtilaflar, sertifika kurumları arasındaki farklılıklar, helal sertifika ve helal logo farklılıkları, ulusal ve uluslararası düzeyde yasal boşluklar, ülkeler ve sertifika kurumları arasında ticari rekabet, uygulamanın etkinliğini olumsuz etkilemektedir. Helal belgesinin sağlıklı, güvenli ve hijyenik en üst ürün güvencesi olduğu iddiası, ferdi ve toplumsal dindarlığımıza yaptığı katkılar ve ticari alanda Müslümanlara sağladığı avantajlar ve dezavantajlar, dikkat çekici bir araştırma alanıdır.

  8. Suriyeli Mültecilerin “Misafir” Olma Haline Misafirperverlik Hukuku ve Etiği Açısından Bakış / The View of Syrian Refugees as a “Guest” in terms of Hospitality Law and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan LORTOĞLU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada misafirperverlik kavramı Kant’ın misafirperverlik hukuku ile Derrida’nın Levinas’tan esinlenerek oluşturduğu misafirperverlik etiği düşüncesi açısından incelenmiş, Suriyeli mültecilere yönelik misafirlik söylemi Derrida’nın misafirperverlik düşüncesinden hareketle ele alınmıştır. Kant’ın misafirperverlik düşüncesinin köklerinin bulunduğu uluslararası sözleşmelerde mültecilik hakkı devletlerin insiyatifine bırakılarak sınırlandırılmıştır. Günümüzde egemen devletlere bakıldığında uluslararası hukuku sınırlandırdıkları ve mültecilerin sınırdan geçmesini engelleyen yasa ve yönetmelikler çıkardıkları görülmüştür. Cenevre Sözleşmesi’ne coğrafi kısıtlama şartıyla taraf olan Türkiye de iltica yasası ve politikasında sınırlamalar koymuştur. Suriyeli mültecilere yönelik geçici koruma yönetmeliği geçicilik ve mültecilerin acil ihtiyaçlarının karşılanması esası üzerinden düzenlenmiştir. Bu şekilde insan haklarından uzak, devletlerin çıkarını gözeten yasa ve politikaların dışında bir yol deneyimlemeye çalışan Derrida, koşulsuzluğu göz önünde bulundurarak yasa ve politikaların daha nasıl misafirperver yapılabileceğine dair sorgulamada bulunmuştur. Bu bağlamda misafirperverlik kavramını yapısöküme uğratmış, kavramın aporetik, çelişik ve imkansız yapısını ortaya koymuştur. Derrida’nın misafirperverlik düşüncesinden yola çıktığımızda Suriyeli mültecilere yönelik misafirlik söyleminin içinde barındırdığı çelişki, geçicilik, düşman ve istilacı imgesi, “biz” ve “onlar” ayrımı gazete haberlerinde ve toplum algısında gözlenebilmiştir. Derrida, iktidarı barındıran böylesi bir koşullu misafirperverliğin eşik, kapı olduğunu dolayısıyla misafirperverlik olmadığını belirtmiştir.

  9. Hasan Âli Yücel’in Mûsikî Dünyası, Türk Mûsikîsine Bakışı Ve “Millî Mûsikî” Tartışmalarındaki Yeri Hasan Āli Yucel's Musical Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlı ARSLAN

    2012-12-01

    çoğu ve İslam Ansiklopedisi tercüme edilmiş, İnönü ve Sanat Ansiklopedileri, İlköğretim, Güzel Sanatlar, Tercüme, Tarih Belgeleri, Köy Enstitüleri, Kültür Bakanlığı Dergileri çıkarılmıştır. Hasan Âli Yücel, mûsikî sahasında da fikirler ileri sürmüş, bu konuda Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi’nde tartışmalara girmiştir. Türk mûsikîsi penceresinden bakıldığında, “millî mûsikî” tartışmalarında Hasan Âli Yücel nerede durmaktadır? Necip Asım’ın ilk kez dile getirdiği ve Ziya Gökalp’in sistemleştirerek sürdürdüğü “millî mûsikî” tartışmalarında Hasan Âli Yücel’in yeri nedir ve o fikirlere katkısı ne olmuştur? Bu makalede Hasan Âli Yücel’in kısa biyografisinin ardından mûsikî dünyasına girilecek ve yukarıda andığımız soruların yanıtları aranacaktır.

  10. Kıbrıs Mülkiyet Tartışmasına Taşınmaz Mal Komisyonu Açısından Bir Bakış Cyprus Property Dispute through the Glance of Immovable Property Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya ÖZVERİ

    2013-07-01

    erçevesindetanımlamak amaçlanmaktadır. Ardından Kıbrıs’ta Türk ve Yunantarafların mülkiyet tartışmasına bakış açılarını da ele alınacaktır. İkitarafında müzakare masasında çok esneme payı bırakmadıkları bubakış açıları birbirinden çok farklı bir yapı da olması, uzlaşınınoluşabilmesini olanaksızlaştırdığından bu argümanlar daha da önemkazanmaktadır. Anlaşmazlığın taraflardan biri olan Türk tarafi ikibölgelilik,Yunan tarafı ise insan hakları argümanları üzerinden konuyayaklaşmaktadır. Taraflar tezlerini bu yönde savunurken, bu çalışmaAvrupa Insan Haklari Mahkemesi´nin iki önemli karari ile (LoizidouTürkiye´ye Karşı ve Xenides-Arestis Türkiye‘ye Karsi kurulmasinasebebiyet verdiği ve kararları ile bir iç hukuk yontemi olaraktüketilmesini ön-kosul olarak gösterdiği Tasinmaz Mal Komisyonu´nuincelemeye çalışacak ve artık görüşme masasında kemikleşmiş bir konuhaline gelmiş, adanın mülkiyet sorununa yeni bir umut ışığıolabileceğini tartışmayı amaçlamaktadır.

  11. Peyami Safa’nın Yalnızız Romanında Kadın ve Aileye Batılılaşma Ekseninden Bakış Overview Of Westernization Axis To Woman And Family In The Novel Of Peyami Safa’s Yalnızız

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümeyye Dinler KÖKSAL

    2013-03-01

    edebiyat dönemi edebî eserler bakımından verimli bir dönemdir. Zira Batılılaşma ile büyük ölçüde değişime uğrayan sosyal yapıda ele alınacak çokça mesele ortaya çıkmıştır. Böylece Batılılaşma, dönemin birçok edebî eserinde temel konuyu teşkil etmiş olur. Toplumun büyük kesiminde yaşanan bu sosyal değişime kayıtsız kalmayan edebî şahsiyetler, Batılılaşmayı her yönüyle sık sık işlemişlerdir. Özellikle roman türünde Peyami Safa’nın Batı’yı ve Batılılaşmayı işleyen eserler verdiğini görürüz. Toplumsal yapıyı oluşturan unsurları Batılılaşma ekseninde titizlikle ele alan Peyami Safa’nın, kadın ve aileyi bu yöndeki değişimine daha çok eğildiği dikkat çekmektedir. Kadının genel karakteri ve Batılılaşma serüveninde oynadığı rol üzerine kafa yoran Peyami Safa, eserlerinde kadınları özenle işler ve onlara önemli vazifeler yükler. Ailenin temel yapısı ve Batılılaşmadan etkilenme oranı üzerine de tespitlerde bulunan Peyami Safa’nın eserleri bu dönem adına önemli belgeler olarak kabul edilebilir. Bu çalışmada Peyami Safa’nın Yalnızız romanında, kadınların ve aile yapısının, Batılılaşma ile nasıl bir değişime uğradığını tespit etmeye çalıştık. Bu eserde kadın ve ailenin Batılılaşma ile nasıl bir değişime uğradığının örneklerini öne çıkarma fırsatını bulmuş olduk.

  12. Liselerde Madde Bağımlılığı – Mevcut Durum ve Önerilere İlişkin Okul Müdürleri ve Öğretmenlerin Bakış Açıları Opinions of Schoolmaster and Teachers on Drug Addiction – Present Situation and on Advices in Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin KUBANÇ

    2013-03-01

    bulunan liselerde görev yapan okul yöneticileri ve rehber öğretmenleriyle görüşülmüş ve öğrencilerinin uyuşturucu kullanımına ilişkin bakış açıları belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu kapsamda yöneticilere ve rehber öğretmenlere 10 açık uçlu soru yöneltilmiştir. Verilerin analizi ile elde edilen bulgularda uyuşturucuya başlama nedeninin daha çok ailevi nedenlerden kaynaklandığı tespit edilmiştir. Arkadaş grubu, çevre, medya, diğer etkili görülen unsurlar içerisindedir. Okullarda en çok esrar, eroin ve ecstacy kullanılmakta ve öğrenciler uyuşturucu maddeyi, okul dışında ara sokak satıcılarından, internet kafelerden ve okul içinden temin edebilmektedir. Uyuşturucu kullanımı konusunda kız ve erkek öğrenciler arasında anlamlı bir farklılık görülmemektedir. Çözüm yolları olarak, aile, eğitim ve devlet politikaları önde gelen unsurlar olarak göze çarpmaktadır.

  13. Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan’ın Kürsî-i İstiğrâk Şiirine Estetik Bir Bakış An Overview Of Aesthetic Abdulhak Hamit Tarhan Kürsî-i İstiğrâk Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş BİNGÖL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theme of poem of Kürsî-i Istiğrâk written by Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan is nature that subject to obtain the philosophy of art from past to present. Looking at the history of art, one of the most processed issues are human and the other nature. Abdülhak Hamit receptions theelements of nature with aestheticism, and takes into categories such asthe aesthetic elements of the sublime and beautiful. Nature is decor andornaments in Divan Literature becomes a resource aesthetic objects inAbdülhak Hamit poems. Hamit asserts as elements in natureconsidered a poem such as the nature form that the work of art. Hereceptions such as measure, musicality and harmony of the elements ofthe art of poetry from nature. Aesthetic analysis of a work of art madewithin the framework aesthetic object, aesthetic subject, aestheticperception, aesthetic value and judgment. Analysis of material that thelanguage of literary products is more complex and laborious task otherworks of art aesthetic analysis. To knowledge the genius psychologicalstate of bringing the body text, to determine philosophical ideaspermeated the fabric of the text and the most importantly connectionsbetween the text and the establishment of the aesthetic discipline isessential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the aesthetic point ofAbdülhak Hamit Kürsî-i Istiğrâk poem. Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan’nın Kürsî-i İstiğrâk adlı manzumesinin konusu, sanat felsefesinin geçmişten günümüze üzerinde durduğu tabiattır. Sanat tarihine bakıldığında, en fazla işlenen iki konudan biri insandır diğeri ise tabiattır. Abdülhak Hamit, tabiattaki unsurları estetize ederek alımlar ve bu unsurları yüce, güzel gibi estetik kategoriler çerçevesinde ele alır. Divan edebiyatında dekor ve süs olan tabiat, Abdülhak Hamit’in şiirlerinde estetik objelerin bulunduğu bir kaynağa dönüşür. Hamit, tabiattaki unsurları birer şiir olarak telakki ederek tabiatın da sanat eseri gibi

  14. 1826 Tarihli Grek Harfli Türkçe İncil ile 1827 Tarihli Arap Harfli Türkçe İncil'in Çekim Ekleri Bakımından Karşılaştırılması Comparison of the 1826 Turkish Bible in Greek Characters and the 1827 Turkish Bible in Arabic Characters in terms of Inflectional Affixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KILIÇARSLAN

    2013-09-01

    different from the Arabic charecters Turkish Bible. İncil hemen hemen tüm dünya dillerine olduğu gibi Türkçeye de tarih boyunca birçok kez çevirisi yapılmış bir kutsal kitaptır. Türkçe İncil tercümelerinin tarihi neredeyse İngilizce, Fransızca ve Almanca İnciller kadar eskidir. Yeni Ahit (Yeni Antlaşma da denilen İncil’in Osmanlı Türkçesine ilk olarak 1662-1665 yıllarında IV. Mehmed’in baştercümanı Ali Bey (Wojciech Bobowski tarafından yapılmış olduğu bilinmektedir. Türkçe İncil tercümelerinin daha sonraki yüzyıllarda ise matbu olarak da yapıldığı görülür. Bunlardan en eskisi Ali Bey’in tercümesine dayalı olarak 1819 tarihinde Paris’te yayımlanmıştır.Osmanlı Devletinde Arap harfli Osmanlı Türkçesi ile yapılmış İncil tercümelerinin yanı sıra daha az bilinen bir de Grek harfli İncil tercümeleri vardır. Bu çalışmada öncelikle çalışmaya esas olan 1826 tarihli Grek harfli Türkçe bir İncil ile 1827 tarihli Arap harfli Türkçe bir İncil’in tanıtımı yapılmıştır. Daha sonra her iki metnin Markos Bölümü Birinci Bab’ının çekim ekleri yönüyle bir karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır. Bu aşamada her iki metinde geçen çekim ekleri karşılaştırılmış, yeteri kadar örnekle konunun ortaya konmasına çalışılmıştır. Çalışmanın en sonunda ise çalışmada kullanılan İncil’in ilgili bölümünün çevirileri ve tıpkıbasımları yer almaktadır.Bazı Grek harfli Türkçe İncil tercümeleri Arap harfli Türkçe İncil tercümelerinin bire bir neşirleridir. Ancak kimi Grek harfli İncil tercümelerinin ağız hususiyetlerinin nispeten daha fazla olduğu ama bunların sentaks bakımından Arap harfli Türkçe İncillerden fazla farklılıklar göstermediği bilinmektedir. Çalışmamıza konu olan 1826 tarihli Grek harfli Türkçe İncil tercümesinin de Karamanlıca ağız özellikleri taşıyan ancak sentaks bakımından Arap harfli Türkçe İncil terc

  15. Humour, halters and humiliation: wife-sale as theatre and self-divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Vaessen, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries a number of England's regional newspapers published descriptions of a popular rural custom known as wife-sale. This event incorporated the symbolism of a livestock auction with a public declaration by a husband and wife to part ways. While previous studies have focused on wife-sale as a mode of self-divorce, the present work explores the meaning behind the symbols and rituals of wife-sale within the context of English popular culture. The existen...

  16. Humiliated silence: multiculturalism, blame and the trope of ‘moving on’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Waterton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of slavery has received wide media attention in response to the bicentenary of the abolition of the slave trade. Simultaneously, issues of multiculturalism and social exclusion have also been subject to tense debate. This paper aims to examine the rhetorical resources drawn upon at the juncture of these two areas of debate, particularly in terms of how the ‘slave trade’ and its abolition is understood, constructed and remembered. In order to examine how these issues are manifest, the paper utilizes critical discursive methodologies, which are applied to institutional and ‘official’ responses to the bicentenary of 1807. This data will be examined in terms of the discursive strategies drawn upon to actively absolve current generations from challenging the latent issues of power operative within modern British society.

  17. Reproductive strategies of two sympatric "small barbs" (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae) in Lake Tana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of two species of 'small barbs' (12,000 fish). Both species have a long breeding period (from March to September), and the distinct bimodal size-frequency distributions of eggs suggest multiple spawning for both species. Absolute fecundity increased exponentially with

  18. Translocation success of Frithia humilis Burgoyne, an endangered succulent plant: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kruger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AFrithia humilispopulation,growing on a licensed mining plot nearWitbank was saved from obliteration in 2009. It was translocated to three habitats, which havebeen monitored since 2010. Thus far, flowering has increased despite decreasing populationnumbers; the populations seem stable.

  19. Humiliation and love. Villaggio, Benigni and the cultural politics of emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ricatti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Umiliazione e amore: Villaggio, Benigni e la politica culturale delle emozioniLa forte dicotomia emotiva fra eroismo e codardia ha svolto un ruolo importante nella costruzione ed evoluzione dell’identità nazionale italiana. Questo articolo considera le opere più influenti di Paolo Villaggio e Roberto Benigni, e il loro ruolo nello sviluppo di una alternativa emotiva a tale dicotomia. I loro film si concentrano principalmente su una singola emozione: l’umiliazione nel caso di Villaggio, e l’amore nel caso di Benigni. È attraverso questa attenzione ad una singola emozione che questi autori e interpreti sono riusciti a costruire dei personaggi che, pur tipicamente italiani, non possono essere facilmente ricondotti né alla categoria dell’eroe né a quella del codardo. L’articolo sostiene l’importanza politica di questa alternativa emotiva, e nota come il suo progressivo indebolimento sia coinciso con l’incapacità della sinistra italiana di elaborare una risposta efficace alle politiche fortemente emotive di Berlusconi. L’articolo dimostra l’importanza di studiare i complessi rapporti fra comicità, emozioni e politica nella storia culturale e politica italiana.

  20. Preventing Hazing: How Parents, Teachers, and Coaches Can Stop the Violence, Harassment, and Humiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkins, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Written with clarity and passion, "Preventing Hazing" uncovers the deep roots of hazing, how and why it permeates schools, colleges, and communities, and what parents, teachers, and coaches can do to prevent it. The author shows how to recognize the warning signs, what to do if a student has been involved in a hazing (either as a victim,…

  1. When the helper humiliates the patient: a qualitative study about unintended intimidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Thesen, Janecke

    2008-01-01

    To explore experiences of intimidating patients/clients from the perspective of the professional. This was a qualitative study based on memory work, a procedure whereby memories are converted into written stories. The setting was a workshop about oppression and empowerment in a rehabilitation conference. Participants were 48 health and social professionals in six groups. Thirty-seven of the participants provided their written stories. The main outcome measures were descriptions of intimidation episodes according to the level of passivity/activity in the professional responsible for the act. The participants were able to recall episodes where they later realized that they had been involved in events perceived as intimidations by the patient/client. The memory stories described events that were not isolated events, but represented issues that might occur now and then. The first type of intimidation included events where the professional intimidated the patient/client by neglecting various basic needs, such as bodily functions, information, regard, time, and patience. The second type included events where the professional patronized and overruled the patient/client by pursuing the professional's agenda, ridiculing, or only partially acknowledging, the person. Remembering and presenting these events created ideas for alternative modes of action for the professionals. Systems for health and social care suffer from lack of resources, time, and proximity -- issues that facilitate the occurrence of intimidation of patients/clients. Yet, the professional remains responsible for his or her moral conduct. High moral awareness and systems with a better balance between reason and emotion are needed to stop vulnerable people being subjected to disempowering practices.

  2. When the helper humiliates the patient: a qualitative study about unintended intimidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Thesen, Janecke

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To explore experiences of intimidating patients/clients from the perspective of the professional. METHODS: This was a qualitative study based on memory work, a procedure whereby memories are converted into written stories. The setting was a workshop about oppression and empowerment...... for the act. RESULTS: The participants were able to recall episodes where they later realized that they had been involved in events perceived as intimidations by the patient/client. The memory stories described events that were not isolated events, but represented issues that might occur now and then...... -- issues that facilitate the occurrence of intimidation of patients/clients. Yet, the professional remains responsible for his or her moral conduct. High moral awareness and systems with a better balance between reason and emotion are needed to stop vulnerable people being subjected to disempowering...

  3. Participation in the ICT era: Implementation without humiliation, misconception and false consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Torill Aagot

    2012-06-01

    The national language of Tanzania is Kiswahili. However, Tanzania has two official languages: English, introduced in colonial times, and Kiswahili, the actual lingua franca spoken by 99 per cent of the population. Kiswahili websites and internet content are gradually increasing, and equipment is becoming more affordable. The research reported on here shows that especially academic staff with good knowledge in information and communication technology (ICT) are using Kiswahili more than others. This gives hope for the future. The language of instruction in Tanzania's higher education is however English only, resulting in students having to attend lectures and produce their coursework in a language they are not proficient in. Investigating whether University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) staff and students regard themselves as participants and contributors in a knowledge society, the author's findings suggest two simultaneous processes: (1) There are still remnants from the colonial system in terms of education and language; (2) At the same time ICT-competent staff and students already do participate in the ICT era in Kiswahili and tend to use Kiswahili in their work and studies. A high number of respondents say they use Kiswahili in most of their ICT communication. There is reason to ask: is the notion of English being the only ICT language possibly decreasing? This article builds on fieldwork conducted at UDSM in 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011, in connection with the research project "ICT and Language in Tanzanian Higher Education".

  4. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  5. Gender, Catholicism, Women’s Spirituality over the Longue Durée

    OpenAIRE

    Lux-Sterritt , Laurence; Mangion , Carmen M.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This volume emerged from the realization that the history of women religious was attracting the interest of an increasing number of scholars. We noticed the steady growth of the History of Women Religious of Britain and Ireland (H-WRBI), a network of scholars initiated by Carmen Mangion and Caroline Bowden in 2001 to encourage research in the history of women religious. 2 Their annual conferences are consistently well-attended and gather scholars from all parts of the ...

  6. Blood Pressure and Impedance Cardiography duríng Tilt Table Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Vondra, Vlastimil; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Leinveber, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2009), s. 429-432 ISSN 0276-6574 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200650801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : blood pressure * heart rate * thoracic impedance cardiography Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://cinc.mit.edu/archives/2009/pdf/0429.pdf

  7. La nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 oct. 2015 ... Une équipe de recherche internationale met au point des applications fondées sur la nanotechnologie d'hexanal, un extrait végétal naturel qui permet de ... Des chercheurs de l'Université de Guelph, de la Tamil Nadu Agricultural University en Inde et de l'Industrial Technology Institute au Sri Lanka ...

  8. Etude des efforts et de la température de coupe lors de tournage dur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation is concerned with the cutting force and temperature measurement ... bearing steel AISI 52100 using a Cubic Boron Nitride tool CBN7020. ... The treatment of the results obtained allowed us the deduction of various models, ... A study of the influence of the flank wear on the evolution of cutting force has also ...

  9. The galenic plague: a breakdown of the imperial pathocoenosis. Pathocoenosis and longue durée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Is 'pathocoenosis', a notion conceived and a word coined by Mirko Grmek (1969), useful as far as ancient history is concerned? The author is interested in Galenic pathocoenosis, that of doctor Galen and his Emperor Marcus Aurelius (IInd cent. A.D.), when a new 'pestilence' or 'plague' (smallpox?) devastated the whole empire, from Mesopotamia to the Danube at least.

  10. La tardo-eugenesia en Argentina: un enfoque desde la longue durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda, Marisa A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Eugenics in Argentina, taking a long term view, exhuming historical continuities that survived over time while ignoring deep contextual changes. Thus, in reference to the history of science (of which the history of Eugenics forms a part we can identify longue duree as part of a transcendent cultural phenomenon. This persistence is motivated by the strength of its principles, enabling it to survive more or less unaffected by events occurring in the environment, which, from another perspective, would cause a reversal of the proposed thesis. This paradigmatic strength, which can also be understood as resistance, in biopolitical terms, has granted some immunity and that, in turn, has allowed Eugenics to produce its own antibodies even after the horrors of Nazism became known.Este trabajo analiza la eugenesia en Argentina desde un enfoque de larga duración, que, como tal, se mantuvo en el tiempo con cierta indiferencia a cambios contextuales profundos. Así, respecto a la historia de la ciencia (dentro de cuyo ámbito se incluye a la historia de la eugenesia puede identificarse esa larga duración como parte de un fenómeno cultural que subsistiera, más o menos incólume, ante eventos habidos en el entorno que, desde otra perspectiva, hubieran implicado un trastocamiento inevitable de la tesis propuesta. Esa fortaleza (o resistencia paradigmática es la que, leída en términos biopolíticos, le ha otorgado a la tardo eugenesia cierta inmunidad y que, a la vez, le ha permitido fabricar sus propios anticuerpos luego de conocidos los horrores del nazismo.

  11. 60-66 Ay Aralığında İlkokula Başlayan Öğrencilerin Kişisel Öz Bakım Ve İlkokuma-Yazma Becerilerinin Öğretmen Görüşlerine Göre Değerlendirilmesi The Evaluation Of The 60-66 Months Old Primary School Students’ Personal Self-Care And Initial Reading And Writing Skills According To Teachers’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat BAŞAR

    2013-09-01

    ğişikle 2012-2013 öğretim yılında 60-66 ay arasındaki öğrenciler velilerin rızasıyla ilkokula başladılar. Bu başlangıçla birlikte temel becerilerle ilgili yetersizlik, öğrenme güçlüğü gibi tartışmalar yapıldı. Raporlar yayınlandı. Bu eleştirilerin tamamı süreç başlamadan ve uygulama görülmeden sendika, vakıf ve dernekler tarafından yapılan eleştirilerdi. Nitel olarak yapılan bu çalışmada ilkokula 60-66 ay döneminde başlayan öğrencilerin ilk okuma yazma sürecinin öğretmen görüşlerine göre değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. İlkokula başladıkları dönem ile birinci sınıfı bitirdikleri dönem arasındaki süreç öğrencilerdeki gelişim ve gerçekleştirilen etkinliklere göre değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2012-2013 öğretim yılında Uşak’ta görev yapan 26 sınıf öğretmeni oluşturmuştur. 60-66 ay aralığında bulunan öğrencilerin dönemin başında okula uyum, tuvaleti kullanma, tuvaletten sonra ellerini yıkayabilme ve elbisesini giyme, kendi başına yiyip içebilme gibi kişisel öz bakım becerilerinde yetersiz oldukları görülmüştür. Ancak 2012-2013 öğretim yılı sonu itibari ile bu becerileri kazanmada sorunların pek görülmediği tespit edilmiştir. Benzer şekilde öğrencilerin ilkokula başladıkları dönemde kalem tutma, satır aralığına yazma, sesleri yazım yönüne göre doğru yazma, tahtayı kullanma becerilerinde sorunlar yaşadıkları tespit edilmiştir. 2012-2013 öğretim yılı sonunda okuma ve yazma sorununun aşıldığı belirlenmiştir.

  12. PENANGANAN SAMPAH ORGANIK DENGAN BAK SAMPAH KOMPOSTER DI DUSUN SUSUKAN KELURAHAN SUSUKAN KECAMATAN SUSUKAN KABUPATEN SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aklis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Not properly managed of garbage will impact the health, social and economic. It occurs in RT 03, RT 04 RW 1, Susukan Village, Semarang District. Most residents of both RT are still throwing garbage in any place, and others make puddles for landfills. This paper addresses the issue of handling organic waste from the initially discarded in places and wallow carelessly processed into compost and liquid fertilizer in a composter in Susukan Village , District of Semarang. The activities begins with making management team that are divided according to their respective RT, provision of trash for inorganic waste, manufacture and operation of the composter training for the management team, training provision and operation of the composter for residents. The results of activities undertaken resident of RT 03 RW 04 has a system to manage garbage, produce fertilizer so the impact on improving the quality of health and social citizens.

  13. PERFORMANSI BIOLOGIS CALON INDUK PATIN JAMBAL (Pangasius djambal PADA VOLUME BAK DAN CARA AERASI BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Patin jambal is one of Indonesia indigenous species which is threatened to extinction in Java open water due to development progress as well as over fishing. Further mass production of patin jambal seeds in hatchery faces the unsustainable supply of spawner. Tank size and aeration technique are suspected to affect patin jambal spawner production in captivity since the fish is a riverine species. The experiment aims at providing a suitable environment for such a fish to grow to be productive spawners. Four circular concrete tanks are used to assure maximum water circulation; two tanks were filled with 10 m3 and the other with 20 m3 fresh surface water at equal depth, 130 cm. The surface water was gravitationally flowed from the surface into 2 tanks and from the bottom into 2 other tanks at 0.6-1.0 L sec-1. The fish weighted 1.5 kg each was stocked at 7 female and 3 male into each of 10 m3 tank and at 15 females and 5 males into each of 20 m3 tank.  The experimental units were arranged in a completely randomized design with pseudo replication. The fish fed commercial artificial diet at 3% of biomass weight a day. Fish in the 20 m3 tank equipped with bottom water inlet gained weight 0.601 % day-1 and consequently grew faster (P<0.05 than fish in the other tanks.  Fish in the same tank was also biologically mature faster than fish in the other tanks; four males and one male were found to reach gonad maturity stage IV which was not found in the other tanks. Obviously, a 20 m3 concrete tank equipped with bottom water inlet is suitable for patin jambal spawner production at 15 females to 5 males ratio.

  14. Proposed Bak Stabilization Tennessee River, River Mile 466.2 - 466.5 Hamilton County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    aegyptium ). Vegetation along the bank consists of honey locust (Gleditsia tricanthos), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), kudzu (Pueraria lobata...Adverse effects comprise, but are not necessarily limited to, the following: (a) death or injury to one or more individuals that results from activities...exclusive privileges, nor does it authorize any injury to private property or any invasion of personal rights, nor any infringement of federal, State

  15. Hz. Peygamber Dönemi Eğitimine Genel Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Yılmaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allah'a inanan güzel ahlakla teçhiz edilen erdemli bir toplum oluşturmayı amaçlayan Hz. Peygamber için bunu gerçekleştirmede, ilim, eğitim ve öğretim bir hayat felsefesi olmuştur. Buna paralel olarak onun çalışmalarında ve sözlerinde bilgi, öğrenme, öğretme, öğrenci ve öğretmene büyük önem verildiği görülmektedir. İnsanIarın karanlıktan aydınlığa çıkması için bütün imkanları kullanmıştır. Ancak Hz. Peygamber'in yaptığı eğitim ve öğretimi kendi döneminin sosyal ve fiziki şartları, ihtiyaçları ve metotları çerçevesinde gerçekleştirdiğini unutmamak gerekir. Dönemin şartlarının, imkanlarının ve olumsuzluklarının çok fazla olmasına rağmen, Hz.Peygamber'in eğitim ve öğretim konusunda bugün dahi geçerliliğini koruyan evrensel nitelikteki uygulamaları bizim için çok önemlidir. Modem çağların insanlarının olan günümüz insanlarının onun eğitim ve öğretim sisteminden istifade edeceği çok yönlerin olduğu kanaatindeyim

  16. Heterodimerization and endocytosis of Arabidopsis brassinosteroid receptors BRI1 and AtSERK3 (BAK1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russinova, Eugenia; Borst, Jan-Willem; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J

    2004-01-01

    us to localize each receptor independently in vivo. We show that BRI1, but not AtSERK3, homodimerizes in the plasma membrane, whereas BRI1 and AtSERK3 preferentially heterodimerize in the endosomes. Coexpression of BRI1 and AtSERK3 results in a change of the steady state distribution of both...... receptors because of accelerated endocytosis. Endocytic vesicles contain either BRI1 or AtSERK3 alone or both. We propose that the AtSERK3 protein is involved in changing the equilibrium between plasma membrane-located BRI1 homodimers and endocytosed BRI1-AtSERK3 heterodimers....

  17. Atlarda Mide Ülseri Sendromuna Genel Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA KARASU, Gülşah; ONMAZ, Ali Cesur

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to provide information about formation of equine gastric ulcer syndrome(EGUS), the basic principles of diagnosis and treatment strategies (pharmacological treatment and the role of nutritionin treatment). EGUS is characterized by ulceration in the terminal esophagus, proximal (squamous) stomach, distal(glandular) stomach, and proximal duodenum. Diagnosis of EGUS requires a thorough history and physical examination.However, gastroscopy is the only definitive diag...

  18. The trailing trials of humiliation: Legal, social, and medical perspectives of women facing domestic violence in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumuda Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, violence within the home is universal across culture, religion, class, and ethnicity. Despite its widespread prevalence, such violence is not customarily acknowledged and has remained invisible-a problem thought unworthy of legal or political attention. The social construction of the divide between public and private life underlies the major problem of addressing the hidden nature of domestic violence against women. Legal jurisprudence has historically considered the domain of the house to be within the control and unquestionable authority of the male head of household. Thus, acts of violence against members of the household, whether wife or child, were perceived as discipline and essential for maintaining the rule of authority within the family. Except for sensational cases, the fear of social isolation and inhibition has caused the insidious everyday violence experienced by huge numbers of women to be hidden in the private domain. In this review, we make an attempt towards briefing the legal, social, and medical perspectives of women facing domestic violence.

  19. Polyphenol Content, Physicochemical Properties, Enzymatic Activity, Anthocyanin Profiles, and Antioxidant Capacity of Cerasus humilis (Bge. Sok. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwen Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven varieties of Chinese dwarf cherries were evaluated and compared with respect to their weight, diameter, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, color, polyphenol contents, ascorbic acid levels, anthocyanin profiles, enzymatic activity, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits are rich in phenolic content (339.07–770.30 mg/100 g fresh weight. Nine anthocyanins were obtained from fruits after chromatographic separation and their structures analyzed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the major anthocyanin with 50.36–78.39% concentration. Three anthocyanins were reported for the first time in these cherries. They exhibit low polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities, but their superoxide dismutase activity is high (572.75–800.17 U/g FW. The highest amounts of soluble solid content (15.67 Brix %, total titratable acid (1.90%, ascorbic acid (18.47 mg/100 g FW, and total anthocyanin (152.66 mg/100 g FW were observed. Three methods (DPPH-scavenging ability, oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, and cellular antioxidant activity assay were employed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the phenolic extracts of these cherries. Number 5 has the highest values of ORAC and CAA of 205.68 μmol TE/g DM and 99.67 μmol QE/100 g FW, respectively.

  20. Reproductive strategies of two sympatric 'small barbs'(Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae)in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of two species of 'small barbs' (12,000 fish). Both species have a long breeding period (from March to September), and the distinct bimodal size-frequency distributions of eggs suggest multiple spawning for both species. Absolute fecundity increased exponentially with

  1. A Study of the Pelagic Larval Duration of Acropora humilis, Coral Recruitment and Connectivity in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha

    2011-01-01

    Combined knowledge of the pelagic larval duration of coral species and coral recruitment patterns can provide evidence of inter-reef connectivity and indicate a reef’s ability to recover. We attempted to determine the maximum pelagic larval duration

  2. Retheorizing Actionable Injuries in Civil Lawsuits Involving Targeted Hate Speech:Hate Speech as Degradation and Humiliation

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Many legal jurisdictions permit victims of targeted hate speech to sue for damages in civil courts. In the US plaintiffs may sue for damages using the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress. Indeed, back in 1982, Richard Delgado proposed the introduction of a new tort of racial insult to handle such cases. In South Africa, plaintiffs can use the delict of injuria. Although there have been some successful lawsuits, the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress has been...

  3. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California – release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) likely originated in sub-Saharan Africa, where the wild olive Olea europaea cuspidata L. (Wall. ex G. Don) is found and from which the domesticated olive O. europaea europaea L. was derived. Following the path of olive cult...

  4. Impact de l'emballage et de la durée de conservation sur la qualité ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English Title: Impact of the packaging and conservation on the quality, nutritional and microbiological of sorghum cookies fortified with moringa and Spirulina. English Abstract. Objective: Changes in the quality of two types of sorghum biscuits enriched with 10% moringa and 4% spirulina were studied in two types of ...

  5. Préserver la nature en ville: une Coproduction inscrite dans la longue durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Sander

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Preservar a natureza na cidade : uma coprodução inscrita na longa duraçãoO estudo do parque da Caffarella à Roma permite compreender as maneiras pelas quais as interações entre atores contribuem, à longo prazo, para a preservação dos espaços naturais na cidade e em sua transformação em um patrimônio natural coletivo. Esse parque de 200 hectares constitui o prolongamento, em meio urbano, de um grande parque natural regional de 3.400 hectares. A genealogia das representações desse espaço e das lutas em que ele foi objeto demonstra que as razões da preservação desse espaço da natureza na cidade são múltiplas: as ameaças que pesam sobre o sítio evoluem com o tempo, da mesma forma que os argumentos em favor de sua preservação, bem como a natureza das mobilizações. As escalas geográficas e institucionais em jogo evoluíram muito no tempo: o parque concentra hoje fortes valores simbólicos e em termos de quadro de vida, bem como importantes valores fundiários. Ele está, por outro lado, ao mesmo tempo, no coração das políticas de meio-ambiente à escala regional.

  6. Study of fast electrons from hard-X radiation; Etude des electrons rapides a partir du rayonnement X-dur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.

    1995-12-19

    The goal of this thesis is the study of fast electron dynamics by means of the hard X-ray diagnosis installed in TORE SUPRA and numerical simulations. Fast electrons are generated in the plasma in the presence of the injected lower hybrid (LH) waves. Two aspects are studied in detail: the lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in a periodically perturbed media and 2-D Fokker-Planck modelling of the fast electron dynamics in the presence of the LH power. Ripple effects on lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption are investigated using the ray tracing technique. A cylindrical equilibrium is first studied and a strong modification of the ray dynamics is predicted. Calculations are carried out in a real toroidal geometry corresponding to TORE SUPRA. It is shown that the lack of toroidal axisymmetry of the magnetic field may result in a modification of the ray evolution even if the global ray evolution is governed by the larger poloidal inhomogeneity. Simulation of LH experiments are performed for TORE SUPRA tokamak which has a large magnetic ripple (7% at the plasma edge). By considering ripple perturbation in LH current drive simulations, a better agreement is found with experimental results, in particular with the hard-X spectra and the current density profiles. In the second part of the thesis, a 2-D modeling of the fast electron dynamics in the velocity phase space is considered, based on the 2-D relativistic electron Fokker-Planck equation. Electron distribution functions obtained are used to calculate non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission for different TORE SUPRA shots in a wide range of experimental conditions. (J.S.). 168 refs., 93 figs., 1 tab., 3 appendix.

  7. Mémoires et conflits: Conflits des mémoires, collision des durées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Vieillard-Baron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a collision between the durations and between the memories, every time that duration rythms are different. For Bergson there is a difference of degrees of tension between durations but the flow is unique. Ricœur distinguishes many degrees of passeity according to the proximity or the distance. As example he sets the Zauberberg of Thomas Mann. Forgetting and Forgiveness are forms of durations collision. The distensio animi of Saint Augustine means dissipation  Ricœur misunderstands this expression what means for him phenomenological intratemporality, and he goes no further than tearing of soul distant from eternity. Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE

  8. An olfactory receptor from Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur) mainly tuned to volatiles from flowering host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shu-Wei; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Li, Guo-Qing; Wang, Gui-Rong

    2015-08-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most serious agricultural pests, feeding on a wide range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals and vegetables in the north of China. This insect can frequently switch between habitats and host plants over seasons and prefer plants in bloom. A. lucorum relies heavily on olfaction to locate its host plants finely discriminating different plant volatiles in the environment. Despite its economical importance, research on the olfactory system of this species has been so far very limited. In this study, we have identified and characterized an olfactory receptor which is sensitively tuned to (Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate and several flowering compounds. Besides being present in the bouquet of some flowers, these compounds are produced by plants that have suffered attacks and are supposed to act as chemical messengers between plants. This OR may play an important role in the selection of host plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population in Denmark estimated through the CE-DUR method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel

    2007-01-01

    case') assumptions were based on patch test reading data in combination with an estimate of the number of persons eligible for patch testing each year based on sales data of the 'standard series'. The estimated 10-year prevalence of contact allergy ranged between 7.3% and 12.9% for adult Danes older...

  10. As bibliotecas universitárias em perspectiva histórica: a caminho do desenvolvimento durável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Suzana Cabral Nunes

    Full Text Available RESUMO Apresenta a evolução das bibliotecas universitárias como instituições seculares, cuja evolução dá-se a partir do crescimento bibliográfico e do surgimento das primeiras universidades na Idade Média. O objetivo desse artigo é compreender a evolução das bibliotecas universitárias em uma perspectiva histórica de modo a identificar suas características específicas, seus agentes e os dispositivos adotados por essas instituições difusoras do conhecimento. Utilizou-se de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental para elaboração do artigo e discussão do tema. Conhecer esse percurso histórico possibilita a apreensão dos primeiros vestígios das bibliotecas universitárias e sua evolução, seus percalços e desafios, assim como situa a atuação dos profissionais da informação na condução de ações de mediação e apropriação da informação na perspectiva da formação de indivíduos não apenas competentes em informação, mas capazes de exercer seu protagonismo social.

  11. As bibliotecas universitárias em perspectiva histórica: a caminho do desenvolvimento durável

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Martha Suzana Cabral; Carvalho, Kátia de

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Apresenta a evolução das bibliotecas universitárias como instituições seculares, cuja evolução dá-se a partir do crescimento bibliográfico e do surgimento das primeiras universidades na Idade Média. O objetivo desse artigo é compreender a evolução das bibliotecas universitárias em uma perspectiva histórica de modo a identificar suas características específicas, seus agentes e os dispositivos adotados por essas instituições difusoras do conhecimento. Utilizou-se de pesquisa bibliográfic...

  12. STATE OF JNK AND P38 MAP-KINASE SYSTEM IN BLOOD monon uclea r le ucocytes DUR ING INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Chasovskih

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pogrammed cell death of peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes from patients with acute inflammatory diseases (non-nosocomial pneumonia, acute appendicitis was investigated under ex vivo conditions, upon cultivation of the cells with selective inhibitors of JNK (SP600125 and р38 МАРК (ML3403. In vitro addition of SP600125 and ML3403 under oxidative stress conditions prevents increase of annexinpositive mononuclear cells numbers, thus suggesting JNK and р38 МАР-kinases to be involved into oxidative mechanisms of apoptosis deregulation. A role of JNK in IL-8 production by mononuclear leucocytes was revealed in cases of acute inflammation. Regulatory effect of JNK and p38 MAP-kinases can be mediated through activation of redox-sensitive apoptogenic signal transduction systems, as well as due to changes in cellular cytokine-producing function.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of solvent fractions of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala Bak. (Moringaceae) in mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrat, Yohannes; Nedi, Teshome; Assefa, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Shibeshi, Workineh

    2017-09-29

    Many people still experience pain and inflammation regardless of the available drugs for treatments. In addition, the available drugs have many side effects, which necessitated a quest for new drugs from several sources in which medicinal plants are the major one. This study evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activity of the solvent fractions of Moringa stenopetala in rodent models of pain and inflammation. Successive soxhlet and maceration were used as methods of extractions using solvents of increasing polarity; chloroform, methanol and water. Swiss albino mice models were used in radiant tail flick latency, acetic acid induced writhing and carrageenan induced paw edema to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The test groups received different doses (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of the three fractions (chloroform, methanol and aqueous). The positive control groups received morphine (20 mg/kg) or aspirin (100 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg) based on the respective models. The negative control groups received the 10 ml/kg of vehicles (distilled water or 2% Tween 80). In all models, the chloroform fraction had protections only at a dose of 400 mg/kg. However, the methanol and aqueous fraction at all doses have shown significant central and peripheral analgesic activities with a comparable result to the standards. The aqueous and methanol fractions significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in a dose dependent manner, in which the highest reduction of inflammation was observed in aqueous fraction at 400 mg/kg. This study provided evidence on the traditionally claimed uses of the plant in pain and inflammatory diseases, and Moringa stenopetala could be potential source for development of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  14. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward Jm; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise; Broadley, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS. This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form, could reduce the prevalence of MNDs, most notably Se deficiency.

  15. Yoğun Bakımda Hafif Şiddetli Bir Propofol İnfüzyon Sendromu

    OpenAIRE

    Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Oterkus, Mesut; Donmez, Ilksen; Ozturk, Omur; Yavuzekinci, Zeynep

    2018-01-01

    Propofol infüzyon sendromu (PRİS) nadir ama ölümcül bir hastalıktır. Bu sendrom çoğunlukla ilacın yüksek dozda uzun süreli infüzyonundan sonra oluşur. Metabolik asidoz, hipotansiyon, miyoglobinüri, artmış karaciğer ve kas enzimleri, kardiyak aritmiler ve kalp durması sendromun genel özellikleridir. Bu olgu sunumunda uzun süreli düşük doz (25–50 mcg/kg/dk) ilaç infüzyonundan sonra ortaya çıkan hafif tipte bir PRİS tartışılmıştır. Bu olguda ilaç infüzyonu esnasında ciddi metabolik asidoz, hipot...

  16. Kadınların Bakış Açısından Kürtaj

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAVLİN, Alanur; TEZCAN, Sabahat; ERGÖÇMEN, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Legalization of induced abortion by the Population Law in 1983 is an important step for publichealth and reproductive rights. This paper aims to demonstrate differentiations in abortion prevalenceand to explore women’s perception of abortion and conditions under which women decide to end theirpregnancies with induced abortion. The study is based on the “Turkey Demographic and HealthSurveys” and on the in-depth interviews with women. Our work shows that legalization of inducedabortion does not...

  17. "Nafta ja veri : Balti energia ja kommunismi pärand" : ÜBAK-i 7. Balti konverents / Karl Altau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Altau, Karl Stephen, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    eelteade Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee korraldusel toimuvast konverentsist Washingtonis 9.-10. veebruarini -teemaks Baltimaade energeetiline julgeolek ja kommunismi pärand, peakõnelejaks Valdas Adamkus. Info: jbanc@jbanc.org või telefon 301-340-1954

  18. Hip Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Bakırköy Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altuğ Duramaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, and etiology as well as the risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip in newborns in whom we performed ultrasonography for screening using Graff’s method in our clinic. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 2632 hip ultrasonography records of 1316 babies performed between 2008 and 2013. We analyzed the questionnaires of the Turkish Pediatric Orthopaedic Society which were filled by the physician during examination. The babies were divided into two groups according to ultrasonographic hip angles as pathological and normal. Results: The study is made on 1316 babies [680 girls (51.6%, 636 boys (48.4%]. The risk for developmental dysplasia of the hip was higher in girls, babies with a family history, babies with metatarsus adductus and those have been swaddled before. The mean gestational age and gestational weight was statistically significantly lower in the pathological group (p=0.0011. Conclusion: In our cross-sectional study, the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip was 0.5%. Female gender, positive family history of developmental dysplasia of the hip,metatarsus adductus and swaddling are still risk factors. Researching risk factors carefully, patient education and adding hip ultrasonograpy to newborn routine screening program are important measures in preventing developmental dysplasia of the hip.

  19. PERBEDAAAN PADAT TEBAR TERHADAP TINGKAT PERTUMBUHAN DAN KELANGSUNGAN HIDUP POST PEURULUS LOBSTER PASIR (Panulirus homarus PADA BAK TERKONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik Cokrowati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Prospek budidaya Panulirus homarus menjanjikan dari segi ekonomi dan keadaan alam di wilayah NTB serta merupakan spesies komoditi ekspor utama di Indonesia.Potensi akuakultur lobster pasir tentunya membutuhkan teknik budidaya yang sesuai agar mendapatkan hasil yang optimal.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan padat tebar terhadap pertumbuhan dan nilai Survival rate (SR serta untuk mengetahui padat tebar yang dapat menghasilkan pertumbuhan dan nilai SR optimum post puerulus Panulirus homarus.Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimental dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan faktor tunggal yaitu padat tebar dengan densitas 20 ekor/m2, 40 ekor/m2, 60 ekor/m2, dan 80 ekor/m2. Parameter yang diamati adalah pertumbuhan spesifik dan kelangsungan hidup (SR post puerulus Panulirus homarus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian perlakuan perbedaan padat tebar berpengaruh (P<0,05 terhadap pertumbuhan spesifik dan kelangsungan hidup (SR post puerulus Panulirus homarus. Nilai SGR dan SR tertinggi terdapat pada kepadatan 20 ekor/m2 sebesar 2,15425% dengan nilai SR 75%, dengan kualitas air sebagai faktor pembatas dengan nilai rata-rata pH 7,2, suhu 26,930 C, salinitas 34,4 ppt dan DO 5,86 mg/l nilai tersebut dalam batas toleransi  sebagai kehidupan biota air khususnya  lobster pasir. Kata kunci : Panulirus homarus, padat tebar, survival rate

  20. The BRI1-associated kinase 1, BAK1, has a brassinolide-independent role in plant cell-death control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmerling, B.; Schwedt, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Mazzotta, S.; Frank, M.; Abu Qamar, S.; Mengiste, T.; Betsuyaku, S.; Parker, J.E.; Müssig, C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Albrecht, C.; Vries, de S.C.; Hirt, H.; Nürnberger, T.

    2007-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a common host response to microbial infection [1-3]. In plants, PCD is associated with immunity to biotrophic pathogens, but it can also promote disease upon infection by necrotrophic pathogens [4]. Therefore, plant cell-suicide programs must be strictly controlled.

  1. En nevrofysiologisk tilnærming til tinnitus : teorien bak og behandlingsprinsippene som følger

    OpenAIRE

    Schive, Øivind Beite

    2012-01-01

    The patogenesis of tinnitus has remained unknown despite a prevalence as high as 10-15% of the population. In 1990, Pavel Jastreboff presented a hypothesis that even though the tinnitus signal is generated in the chochlea and then amplified in subcortical centres, it´s the following processes - perception, psychological evaluation and classification - that generates the pathological perception of tinnitus. Based on this hypothesis he released a new type of treatment, Tinnitus Retraining Thera...

  2. The International Framework of Information Policies Enformasyon Politikalarına Küresel Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Moore

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of information societies is one of the defining characteristics of the last decade of the twentieth century. Countries all over the world are repositioning themselves to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the information age. They share common objectives although there are significant differences in the motivations underlying the re-positioning and in the mechanisms chosen to implement information society developments. Formal frameworks of policy are being established to steer the development of information societies. There can be few other examples of technological change stimulating formal policy creation in order to bring about social change. This paper surveys the approaches to information policy in various countries all over the world and forecasts future progress with views as to how to ensure that the information society will work for the good of every one. 20. yüzyılın son on yılının belirleyici karakteristiklerinden biri enformasyon toplumlarının ortaya çıkması olmuştur. Dünyanın dört bir yanında ülkeler, enformasyon çağının yarattığı olanaklardan yararlanabilmek için konumlarını gözden geçirmektedirler. Bu ülkelerin hedefleri aynı olmakla birlikte, yönelimlerinin ardındaki motivasyonlar her zaman aynı değildir ve enformasyon toplumu gelişmelerini uygulamaya sokmak için seçtikleri mekanizmalar önemli farklılıklar göstermektedir. Enformasyon toplumuna geçişi harekete geçirmek için resmi politikalar saptanmaktadır. Bunun dışında, teknolojik değişimin, bağlantılı bir toplumsal değişimi sağlamak için resmi politikalar belirlenmesini zorladığı çok ender görülmüştür. Bu bildiride dünyanın çeşitli ülkelerinde enformasyon politikalarına yaklaşımların neler olduğu gözden geçirilmekte, geleceğe yönelik görüşler sunulmakta ve enformasyon toplumunun herkesin yararına gelişmesi için neler yapılması gerektiği konusu işlenmektedir.

  3. Malezya’da Din-Devlet İlişkisine Kısa Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStarting from the second half of the 1960s onwards, socio-religious youth movements, which are regarded as the initial element of civil expressions on university campuses, were constructively influential on the perception of the political elites’ understanding of Islam and political evolution of the Islamisation policies in the process in Malaysia. There are opinions that this effect encompassed the efforts of Islamisation particularly in the 1980s. In this process, the task of the state apparatus, as a political power, which managed the religious domain mostly considered belonging to the civil sector, deserves to be scrutinized in relation with at least some influential factors in the near and distant past of the Muslim Malay community. And, it cannot be overseen that the functions of the traditional Malay rulers, say, Sultans, were transferred, to some or larger extent, to the Federal government after the independence. With regard to this, in this article, the present writer will focus on some aspects of the policies of Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, who has molded majorily the history of modern Malaysia, regarding his Islamisation policy aligned with the state-religion relationship.ÖzetMalezya’da 1960’lı yılların ikinci yarısından itibaren üniversite kampüslerinde başlayan ve sivilleşmenin bir unsuru olarak telâkki edilen dini-toplumsal hareketlerin İslam’ın ülke siyasi elitince algılanmasında ve pratikte İslamlaştırma adıyla anılabilecek politikalara evrilmesinde önemli etkisi olmuştur. Bu etkinin, özellikle 1980’li yıllarda devlet eliyle İslamlaştırma çabalarına yol açtığı konusunda görüşler bulunmaktadır. Bu süreçte, yani devletin siyasi bir güç olarak sivil alana dahil olan dini çekip çevirme işini üstlenmesinde, özellikle Müslüman Malay toplumunun yakın ve uzak geçmişindeki kimi faktörler dikkate alınmayı hak etmektedir. Bu bağlamda, geleneksel Malay devletlerinde Sultanların sahip oldukları işlevlerin bağımsızlık sonrasında Federal yönetime bir tür devri olarak değerlendirilebilecek ilişki göz ardı edilmemelidir. Bu çerçevede, modern Malezya tarihinde bıraktığı izler nedeniyle, din-devlet ilişkisi bağlamında yaşananların odağında yer alan Dr. Mahathir Muhammed’in 22 yıllık iktidarındaki icraatlar kısaca ele alınacaktır.Un bref aperçu de la relation entre la religion et le gouvernement : les politiques de l’islamisation de l’époque de Mahathir Mohamad et ses implicationsRésuméLes mouvements socio-religieux dans les campus universitaires en Malaisie depuis la seconde moitié des années 1960 ont eu une influence considérable à propos de la perception de l’Islam par les élites politiques du pays et du commencement de la réalisation des politiques de l’islamisation. Il existe même des opinions qui défendent l’idée que cette influence était en particulier à la base de l’islamisation du pays par l’Etat dans les années 1980. Pour comprendre le processus de la prise en charge de l’Etat des affaires de la Religion, devenu maintenant une force politique dans la sphère publique, il convient de voir, en particulier, certaines caractéristiques dans les temps passé et présent de la communauté musulmane malaise. Dans ce contexte, il ne faut pas oublier le transfert des fonctions des sultans des états traditionnels malais au Gouvernement fédéral après l’indépendance. Dans cette étude, on va aborder en bref les politiques de l’époque de Dr. Mahathir Muhammed, au pouvoir pendant 22 ans, et qui était au centre des affaires au sujet de la relation entre la religion et l’état de cette période, car cette période a marqué l’histoire du pays.

  4. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  5. Environ: E00442 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00442 Prunus humilis, Prunus japonica seed Crude drug ... Prunus humilis [TAX:434060], Prunus jap...onica [TAX:97319] ... Rosaceae (rose family) Prunus humilis, Prunus japonica mature seed (dried) ...

  6. Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effect on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the

  7. Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effects on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the

  8. Decoding China’s Century of Humiliation: Relevance of History and the Impact on Sino-Japanese and Sino-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    tax of increased trade.7 With open trade now encouraged, trading greatly increased. Initially, British traders brought cotton from Europe and India...over the past 60 years, as well as the Catholics’ declaration of exclusion from taxes because of the heresies the taxes supported, the Boxers made a...directly accountable for war crimes simply on the basis of their ethnicity.”35 One could argue that China has not healed from these “war injuries

  9. Durée de vie des réseaux d’assainissement, modélisation Service life in sewerage system, simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauberthie R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La modélisation des systèmes physiques peut parfois être rendue difficile par la présence de bruits et perturbations. Lorsqu’il est possible de faire des hypothèses sur les caractéristiques de ces bruits et perturbations, les approches permettant d’inclure un modèle de ces perturbations dans le modèle du processus sont pertinentes et permettent entre autre de reconstruire l’état du processus. Cependant, ces hypothèses sont rarement satisfaites en pratique et, les modèles eux-mêmes sont parfois entachés d’erreurs. Néanmoins, ces grandeurs et paramètres non mesurés sont amenés à fluctuer entre des bornes relativement bien connues. C’est pourquoi il est naturel de se concentrer sur des estimateurs ensemblistes garantis en tout temps, dans un cadre déterministe à erreurs bornées. Ces méthodes relèvent de l’analyse par intervalles, qui est apparue pour la première fois dans l’ouvrage “Interval Analysis”, de R.E. Moore en 1966. Il a été montré que les modèles ensemblistes sont bien adaptés pour la détection d’aléas ou de défauts de processus et la formulation de diagnostics pertinents quant à l’amélioration du déroulement de processus. Après une présentation des modèles les plus courants, une analyse de l’endommagement des ouvrages d’assainissement de la ville de Rennes est entreprise. Ces ouvrages représentent le réseau unitaire et le réseau des eaux usées du système séparatif et sont constitués de matériaux à base cimentaire, armés ou non. L’endommagement est traduit par l’intermédiaire de différents indicateurs des propriétés des matériaux prélevés dans la ville. A ce jour, nous disposons d’une centaine de prélèvements effectués dans différentes rues et caractérisés par des dates de pose comprise entre 1892 à nos jours. Ainsi, dans ce travail, partant d’un modèle ensembliste du comportement des différents tronçons de canalisation des eaux usées, nous utilisons les techniques les plus récentes d’estimation ensembliste afin de diagnostiquer ces éléments. Une attention particulière est portée sur l’estimation du niveau de corrosion permettant d’envisager la programmation d’une réfection totale ou partielle. Building models of physical systems turns out to be an awkward task by the presence of noise and disturbance. It is not always possible to get information about disturbances and noises acting on the system. This may turn the usual stochastic framework inappropriate. In such cases, assuming bounded uncertainties may be a solution. An interesting way to go is then to use guaranteed estimation methods, which learn the state and/or parameters of the models from data. The set-membership models are well suited for fault detection and for making relevant diagnoses to improve the process evolution. A damage analysis of sewerage structures in Rennes (France is undertaken. These systems (unit network rainwater and wastewater or separate system consist of cement-based materials. The damage is quantified through various indicators of material properties (material extracted in the city. One hundred samples characterized by different streets and laying dates between 1892 and our days are analyzed. Thus, in this work, starting from a set-membership model of the behaviour of different sections of pipe wastewater, we use recent techniques of set-membership estimation to model and diagnose the system. A particular attention is paid to estimating the corrosion level for considering the full or partial rehabilitation.

  10. The study of hard microporous material using the ultrafine section technique (1961); Etude des materiaux microporeux durs par la technique des coupes ultraminces (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena, Th [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The conventional replica techniques for the examination of surfaces or fractures with the electron microscope are unsuitable for refractories or microporous bodies. The method of cutting ultrafine sections with a diamond cutter, the sample being impregnated with methyl methacrylate, has the advantage of making possible the direct examination by transmission of the sample. (author) [French] Les techniques classiques de repliques pour l'examen de surfaces ou de fractures au microscope electronique sont difficilement applicables aux refractaires et aux microporeux. Les coupes ultraminces au couteau de diamant d'echantillons enrobes dans le methyl-methacrylate ont l'avantage de permettre l'examen direct par transmission des corps etudies. (auteur)

  11. «Tu, solo, con la storia alle spalle». Durs Grünbein e la DDR: un bilancio critico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vecchiato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses some of the most significant (post-GDR poems by Grünbein and traces the development of aesthetic and poetological issues that are central to the poet’s oeuvre. It provides an articulated overview of Grünbein’s poetics by examining funda­mental themes like the love/hate attitude towards his hometown Dresden, the comple­mentary concepts of history and memory, and the materialism of the body as an antidote to utopias.

  12. Horacio Durán, Italo Pedrotti, Charango Method – Método de Charango, Mel Bay Publications, INC, Noviembre 2010, 208 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léonardo Garcia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La edición de métodos dedicados a la ejecución de instrumentos musicales andinos populares ha sido generalmente escasa en comparación su grado de difusión discográfica y a su proyección musical.   La mayoría de las obras editadas remontan a un período relativamente reciente (años 1960, asociándose a las diversas experiencias folk de esa época (Ej. “nueva canción latinoamericana”. Sin embargo, hasta los años 1990 la reticencia a la escritura en este ámbito pareciera primar. Podríamos mencion...

  13. Propuesta de desarrollo del sistema de transporte fluvial como potencial turístico – urbano de durán para transferencia de pasajeros.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruilova Mosquera, Cristina; Guerrero, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    River tourism is currently positioning itself as an economic activity of great interest, especially in areas with this water resource and that in turn creates great appreciation of landscape and environmental value, which can be described as sustainable because the impact on the environment is not significant. This proposal is the development of river transport system in the canton Duran like as tourism potential, offering an alternative that generates tourism visits to the district throug...

  14. Bose-Einstein correlations between hard photons produced in heavy ions collisions; Correlations Bose-Einstein entre photons durs produits dans les collisions d`ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Moreno, F M

    1994-06-01

    Heavy-ion collisions offer the unique possibility to create in the laboratory nuclear matter far from equilibrium. The electromagnetic probe constituted by hard photons and the Bose-Einstein correlations were used to study the properties of such a matter (size, density, temperature...). It is shown how the formalism has evolved from Young experiments to heavy-ion collisions experiments. The experiments performed with the photon multidetector TAPS at Ganil are described. The systems studied are: {sup 86}KR + {sup nat}Ni at 60.0 A.MeV, and {sup 181}Ta + {sup 197}Au at 39.5 A.MeV. Results are presented concerning the production of gamma, pi{sup 0}, e{sup +-} and {gamma}{gamma} correlation. The results are interpreted with the help of static and dynamic calculations describing hard photon production in heavy ion collisions. For the first time in Nuclear Physics, the existence of the Bose-Einstein effect for photons in the range of gamma is demonstrated, and the existence of two different photon sources is postulated, reflecting the density oscillations taking place in the nuclear matter created in heavy-ion collisions. (from author) 55 figs., 22 tabs., 76 refs.

  15. Moving Forward, Looking Back--Historical Perspective, "Big History" and the Return of the "Longue Durée": Time to Develop Our Scale Hopping Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Kate

    2015-01-01

    "Big history" is a term receiving a great deal of attention at present, particularly in North America where considerable sums of money have been invested in designing curricula and assessment tools to help teachers teach history at far larger scales of time than normal. Hawkey considers the pros and cons of incorporating components of…

  16. The 30-60-day Intraseasonal Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in the South China Sea dur1ing May-September

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiangyu; Wang, Ming

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the structure and propagation of intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the South China Sea (SCS) on the 30-60-day timescale during boreal summer (May-September). TRMM-based SST, GODAS oceanic reanalysis and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis datasets from 1998 to 2013 are used to examine quantitatively the atmospheric thermodynamic and oceanic dynamic mechanisms responsible for its formation. Power spectra show that the 30-60-day SST variability is predominant, accounting for 60% of the variance of the 10-90-day variability over most of the SCS. Composite analyses demonstrate that the 30-60-day SST variability is characterized by the alternate occurrence of basin-wide positive and negative SST anomalies in the SCS, with positive (negative) SST anomalies accompanied by anomalous northeasterlies (southwesterlies). The transition and expansion of SST anomalies are driven by the monsoonal trough-ridge seesaw pattern that migrates northward from the equator to the northern SCS. Quantitative diagnosis of the composite mixed-layer heat budgets shows that, within a strong 30-60-day cycle, the atmospheric thermal forcing is indeed a dominant factor, with the mixed-layer net heat flux (MNHF) contributing around 60% of the total SST tendency, while vertical entrainment contributes more than 30%. However, the entrainment-induced SST tendency is sometimes as large as the MNHF-induced component, implying that ocean processes are sometimes as important as surface fluxes in generating the 30-60-day SST variability in the SCS.

  17. Unexpected Turns: The Aesthetic, the Pathetic and the Adversarial in the Long Durée of Art’s Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Pollock

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a conference organized at the University of Birmingham in 2012, I was invited to reflect upon the current situation in Art History that is posited as being ‘After the New Art History’. What is this after-ness? Succession? Supersession? Replacement? Exhaustion? Erasure? Fashionability? Dare we ask what kind of ‘killing’ of the past or of Oedipal Feminist Mothers and Marxists Fathers is going on here? Or does this indicate simply that we need new directions in our discipline just to keep it alive? There is certainly a feeling around that we are in a period of transition. Former certainties about the tendencies within the discipline of art history have melted. Is this a sign of our condition as Liquid Modernity? There is a risk, however, of casting the recent past as being ‘over’, to be viewed nostalgically, or gratefully cast into the dustbin of has-been histories so that we can get back to business as normal or find new pastures exciting because they are different. Before I acquiesce to such a trend for newness per se, I want to reconsider what is being said to have come before and now is defined as being over. To do so, I shall argue for an understanding of the long-term nature of any one intervention seeking radically to change the ways we study art and the image, past and present. Equally, I suggest that such long-term projects are themselves subject to historical change, shifting in sensitive response to altered conditions and changed priorities, but also registering their own effects and opening new avenues of analysis. Finally this article performs a reading of the call for papers for the conference in order to tease out critical misrepresentations of the past that we are now supposed to come after. Displacing the model of old and new with notions of parallel trajectories and multiple settlements in the expanding, historically shifting but also deeply structured ‘landscape’ of the discipline, I propose as less phallic model of a field with many threads contributing to its complex engagements with art, with visuality, with subjectivity and with their forms of material and symbolic interaction.

  18. Detection of hard {beta} radiation in water using the Cerenkov effect; Detection des {beta} durs dans l'eau par effet Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    The light emitted from a liquid during the passage of a particle of sufficiently high energy can be used to determine the contamination of water by {beta}-emitters. The detector based on this principle requires no special treatment of the water. Particular attention has been paid to the optical yield of the detector. However the excellent sensitivity to which this principle leads can only be attained if the background noise is considerably reduced. The electronics associated with detector make it possible to detect a contamination of 8 x 10{sup -8} {mu}c/cm{sup 3} of strontium-90 in water in about ten minutes. The apparatus presents the double advantage of having a high sensitivity and of being easy to use. Its characteristics make it possible for it to be used for the continuous control of water. (author) [French] La lumiere emise au sein d'un liquide au passage d'une particule suffisamment energetique peut permettre de determiner la contamination d'une eau en emetteurs {beta}. Le detecteur realise sur ce principe ne necessite aucun traitement special de l'eau. Un soin tout particulier a ete apporte a l'etude du rendement optique du detecteur. Cependant l'excellente sensibilite attachee au principe ne peut etre utilisee que si l'on reduit considerablement le bruit de fond. L'electronique associee au detecteur permet de reperer l'existence d'une contamination de 8 x 10{sup -8} {mu}c/cm{sup 3} de strontium-90 dans l'eau en un temps d'une dizaine de minutes. L'appareil presente l'avantage d'allier une grande sensibilite a la facilite d'emploi. Ses performances autorisent son utilisation au controle continu des eaux. (auteur)

  19. Effets de la vitesse et de la durée du remplissage du grain ainsi que de l'accumulation des assimilats de la tige dans l'élaboration du rendement du blé dur (Triticum durum Desf. dans les conditions de culture des hautesplaines orientales d'Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmahammed A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of speed and the duration of grain filling and the accumulation of the assimilates of the stem in developing the durum wheat yield (Triticum durum Desf. in the culture conditions of the high plains of eastern Algeria. The present study was led on the experimental site of station ITGC in Setif. The objective is to determine the differences of duration and speed of filling and the contribution of the assimilates of the stems to the yield of 5 durum wheat genotypes (Triticum durum Desf.. The year effect is significant, what explains the fluctuation of the conditions of one growth year to another. The grain yield is associated to the great quantity of assimilates stored and transferred from the stems to the grain filling. The Mbb genotype which has an important stem height transfers more assimilates. The genotypes ADS497 and Deraa present large standard leaves. The beginning of the active phase of the grain filling corresponds to the beginning of the foliar senescence. Mbb presents a slower foliar drying rate, the speed of drying stationary recorded by ADS497 is of -0.5957 cm2 per day. The speed of grain filling is negatively related to the duration of filling. The participation of the assimilates coming from the stem decreases when the environment allows the expression of a better grain yield.

  20. Geleneksel ve Elektronik Ağızdan Ağıza İletişim Yöntemlerine Genel Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    Demirbaş, Esra

    2018-01-01

    Ağızdan ağıza iletişim (WOM-word of mouth); tüketicilerin, bir ürün, hizmet veya kurumlailgili çoğunlukla memnun kalmadıkları veya beğendikleri hususları diğer kişilere iletmek üzerekullandıkları resmi olmayan bir iletişim yoludur.Bazı özel ürün kategorilerinde ve özellikle de hizmet sektöründe, müşterilerin satın alım öncesiWOM’dan etkilenip karar verdikleri düşünülmektedir. Globalleşen ve gelişen iletişim teknolojilerineticesinde WOM’un gittikçe artan önemi ve kurumların performansını etkil...

  1. Ali Canip Yöntem’in Sanata ve Edebiyata Bakışı Ali Canip Yöntem’s Perspective to Art and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah HARMANCI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ali Canip Yöntem (1887-1967 who is one of the prominent names of the national literary movement gave many works relating to literary theory and criticism as well as poem. Before being connected to national literary, author who has largely been seeking on the line extending from Muallim Naci to Cedideci (New Literature movement and Fecr-i Aticis (Dawn of the Future has deep thoughts in his many articles that will light the way for today’s artists and researchers either due to hiscommand of our classical literature or of Western Literature. From hiswritings in question, in our article, opinions of Yöntem about somematters such as what is the art and literature, why it is existing, whatcould be its power and effect, how to take advantage of art andliterature, the place and importance of the imitation in art, pleasure,beauty, perception and genius concepts, purpose of art, relationshipbetween artist and school of art, art and dialectic, poem and knowledge,poem and sensation etc were scanned and these opinions were whollyattempted to be assessed. Apart from these, problems collected undersome titles such as what, in fact, is the concept of national literature adhow it should be understood, our mistakes when assessing the concept“national”, dimensions of artist and public when assessing within thecontext of national literature have been the topic of the Ali CanipYöntem’s articles and opinions of author about these issues wereattempted to be examined by us. Yöntem also referred to the problemsabout limits of literary criticism and features which a reviewer musthave, and attached importance to the relationship of literary criticismwith literary text. Milli edebiyat akımının önde gelen isimlerinden olan Ali Canip Yöntem (1887 – 1967, şiirin yanı sıra edebiyat teorisine ve eleştirisine ilişkin eserler de vermiştir. Milli edebiyata mensup olmadan önce, Muallim Naci’den Edebiyatı Cedidecilere, Fecr-i Âticilere uzanan çizgide geniş bir arayış içinde olan yazar, yazdığı çok sayıdaki makalesinde, gerek dönemindeki Türk edebiyatına, gerekse klasik edebiyatımıza ve Batı edebiyatına hakimiyetiyle, günümüz sanatçı ve araştırmacılarına ışık tutacak derinlikli düşüncelere sahiptir. Makalemizde; söz konusu yazılarından hareketle, Yöntem’in; sanat ve edebiyatın ne olduğu, ne için var olduğu, gücünün ve etkisinin ne olabileceği, sanat ve edebiyattan nasıl yararlanılabileceği, sanatta taklit, haz, güzellik, sezgi, deha kavramlarının yeri ve önemi, sanatın gayesi, sanatçı – sanat mektebi ilişkisi, sanat ve diyalektik, şiir ve bilgi, şiir ve duygu gibi meselelerdeki görüşleri taranarak, bu düşünceleri bütünlüklü bir biçimde değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Bunların dışında, milli edebiyat kavramının gerçekte ne olduğu ve nasıl anlaşılması gerektiği, bizde “milli”lik kavramı değerlendirilirken yapılan hatalar, milli edebiyat bağlamında değerlendirildiğinde sanatçı – halk ilişkisinin boyutları gibi başlıklarda toplanabilecek problemler de Ali Canip Yöntem’in makalelerine konu olmuş ve tarafımızdan, yazarın bu meselelerdeki görüşleri incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Yöntem, ayrıca, edebi eleştirinin sınırları ve eleştirmenin sahip olması gereken nitelikleri sorunlarına da değinmiş, edebi eleştirinin edebi metinle olan ilişkisini önemsemiştir.

  2. Sanat Yapıtı Sergileme ve Sunum Çeşitlerine Örnekler Eşliğinde Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    AYAN ERGEN, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    Sergi, sahip olunanları gerek göstermek gerekse ticaret amacıyla başkalarına sunmak için oluşturulan bir düzendir. Sergilemek eski kullanımıyla teşhir etmek anlamına gelir. Sergileme ve sunum yöntemleri, gereksinimlerin ve teknolojinin zaman içinde geçirdiği evrime bağlı olarak sürekli değişen ve yenilenen bir biçim alır. Günümüzde müze ve galerilerde sergileme çeşitleri üzerinde durulacak ve sergilerin oluşturulma düşüncesi ile nasıl oluşturulduğunun inceleneceği bu bildiride, örnekler üzeri...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.48875, Lat: 00.19178 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.37m; Data Range: 20080209-20100207.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.47574, Lat: 00.20538 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.06m; Data Range: 20060202-20080210.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. P53 and bak mutations as a predictive factor for radiotherapy of oral cancer associated with betel quid chewing in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongyo, Tadashi; Nawa, Nobutoshi; Nomura, Taisei; Parida, Dillip K.; Rath, Goura K.

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid chewing is very common in India and Southeast Asian countries, where oral cancer comprises up to 40% of the total malignancies. Radiotherapy is usually adopted for oral cancer, but the prognosis is very poor. Therefore, identifying predictive parameters for radiotherapy is utmost important

  6. Selçuklu Dönemi Hanefî Alimlerin Mürcie’ye Bakışları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have dealt with the views of Abu’l-Yusr al-Pazdavî, Abu’l-Muin an-Nasajï, Alâuddin as-Samarkandî, Alâeddin al-Usmandî and Nuraddm as-Sâbunî abaut the Murjia criticized by many Muslim scholars. They are famous Hanafite-Mâtundîte of scholars Xlth and XIIth ages. After a brief discussion of the Murjia, we shall deal with the views of Hanafite-Mâtundîte scholars abaut the Murjia. Finally, we shall present the reasons for the misunderstanding of Murjia and its solutions

  7. Ebû Mansûr el-Mâturîdî'nin Mürcie'ye Bakışı

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    Ahmet Ak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abû Mansur al-Mâturîdî (333/944 is a famaus scholar. In this work, we have dealt with the view of Mâturîdî abaut the Murjia criticized by many Muslim scholars. After a brief discussion of the spread of the Murjia in Khorasan, we shall deal with the Mâturîdî’s views of Murjia. Later on, we shall analyse the Mâturîdî’s criticism and answers he gave them. Finally we shall present the reasons for the understanding of Murjia and its solutions

  8. Osmanlı Devleti'nde Kilise ve Havra Politikasına Yeni Bir Bakış: Çanakkale Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aşkın Koyuncu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new churches and synagogues was not allowed in the Ottoman Empire in accordance with the Sharia law up until the proclamation of the Reform Edict of 1856. The repair or reconstruction of existing temples in accordance with their original forms was bound only to the approval of the Sultan himself. Besides, enlargement or alteration of buildings or any parts thereof during repairs was strictly forbidden. Any violation of this rule led to the demolition of the altered or enlarged parts. There are indeed large number examples of such cases. Against these strict rules, there are many surviving new churches and synagogues which have been constructed in the cities founded during the Ottoman period, or in the cities captured or surrendered during the expansion period. In addition, numerous new churches and even monasteries were built in the villages or rural areas in the 16th-18th centuries, especially in the Balkans. The main question is how they were built and were escaped from destruction. There are no examples of the granting of official permission for the construction of these buildings by the Sultans, yet it can be observed that these new churches and synagogues have acquired legitimacy in time. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Greek and Armenian churches as well as a Jewish synagogue appeared in Çanakkale as well. Besides, an unauthorized Catholic church was built in the city in the year 1852. In this article, after looking through the official Ottoman policy concerning the repairing or (reconstruction of churches and synagogues and its examples in practice, we will study the process of the emergence of Greek, Armenian, Jewish and Catholic temples in Çanakkale. We will also evaluate the Ottoman Empire’s policies about churches and synagogues in Çanakkale before and after the proclamation of the Reform Edict of 1856.

  9. L’“umile Italia” di Guido Ceronetti: alcune considerazioni sui paesaggi visibili ed invisibili di Un viaggio in Italia / Guido Ceronetti's "Humilis Italia": Remarks on the Visible and Invisible Landscapes in Un viaggio in Italia (A Journey in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Bedin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In epoca contemporanea il tema del “viaggio in Italia”, meta irrinunciabile del Grand Tour settecentesco, viene usato come espediente per sottolineare la decadenza della bellezza dell’Italia provocata dalla progressiva industrializzazione. In questo articolo, partendo dall’analisi di due tipologie contemporanee di racconto di viaggio, il collezionismo erudito e il metaviaggio, si intende mostrare le caratteristiche principali di Un viaggio in Italia di Guido Ceronetti. Mescolando elementi di queste due categorie odeporiche, lo scrittore si ripromette nel suo diario di viaggio di trasmettere un’immagine generale di un’Italia non più “umile”e destinata a perdere la propria bellezza. Quello che ne risulta è un complesso resoconto che riporta alla memoria le ricchezze del patrimonio italiano e rispecchia lo squallore della speculazione edilizia del secondo dopoguerra. Sul suolo italiano sono presenti due tipi di paesaggi, quelli visibili, che appaiono spesso avvolti dal grigiore tipico della modernità, e quelli invisibili, che, invece, sono suggeriti e ispirati dalla letteratura. Un viaggio in Italia è, quindi, un taccuino in cui l’autore annota quello che lo ferisce nell’Italia della contemporaneità.   In the contemporary era the theme of the “Travel in Italy”, a pivotal aspect of the the Grand Tour, is used as a expedient to emphasize the decline of Italy's beauty and its decline because of the progressive industrialization. This paper starts with an analysis of two contemporary typologies of travel book – the erudite collection and meta-travel – and intends to explore the main features of Un viaggio in Italia by Guido Ceronetti. In his travel diary the Italian writer – mixing elements of erudite collection and meta-travel – wants to show an general picture of the no more “umile Italia” that loses its beauty. The result of this travel book is a complex report that illustrates the lost richness of the Italian heritage and the squalor of building speculation. Two types of landscapes can be seen in this book: one is visible, appearing often shrouded in the dullness brought by modernity; the other is invisible, suggested and inspired by the literature. Un viaggio in Italia is therefore a “notebook” in which the author writes about what hurts him in the contemporaneity of Italy.

  10. Hard processes and fragmentation in a unified model for interactions at ultra-relativistic energies; Les processus durs et la fragmentation dans un modele unifie pour les interactions aux energies ultra-relativistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J

    1999-06-11

    In this work we have developed hard processes and string fragmentation in the framework of interactions at relativistic energies. The hypothesis of the universality of high energy interactions means that many elements of heavy ion collisions can be studied and simulated in simpler nuclear reactions. In particular this hypothesis implies that the fragmentation observed in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} follows the same rules as in the collision of 2 lead ions. This work deals with 2 nuclear processes: the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation reaction and the deep inelastic diffusion. For the first process the string model has been developed to simulate fragmentation by adding an artificial breaking of string due to relativistic effects. A monte-Carlo method has been used to determine the points in a Minkowski space where this breaking occurs. For the second reaction, the theory of semi-hard pomerons is introduced in order to define elementary hadron-hadron interactions. The model of fragmentation proposed in this work can be applied to more complicated reactions such as proton-proton or ion-ion collisions.

  11. Relation between hard photon production and impact parameter in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies; Dependance de la production de photons durs avec le parametre d`impact dans les collisions entre ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Garcia, G.

    1994-06-01

    Hard photons produced in heavy-ions collisions at intermediate energies have been used in order to study hot and compresses nuclear matter created in these collisions (at Ganil). It was found that Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in np collisions is the main mechanism of hard-photon production for the whole range of impact parameter. Moreover, it was observed a substantial decrease of the hardness of hard-photon spectrum. The BUU model reproduces very well the experimental results, showing that the hardness of the spectrum reflects, mainly, nuclear-matter compression in the first stage of the collision. A new method was developed to measure the density of the nuclear matter created at the beginning of the collision. BUU results and some experimental evidences point out that a significant contribution of hard photons are produced in the last stage of the collision: thermal hard photons. These photons are sensitive to the density oscillation of nuclear matter. Its production cross-section will constitute a measurement of the compressibility of nuclear matter and its spectrum a measure of the temperature. (from author) 64 figs., 60 refs.

  12. Experimental Assessment of Battery Cycle Life Within the SIMSTOCK Research Program Évaluation expérimentale de la durée de vie de la batterie dans le programme de recherche SIMSTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyan P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The steadiness over time, of on-board Energy Storage Systems (ESS performances is a major issue fora successful and massive diffusion of electrified, hybrid and electric vehicles. Capacity fade and internal resistance increase due to ageing will directly affect vehicle range and performances. Therefore, ESS ageing forecasting remains an important area of investigations. Reaching this goal involves fundamental research on materials, experimentation, simulation and design by the end users. This paper describes the main results of a 3.5-year, 4.2 M€ collaborative research program on battery ageing, SIMSTOCK, which was finished in fall 2011. This program has involved 15 partners among which, research labs, ESS manufacturers, automotive components suppliers and vehicle manufacturers, with the support of the French agency ADEME. This paper will then focus mainly on modeling and simulation of a lithium-ion high power cell tested within the program. First, it describes the development of a numerical equivalent electrical circuit model of battery, associated with a calibration tool and its experimental validation. Secondly, it describes the construction of a Design of Experiments (DOE, its use and validation, for defining mathematical expressions, representing the battery model parameters evolutions, as a function of battery ageing. Thirdly, the paper details a mathematical method created with the aim to take into account the cycling and the calendar effects on battery characteristics during the experiment on tests benches. Finally, the battery model is integrated in a full hybrid vehicle model, on Imagine Lab AMESim simulation platform, to determine, with realistic driving conditions, the impact of battery ageing on the vehicle performance and fuel consumption. La stabilité dans le temps des performances des systèmes embarqués de stockage d’énergie (Energy Storage Systems, ESS est un enjeu majeur pour une diffusion massive et le succès des véhicules électrifiés, hybrides et électriques. L’affaiblissement de la capacité et l’augmentation de la résistance interne due au vieillissement affecteront directement l’autonomie du véhicule et ses performances. Par conséquent, la prévision du vieillissement des ESS reste un domaine important de recherche. Atteindre cet objectif implique des recherches fondamentales sur les matériaux, l’expérimentation, la simulation et la conception. Ce papier décrit les principaux résultats du programme de recherche collaboratif SIMSTOCK qui s’est déroulé pendant 3,5 années avec un budget de 4,2 M € et qui s’est terminé à l’automne 2011. Ce programme a impliqué 15 partenaires parmi lesquels, des laboratoires de recherche, des fabricants d’ESS, des fournisseurs de composants de véhicules et des constructeurs automobiles et il a bénéficié du soutien de l’ADEME. Cet article se concentre principalement sur la modélisation et la simulation d’une cellule lithium-ion haute puissance testée dans ce programme. En premier lieu, est décrit l’élaboration d’un modèle numérique de circuit électrique équivalent de la batterie, associé à un outil de calibration et à sa validation expérimentale. En second, sont présentées la construction d’un plan d’expériences, son utilisation et sa validation, pour la définition des expressions mathématiques représentant les évolutions des paramètres du modèle de batterie en fonction du vieillissement de la batterie. Ensuite le papier détaille la méthode mathématique créée dans le but de prendre en compte le cycle et les effets calendaires sur les caractéristiques de la batterie lors des expériences sur bancs. Enfin, le modèle de batterie est intégré dans un modèle complet du véhicule hybride dans la plateforme de simulation Imagine Lab AMESim, afin de déterminer, avec des conditions de conduite réalistes, l’impact du vieillissement de la batterie sur la performance du véhicule et la consommation de carburant.

  13. Etude de la composition de la carcasse de taurillons Ankole en fonction de l'âge ou poids vif et de l'embouche de courte durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozy, P.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of carcass composition of Ankole bulls according to weight or age and to duration of fattening period. Thirty two young bulls divided into 2 categories of live weight were used to study the effect of the initial weight and of an intensive fattening period on the composition of the carcass. The slaughterings were carried out in Bujumbura, according to the techniques usually done for the carving of the carcass. A short period of intensive fattening does not improve the composition of the carcass into pieces of great value in butchery.

  14. Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system; Etude tribologique de revetements durs sans cobalt destines aux organes d`isolement du circuit primaire des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachon, L.

    1995-10-18

    The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ``Stellites`` coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 {mu}m monolayers of Cr/C{sub x} with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C{sub 1.6} at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 {mu}m of cermets NiCr{sub y} (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 {mu}m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.).

  15. Estudio de factibilidad en la generación eléctrica a partir de un sistema de generación eólica en el km 22 vía Durán - Tambo

    OpenAIRE

    Lopezdomínguez Rivas, Sol David

    2007-01-01

    Para la generación eléctrica en un sistema eólico se necesita una fuente para poder capturar la energía proveniente del viento por lo que se llama el aerogenerador. Es muy indispensable para el proyecto por lo que se necesita un aerogenerador que cumpla los requerimientos que se necesitan para poder implementarlo una vez realizado el estudio de factibilidad. Se definen en general los aerogeneradores según la posición de su eje de rotación, con relación a la dirección del viento. Se dividen en...

  16. Prise en compte des modes de vieillissement dans la modélisation des performances de batteries lithium-ion pour l’évaluation de leur durée de vie en usage automobile

    OpenAIRE

    BAGHDADI , Issam

    2017-01-01

    Lithium batteries are key solutions as power storage systems for several applications including portable devices, aviation, space, and electrified vehicles. Their success is principally due to their high power and energy density. Therefore, several researchers are attempting to develop more powerful, cheaper, longer-lived and more secure batteries. One drawback of lithium batteries is their durability: lithium batteries’ energy and power capability decrease over time. The degradation rate is ...

  17. Lutte contre la pauvreté et capacité d’action des femmes dans la longue durée : une discussion autour du concept d’encastrement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bähr Caballero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir des années 1990, une nouvelle version du discours dominant sur le développement fait état de la nécessité de réguler certains aspects du marché et de créer des institutions pour soulager l’impact social de la mise en opération de l’économie de marché. Cette évolution pourrait être interprétée comme un scénario d’inclusion et de ré-encastrement de l’économie, dans la mesure où la construction des activités économiques reconnaît désormais l’existence de conditions sociales et institutionnelles comme étant nécessaires à son fonctionnement. Sommes-nous devant un contre-mouvement visant à contrôler l’expansion du modèle néo-libéral et à ré-encastrer l’économie dans le social ? Dans cet article, nous proposons d’explorer les notions d’encastrement-étayage et d’encastrement-insertion, afin d’éclairer le débat sur le " retour de l’État " et ce, dans le cadre d’une étude de cas sur les femmes paysannes comme actrices du développement au Honduras.From the 90’s on, a new version of the dominant discourse on development mentions the need to regulate certain aspects of the market and to create institutions to alleviate the social impacts of the market economy. This evolution could be interpreted as a scenario for inclusion and reembedding the economy, inasmuch as the construction of economic activities now recognizes the existence of social and institutional conditions as essential to its functioning. Are we in the presence of a counter-movement aiming at controlling the expansion of the neo-liberal model and reembedding the economy in the social? In this article, we propose to explore the notions of embeddedness in its various views (amongst which insertion, in order to contribute to the debate on the « return of the State », in the context of a study on women of Honduras as actors of development.

  18. De la conspiración austracista a la integración a la Nueva Planta : la familia Durán, máximo exponente de la burguesía mercantil en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma García Fuertes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La Guerra de Sucesión constituye uno de los episodios que más han marcado la historia de Cataluña. Sin embargo, este interés aún no ha desvelado todos los interrogantes que suscita el giro dinástico de Cataluña en el año 1705. Entre los muchos puntos oscuros, es preciso avanzar en un mejor conocimiento de las causas que llevaron a los diferentes grupos de la sociedad catalana a su posición política. Así surgió la idea de un estudio monográfico sobre la familia Duran, la dinastía más importante de hombres de negocios de la Barcelona del siglo xviii, no sólo por su posición austracista en la guerra de Sucesión, lo que les acarreó la confiscación de bienes por la autoridad felipista, sino por la rápida integración de la nueva coyuntura generada por los Borbones. En efecto, el camalecnismo político de esta familia perteneciente a la burguesía mercantil, por otro lado nada excepcional, puede resultar ilustrativo para entender la posición de importantes sectores de la sociedad catalana durante la Guerra de Sucesión.The War of Succession is one of the events that most deeply marked the history of Catalonia. However, this interest has not yet revealed all the questions concerning the dinastic shift of Catalonia in 1705. Among other oscure aspects, it is necessary to reach a better knowledge about the reasons that led the different groups of Catalan society to their political position. In this context, the idea arouse to study the Duran familly, the most important dinasty of businessmen in eighteenthcentury Catalonia, not only by his Austracist position in the War of Succession —what brought them the confiscation of all their properties by Philip V's authorities—, but also by their quick integration in the new situation created by the Bourbon Monarchy. In fact, the chamaleon-like political behaviour of this merchant family —otherwise not unusual— can illustrate the political position of important groups of Catalan society during the War of Sucession.

  19. Dégradation du Xyloglucane par les souches de Paenibacillus polymyxa isolées de la rhizosphère du blé dur sur des sols Algériens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Athmani-Guemouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Les espèces du genre Paenibacillus secrètent une variété d’enzymes extracellulaires parmi lesquelles figurent plusieurs types de β glucanases. Nous avons réalisé un test de dégradation du xyloglucane sur 29 souches isolées par immunopiégeage et identifiées à P. polymyxa par le système API50CHB. Ces souches ont été groupées en séries qui correspondent aux échantillons de sols à partir desquels elles avaient été isolées. Des souches de références et des souches type E. coli ont été intégrées lors de cette étude pour comparer leur activité à celles des souches isolées des sols d’Algérie. Les résultats de cette recherche montrent que toutes les souches de P. polymyxa sont capables de dégrader le xyloglucane, alors que les souches des espèces testées n’ont pas cette activité. Ces résultats semblent suggérer que cette propriété est partagée par tous les P. polymyxa et qu’elle n’est pas liée au sol d’origine de nos souches ni à l’ancienneté de culture du blé de ces sols. Nous avons également montré que la xyloglucanase fait partie du pool d’enzymes inductibles qui ne sont normalement présentes qu’à l’état de traces dans les bactéries, et dont la synthèse est amplifiée considérablement en présence de leur substrat.

  20. El nacimiento del miedo, 1692. Indios y españoles en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalbo Aizpuru, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the year 1692 there was a shortage of cereals and the became too expensive. On Sunday; June the eighth; the corn was finished and the functionaries responsible of the distribution beat the Indian women that protested. Very soon a lot of people congregated and started a riot. The viceroyal palace and the «cabildo» houses were burned and many shops plundered. The repression was very hard; specially against the Indian people; but the Indians weren’t the only ones involved. Blacks and mestee population were the «plebe»; the populace of the city; offended by the injustices of the government and the humiliations of the proud rich Spaniards. The Spanish population started feeling fear of their neighbors; not only Indians but poor people.

    En 1692 hubo escasez y carestía de cereales en la ciudad de México. Un domingo del mes de junio se acabó el maíz en la alhóndiga y los encargados de repartirlo golpearon a las indias que protestaban. Muy pronto llegó mucha gente y se inició un alboroto que duró varias horas y durante el cual se incendiaron el palacio de los virreyes y las casas del cabildo; muchas tiendas fueron saqueadas. La represión fue muy dura y se dirigió contra los indios; pero no fueron sólo indios los que participaron en el motín, sino la «plebe» de la ciudad, mezcla de todos los grupos resentidos por las injusticias del gobierno y las humillaciones de los ricos españoles. La población española comenzó a sentir miedo de sus vecinos, que ya no se identificaban con los indios.

  1. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20020201-20040122.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  2. Orman ekosisteminde toprak solucanlarının önemi ve populasyonlarının örneklenmesinde kullanılan metotlar üzerine bir bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim TAVUÇ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Toprağın fiziksel, kimyasal ve biyolojik özelliklerini farklı yönlerde olumlu olarak etkileyen ve ekosistem mühendisi olarak adlandırılan toprak solucanları orman ekosisteminin oluşumu, yapısı, işleyişi ve fonksiyonu üzerine önemli etkilere sahiptir. Ancak, 150 yıldan daha uzun süredir toprak solucanları ile çalışılmasına rağmen, toprak solucanlarının ekolojileri, taksonomileri ve temel özellikleri konusunda ciddi bir bilgi eksikliği vardır. Toprak solucanları hakkındaki bilgi eksikliğini giderebilmek için toprak solucanlarının yetişme ortamı ile ilişkileri, gösterge türlerin tespiti ve potansiyel dağılım modellemeleri konularında araştırmalara ihtiyaç vardır. Toprak solucanları ile ilgili bilgi eksikliğini gidermek için ilk olarak toprak solucanlarının topraktan zarar görmeden çıkarılmaları gerekmektedir. Derlemede toprak solucanı envanter çalışmalarında en çok kullanılan kazma ve elle ayırma, elektrikle çıkartma, formaldehit ile çıkartma, soğan ekstraktı ile çıkartma, hardal ile çıkartma, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC ile çıkartma, potasyum permanganat ile çıkartma ve tuzakla yakalama metotlarına yer verilmiştir. Çalışma, özellikle orman ekosistemlerinde gelecekte ülkemizde yapılacak olan toprak solucanı çalışmalarına ışık tutmak ve yardımcı olmak amacıyla hazırlanmıştır.

  3. Kronik Böbrek Yetersizliğinde Fonksiyonel Sağlık Örüntülerine Göre Hemşirelik Bakımı: Olgu Sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    UYSAL, Hilal; KARATAŞ, Ceren

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACTChronic renal failure is defined as the consequent reduction in glomerular filtration value,the adjustment of the fluid-solute balance of the kidney, and the chronic and progressivedeterioration of metabolic-endocrine functions. The aims of nursing care in chronic renalinsufficiency; to reduce the indications, to provide adequate and balanced nutrient intake, toİletişim : pe Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Fakültesi DergisiJournal of Hacettepe University Faculty of ...

  4. I. Dünya Gıda Günü Münasebetiyle Ülkemizin Gıda ve Beslenme Sorunlarına bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hilmi Pamir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gıdaların kontrolu ve mevzuatıyla tüketicinin sağlık ve ekonomik yönden korunması, toplumun daha iyi beslenmesi, gıdalarda işleme, depolama ve pazarlama sırasında meydana gelebilecek kayıpların önlenmesi, yasalardaki ve standartlardaki koşulların yerine getirilmesi amaç edilir. Bu tanımlama içinde kalarak. I. Dünya Gıda Günü münasebetiyle yalnız ulusla açıdan gıda kontrolu ve mevzuatına bakmak istiyorum. Buna göre bu konuda sorunlarımızı 3 başlık altında toplamak olasıdır: (1 Yasal kargaşalık, (2 Örgütsel kargaşalık ve (3 Kavram ve kapsam kargaşalığı.

  5. Sağlık psikolojisi bakış açısından karar anı teşviklerinin merdiven kullanımı üzerindeki etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Taşkale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Bu çalışma güçlü bir fiziksel aktivite olan merdiven kullanımını artırmada karar anı teşviklerini kullanan çalışmaları gözden geçirmektedir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu derleme, 1995-2015 yılları arasında yayımlanmış olan yürüyen merdiven yerine merdiven kullanmayı artırmayı inceleyen çalışmaları içermektedir. Arama “EbscoHOST”, “JSTOR”, “Medline”, “ProQuest”, “PsychInfo”, “Sage”, “ScienceDirect”, “TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM” ve “Wiley Online Library” veri tabanlarında “merdiven, yürüyen merdiven, asansör, fiziksel aktivite, tanıtım, uygulama” anahtar kelimeleri kullanılarak Türkçe ve İngilizce dilindeki yayınlarla gerçekleştirilmiştir.  Bulgular: Karar anı teşvikleri ile merdiven kullanımını artırmayı amaçlayan deneysel çalışmaların gözden geçirilmesi, bu teşviklerin merdiven kullanımını artırmada başarılı bir müdahale olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu teşvikler bir davranışsal ipucu olarak işlev görmekte ve mesajlar yarar, engel ve duyarlılık algılarını etkileyerek ve öz-etkinlik inançlarını yükselterek bireyleri merdiven kullanmaya yönlendirmektedir. Sonuç: Karar anı teşvikleri kullanımı merdiven kullanımını artırmada başarılı bir yöntemdir. Davranışsal bir ipucu görevi yapar. Bununla beraber,  mesajların alt grupların özgül ihtiyaçlarına hitap edebilmesi için, bu teşviklerin kuramsal arka planını değerlendirecek çalışmalara gereksinim vardır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Merdiven kullanımı, karar anı teşviki, sağlık davranışı kuramları

  6. Din - Turizm İlişkisi Çerçevesinde Yahudilikte, Hıristiyanlıkta Ve İslamiyette Hac Uygulamasına Genel Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Alparslan Küçük

    2013-01-01

    Turizm sektörü, gerek dinî yaşam biçimi gerekse dinî kurumlar ile etkileşim ve iletişim halindedir. Bu etkileşim ve iletişim, dünyanın her yerinde görülebilmektedir. Turizm ile din arasındaki bu iletişim/etkileşim neticesinde inanç turizmi anlayışı ortaya çıkmıştır. İnanç Turizmi ile Hac arasında yakın bir ilişki sözkonusudur. Ancak Hac anlayışı ile inanç turizmi arasında ortak özellikler ile birlikte bazı farklılıklar da mevcuttur. Bu makalemizde bu benzerlikler ve farklılıklar ile birlikte ...

  7. Din - Turizm İlişkisi Çerçevesinde Yahudilikte, Hıristiyanlıkta Ve İslamiyette Hac Uygulamasına Genel Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Alparslan Küçük

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Turizm sektörü, gerek dinî yaşam biçimi gerekse dinî kurumlar ile etkileşim ve iletişim halindedir. Bu etkileşim ve iletişim, dünyanın her yerinde görülebilmektedir. Turizm ile din arasındaki bu iletişim/etkileşim neticesinde inanç turizmi anlayışı ortaya çıkmıştır. İnanç Turizmi ile Hac arasında yakın bir ilişki sözkonusudur. Ancak Hac anlayışı ile inanç turizmi arasında ortak özellikler ile birlikte bazı farklılıklar da mevcuttur. Bu makalemizde bu benzerlikler ve farklılıklar ile birlikte Yahudilik, Hıristiyanlık ve İslamiyet’teki hac anlayışı/uygulaması ele alınmıştır

  8. Mapping of the Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld sandpile model on a two-dimensional Ising-correlated percolation lattice to the two-dimensional self-avoiding random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghalizadeh, J.; Najafi, M. N.; Dashti-Naserabadi, H.; Mohammadzadeh, H.

    2017-11-01

    The self-organized criticality on the random fractal networks has many motivations, like the movement pattern of fluid in the porous media. In addition to the randomness, introducing correlation between the neighboring portions of the porous media has some nontrivial effects. In this paper, we consider the Ising-like interactions between the active sites as the simplest method to bring correlations in the porous media, and we investigate the statistics of the BTW model in it. These correlations are controlled by the artificial "temperature" T and the sign of the Ising coupling. Based on our numerical results, we propose that at the Ising critical temperature Tc the model is compatible with the universality class of two-dimensional (2D) self-avoiding walk (SAW). Especially the fractal dimension of the loops, which are defined as the external frontier of the avalanches, is very close to DfSAW=4/3 . Also, the corresponding open curves has conformal invariance with the root-mean-square distance Rrms˜t3 /4 (t being the parametrization of the curve) in accordance with the 2D SAW. In the finite-size study, we observe that at T =Tc the model has some aspects compatible with the 2D BTW model (e.g., the 1 /log(L ) -dependence of the exponents of the distribution functions) and some in accordance with the Ising model (e.g., the 1 /L -dependence of the fractal dimensions). The finite-size scaling theory is tested and shown to be fulfilled for all statistical observables in T =Tc . In the off-critical temperatures in the close vicinity of Tc the exponents show some additional power-law behaviors in terms of T -Tc with some exponents that are reported in the text. The spanning cluster probability at the critical temperature also scales with L1/2, which is different from the regular 2D BTW model.

  9. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46012, Lat: 00.18994 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.81m; Data Range: 20080210-20100130.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  10. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46012, Lat: 00.18994 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.81m; Data Range: 20080209-20100206.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  11. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46012, Lat: 00.18994 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.80m; Data Range: 20060131-20080209.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  12. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20020201-20031215.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  13. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20040123-20050123.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  14. Antik Yunan Dönemi Karşılaştırmalı Siyaset Biliminde Siyasal Sistem Sınıflandırmalarına Genel bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat YILMAZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Siyaset Biliminin bir alt disiplini olarak karşılaştırmalı siyaset biliminin popülaritesi günümüzde gittikçe artmaktadır. Bu disiplin, farklı ülkelerin siyasal sistemleri hakkında detaylı bilgiler vermesinden dolayı fazlaca önemsenmektedir. Günümüzde ilginin giderek arttığı böyle bir alanın tarihsel geçmişi ise oldukça eski dönemlere dayanmaktadır. karşılaştırmalı siyaset bilimi alanında yapılan ilk siyasal sistem sınıflandırmaları Antik Yunan döneminde ortaya çıkmıştır. Bundan dolayı bu makalede, batı siyasal düşüncesi içerisinde yer alan Antik Yunan dönemindeki siyasal sistem sınıflandırmalarının bazı düşünürler bağlamında incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Makalede, öncelikle temel kavramlar olan karşılaştırmalı siyaset bilimi ve siyasal sistem kavramlarına değinilmekte ve daha sonra Antik Yunan dönemi siyasal sistem sınıflandırmaları Heredotos, Platon ve Aristoteles örnekleri ile incelenmektedir.

  15. Cinsiyet Ayrımcılığı Olarak Üstün Erillik Olgusunun Aile İşletmelerindeki Etkisi: Kuramsal Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    Soyşekerci, Serhat

    2006-01-01

    Erkekler aile ilişkilerinde koca, baba, oğul, ağabey gibi rollere sahiptirler. Benzer rol aile işletmelerinde ‘patron' ya da ‘kurucu-girişimci' olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Erillik söylemleri ile yerine getirilen ana fonksiyonlardan birisi, erkek gücü ve iktidarının kabul ettirilmesine dayalı üstün erillik (hyper-masculinity) olgusudur. Erillik-dişillik ikiliği, güçlü-güçsüz, sert-yumuşak, aktif-pasif, verimli-verimsiz, savaşçı-boyun eğen karşıtlığı olarak devam etmekle beraber, ko...

  16. SHOCKS Fast-Fracture Periodic-Intermittency VS. Random-Sporadicity in Burst Acoustic-Emission (BAE): Dislocation-Line-Defects Special-Relativity Classical Acoustic-Phonon Maser(CAPM) EDDTA Orgins of ``Bak''-``SOC''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter; Klimontovich, Yuri; Nabarro, Frank; Brailsford, Alan; Siegel, Edward

    2011-06-01

    Glassy fast-fracture instabilities and patterns, long-known semi-infinite crack-propagation sub-terminal-velocity Rayleigh-wave-speed versus ``2''-D linear-elasticity theory predictions, but rather asymptotic to maximum-speed < 0.6 v(Rayleigh), explicitly experimentally identifies a fast-fracture DYNAMIC-instability(FFDI) not included within fracture linear-elasticity theory. FFDI causes PERIODIC-BAE[E. S.:MSE 8.310(71); PSS:(a) 5, 601/ 607 (71); Xl..-Latt. Defects 5, 277(74);Scripta-Met.:6,785(72);8, 587/617(74); 3rd Tokyo A.-E. Symp. (76); Acta- Met.25,383(77); JMMM 7,312(78); ...] emitted/radiated from advancing-crack in addition to crack-velocity fluctuations causing such low sub-Rayleigh crack-velocities, hinting at dimensionality-dominance in 2-D VS. 3-D lattice-``models'' very-provacatively yet another special-case subset of Siegel[MRS Fall-Mtg.,Boston:Symp. On Fractals(89)-5-papers!!!; Symp. On Scaling(90)] SPD/FUZZYICS. Hirth-Lothe-Nabarro-Weertman-... provocative finite Burgers-vector dislocations/line-defects singularities terminal-velocity special-case of Einstein's special-relativity, almost word-for-word Jackson electromagnetics, replaces light-speed by sound-speed!!! Siegel[3rd Tokyo A.-E. Symp.(76); Intl.Quantum-Electronics Conf., Boston (80)

  17. Kamu Alacaklarının Korunması Bakımından Limited Şirket Ortaklarının Sorumluluğu

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, Binnur

    2000-01-01

    Limited (Liability) Company partners have responsibility from the public dept of the company. It is very clear that the main reason of this responsibility is to protect the public credits.Their responsibility limit is related with their share ratio to the capital of the company. Indeed this responsibility is not fitting to Trade Law.In this work we discussed the reasons and the results of the responsibility of the Limited (Liability) Company partners

  18. Two-month-old infants at risk for dyslexia do not discriminate vertical bar bAk vertical bar from vertical bar dAk vertical bar : A brain-mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Been, Pieter; van Herten, Marieke; Zwarts, Frans; Maassen, Ben; Leij, Aryan van der

    Dyslexics have problems with categorization of speech sounds, in particular when rapid temporal processing is involved such as in formant transitions of stop-consonants. Infants are already sensitive to such auditory features, but here we show that precursors of impaired categorization are already

  19. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20040123-20060130.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  20. Malezya’da Din-Devlet İlişkisine Kısa Bir Bakış / A Short Overview of the Relationship between Religion and State in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Starting from the second half of the 1960s onwards, socio-religious youth movements, which are regarded as the initial element of civil expressions on university campuses, were constructively influential on the perception of the political elites’ understanding of Islam and political evolution of the Islamisation policies in the process in Malaysia. There are opinions that this effect encompassed the efforts of Islamisation particularly in the 1980s. In this process, the task of the state apparatus, as a political power, which managed the religious domain mostly considered belonging to the civil sector, deserves to be scrutinized in relation with at least some influential factors in the near and distant past of the Muslim Malay community. And, it cannot be overseen that the functions of the traditional Malay rulers, say, Sultans, were transferred, to some or larger extent, to the Federal government after the independence. With regard to this, in this article, the present writer will focus on some aspects of the policies of Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, who has molded majorily the history of modern Malaysia, regarding his Islamisation policy aligned with the state-religion relationship. Özet Malezya’da 1960’lı yılların ikinci yarısından itibaren üniversite kampüslerinde başlayan ve sivilleşmenin bir unsuru olarak telâkki edilen dini-toplumsal hareketlerin İslam’ın ülke siyasi elitince algılanmasında ve pratikte İslamlaştırma adıyla anılabilecek politikalara evrilmesinde önemli etkisi olmuştur. Bu etkinin, özellikle 1980’li yıllarda devlet eliyle İslamlaştırma çabalarına yol açtığı konusunda görüşler bulunmaktadır. Bu süreçte, yani devletin siyasi bir güç olarak sivil alana dahil olan dini çekip çevirme işini üstlenmesinde, özellikle Müslüman Malay toplumunun yakın ve uzak geçmişindeki kimi faktörler dikkate alınmayı hak etmektedir. Bu bağlamda, geleneksel Malay devletlerinde Sultanların sahip oldukları işlevlerin bağımsızlık sonrasında Federal yönetime bir tür devri olarak değerlendirilebilecek ilişki göz ardı edilmemelidir. Bu çerçevede, modern Malezya tarihinde bıraktığı izler nedeniyle, din-devlet ilişkisi bağlamında yaşananların odağında yer alan Dr. Mahathir Muhammed’in 22 yıllık iktidarındaki icraatlar kısaca ele alınacaktır. Un bref aperçu de la relation entre la religion et le gouvernement : les politiques de l’islamisation de l’époque de Mahathir Mohamad et ses implications Résumé Les mouvements socio-religieux dans les campus universitaires en Malaisie depuis la seconde moitié des années 1960 ont eu une influence considérable à propos de la perception de l’Islam par les élites politiques du pays et du commencement de la réalisation des politiques de l’islamisation. Il existe même des opinions qui défendent l’idée que cette influence était en particulier à la base de l’islamisation du pays par l’Etat dans les années 1980. Pour comprendre le processus de la prise en charge de l’Etat des affaires de la Religion, devenu maintenant une force politique dans la sphère publique, il convient de voir, en particulier, certaines caractéristiques dans les temps passé et présent de la communauté musulmane malaise. Dans ce contexte, il ne faut pas oublier le transfert des fonctions des sultans des états traditionnels malais au Gouvernement fédéral après l’indépendance. Dans cette étude, on va aborder en bref les politiques de l’époque de Dr. Mahathir Muhammed, au pouvoir pendant 22 ans, et qui était au centre des affaires au sujet de la relation entre la religion et l’état de cette période, car cette période a marqué l’histoire du pays.

  1. Sinop Yarımadası (Güney Karadeniz Kıyısal Sularındaki Bazı Syngnathid Türlerinin (Syngnathus sp., Nerophis sp., Hippocampus sp. Besin Kompozisyonları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule GÜRKAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, Temmuz 2001 - Mayıs 2002 tarihleri arasında Sinop yarımadası (güney Karadeniz kıyısal sularının 5 – 15 m derinliklerindeki farklı biyotoplarından el direci kullanılarak yakalanan 6 deniziğnesi (Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758; Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus, 1758; Syngnathus tenurostris Rathke, 1837; Syngnathus variegatus Palas, 1811; Nerophis ophidion Linnaeus, 1758; Syngnathus abaster Risso,1926 ve bir denizatı (Hippocampus hippocampus (L.,1758 türüne ait toplam 130 bireyde 105 mide içeriği incelenmiştir. Analizler sonunda mide içeriklerinde 13 av grubu tespit edilmiştir. Deniziğnesi türlerinin besin içeriğinde bulunuş frekans değeri (% F bakımından en baskın av grupları; S. acus’da % 90.9 Euterpina acutifrons, S. typhle’de % 93.3 tanımlanamamış doku parçaları, S. tenurostris’de % 87 Pseudocalanus elongatus, S. variegatus’da % 91.7 tanımlanamamış doku parçaları, N. ophidion’da % 90 Euterpina acutifrons, S. abaster’de ise % 100 Pseudocalanus elongatus, Euterpina acutifrons, Cirriped cypris, ve Cirriped nauiplius’dur. H. hippocampus ise % 25 ile Onceae sp. en baskın av grubudur. Sonuç olarak, deniziğnesi ve denizatı türlerinin esasen bentik ve planktonik krustase gruplarıyla beslendikleri görülmekle birlikte S. tenuirostris, S. abaster ve S. variegatus için besin kompozisyonu kıyılarımızdan ilk kez belirlenmiştir

  2. A ORIGINAL OTTOMAN PROVERB SAMPLE MEÂLÎ’S PROVERB’S KASIDEORİJİNAL BİR DURÛB-I EMSÂL-İ OSMÂNÎ ÖRNEĞİ MEÂLÎ’NİN ATASÖZLERİ KASİDESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin HAKVERDİOĞLU

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Literature has made advice culture very important in essays and poems. One of the products is also Durub-ı Emsâl-i Osmânî (Ottoman’s Proverbs. The kaside of a poet; named Meâlî whose name isn’t mentiened in the sources is an interestry example for these literary products. This poem is a different kaside from the point of view of forming an example for young educaters. This poem takes place in Fâiz Efendi and Şâkir Bey meganere which we shorten it as FŞM, and it first meets the literature scholar. It is the first time it has met teh literative world. Türk Edebiyatı nasihat kültürünü nesirde ve nazımda ön plana çıkarmıştır. Bu mahsullerin biri de Durûb-ı Emsâl-i Osmânîyelerdir. Kaynaklarda adı geçmeyen Mealî adlı şâirin kasidesi, bu edebî verimlerin ilginç bir örneğidir ve genç eğitimcilere için örnek teşkil etmesi bakımından farklı bir kasidedir. Bu manzume, FŞM şeklinde kısalttığımız Fâiz Efendi ve Şâkir Bey Mecmuasında yer almakta ve edebiyat âlimi ile ilk kez tanışmaktadır.

  3. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  4. The War Crimes Act: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    ... of a non-international character. Common Article 3 prohibits protected persons from being subjected to violence, outrages upon personal dignity, torture, and cruel, humiliating, or degrading treatment...

  5. Cell viability score as an integrated indicator for cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride-containing antiglaucoma eyedrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing antiglaucoma eyedrops. We prepared cell cultures of SIRC, BCE C/D-1b, RC-1, and Chang conjunctiva. The viability of cell cultures was determined using the MTT and neutral red assays. The cell viability score (CVS) was used to compare the toxicity of test solutions. %CVS50 and %CVS40/80 of each eyedrop solution were 71 and 26 for Lumigan(®) (0.002% bimatoprost with 0.005% BAK), 100 and 99 for Tapros(®) (0.0015% tafluprost, a new formula from 2010 with 0.001% BAK), 39 and -29 for 2% Trusopt(®) (2% dorzolamide with 0.0075% BAK), 28 and -43 for Xalacom(®) (latanoprost/0.5% timolol with 0.02% BAK), 88 and 66 for DuoTrav(®) (travoprost/0.5% timolol with no BAK), 36 and -35 for Cosopt(®) (2% dorzolamide/0.5% timolol with 0.0075% BAK) and 53 and -1 for Combigan(®) (0.15% brimonidin/0.5% timolol with 0.005% BAK). Only Xalacom(®) and Tapros(®) did not show an apparent decrease in %CVS as compared to the corresponding concentration of BAK. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of tested eyedrops was dependent on BAK. Only the eyedrops containing latanoprost or tafluprost showed a reduction in the cytotoxicity of BAK.

  6. Auditoría ambiental de cumplimiento de la subestación eléctrica de distribución Santa Martha de la CNEL Guayas Los Ríos ubicada en el Cantón Durán en el año 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Rivera, Paúl Cristóbal; Shingre Mora, Julio César

    2013-01-01

    La auditoría ambiental de cumplimiento de una subestación eléctrica es la comprobación o verificación de las operaciones internas en las diferentes etapas sean estas operaciones en condiciones normales o en mantenimientos predictivos, preventivos y correctivos dichas operaciones tienen que estar sujetas conforme a las normas: legales, técnicas y ambientales vigentes en nuestro país. La presente auditoría ambiental realizó las siguientes actividades: determinación de la ubicación geográfic...

  7. The Ethnic Hate Speech was Networked: What Social Media Online Political Discussions Reveal about the 2013 General Elections in Kenya / El discurso étnico del odio se difundió por las redes. Análisis de las discusiones políticas en las redes sociales dur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Mwende Maweu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter examines if the increased political discussions on social media especially Twitter and Face Book before and after the March 4th, 2013 general elections in Kenya translated to a more robust Alternative Public Sphere that broke the hegemony of the traditional media as Agenda setters or an alternative space for the audience to vent out their frustrations and grievances about the election. In the last most contentious elections in 2007, in Kenya, both new and old media were blamed for fueling ethnic hate speech which culminated into the 2007/ 2008 post election violence. It is argued in this chapter that although voting patterns in the March 2013 elections were clearly along ethnic lines just like in 2007, there was no physical post election violence like was the case in 2008. What was clearly evident was Ethnic hate speech before and after the general elections on social media networks. We therefore observe that unlike in 2008 where ethnic violence was fought in the streets, in the 2013 general elections, the ‘Ethnic War was Networked’. The chapter analyses the content of some of the messages send on Twitter and Face Book to argue that social media platforms only acted as alternative spaces for Kenyans to fight out their ethnic political wars and not alternative public spheres for constructive political deliberation. The chapter concludes by observing that social media networks in the 2013 general elections in Kenya acted as ‘Opiums of the Masses’ only serving the function of keeping Kenya ‘quiet and peaceful’ to prevent a repeat of the 2008 post election violence, but not alternative public spheres to facilitate constructive political deliberation. En este artículo se analiza si el aumento de las discusiones políticas sobre las redes sociales, especialmente Twitter y Facebook, antes y después de las elecciones generales en Kenia del 04 de marzo de 2013, se tradujeron en una esfera pública alternativa sólida que rompiera con la hegemonía de los medios de comunicación tradicionales en tanto que fijadores de la agenda, o un espacio alternativo para la audiencia en el que tratar sus frustraciones y quejas sobre las elecciones. En las últimas elecciones más polémicas en Kenia, en 2007, tanto los nuevos medios como los tradicionales fueron acusados de alimentar la incitación al odio étnico, que culminó en la violencia sufrida a finales de 2007 y principios de 2008, después de las elecciones. El argumento de este texto señala que aunque los patrones de voto en las elecciones de marzo 2013 se delinearon claramente siguiendo un patrón étnico al igual que en 2007, no hubo violencia física postelectoral, como ocurrió en 2008. La incitación al odio étnico era ya evidente antes y después de las elecciones generales en las redes sociales. Por lo tanto, observamos que, a diferencia de 2008 donde la violencia étnica se libró en las calles, en las elecciones generales de 2013, esta violencia se canalizó a través de la red. El artículo utiliza el análisis de contenido cualitativo de algunos de los mensajes enviados a través de Twitter y Facebook para sostener que estas plataformas sólo sirvieron para los kenianos como espacios alternativos en los que escenificar su confrontación política étnica, y no como esferas públicas alternativas para la deliberación política constructiva. Por lo tanto, se concluye señalando que las redes sociales en las elecciones generales de 2013 en Kenia actuaron como "el opio del pueblo", que sólo sirvió para mantener Kenia tranquila y pacífica, con el fin de evitar que se repitiera la violencia post-electoral de 2008, pero no como esfera pública alternativa que facilitara la deliberación política constructiva.

  8. Prévention des TMS dans la durée : des acteurs institutionnels facilitent une démarche d’entreprise Sustainable prevention of musculoskeletal disorders: institutional actors make a company approach easier Prevención de las lesions músculo esqueléticas a largo plazo: los actors institucionales facilitan un proceso en la empresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tayar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Un projet départemental de prévention des TMS est né en 2003 à l’initiative du Service Médical Inter-entreprises de l’Anjou et de l’Action Régionale pour l’Amélioration des Conditions de Travail des Pays de Loire pour répondre aux difficultés des entreprises à mettre en place des projets efficaces et pérennes. Il réunit dans un engagement pour 5 ans, 6 entreprises volontaires qui en acceptent les exigences.Les acteurs institutionnels de prévention apportent, dans une approche pluridisciplinaire, une méthodologie de projet et la possibilité d’échanges et de retours d’expérience entre les entreprises. Cet accompagnement est orienté sur la constitution de groupes de travail animés par des consultants privés pour réfléchir sur des situations à risques de TMS et mettre en commun des décisions de changement.Après 3 ans de conduite du projet dans un abattoir de viande bovine, un processus d’appropriation est à l’œuvre. Les évaluations mettent en lumière des changements humains, organisationnels et techniques. Cette expérience interroge le rôle des acteurs institutionnels et l’intérêt de l’articulation entre les acteurs externes et internes à l’entreprise.A departmental musculoskeletal disorder (MSD prevention project was begun in 2003 on the initiative of the Anjou inter-company medical service and the Regional action for the improvement of working conditions in the Pays de Loire to respond to companies’ difficulties in establishing effective and ongoing projects. It brought together 6 volunteer companies in a commitment to a 5-year agreement.The institutional prevention actors provide, in a multi-disciplinary approach, a project methodology and the opportunity for exchanges and feedback between the companies. This accompanying action focused on the creation of working groups led by private consultants to consider situations that could lead to musculoskeletal disorders and to share decisions for change.After the project had been conducted in a bovine slaughterhouse for 3 years, an adaptation process is now being carried out. The evaluations are revealing human, organizational and technical changes. This experiment questions the role of institutional actors and the interest of the link between external actors and actors inside the company.Un proyecto departamental de prevención de las lesiones músculo esqueléticas (LMS nació en el 2003, a iniciativa del Servicio Médico Inter-empresas de Anjou y de la Acción Regional por la Mejora de las Condiciones de Trabajo de los Países de Loire. El proyecto reune, con un compromiso de 5 años, 6 empresas voluntarias que aceptaron las exigencias, con el fin dar respuesta a las dificultades que las empresas tienen para implementar proyectos eficaces y perennes. Los actores institucionales de prevención aportan en un enfoque pluridisciplinario, una metodología de proyecto y la posibilidad de intercambios y de retorno de experiencia entre las empresas. Este acompañamiento esta orientado a la constitución de grupos de trabajo animados por consultantes privados para reflexionar sobre situaciones a riesgo de LMS y para poner en común las decisiones de cambio. Luego de conducir el proyecto durante 3 años en un matadero de carne bovina, un proceso de apropiación esta en curso. Las evaluaciones muestran cambios individuales, organizacionales y técnicos. Esta experiencia interroga el rol de los actores institucionales y el interés de la articulación entre actores internos y externos a la empresa.

  9. Des animaux pour humaniser les soins : Éthique des soins et récits de zoothérapie canine auprès de résidents de centres d’hébergement de soins de longue durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilsdonk, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In animal assisted therapy, people can both benefit from interactions and relationships with a human and an animal. This text presents some anecdotal experiences to illustrate how pet therapy can contribute to the social and emotional well-being of patients. This text emphasizes that our social nature makes an ethics of care possible for caregivers and necessary for patients, all while drawing a parallel between the skills of my dogs and my own. I also plead for us not neglect the socio-emotional needs of patients.

  10. Trachypodaceae. A critical revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van B.O.

    1959-01-01

    1. Trachypus. 1. T. bicolor Reinw. et Hornsch. is divided into 4 varieties: a. var. bicolor, b. var. hispidus (C. Muell.) Card., c. var. viridulus (Mitt.) Zant. comb. nov., d. var. scindifolius (Sak.) Nog. 2. T. humilis Lindb. is divided into 2 varieties: a. var. humilis, b. var. tenerrimus (Herz.)

  11. Effect of drug utilization reviews on the quality of in-hospital prescribing: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabot Isabelle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug utilization review (DUR programs are being conducted in Canadian hospitals with the aim of improving the appropriateness of prescriptions. However, there is little evidence of their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of both a retrospective and a concurrent DUR programs on the quality of in-hospital prescribing. Methods We conducted an interrupted time series quasi-experimental study. Using explicit criteria for quality of prescribing, the natural history of cisapride prescription was established retrospectively in three university-affiliated hospitals. A retrospective DUR was implemented in one of the hospitals, a concurrent DUR in another, whereas the third hospital served as a control. An archivist abstracted records of all patients who were prescribed cisapride during the observation period. The effect of DURs relative to the control hospital was determined by comparing estimated regression coefficients from the time series models and by testing the statistical significance using a 2-tailed Student's t test. Results The concurrent DUR program significantly improved the appropriateness of prescriptions for the indication for use whereas the retrospective DUR brought about no significant effect on the quality of prescribing. Conclusion Results suggest a retrospective DUR approach may not be sufficient to improve the quality of prescribing. However, a concurrent DUR strategy, with direct feedback to prescribers seems effective and should be tested in other settings with other drugs.

  12. Effectiveness of ophthalmic solution preservatives: a comparison of latanoprost with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride and travoprost with the sofZia preservative system

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Gerard; Fain, Joel M; Lovelace, Cherie; Gelotte, Karl M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have suggested that benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in topical ophthalmic solutions may be detrimental to corneal epithelial cells, multiple short- and long-term clinical studies have provided evidence supporting the safety of BAK. Despite the conflicting evidence, BAK is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic products largely due to its proven antimicrobial efficacy. This study was designed to characterize the antimi...

  13. Local toxicity of benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic solutions following repeated applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Akihiko; Kawazu, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    We performed repeated toxicity studies of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing vehicles of ophthalmic solutions in monkeys and rabbits to assess the local toxicity of BAK after repeated applications on the ocular surface. Local toxicity of BAK was evaluated by toxicity studies in which a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 52 weeks, 4 times/day for 39 weeks, or 6 times/day for 13 weeks, or in which a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 52 weeks or twice/day for 4 weeks in monkeys. Local toxicity of BAK was also evaluated where a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 6 weeks, or a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 39 weeks or 8 times/day for 4 weeks in rabbits. These doses were chosen because BAK is generally used at concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solutions. The BAK-containing vehicle did not cause ophthalmological changes suggestive of irritation, allergy, or corneal damage. We also did not observe any histopathological changes in the eyeball, eyelid, lacrimal gland, and nasal cavity, with repeated applications of BAK for up to 52 weeks, up to 8 times/day, or at concentrations up to 0.01%, in monkeys and rabbits. Our results suggest that BAK in concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solution is non-toxic to the eyeball, its accessory organs, and the nasal cavity after long repeated applications.

  14. Effects of benzalkonium chloride- or polyquad-preserved fixed combination glaucoma medications on human trabecular meshwork cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, David A; Kahook, Malik Y

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the potential short and long-term effects in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells of various topical glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives. We tested the fixed combination medications 0.004% travoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with either 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK; DuoTrav®), or with 0.001% polyquad (PQ; DuoTrav(®) BAK-free); and 0.005% latanoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (Xalacom(®)). Also tested was a range of BAK concentrations (0.001%-0.020%) in balanced salt solution (BSS). Cells were treated for 25 min at 37 °C with solutions diluted 1:10 and 1:100 to mimic the reduced penetration of topical preparations to the anterior chamber. The percentage of live cells was determined immediately after treatment through the uptake of the fluorescent vital dye calcein-AM. To determine any long-term effects, we assayed release of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and apoptosis 24 h after treatments. BAK demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in TM cell viability, ranging from 71±5% live cells at 0.001% BAK (diluted 1:10) to 33±3% live cells at 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:10). Travoprost (0.004%) plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.015% BAK had statistically fewer live TM cells (79±7%) than the same preparation preserved with 0.001% polyquad® (PQ; 93±1%; p<0.001). Latanoprost plus timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (29±9% live cells) was similar to the 0.020% BAK (33±3%) treatment. However, travoprost plus timolol preserved in 0.015% BAK had significantly more live cells (83±12%) than the 1:10 dilution of 0.015% BAK (49±10%). We also found 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:100) resulted in elevated levels of extracellular MMP-9 at 24 h. These results demonstrate that the substitution of the preservative BAK from topical ophthalmic drugs results in greater in vitro viability of TM cells. Travoprost with timolol, but not latanoprost with timolol, countered some of the toxic BAK effects. BAK treatment

  15. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution on ocular surface in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walimbe, Tejaswini; Chelerkar, Vidya; Bhagat, Purvi; Joshi, Abhijeet; Raut, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), included as a preservative in many topical treatments for glaucoma, induces significant toxicity and alters tear breakup time (TBUT). BAK-containing latanoprost, an ester prodrug of prostaglandin F2α, can cause ocular adverse events (AEs) associated with BAK. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BAK-free latanoprost. A prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, 8-week study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension taking BAK-containing latanoprost for ≥12 months was performed. Patients were switched to BAK-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution 0.005% administered once daily, and eyes were assessed after 28 and 56 days. Primary efficacy and safety variables were TBUT and treatment-emergent AEs, respectively. At day 56, 40 eyes were evaluable. Mean TBUT increased significantly from baseline (3.67±1.60 seconds) to 5.03±2.64 and 6.06±3.39 seconds after 28 and 56 days of treatment with BAK-free latanoprost (Preduction in conjunctival hyperemia and intraocular pressure was observed at both time points. No treatment-related serious AEs were evident and 12 (26.08%) treatment-emergent AEs occurred in seven patients, with eye pain and irritation being the most frequent. No clinically significant changes in vital signs or slit lamp examinations were observed. Results indicate that switching from BAK-containing latanoprost to BAK-free latanoprost resulted in significant improvements in TBUT, OSDI(©) score, and inferior corneal staining score, and measurable reductions in conjunctival hyperemia score. Furthermore, BAK-free latanoprost was well tolerated with only mild-to-moderate and self-limiting AEs. BAK-free latanoprost appears to be effective in protecting ocular surface integrity in glaucoma patients but further studies are needed to confirm this beneficial effect.

  16. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2017-04-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107-667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  17. Two new combinations in Euploca Nutt. (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales) and a conspectus of the species of the Guiana Shield area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Heliotropium foliatum and Tournefortia humilis are transferred to Euploca Nutt. respectively as Euploca foliata comb. n. and Euploca humilis comb. n. A collection from Guyana has been recently identified as Euploca humistrata, a species previously considered a Brazilian endemic. A collection from French Guiana documents for the first time the species in that country. A key to the species of the Guiana Shield area is given. The species of Euploca from the Guiana Shield are listed with synonymy and a brief description: Euploca filiformis, Euploca humilis, Euploca humistrata, Euploca lagoensis, Euploca polyphylla, Euploca procumbens. PMID:27081354

  18. Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Azerbaycan Türkçesinde “Su” Unsurlu Atasözlerinin Gramer Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÖKSÜZ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Öz İnsanın yaşam tarzı, tarihi, kültürü, hayata bakış açısı dilde yansıtılır. Atalarımızdan bize aktarılan ve anların üzün süre gözlemleyip bir sonuca vararak öğüt ve nasihat şeklinde aktarmış oldukları özlü sözlerdir. Atasözleri değişik dillerde farklı terimlerle telaffuz edilmiştir; Türkçede ise Kaşkarlı Mahmut sav şeklinde ifade ederken daha sonraları Osmanlı Türkçesinde ise darbımesel veya durûb-i emsal kelime grubuyla ifade edilmiştir. Günümüz Türkçesinde ise atasözü şeklinde söylenmektedir. Azerbaycan Türkçesinde ise Atalar sözü terimiyle ifade edilmektedir. Atasözleri toplumda yaşanan olaylardan çıkarılması gereken dersleri bir nasihat bir öğüt şeklinde kısaca anlatır, dile getirir. O nedenle atasözlerini deyimlerden ayıran en önemli tarafı atasözlerinin bir yargı bildirmesidir. Bu öğüt bütün toplumu kapsar ve her zaman doğruya ve iyiye yönlendirir. Diğer taraftan değişik Türk toplulukları kendi atasözlerini toplamışlar ve üzerinde dil çalışmaları yapmışlardır. Bu bakımdan atasözleri ve deyimlerin incelenmesi özel önem taşımaktadır. Türkiye ve Azerbaycan tarihten bu güne hem dilde hem de kültürde birlikteliği sağlamış iki devlettir. Aynı dili konuşmamızın yanında farklı komşuluk ilişkilerine sahip olmamız ve farklı kültürlerden etkilenmemiz nedeni ile hem dilde hem de kültürde azda olsa farklılıklar vardır. Bu farklılıklar atasözlerinde de görülmektedir. Biz bu araştırmamızda iki Türkçede su ile ilgili söylenmiş atasözlerinin gramer özellikleri üzerinde durarak farklı ve benzer yanları nelerdir; bunu ortaya koymaya çalışacağız. Anahtar kelimeler: Atasözleri, Türkiye Türkçesi, Azerbaycan Türkçesi, Türkçe gramer, Türk kültürü, Su kültürü, dil kültürü. The Grammatical Features of the Word “Water” in the Proverbs of Turkey and Azerbaijan Abstract The lifestyle

  19. Siyasi Kutuplaşmanın Marka İmaj Ve İtibarlarına Etkisi: Türkiye’De Tüketicinin Yahudilikle İlişkilendirdiği Markalara Bakışı Üzerine Bir Eleştiri

    OpenAIRE

    Kırgız, Ayça C.

    2015-01-01

    The main reason why the businesses want to create psychological differences rather than physical or functional differences is the existence of many companies providing similar products and services in the market. Provision of products and services exceeding the requests and needs of clientele, similarity of each and every one of them with each other both physically and functionally, the requirement of selling them due to inventory and other different costs have made it compulsory ...

  20. Uluslararası Ticaret ve Yatırım Teorisi Olarak Eklektik Paradigma: Geçmişten Günümüze Bir Bakış / Eclectic Paradigm As an International Trade and Investment Theory: A View From Past to Present

    OpenAIRE

    Güngördü, Aybeğüm; Yılmaz, Kadri Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Uluslararası ticaret ve yatırım teorilerinden biri olan Dunning’in eklektik paradigması, çok uluslu işletmelerin uluslararası pazarlara giriş yolları seçim kararlarına yön vermektedir. Dunning, paradigmasını geliştirirken farklı teorilerden yararlanmış ve böylece hem geçmişi hem de geleceği kapsayan bir çalışma sunmuştur. Paradigma, temel olarak sahiplik, konum, içselleştirme adındaki OLI olarak da isimlendirilen üç üstünlükten bahseder. Sahiplik avantajından, rekabet üstünlükleri olarak söz ...

  1. Current approaches in oral mucositis prevention, care and treatment in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Literature reviewHematopoetik kök hücre naklinde oral mukozitin önlemesi, bakımı ve tedavisinde güncel yaklaşımlar: Literatür incelemesi

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Ebru; Sarı, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucositis is important inflammatory complications affecting the esophagus, oropharyngeal mucosa and gastrointestinal tract in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Oral mucositis’ incidence is depending on the conditioning regimen, type of disease and the applied transmission procedure. It’s incidence is 35-75% in autologous transplant patients and 75-100% in allogeneic transplant patients. The aim of this review, examine the results of the researches for prevention an...

  2. Türkiye ve Bulgaristan’da İlkokuma Yazma Sürecinde Öğrencilerin Ürettikleri Yazıların Okunaklılık Bakımından İncelenmesi Investigation of Manuscript Legibility Produced by students in the Process of Early Writing-Reading in Turkey and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim COŞKUN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful transfer of thoughts and emotions that speaking and writing skills, know-how requires a number of skills and knowledge. This accumulation of knowledge and skills in the elementary foundations are being laid. One of the expressive language skills writing is from skills of the individual, academic, cultural and social life most used. Children in the process of development, but the receptive language and expressive language skills, listening skills, preschool speech, expressive language, receptive language skills of reading and writing skills in the elementary school are gaining. Starting first grade literacy teaching process consists of encoding and decoding activities. Does not change from person to person are universal criteria for readability. No matter which language you made a post about writing as long as it complies with the criteria "legible" provision given. From this point in the process of teaching reading and writing of this study, Turkish and Bulgarian primary criteria was to investigate the legibility of texts produced by first grade children. This study was designed according to the technique of qualitative case study research model data 2012-2013 academic year in Edirne, Turkey, the first year of primary school going 15 (9 male, 6 female in the 2012-2013 academic year the student data and Bulgaria capital Sofia the first year of the ongoing 15 (8 female and 7 male were collected from samples of student writing. Samples taken from both countries, letters, syllables, words, sentences, and attention is paid to the stages of the text. Criteria for determining the legibility of domestic and foreign literature were reviewed and according to the criteria determined by the researcher “enough", "developed" and "inadequate," he rated. The data were analyzed by the researcher and with five experts in the field. Legibility of the data by the researcher analyzed separately according to the criteria of whether the raters’ reliability coefficient was calculated as .87. Analysis results are expressed in terms of percentage and frequency used for the quantification of qualitative data and direct extracts from the writings of students interpreted. Text examples of straight-line placement of text, the space between words, letter-spacing, letter format, suitable to produce, including six main categories of contiguity and the curvature examined. The findings of the study, the writing researchers, reading and writing documents and material authors,designers, classroom teachers and classroom teacher candidates will contribute important. Duygu ve düşüncelerin başarılı bir şekilde aktarılmasını sağlayankonuşma ve yazma becerileri, bir takım bilgi ve becerilerin birikiminigerektirmektedir. Bu bilgi ve becerilerin birikiminin temelleri iseilkokullarda atılmaktadır. İfade edici dil becerilerinden yazma becerisibireyin akademik, kültürel ve sosyal hayatında en çok kullandığıbecerilerdendir. Çocuklar, gelişim sürecinde olmakla birlikte, alıcı dilbecerilerinden dinlemeyi ve ifade edici dil becerilerinden konuşmayıokul öncesi dönemde, alıcı dil becerilerinden okuma ve ifade edici dilbecerilerinden yazmayı ise ilkokul döneminde kazanmaktadır. İlkokulbirinci sınıfta başlayan okuma yazma öğretim süreci şifreleme ve şifreyiçözme etkinliklerinden oluşmaktadır. Okunaklılığın kişiden kişiyedeğişmeyen evrensel kriterleri vardır. Bir yazı hangi dilde üretilmişolursa olsun bu kriterlere uyduğu sürece yazı hakkında “okunaklı”hükmü verilebilir. Buradan hareketle bu çalışmada Türkçe ve Bulgarcaokuma yazma öğretim sürecinde ilkokul birinci sınıf çocuklarınınürettiği yazıların okunaklılık kriterlerine incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır.Nitel araştırma modelinin durum çalışması tekniğine göre desenlenenbu araştırmada Türkiye’deki veriler 2012-2013 Öğretim Yılında Edirneilinde ilkokul birinci sınıfa devam eden 15 (9 erkek, 6 kız öğrencinin veBulgaristan’daki veriler ise 2012-2013 Öğretim Yılında başkent Sofya’dabirinci sınıfa devam eden 15 (8 kız, 7 erkek öğrencinin yazıörneklerinden toplanmıştır. Her iki ülkeden alınan yazı örneklerindeharf, hece, kelime, cümle ve metin aşamalarının olmasına dikkatedilmiştir. Okunaklılığın ölçütleri belirlenirken yerli ve yabancı literatürtaranmış ve kriterler buna göre belirlenerek araştırmacı tarafından“uygun”, “geliştirilmeli” ve “yetersiz” şeklinde derecelendirilmiştir.Araştırmada veriler araştırmacıyla birlikte 5 alan uzmanı tarafındananaliz edilmiştir. Veriler araştırmacı tarafından okunaklılık kriterlerinegöre ayrı ayrı analiz edilip puanlayıcılar arasındaki güvenirlik katsayısı.87 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları; nitel verilerinsayısallaştırılmasında kullanılan yüzde ve frekans ile ifade edilmiş veöğrenci yazılarından doğrudan alıntılar yapılarak yorumlanmıştır. Yazıörnekleri; yazının satıra doğrusal olarak yerleştirilmesi, kelimeler arası boşluk, harfler arası boşluk, harfi formatına uygun üretme, bitişiklik ve eğiklik olmak üzere altı ana kategoride incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın bulgularının; yazı ve yazma araştırmacılarına, okuma yazma dokümanlarını hazırlayanlara ve materyal tasarımcılarına, sınıf öğretmenlerine ve sınıf öğretmeni adaylarına önemli katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.

  3. Türkiye’de e-Devlet Sistemine Farklı Bir Bakış: e-Devlet ve Tasarruf İlişkisi / A Different Perspective to e-Government in Turkey: The Relation Between e-Government and Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre AKCAGÜNDÜZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Government (e-government is a new concept in Turkey. Although there is a vast and growing literature on e-government system in Turkey since it was established in 2005 with various examples, there has been relatively less attention to the amount of savings that will be made through this system. Most of the existing studies refer only to newspapers (printed and/or online. This study’s aim is to analyze e-government system in Turkey with specific reference to savings, using data obtained from State Planning Organization (SPO, Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications and from other institutions that use e-government system through Turkish Law on the Right to Information.

  4. Kıl Keçi ve Saanen x Kıl Keçi Melezlerinin (F1, G1, Çiftçi Şartlarında Süt Verim Özellikleri Bakımından Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Tozlu Çelik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma, Amasya ili Sarılar köyü, özel bir işletmede 2011-2012 yılları arasında yetiştirilen Saanen x Kıl keçi melezleri (F1, G1 ve Kıl keçilerinde süt verimi özellikleri üzerine genotip, yıl ve yaş faktörlerinin etkisini ortaya koymak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmada 2011 ve 2012 yıllarında günlük ortalama süt verimi (GOSV, laktasyon süresi (LS ve laktasyon süt verimi (LSV üzerine genotipin etkili olduğu bulunmuştur. 2011 yılında yaşın tüm genotiplerde GOSV ve LSV etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmada 2012 yılında yaşın tüm genotiplerde GOSV ve LS'ne etkisinin olduğu saptanmıştır. F1 genotipinde ve Kıl keçilerde yılın GOSV, LSV ve LS üzerine etkili olduğu bulunmuştur. G1 genotipinde yılın sadece LS üzerine etkisi olduğu saptanmıştır. Sonuç olarak çiftçi şartlarında yetiştirilen Saanen x Kıl keçi F1 ve G1 genotipinin süt verim özelliklerinin Kıl keçilerden daha yüksek olduğu söylenebilir.

  5. Annelerin Ebeveynlik Öz Yeterlik Algıları ile Gelişimi Risk Altında Olan Bebeklerin Gelişimleri Arasındaki İlişkiyi İnceleyen Araştırmalara Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Aksoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, ebeveynlerin (özellikle annelerin öz yeterlik düzeyleri ile çocuklarının erken çocukluk dönemindeki gelişimleri arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen araştırmaları gözden geçirmektir. Bu amaçla betimsel alan yazın taraması yapılmıştır. Ele alınan makalelerdeki bulgular, annelerin sahip olduğu ebeveyn öz yeterlik algısının düzeyi ile çocukların bilişsel, sosyal ve dil gelişimleri arasında ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca ebeveynlik öz yeterlik düzeyleri sosyo-ekonomik durum, sosyal destekler, bekâr anne olma ve annelik yaşı gibi değişkenlerden etkilenmektedir. Annelerin öz yeterlikleriyle çocuğun problem davranışları, annelik depresyonu ve stresi gibi değişkenler arasında da ilişkiler olduğu çalışmalarda rapor edilmiştir. The purpose of this study is to overview studies on relationship between the parental self-efficacy levels (especially mothers’ self-efficacy and development of their young children. For this purpose, a narrative literature review was carried out. Based on the review of the literature, it is observed that there are relationships between the parental self-efficacy and children’s cognitive, social and language development. Moreover, parental self-efficacy level is affected by some variables such as socio-economical condition, social supports, being a single mother and mother’s age. Also, studies pointed out that there is a relationship between selfefficacy levels of mothers and child’s problem behaviors, maternal depression and stress.

  6. Yönetim ve Örgüt Yapısına Kuantum Mekaniği Açısından Bir Bakış = A Review of the structure of Management and Organization from the Perspective of Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem UTKU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporations have been a model of Newtonian organization, thriving on certainty and predictability. They are hierarchical, with power emanating from the top, and control exercised at every level. Heavily bureaucratic and rule-bound, they are necessarily inflexible and are managed as though the part organizes the whole. This article argues that we are moving away from a Newtonian to a complexity-based system and the insights of modern quantum physics can illuminate our understanding of everyday life-our relationships to ourselves, to others, and to the world. This article offers a new conceptual structure for a fundamental transformation of corporation.

  7. Köyyollarının Takibi, Bakım Ve Onarımı İçin Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemi (CBS Esaslı Yönetim Modeli: Denizli Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetiş Şazi Murat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri (CBS özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde her alanda sıklıkla kullanılan bir araç haline gelmişken Türkiye' de, merkezi ve yerel yönetimlerce benimsenmiş olmakla birlikte kamu hizmetlerinde kullanımı ise henüz emekleme aşamasındadır. Denizli İl Özel İdaresi Yol ve Ulaşım Hizmetleri Müdürlüğü bünyesinde il sınırları içindeki sorumluluk ve hizmet alanında bulunan köyyolları envanterinin güncellenmesi, farklı analiz sonuçları üzerinden Müdürlüğün kırsal altyapı hizmetlerine modern ve teknik yöntemlerle yön verilmesi amaçlı CBS destekli bir çalışma ortaya konulmuştur. Strateji Geliştirme Müdürlüğü ile birlikte yürütülen bu çalışmada farklı amaçlar için geliştirilmiş olan katmanlar, topoğrafik haritalar, uydu fotoğrafları vb. araçlardan istifade edilerek köyyolları ile ilgili yürütülen hizmetin doğru ve güncel verilere dayalı olmasına çalışılmıştır. Kamu kaynaklarının etkin kullanılmasını sağlayabilecek hassas ve hızlı analiz sonuçlarına göre köyyolları ulaşımının yeniden planlanması, eksik ve hatalı durumların tespiti ile tam ve bütünleşik bir yönetim sistemi kurulması amaçlı pilot bir proje ortaya konulmaya ve ürün olarak kullanılması yoluna gidilmiştir.

  8. The Analysis of the Learning Strategies Utilized By Students in Music Class in Terms of Some Psychosocial Variables (Öğrencilerin Kullandığı Müziği Öğrenme Stratejilerinin Bazı Psikososyal Değişkenler Bakımından Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep SEVER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to bring up learning strategies in music used by 4th, 5th and 6th graders in primary schools in terms of some psychosocial variables. This study is important as it lights the way for the future of our education system and specially strategy teaching in music. The problems and their possible solutions faced during learning of the music were represented. The Sample of this study was composed of totally 200, 4th, 5th and 6th graders in two different primary schools from İzmir-Bornova. The method of the study was Survey model. The opinions of the students regarding their strategies of learning music were gathered by the triple Likert type scale called “Scale for Strategies of Learning Music” which was developed by Kocabaş (1998b. The data analysis was computed under SSPS 15.0 program by using T-test and one way variance. The reliability of the scale of this study was 0,83. As a result of this study, it was observed that gender; school types, the existence of musical education outsources, a person in the family having musical background or playing a musical instrument were effective on the opinions about the strategies followed and used by students during learning music.

  9. Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Excimer Laser Keratorefractive Surgery in U.S. Army Soldiers using the latest Battlefield Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Kossendrup D, Wiederholt M, Hoffmann F. Influence of cyclosporin A, dexamethasone, and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal epithelial wound healing...1032–1037. 3. Kossendrup D, Wiederholt M, Hoffmann F. Influence of cyclosporin A, dexamethasone, and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal...efficacy of WFG LASIK and WFG PRK by assessing improvement of uncorrected visual acuity, achievement of intended refractive correction, and reduction of

  10. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis preferentially via a Bim-mediated intrinsic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guiqi; Zhao, ChuBiao; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Hongyu; Quan, Yingyao; Chai, Liuying; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-08-01

    This report is designed to dissect the detail molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DHA induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and externalization of phosphatidylserine indicative of apoptosis induction. Compared with the modest inhibitory effects of silencing Bax, silencing Bak largely prevented DHA-induced ΔΨm collapse and apoptosis though DHA induced a commensurable activation of Bax and Bak, demonstrating a key role of the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. DHA did not induce Bid cleavage and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria and had little effects on the expressions of Puma and Noxa, but did increase Bim and Bak expressions and decrease Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of DHA was remarkably reduced by silencing Bim, and modestly but significantly reduced by silencing Puma or Noxa. Silencing Bim or Noxa preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bak activation, while silencing Puma preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bax activation, demonstrating that Bim and to a lesser extent Noxa act as upstream mediators to trigger the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In addition, silencing Mcl-1 enhanced DHA-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a crucial role of Bim in preferentially regulating the Bak/Mcl-1 rheostat to mediate DHA-induced apoptosis in HCC cells.

  11. New insights into the effects of biomaterial chemistry and topography on the morphology of kidney epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, Frits; Schophuizen, Carolien; Mihajlovic, Milos; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; de Boer, Jan; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of renal pathology in the western world calls for innovative research for the development of cell-based therapies such as a bioartificial kidney (BAK) device. To fulfil the multitude of kidney functions, the core component of the BAK is a living membrane consisting of a tight

  12. Towards an indigenous African bioethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bioethics. His brutal, humiliating treatment by the police was part of ... initial reluctance of the Medical and Dental Council and the Medical ... of hospitals to provide patients with medication, the failure of poorly .... is at the heart of our culture.

  13. CSC9000T A Toll Bell to "Sweat Shops"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yuan

    2007-01-01

    @@ CRS:A New Requirement for All "We cannot simply consider doing business is making more money, that's a humiliation to human being." So said Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank and who received Nobel Peace Prize 2006.

  14. The profile analysis of attempted-suicide patients referred to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profile analysis of attempted-suicide patients referred to Pelonomi ... The main precipitating factors included problematic relationships (55.4%), ... physical – 18.2%), low self-esteem/ worthlessness/hopelessness/humiliation (16.7%), and

  15. Anwar Sadat and the 1973 October War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson, Mel; Bouchard, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... The outcome of the "Six-Day War" of 1967 created an overwhelming feeling of hostility toward Israel by the Arab nations, particularly by the people of Egypt, who felt humiliated and dishonored...

  16. Anwar Sadat's National Security Strategy in the October War: From Vision to Victory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Drew A; Arnold, Michael W

    2000-01-01

    ...: recapturing Egyptian honor in the wake of the humiliating defeat to the Israelis in the 1967 Six-Day War, regaining Egyptian territory in the Sinai and Gaza lost in the Six-Day War, and proving...

  17. Uued plaadid / Marko Tiidelepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiidelepp, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Mr. Lawrence "19/90-99", Indigolapsed "Voorimehe viis" ja "Ei tea kumb?", Lament "Lament", Tokio Hotel "Zimmer 483 - Live In Europe", OneRepublic "Dreaming Out Loud", "Jim Arrow & The Anachrones", Nice Try", Shower "Brain Piracy" ja "Humiliator"

  18. Developing a Prison Education Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskew, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This chapter calls for educators to specifically engage the needs of African-American men, who often comprise the largest demographic in prison, in what the author calls the Humiliation-to-Humility Perspective.

  19. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The crude extracts of the aerial parts of Jurinea humilis were obtained by ... and aluminum chloride procedures were used to quantify the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ..... potential, DNA protection, and HPLC-DAD analysis of.

  20. Anwar El Sadat and the Art of the Possible: A Look at the Yom Kippur War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spofford, Cosmas R; Henderson, Warren L

    2001-01-01

    .... In the 1967 War, the Israelis successfully executed a preemptive attack that defeated the Egyptian army and seized large parts of the Sinai and the Suez Canal, greatly humiliating the Egyptians...

  1. PRIMERJAVA SUHIH TRAVIŠČ IZ DVEH RAZLIČNIH GEOLOŠKIH PODLAG GLEDE NA C-S-R EKOLOŠKE STRATEGIJE RASTLIN

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Klavdija

    2009-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi smo opravili floristično in funkcionalno primerjavo dveh tipov suhih travišč v hribovitem celinskem predelu Slovenije (asociacija Scabioso hladnikianae-Caricetum humilis, razred Festuco-Brometea in asociacija Homogyno alpinae-Nardetum, razred Calluno-Ulicetea), ki sta razvita na različni geološki podlagi (karbonatna oz. nekarbonatna silikatna). Analizirali smo 30 še neobjavljenih popisov asociacije Scabioso hladnikianae-Caricetum humilis in 32 objavljenih popisov asociaci...

  2. Sadistic Sexual Assault Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alghffar EA; Said AA

    2017-01-01

    Sexual sadism disorder is the condition of experiencing sexual arousal in response to the extreme pain, suffering or humiliation of others [1]. Several other terms have been used to describe the condition, and the condition may overlap with other conditions that involve inflicting pain. It is distinct from situations in which consenting individuals use mild or simulated pain or humiliation for sexual excitement [4]. Sexual sadism disorder has been found to be potentially dangerous if paired w...

  3. Residual oxygen time model for oxygen partial pressure near 130 kPa (1.3 atm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    A two-part residual oxygen time model predicts the probability of detectible pulmonary oxygen toxicity P(P[O2tox]) after dives with oxygen partial pressure (PO2) approximately 130 kPa, and provides a tool to plan dive series with selected risk of P[O2tox]. Data suggest that pulmonary oxygen injury at this PO2 is additive between dives. Recovery begins after a delay and continues during any following dive. A logistic relation expresses P(P[O2tox]) as a function of dive duration (T(dur)) [hours]: P(P[O2tox]) = 100/[1+exp (3.586-0.49 x T(dur))] This expression maps T(dur) to P(P[O2tox]) or, in the linear mid-portion of the curve, P(P[O2tox]) usefully to T(dur). For multiple dives or during recovery, it maps to an equivalent dive duration, T(eq). T(eq) was found after second dives of duration T(dur 2). Residual time from the first dive t(r) = T(eq) - T(dur2). With known t(r), t and T(dur) a recovery model was fitted. t(r) = T(dur) x exp [-k x((t-5)/T(dur)2], where t = t - 5 hours, k = 0.149 for resting, and 0.047 for exercising divers, and t represents time after surfacing. The fits were assessed for 1,352 man-dives. Standard deviations of the residuals were 8.5% and 18.3% probability for resting or exercise dives, respectively.

  4. Contribution à l'inventaire et à la domestication des espèces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2014 ... de nombreuses espèces végétales ont disparu ou se sont raréfiées, essentiellement ..... Tableau 4 : Durée de séjour en pépinière des essences en fonction du matériel végétal utilisé. Durée de séjour. Durée courte (3-6 ... conscience sur l'importance socioéconomique de ces produits et les désagréments ...

  5. Corneal neurotoxicity due to topical benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-04-06

    The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous tear production.

  6. Effects of glaucoma medications and preservatives on cultured human trabecular meshwork and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, David A; Kahook, Malik Y

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the potential cytotoxicity of various topical ophthalmic glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (NPCE) cell lines. We tested 0.004% travoprost preserved with either 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), sofZia or 0.001% Polyquad (PQ); and 0.005% latanoprost preserved with 0.020% BAK. We also tested a range of BAK concentrations in balanced salt solution (BSS). TM cells were treated for 10 min at 37°C with solutions diluted 1:10 to mimic the reduced penetration of topical preparations to the anterior chamber. Viability was determined by the uptake of the fluorescent vital dye calcein-AM (n = 6). BAK solutions (diluted 1:10) demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability in both cell types (TM and NPCE). With a 1:10 dilution of 0.020% BAK, there were significantly more living NPCE cells (89 ± 6%) than TM cells (57 ± 6%; p < 0.001). In TM cells, travoprost + BAK had statistically fewer live cells (83 ± 5%) than both travoprost + sofZia (97 ± 5%) and travoprost + PQ (97 ± 6%; p < 0.05). Compared with BSS-treated NPCE cells, travoprost had statistically fewer live cells (p < 0.05) when preserved with BAK (85 ± 16%), sofZia (91 ± 6%) or PQ (94 ± 2%). These results demonstrate that substitution of BAK from topical ophthalmic drugs results in greater viability of cultured TM cells, the cells involved in the conventional outflow pathway. Cultured NPCE, responsible for aqueous inflow, appear more resilient to BAK.

  7. Bicarbonate kinetics in Indian males

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    ized kinetics of bicarbonate using a three-compartment model, to assess which compartmental fluxes changed dur- .... total VCO2 was < 3 % and the average respiratory quotient ..... a part of the nonrespiratory losses of 13CO2 occur to this.

  8. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    CHILDREN'S EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ACCRA,. GHANA ... Given equal family income and other back- ground opportunities, children ... between housing environment experienced dur- ing childhood and .... pils by evaluating parent and student responses. ..... mental health and behaviour: Structural equation ...

  9. Mineralogy and chemistry of manganese nodules from the Southern part of Carlsberg Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    of todorokite. Scanning electron micrographs indicate that they are made up of small and large botryoids; and occasional platelets of todorokite, within cavities formed dur to post depositional recrystallization. X-ray diffraction patterns do not show any peaks...

  10. Volpe Center Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA) : FY 2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Technology transfer activities performed by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center during fiscal year 2013 in fulfillment of statutory Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA) responsibilities are summarized in this report. Dur...

  11. Best practices of using shotcrete for wall fascia and slope stabilization (phase 1 study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Shotcrete has become attractive and holds potential to replace cast-in-place (CIP) concrete for elements like retaining walls and slope stabilization. However, this practice is still limited due to concerns of drying shrinkage cracking, long-term dur...

  12. 42 CFR 456.702 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System..., experienced by a patient, due to a course of drug therapy. Appropriate and medically necessary means drug...

  13. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  14. Comparing the Medicaid Retrospective Drug Utilization Review Program Cost-Savings Methods Used by State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I

    2017-12-01

    The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires each state to measure prescription drug cost-savings generated from its DUR programs on an annual basis, but it provides no guidance or unified methodology for doing so. To describe and synthesize the methodologies used by states to measure cost-savings using their Medicaid retrospective DUR program in federal fiscal years 2014 and 2015. For each state, the cost-savings methodologies included in the Medicaid DUR 2014 and 2015 reports were downloaded from Medicaid's website. The reports were then reviewed and synthesized. Methods described by the states were classified according to research designs often described in evaluation textbooks. In 2014, the most often used prescription drugs cost-savings estimation methodology for the Medicaid retrospective DUR program was a simple pre-post intervention method, without a comparison group (ie, 12 states). In 2015, the most common methodology used was a pre-post intervention method, with a comparison group (ie, 14 states). Comparisons of savings attributed to the program among states are still unreliable, because of a lack of a common methodology available for measuring cost-savings. There is great variation among states in the methods used to measure prescription drug utilization cost-savings. This analysis suggests that there is still room for improvement in terms of

  15. Lunchkonsert:orgelfestival

    OpenAIRE

    Segurado, Joao

    2012-01-01

    12.30 Lunchkonsert. Musikhogskolan, orgelsalen.Sverker Jullander, orgel.Svenskt 1900-talStig Gustav Schonberg - Toccata concertante I (1954)f. 1933Hilding Rosenberg Preludio e fuga (1948)1892 -1985Erland von Koch Kontraster (1973)1910- 2009 - Ritmo - Misterioso - GiubiolosoEmil Sjögren Ur "Legender" (tr. 1907)1853-1918 - Legend B-dur - Legend c-moll - Legend D-durOtto Olsson Preludium och fuga diss-moll, op. 56 (1935)1879-1964

  16. Probiotic Properties of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tempoyak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilaf Suliman Khalil

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tempoyak is a functional Malaysian food (an acid-fermented condiment which is produced from the pulp of the durian (Durio zibethinus fruit. The current study aimed to isolate and identify potential exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing Lactobacillus strains from tempoyak for potential use as probiotics. Seven isolates (DUR2, DUR4, DUR5, DUR8, DUR12, DUR18, and DUR20 out of 44 were able to produce EPS, and exhibited resistance to acid and bile salt compared to the reference strains Lactobacillus rhmnosus (ATCC53103 and L. plantarum (ATCC8014. The seven isolated strains belonged to five different species—L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. crispatus, L. reuteri, and L. pentosus—which were identified using API 50 CHL and 16S rRNA gene sequences (Polymerase chain reaction, PCR – based. The seven strains displayed different ability to produce EPS (100–850 mg/L. Isolates exhibited a high survivability to acid (pH 3.0, bile salts (0.3%, and gastrointestinal tract model (<70%. Results showed that the auto-aggregation and cell surface hydrophobicity ranged from 39.98% to 60.09% and 50.80% to 80.53%, respectively, whereas, the highest co-aggregation value (66.44% was observed by L. fermentum (DUR8 with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolates showed good inhibitory activity against tested pathogens, high antioxidant activity (32.29% to 73.36%, and good ability to reduce cholesterol (22.55% to 75.15%. Thus, the seven tested strains have value as probiotics.

  17. Improving Military Integration in Coalitions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of California, Santa Cruz , April 3, 2009), http://history.ucsc.edu/undergraduate/undergraduate-research/electronic- journal/journal-pdfs/Edwards2009...44 José Manuel Durão Barroso, François Hollande, and Dioncounda Traoré, “International Donors...media/Brief_28.pdf. Barroso, José Manuel Durão, François Hollande, and Dioncounda Traoré. “International Donors Conference Joint Chairs’ Conclusions

  18. Impact of doctors' resistance on success of drug utilization review system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Soo; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Dongsoo; Park, Seung Woo

    2014-04-01

    The drug utilization review (DUR) system, which checks any conflict event of medications, contributes to improve patient safety. One of the important barriers in its adoption is doctors' resistance. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of doctors' resistance on the success of the DUR system. This study adopted an augmented the DeLone and McLean Information System (D&M IS) Success Model (2003), which used doctors' resistance as a socio-technological measure. This study framework is the same as that of the D&M IS Success Model in that it is based on qualities, such as system, information, and services. The major difference is that this study excluded the variable 'use' because it was not statistically significant for mandatory systems. A survey of doctors who used computers to enter prescriptions was conducted at a Korean tertiary hospital in February 2012. This study is very meaningful in that it is the first study to explore the success factors of the DUR system associated with doctors' resistance. Doctors' resistance to the DUR system was not statistically associated with user usefulness, whereas it affected user satisfaction. The results indicate that doctors still complain of discomfort in using the DUR system in the outpatient clinical setting, even though they admit that it contributes to patient safety. To mitigate doctors' resistance and raise user satisfaction, more opinions from doctors regarding the DUR system have to be considered and have to be reflected in the system.

  19. Daling transvetzuren, maar niet in alle grootverbruikproducten: vetzuursamenstelling van spijsvetten, koek en snacks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Kosmeijer-Schuil, J.G.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Deze vetzuren hebben een ongunstige invloed op het lipoproteineprofiel in het bloed. In een tabel is de vetzuursamenstelling van geselecteerde koek en snacks weergegeven. Tegenwoordig bevatten de margarines, bak- en braadvetten aanzienlijk minder verzadigd vet

  20. Reference: 754 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in root hair growth. 2 624-35 18408046 2008 Jun Plant physiology Bak Gwangbae|Cho Hyung-Taeg|Choi Yunjung|Chuang Wen-I|Lee Youngsook|Lee Yuree

  1. Large Time Asymptotics for a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Degenerate Size-Dependent Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Desvillettes, Laurent; Fellner, Klemens

    2010-01-01

    We study a continuous coagulation-fragmentation model with constant kernels for reacting polymers (see [M. Aizenman and T. Bak, Comm. Math. Phys., 65 (1979), pp. 203-230]). The polymers are set to diffuse within a smooth bounded one

  2. Foliar epidermal characters of some Sterculiaceae species in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AWORINDE D.O

    curve and slightly curved. All the species except Cola nitida (Vent) Schott, Malachanta alnifolia (Bak) Pierre, Mansonia altissima (A.Chev) R.Capuron, Theobroma cacao Linn and Waltheria indica Linn are amphistomatic. Stomata types included ...

  3. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunth) Bak used in The Traditional Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Urinary Infections · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EH Mshelia, LT Zaria, AH ...

  4. Aydın’da Faaliyet Gösteren KOBİ’lerin Bilgi Teknolojileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi Bakış Açısı ile Verimlilik Araştırması(Productivity Investigation of Small and Medium Size Organizations’ (SME’s in Aydın Province with Information Technology and Human Resources Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Hamit TURAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SME are made up an important part of a developed or developing country’s economy, at the same time, they create most of the employment opportunities. On the other hand, productivity is very important for organizations’ survival and success. In this study, the factors that have influence on organizational productivity have been tested empirically. A survey instrument with field study has been carried out in Aydın province. Various dependent and independent factors especially Information Technology and Human Resources variables that could influence productivity of an SME were tested with regression analysis and the result reported and interpreted.

  5. Islah Çalışmalarından İlgasına Medreselere İslamcı Bir Bakış; Sebilürreşad’da Tevhid-i Tedrisad Kanunu ve Uygulamaları An Islamist View, From The Reforms To The Abolishment Of Medresahs: The Law Of Unification Of Education And Its Practices In Sebilürreşad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin ÖZDEMİR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Medresah where lessons were given, was the most importanteducational institution of Islamic World. These institutions had an important role for the Islamic civilisation to reach its peak point. Withthe begining of 19th century Medresah began to be regarded as thecause of recession of Islamic World against the Western Civilization andit started to be questioned. The Medresah instutions lost its popularitywith the establishment of western style educational institutions in theOttoman State after the declaration of Tanzimat. Various solutionproposals were put forth within the framework of developing movementsof thoughts in the late Ottoman Life. Against the westernized andsecularist intellectuals’ wing which was claiming that the Medresah haslost its function, Islamic intellectuals were in the opinion of makingreforms on the Medresah in order to carry it out to the standards of themodern education. Medresah institutions has also been effected by theby the deep progressive movements which mainly evolved around theidea of westernization at the Republican Turkey. Medresah institutionswere shut down by the legislation of “Tevhid-i Tedrisat” (unification ofeducation which is announced at 11th March of 1924 by Vasıf Bey whowas the minister of education at the time. Islamist circles haveconcerned and been led to backlash developments after the closure ofMedresahs. Some of these developments were portion of the lecturersremain unemployed with the closure of Medresahs, worries about theimproper use of the property of Medresah by renting or sailing and alsoconcerning about the programs of the Vocational Religious HighSchools and Faculties of Theology founded immediately after closingMedresahs could not meet the expectations and therefore inert at thereligious education. In this study, we are going to examine theopposition of the Islamic circles and the negative improvements thatappeared by abolishment of Medresahs in the example of the“Sebilürreşad” magazine. Ders verilen yer anlamına gelen medrese, İslam dünyasının en önemlieğitim-öğretim kurumlarından birisidir. Orta Çağ’da İslammedeniyetinin zirveye ulaşmasında büyük pay sahibi olan bu kurumlar,19. yüzyıldan itibaren İslam dünyasının, Batı karşısında gerilemesininsebebi olarak görülür ve tartışılmaya başlanır. Tanzimat’tan itibarenaçılan Batı tarzı eğitim kurumları karşısında sürekli güç kaybedenmedreselerin ıslahına yönelik, Osmanlı’nın son döneminde gelişendüşünce hareketleri çerçevesinde, farklı çözüm önerileri ortaya konulur.Medreselerin işlevini kaybettiklerini, dolayısıyla kapatılması gerektiğinidüşünen Batıcı aydınların sekülarist kanadına karşın, İslamcı aydınlarüzerinde yapılacak ıslah girişimleriyle bu kurumların çağın şartlarınauygun hale getirilebileceğini belirtirler. Cumhuriyet Türkiye’sinde Batıcıfikirler ekseninde gerçekleştirilen köklü yenilik hareketlerindenmedreseler de etkilenir. Bu kurumlar, Maarif Vekili Vasıf Bey’in Tevhid-iTedrisat Kanunu’na istinaden 11 Mart 1924’te yayınladığı bir genelgeylekapatılır. Medreseler kapatıldıktan sonraki gelişmeler, İslamcıçevrelerde endişe yaratır ve tepkiye yol açar. Bu gelişmelerin bazılarışunlardır; Lağvedilen medreselerde çalışan müderrislerin bir kısmınınişsiz kalması, medrese vakıflarının satılma ya da kiralama yoluylauygunsuz amaçlar için kullanılacağı endişesi, medreselerin yerinekurulan İmam-Hatip Mektepleri ve İlahiyat Fakültelerininmüfredatlarının beklentileri karşılayamaması dolayısıyla din eğitimininakim kalacağı düşüncesidir. Yapmış olduğumuz bu çalışma ilemedreselerin kaldırılması ve bundan mütevellid olumsuz gelişmelere,İslamcı akımın muhalefetini, Sebilürreşad dergisi örneğindeinceleyeceğiz.

  6. Reducing cyberbullying: A theory of reasoned action-based video prevention program for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Ashley N; Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Humilhação: o desrespeito no rebaixamento moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Moulin de Alencar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of the present work is to approach the theme of humiliation, defined as moral degradation. It is about the intention of making someone feel inferior, of diminishing someone. It is therefore, a theme of moral interest. We divided this article into three big sections. On the first one, we shall mention some examples of humiliation and we shall emphasize the importance of studying this theme. On the second one, we shall deal with some theoretical concepts related to the pertaining theme, that is: the notion of respect, kinds of humiliation as to their form and content and, finally, the relationship of the concept of humiliation with that of shame and honor. On the third section, our objective was to present a review on the literature of researches made in Brazil related to the theme in question. Finally, the sequence which finalizes this work, deals with some characteristics which can be analyzed on studies about humiliation. In a preliminary but instigating way we make evident the need for new researches.

  8. In vitro and in vivo experimental studies on trabecular meshwork degeneration induced by benzalkonium chloride (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Christophe; Denoyer, Alexandre; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Grise, Alice

    2012-12-01

    Long-term antiglaucomatous drug administration may cause irritation, dry eye, allergy, subconjunctival fibrosis, or increased risk of glaucoma surgery failure, potentially due to the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK), whose toxic, proinflammatory, and detergent effects have extensively been shown experimentally. We hypothesize that BAK also influences trabecular meshwork (TM) degeneration. Trabecular specimens were examined using immunohistology and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A trabecular cell line was stimulated by BAK and examined for apoptosis, oxidative stress, fractalkine and SDF-1 expression, and modulation of their receptors. An experimental model was developed with BAK subconjunctival injections to induce TM degeneration. Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging assessed BAK penetration after repeated instillations in rabbit eyes. Trabecular specimens showed extremely low densities of trabecular cells and presence of cells expressing fractalkine and fractalkine receptor and their respective mRNAs. Benzalkonium in vitro induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and fractalkine expression and inhibited the protective chemokine SDF-1 and Bcl2, also inducing a sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) increase, with dramatic apoptosis of trabecular cells and reduction of aqueous outflow. MS imaging showed that BAK could access the TM at measurable levels after repeated instillations. BAK enhances all characteristics of TM degeneration typical of glaucoma-trabecular apoptosis, oxidative stress, induction of inflammatory chemokines-and causes degeneration in acute experimental conditions, potentially mimicking long-term accumulation. BAK was also shown to access the TM after repeated instillations. These findings support the hypothesis that antiglaucoma medications, through toxicity of their preservative, may cause further long-term trabecular degeneration and therefore enhance outflow resistance, reducing the impact of IOP-lowering agents.

  9. Reduced in vivo ocular surface toxicity with polyquad-preserved travoprost versus benzalkonium-preserved travoprost or latanoprost ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Riancho, Luisa; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study used a validated acute in vivo model to compare a new formulation of travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution(travoprost PQ), preserved with polyquaternium-1 (PQ), with commercially available formulations of benzalkonium-chloride(BAK)-preserved travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution(travoprost BAK) and BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005%ophthalmic solution (latanoprost BAK). Adult male New Zealand albino rabbits (n = 36) were randomly divided into 6 groups. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 0.001% PQ, 0.015% BAK, travoprost PQ, travoprost BAK or latanoprost BAK were applied onto rabbit eyes as 1 drop, for 15 times at 5-min intervals.The ocular surface reactions were investigated at hour 4 and day 1 using slitlamp examination; in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) for cornea, limbus and conjunctiva/conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue, conjunctival impression cytology and standard immunohistology in cryosections for detecting CD45+ infiltrating cells and MUC-5AC-labeled cells. PBS, PQ and travoprost PQ did not induce obvious irritation by clinical observation, changes in microstructures of the whole ocular surface as measured by IVCM analysis,inflammatory infiltration or cell damage as measured by impression cytology, altered levels of goblet cell counts or numerous CD45+ cells in the cornea. In contrast, all BAK-containing products induced diffuse conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis, abnormal changes in the ocular surface microstructure,significant total ocular surface toxicity scores,damaged epithelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased goblet cell density. Travoprost PQ did not elicitocular surface toxicity when administered to rabbit eyes.These results suggest a greater safety advantage for the ocular surface of patients receiving chronic glaucoma treatment with PQ-preserved drugs.

  10. Prognostic role of sensitive-to-apoptosis gene expression in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozden, Sevgi A; Ozyurt, Hazan; Ozgen, Zerrin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between prognosis of rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and expression of sensitive-to-apoptosis (SAG), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-X(L)) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak).......To investigate the association between prognosis of rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and expression of sensitive-to-apoptosis (SAG), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-X(L)) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak)....

  11. General Characteristics of Flora and Vegetation Formations of Eastern Anatolia Region and Its Environs (Türkiye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münir ÖZTÜRK

    2015-07-01

    evresinin Flora ve Vejetasyon Formasyonlarının Genel Özellikleri ÖZET: Doğu Anadolu bölgesi ve çevresi Türkiye'nin İran-Turan bölgesinde yer alır. Ülkenin yüksek dağlık bölge silsilesinde (ortalama 1900 m yer alan bölge Quaterner yaşlı ve volkanik karakterlidir. Fırat, Dicle, Karasu, Aras ve Çoruh gibi tarihi ve uluslararsı öneme haiz çoğu ırmak bölge boyunca akar. Bölge tipik kontinental iklim özelliği taşır. Toprakları genellikle allüviyal, kolluviyal, kestane-kahverengi, regosol ve bazalttır. Alan, 8 milyon ha'ın üzerinde çayır ve otlaklara sahiptir. Bu alan Türkiye toplam çayır ve otlaklarının yaklaşık % 41'ini teşkil eder. Sığır üretimi bölgede giderek yükseliyor. Orman vejetasyonu esas itibariyle Pinus sylvestris, Quercus libani, Q. longipes, Q. brantii, Q. macranthera, Juniperus excelsa ve Betula pendula'dır. Ormanlık alanların çoğu tahrip edilmiştir. Bitki örtüsü İran-Turan elementleri bakımından çok zengindir. Fakat biz Akdeniz ve Avrupa-Sibirya elementleri açısından da bir dereceye kadar zengin bulduk. Bölgedeki takson sayısı bakımından en zengin familyalar; Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Caryophyllaceae ve Apiaceae; en zengin cinsler ise Astragalus, Verbascum, Centaurea, Ranunculus, Alyssum, Vicia, Silene, Dianthus, Veronica ve Trifolium'dur. Endemiklerin sayısı çok yüksektir, yaklaşık 950. Aynı zamanda bölge Astragalus, Gypsophila, Cousinia and Acanthophyllum gibi cinslerin gen merkezidir. Bölgenin vejetasyonunda hakim tipik bazı birlikler; Triseto-Pinetum sylvestris, Trifolio-Pinetum sylvestris, Ballato-Rhamnetum pallasii, Caragano-Minuartietum lineatea, Hippophaetum rhamnoidis, Typho-Juncetum inflecii, Hordeetum violaceumii, Deschampsio-Ranunculetum brachylobus, Hordeeto - Ranunculetum comosae and Polygon-Primuletum auriculatae vs.dir. Hakim vejetasyonu steptir. Yerli halkın kullandığı çok sayıda doğal bitki türü vardır. Anahtar kelimeler: Doğu Anadolu, Flora

  12. Hayata ve Vücut Dokunulmazlığına Karşı İşlenen Suçlarda Kadın Suçluluğu ve Dindarlık İlişkisi / Female Criminality and Religiosity in the Homicide and Assault Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kenevir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract        This study consists of the results of the research conducted with convicted female prisoners who committed crimes against the immunity and body immunity in Ankara (Sincan, İzmir (Şakran and İstanbul (Bakırköy women's closed prisons. The scope of the research includes women convicted of crimes against life and body immunity, who are more religious than prisoners convicted of theft, drugs etc. In this respect, the factors that lead to the criminality of women, who were convicted of murder or attempt murder, convicted of wounding offenses and who defined themselves as religious, are determined. Another aim is to demonstrate the crime and victim relationship, how convicts explain criminal actions to themselves and their surroundings and how they justify themselves. Questionnaires and semi-structured interview techniques were used as a method. In this direction, the findings obtained from the results of the questionnaire conducted with 151 women convicts were evaluated by descriptive statistical method and the results of semi-structured interviews with 8 women were included in the results. These types of explanations, included in neutralization techniques, are: commitment to values, the role of the victim, and rejection of responsibility. In the first place, the victim sees the situation as a matter of honor and explains the guilt involved with their beliefs / beliefs. Secondly, the violence (domestic problems that is experienced is said to be the result, as in the opposite party deserves it. In the third place, the victim rejects the responsibility, indicating that the mental illness or depression is the result of suicide. Öz      Bu çalışma, Ankara (Sincan, İzmir (Şakran ve İstanbul (Bakırköy kadın kapalı ceza infaz kurumlarında bulunan hayata ve vücut dokunulmazlığına karşı suç işlemiş hükümlü kadın mahkûmlarla yapılan araştırma sonuçlarından oluşmaktadır. Araştırmanın kapsam

  13. Comparison of the effects of ophthalmic solutions on human corneal epithelial cells using fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Manlong; Sivak, Jacob G; McCanna, David J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of differently preserved ophthalmic solutions on the viability and barrier function of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) using fluorescent dyes. HCEC monolayers were exposed to the ophthalmic solutions containing benzalkonium chloride (BAK), edetate disodium, polyquad, stabilized oxychloro complex (Purite), sodium perborate, or sorbic acid for 5 min, 15 min, and 1 h. At 24 h after exposure, the cultures were assessed for metabolic activity using alamarBlue. The enzyme activity, membrane integrity, and apoptosis were evaluated using confocal microscopy. Barrier function was assessed using sodium fluorescein. The metabolic assay showed that the BAK-preserved ophthalmic solutions significantly reduced cell viability after a 5-min exposure compared to the phosphate buffered saline treated control (POphthalmic solutions with new preservatives had varying time-dependent adverse effects on cell viability, and the preservative-free solution had the least effect on HCEC. Sodium fluorescein permeability showed that HCEC monolayers treated with BAK-preserved solutions were more permeable to sodium fluorescein than those treated by the other ophthalmic solutions (Psolutions had greater adverse effects on metabolic activity, enzyme activity, membrane integrity, cell viability, and barrier function than the solutions that were not preserved with BAK. Our study suggests that BAK-free especially, preservative-free ophthalmic solutions are safer alternatives to BAK-preserved ones.

  14. Increased extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression in the conjunctival epithelium exposed to antiglaucoma treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Antoine; Gabison, Eric; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Riancho, Luisa; Menashi, Suzanne; Baudouin, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effect of preserved antiglaucoma eye drops on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in conjunctival epithelial cells. A total of 18 patients treated for primary open-angle glaucoma with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) preserved eye drops and eight age-matched controls were included in this study. Glaucoma patients were divided into two groups according to their daily exposure to BAK: high-exposure (HE) group and low-exposure (LE) group. HLA-DR and EMMPRIN were quantified on conjunctival impression cytology specimens using flow cytometry. In parallel, IOBA-NHC conjunctival epithelial cells were exposed to different BAK concentrations, in the presence or absence of cyclosporine A (CsA), and their total and surface expressions of EMMPRIN were assessed by flow cytometry and results are given in relative fluorescence intensities (RFIs). Compared to the control group (1.71 ± 0.39 RFI), EMMPRIN was significantly increased in the HE (4.19 ± 1.50 RFI, p EMMPRIN (R(2) = 0.875, p EMMPRIN, which was proportional to the concentration of BAK. The surface expression of EMMPRIN was inhibited by CsA. The increased expression of EMMPRIN in patients topically treated with multiple antiglaucoma BAK-preserved eye drops suggests a matrix metalloproteinase-related modification of conjunctival ECM remodeling. In vitro results suggest that CsA has the potential to limit BAK effects on EMMPRIN.

  15. The relationship between movement speed and duration during soccer matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Hubert; Heyde, Christian; Röll, Mareike; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the time duration of movement (t(dur)) and related maximum possible power output has been studied and modeled under many conditions. Inspired by the so-called power profiles known for discontinuous endurance sports like cycling, and the critical power concept of Monod and Scherrer, the aim of this study was to evaluate the numerical characteristics of the function between maximum horizontal movement velocity (HSpeed) and t(dur) in soccer. To evaluate this relationship, GPS data from 38 healthy soccer players and 82 game participations (≥30 min active playtime) were used to select maximum HSpeed for 21 distinct t(dur) values (between 0.3 s and 2,700 s) based on moving medians with an incremental t(dur) window-size. As a result, the relationship between HSpeed and Log(t(dur)) appeared reproducibly as a sigmoidal decay function, and could be fitted to a five-parameter equation with upper and lower asymptotes, and an inflection point, power and decrease rate. Thus, the first three parameters described individual characteristics if evaluated using mixed-model analysis. This study shows for the first time the general numerical relationship between t(dur) and HSpeed in soccer games. In contrast to former descriptions that have evaluated speed against power, HSpeed against t(dur) always yields a sigmoidal shape with a new upper asymptote. The evaluated curve fit potentially describes the maximum moving speed of individual players during the game, and allows for concise interpretations of the functional state of team sports athletes. PMID:28742832

  16. Travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5%-fixed combination with and without benzalkonium chloride: a prospective, randomized, doubled-masked comparison of safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Y; Smith, P; Sasaki, N; Kotake, S; Bae, K; Iwamoto, Y

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of travoprost/timolol in a benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-free fixed combination preserved with polyquaternium-1 (TRA/TIM BAK-free), with travoprost/timolol-fixed combination preserved with BAK (TRA/TIM), in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, subjects with IOP of at least 22  mm Hg in one or both eyes at 0900  h, and IOP of at least 21  mm Hg in one or both eyes at 1100  h and 1600  h at two eligibility visits were randomly assigned to receive either TRA/TIM BAK-free (n=195) or TRA/TIM (n=193), dosed once daily in the morning (0900  h) for 6 weeks. IOP was assessed at 0900  h, 1100  h, and 1600  h at each scheduled visit (baseline, 2 and 6 weeks after randomization). Mean IOP reduction across all visits and time points was 8.0  mm Hg in the TRA/TIM BAK-free group and 8.4  mm Hg in the TRA/TIM group (P=0.0943). The difference in mean IOP between groups ranged from 0.2 to 0.7  mm Hg across visits and time points, with a mean pooled difference of 0.4  mm Hg (95% CI: -0.1 to 0.8), demonstrating equivalence of the two formulations. The most common drug-related adverse event was hyperemia of the eye (ocular hyperemia and conjunctival hyperemia combined), occurring in 11.8% of the TRA/TIM BAK-free group and 13.0% of the TRA/TIM group. Travoprost/timolol BAK-free demonstrated equivalence to travoprost/timolol preserved with BAK in efficacy. No clinically relevant differences in the safety profiles of travoprost/timolol BAK-free and travoprost/timolol preserved with BAK were identified.

  17. Agp2, a Member of the Yeast Amino Acid Permease Family, Positively Regulates Polyamine Transport at the Transcriptional Level

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2013-06-03

    Agp2 is a plasma membrane protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transporter family, involved in high-affinity uptake of various substrates including L-carnitine and polyamines. The discovery of two high affinity polyamine permeases, Dur3 and Sam3, prompted us to investigate whether Agp2 directly transports polyamines or acts instead as a regulator. Herein, we show that neither dur3? nor sam3? single mutant is defective in polyamine transport, while the dur3? sam3? double mutant exhibits a sharp decrease in polyamine uptake and an increased resistance to polyamine toxicity similar to the agp2? mutant. Studies of Agp2 localization indicate that in the double mutant dur3? sam3?, Agp2-GFP remains plasma membrane-localized, even though transport of polyamines is strongly reduced. We further demonstrate that Agp2 controls the expression of several transporter genes including DUR3 and SAM3, the carnitine transporter HNM1 and several hexose, nucleoside and vitamin permease genes, in addition to SKY1 encoding a SR kinase that positively regulates low-affinity polyamine uptake. Furthermore, gene expression analysis clearly suggests that Agp2 is a strong positive regulator of additional biological processes. Collectively, our data suggest that Agp2 might respond to environmental cues and thus regulate the expression of several genes including those involved in polyamine transport. © 2013 Aouida et al.

  18. Agp2, a Member of the Yeast Amino Acid Permease Family, Positively Regulates Polyamine Transport at the Transcriptional Level

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha; Texeira, Marta Rubio; Thevelein, Johan M.; Poulin, Richard; Ramotar, Dindial

    2013-01-01

    Agp2 is a plasma membrane protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transporter family, involved in high-affinity uptake of various substrates including L-carnitine and polyamines. The discovery of two high affinity polyamine permeases, Dur3 and Sam3, prompted us to investigate whether Agp2 directly transports polyamines or acts instead as a regulator. Herein, we show that neither dur3? nor sam3? single mutant is defective in polyamine transport, while the dur3? sam3? double mutant exhibits a sharp decrease in polyamine uptake and an increased resistance to polyamine toxicity similar to the agp2? mutant. Studies of Agp2 localization indicate that in the double mutant dur3? sam3?, Agp2-GFP remains plasma membrane-localized, even though transport of polyamines is strongly reduced. We further demonstrate that Agp2 controls the expression of several transporter genes including DUR3 and SAM3, the carnitine transporter HNM1 and several hexose, nucleoside and vitamin permease genes, in addition to SKY1 encoding a SR kinase that positively regulates low-affinity polyamine uptake. Furthermore, gene expression analysis clearly suggests that Agp2 is a strong positive regulator of additional biological processes. Collectively, our data suggest that Agp2 might respond to environmental cues and thus regulate the expression of several genes including those involved in polyamine transport. © 2013 Aouida et al.

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function and Estrogen Signaling in Cell Lines Exposed to the Antiseptic Cetylpyridinium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; He, Guochun; Tomilov, Alexey; Sahdeo, Sunil; Denison, Michael S; Cortopassi, Gino

    2017-08-22

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QUATS), such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK), are frequently used in antiseptic formulations, including toothpastes, mouthwashes, lozenges, throat and nasal sprays, and as biocides. Although in a recent ruling, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned CPC from certain products and requested more data on BAK's efficacy and safety profile, QUATS, in general, and CPC and BAK, in particular, continue to be used in personal health care, food, and pharmaceutical and cleaning industries. We aimed to assess CPC's effects on mitochondrial toxicity and endocrine disruption in vitro . Mitochondrial O 2 consumption and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates of osteosarcoma cybrid cells were measured before and after CPC and BAK treatment. Antiestrogenic effects of the compounds were measured by a luciferase-based assay using recombinant human breast carcinoma cells (VM7Luc4E2, ERalpha-positive). CPC inhibited both mitochondrial O 2 consumption [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ): 3.8μM] and ATP synthesis (IC 50 : 0.9μM), and additional findings supported inhibition of mitochondrial complex 1 as the underlying mechanism for these effects. In addition, CPC showed concentration-dependent antiestrogenic activity half maximal effective concentration [(EC 50 ): 4.5μM)]. BAK, another antimicrobial QUATS that is structurally similar to CPC, and the pesticide rotenone, a known complex 1 inhibitor, also showed mitochondrial inhibitory and antiestrogenic effects. In all three cases, there was overlap of the antiestrogenic activity with the mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Mitochondrial inhibition in vitro occurred at a CPC concentration that may be relevant to human exposures. The antiestrogenic activity of CPC, BAK, rotenone, and triclosan may be related to their mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Our findings support the need for additional research on the mitochondrial inhibitory and

  20. Reduction of cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride and octenidine by Brilliant Blue G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartok, Melinda; Tandon, Rashmi; Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S; Gabel, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The irritative effects of preservatives found in ophthalmologic solution, or of antiseptics used for skin disinfection is a consistent problem for the patients. The reduction of the toxic effects of these compounds is desired. Brilliant Blue G (BBG) has shown to meet the expected effect in presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a well known preservative in ophthalmic solutions, and octenidine dihydrochloride (Oct), used as antiseptic in skin and wound disinfection. BBG shows a significant protective effect on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells against BAK and Oct toxicity, increasing the cell survival up to 51 % at the highest BAK or Oct concentration tested, which is 0.01 %, both at 30 min incubation. Although BBG is described as a P2x7 receptor antagonist, other selective P2x7 receptor antagonists, OxATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde) and DPPH (N'-(3,5-dichloropyridin-4-yl)-3-phenylpropanehydrazide), did not reduce the cytotoxicity of neither BAK nor Oct. Therefore we assume that the protective effect of BBG is not due to its action on the P2x7 receptor. Brilliant Blue R (BBR), a dye similar to BBG, was also tested for protective effect on BAK and Oct toxicity. In presence of BAK no significant protective effect was observed. Instead, with Oct a comparable protective effect was seen with that of BBG. To assure that the bacteriostatic effect is not affected by the combinations of BAK/BBG, Oct/BBG and Oct/BBR, bacterial growth inhibition was analyzed on different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. All combinations of BAK or Oct with BBG hinder growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The combinations of 0.001 % Oct and BBR above 0.025 % do not hinder the growth of B. subtilis. For Gram-negative bacteria, BBG and BBR reduce, but do not abolish, the antimicrobial effect of BAK nor of Oct. In conclusion, the addition of BBG at bacterial inhibitory concentrations is suggested in the ready-to-use ophthalmic preparations and antiseptic solutions.

  1. Hyperosmolarity potentiates toxic effects of benzalkonium chloride on conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouzeau, Chloé; Godefroy, David; Riancho, Luisa; Rostène, William; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), the most commonly used preservative in eye drops, is known to induce ocular irritation symptoms and dry eye in long-term treated patients and animal models. As tear film hyperosmolarity is diagnostic of some types of dry eye disease, we determined in vitro on conjunctival epithelial cells the cytoxicity of BAK in hyperosmolar conditions through cell viability, apoptosis, and oxidative stress assays. The Wong Kilbourne derivative of Chang conjunctival epithelial cells were cultured for 24 h or 48 h either in NaCl-induced hyperosmolar conditions (400-425-500 mOsM), in low concentrations of BAK (10(-4)%, 3.10(-4)%, and 5.10(-4)%), or in combination of both. We investigated cell viability through lysosomal integrity evaluation, cell death (cell membrane permeability and chromatin condensation), and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion) using spectrofluorimetry. Immunohistochemistry was performed for cytoskeleton shrinkage (phalloidin staining), mitochondrial permeability transition pore (cytochrome c release), the apoptosis effector active caspase-3, and the caspase-independent apoptosis factor AIF. We also observed early effects induced by the experimental conditions on the conjunctival cell layers using phase contrast imaging of live cells. As compared to standard culture solutions, hyperosmolar stress potentiated BAK cytotoxicity on conjunctival cells through the induction of oxidative stress; reduction of cell viability; cell membrane permeability increase; cell shrinkage with cell blebbing, as shown in phase contrast imaging of live cells; and chromatin condensation. Like BAK, but to a much lesser extent, hyperosmolarity increased cell death in a concentration-dependent manner through a caspase-dependent apoptosis characterized by a release of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm from mitochondria and the activation of caspase-3. Moreover, the caspase-independent apoptosis factor AIF was found translocated from

  2. Reduction of quaternary ammonium-induced ocular surface toxicity by emulsions: an in vivo study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H; Brignole-Baudouin, F; Rabinovich-Guilatt, L; Mao, Z; Riancho, L; Faure, M O; Warnet, J M; Lambert, G; Baudouin, C

    2008-01-31

    To evaluate and compare the toxicological profiles of two quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), benzalkonium chloride (BAK), and cetalkonium chloride (CKC), in standard solution or cationic emulsion formulations in rabbit eyes using newly developed in vivo and ex vivo experimental approaches. Seventy eyes of 35 adult male New Zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. They were randomly divided into five groups: 50 microl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), PBS containing 0.02% BAK or 0.002% CKC (BAK Sol and CKC Sol, respectively), and emulsion containing 0.02% BAK or 0.002% CKC (BAK Em and CKC Em, respectively) were applied to rabbit eyes 15 times at 5-min intervals. The ocular surface changes induced by these eye drops were investigated using slit-lamp examination, flow cytometry (FCM), impression cytology (IC) on conjunctiva, and corneal in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Standard immunohistology in cryosections was also examined for cluster of differentiation (CD) 45+ infiltrating and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL)+ apoptotic cells. Clinical observations and IVCM showed that the highest toxicity was induced by BAK Sol, characterized by damaged corneal epithelium and a high level of inflammatory infiltration. BAK Em and CKC Sol presented moderate effects, and CKC Em showed the lowest toxicity with results similar to those of PBS. Conjunctival imprints analyzed by FCM showed a higher expression of RLA-DR and TNFR1 markers in BAK Sol-instilled eyes than in all other groups, especially at 4 h. Immunohistology was correlated with in vivo and ex vivo findings and confirmed this toxicity profile. A high level of infiltration of CD45+ inflammatory cells and TUNEL+ apoptotic cells was observed in limbus and conjunctiva, especially in QAC solution-receiving eyes compared to QAC emulsion-instilled eyes. The acute administration of 15 instillations at 5 min intervals was a rapid and efficient model to assess quaternary

  3. Clinical audit examining the impact of benzalkonium chloride-free anti-glaucoma medications on patients with symptoms of ocular surface disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ivan; Graham, Stuart L; Crowston, Jonathan G; d'Mellow, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Ocular surface disease (OSD) is relatively common in glaucoma patients. OSD symptoms could be linked to prolonged exposure to preservatives in anti-glaucoma medications, especially benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The OBSERVE clinical audit was designed to track the impact of intraocular pressure lowering medications in patients with evidence of OSD to test the hypothesis that BAK-free anti-glaucoma preparations offer clinical advantages over BAK-containing products. Prospective clinical audit from March 2012 to April 2013, open to ophthalmologists practising in Australia. There were 375 patients enrolled, with a completion rate of 64%. The cohort was predominantly female (68%) with an average age of 71 years. Patients were screened for inclusion during a routine consultation. If eligible, they were enrolled. At the ophthalmologist's discretion, some patients were switched to BAK-free anti-glaucoma products. Data were collected via an online survey completed by the ophthalmologist during three appointments over a 16- to 30-week period for all patients. Intraocular pressure, tear-film breakup time, McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire score and reported lubricant use. Patients who switched to BAK-free preparations reported a significant fall in the use of lubricants (P = reduction in some OSD symptoms, but more research is needed. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. The Rise of Women's Modern Schooling in Late Qing China (1840-1911)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    The rise of women's modern schooling in late Qing China was deemed to be, by the historical trend of modern China, a progress that coincided with China's modernization and national self-strengthening movement after the humiliating defeat of the Opium War. This article is an examination of this process from 1840 to 1911, which had undergone three…

  5. venadillo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRASAS Y ACEITES

    2012-03-15

    C18:0), oleic (C18:1 cis-. 9), linoleic ... The tree Swietenia humilis Zucc. belongs to the Family ... commonly known as „venadillo‟ in Sinaloa (Northwest of ... Corporation, USA) at 100°C, until a total evaporation of the solvent.

  6. Irregular Warfare Centric Foreign Internal Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    ransacking homes, humiliating automobile occupants during searches and harassment of pedestrians on the streets.87 The Commission of Human Rights ruled...the surface often appears reactive and inconsistent, both Labour and Conservative governments have consistently adhered to a set of basic principles

  7. Suitability of Selected Coral Species for Culture in the Ornamental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eldoret, Kenya; 3Kenya Tropical Sea Life, PO Box 10570-80101 Bamburi, Kenya. Keywords: ..... temperatures to rise above that of the open sea during the NEM ... At the species level, A. humilis exhibited the highest survival ..... in Florida. Proceedings of the 11th. International Coral Reef Symposium,. Ft Lauderdale, Florida ...

  8. Ecological position of 'small barbs' and their potential for fisheries: an option to reduce fishing pressure on 'large barbs' of Lake Tana (Ethiopia)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The two barbs, Barbus humilis and Barbus tanapelagius are important pelagic fish in Lake Tana. These 'small barb' species (<10 cm fork length) play a key role in the Lake's ecosystem as a link between zooplankton and the top predators, mostly 'large barbs'. This paper presents an overview on the

  9. Saving Coalition Lives and Limbs: Disrupting the Improvised Explosive Device Network in Iraq with Center of Gravity Analysis and Social Network Viral Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-21

    63, 73. 64. Evelin Gerda Lindner, ―In Times of In Times of Globalization and Human Rights: Does Humiliation Become the Most Disruptive Force...Force-Protection Issue, General Says.‖ American Forces Press Service, 14 February 2007. Lindner, Evelin Gerda . ―In Times of In Times of

  10. Gender, vulnerability, and violence in urban Pakistan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    50% have poor access to public ... humiliated and lash out at female relations for their “wasteful” practices ... public space is seen as the natural preserve of men. Women's ... researchers carried out with study participants as a case study for a.

  11. Interpersonal Mediators Linking Acculturation Stressors to Subsequent Internalizing Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee

    2009-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…

  12. the watershed case of richard steele

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in South Africa, such as the Society of Friends, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Seventh-day .... Africa needed prophets to call its people back to what he believed were ..... an influence on Steele's ethical formation, which was evolving in the direction of pacifism. .... defeat or humiliate the opponent, but to win his friendship and un-.

  13. The end of Mission Councils: A case study of the Church of Scotland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-26

    Apr 26, 2017 ... as imperialism, spiritual, moral and financial, on the one hand, and by humiliation ... of being 'sensitive to the issues and problems facing its partners, and must ... On 06 November 1973, it was reported to the Business. Committee of ..... Hutton and Cook, King William's Town, in consultation with the General ...

  14. Curriculum as Conversation: Vulnerability, Violence, and Pedagogy in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to respond creatively to humiliation, affliction, degradation, or shame, just as it is difficult to respond creatively to the experience of undergoing or inflicting violence. In this article Aislinn O'Donnell argues that if we are to think about how to address gun violence--including mass shootings- in schools, then we need to talk…

  15. Burial rites for Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Ogoni Nine: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ogoni were not happy with both the multi-national oil company (Shell – SPDC) and the Federal Government of Nigeria of the careless, tormenting and humiliating ways the corpses of these heroes were handled at death and buried at the Port Harcourt cemetery outside Ogoni land. In Ogoni tradition, the type of burial ...

  16. A Case Analysis of the Turkish Football in Regard to the UEFA's 10-Point Action Plan against Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrahoglu, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Football is enjoyable and meaningful together with the fans. However, the hate crimes (racism, discrimination, humiliation, xenophobia and Islamophobia) are social diseases of some fan groups, and threaten public safety and the social life. UEFA has been determined to fight against hate crimes in football by creating a network called FARE, and by…

  17. Duct Tape, Icy Hot & Paddles: Narratives of Initiation onto US Male Sport Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Lynn, Quinten; Krane, Vikki

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, initiation or hazing activities in high school and university sport are increasingly being recognized as a serious issue facing coaches and sport administrators. These events include humiliation, degradation or abuse of new team members, presumed to enhance team bonding. This study is grounded in Waldron and Krane's…

  18. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  19. Monitoring update on four listed plants on the Arizona Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Hughes

    2001-01-01

    Four listed plants on the Arizona Strip are being monitored for various population characteristics. Pediocactus sileri Engelm. L. Benson and P. bradyi L. Benson have been monitored since 1985-86, Asclepias welshii N & P Holmgren since 1989, and Cycladenia humilis Benth. var. jonesii Welsh & Atwood since 1993. The two pediocactus species were monitored in plots...

  20. Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type…

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 71 of 71 ... Vol 3, No 1 (1999), What Women do in Wartime: gender and conflict in Africa, Details. Jennifer Chiriga. Vol 3, No 1 (1999), Whose Honour, Whose Humiliation: Women, Men and the Economic Crisis in South Korea, Details. Soung-ai Choi. Vol 4, No 2 (2000), Women in Politics and Decision Making in ...

  2. Arabinose-rich polymers as an evolutionary strategy to plasticize resurrection plant cell walls against desiccation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, John P.; Nguema-Ona, Eric E.; Vicré-Gibouin, Mäite

    2013-01-01

    A variety of Southern African resurrection plants were surveyed using high-throughput cell wall profiling tools. Species evaluated were the dicotyledons, Myrothamnus flabellifolia and Craterostigma plantagineum; the monocotyledons, Xerophyta viscosa, Xerophyta schlecterii, Xerophyta humilis and t......-arabinans, arabinogalactan proteins and arabinoxylans) as the major contributors in ensuring flexibility is maintained and rehydration is facilitated in these plants....

  3. When a New Page In History Was Turned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    CHINA, a once-mysterious oriental land, has nowbecome part of the international family of nations. Yetfew people realize what humiliation China once sufferedor what a suffocating life the ordinary Chinese once lived.Even those who experienced that part of history seemreluctant to recall the painful period.

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... of the age and the coming of the Son of Man (24:21, 29). As Matthew sees it, ..... narrative moves far beyond humiliation and insult. Torture ...... not only break the vicious cycle of action and reaction, but that—in the honor or.

  5. Contribution à l'étude écologique de la malacofaune de la zone Sud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La 1ère station comporte les espèces végétales telles : Chamaerops humilis, Marrubium vulgare, Stipa tenacissima, Artemesia herba alba, Asparagus acutifolius et Thymus ciliatus. La seconde comprend l'espèce arborée (Pinus halepensis) et des espèces arbustives et herbacées telles Atractylis et Marrubium.

  6. Denken over Rusland : Europese beschouwingen over de grote hervormingen, 1861-1881

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Johan Hendrik Caspar

    2008-01-01

    The theme of this dissertation relates to the perception of Russia as this is evidenced in European reflections on the Great Reforms in Russia during the period from 1861 to 1881, under the rule of Tsar Alexander II. The Russian Empire had suffered a humiliating defeat in the Crimean War (1853-1856)

  7. Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Cyberbullying is the repeated use of technology to harass, humiliate, or threaten. Unlike most types of traditional bullying, it comes with a wide audience. Anywhere from one-third to one-half of youths have been targeted by cyberbullies, and those experiences produce damaging consequences--everything from a decline in academic performance to…

  8. How Terrorist Groups End: Studies of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    efforts to compete in political elections to Japan’s Diet in February 1990 brought in few votes. Humiliation set arrogance and self- interest together on...a hospital. 45. By contrast, Malaysian communists were pushed out without surrendering. Chin Peng and some remnants held out for decades in Thai

  9. Bullying Surveillance among Youths: Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements. Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, R. Matthew, Comp.; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M., Comp.; Hamburger, Merle E., Comp.; Lumpkin, Corey D., Comp.

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is one type of violence that threatens a youth's well-being in schools and neighborhoods. The impacts of bullying are felt by individuals, families, schools, and society and may result in youths feeling powerless, intimidated, and humiliated by the aggressive acts of other youth(s). This document is designed as a tool to help…

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Auxiliary Airfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-18

    slider Trachemys scripta elegans Texas tortoise Gopherus berlandieri Smooth softshell Trionyx muticus Texas spotted whiptail Cnemidophorus gularia... Trachemys scitaeegans ’, Red-eared slider Gopherus berlandieri, Texas tortoise Triomyx spiniferus emoryi, Texas spiny softshell Sceloporus cyanogeny’s...snake Leptotyphlops humilis segregus, Trans Pecos blind snake Arizona elegans ar-enicola, Texas glossy snake Drymarchon curais erebennus, Texas indigo

  11. Bullying and School Liability--Implications for School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is a serious and escalating problem in public schools across America. Each day, thousands of students face taunts and humiliation stemming from bullies. Bullying victims experience emotional and psychological problems that may persist for a lifetime. Other victims commit suicide or retaliate against bullies out of fear for their own…

  12. Experiences of mistreatment among medical students in a University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiences of mistreatment among medical students in a University in south west Nigeria. ... The commonest forms experienced by the students were being shouted at (92.6%), public humiliation or belittlement (87.4%), negative or disparaging remarks about their academic performance (71.4%), being assigned tasks as ...

  13. Human Rights That Influence The Mentally Ill Patient In South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invariably the mentally ill person encounters rejectionand humiliation that are in some way tantamount to a "second illness." The combination either disrupts or puts beyond reach the usual personal and social life stages of marriage, family life, raising children, sexual relationships, the choice of treatment, affordable housing, ...

  14. No Security Without Us: Tribes and Tribalism in Al Anbar Province, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    applies as payments for rights to safe passage through tribal territory. Payment of diyya does not necessarily signify an admission of guilt . Eqrar...honor, pride , dignity, and respect—and the converse (avoidance of shame, disgrace, and humiliation)—are key to the ethos of Iraqi tribal society.25

  15. My secret: The social meaning of HIV/AIDS stigma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Judgeo

    2014-07-01

    Jul 1, 2014 ... As a result, the participants relied on self-isolation and social withdrawal to .... and sometimes antagonistic attitudes towards PLWHA. In South. Africa ..... yourself harmed or humiliated is better than standing there while someone .... scale up the response to combat HIV/AIDS stigma through actions that are ...

  16. 38 CFR 51.90 - Resident behavior and facility practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... controlling behavior through corporal punishment. (3) Sexual abuse includes sexual harassment, sexual coercion... the right to be free from mental, physical, sexual, and verbal abuse or neglect, corporal punishment, and involuntary seclusion. (1) Mental abuse includes humiliation, harassment, and threats of...

  17. 38 CFR 52.90 - Participant behavior and program practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... behavior through corporal punishment. (iii) Sexual abuse includes sexual harassment, sexual coercion, and... the right to be free from mental, physical, sexual, and verbal abuse or neglect, corporal punishment, and involuntary seclusion. (i) Mental abuse includes humiliation, harassment, and threats of...

  18. A redescription of the specimens of “Telesto humilis” (Octocorallia) collected by Prince Albert Ier of Monaco, with the descritpion of four new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Four new octocoral species, Telestula stocki, Telestula batoni, Telestula verseveldti, and Telestula kuekenthali are described and illustrated and a redescription is given of Telesto humilis Thomson, 1927. All the species mentioned were collected during expeditions by Prince Albert Ier of Monaco in

  19. Mentoring as a Way to Change a Culture of Academic Bullying and Mobbing in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Angela M.; Petit, Angela; Sieber, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the "Chronicle of Higher Education" defined "academic mobbing" as "a form of bullying in which members of a department gang up to isolate or humiliate a colleague". In their call for a special issue on mobbing for "Workplace: A Journal for Academic Labor", editors Stephen Petrina and E. Wayne Ross…

  20. Social anxiety disorder/social phobia : Epidemiology, diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, JA

    2000-01-01

    Some anticipatory anxiety is expected on specific occasions such as giving a speech. However, some individuals have an excessive fear of such situations when they are under scrutiny, believing that their performance will cause them embarrassment or humiliation, frequently leading to deliberate

  1. Hazing in orientation programmes in boys-only secondary schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hazing; learner safety and wellbeing; masculinity; orientation programmes; psychological theories; survey ... include humiliation, degradation, psychological, physical or sexual abuse and any other form of ... activities and will even lie about personal injury to prevent exposure – to disclose is to betray group ...... Adolescent.

  2. Women and Violence: A Study of Women's Empowerment and Its Challenges in Jammu and Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to highlight the violence against women's in Jammu and Kashmir. In Jammu and Kashmir Woman are the most vulnerable and worst hit section of the society especially under situations of violence caused by militancy and armed conflict. They don't only suffer from intense humiliation and harassment but also undergo traumatic…

  3. When Teens Turn Cyberbullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber harassment involves using an electronic medium to threaten or harm others. E-mail, chat rooms, cell phones, instant messaging, pagers, text messaging, and online voting booths are tools used to inflict humiliation, fear, and a sense of helplessness. This type of intimidation differs from traditional bullying in several important ways. Unlike…

  4. High-Tech Cruelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W.

    2011-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing problem because increasing numbers of young people use computers, cell phones, and other interactive devices as their main form of social interaction. Cyberbullies use technology to harass, threaten, or humiliate their peers. Online aggression isn't just traditional bullying with new tools. It's widespread, devastating,…

  5. Doxing: a conceptual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, David

    2016-01-01

    Doxing is the intentional public release onto the Internet of personal information about an individual by a third party, often with the intent to humiliate, threaten, intimidate, or punish the identified individual. In this paper I present a conceptual analysis of the practice of doxing and how it

  6. SAMJ FORUM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of their health care and clinical wellbeing has resulted in a trend of translocating ... adhered to in the conference room group but in the absence of patients. After the .... Students felt humiliated in the way that tutors corrected them in front of ...

  7. Cyberbullying Involvement among Students with ADHD: Relation to Loneliness, Self-Efficacy and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Eden, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is defined as an intentional online act via electronic media, to harm, embarrass and/or humiliate another person. As adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at a higher risk in being involved in bullying behaviour as perpetrators or victims, the main purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of…

  8. Real-virtual relational practices among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    Are violent computer games and movies dangerous for children – perhaps even for our society? Does the reiteration of failure, the competition and the ongoing humiliation that is cultivated as entertainment in the reality shows make our children more cynical and heartless? Do forms of virtual...

  9. Sea King SHOL Support for Post-HCM/FELEX HALIFAX Class Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    modernisation de mi-durée. Les modifica- tions techniques apportées aux navires pendant le radoub ont entraïné des changements im- portants à la...classe Halifax connaissent une modernisation (MCH) de mi-durée. Les modifications techniques apportées aux navires pendant le radoub ont entraïné des...ship DAQ components were distributed about the ship at the bow, mast, port bridge wing, port breezeway, howdah (a.k.a. LSO compartment), Flyco (a.k.a

  10. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    23 nov. 2015 ... moyenne de la ventilation des patients atteints de PN était de 10,46 j alors que celle des patients non infectés était de 6,60 j. ... facteurs de risque: l'âge, la durée de la ventilation mécanique, la durée de séjour en réanimation, l'existence d'une .... ventillacion mecanica. Med Intensiva (Spanish). 2010 Jun-.

  11. 1907-IJBCS-Article-Bernice Kingha

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Campo, Tchuenguem Fohouo et al. (2000) ont trouvé 4 ouvrières de Apis mellifica sur un pied de A. hypogaea. La durée moyenne d'une visite de récolte de pollen varie avec l'insecte et ceci d'une année à une autre. La durée des visites semble être liée à l'accessibilité au pollen de. A. hypogaea. Nos données confirment ...

  12. What is dignity in prehospital emergency care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelsson, Anna; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2017-05-01

    Ethics and dignity in prehospital emergency care are important due to vulnerability and suffering. Patients can lose control of their body and encounter unfamiliar faces in an emergency situation. To describe what specialist ambulance nurse students experienced as preserved and humiliated dignity in prehospital emergency care. The study had a qualitative approach. Data were collected by Flanagan's critical incident technique. The participants were 26 specialist ambulance nurse students who described two critical incidents of preserved and humiliated dignity, from prehospital emergency care. Data consist of 52 critical incidents and were analyzed with interpretive content analysis. Ethical considerations: The study followed the ethical principles in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The result showed how human dignity in prehospital emergency care can be preserved by the ambulance nurse being there for the patient. The ambulance nurses meet the patient in the patient's world and make professional decisions. The ambulance nurse respects the patient's will and protects the patient's body from the gaze of others. Humiliated dignity was described through the ambulance nurse abandoning the patient and by healthcare professionals failing, disrespecting, and ignoring the patient. It is a unique situation when a nurse meets a patient face to face in a critical life or death moment. The discussion describes courage and the ethical vision to see another human. Dignity was preserved when the ambulance nurse showed respect and protected the patient in prehospital emergency care. The ambulance nurse students' ethical obligation results in the courage to see when a patient's dignity is in jeopardy of being humiliated. Humiliated dignity occurs when patients are ignored and left unprotected. This ethical dilemma affects the ambulance nurse students badly due to the fact that the morals and attitudes of ambulance nurses are reflected in their actions toward the patient.

  13. Rapid and selective removal of preservative from ophthalmic formulations during eyedrops instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Chauhan, Anuj

    2015-11-01

    About 70% of eyedrops contain benzalkonium chloride (BAK) as a preservative to prevent the growth of microorganisms. While preservatives are mandated to maintain sterility, many patients exhibit irritation and toxicity to such compounds. We propose to mitigate the ocular toxicity in the ocular formulations without compromising sterility by designing a device that can be incorporated into an eyedrops bottle to selectively remove the preservatives during the process of drop instillation. Here, we specifically focus on macroporous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) gel due to its excellent biocompatibility and high partition coefficient for BAK. In addition to specific selectivity for BAK, the device also requires high hydraulic permeability to allow drop dispensing without excessive pressure drop. The pHEMA monolith can remove nearly 100% of contained BAK from a 25 ml, 0.012% BAK solution with negligible uptake of the hydrophilic drugs such as timolol and dorzolamide. The filter, however, had to be pre-equilibrated with hydrophobic drugs to reach a high separation of BAK without reducing the concentration of the active drug. The average hydraulic permeability of the filter was 0.025 Darcy, which is about 5-fold lower than the ideal value. Incorporation of a pHEMA macroporous gel into an eyedrops bottle can virtually eliminate the exposure of the eyes to the preservatives without compromising the sterility. Our novel design can eliminate the preservative induced toxicity from eyedrops thereby impacting hundreds of millions of patients with chronic ophthalmic diseases such as glaucoma and dry eyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Restoring conjunctival tolerance by topical nuclear factor-κB inhibitors reduces preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Mauricio; Sabbione, Florencia; Gabelloni, María Laura; Vanzulli, Silvia; Trevani, Analía Silvina; Giordano, Mirta Nilda; Galletti, Jeremías Gastón

    2014-09-04

    To evaluate the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in eye drop preservative toxicity and the effect of topical NF-κB inhibitors on preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis. Balb/c mice were instilled ovalbumin (OVA) combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and/or NF-κB inhibitors in both eyes. After immunization, T-cell responses and antigen-induced ocular inflammation were evaluated. Nuclear factor-κB activation and associated inflammatory changes also were assessed in murine eyes and in an epithelial cell line after BAK exposure. Benzalkonium chloride promoted allergic inflammation and leukocyte infiltration of the conjunctiva. Topical NF-κB inhibitors blocked the disruptive effect of BAK on conjunctival immunological tolerance and ameliorated subsequent ocular allergic reactions. In line with these findings, BAK induced NF-κB activation and the secretion of IL-6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor in an epithelial cell line and in the conjunctiva of instilled mice. In addition, BAK favored major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II expression in cultured epithelial cells in an NF-κB-dependent fashion after interaction with T cells. Benzalkonium chloride triggers conjunctival epithelial NF-κB activation, which seems to mediate some of its immune side effects, such as proinflammatory cytokine release and increased MHC II expression. Breakdown of conjunctival tolerance by BAK favors allergic inflammation, and this effect can be prevented in mice by topical NF-κB inhibitors. These results suggest a new pharmacological target for preservative toxicity and highlight the importance of conjunctival tolerance in ocular surface homeostasis. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  15. A New Safety Concern for Glaucoma Treatment Demonstrated by Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Benzalkonium Chloride Distribution in the Eye, an Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  16. Genul Kniphofia Moench în colecția de plante netradiționale a Grădinii Botanice (Institut a Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SFECLĂ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the bio-ecological and morphological description of the Kniphofia species in the non-traditional perennial plant collection of the Botanical Garden (Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Six species of the genus Kniphofia Moench were used in the study: Kniphofia uvaria (L. Hook., K. ensifolia Bak., K. tukii Bak., K. nelsonii Mast, K. sarmentosa (Andr. Kunth, K. citrina Bak. Under the pedo-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova, all species retain their biomorph, which demonstrates a high adaptation capacity. The most prolific species have been shown to be K. sarmentosa, K. tukii and K. ensifolia, which have the highest percentages of seed germination and vegetative multiplication. Rezumat. Acest articol include descrierea bioecologică şi morfologică a speciilor de knifofii în colecţia de plante perene netradiţionale a Grădinii Botanice (Institut a Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei. Obiect de studiu au servit şase specii din genul Kniphofia Moench: Kniphofia uvaria (L. Hook., K. ensifolia Bak., K. tukii Bak., K. nelsonii Mast, K. sarmentosa (Andr. Kunth, K. citrina Bak. În condiţiile pedoclimatice ale Republicii Moldova, toate speciile îşi păstrează biomorfa, fapt ce demonstrează o capacitate de adaptare înaltă. Cele mai prolifice specii s-au dovedit a fi K. sarmentosa, K. tukii şi K. ensifolia, care prezintă cele mai înalte valori ale procentului de germinare a seminţelor şi ale coeficientului de multiplicare vegetativă.

  17. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  18. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety

  19. Toxicity of cosmetic preservatives on human ocular surface and adnexal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomin; Sullivan, David A; Sullivan, Amy Gallant; Kam, Wendy R; Liu, Yang

    2018-05-01

    Cosmetic products, such as mascara, eye shadow, eyeliner and eye makeup remover are used extensively to highlight the eyes or clean the eyelids, and typically contain preservatives to prevent microbial growth. These preservatives include benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and formaldehyde (FA)-releasing preservatives. We hypothesize that these preservatives, at concentrations (BAK = 1 mg/ml; FA = 0.74 mg/ml) approved for consumer use, are toxic to human ocular surface and adnexal cells. Accordingly, we tested the influence of BAK and FA on the morphology, survival, and proliferation and signaling ability of immortalized human meibomian gland (iHMGECs), corneal (iHCECs) and conjunctival (iHConjECs) epithelial cells. iHMGECs, iHCECs and iHConjECs were cultured with different concentrations of BAK (5 μg/ml to 0.005 μg/ml) or FA (1 mg/ml to 1 μg/ml) under basal, proliferating or differentiating conditions up to 7 days. We used low BAK levels, because we found that 0.5 mg/ml and 50 μg/ml BAK killed iHMGECs within 1 day after a 15 min exposure. Experimental procedures included analyses of cell appearance, cell number, and neutral lipid content (LipidTox), lysosome accumulation (LysoTracker) and AKT signaling in all 3 cell types. Our results demonstrate that BAK and FA cause dose-dependent changes in the morphology, survival, proliferation and AKT signaling of iHMGECs, iHCECs and iHConjECs. Many of the concentrations tested induced cell atrophy, poor adherence, decreased proliferation and death, after 5 days of exposure. Cellular signaling, as indicated by AKT phosphorylation after 15 (FA) or 30 (BAK) minutes of treatment, was also reduced in a dose-dependent fashion in all 3 cell types, irrespective of whether cells had been cultured under proliferating or differentiating conditions. Our results support our hypothesis and demonstrate that the cosmetic preservatives, BAK and FA, exert many toxic effects on cells of the ocular surface and adnexa

  20. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution on ocular surface in patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walimbe T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tejaswini Walimbe,1 Vidya Chelerkar,2 Purvi Bhagat,3 Abhijeet Joshi,4 Atul Raut4 1Walimbe Eye Clinic, 2PBMA’s H.V. Desai Eye Hospital, Pune, 3Glaucoma Clinic, M and J Western Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, 4Clinical Research Department, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, India Introduction: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK, included as a preservative in many topical treatments for glaucoma, induces significant toxicity and alters tear breakup time (TBUT. BAK-containing latanoprost, an ester prodrug of prostaglandin F2a, can cause ocular adverse events (AEs associated with BAK. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BAK-free latanoprost. Patients and methods: A prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, 8-week study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension taking BAK-containing latanoprost for ≥12 months was performed. Patients were switched to BAK-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution 0.005% administered once daily, and eyes were assessed after 28 and 56 days. Primary efficacy and safety variables were TBUT and treatment-emergent AEs, respectively. Results: At day 56, 40 eyes were evaluable. Mean TBUT increased significantly from baseline (3.67±1.60 seconds to 5.03±2.64 and 6.06±3.39 seconds after 28 and 56 days of treatment with BAK-free latanoprost (P<0.0001. Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI© score also decreased significantly to 12.06±13.40 and 7.06±10.75 at 28 and 56 days, respectively, versus baseline (18.09±18.61, P<0.0001. In addition, inferior corneal staining score decreased significantly to 0.53 from baseline (0.85, P=0.0033. A reduction in conjunctival hyperemia and intraocular pressure was observed at both time points. No treatment-related serious AEs were evident and 12 (26.08% treatment-emergent AEs occurred in seven patients, with eye pain and irritation being the most frequent. No clinically significant changes

  1. A Struggle of Civilization against Barbarism: About Universities as Autonomous Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drainville, André C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes a longue durée look at universities at the core of the world economy, where the modern idea of intellectuals as trustees of the reflexive structures of society has achieved its most enduring institutional form. To wrest thinking away from a conformism that makes us see universities as nothing more than organisations amongst…

  2. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade Perimeter Security Fence and Demolish Camera Shed, Red River Air Force Space Surveillance Station (AFSSS), Lewisville, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    root plowed for construction of the Installation. Now the Installation consists mostly of short grasses which are routinely mowed. Woods border...aristata* bracted plantain Rumex crispus* curly dock Setaria parviflora yellow bristlegrass Solanum carolinense* Carolina horse nettle Sorghum...the land was covered with a hardwood forest. The land was cleared and root plowed dur- ing construction of the Installation. Earthen platforms were

  3. "White cranes fly over black cranes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thi Thao; Agergaard, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    The changing nature of rural–urban migration, in the context of transition economies of East and Southeast Asia, is usually interpreted as an outcome of structural transformation, while the longue durée of these migration flows tends to be neglected. Adopting a historical perspective, supported b...

  4. Phenotype-gene: 752 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 752 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u928i abnormal for trait of behavior...a224u16055636i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality in organ named stamen dur

  5. Phenotype-gene: 744 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 744 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u920i abnormal for trait of behavior...a224u16055636i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality in organ named flower dur

  6. Synthèse: Revue des Sciences et de la Technologie - Vol 16 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude des efforts et de la température de coupe lors de tournage dur de l'acier AISI 52100 par un outil CBN · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MA Yallese, L Boulanouar, N Zeghib, S Belhadi, J Rigal, 74-86 ...

  7. Molecular sexing and analysis of CHD1-Z and CHD1-W sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eral countries, particularly in China, Japan, Brazil, France and Spain (Minvielle 2004). Due to the small number of commercial explorations of common quail in Europe, hunt- ... Japanese quail to prevent excessive decline of the birds dur- ... status of common quail and developed Natura 2000 manage- ... This work presents.

  8. Design thinking between rationalism and romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida; Goldschmidt Salamon, Karen-Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a longue durée history of modern design thought, with particular focus on recurrent ideological frictions. Drawing on design history, design anthropology and cultural studies, the authors present an overview of more than 200 years of developments in European and North Americ...

  9. Identification of a new species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) based on distinct morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphis elena Lagos-Kutz and Voegtlin, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is described from specimens collected in Illinois, USA, on the North American native plant, Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald (Family: Lamiaceae). Both apterous and alate viviparae are desc...

  10. LA RESECTION TRANSURETRALE DE LA PROSTATE A L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le taux de conversion était de 11,80%. La durée moyenne de ... The intraoperative complication rate amounted to 11.8%. The conversion rate was 11.8%. Mean hospital stay was 6.7 days ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  11. Palaeoseismicity in relation to basin tectonics as revealed from soft ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    belts acted as zones of rift propagation, and reac- tivation of palaeo-sutures and ... to Jurassic-aged riftogenic continental basins filled ... led to a half-graben geometry with accumulation of greater ... basin margin are thought to have been active dur- ...... Petrol. 22. 83–96. Kundu A and Goswami B 2008 A note on seismic evi-.

  12. The Role of Polycomb Group Gene BMI-1 in the Development of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    J Clin Invest. 2005; 115:1503-21. 13. Siddique HR, Liao DJ, Mishra SK, Schuster T, Wang L, Matter B et al. Epicatechin-rich cocoa polyphenol...growth factors may result in an upregulation of diverse gene products in CSCs and their differentiated progenies dur- ing the EMT process [32, 33

  13. Technique, travail et industrialisation de la noix de cajou au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gestion du temps, le contrôle et la vigilance. .... Le système technique leur impose une augmentation très nette de la durée du travail, marquée par la violence des rythmes de production et la fatigue physique sévère, accompagnée de lésions.

  14. Synthesis of first row transition metal carboxylate complexes by ring ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion of pyromellitic dianhydride with methanol and ring opening of pyromellitic dianhydride takes place. The corresponding carboxylate complex formed dur- ing the process can be crystallised by adding biden- tate nitrogen donor ligands such as 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2 - bipyridine.20 From the reaction with 1,10-.

  15. Medtner: Konzert für Klavier und Orchester Nr. 1 c-Moll op. 33 / Volkmar Fischer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fischer, Volkmar

    1992-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Medtner: Konzert für Klavier und Orchester Nr. 1 c-Moll op. 33, Sonaten-Ballade für Klavier Fis-Dur op. 27. London Philharmonic Orchestra / Neeme Järvi". Chandos/Koch CD9039 (WD:54'28")

  16. La pedagogía de lo corporal y de la salud : una filosofía para vivir : historia de las ideas psicológicas y pedagógicas de Sergio López Ramos /

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Amavizca, Norma Delia

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Pedagogía, presenta Norma Delia Durán Amavizca ; asesor Patricia Mar Velasco, Horacio Cerruti Guldberg, Mario Camarena Ocampo. 396 páginas. Doctorado en Pedagogía UNAM, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 2011

  17. Financial crises as catalysts for regional cooperation? Chances and obstacles for financial integration in ASEAN+3, MERCOSUR and the eurozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article compares and analyses the different answers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations+3 (ASEAN+3), Mercado Común del Dur (MERCOSUR) and the eurozone on financial crises in their respective regions. All three regions were hit by economic turmoil between 1997 and 2012, but whereas

  18. A taxonomic revision of Xerospermum (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Xerospermum Blume, Rumphia 3 (1847) 99; Radlk. in Engl., Pflanzenr. 98 (1932) 936-950. – Xerospermum sect. Tetrasepalum Radlk. (in Th. Dur., Index Gen. Phan. (1887) 76, nom. nud.) in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 5 (1895) 331, nom. illeg. (I.C.B.N. ed. 1978, art. 22.1). – Type: X. noronhianum

  19. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  20. LES CANCERS DE L'ORBITE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19 déc. 2007 ... té au type histologique permet d'améliorer la survie et la qualité de vie chez les patients atteints de ces tumeurs. Mots-clés ... management of these tumors. Materials ... La durée moyenne d'évolution de la symptomatologie.

  1. Reference: 645 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chi et al. 2007 Oct. Plant J. 52(1):30-40. Despite the fact that urea is a ubiquitous nitrogen source in soil...nd suggest that the high substrate affinity of AtDUR3 reflects an adaptation to the low urea levels usually found in unfertilized soi

  2. Postnatal growth, age estimation and development of foraging ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    growth after the first year (Kunz and Stern 1995). The values of the lengths of forearm and epiphyseal gap dur- ing their linear phases of growth increased during the preflight period and decreased during the postflight period, and were reliable for deriving equations to esti- mate the age of young bats (e.g. Kunz and Robson ...

  3. 42 CFR 456.705 - Prospective drug review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recipient or the recipient's caregiver. The State must provide pharmacies with detailed information as to what they must do to comply with prospective DUR requirements, including guidelines on counseling... prescription is filled or delivered to the recipient or the recipient's caregiver. The review must include...

  4. Cross Country MetroLink Segment I Business Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-02

    In the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area, the East-West Gateway Coordinating : Council decided the route for the first MetroLink extension in the Cross-County : Corridor in September 1997. The next phase, reflected in this paper is develop, : dur...

  5. Résultats de recherche | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 mars 2018 ... Le programme conjoint canado-israélien de recherche en santé est un programme d'une durée de sept années et d'un budget de 35 millions de CAD, conclu entre le CRDI, l'Israel Science Foundation, l'Azrieli Foundation et les Instituts de recherche en s. Livres.

  6. Fluid–rock interaction across the South Tibetan Detachment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chores and the stability fields overlap defines a. P–T region that extends from ... The main effect of vol- .... of these phases, the slope of the REE trend would be disturbed. .... 109 526–537. Engelder T 1984 The role of pore water circulation dur-.

  7. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    23 oct. 2015 ... secondaires à des agressions physiques sur une durée de trois ans. Les critères d'inclusion ... morceaux de verre. Dans notre série .... contre les comportements agressifs; les médias devront éliminer la diffusion de portraits ...

  8. Water quality assessment of Gautami–Godavari mangrove estuarine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some chemical and biological parameters were analysed at sixteen stations in the mangrove ecosys- tem, of the neighbouring Gautami–Godavari (GG) river estuary and Kakinada (KKD) bay to understand the present status of water quality and the impact of external terrigenous inputs dur- ing southwest (SW) monsoon in ...

  9. NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... the use of Cl and stable isotopes (2H and 18O), Sharma and Hughes. (1985) observed that ... able to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions of the area. Dur- ing the dry ... December 2004. 3.4 Geology and hydrogeology.

  10. Systèmes d'information sanitaire ou santé sexuelle et reproductive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 mai 2017 ... Systèmes d'information sanitaire ou santé sexuelle et reproductive des adolescents en Afrique de l'Ouest. Appel. Propositions. Programme(s) ... Sujet(s). Systèmes de santé, ADOLESCENTS, SANTÉ REPRODUCTIVE, DROITS EN MATIERE DE PROCREATION. Durée. 36 à 48 mois. Financée par. CRDI ...

  11. Energetics of lower tropospheric planetary waves over mid latitudes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008, India. ∗ e-mail: ... port by wave 0 over southern equatorial belt dur- ing March leads to a ..... 2005a Contrasting features of wave number one during northern ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (K-RITH), K-RITH Tower Building, level 3, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, 4001 Dur- ... expression could be a risk factor for TB drug tolerance in patients initiated on treatment. .... three times, and the RFU values presented are the.

  13. Renforcement des capacités d'évaluation et de communication en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enfin, des produits de communication seront mis au point en vue de transmettre ces enseignements concrets aux praticiens, aux chercheurs et aux responsables des politiques. Projet nᵒ. 107064. État du projet. Actif. Durée. 48 mois. Agent(e) responsable du CRDI. Matthew Smith. Financement total. CAD$ 728,060. Pays.

  14. Mutation du gène NOD2 chez les patients marocains atteints de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CARD15 dans un groupe de patients Marocains atteint de Maladie de Crohn et étudier sa corrélation génotype-expression phénotypique. Etude transversale cas témoin menée sur une durée de 16 mois. Ont été inclus 101 patients atteints de la ...

  15. 2525-IJBCS-Article-Paul Ayihadji Fernand H

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    La tomate est un produit maraîcher très important dans l'alimentation humaine en Afrique et dans le monde. ... montrent que pour transformer 15 kg de tomate, la durée de cuisson et la consommation en énergie pour la ..... sauce tomate.

  16. 2543-IJBCS-Article-Rabo Youmoussou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    détermination des cultures maraîchères associées au M. oleifera, la durée ainsi que l'arrangement spatial des composantes ... préparation de soupe, de sauce et du couscous en Afrique. .... cultures, suivie de l'oseille, la tomate et l'oignon à ...

  17. Milk production of dairy cows as affected by the length of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Useni , Alain

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... Differences between means were obtained using the pair-wise comparison of ... Furthermore, cows produced less (P <0.05) milk with a high protein content when .... Effets de la reduction de la durée de la periode seche ou.

  18. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Facility: Recent Improvements and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    such as l- octanol despite continuous heavy use. The dur- ability of the high temperature silanized columns over a long period has not yet been fully... Octanone 4 2-Ethyl-2-hexenal 5 5-Nonanone 6 2-Nonanone 7 Linalool 8 Isopulegol 9 Unknown terpene alcohol 10 Terpinenol-4 11 2 ,6-Dimethylaniline (12 2

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    river Bharatha, the second longest river in Kerala) dur- ... was the teacher of another key figure, Neelakanta So- ... (An English translation with de- ... language this corresponds to the realization sin(µ=n) → ... between this method of proof and the more traditional .... summation is done by effectively going through the orig-.

  20. The influence of season on tonic luteinizing hormone (LFD and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and they were sub- jected to a plane of nutrition designed to maintain body mass ... concluded that conception rates were higher during autumn and spring than ... in cattle may be due to differences in climatic conditions dur- ing studies, and ...

  1. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed at the study of the effects of Artea, a systemic azole fungicide, on durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. cv. GTA dur). Seeds were grown in a medium containing respectively 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea under controlled conditions. Roots of eight-day-old plants were used to determine catalase, ...

  2. Evaluation des conditions de germination des noyaux de Grewia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    personnel

    31 janv. 2014 ... graines de G.coriacea afin de parvenir à un meilleur taux de germination naturellement médiocre. ... fourchettes) et comme matériau de ...... contre, les chocs thermiques par l'eau .... stockage et de la durée de chauffage.

  3. Primordial braneworld black holes: significant enhancement of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Randall-Sundrum (RS-II) braneworld cosmological model with a frac- tion of the total energy density in primordial black holes is considered. Due to their 5d geometry, these black holes undergo modified Hawking evaporation. It is shown that dur- ing the high-energy regime, accretion from the surrounding ...

  4. In vivo statistical evaluation of efficancy of a biological agent on water quality in the rearing of ornamental Cyprinus carpio

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramduth, DM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available ponds. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to express their gratitude to: Dr Horst Kaizer, Dr Santosh Ramchuran and Dr Naill Vine for their valuable inputs dur- ing the trial and BioPad BRIC for their generous funding of the project. • • Figure...

  5. 2014 Copyright © 2014, CRISA Publications SELF-CONTROL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was measured by the Brief Self-control Scale. Self-reported ... Key words:Alcohol consumption, Botswana, self-control, self-regulation, undergraduate students .... alcohol-related harm. One may ..... a belief that it is acceptable to drink dur-.

  6. The use of solar energy for heating an asphalt storage tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    10,000 gal. asphalt storage tank was equipped with a solar heating system and instrumented to determine its effectiveness over a 12.5-month period. An evaluation of the data indicated that the solar system conserved 25,126 kWh of electrical power dur...

  7. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This is a summary of the activities of the working group on cosmology at. WHEPP-X. The three main problems that were discussed at some length by the group dur- ing the course of the workshop were (i) canceling a 'large' cosmological constant, (ii) non-. Gaussianities in inflationary models and (iii) stability of ...

  8. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the developmental origins of health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants dur...

  9. Prevention ofsexually transtnitted diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of VDRL-positive and vaginal discharge cases was decreasing (Table II). Thirty-five per cent of me sex-workers were found to have syphilis at me initial examination when the project started. After 7 months this number had dropped to 4,2%. There was also quite a drop in the number of cases of vaginal discharge dur ...

  10. ResOltanCe iournal of science education

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Learning Earthquake Design and Construction. - Why are Open-Ground Storey Buildings Vul- nerable in Earthquakes? C VRMurty. 84. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction. - Why are Short Columns more Damaged Dur- ing Earthquakes? C VRMurty. 88. REFLECTIONS. 96 A Conversation About Solid State ...

  11. Reduction in albuminuria predicts a beneficial effect on diminishing the progression of human diabetic nephropathy during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Hommel, E; Smidt, U M

    1994-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of increased mortality and morbidity in IDDM patients. The effect of antihypertensive treatment on the progression of the nephropathy is highly variable. The aim of this study was to evaluate putative predictors of the progression in diabetic nephropathy dur...

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Family Planning Services Offered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Keywords: Mobile clinics; Staic clinic; Family planning; Cost-effectiveness. Résumé. Des analyses ... d'offrir plus de méthodes de longue durée d'action peut influer sur une décision politique entre ces options. Cliniques ... nurse and a driver9.

  13. H:\\PMKER 25(3)\\BRAHIM I..xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    ordinateur. Au cours de ces dictées d'enregistrement de compor- tement et pour chaque femelle, sept paramètres ont été relevés et enregistrés à l'ordinateur : - durée de marche sans balayage (en sec) : pendant laquelle la femelle se déplace sur les.

  14. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Dur. And schinz (apocynaceae) ... Signaling pathways regulated by Brassicaceae extract inhibit the formation of advanced glycated end products in rat brain · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  15. : tous les projets | Page 374 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... à des cours de courte durée et des ateliers, et à la supervision de projets de recherche. Date de début : 1 janvier 2009. End Date: 1 janvier 2012. Sujet: ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.

  16. ABSCISIC ACID EFFECTS ON WATER AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bidai Y, Achour A and Belkhodja M

    1 mai 2016 ... Keywords: Phytohormone; drought; xerophyte; water status; ... induisent la synthèse de l'ABA, considéré aujourd'hui comme une hormone de stress [9, .... à α <0.05) et enfin de l'interaction " ABA x écotype x Durée" (F= 46,50 ...

  17. Herbst treatment in late adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Paulsen, H U

    1989-01-01

    In an almost full-grown male of 17 years, functional and morphological changes were followed during Herbst treatment and subsequent control. Retrognathism of the mandible was overcorrected, and then normalized by reverse headgear to the maxilla. Partial relapse due to insufficient cooperation dur...

  18. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the Megapoli summer and winter campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Megaritis, A.G.; Skyllakou, K.; Charalampidis, P.E.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Fachinger, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 x 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol dur-ing a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of

  19. Response of plants to high concentrations of uranium stress and the screening of remediation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yongjin; Luo Xuegang; Zeng Feng; Jiang Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the resistance and accumulation ability of different plant species to uranium (U) has important influence on the bioremediation of U contaminated soil. The resistance and enrichment ability of high concentrations of U (500 mg · kg"-"1 soil) in fourteen plant species were investigated and evaluated in this study in order to screen remediation plants for governance soil U contamination. The results showed that: (1) high concentrations of U stress had different effects on the emergence and survival of the different plants. The seed emergence of Hibiscus esculentus was reduced by 2/3, but the seed emergence of Gynura cusimbua (D. Don) S. Moore, Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not reduced. Under the contaminated soil, all the sesamum indicum died within a month after the emergence and the survival number of Amaranth and Iresine herbstii 'Aureo-reticulata' reduced by about 80%. But the survival number of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not influenced. (2) The biomass of the plants would be reduced by 8-99% in the uranium-contaminated soil. The anti-stress ability of Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef was the strongest in the fourteen plants, and Cucurbita pepo L., Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moench, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, Helianthus annuus, Chenopodium album L. and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. showed some the anti-stress ability. (3) Significant differences were found in the capacity of plants to absorb uranium between under high-uranium contaminated soil and under the non-uranium contaminated soil were. The plants with higher uranium content in thenon-contaminated soil were Gomphrena globosa, and Cucurbita pepo L., which were 2.249 mg · kg"-"1 DW and 1.620 mg · kg"-"1 DW, respectively. But the plants with higher uranium content in the high uranium contaminated soil were Cichorium intybus L., Amaranth and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, which

  20. Islah Edici Yeni Yöntemlerin Kurgusal Düzlemde Keşfi: Avrupa Sarı Kâğıtları Yırtabildi Mi? Grading the Discovery of New Methods Corrective Fiction: Could Europe Tear the Yellow Paper?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan OLPAK KOÇ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, reasons behind the emergence of Supervised Independence System in Europe, which is actively implemented in Turkish Justice System in 20 July 2005, will be discussed. The most crucial reason is penalties of crimes are not only insufficient to rehabilitate criminals, but also have increasing and intensifying effects on crimes. It can be said that social novels embrace cultural, political, problems, social novels also include suggestions about solutions. In Les Miserables similar context reflects the social surroundings which is a fictional genre. All social groups have the behavior of tagging people who were sentenced before whatever crimes that those people committed. However they commit crime or they are leaved no choice, individuals are parts of social groups. They paid their mistakes by they were devoid of their freedom for a predetermined time. In Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables novel, the main character, who also had his share of tagging, tries to adept himself to social environment which he born in. It is wondering how social environment, government and institutions act in this process and at which direction they effect the character. Answers of these questions and answers of what should be will be tried to be given. In fact in today’s social environment, are attitudes toward the people who were punished before different? Bu çalışmada Türk Adalet sisteminde 20 Temmuz 2005 tarihinde aktif olarak uygulamaya konulan denetimli serbestlik sisteminin* Avrupa'da ortaya çıkış sürecini oluşturan sebeplerden bahsedilecektir. Bu sebeplerin başında kişilerin işlemiş olduğu suçlardan dolayı aldığı cezaların ıslah olmaktan öte suçu artırıcı ve pekiştirici olduğu gelmektedir. Topluma ait yaşamın her türlü kültürel birikimini içinde barındıran toplumsal, siyasal olaylar, inançlar, gelenek, görenekleri ile beraber bireylerin birbirlerine bakış açılarını da yansıtan tür diyebiliriz sosyal roman