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Sample records for humilis bak dur

  1. Affective dimensions of intergroup humiliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leidner

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame, and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger. Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed.

  2. Rituals of Humiliation and Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, John; Milner, Carole

    1998-01-01

    Discusses two benefits of demystifying and better understanding the humiliation rituals. First, adults responsible for the well-being of children may find methods to interrupt behaviors associated with bullying. Second, only by making these rites public can adults ask youth to reconsider their actions. Suggests recommendations for educators and…

  3. Humiliation and interpersonal sensitivity in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazzoni, Alberto; Capanna, Cristina; Bustini, Massimiliano; Stratta, Paolo; Ragusa, Marzia; Marino, Antonio; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between humiliation and protective psychosocial factors in a sample of depressed patients. We assessed humiliation, psychiatric symptoms, negative primary familial environment and resilience in 70 depressed patients, 33 male and 37 female, and analyzed the correlations between these variables. Then to better understand the relations among the assessed variables we controlled for the depression severity and replicated the correlational analyses. A pattern of significant correlations among all the constructs emerged. Correlations between humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, negative primary familial environment and resilience persisted after controlling for depression severity. The cross sectional nature of this study; the use of self-report instruments; the lack of personality assessment. This study provides a contribution to the understanding of the relationship between the experience of humiliation and negative primary familial environment, protective factors and clinical interpersonal sensitivity in depressed patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 'venadillo' ( Swietenia humilis Zucc.) seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of Swietenia humilis Zucc seed oils were determined along with its fatty acid composition, by using gas-liquid chromatography. The oil content found in the germ portion of the seeds was 45.38%. From physicochemical oil evaluations, an oil density of 0.9099 mg∙ml-1 at 28°C; a refraction index of ...

  5. The Problem of Humiliation in Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Schwartz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of vituperative feedback from peer reviewers. We argue that such feedback is morally unacceptable, insofar as it humiliates authors and damages their dignity. We draw from social-psychological research to explore those aspects of the peer-review process in general and the anonymity of blind reviewing in particular…

  6. Systemic humiliation as daily social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Rothbart, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    and capacities of these people. Drawing upon recent developments in social identity theory, moral philosophy, sociological theory, and clinical psychology, we argue that systemic humiliation generates social pain that is experienced as annulment of one’s inherent value; it is an affront to suffering persons......In certain societies that promote extreme social inequalities, a group of dominant elites deploys instruments designed to control marginalized group members through propaganda, by diminishing their self-worth, and by instilling a sense of being unworthy of the respect (dignity) of others...... the dynamics of systemic humiliation through the use of five instruments: (1) laws that unjustly favor social elites, (2) an ideology of supremacy that rationalizes such laws, (3) a language that essentializes the degraded people, (4) images that reinforce such a status, and (5) means to erase the achievements...

  7. Constituents from Bupleurum montanum (Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Bupleurum montanum (Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae afforded five compounds, quercitin 1, tamarexetin 2, isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside 3, kaempferol-3-O-β-rutinoside 4, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Protocatechuic acid 5. The structural elucidation was performed mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectrum data.

  8. Deterministic Modelling of BAK Activation Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, C.; Chacko, A.; Crawford, N.; Johnston, P. G.; Fennell, D. A.; O'Rourke, S. F. C.

    2009-08-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial BAK activation during apoptosis remains highly controversial. Two seemingly conflicting models have been proposed. In the activation model, BAK requires so-called activating BH3 only proteins (aBH3) to initiate its conformation change. In the other, displacement from inhibitory pro-survival BCL-2 proteins (PBPs) and monomerization of BAK by PBP restricted dissociator BH3-only proteins (dBH3) is sufficient. To better understand the kinetic implications of these models and reconcile these conflicting but highly evidence-based models, we have employed dynamical systems analysis to explore the kinetics underlying BAK activation as a non-linear reaction system. Our findings accommodate both pure agonism and dissociation as mutually exclusive mechanisms capable of initiating BAK activation. In addition we find our work supports a modelling based approach for predicting resistance to therapeutically relevant small molecules BH3 mimetics.

  9. The anti-humiliation principle and same-sex marriage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshino, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    .... Ackerman inveighs against the fact that we have turned away from this "anti-humiliation principle" in our modern civil-rights jurisprudence, with the exception of the jurisprudence surrounding same-sex marriage...

  10. Withdraw or affiliate? The role of humiliation during initiation rituals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Liesbeth; Feddes, Allard R; Doosje, Bertjan; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Initiation rituals can take different forms and empirical evidence is inconsistent as to whether these rituals promote affiliation among novices. We argue that experienced humiliation during initiations leads to less affiliation among novices, in particular when one is initiated as sole group member rather than as part of the group. We examined this hypothesis in three studies, using different paradigms. In Study 1 (N = 123), perceived severity of an initiation in the past was associated with lower affiliation with other novices; this relationship was mediated by experienced humiliation. Study 2 (N = 64) showed that public derogation in the lab led to more humiliation when participants were the only victim than when they were derogated as a group. Study 3 (N = 248), a vignette study, showed that a similar effect of social context was mediated by expected support from other novices. We conclude that severe initiations may, due to experienced humiliation, result in less rather than more affiliation with fellow novices.

  11. Commentary: is the paradigm for humiliation sufficiently complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshul, Victor A

    2010-01-01

    The authors Torres and Bergner present a simple, elegant paradigm for understanding the phenomenon of humiliation. They suggest it may have universal applicability and may be of heuristic value for clinicians and policy-makers involved in forensic and social arenas. They offer case examples to illustrate its utility. It is open to question, however, whether the paradigm is sufficiently complex to encompass all the variables in actual situations. In real life, the evolution of humiliation is a highly complicated, often messy process that takes place over time and often results in intense feelings of humiliation in more than one person, often affecting several persons. The authors' examples are reexamined from alternate assumptions about what may have happened in each case. An additional case example illustrates a high degree of interpersonal complexity, suggesting that actual situations may be too unwieldy to allow for simple analysis by the paradigm.

  12. The effect of the introduction of a nationwide DUR system where local DUR systems are operating--The Korean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mira; Park, Young-Taek; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Jung, Chai Young; Kim, Sukil

    2015-11-01

    Outpatient clinics in Korea usually have local DUR (drug utilisation review) systems, which are integrated with EMRs or health insurance claims submission systems. Whenever, the government announces a list of drug contraindications, each local DUR system loads the list and applies it in practice. In December 2010, a nationwide DUR system was introduced. This study is to investigate the impact of the nationwide DUR system on prescribing practices where local DUR systems are already operating. Between January 2009 and December 2012 the monthly number of drugs per prescription was retrieved from the health insurance claims data warehouse at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA). The monthly proportions of 3 DDI (drug-drug interaction) pairs, 6 drug-age contraindications, and 3 drug-pregnancy contraindications from January 2007 to December 2012, at the outpatient clinic level, were also retrieved. An interrupted time series analysis was used for controlling government announcements of drug contraindications. There was no difference in the number of drugs per prescription before and after the introduction of the nationwide DUR system. Most proportions of the 3 DDI pairs, 6 drug-age contraindications, and 3 drug-pregnancy contraindications, were significantly reduced following the government announcement of drug contraindications in the short term and/or long term. The number of drugs per prescription was not related to the nationwide DUR introduction in places where local DUR systems are operating. The introduction of duplicate guidelines, in locations where the guidelines were already well followed, is considered to be the main reason for this. Furthermore, the Doctor's ignorance of alerts, and their continued substitution of regulated drugs, for non-regulated drugs, likely played a role in nullifying the effectiveness of the nationwide DUR system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Humiliating Ironies and Dangerous Dignities: A Dialectic of School Pushout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This article explores youth resistance to urban public high schools that both inadvertently and by design push out students before graduation. The author details how youth experience the institutional production of school non-completion as a dialectic of humiliating ironies and dangerous dignities, a dialectic of school pushout. The author…

  14. Socratic Pedagogy: Perplexity, Humiliation, Shame and a Broken Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghossian, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses and rebuts the claim that the purpose of the Socratic method is to humiliate, shame, and perplex participants. It clarifies pedagogical and exegetical confusions surrounding the Socratic method, what the Socratic method is, what its epistemological ambitions are, and how the historical Socrates likely viewed it. First, this…

  15. Beethoven, Ludwig van: Violinkonzert D-Dur op. 61

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Beethoven, Ludwig van: Violinkonzert D-Dur op. 61 (Kadenz: Alfred Schnittke). Romanzen für Violine und Orchester op. 40 und 50. Estonian National Symphony Orchestra, Arvo Volmer". Globe GLO 5155, distribution Talis (CD:153F). 1996. TT:1h 01'56"

  16. When Is Humiliation More Intense? The Role of Audience Laughter and Threats to the Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Liesbeth; Feddes, Allard R.; Leiser, Anne; Doosje, Bertjan; Fischer, Agneta H.

    2017-01-01

    In personal accounts, humiliation is often reported as a very intense, painful, negative emotion. We report two scenario studies in which we explored two factors that may contribute to the intense character of humiliation: (1) unwanted, negative public exposure, and (2) a threat to central aspects of one's identity. Study 1 (N = 115) assessed emotional reactions to a public insult when an audience responded with either laughter or not and when someone from the audience offered support after the insult or no support was offered. Results showed that the intensity of humiliation increased when people laughed after the insult. However, support offered after the insult had no effect on reported humiliation. Study 2 (N = 99) focused on threats to different self-related values and showed stronger reports of humiliation when central self-related values were threatened than when less central self-related values were threatened. Study 2 also replicated the audience-effect from Study 1, but only when central self-related values were threatened and not when less central self-related values were threatened. Limitations of these studies (e.g., the use of scenarios) and potential avenues for future research, such as the (long-term) consequences of humiliation and humiliation in the context of social media, are discussed. PMID:28473779

  17. When Is Humiliation More Intense? The Role of Audience Laughter and Threats to the Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta H. Fischer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In personal accounts, humiliation is often reported as a very intense, painful, negative emotion. We report two scenario studies in which we explored two factors that may contribute to the intense character of humiliation: (1 unwanted, negative public exposure, and (2 a threat to central aspects of one's identity. Study 1 (N = 115 assessed emotional reactions to a public insult when an audience responded with either laughter or not and when someone from the audience offered support after the insult or no support was offered. Results showed that the intensity of humiliation increased when people laughed after the insult. However, support offered after the insult had no effect on reported humiliation. Study 2 (N = 99 focused on threats to different self-related values and showed stronger reports of humiliation when central self-related values were threatened than when less central self-related values were threatened. Study 2 also replicated the audience-effect from Study 1, but only when central self-related values were threatened and not when less central self-related values were threatened. Limitations of these studies (e.g., the use of scenarios and potential avenues for future research, such as the (long-term consequences of humiliation and humiliation in the context of social media, are discussed.

  18. Pandangan Tokoh Agama Non Islam Terhadap Gagasan Gus Dur Tentang Pluralisme

    OpenAIRE

    Yusup, Maulana; Lubis, Zulkifli; Rachmat, Noor

    2017-01-01

    The researcher concludes that the notion of pluralism with Gus Dur perception of non-Muslim religious leaders can diteriam (comfortable), that Gus idea of pluralism is inseparable from democracy, culture, justice and inklusifisme . And of the concept of democratic pluralism Gus Dur, culture, justice and inklusifisme be known, Praise be to Allaah than these four concepts is a major theme of thinking Gus Dur is human. This study aims to describe and analyze the views of non-Muslim religious lea...

  19. Pan-pan Girls: Humiliating Liberation in Postwar Japanese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Sakamoto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some literary representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japan. ‘Pan-pan’ is a derogatory term for street prostitutes who (mostly served the soldiers of the occupying forces. Immediately after World War II, the Japanese government established the RAA (Recreation Amusement Association and employed several thousand women to provide sexual services for foreign soldiers, ostensibly to protect Japanese women of middle and upper classes from rape and other violence. When the RAA was closed down in 1946 due to the US concern over widespread VD, many of the women who lost their jobs went out on the street and became private and illegal prostitutes – the pan-pan girls. With their red lipstick, cigarettes, nylon stockings and high-heel shoes, often holding onto the arms of tall, uniformed American GIs, the ‘pan-pan girls’ became a symbol of the occupation, and have been textually reproduced throughout the postwar period. This paper analyses the images and representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japanese literature, to consider how the ‘pan-pan girls’ have functioned as a metaphor for the occupation and contributed to the public memory construction of the occupation. I identify some major codes of representations (victimisation, humiliation, and national trauma; eroticism and decadence; sexual freedom and materialism and argue that the highly gendered and sexualised bodies of the ‘pan-pan girls’ have continued to allow simplistic and selective remembering of the occupation at the expense of recalling the pivotal role of Japanese patriarchy in the postwar period.

  20. Sermo humilis y lirismo en Italianesi de Saverio La Ruina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Albanese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El sastre Tonino Cantisani, protagonista del monólogo Italianesi, escrito y producido en 2011 por el dramaturgo Saverio La Ruina, es un personaje de invención, al igual que la historia que cuenta, la de un hombre nacido en 1951 de madre albanesa y de un militar italiano obligado a vivir durante cuarenta años, hasta la caída del régimen comunista de Hoxha en un campo de prisioneros albanés. Sin embargo, la ficción se nutre dramáticamente de una trágica verdad histórica, desafortunadamente olvidada en la historia oficial, de la que el protagonista se convierte en un ejemplo paradigmático. Considerado en Albania como italiano durante cuarenta años, en cuanto regresa a Italia Tonino se convierte en albanés. Uniendo piezas de un mosaico lírico, La Ruina construye una narración compleja, impregnada de la sonoridad del dialecto calabro-italiano que recuerda la tierra de origen del director. Una arquitectura narrativa marcada por el pudor y construida con modesta parquedad a través de una específica retórica del discurso, del gesto milimétrico y de la puesta en escena.El presente artículo es la traducción del texto revisado y ampliado de Albanese, A. (2014. Sermo humilis e lirismo in Italianesi di Saverio La Ruina, Between, 4(7.

  1. Maximal avalanches in the Bak-Sneppen model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillett, A.J.; Meester, R.W.J.; van der Wal, P.

    2006-01-01

    We study the durations of the avalanches in the maximal avalanche decomposition of the Bak-Sneppen evolution model. We show that all the avalanches in this maximal decomposition have infinite expectation, but only 'barely', in the sense that if we made the appropriate threshold a tiny amount smaller

  2. Triterpenoids from the stem bark of Blighia unijugata bak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data as friedelin and epifriedelinol. Keywords: triterpenoid, stem bark, Blighia unijugata, friedelin, epifriedelinol ...

  3. Examination of humiliation and past maladaptive family context in persecutory ideation: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazzoni, Alberto; Laloyaux, Julien; Larøi, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that early interpersonal trauma is involved in the development of persecutory ideation. However, the specific influence of past and current social and familial variables has never been previously explored. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the potential role of current and past interpersonal humiliation events (e.g. to be cruelly criticized, submitted, bullied, insulted, scorned) and a negative family context on the development of persecutory ideation. Current and past interpersonal humiliation events (Humiliation Inventory), a negative family context (Risky Family Questionnaire) and degree of persecutory ideation (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory) were assessed in a sample of 175 non-clinical participants (range=18-62years, 81% women and 19% men) with the help of an online survey. A pattern of significant correlations emerged, in particular, between persecutory ideation, the past and present interpersonal humiliation, and negative primary family context. Moreover, hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that, among the various variables, past interpersonal humiliation events and a negative family context significantly predicted higher levels of persecutory ideation. For the first time in the literature, this study provides preliminary evidence that past interpersonal humiliation events and a negative family context are related to the development of persecutory ideation. In addition, we showed that past interpersonal humiliation events, but not the fear of current events, have an impact on the development of persecutory ideation. These results suggest that the amelioration of early familial and social contexts may help to prevent the development of persecutory ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with either BAK-preserved latanoprost or BAK-free travoprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Katz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Katz1, Clark L Springs2, E Randy Craven3, Michela Montecchi-Palmer41Huron Ophthalmology, Ypsilanti, MI, USA; 2Indiana University Eye Care, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Specialty Eye Care, Denver, CO, USA; 4Alcon Research Ltd., Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK may adversely affect ocular surface health. This study evaluated symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD in patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved therapy to lower their intraocular pressure, who either continued that therapy or switched to a BAK-free therapy.Methods: Eligible adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma that had been controlled with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy (Xalatan® for at least one month and had a score of ≥ 13 (0 = none, 100 = most severe on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire were entered into this prospective, double-masked, randomized, active-controlled, multicenter trial. By random assignment, patients either continued with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or transitioned to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (Travatan Z® ophthalmic solution. OSDI scores were assessed again after six and 12 weeks.Results: For the 678 evaluable patients, mean change in OSDI score from baseline to week 12 favored the travoprost 0.004% BAK-free group, but was not statistically different between groups (P = 0.10. When patients with mild OSD at baseline were assessed after 12 weeks, the mean OSDI score was significantly lower (P = 0.04 in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (score = 11.6 ± 10.8 units than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (score = 14.4 ± 11.9 units, and a significantly larger percentage (P < 0.01 improved to normal OSDI scores in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (62.9% of group than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (47.0% of group. Patients pretreated with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% for >24 months were significantly more likely (P

  5. Expression of Bak and Bak/Mcl-1 ratio can predict photodynamic therapy outcome for oral verrucous hyperplasia and leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Lin, Hung-Pin; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2013-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is very effective for oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) and relatively less effective for oral leukoplakia (OL) lesions. Nevertheless, there has been no report on the association of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in OVH and OL biopsy tissues prior to PDT with PDT treatment outcomes. This study used immunohistochemistry to evaluate whether the expression of Bak, Mcl-1, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, p53, p21, or PCNA protein in biopsy specimens of OVH and OL lesions could be used to predict the clinical outcomes of 18 OVH and 40 OL lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT. The marker labeling score (LS) was defined as labeling index (positive cells/total cells) multiplied by staining intensity. The lesions after ALA-PDT treatment were divided into complete response (CR) group and partial or no response (PR/NR) group. The mean Bak LS and the mean Bak/Mcl-1 LS ratio were significantly higher in the CR group than in the PR/NR group. However, there was no significant difference in the Mcl-1, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, p53, p21, or PCNA protein LS between the CR and PR/NR groups. We conclude that the Bak LS or Bak/Mcl-1 LS ratio may be a useful biomarker to predict the clinical outcomes of OVH and OL lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT. Pre-PDT epithelial cell levels of Mcl-1, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, p53, p21, and PCNA may not have a significant influence on the clinical outcome of OVH and OL lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional divergence of BAK1 genes from Brassica rapa in regulating plant architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Li, C; Li, Q; Wang, Q N; Huang, S H; Zhang, Y F; Wang, X F

    2015-11-19

    BAK1 is a co-receptor of BRI1 in early signaling pathways mediated by brassinosteroids (BRs) and is thought to play a major role in plant growth and development. As the role of BAK1 has not yet been fully elucidated then further research is required to explore its potential for use in genetic modification to improve crops. In this study, three BAK1 genes from the amphidiploid species Brassica rapa were isolated and their kinase functions were predicted following DNA sequence analysis. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that two genes, BrBAK1-1 and BrBAK1-8, shared a conserved kinase domain and 5 tandem leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that are characteristic of a BAK1 receptor for BR perception, whereas the third gene, BrBAK1-3, was deficient for a signal peptide, but had 4 leucine zippers and 3 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in an extracellular domain. All three BrBAK1 kinases localized on the cellular membrane. Ectopic expression of each BrBAK1 gene in BR-insensitive (bri1-5 mutant) Arabidopsis plants indicated that BrBAK1-1 and BrBAK1-8 were functional homologues of AtBAK1 based on the rescue of growth in the bri1-5 mutant. Overexpression of BrBAK1-3 caused a severe dwarf phenotype resembling the phenotype of null BRI1 alleles. The results here suggest there are significant differences among the three BrBAK1 kinases for their effects on plant architecture. This conclusion has important implications for genetic modification of B. rapa.

  7. Dinlerin intihar olgusuna bakışı

    OpenAIRE

    SÜMER, Necati

    2015-01-01

    Dinlerin intihar olgusuna bakışını ele alan bu tez, giriş ve dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Giriş kısmında çalışma hakkında genel bilgiler, intihar ve onunla ilişkili kavramlar, intihar üzerine bazı teoriler, antik ve ilkel toplumlardaki intihar olgusu üzerinde durulmuştur. Birinci bölümde, Yahudilikte hayat ve ölüm anlayışı ele alınarak, bu dinin intihara bakışı ve Yahudilik tarihinde meydana gelen intiharlar incelenmiştir. Bu bölümde ayrıca Yahudi din otoriteleri ve mezheplerinin inti...

  8. Kalinnikov: Sinfonie Nr.2 A-Dur, Ouvertüre Zar Boris / Hanspeter Krellmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krellmann, Hanspeter

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Kalinnikov: Sinfonie Nr.2 A-Dur, Ouvertüre Zar Boris, Die Zeder und die Palme. Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" (AD: 1989) Chandos / Koch Records CD 8805 (WD: 59'40") DDD

  9. Why are We Such a Violent Nation? The Legacy of Humiliation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to explore why, 21 years after apartheid, South Africans are so violent and why crime, even petty crime, is unique because of its extraordinary level of violence. This article seeks to interrogate the role of humiliation in extreme violence and its devastating consequences for an emerging democracy.

  10. Disappearing population of Betula humilis Schrk. on the Maliszewskie Lake, NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrzanowska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Betula humilis Schrk. is an endangered glacial relict inhabiting wet meadows, natural and drained fens. One of its declining populations is located on the Maliszewskie Lake (the Wizna swamp, north-eastern Poland. The goal of the present study was to estimate the number of B. humilis individuals in this locality. In the Maliszewskie Lake population, 59 ramets, grouped into three clusters, were found. Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci were chosen to genotype 52 ramets. The analysis revealed that all the shoots within the single cluster had the same genotypes at the loci considered. This means that each cluster constituted one genetically distinct individual; thus, there were only three individuals of B. humilis in the studied population. The maintenance of the B. humilis population in the Maliszewskie Lake area requires urgent active protection involving removal of the shading vegetation. In fact, the entire Maliszewskie Lake is worthy of protection because of its hitherto unexplained origin and the occurrence of many endangered bird species.

  11. Vicarious Group-Based Rejection : Creating a Potentially Dangerous Mix of Humiliation, Powerlessness, and Anger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Tinka M.; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    Rejection can convey that one is seen as inferior and not worth bothering with. Is it possible for people to feel vicariously rejected in this sense and have reactions that are similar to those following personal rejection, such as feeling humiliated, powerless, and angry? A study on personal

  12. Why There can BE no Conflict Resolution as Long as People are Being Humiliated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Evelin G.

    2009-05-01

    This paper discusses how conflict resolution and reconciliation, in their interplay with emotions, are embedded into two current trends: the transition toward increasing global interdependence, and the call for equal dignity for all. In a traditional world of ranked honour, humiliation is often condoned as a legitimate and useful tool; however, in terms of human rights it is seen as a violation of humanity. This article argues that the norms of equal dignity are worth supporting for two reasons: first, the human rights framework promotes quality of life, and second, it is the best way to tackle increasing global interdependence. Yet, there is a caveat. While feelings of humiliation in the face of debasing conditions are an important resource in that they emotionally "fuel" the human rights movement, they also represent what the author calls the "nuclear bomb of the emotions" that, if instrumentalised, can power cycles of humiliation and atrocities. Only if the implementation of human rights is approached hands-on and these feelings converted into Mandela-like social transformation to form a decent global village can the human rights movement fulfil its promise and humiliation be transcended.

  13. 110 Years of Humiliation From 1839 to 1949: China’s Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY ....................................7 Humiliation...Boxer Rebellion ............................................................................................................ 31 The Twenty-one Demands...include in the literature review to enhance the credibility and transferability of the study. 5 Significance of the Study In the last two decades

  14. BAK overexpression mediates p53-independent apoptosis inducing effects on human gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a novel pro-apoptotic gene of the Bcl-2 family. It has been reported that gastric tumors have reduced BAK levels when compared with the normal mucosa. Moreover, mutations of the BAK gene have been identified in human gastrointestinal cancers, suggesting that a perturbation of BAK-mediated apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effects of gene transfer mediated elevations in BAK expression on human gastric cancer cells in vitro. Methods Eukaryotic expression vector for the BAK gene was constructed and transferred into gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-45 (wild-type p53 and MKN-28 (mutant-type p53. RT-PCR and Western Blotting detected cellular BAK gene expression. Cell growth activities were detected by MTT colorimetry and flow cytometry, while apoptosis was assayed by electronic microscopy and TUNEL. Western Blotting and colorimetry investigated cellular caspase-3 activities. Results BAK gene transfer could result in significant BAK overexpression, decreased in vitro growth, cell cycle G0/G1 arrest, and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In transferred cells, inactive caspase-3 precursor was cleaved into the active subunits p20 and p17, during BAK overexpression-induced apoptosis. In addition, this process occurred equally well in p53 wild-type (MKN-45, or in p53 mutant-type (MKN-28 gastric cancer cells. Conclusions The data presented suggests that overexpression of the BAK gene can lead to apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, which does not appear to be dependent on p53 status. The action mechanism of BAK mediated apoptosis correlates with activation of caspase-3. This could be served as a potential strategy for further development of gastric cancer therapies.

  15. Overview of the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, L. K.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Dubey, M.; Andrews, E.; Coulter, R. L.; Hair, J. W.; Hubbe, J. M.Lee, Y. N.; Mazzoleni, C; Olfert, J; Springston, SR; Environmental Science Division; PNNL; NOAA Earth System Research Lab.; NASA Langley Research Center; LANL; BNL; Univ.of Alberta; Univ. of Colorado

    2009-11-01

    Aerosols influence climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation and indirectly through their influence on cloud microphysical and dynamical properties. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that the global radiative forcing due to aerosols is large and in general cools the planet. But the uncertainties in these estimates are also large due to our poor understanding of many of the important processes related to aerosols and clouds. To address this uncertainty an integrated strategy for addressing issues related to aerosols and aerosol processes was proposed. Using this conceptual framework, the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) is a stage 1 activity, that is, a detailed process study. The specific focus of CHAPS was to provide concurrent observations of the chemical composition of the activated [particles that are currently serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)] and nonactivated aerosols, the scattering and extinction profiles, and detailed aerosol and droplet size spectra in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during June 2007. Numerous campaigns have examined aerosol properties downwind from large pollution sources, including the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign and the two of the three Aerosol Characterization Experiments, ACE-2 and ACE-Asia. Other studies conducted near cities have examined changes in both aerosols and clouds downwind of urban areas. For example wintertime stratiform clouds associated with the urban plumes of Denver, Colorado, and Kansas City, Missouri, have a larger number concentration and smaller median volume diameter of droplets than clouds that had not been affected by the urban plume. Likewise, a decrease in precipitation in polluted regions along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains was discovered. In a modeling study, it was found that precipitation downwind of urban areas may be influenced by changes in aerosols as well as the

  16. Long-term exposure to political violence: The particular injury of persistent humiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; McNeely, Clea; Olsen, Joseph A; Belli, Robert F; Doty, Samuel Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the association between exposure to political violence over a 25-year period and adult functioning among a population that has experienced protracted and severe political conflict. Instead of aggregating exposure to political violence across time and type of exposure, as is commonly done, the event history calendar pioneered in this study assessed exposure to five forms of political violence annually from 1987 to 2011 in a representative sample of 1788 adults, aged 37 on average, in the occupied Palestinian territories (West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip). This method allowed for the identification of trajectories of exposure to political violence from childhood to adulthood using latent profile analysis. We then correlated the trajectories of exposure to measures of economic, political, community, family, psychological, and health functioning. As expected, being shot at, having one's home raided, being hit or kicked, being verbally abused, and witnessing someone close being humiliated were all elevated during periods of heightened political conflict (the first intifada (1987-1993) and, less so, the second intifada (2000-2005)). In addition, 12% of women and men reported high and persistent levels of exposure to humiliation (being verbally abused and/or witnessing someone close being humiliated) across the entire 25-year period. These individuals lived predominantly in neighborhoods with a high Israeli military presence. Compared to those who experienced periodic exposure to political violence, persistently humiliated men and women reported significantly lower health, economic, political, and psychological functioning, as well as higher social cohesion and political expression. Relevant literatures are reviewed when concluding that persistent humiliation is a neglected form of political violence that is best represented as a direct (versus structural), acute (versus chronic), macro (versus micro), and high-grade (versus low

  17. PEMIKIRAN GUS DUR TENTANG PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER DAN KEARIFAN LOKAL

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    LukLuk Nur Mufidah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Education which emphasized on cognition domain should be changed by balancing it with skills (psychomotor and attitudes (affective. It is intended that education is able to produce savvy generations who have high moral standards. To that end, KH Abdurrahman Wahid -or better known as Gus Dur- had a concept of character building in education by promoting morality in education. Character building in education is the education which is based on local wisdom. Local wisdom is social norms and values contained in tradition and customs as well as in Islamic teachings that govern how a balance should be established between carrying capacity of the natural environment, lifestyle, and the needs of human beings. In the language of Gus Dur, local wisdom was called the indigenization of Islam in which the teachings of Islam and local traditions were used as a moral basis in the real life of people. Because the cultivation of moral values could be done through education, the local wisdom should be the basic concept of education process. Customs become an integral part in daily life, while religion becomes a way of life to conform to the guidance of Allah. Local wisdom formed from local traditions and locality of religious teachings was able to provide life lessons that were useful for the development process of maturity through the educational process.           الملخص: إن التربية المفضّلة الجانب المعرفي – كما يقع الآن -  لابد من تركها، ويكون البديل هو الموازنة بين الجانب المعرفي والجانب النفسحركي والمهني. والهدف من هذا تخريج الطلاب أو الأجيال الأذكياء المتأدّبين المتخلّقين. وفي هذا كان لكياهي الحاج عبد الرحمن وحيد المعروف بغوسدور فكرة عن التربية الخلقية وهي التربية التي

  18. Experimental effect of temperature and sedimentation on bleaching of the two Red Sea corals Stylophora pistillata and Acropora humilis

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    MOHAMMED S.A. AMMAR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammar MSA, Obuid-Allah AH, Al-Hammady MAM. 2013. Experimental effect of temperature and sedimentation on bleaching of the two Red Sea corals Stylophora pistillata and Acropora humilis. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 73-83. At 26°C (the control sample, the loss of zooxanthellae by each of the two studied corals Stylophora pistillata and Acropora humilis was very low. Cell viability of the two studied corals was similar at 26 and 29°C, but depicted a sharp decline of zooxanthellae lost at 31°C through time. As the temperature increased to 35°C, the loss of zooxanthellae from each host increased both with time and temperature elevation. The coral A. humilis had a higher decrease in its zooxanthellae densities than S. pistillata at the same treatment. Bleaching temperature threshold was 33°C or less for the two species S. pistillata and A. humilis where 51% of their zooxanthellae were lost after 24 h of exposure. In samples exposed to sediment concentration of 0.1 mg/cm2/L, zooxanthellae densities of A. humilis and S. pistillata did not show any decrease after 1 day. However, after 1 days of exposure to 0.5 mg/cm2/L, zooxanthellae densities were significantly different from those of the controls. Increases in sediment concentration to 1 mg/cm2/L caused a decrease in zooxanthellae densities that vary greatly over time. Measurements of zooxanthellae densities of A. humilis and S. pistillata at this stage revealed a highly significant difference between exposed and control sample. At 1 g/cm2/L, the number of zooxanthellae lost from A. humilis was higher than those lost from S. pistillata at same time. It is suggested that, the normal sedimentation rate for A. humilis and S. pistillata to be in an order of 1 mg/cm2/L or less.

  19. Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi / Andreas K. W. Meyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meyer, Andreas K. W.

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". DG 2 CD 445857-2 (WD: 138'37")

  20. Critical behavior of a stochastic anisotropic Bak-Sneppen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jihui; Li, Wei; Su, Zhu; Deng, Webing

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present our study on the critical behavior of a stochastic anisotropic Bak-Sneppen (saBS) model, in which a parameter α is introduced to describe the interaction strength among nearest species. We estimate the threshold fitness f c and the critical exponent τ r by numerically integrating a master equation for the distribution of avalanche spatial sizes. Other critical exponents are then evaluated from previously known scaling relations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the counterparts yielded by the Monte Carlo simulations. Our results indicate that all saBS models with nonzero interaction strength exhibit self-organized criticality, and fall into the same universality class, by sharing the universal critical exponents.

  1. PEMIJAHAN ALAMI ARWANA SILVER (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum DALAM BAK TERKONTROL

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    Agus Priyadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ikan arwana silver (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum adalah ikan hias introduksi berasal dari Brazil yang sudah menjadi ikan hias potensial. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui teknik pemijahan secara alami ikan arwana silver dalam bak terkontrol. Induk arwana jantan dan betina yang sudah diberi penanda (tagging sebanyak 12 ekor diadaptasikan dalam bak beton (3 m x 2 m x 1 m yang diletakkan di dalam ruangan yang dilengkapi dengan instalasi aerasi. Pakan diberikan berupa percil (50 g dan ikan selar (360 g dua hari sekali. Setelah 10 bulan ikan arwana mencapai panjang berkisar 59-64 cm dan bobot berkisar 1.208,5-1.849,5 g. Semua ikan arwana (11 ekor dipindah ke luar ruangan, dipelihara dalam bak beton (5 m x 2 m x 1.2 m dengan media air yang diputar menggunakan pompa dan bak pemeliharaan ditutup dengan jala. Pakan diberikan sama seperti saat adaptasi. Pengamatan keberhasilan pemijahan ikan dilakukan setiap saat dengan mengetahui ada tidaknya telur yang dierami dalam mulut arwana jantan. Pengeluaran larva dari dalam mulut induk jantan dilakukan setelah telur dierami selama 1-1,5 bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa setelah 8 bulan pemeliharaan di luar ruangan, arwana silver jantan terlihat mengerami telur dalam mulutnya pertama kali dan menghasilkan larva sebanyak 17 ekor, kemudian berturut-turut menghasilkan larva setiap bulan pada bulan ke-22, 23, dan 24 berkisar 25-107 ekor/induk/bulan.  Silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum is an ornamental fish introduced from Brazil and has been popular among fish collectors. The objective of this research was to determine the optimal spawning technique of silver arowana in controlled tank. Tagged male and female of arowana broodstock were adapted in 3 m x 2 m x 1 m indoor concrete tank with stocking density of 12 individual/tank. Lift frogs (50 g and raw fish (360 g were given as feed once per two days. After ten months of rearing, the total length of silver arowana broodstock varied from 59 to 64

  2. Conversion of Bim-BH3 from Activator to Inhibitor of Bak through Structure-Based Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Jason M; Lan, Ping; Cowan, Angus D; Bernardini, Jonathan P; Birkinshaw, Richard W; van Delft, Mark F; Sleebs, Brad E; Robin, Adeline Y; Wardak, Ahmad; Tan, Iris K; Reljic, Boris; Lee, Erinna F; Fairlie, W Douglas; Call, Melissa J; Smith, Brian J; Dewson, Grant; Lessene, Guillaume; Colman, Peter M; Czabotar, Peter E

    2017-11-16

    Certain BH3-only proteins transiently bind and activate Bak and Bax, initiating their oligomerization and the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane, a pivotal step in the mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis. Here we describe the first crystal structures of an activator BH3 peptide bound to Bak and illustrate their use in the design of BH3 derivatives capable of inhibiting human Bak on mitochondria. These BH3 derivatives compete for the activation site at the canonical groove, are the first engineered inhibitors of Bak activation, and support the role of key conformational transitions associated with Bak activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cotton GhBAK1 mediates Verticillium wilt resistance and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiquan; Li, Fangjun; Li, Maoying; Kianinejad, Ali S; Dever, Jane K; Wheeler, Terry A; Li, Zhaohu; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

    2013-07-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) offers a powerful approach for functional analysis of individual genes by knocking down their expression. We have adopted this approach to dissect gene functions in cotton resistant to Verticillium wilt, one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. We showed here that highly efficient VIGS was obtained in a cotton breeding line (CA4002) with partial resistance to Verticillium wilt, and GhMKK2 and GhVe1 are required for its resistance to Verticillium wilt. Arabidopsis AtBAK1/SERK3, a central regulator in plant disease resistance, belongs to a subfamily of somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) with five members, AtSERK1 to AtSERK5. Two BAK1 orthologs and one SERK1 ortholog were identified in the cotton genome. Importantly, GhBAK1 is required for CA4002 resistance to Verticillium wilt. Surprisingly, silencing of GhBAK1 is sufficient to trigger cell death accompanied with production of reactive oxygen species in cotton. This result is distinct from Arabidopsis in which AtBAK1 and AtSERK4 play redundant functions in cell death control. Apparently, cotton has only evolved SERK1 and BAK1 whereas AtSERK4/5 are newly evolved genes in Arabidopsis. Our studies indicate the functional importance of BAK1 in Verticillium wilt resistance and suggest the dynamic evolution of SERK family members in different plant species. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. La varias veces pionera Capilla Bakócz = The several times pioneer chapel Bakócz

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    Laura Corrales Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Levantada a principios del siglo XVI en Esztergom, la capilla  funeraria del cardenal Tamás Bakócz se aleja del gótico  dominante para constituir el ejemplo más precoz y depurado de arquitectura renacentista al norte de los Alpes. Prematuramente próxima a sus contemporáneos italianos, se vio influenciada por la procedencia artística de sus maestros constructores, y por la poderosa figura de su mecenas y su estrecha relación con el papa Julio II, embarcado en la concepción de la nueva basílica  vaticana. Relevante es también su historia tras la muerte de su patrón. Tras sobrevivir ilesa a casi 150 años de dominación  otomana, fue objeto a comienzos del siglo XIX de una  impresionante y pionera operación de despiece y traslado que aún hoy sigue sorprendiendo por su contemporánea concepción sobre el valor de lo monumental. Abstract Built in the first decade of the 16th century in the Hungarian city of Esztergom, the burial chapel of Cardinal Tamás Bakócz  abandoned the dominant Gothic style to constitute the earliest and most perfect example of Renaissance architecture north of the Alps. Surprisingly close to Italian examples from the same period, this Hungarian building was strongly conditioned by the artistic background of its building masters. However, its main influence came from the leading figure of the Cardinal and his close relationship with the Pope Julius II, who was working at that time in the project for the new Vatican basilica. It is also highly relevant the evolution of the chapel after Bakócz's death. It survived to 150 years of Turkish occupation before being cut into pieces and transferred to a new place. This pioneer process took place in the early beginning of XIX century and is still surprising for the modern concept about restoration that it involves.

  5. Mahler: Sinfonie Nr. 8 Es-Dur (Sinfonie der Tausend) / Norbert Rüdell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüdell, Norbert

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Mahler: Sinfonie Nr. 8 Es-Dur (Sinfonie der Tausend). Estonian Boys' Choir, Brunnsbo Children's Choir, Gothenburg Opera Chorus, Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Choir, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus, Gothenburg Opera Chorus, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. BIS/Disco-Center CD 700 (WD:72'18")

  6. A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the core genetic components of salt and osmotic stress responses in Braya humilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengshan Zhao

    Full Text Available Braya humilis is a member of the Euclidieae tribe within the family Brassicaceae. This species exhibits a broad range of adaptations to different climatic zones and latitudes as it has a distribution that ranges from northern Asia to the arctic-alpine regions of northern North America. In China, B. humilis is mainly found on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and in adjacent arid regions. In this study, we sequenced a sample from an arid region adjacent to the QTP using the Illumina platform generating a total of 46,485 highly accurate unigenes, of which 78.41% were annotated by BLASTing versus public protein databases. The B. humilis transcriptome is characterized by a high level of sequence conservation compared with its close relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. We also used reciprocal blast to identify shared orthologous genes between B. humilis and four other sequenced Brassicaceae species (i.e. A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Capsella rubella, and Thellungiella parvula. To enable precise characterization of orthologous genes, the early-diverging basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda was also included. A total of 6,689 orthologous genes were identified before stricter criteria for the determination of e-values, amino acid hit lengths, and identity values was applied to further reduce this list. This led to a final list of 381 core orthologous genes for B. humilis; 39 out of these genes are involved in salt and osmotic stress responses and estimations of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios for this species and A. thaliana orthologs show that these genes are under purifying selection in B. humilis. Expression of six genes was detected in B. humilis seedlings under salt and osmotic stress treatments. Comparable expression patterns to their counterparts in Arabidopsis suggest that these orthologous genes are both sequence and functional conservation. The results of this study demonstrate that the environmental adaptations of B. humilis are mainly the

  7. N-(1-Pyrenyl Maleimide Induces Bak Oligomerization and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Jurkat Cells

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    Pei-Rong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available N-(1-pyrenyl maleimide (NPM is a fluorescent reagent that is frequently used as a derivatization agent for the detection of thio-containing compounds. NPM has been shown to display a great differential cytotoxicity against hematopoietic cancer cells. In this study, the molecular mechanism by which NPM induces apoptosis was examined. Here, we show that treatment of Jurkat cells with NPM leads to Bak oligomerization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, and release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytosol. Induction of Bak oligomerization appears to play a critical role in NPM-induced apoptosis, as downregulation of Bak by shRNA significantly prevented NPM-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of caspase 8 by Z-IETD-FMK and/or depletion of Bid did not affect NPM-induced oligomerization of Bak. Taken together, these results suggest that NPM-induced apoptosis is mediated through a pathway that is independent of caspase-8 activation.

  8. Beta-Amyloid Oligomers Activate Apoptotic BAK Pore for Cytochrome c Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewook; Yang, Yoosoo; Song, Seung Soo; Na, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Kyoung Joon; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Yu, Yeon Gyu; Shin, Yeon-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease, cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis is a crucial pathway in neuronal cell death. Although beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are known to be the neurotoxins responsible for neuronal cell death, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we report that the oligomeric form of synthetic Aβ of 42 amino acids elicits death of HT-22 cells. But, when expression of a bcl-2 family protein BAK is suppressed by siRNA, Aβ oligomer-induced cell death was reduced. Furthermore, significant reduction of cytochrome c release was observed with mitochondria isolated from BAK siRNA-treated HT-22 cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrate that Aβ oligomers bind to BAK on the membrane and induce apoptotic BAK pores and cytochrome c release. Thus, the results suggest that Aβ oligomers function as apoptotic ligands and hijack the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to cause unintended neuronal cell death. PMID:25296312

  9. Cloud Condensation Nuclei in Cumulus Humilis — selected Case Study During the CHAPS Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, X.; Lee, Y.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.; Alexander, L.; Laskin, A.; Ogren, J.; Andrews, E.

    2010-03-15

    The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) provided a unique opportunity to study aerosol and cloud processing. Clouds play an active role in the processing and cycling of atmospheric constituents. Gases and particles can partition to cloud droplets by absorption and condensation as well as activation and impact scavenging. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft was used as one of the main platforms in CHAPS. Flight tracks were designed and implemented to characterize freshly emitted aerosols at cloud top and cloud base as well as within the cloud, i.e., cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus), in the vicinity of Oklahoma City. Measurements of interstitial aerosols and residuals of activated condensation cloud nuclei were conducted simultaneously. The interstitial aerosols were measured downstream of an isokinetic inlet, and the activated particles downstream of a counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI). The sampling line to the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was switched between the isokinetic inlet and the CVI to allow characterization of non-activated interstitial particles outside of clouds in contrast to particles activated in clouds. Trace gases including ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured, as were key meteorological state parameters including liquid water content, cloud drop size, and dew point. We will report on the CCN properties in cumulus humilis. Several approaches will be taken. The first is single-particle analysis of particles collected by the Time-Resolved Aerosol Sampler (TRAC) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Specifically, we examine differences between activated and interstitial ones, such as differences in chemical composition and morphology. The second analysis will link in situ measurements by AMS and PTRMS with the observations by TRAC. For

  10. Tyrosine-610 in the Receptor Kinase BAK1 Does Not Play a Major Role in Brassinosteroid Signaling or Innate Immunity

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    Vijayata Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1 functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1, which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR, respectively, which are involved in immunity. BAK1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that can autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. It was previously reported that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 in the carboxy-terminal domain of BAK1 is required for its function in BR signaling and immunity. However, the functional role of Tyr-610 in vivo has recently come under scrutiny. Therefore, we have generated new BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants for functional studies. We first produced transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag in the homozygous bak1-4 bkk1-1 double null background. In a complementary approach, we expressed untagged BAK1 and BAK1 (Y610F in the bak1-4 null mutant. Neither BAK1 (Y610F transgenic line had any obvious growth phenotype when compared to wild-type BAK1 expressed in the same background. In addition, the BAK1 (Y610F-Flag plants responded similarly to plants expressing BAK1-Flag in terms of brassinolide (BL inhibition of root elongation, and there were only minor changes in gene expression between the two transgenic lines as monitored by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. In terms of plant immunity, there were no significant differences between plants expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag and BAK1-Flag in the growth of the non-pathogenic hrpA- mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, untagged BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants were as responsive as plants expressing BAK1 (in the bak1-4 background and wild-type Col-0 plants toward treatment with the EF-Tu- and flagellin-derived peptide epitopes elf18- and flg22, respectively, as measured by reactive

  11. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-02-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  13. Bid chimeras indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate Bak and Bax, and show no preference for Bak versus Bax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, C; Anwari, K; Ninnis, R L; Brouwer, J; O'Hely, M; Evangelista, M; Hinds, M G; Czabotar, P E; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Dewson, G; Kluck, R M

    2015-04-23

    The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is initiated by Bcl-2 homology region 3 (BH3)-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family. On upregulation or activation, certain BH3-only proteins can directly bind and activate Bak and Bax to induce conformation change, oligomerization and pore formation in mitochondria. BH3-only proteins, with the exception of Bid, are intrinsically disordered and therefore, functional studies often utilize peptides based on just their BH3 domains. However, these reagents do not possess the hydrophobic membrane targeting domains found on the native BH3-only molecule. To generate each BH3-only protein as a recombinant protein that could efficiently target mitochondria, we developed recombinant Bid chimeras in which the BH3 domain was replaced with that of other BH3-only proteins (Bim, Puma, Noxa, Bad, Bmf, Bik and Hrk). The chimeras were stable following purification, and each immunoprecipitated with full-length Bcl-xL according to the specificity reported for the related BH3 peptide. When tested for activation of Bak and Bax in mitochondrial permeabilization assays, Bid chimeras were ~1000-fold more effective than the related BH3 peptides. BH3 sequences from Bid and Bim were the strongest activators, followed by Puma, Hrk, Bmf and Bik, while Bad and Noxa were not activators. Notably, chimeras and peptides showed no apparent preference for activating Bak or Bax. In addition, within the BH3 domain, the h0 position recently found to be important for Bax activation, was important also for Bak activation. Together, our data with full-length proteins indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate both Bak and Bax.

  14. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  15. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California - release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic strains of the African endoparasitoids Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were released to suppress the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California from 2006 – 2016. Both parasitoid species were recovered post-release within the same fruit season; ho...

  16. The small barbs Barbus humilis and B. trispilopleura of Lake Tana (Ethiopia): Are they ecotypes of the same species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Rutjes, H.A.; Graaf, de M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Four species of ‘small barbs’ (Barbus, subgenus Enteromius Cope, 1869) are known from Lake Tana, isolated in the Ethiopian highlands: B. humilis, B. trispilopleura, B. pleurogramma (all Boulenger, 1902) and B. tanapelagius de Graaf, 2000. However, only three species appear valid from cluster

  17. [Hepatic intra-arterial infusion of BAK immune cells to treat metastatic liver cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Takusaburo

    2011-11-01

    Based on the "living with cancer" concept while maintaining a favorable QOL and avoiding side effects and drug resistance, we have developed a new immune cell treatment called BAK (BRM activated killer) therapy, primarily using CD56+ cells for a case of advanced progressive solid cancer. In the present case, we administered BAK cells by hepatic intra-arterial infusion to a patient who happened to be a surgeon and wished to undergo this therapy. The patient was a 52-year- old male surgeon who underwent surgery for rectal cancer in April 2007. Heavy particle radiotherapy was administered when liver metastases were identified in July 2008. Starting in December 2008, 10 billion BAK cells were administered each month by hepatic intra-arterial infusion via a catheter on a total of six different occasions. The 10 billion autologous lymphocytes were suspended in 200 mL of Ringer's solution and returned to the patient by hepatic intra-arterial infusion over a period of one hour. Interactions between the activated lymphocytes and liver cancer cells increased levels of serum α1AG, an inflammation marker, but these levels normalized following the sixth and final administration. Conventional drip-infusion BAK therapy was administered thereafter. Diagnostic imaging, including PET-CT and PET, confirmed a complete disappearance of liver metastases. This case suggests the effectiveness of hepatic intra-arterial infusion BAK cell therapy in treating liver cancer.

  18. The immunity regulator BAK1 contributes to resistance against diverse RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kørner, Camilla Julie; Klauser, Dominik; Niehl, Annette; Domínguez-Ferreras, Ana; Chinchilla, Delphine; Boller, Thomas; Heinlein, Manfred; Hann, Dagmar R

    2013-11-01

    The plant's innate immune system detects potential biotic threats through recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRR). A central regulator of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is the BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1), which undergoes complex formation with PRR upon ligand binding. Although viral patterns inducing PTI are well known from animal systems, nothing similar has been reported for plants. Rather, antiviral defense in plants is thought to be mediated by post-transcriptional gene silencing of viral RNA or through effector-triggered immunity, i.e., recognition of virus-specific effectors by resistance proteins. Nevertheless, infection by compatible viruses can also lead to the induction of defense gene expression, indicating that plants may also recognize viruses through PTI. Here, we show that PTI, or at least the presence of the regulator BAK1, is important for antiviral defense of Arabidopsis plants. Arabidopsis bak1 mutants show increased susceptibility to three different RNA viruses during compatible interactions. Furthermore, crude viral extracts but not purified virions induce several PTI marker responses in a BAK1-dependent manner. Overall, we conclude that BAK1-dependent PTI contributes to antiviral resistance in plants.

  19. 'It's unbelievably humiliating'-Patients' expressions of negative effects of coercion in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyttingnes, Olav; Ruud, Torleif; Rugkåsa, Jorun

    Some patients criticize coercive mental health treatment using extremely strong words. This may be connected to poor therapeutic relationships and unfavourable treatment outcomes, so a better understanding of this criticism is warranted. Data consisted of detailed notes from 15 all-day dialogue seminars on coercion and voluntariness in Oslo, Norway from 2006 to 2009. Very dissatisfied patients and ex-patients were a central voice through the seminars. To gain a better understanding of their negative experiences of coercion, we conducted a stepwise qualitative thematic analysis of the seminar notes, with a mix of inductive and deductive coding followed by focused coding and analytic induction. Coercive care was described in strong terms, such as humiliation and Nazism. To explain this, we suggest a model of two pathways towards such strong language: (i) Participants understood their symptoms as mental crises following trauma or spiritual problems, and perceived involuntary medication to harm rather than help. Some found that their complaints were dismissed as lack of insight. (ii) Minor incidents were experienced as coercive, such as being 'defined' by the medical model, receiving repeated negative remarks and feeling one needed to succumb to get care. The accumulated effect could be experienced as eroding self-confidence and trust in their own feelings and thoughts. Involuntary medication and dismissal of patient perspective, combined with the accumulated effects of minor negative incidents, can explain the feelings of humiliation, oppression and the use of metaphors such as imprisonment by totalitarian systems. Our model can help explain such patient reactions seen in clinical practice and the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiological adaptations to osmotic stress and characterization of a polyethylene glycol-responsive gene in Braya humilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lirong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Braya humilis (Brassicaceae is a widely distributed plant in arid and semi-arid regions of northern Asia. This plant is well adapted to extremely arid conditions and is a promising candidate species to discover novel drought tolerance strategies. However, not much information about the mechanism(s mediating drought resistance in this species is currently available. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize the physiological traits and expression patterns of a polyethylene glycol (PEG-responsive gene in B. humilis responding to different levels of osmotic stress induced by PEG-6000. Several important physiological parameters were examined, including the levels of relative water content, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzyme activity. A tolerance threshold between 20 and 30% PEG-6000 was identified for B. humilis. The water status and oxidative damage below this threshold were maintained at a relatively constant level during the 12 h of treatment. However, once the threshold was exceeded, the water status and oxidative damage were obviously affected after treatment for 4 h. The soluble protein results suggest that B. humilis maintains a vigorous resistance to osmotic stress and that it may play a greater role in osmotic regulation at late stages of stress. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase may be important at preventing oxidative damage in plants at early stages of stress, while peroxidase may be more involved in some biological processes that resist osmotic stress at the late stage, especially in severely damaged plants. Furthermore, a PEG-responsive gene, BhCIPK12, was identified by differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR, cloned, and characterized by quantitative real-time PCR. We hypothesized that this gene may play an important role in mediating osmotic stress or drought resistance in plants. Altogether, these results provide valuable insights into the mechanism

  1. Spiramine derivatives induce apoptosis of Bax(-/-)/Bak(-/-) cell and cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chen; Huang, Li; Liu, Hong-Chun; Chen, Duo-Zhi; Liu, Hai-Yang; Li, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Mei-Yu; Chen, Quan; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2014-04-15

    Spiramine C-D, the atisine-type diterpenoid alkaloids isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Spiraea japonica complex, are shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. In this study, we report that spiramine derivatives of spiramine C-D bearing α,β-unsaturated ketone induce apoptosis of Bax(-/-)/Bak(-/-) MEFs cell, which is positively corresponding their cytotoxicity of tumor cell lines including multidrug resistance MCF-7/ADR. The results indicated that oxazolidine ring is necessary, and derivatives bearing double 'Michael reaction acceptor' group would significantly increased activities both of inducing apoptosis of Bax(-/-)/Bak(-/-) cells and cytotoxicity of tumor cells. The result indicated that spiramine derivative with α,β-unsaturated ketone group is a new anti-cancer agent with a capability of inducing apoptosis of cancer cells in Bax/Bak-independent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A look at plant immunity through the window of the multitasking coreceptor BAK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Shigetaka; Okada, Kentaro; Saijo, Yusuke

    2017-08-01

    Recognition of microbe- and danger-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs and DAMPs, respectively) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is central to innate immunity in both plants and animals. The plant PRRs described to date are all cell surface-localized receptors. According to their ligand-binding ectodomains, each PRR engages a specific coreceptor or adaptor kinase in its signaling complexes to regulate defense signaling. With a focus on the coreceptor RLK BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1) and related SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASEs (SERKs), here we review the increasing inventory of BAK1 partners and their functions in plant immunity. We also discuss the significance of autoimmunity triggered by BAK1/SERK4 disintegration in shaping the strategies for attenuation of PRR signaling by infectious microbes and host plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Visualization of BRI1 and SERK3/BAK1 Nanoclusters in Arabidopsis Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Hutten

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs are plant hormones that are perceived at the plasma membrane (PM by the ligand binding receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1 and the co-receptor SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR LIKE KINASE 3/BRI1 ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (SERK3/BAK1. To visualize BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry in the plane of the PM, variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM was employed, which allows selective illumination of a thin surface layer. VAEM revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry at the PM, which we attribute to the presence of distinct nanoclusters. Neither the BRI1 nor the SERK3/BAK1 nanocluster density is affected by depletion of endogenous ligands or application of exogenous ligands. To reveal interacting populations of receptor complexes, we utilized selective-surface observation-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (SSO-FLIM for the detection of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET. Using this approach, we observed hetero-oligomerisation of BRI1 and SERK3 in the nanoclusters, which did not change upon depletion of endogenous ligand or signal activation. Upon ligand application, however, the number of BRI1-SERK3 /BAK1 hetero-oligomers was reduced, possibly due to endocytosis of active signalling units of BRI1-SERK3/BAK1 residing in the PM. We propose that formation of nanoclusters in the plant PM is subjected to biophysical restraints, while the stoichiometry of receptors inside these nanoclusters is variable and important for signal transduction.

  4. Cycloheximide Can Induce Bax/Bak Dependent Myeloid Cell Death Independently of Multiple BH3-Only Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Goodall

    Full Text Available Apoptosis mediated by Bax or Bak is usually thought to be triggered by BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family. BH3-only proteins can directly bind to and activate Bax or Bak, or indirectly activate them by binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby relieving their inhibition of Bax and Bak. Here we describe a third way of activation of Bax/Bak dependent apoptosis that does not require triggering by multiple BH3-only proteins. In factor dependent myeloid (FDM cell lines, cycloheximide induced apoptosis by a Bax/Bak dependent mechanism, because Bax-/-Bak-/- lines were profoundly resistant, whereas FDM lines lacking one or more genes for BH3-only proteins remained highly sensitive. Addition of cycloheximide led to the rapid loss of Mcl-1 but did not affect the expression of other Bcl-2 family proteins. In support of these findings, similar results were observed by treating FDM cells with the CDK inhibitor, roscovitine. Roscovitine reduced Mcl-1 abundance and caused Bax/Bak dependent cell death, yet FDM lines lacking one or more genes for BH3-only proteins remained highly sensitive. Therefore Bax/Bak dependent apoptosis can be regulated by the abundance of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1, independently of several known BH3-only proteins.

  5. Non-triviality of a discrete Bak-Sneppen evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, R.W.J.; Znamenski, D.

    2002-01-01

    Consider the following evolution model, proposed in ref. 1 by Bak and Sneppen. Put N vertices on a circle, spaced evenly. Each vertex represents a certain species. We associate with each vertex a random variable, representing the "state" or "fitness" of the species, with values in [0, 1]. The

  6. Icons of Just Is: Justice, Suffering, and the Artwork of Samuel Bak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Phillips

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines select paintings by Holocaust survivor and painter Samuel Bak from his recent Just Is series. The essay explores ways Bak’s art bears witness to suffering. He creatively interrogates and reanimates the iconic figure of Lady Justice and the biblical principle of the lex talionis (“eye for an eye” in order to fashion alternative icons fit for an age of atrocity and loss. Bak’s artwork gives visual expression to Theodor Adorno’s view of the precariousness of art after Auschwitz. It is art’s responsibility to attend to the burden of real suffering experiences (the burden of the empirical and to think in contradictions, which renders art both adequate and inadequate in standing up against the injustice of other’s suffering. Through inventive juxtaposition of secular and sacred symbols, Bak displays the paradox of representation after the Holocaust and art’s precarious responsibility giving voice to suffering. Bak fashions visual spaces in which barbarity and beauty coincide and collide. He invites viewers into this space and into dialogue about justice’s standing and promises. Do Bak's remade icons of Just Is lament a permanent loss of justice and peace, or do they point tentatively to possibilities of life lived in a damaged world with an alternative Just Is? Bak’s artwork prompts such vexing questions for his viewers to contemplate and leaves them to decide what must be done.

  7. Entropy in the Bak-Sneppen Model for Self-Organized Criticality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨纯斌

    2003-01-01

    The distributions of fitness on the sites of one- and two-dimensional lattices are studied for the nearest-neighbour Bak-Sneppen model on self-organized criticality. The distributions show complicated behaviour showing that the system is far from equilibrium. By introducing the "energy" of a site, the entropy flow from the system to its environment is investigated.

  8. A BAX/BAK and cyclophilin D-independent intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Zamorano

    Full Text Available Most intrinsic death signals converge into the activation of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members BAX and BAK at the mitochondria, resulting in the release of cytochrome c and apoptosome activation. Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress leads to apoptosis through the upregulation of a subset of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, activating BAX and BAK at the mitochondria. Here we provide evidence indicating that the full resistance of BAX and BAK double deficient (DKO cells to ER stress is reverted by stimulation in combination with mild serum withdrawal. Cell death under these conditions was characterized by the appearance of classical apoptosis markers, caspase-9 activation, release of cytochrome c, and was inhibited by knocking down caspase-9, but insensitive to BCL-X(L overexpression. Similarly, the resistance of BIM and PUMA double deficient cells to ER stress was reverted by mild serum withdrawal. Surprisingly, BAX/BAK-independent cell death did not require Cyclophilin D (CypD expression, an important regulator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Our results suggest the existence of an alternative intrinsic apoptosis pathway emerging from a cross talk between the ER and the mitochondria.

  9. Genome sequence of ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis and its adaptation to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qingle; Qian, Xiaoju; Lang, Yongshan; Luo, Yadan; Xu, Jiaohui; Pan, Shengkai; Hui, Yuanyuan; Gou, Caiyun; Cai, Yue; Hao, Meirong; Zhao, Jinyang; Wang, Songbo; Wang, Zhaobao; Zhang, Xinming; He, Rongjun; Liu, Jinchao; Luo, Longhai; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun

    2013-03-28

    The mechanism of high-altitude adaptation has been studied in certain mammals. However, in avian species like the ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis, the adaptation mechanism remains unclear. The phylogeny of the ground tit is also controversial. Using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and assembled a draft genome sequence of the ground tit. The assembly contained 1.04 Gb of sequence that covered 95.4% of the whole genome and had higher N50 values, at the level of both scaffolds and contigs, than other sequenced avian genomes. About 1.7 million SNPs were detected, 16,998 protein-coding genes were predicted and 7% of the genome was identified as repeat sequences. Comparisons between the ground tit genome and other avian genomes revealed a conserved genome structure and confirmed the phylogeny of ground tit as not belonging to the Corvidae family. Gene family expansion and positively selected gene analysis revealed genes that were related to cardiac function. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the adaptation of this species to extreme environmental living conditions. Our data and analysis contribute to the study of avian evolutionary history and provide new insights into the adaptation mechanisms to extreme conditions in animals.

  10. Local adaptation: Mechanical fit between floral ecotypes of Nerine humilis (Amaryllidaceae) and pollinator communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ethan; Manning, John; Anderson, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Geographic variation in floral morphology is often assumed to reflect geographic variation in pollinator communities and associated divergence in selective pressures. We studied populations of Nerine humilis (Amaryllidaceae) to assess whether geographic variation in floral form is the result of local adaptation to different pollinator communities. We first tested for associations between floral traits and visitor communities, and found that populations with similar floral morphologies were visited by similar insect communities. Mean style length in each population was also closely associated with the mean body length of the local visitor community. A reciprocal translocation experiment demonstrated that native phenotypes set more seed than translocated phenotypes. Single visitation experiments showed that native flowers received more pollen, and set more seed per visit, than introduced phenotypes in both populations. This suggests that the effectiveness of pollinator visits is determined by the degree of mechanical fit between flowers and visitors. We provide strong evidence that the observed among-population variation in floral traits is an adaptive response to geographic variation in the pollinator community. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Isoflavone and triterpenoid isolated from an endemic plant Genista microcephala Coss et Dur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Bouakaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Genista microcephala Coss et Dur is a plant that grows in northern of Algeria. The Genista species show interesting biological properties. Aims: To study phytochemically of the aerial parts of G. microcephala and search new compounds with pharmacological interest. Methods: Aerial parts of G. microcephala were extracted using chloroform. The extract was purified by several chromatography processes. Isolated compounds were analyzed by the usual spectroscopic methods and 2D NMR technics. Results: From the chloroformic extract of the air parts of Genista microcephala (Leguminosae two known components were obtained. The structures of these compounds were oleanolic acid (1, alpinum isoflavone (2 elucidated by the usual spectroscopic methods and 2D NMR technics and by comparison with literature data. Conclusions: Two known components were obtained from the chloroformic extract of the air parts of Genista microcephala but they have not previously been reported from this species.

  12. Forms of Religious Glocalization: Orthodox Christianity in the Longue Durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Roudometof

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article advocates a “glocal turn” in the religion–globalization problematic. It proposes a model of multiple glocalizations in order to analyze the historically constituted relationship between world religions and local cultures. First, the conceptual evolution from globalization to glocalization is discussed with special reference to the study of the religion. Second, the necessity for adopting the perspective of the longue durée with regard to the study of Eastern Orthodox Christianity is explained. Third, an outline of four forms of religious glocalization is proposed. Each of these forms is presented both analytically as well as through examples from the history of Eastern Christianity (from the 8th to the 21st century. It is argued that this approach offers a model for analyzing the relation between religion, culture and society that does not succumb to the Western bias inherent in the conventional narrative of western modernization and secularization.

  13. Genetic and environmental integration of the hawkmoth pollination syndrome in Ruellia humilis (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, John S; Michalski, Joseph S; McCann, Braden K; Russo, Amber D; Andres, Kara J; Hall, Allison R; Middleton, Tessa C

    2017-05-01

    The serial homology of floral structures has made it difficult to assess the relative contributions of selection and constraint to floral integration. The interpretation of floral integration may also be clouded by the tacit, but largely untested, assumption that genetic and environmental perturbations affect trait correlations in similar ways. In this study, estimates of both the genetic and environmental correlations between components of the hawkmoth pollination syndrome are presented for chasmogamous flowers of Ruellia humilis , including two levels of control for serial homology. A greenhouse population for quantitative genetic analysis was generated by a partial diallel cross between field-collected plants. An average of 634 chasmogamous flowers were measured for each of eight floral traits that contribute to the hawkmoth syndrome. Genetic correlations (across parents) and environmental correlations (across replicate flowers) were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. Stigma height, anther height and floral tube length were very tightly integrated in their responses to both genetic and environmental perturbations. The inclusion of floral disc width as a control for serial homology suggests this integration is an adaptive response to correlational selection imposed by pollinators. In contrast, integration of non-homologous traits was low. Furthermore, when comparisons between the dimensions of serially homologous structures were excluded, the genetic and environmental correlation matrices showed little congruence. The results suggest that hawkmoths have imposed strong correlational selection on floral traits involved in the deposition and removal of pollen, and that this is a consequence of stabilizing selection on the relative positions of stigmas and anthers in the face of substantial flower size variation. Low integration of other floral traits, and conflicting patterns of genetic and environmental correlations among these traits, suggest weak or no

  14. 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population in Denmark estimated through the CE-DUR method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population has traditionally been investigated through population-based epidemiological studies. A different approach is the combination of clinical epidemiological (CE) data and the World Health Organization-defined drug utilization research (DUR)...

  15. Alpha-Tocopheryl succinate causes mitochondrial permeabilization by preferential formation of Bak channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, L.; Dong, L.F.; Vališ, Karel; Freeman, R.; Ralph, S.J.; Turánek, J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2010), s. 782-794 ISSN 1360-8185 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520702; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Vitamin E succinate * apoptosis * Noxa-Bak Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.397, year: 2010

  16. R.H. Moreno-Durán: fantasía y verdad. Valoración múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Luz Mary; Espinosa, Germán; García Ponce, Juan; Restrepo Forero, Gabriel Adolfo; Jaramillo Zuluaga, Jaime Eduardo; Palacios Rozo, Marco Antonio; Gutiérrez Girardot, Rafael; Raymond L., Williams; Torres Duque, Óscar; Fajardo, Diógenes; Carandell, José María; Cohen, Marcelo; Olaciregui, Julio; Goloboff, Gerardo Mario; Camozzi, Rolando

    2005-01-01

    Pocos escritores colombianos han explorado diversos géneros literarios con resultados satisfactorios; Moreno-Durán destaca en el panorama artístico de Colombia al cosechar logros en una amplia producción creativa que incluye novelas, cuentos, ensayos y en los últimos tiempos el teatro. / Contenido. Preliminares; Capítulo 1 - R.H. Moreno-Durán: a fondo; Capítulo 2 - R.H. Moreno-Durán: en breve; Anexos.

  17. Chamaerops humilis L. var. argentea André date palm seed oil: a potential dietetic plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Mokbli, Sadok; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Chamaerops humilis L. var. argentea André (C. humilis) date palm seeds are an underutilized source of vegetable oil, and no studies describing their physicochemical characteristics to indicate the potential uses of this seed or seed oil have been reported. The oil content of the seeds is about 10%, mainly composed of oleic acid (38.71%), lauric acid (21.27%), linoleic acid (15.15%), palmitic acid (9.96%), and stearic acid (7.17%). The tocol (tocopherols and tocotrienols) content is 74 mg/100 g, with δ-tocotrienol as the major contributor (31.91%), followed by α-tocotrienol (29.37%), γ-tocopherol (20.16%), and γ-tocotrienol (11.86%). Furthermore, this oil shows high thermal stability. The differential scanning calorimetery curves revealed that the melting and crystallization points are 9.33 °C and -15.23 °C, respectively. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Seasonal, sex- and plant size-related effects on photoinhibition and photoprotection in the dioecious Mediterranean dwarf palm, Chamaerops humilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Morales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean-type ecosystems plants are exposed to several adverse environmental conditions throughout the year, ranging from drought stress during the warm and dry summers to chilling stress due to the typical drop in temperatures during winters. Here we evaluated the ecophysiological response, in terms of photoinhibition and photoprotection, of the dioecious Mediterranean palm, Chamaerops humilis to seasonal variations in environmental conditions. Furthermore, we considered as well the influence of plant size, maturity and sexual dimorphism. Results showed evidence of winter photoinhibition, with a marked decrease of the Fv/Fm ratio below 0.7 between January and March, which was coincident with the lowest temperatures. During this period, the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and zeaxanthin levels increased, which might serve as a photoprotection mechanism, owing the full recovery from winter photoinhibition during spring. Furthermore, mature plants showed lower chlorophyll levels and higher β-carotene levels per unit of chlorophyll than juvenile plants, and females displayed lower leaf water contents and higher photoinhibition than males during summer, probably due to increased reproductive effort of females. However, neither low temperatures during winter nor reproductive events in females during the summer led to irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. We conclude that (i the Mediterranean dwarf palm, C. humilis, suffers from photoinhibition during winter, but this is transient and does not lead to irreversible damage, and (ii females from this plant species are more sensitive than males to photoinhibition during reproductive events.

  19. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  20. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Bax and Bak Oligomerization Prevents Genotoxic Cell Death and Promotes Neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xin; Brahmbhatt, Hetal; Mergenthaler, Philipp; Zhang, Zhi; Sang, Jing; Daude, Michael; Ehlert, Fabian G R; Diederich, Wibke E; Wong, Eve; Zhu, Weijia; Pogmore, Justin; Nandy, Jyoti P; Satyanarayana, Maragani; Jimmidi, Ravi K; Arya, Prabhat; Leber, Brian; Lin, Jialing; Culmsee, Carsten; Yi, Jing; Andrews, David W

    2017-04-20

    Aberrant apoptosis can lead to acute or chronic degenerative diseases. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) triggered by the oligomerization of the Bcl-2 family proteins Bax/Bak is an irreversible step leading to execution of apoptosis. Here, we describe the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of Bax/Bak oligomerization that prevent MOMP. We demonstrate that these molecules disrupt multiple, but not all, interactions between Bax dimer interfaces thereby interfering with the formation of higher-order oligomers in the MOM, but not recruitment of Bax to the MOM. Small-molecule inhibition of Bax/Bak oligomerization allowed cells to evade apoptotic stimuli and rescued neurons from death after excitotoxicity, demonstrating that oligomerization of Bax is essential for MOMP. Our discovery of small-molecule Bax/Bak inhibitors provides novel tools for the investigation of the mechanisms leading to MOMP and will ultimately facilitate development of compounds inhibiting Bax/Bak in acute and chronic degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9357 (WD: 68'20") DDD (WD:114'36")

  2. Geologic map of the Weka Dur gold deposit, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1967 original map compilation of M.P. Guguev and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map of the Weka Dur gold deposit located in Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, is a redrafted and modified version of the Geological map of the Weka Dur area, scale 1:10,000 and Geological map of the Weka Dur deposit, scale 1:2,000 from Guguev and others (1967) (Soviet report no. R1584). That unpublished Soviet report contains the original maps and cross sections, which were prepared in cooperation with the Ministry of Mines and Industries of the Republic of Afghanistan in 1967 under contract no. 1378 (Technoexport, USSR). This USGS publication not only reproduces the geology of the original Soviet maps and cross sections, but also illustrates a mapped adit with reported gold concentrations from sampling within the adit, and shows the location of Soviet trenches along the Weka Dur gold deposit.

  3. Effects of BAK-free travoprost treatment for 3 years in patients with normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue,1 Mayumi Iwasa,1 Masato Wakakura,1 Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, 2Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of benzalkonium (BAK-free travoprost monotherapy administered for 3 years on intraocular pressure and visual field performance.Methods: The intraocular pressure of 76 patients with normal tension glaucoma was monitored every 1–3 months. A Humphrey visual field test was performed every 6 months after treatment and compared with the results before treatment. Visual field performance was also evaluated by trend and event analysis.Results: Thirty cases discontinued within 3 years. Mean intraocular pressure after 3 years of travoprost treatment (14.1 ± 2.4 mmHg was significantly lower than that before treatment (16.8 ± 2.6 mmHg, P ‹ 0.0001. There was no change in the mean deviation and pattern standard deviation as measured by Humphrey visual field test after 3 years of treatment compared with before treatment. Visual field performance was worse in one patient (2.8% by trend analysis and five patients (13.9% by event analysis. Treatment was discontinued in six cases (7.9% due to the appearance of adverse reactions.Conclusion: BAK-free travoprost monotherapy was effective in reducing intraocular pressure for at least 3 years; however, visual field performance worsened in 2.8%–13.9% of patients with normal tension glaucoma.Keywords: BAK-free travoprost, intraocular pressure, visual field, trend analysis, event analysis

  4. South Korean Government under the former CEO, President Lee Myung-bak

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsook Yang

    2008-01-01

    Tras un prometedor inicio gracias a su arrolladora victoria en diciembre del 2007 y portando un mandato para llevar a cabo profundas reformas económicas, el presidente Lee Myung-bak se ha visto obligado a recuperar la confianza de su ciudadanía tras las duras críticas a numerosos aspectos de su política: la importación de carne vacuna bajo el Tratado de Libre Comercio EEUU-Corea del Sur pendiente de aprobación, sus ambiciosos proyectos de construcción, su agenda de privatizaciones y su estilo...

  5. Heterodimerization and endocytosis of Arabidopsis brassinosteroid receptors BRI1 and AtSERK3 (BAK1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russinova, Eugenia; Borst, Jan-Willem; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J

    2004-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana brassinosteroid (BR), perception is mediated by two Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1) (Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-like KINASE3 [AtSERK3]). Genetic, biochemical, and yeast (...... receptors because of accelerated endocytosis. Endocytic vesicles contain either BRI1 or AtSERK3 alone or both. We propose that the AtSERK3 protein is involved in changing the equilibrium between plasma membrane-located BRI1 homodimers and endocytosed BRI1-AtSERK3 heterodimers....

  6. Effects of BAK-free travoprost treatment for 3 years in patients with normal tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenji; Iwasa, Mayumi; Wakakura, Masato; Tomita, Goji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of benzalkonium (BAK)-free travoprost monotherapy administered for 3 years on intraocular pressure and visual field performance. The intraocular pressure of 76 patients with normal tension glaucoma was monitored every 1-3 months. A Humphrey visual field test was performed every 6 months after treatment and compared with the results before treatment. Visual field performance was also evaluated by trend and event analysis. Thirty cases discontinued within 3 years. Mean intraocular pressure after 3 years of travoprost treatment (14.1 ± 2.4 mmHg) was significantly lower than that before treatment (16.8 ± 2.6 mmHg, P trend analysis and five patients (13.9%) by event analysis. Treatment was discontinued in six cases (7.9%) due to the appearance of adverse reactions. BAK-free travoprost monotherapy was effective in reducing intraocular pressure for at least 3 years; however, visual field performance worsened in 2.8%-13.9% of patients with normal tension glaucoma.

  7. An RLP23-SOBIR1-BAK1 complex mediates NLP-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Isabell; Böhm, Hannah; Albert, Markus; Feiler, Christina E; Imkampe, Julia; Wallmeroth, Niklas; Brancato, Caterina; Raaymakers, Tom M; Oome, Stan; Zhang, Heqiao; Krol, Elzbieta; Grefen, Christopher; Gust, Andrea A; Chai, Jijie; Hedrich, Rainer; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2015-10-05

    Plants and animals employ innate immune systems to cope with microbial infection. Pattern-triggered immunity relies on the recognition of microbe-derived patterns by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1-like proteins (NLPs) constitute plant immunogenic patterns that are unique, as these proteins are produced by multiple prokaryotic (bacterial) and eukaryotic (fungal, oomycete) species. Here we show that the leucine-rich repeat receptor protein (LRR-RP) RLP23 binds in vivo to a conserved 20-amino-acid fragment found in most NLPs (nlp20), thereby mediating immune activation in Arabidopsis thaliana. RLP23 forms a constitutive, ligand-independent complex with the LRR receptor kinase (LRR-RK) SOBIR1 (Suppressor of Brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1)-associated kinase (BAK1)-interacting receptor kinase 1), and recruits a second LRR-RK, BAK1, into a tripartite complex upon ligand binding. Stable, ectopic expression of RLP23 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) confers nlp20 pattern recognition and enhanced immunity to destructive oomycete and fungal plant pathogens, such as Phytophthora infestans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. PRRs that recognize widespread microbial patterns might be particularly suited for engineering immunity in crop plants.

  8. Betalains rich Rivina humilis L. berry extract as natural colorant in product (fruit spread and RTS beverage) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj; Harsha, P S C Sri; Chauhan, A S; Vijayendra, S V N; Asha, M R; Giridhar, P

    2015-03-01

    Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae) or pigeon berry accumulates betalains in its berries. It is reported that the berries are safe to consume, rich in nutrient content and exhibit efficient biological activity. In this report, Rivina berry extract was used as natural colorant in fruit spread and beverage to evaluate its effect on physicochemical properties and acceptability of the product. Results showed that 68 % color retained in Rivina banana spread after 6 months of storage at 5 °C, though there was reduction in L, a and chroma values. Rivina banana beverage lost redness completely during processing. Microbial analysis of the products indicated that they were safe for consumption. The spread had good overall sensorial quality and was liked by consumers indicating that addition of Rivina berry extract did not alter product quality.

  9. Perceived discrimination, humiliation, and mental health: a mixed-methods study among Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Hunter M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Foster, Jennifer W; Burgos Minaya, Rosa Y; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    Many Haitian migrants live and work as undocumented laborers in the Dominican Republic. This study examines the legacy of anti-Haitian discrimination in the Dominican Republic and association of discrimination with mental health among Haitian migrants. This study used mixed methods to generate hypotheses for associations between discrimination and mental health of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 Haitian and 18 Dominican community members and clinicians. One hundred and twenty-seven Haitian migrants participated in a pilot cross-sectional community survey. Instruments included culturally adapted Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and a locally developed function impairment scale. Haitian migrants described humiliation (imilyasyon) as a reason for mental distress and barrier to health care. Dominicans reported that discrimination (discriminación) was not a current social problem and attributed negative social interactions to sociocultural, behavioral, and biological differences between Dominicans and Haitians. These qualitative findings were supported in the quantitative analyses. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression severity and functional impairment. Perceived mistreatment by Dominicans was associated with a 6.6-point increase in BDI score (90% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 9.9). Knowing someone who was interrogated or deported was associated with a 3.4-point increase in BAI score (90% CI: 0.22, 6.64). Both qualitative and quantitative methods suggest that perceived discrimination and the experience of humiliation contribute to Haitian migrant mental ill-health and limit access to health care. Future research should evaluate these associations and identify intervention pathways for both improved treatment access and reduction of discrimination-related health risk factors.

  10. Auto-incompatibilidade em Coffea Dewevrei de wild. et th. dur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversas pesquisas foram realizadas com a finalidade de esclarecer as causas da improdutividade de Coffea Dewevrei, da qual possuímos em coleção as seguintes variedades: Abeokutae, Dybowskii, Bxcelsa e Dewevrei. Um grande número de auto-polinizações e cruzamentos foi realizado dentro e entre variedades. Com êsse trabalho ficou comprovado que as auto-polinizações são absolutamente improdutivas e que só são produtivas as combinações entre certos clones. Das observações citológicas realizadas sôbre a formação e desenvolvimento do saco embrionário e sôbre o pólen concluiu-se não existir qualquer anormalidade capaz de impedir a fertilização. Chegou-se à conclusão de que também nesta espécie diplóide existe o fenômeno da incompatibilidade genética, cujo mecanismo ainda não foi estudado. São apresentados alguns dados sôbre a porcentagem de lojas vazias que ocorrem nos frutos desta espécie.Pollination studies in Coffea Dewevrei De Wild, et Th. Dur. showed that this species is self-sterile. Several varieties of the group are now under investigation to explain such sterility. Only crosses between certain plants are fertile. Cytological investigation on the pollen and embryo sac development indicated that there is no abnormality that could prevent fertilization. Pollen behaves differently when it is placed on the stigmas of compatible and incompatible plants. Only in the first case does germination occur. All these facts led to the conclusion that self-sterility in Coffea Dewevrei is also of genetic origin, perhaps expressed in the same way as in C. canephora Pierre ex Fröhner. The exact mechanism of this incompatibility is not known yet. The occurrence of empty locules have been recorded in case of several plants of the varieties Abeokutae, Dybowskii, Excelsa, and Dewevrei. These results are presented in this paper.

  11. Prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim reduces the association of Bcl-2 with Bak or Bim, provoking Bak activation and mitochondrial apoptosis in nocodazole-treated Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cho Rong; Jun, Do Youn; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of Jurkat T cells with the microtubule-depolymerizing agent nocodazole (NOC) caused prometaphase arrest and apoptosis. NOC-induced mitochondrial apoptotic events including Bak activation, Δψm loss, cytochrome c release, and caspase cascade activation were blocked by Bcl-2 overexpression. However, mitotic arrest, Cdc25C activation, upregulation of cyclin B1 levels, Cdk1 activation, Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Thr-56 and Ser-70, and Bim phosphorylation were retained. The treatment of Jurkat T cells concomitantly with NOC and the G1/S-blocking agent hydroxyurea resulted in G1/S arrest and complete abrogation of all apoptotic events. The association of Bcl-2 with Bim or Bak declined after the prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, whereas the association of Bcl-2 with Bax remained relatively constant. Although Bax was redistributed from the cytosol to the mitochondria, resulting in an increase in the mitochondrial level of Bax following NOC treatment, the subcellular localization of Bcl-2, Bim, Bak and apoptosis-inducing factor was confined to the mitochondrial fraction irrespective of NOC treatment. Experiments using selective caspase inhibitors showed that mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase-9 and -3 was crucial for NOC-induced apoptosis. NOC-induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, Δψm loss, and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic events were significantly suppressed by a Cdk1 inhibitor roscovitine, but not by the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. These results show that the prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, which was mediated by Cdk1, could reduce the association of Bcl-2 with Bak or Bim to allow Bak activation and mitochondrial apoptotic events in Jurkat T cells exposed to NOC.

  12. Effet de la durée de conservation sur la qualité du pollen en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fermées avec un bouchon en caoutchouc, sous vide à l'aide d'une pompe à vide. Pour chaque variété et par lot, 25 unités d'ampoules sont conditionnées. Selon les quantités de pollen nécessaires pour les différents tests de qualité et la durée mensuelle de conservation (0, 1, 2, 3 et 4 mois), le nombre d'unités d'ampoules ...

  13. Tyrosine-610 in the receptor kinase BAK1 does not play a major role in brassinosteroid signaling or innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING ...

  14. Constitutive expression of the DUR1,2 gene in an industrial yeast strain to minimize ethyl carbamate production during Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dianhui; Li, Xiaomin; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Liang; Xie, Guangfa

    2016-01-01

    Urea and ethanol are the main precursors of ethyl carbamate (EC) in Chinese rice wine. During fermentation, urea is generated from arginine by arginase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and subsequently cleaved by urea amidolyase or directly transported out of the cell into the fermentation liquor, where it reacts with ethanol to form EC. To reduce the amount of EC in Chinese rice wine, we metabolically engineered two yeast strains, N85(DUR1,2) and N85(DUR1,2)-c, from the wild-type Chinese rice wine yeast strain N85. Both new strains were capable of constitutively expressing DUR1,2 (encodes urea amidolyase) and thus enhancing urea degradation. The use of N85(DUR1,2) and N85(DUR1,2)-c reduced the concentration of EC in Chinese rice wine fermented on a small-scale by 49.1% and 55.3%, respectively, relative to fermentation with the parental strain. All of the engineered strains showed good genetic stability and minimized the production of urea during fermentation, with no exogenous genes introduced during genetic manipulation, and were therefore suitable for commercialization to increase the safety of Chinese rice wine. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Mutant Potential Ubiquitination Sites in Dur3p Enhance the Urea and Ethyl Carbamate Reduction in a Model Rice Wine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Du, Guocheng; Zou, Huijun; Xie, Guangfa; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhongping; Zhou, Jingwen

    2017-03-01

    Ubiquitination can significantly affect the endocytosis and degradation of plasma membrane proteins. Here, the ubiquitination of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae urea plasma membrane transporter (Dur3p) was altered. Two potential ubiquitination sites, lysine residues K556 and K571, of Dur3p were predicted and replaced by arginine, and the effects of these mutations on urea utilization and formation under different nitrogen conditions were investigated. Compared with Dur3p, the Dur3pK556R mutant showed a 20.1% decrease in ubiquitination level in yeast nitrogen base medium containing urea and glutamine. It also exhibited a >75.8% decrease in urea formation in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium and 41.3 and 55.4% decreases in urea and ethyl carbamate formation (a known carcinogen), respectively, in a model rice wine system. The results presented here show that the mutation of Dur3p ubiquitination sites could significantly affect urea utilization and formation. Modifying the ubiquitination of specific transporters might have promising applications in rationally engineering S. cerevisiae strains to efficiently use specific nitrogen sources.

  16. Comparison of E-cadherin with STAT3 and apoptosis regulators: Bak and Bcl-xL in endometrioid adenocarcinomas of different ER-alpha immunoprofile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowska, Urszula; Wincewicz, Andrzej; Kanczuga-Koda, Luiza; Koda, Mariusz; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2018-02-01

    E-cadherin is a factor of good prognosis in endometrioid adenocarcinomas, while STAT3 is an oncogenic driver of carcinogenesis. E-cadherin, Bak, Bcl-xL and STAT3 were immunohistochemically detected in 78 human endometrioid adenocarcinomas. E-cadherin correlated with STAT3 (p E-cadherin associated with Bak (p = .021, r = 0.319), Bcl-xL (p = .026, r = 0.309) and STAT3 (p E-cadherin correlated with Bak and Bcl-xL in both G1- and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors with significant relation of E-cadherin and STAT3 in G1- and ER-negative tumors. Antigrowth synergy of expression was preserved for antiapoptotic Bak and proliferation-suppressing E-cadherin in IA adenocarcinomas (p = .031, r = 0.342) with no significance between Bak and E-cadherin or STAT3 and emerging correlation between E-cadherin and Bcl-xL in IB + II tumors instead (p = .003, r = 0.472). E-cadherin correlated with Bak and Bcl-xL in ER-positive adenocarcinomas (p =  .002, r = 0.382 and p E-cadherin and Bak) presumably due to progressing impairment of growth-inhibitory properties of clone of neoplastic cells within higher staging and poorer differentiation.

  17. Chemical constituents, cytotoxic, antifungal and antimicrobial properties of Centaurea diluta Ait. subsp. algeriensis (Coss. & Dur.) Maire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zater, Hanène; Huet, Joëlle; Fontaine, Véronique; Benayache, Samir; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Benayache, Fadila

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the chemical composition of a moderately polar extract (CHCl3 soluble part of the MeOH-H2O extract) obtained from the aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Centaurea diluta Ait. subsp. algeriensis (Coss. & Dur.) Maire, a species endemic to Algeria and Morocco on which no reports are available to date. To evaluate in vitro the cytotoxic, antifungal and antimicrobial activities of this extract and the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of its isolated secondary metabolites. The cytotoxic effects of the extract were investigated on 3 human cancer cell lines i.e. the A549 non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), the MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma and the U373 glioblastoma using a MTT colorimetric assay. Biological data allowed to guide the fractionation of the extract by separation and purification on silica gel 60 (CC and TLC). The isolated compounds which were characterized by spectral analysis, mainly HR-ESIMS, HR-EIMS, UV and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature, were evaluated for cytotoxic activities on six cancer cell lines (A549, MCF7, U373, Hs683 human glioma, PC3 human prostate and B16-F10 murine melanoma). The direct and indirect antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined using microdilution methods for the raw extract and TLC-bioautography and microdilution methods against standard and clinical strains for the isolated compounds. The raw extract reduced cell viability with IC50s of 27, 25 and 21 μg/mL on A549, MCF7 and U373, respectively. Five secondary metabolites: two phenolic compounds (vanillin 1, paridol 3), a lignan [(-)-arctigenin 2] and two flavonoid aglycones (eupatilin 4 and jaceosidin 5), were then isolated from this extract. Moderate cytotoxic effects were observed for (-)-arctigenin 2 (IC50s: 28 and 33 μM on Hs683 and B16-F10, respectively), eupatilin 4 (IC50s: 33 and 47 μM on B16-F10 and PC3, respectively) and

  18. Hans Blumenberg: Historia In/conceptual, Antropología y Modernidad, por Faustino Oncina y Pedro García-Durán, eds.

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Reseña de Oncina Coves, Faustino y García-Durán, Pedro (eds.) 2015, Hans Blumenberg: Historia in/conceptual, antropología y modernidad, Valencia: Pre-Textos. ISBN 978-84-16453-06-1, 240 páginas.   Ressenya de Oncina Coves, Faustino y García-Durán, Pedro (eds.) 2015, Hans Blumenberg: Historia in/conceptual, antropología y modernidad, Valencia: Pre-Textos. ISBN 978-84-16453-06-1, 240 pàgs.   Review of Oncina Coves, Faustino y García-Durán, Pedro (eds.) 2015, Hans Blumenberg: Historia in/c...

  19. Improvement of cytomegalovirus pp65 DNA vaccine efficacy by co-administration of siRNAs targeting BAK and BAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jixiao; Feng, Keke; Zhao, Lu; Luo, Haining; Zhu, Yingjun

    2017-06-01

    The efficacy of DNA vaccines may be improved by small interfering (si)RNA adjuvants targeting pro-apoptotic genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of siRNAs targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 homologous antagonist killer (BAK) and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (BAX) to improve the efficacy of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups (n=18 in each): unimmunized and immunized with pcDNA 3.1-pp65 expressing CMV 65 kDa matrix phosphoprotein and BAK + BAX siRNAs, pcDNA 3.1-pp65 and control siRNA, or control pcDNA 3.1 and BAK + BAX siRNAs. Immunizations were performed twice with an interval of 3 weeks. CMV-specific mouse splenocyte interferon (IFN)-γ secretion was assessed by ELISPOT; furthermore, an in vivo cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay was performed 2 weeks after the last immunization. After lethal CMV challenge of the mice, body weight, virus titers in the spleens and salivary glands as well as survival were recorded. The amount of splenocytes secreting IFN-γ in response to CMV pp65 peptides and specific lysis of peptide-pulsed target cells were significantly higher in mice administered pcDNA3.1-pp65 and BAK + BAX siRNAs than those in mice administered pcDNA3.1-pp65 and control siRNA (PsiRNAs were significantly lower than those in mice immunized with pcDNA3.1-pp65 and control siRNA (PsiRNA or BAK + BAX siRNAs survived for longer, and at 21 days after lethal CMV challenge, 66 and 100% of these mice survived, respectively. These mice also experienced less weight loss compared with mice immunized with pcDNA3.1-pp65 and control siRNA (PsiRNAs targeting BAK and BAX improved the efficacy of CMV pp65 DNA vaccine.

  20. Susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms in the palm species Phoenix dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, B; Clematis, F; Curir, P; Monroy, F

    2016-06-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, known as the Red Palm Weevil (RPW), is reported as a pest of up to 40 palm species. However, the susceptibility degree and the defense mechanisms of these species against this weevil are still poorly known. In Europe, the RPW is a major pest of Phoenix canariensis while other palm species, including the congeneric Phoenix dactylifera, seem to be less suitable hosts for this insect. The aim of our study was to compare the defensive response of P. dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against R. ferrugineus and try to define the mechanisms of resistance that characterize these species. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the mortality induced on RPW larvae by extracts from the leaf rachis of the studied palm species. Tests at semi-field scale were also conducted, based either on forced palm infestation, with larvae of RPW, or on natural infestation, with adult females. Rachis extracts from C. humilis and W. filifera caused 100% larval mortality after 2 days of exposure, while extracts of P. dactylifera did not impair larval survival. Independently of the effect of the leaf extracts, the weevils were unable to naturally infest the three palm species, although larval survival was high after forced infestation of the plants. We concluded that the observed lack of infestation of P. dactylifera by RPW is due to factors other than antibiosis. In W. filifera and C. humilis, although the presence of antixenosis mechanisms cannot be excluded, resistance to R. ferrugineus seems to rely on the presence of antibiosis compounds.

  1. FUNGSI BAK AIR CIGAROKROK DAN PASIRGOMBONG KAITANNYA DENGAN TAMBANG EMAS COKOTOK ABAD XX The Function of Cigarokrok and Pasirgombong Water Tubs and Its Relation with the History of Cikotok Gold Mining in 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie Latifundia

    2016-07-01

    Abstrak Tujuan tulisan ini berupaya mengungkap dan mendokumentasikan bak air Cigarokrok dan bak air Pasirgombong yang dibangun pada masa kolonial dikaitkan dengan sejarah tambang emas Cikotok. Data diperoleh berdasarkan hasil penelitian  arkeologis tentang  pola persebaran situs-situs di kawasan Kecamatan Cibeber, Kabupaten Lebak, Provinsi Banten pada tahun 2007 dengan metode survei yang dilengkapi studi kepustakaan dan wawancara. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dua bak penampung dan pembagi air ini dibangun zaman Belanda bersamaan dengan pembangunan pabrik tambang emas Cikotok. Kedua bak air memiliki nilai sejarah dan arkeologi yang masih terus berfungsi dan dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat sampai saat ini. Fungsi bangunan bak air Cigarokrok adalah tempat atau wadah penampung dan pembagi air untuk kebutuhan air bersih sehari-hari bagi warga yang ada di kompleks perumahan dinas perusahaan tambang emas Cikotok, perkantoran tambang emas Cikotok, dan masyarakat sekitar. Sedang fungsi bak air Pasirgombong merupakan bak atau kolam penampung air untuk dialirkan ke mesin (turbin pembangkit listrik tenaga air (PLTA, dan kemudian aliran listrik tersebut disalurkan untuk penggerak mesin-mesin yang terdapat di pabrik tambang emas Cikotok. Selain itu, listrik tersebut dimanfaatkan untuk penerang rumah-rumah penduduk masyarakat Cikotok dan sekitarnya. Bak air Cigarokrok dan bak air Pasirgombong menjadi bukti fisik bangunan masa kejayaan tambang emas Cikotok yang dibangun masa kolonial dengan bentuk dan fungsi masih bertahan dan berlanjut hingga sekarang ini sebagai warisan budaya yang perlu dilestarikan untuk dipelihara dan dilindungi.   Kata Kunci: air, bak air, tambang emas, kawasan Cikotok

  2. The Urease Inhibitor NBPT Negatively Affects DUR3-mediated Uptake and Assimilation of Urea in Maize Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Laura; Tomasi, Nicola; Zamboni, Anita; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of urease inhibitors in agriculture, little information is available on their effect on nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation. Aim of this work was to study, at physiological and transcriptional level, the effects of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on urea nutrition in hydroponically grown maize plants. Presence of NBPT in the nutrient solution limited the capacity of plants to utilize urea as a N-source; this was shown by a decrease in urea uptake rate and (15)N accumulation. Noteworthy, these negative effects were evident only when plants were fed with urea, as NBPT did not alter (15)N accumulation in nitrate-fed plants. NBPT also impaired the growth of Arabidopsis plants when urea was used as N-source, while having no effect on plants grown with nitrate or ammonium. This response was related, at least in part, to a direct effect of NBPT on the high affinity urea transport system. Impact of NBPT on urea uptake was further evaluated using lines of Arabidopsis overexpressing ZmDUR3 and dur3-knockout; results suggest that not only transport but also urea assimilation could be compromised by the inhibitor. This hypothesis was reinforced by an over-accumulation of urea and a decrease in ammonium concentration in NBPT-treated plants. Furthermore, transcriptional analyses showed that in maize roots NBPT treatment severely impaired the expression of genes involved in the cytosolic pathway of ureic-N assimilation and ammonium transport. NBPT also limited the expression of a gene coding for a transcription factor highly induced by urea and possibly playing a crucial role in the regulation of its acquisition. This work provides evidence that NBPT can heavily interfere with urea nutrition in maize plants, limiting influx as well as the following assimilation pathway.

  3. A Structural Viral Mimic of Prosurvival Bcl-2: A Pivotal Role for Sequestering Proapoptotic Bax and Bak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvansakul,M.; van Delft, M.; Lee, E.; Gulbis, J.; Fairlie, W.; Huang, D.; Colman, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many viruses express antiapoptotic proteins to counter host defense mechanisms that would otherwise trigger the rapid clearance of infected cells. For example, adenoviruses and some {gamma}-herpesviruses express homologs of prosurvival Bcl-2 to subvert the host's apoptotic machinery. Myxoma virus, a double-stranded DNA virus of the pox family, harbors antiapoptotic M11L, its virulence factor. Analysis of its three-dimensional structure reveals that despite lacking any primary sequence similarity to Bcl-2, it adopts a virtually identical protein fold. This allows it to associate with BH3 domains, especially those of Bax and Bak. We found that M11L acts primarily by sequestering Bax and Bak, thereby blocking the killing action of these essential cell-death mediators. These findings expand the family of protein sequences that act like Bcl-2 to block apoptosis and support the conclusion that the prosurvival action of these proteins critically depends on their ability to bind and antagonize Bax and/or Bak.

  4. Acceptable risk of contact allergy in the general population assessed by CE-DUR--a method to detect and categorize contact allergy epidemics based on patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Schnuch, Axel

    2009-01-01

    population by using a new epidemiological tool. The clinical epidemiology (CE) and drug utilization research (DUR) method recently estimated the 10-year contact allergy prevalence in the general population in Germany and Denmark based on patch test reading data in combination with an estimate of the number...

  5. Roussel. Sinfonien Nr. 3 g-Moll op. 42 und Nr. 4 A-Dur op. 5, Neeme Järvi / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Roussel. Sinfonien Nr. 3 g-Moll op. 42 und Nr. 4 A-Dur op. 53, Bacchus et Ariane op. 43 (Zweite Orchestersuite). Sinfonietta für Streichorchester d-Moll op. 52. Detroit Symphony Orchester, N. Järvi". Chandos/Koch CD 7007(WD: 70'10") DDD

  6. Feed-forward and visual feedback control of head roll orientation in wasps (Polistes humilis, Vespidae, Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viollet, Stéphane; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Flying insects keep their visual system horizontally aligned, suggesting that gaze stabilization is a crucial first step in flight control. Unlike flies, hymenopteran insects such as bees and wasps do not have halteres that provide fast, feed-forward angular rate information to stabilize head orientation in the presence of body rotations. We tested whether hymenopteran insects use inertial (mechanosensory) information to control head orientation from other sources, such as the wings, by applying periodic roll perturbations to male Polistes humilis wasps flying in tether under different visual conditions indoors and in natural outdoor conditions. We oscillated the thorax of the insects with frequency-modulated sinusoids (chirps) with frequencies increasing from 0.2 to 2 Hz at a maximal amplitude of 50 deg peak-to-peak and maximal angular velocity of ±245 deg s(-1). We found that head roll stabilization is best outdoors, but completely absent in uniform visual conditions and in darkness. Step responses confirm that compensatory head roll movements are purely visually driven. Modelling step responses indicates that head roll stabilization is achieved by merging information on head angular velocity, presumably provided by motion-sensitive neurons and information on head orientation, presumably provided by light level integration across the compound eyes and/or ocelli (dorsal light response). Body roll in free flight reaches amplitudes of ±40 deg and angular velocities greater than 1000 deg s(-1), while head orientation remains horizontal for most of the time to within ±10 deg. In free flight, we did not find a delay between spontaneous body roll and compensatory head movements, and suggest that this is evidence for the contribution of a feed-forward control to head stabilization.

  7. A Study of the Pelagic Larval Duration of Acropora humilis, Coral Recruitment and Connectivity in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha

    2011-12-12

    Combined knowledge of the pelagic larval duration of coral species and coral recruitment patterns can provide evidence of inter-reef connectivity and indicate a reef’s ability to recover. We attempted to determine the maximum pelagic larval duration of Acropora humilis. Larvae were reared in a controlled environment unfavorable for settlement. The larvae lived in a pelagic state for a maximum of 29 days, although this is probably an underestimate of actual longevity for this species. Given the information available from the literature with respect to larval dispersal rates, it is not expected that larvae with this longevity will disperse further than 10-20 km from their natal reef, if at all. A long-term recruitment monitoring project was also set up on Abu Shosha Reef, which suffered nearly complete coral loss due to a bleaching event in summer of 2010. In April 2011, 60 settlement plates were placed on the reef. In July, a total of 102 living scleractinian recruits were counted on the plates. While pocilloporids were the most dominant recruits on the reef (57.8%), about 20.6% of living recruits belonged to Acroporidae, a family whose live cover on the reef is extremely low (0.67%). However, the overall mean density of recruits was very low (1.7 living recruits/100cm2) compared to similar studies around the world despite the spawning season having just ended. Fish surveys showed herbivore biomass to be very low compared to other reef systems in the world, but densities were significantly higher than another reef in the Red Sea with about 10 times more live coral cover. Recovery from bleaching for Abu Shosha and similar reefs in the region may be very slow relative to rates observed in other parts of the world if recruitment rates and herbivore communities remain low.

  8. Type I Interferon Upregulates Bak and Contributes to T Cell Loss during Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraietta, Joseph A.; Mueller, Yvonne M.; Yang, Guibin; Boesteanu, Alina C.; Gracias, Donald T.; Do, Duc H.; Hope, Jennifer L.; Kathuria, Noshin; McGettigan, Shannon E.; Lewis, Mark G.; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Katsikis, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    The role of Type I interferon (IFN) during pathogenic HIV and SIV infections remains unclear, with conflicting observations suggesting protective versus immunopathological effects. We therefore examined the effect of IFNα/β on T cell death and viremia in HIV infection. Ex vivo analysis of eight pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules in chronic HIV-1 infection revealed that pro-apoptotic Bak was increased in CD4+ T cells and correlated directly with sensitivity to CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis and inversely with CD4+ T cell counts. Apoptosis sensitivity and Bak expression were primarily increased in effector memory T cells. Knockdown of Bak by RNA interference inhibited CD95/Fas-induced death of T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. In HIV-1-infected patients, IFNα-stimulated gene expression correlated positively with ex vivo T cell Bak levels, CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis and viremia and negatively with CD4+ T cell counts. In vitro IFNα/β stimulation enhanced Bak expression, CD95/Fas expression and CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis in healthy donor T cells and induced death of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells from HIV-1-infected patients. HIV-1 in vitro sensitized T cells to CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis and this was Toll-like receptor (TLR)7/9- and Type I IFN-dependent. This sensitization by HIV-1 was due to an indirect effect on T cells, as it occurred in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures but not purified CD4+ T cells. Finally, peak IFNα levels and viral loads correlated negatively during acute SIV infection suggesting a potential antiviral effect, but positively during chronic SIV infection indicating that either the virus drives IFNα production or IFNα may facilitate loss of viral control. The above findings indicate stage-specific opposing effects of Type I IFNs during HIV-1 infection and suggest a novel mechanism by which these cytokines contribute to T cell depletion, dysregulation of cellular immunity and disease progression. PMID:24130482

  9. Presence of the tunicate Asterocarpa humilis on ship hulls and aquaculture facilities in the coast of the Biobío Region, south central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pinochet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-native ascidians are important members of the fouling community associated with artificial substrata and man-made structures. Being efficient fouling species, they are easily spread by human-mediated transports (e.g., with aquaculture trade and maritime transports. This is exemplified by the ascidian Asterocarpa humilis which displays a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere and has been recently reported in the Northern Hemisphere (NW Europe. In continental Chile, its first report dates back from 2000 for the locality of Antofagasta (23°S. Although there was no evidence about the vectors of introduction and spread, nor the source, some authors suggested maritime transport by ship hulls and aquaculture devices as putative introduction pathways and vectors. In the present study, we report for the first time the presence of A. humilis on the hull of an international ship in a commercial port in Concepción bay (36°S, south central Chile. We also found one individual associated to a seashell farm, 70 km far from Concepción bay. Further individuals were subsequently identified within Concepción bay: one juvenile settled upon international harbor pilings and a dozen individuals along aquaculture seashell longlines. For the first specimens sampled, species identification was ascertained using both morphological criteria and molecular barcoding, using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and a nuclear gene (ribosomal RNA 18S. The nuclear 18S gene and the mitochondrial gene COI clearly assigned the specimens to A. humilis, confirming our morphological identification. Two haplotypes were obtained with COI corresponding to haplotypes previously obtained with European and Northern Chilean specimens. The present study thus reports for the first time the presence of A. humilis in the Araucanian ecoregion, documenting the apparent expansion of this non-native tunicate in Chile over 2,000 km, spanning over three ecoregions

  10. Flavonoids in the leaves of polish species of the genus Betula L. II. The flavonoids of B. "nova" and B. humilis Schrk. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of the taxon B. "nova" were found to contain myricitrin, hyperoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, myricetin 3-digalactoside, quercitrin, quercetin 3-arabinoside, hesperidin, and probably also kaempferol 3-rhamno-7--glucoside, quercetin 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether, quercetin 7,3',4'-trimethyl ether, and dihydrohyperoside. Jentys-Szaferawa has advanced a supposition that B. "nova" may descend from B. humilis Schrk., however, since the composition of the leaf flavonoids present in the two taxa compared is quite different, these biochemical traits preclude such a possibility.

  11. Mediamania? Contemporary German Poetry in the Age of New Information Technologies: Thomas Kling and Durs Grünbein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erk Grimm

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the preoccupation with information technologies as a dominant theme of German poetry in the 1980s and 1990s. Outlining the historical shift from a critique of mass media to the ironic affirmation of hi-tech media, the investigation seeks an understanding of its driving forces. The analysis of Enzensberger's polemical essays on the culture industry shows the parallels and the difference in attitude between him and younger poets of the 1980s. A concise account of their publications illuminates the development of an aesthetically demanding poetry that kept aloof from the mass media. In their rejection of a common quotidian or sentimental tone, poets such as Thomas Kling and Durs Grunbein created new idioms and challenging forms while concentrating on hi-tech media as an epochal phenomenon. The sober reflection and technical terminology originate in a materialistic attitude, driven by the desire to regain the power of sophisticated aesthetic expression and to compensate for the loss of experience caused by the simulation of the past.The essay closes with a critical interpretation of the "mediamania" of the 1990s by giving heed to the fashionable remixing of poetic idioms that leaves the false impression of a new school of media poets.

  12. Rapid identification of antioxidant compounds of Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. by combination of DPPH scavenging assay and HPTLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriane, Djamila; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Kaabeche, Mohamed; Michel, Sylvie; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina

    2014-04-09

    Genista species are sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds such as O- and C-glycosylflavonoids and isoflavonoids. A combination of a DPPH scavenging assay with HPTLC-MS, a fast and efficient method for identification of bioactive compounds, has been applied for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of metabolites from Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. Different organs collected at various periods have been compared. Identification of antioxidant compounds was obtained by elution of the major DPPH-inhibition zones. The resulting HPTLC-MS analysis under moderately polar conditions, coupled to the DPPH results led to the putative identification of two antioxidant isoflavone aglycones: 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (1) and ficuisoflavone (3), whereas polar migration conditions led to the identification of the glycosides 5-methoxy-4',7-trihydroxy-8-glucopyranosylisoflavone (4) and 4',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone-4'-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (5). Evaluation of percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical by the purified isoflavone 4 from the root extract showed that it affords a moderate contribution to the total radical scavenging activity of the extract.

  13. The Road Network in the Longue Durée: A Reading Key of the History of Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watteaux Magali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The historical study of routes has long remained confined to the great Roman roads, to the modern royal roads and to the medieval pilgrimage routes. For fifteen years, the French school of Archaeogeography has revisited this research field in great depth, following the first intuitions of the archaeologist Eric Vion. The innovative idea ‒ at least because it leads to a questioning of our methods ‒ is to consider the current road network as the starting point of the analysis. It is the true object of research for the historianarchaeologist because it represents a solid legacy whose logic one must unravel. Because this story is closely integrated with urban, political and economic matters, the study of this inherited road network represents a precious reading key to understanding the history of the territories in the longue durée. In the frame of this paper, we propose to recall these methodological advances and to present a case study in Brittany, around the small town of Chateaugiron. By this example, we want to show that the archaeogeographical analysis and interpretation offer a scientific narrative based on the paradigms of complexity and resilience to contemporary societies in charge of our territories.

  14. Rapid Identification of Antioxidant Compounds of Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. by Combination of DPPH Scavenging Assay and HPTLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamila Meriane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genista species are sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds such as O- and C-glycosylflavonoids and isoflavonoids. A combination of a DPPH scavenging assay with HPTLC-MS, a fast and efficient method for identification of bioactive compounds, has been applied for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of metabolites from Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. Different organs collected at various periods have been compared. Identification of antioxidant compounds was obtained by elution of the major DPPH-inhibition zones. The resulting HPTLC-MS analysis under moderately polar conditions, coupled to the DPPH results led to the putative identification of two antioxidant isoflavone aglycones: 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (1 and ficuisoflavone (3, whereas polar migration conditions led to the identification of the glycosides 5-methoxy-4',7-trihydroxy-8-glucopyranosylisoflavone (4 and 4',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone-4'-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (5. Evaluation of percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical by the purified isoflavone 4 from the root extract showed that it affords a moderate contribution to the total radical scavenging activity of the extract.

  15. Valorisation des brais durs de pétrole par combustion Upgrading of Solid Petroleum Pitch by Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le désasphaltage au solvant SOLVAHL, mis au point sur la plate-forme ASVAHL, est une des techniques les plus prometteuses pour la conversion profonde des produits lourds de raffinage. Elle produit un brai dur dont une des valorisations possible est sa combustion. Six opérations de démonstration ont été effectuées. Elles ont fait appel à des techniques de combustion type combustible liquide ou combustible solide. Elles ont montré qu'il existe des équipements industriels capables de brûler les brais au C5, avec le plus souvent des modifications mineures à leur apporter. The SOLVAHL solvent deasphalting technique developed in the ASVAHL facilities is one of the most promising techniques for the deep conversion of heavy refining products. It produces a solid pitch, for which one of the possible ways of use is its combustion. Six demonstration runs were performed. They made use of combustion techniques adapted for burning liquid or solid fuels. They show that industrial equipment exists that is capable of burning C5 pitch, usually with only minor modifications having to be made.

  16. Humilhação social - um problema político em psicologia Social Humiliation - a Political problem into psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moura Gonçalves Filho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo opera com resultados de uma pesquisa de psicologia social desenvolvida em regime participante e envolvendo mulheres que na Vila Joanisa - SP assumiram comunitariamente o trabalho de Centros de Juventude. Dedicamo-nos aqui ao exame de um problema político e psicológico, a humilhação social, uma modalidade de angústia disparada pelo impacto traumático da desigualdade de classes: para assim caracterizá-lo, recorremos à investigação marxista e à psicanálise.This paper is based upon participant research carried out in Vila Joanisa, a desinfranchised and poor district of São Paulo. As a social psychologist, the author has worked in Youth Centers, community-based groups both organized and coordinated by women. The aim of this paper is to discribe and discuss social humiliation, defined as a singular kind of anguish triggered by class inequality trauma. The psychological and political concepts of social humiliation were integrated into a theoretical framework informed by marxism and psychoanalisis.

  17. Détermination de la durée de vie géochimique du stock de déchets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Détermination de la durée de vie géochimique du stock de déchets miniers de Carnoulès (France) à partir d'un modèle hydrodynamique. Kouadio KOFFI1*, Inza DOUMOUYA1, Bi Tié Albert GOULA1 & Séverin PISTRE2. 1Laboratoire Géosciences et Environnement, UFR Sciences et Gestion de l'Environnement, Université ...

  18. Sindbis viral vector induced apoptosis requires translational inhibition and signaling through Mcl-1 and Bak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meruelo Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sindbis viral vectors are able to efficiently target and kill tumor cells in vivo, as shown using pancreatic and ovarian cancer models. Infection results in apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Sindbis vector uptake is mediated by the LAMR, which is upregulated on a number of different tumor types, thus conferring specificity of the vector to a wide range of cancers. In this study we elucidate the mechanism of apoptosis in two tumor cell lines, MOSEC, derived from the ovarian epithelium and Pan02, derived from a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of apoptosis would facilitate the design of more effective vectors for cancer therapy. Results The initial phase of Sindbis vector induced apoptosis in MOSEC and Pan02 models reconfirms that viral infection is sensed by PKR due to double-stranded RNA intermediates associated with genomic replication. PKR activation results in translation inhibition through eIF2α phosphorylation and initiation of the stress response. Our studies indicate that the roles of two proteins, Mcl-1 and JNK, intimately link Sindbis induced translational arrest and cellular stress. Translational arrest inhibits the synthesis of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, Mcl-1. JNK activation triggers the release of Bad from 14-3-3, which ultimately results in apoptosis. These signals from translational arrest and cellular stress are propagated to the mitochondria where Bad and Bik bind to Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 respectively. Formation of these heterodimers displaces Bak, which results in caspase 9 cleavage and signaling through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Conclusion The host cell response to Sindbis is triggered through PKR activation. Our studies demonstrate that PKR activation and subsequent translational arrest is linked to both cellular stress and apoptosis. We have also found the linkage point between translational arrest and apoptosis to be Mcl-1, a protein whose constant

  19. Epi-reevesioside F inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase, causing cytosolic acidification, Bak activation and apoptosis in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jui-Ling; Liu, Fan-Lun; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Leu, Wohn-Jenn; Yu, Chia-Chun; Chang, Wei-Ling; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Kung, Fan-Lu; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2015-09-15

    Epi-reevesioside F, a new cardiac glycoside isolated from the root of Reevesia formosana, displayed potent activity against glioblastoma cells. Epi-reevesioside F was more potent than ouabain with IC50 values of 27.3±1.7 vs. 48.7±1.8 nM (P Epi-reevesioside F and ouabain were ineffective in A172 cells, a glioblastoma cell line with low Na+/K+-ATPase α3 subunit expression. Epi-reevesioside F induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2 phases and apoptosis. It also induced an increase of intracellular concentration of Na+ but not Ca2+, cleavage and exposure of N-terminus of Bak, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibition of Akt activity and induction of caspase cascades. Potassium supplements significantly inhibited Epi-reevesioside F-induced effects. Notably, Epi-reevesioside F caused cytosolic acidification that was highly correlated with the anti-proliferative activity. In summary, the data suggest that Epi-reevesioside F inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase, leading to overload of intracellular Na+ and cytosolic acidification, Bak activation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. The PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is inhibited and caspase-dependent apoptosis is ultimately triggered in Epi-reevesioside F-treated glioblastoma cells.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the conformational dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana BRI1 and BAK1 receptor-like kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Alexander S; Bender, Kyle W; Huber, Steven C; Shukla, Diwakar

    2017-07-28

    The structural motifs responsible for activation and regulation of eukaryotic protein kinases in animals have been studied extensively in recent years, and a coherent picture of their activation mechanisms has begun to emerge. In contrast, non-animal eukaryotic protein kinases are not as well understood from a structural perspective, representing a large knowledge gap. To this end, we investigated the conformational dynamics of two key Arabidopsis thaliana receptor-like kinases, brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1) and BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1), through extensive molecular dynamics simulations of their fully phosphorylated kinase domains. Molecular dynamics simulations calculate the motion of each atom in a protein based on classical approximations of interatomic forces, giving researchers insight into protein function at unparalleled spatial and temporal resolutions. We found that in an otherwise "active" BAK1 the αC helix is highly disordered, a hallmark of deactivation, whereas the BRI1 αC helix is moderately disordered and displays swinging behavior similar to numerous animal kinases. An analysis of all known sequences in the A. thaliana kinome found that αC helix disorder may be a common feature of plant kinases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Contribution à l’étude biologique et phytoécologique du Chamaerops humilis L., dans la partie occidentale de l’Algérie.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDJATI, nadjat

    2014-01-01

    مساهمة لدراسة البيولوجيا و البيئة النباتية ل Chamaerops humilis في الجزء الغربي من الجزائر. ملخص: تتركز هذه الدراسة ، مفصلة في 4 أجزاء، على البيولوجيا، والبيئة النباتية ل Chamaerops humilis و مدى قدرته على التكيف تجاه المعوقات البيئية في منطقة تلمسان ) غرب الجزائر(. في الجزء الأول، جرى عرض لمنطقة الدراسة من حيث الإيكولوجيا المناخية والبيولوجية الخاصة بالمنطقة. ويخصص الجزء الثاني البيولوجيا Chamaerops humilis ويتمحور في ثلاثة فصول. حددت المعارف الاثنية للاستعمالات الصيدلانية ل C...

  2. Paternal breed effects on expression of IGF-II, BAK1 and BCL2-L1 in bovine preimplantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Joupari, Morteza Daliri

    2015-01-01

    reaction using the comparative Cp method. Our data revealed that the paternal breed did not influence cleavage rate, blastocyst rate and relative abundance of IGF-II, BAK1 and BCL2-L1 in day 8 blastocysts (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, IGF-II expression levels were highly correlated with embryonic developmental...

  3. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masoumeh Falah,1,2 Mohammad Najafi,2 Massoud Houshmand,3 Mohammad Farhadi1 1ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Biochemistry Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran Abstract: Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. Keywords: age-related hearing impairment (ARHI, presbycusis, biomarker, treatment

  4. Mondrian’ın yeni bir bakış açısıyla okunması

    OpenAIRE

    ALTINÖZ, Güler

    2007-01-01

    Teosofi (Teosophy), soyut sanatın ortaya çıkışında etkili olmuştur. Soyut sanat,yeni bir yüzyıl ile sanata bakış açısını da değiştirmiştir. Bu akımın öncülerinden biriolan Mondrian da Teosofi Derneği’ne üye olmuş, bu felsefeden etkilenerek sanatsalevrimini geliştirmiştir.Bu makalede, teosofik düşüncelerden etkilenerek yazdığı kuramsal notlarıylailişkilendirerek Mondrian’ın soyut sanat serüveni örneklerle anlatılmayaçalışılmıştır.

  5. Cancer-selective death of human breast cancer cells by leelamine is mediated by bax and bak activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Anuradha; Kim, Su-Hyeong; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Arlotti, Julie A; Eiseman, Julie; Shiva, Sruti S; Rigatti, Lora H; Singh, Shivendra V

    2017-02-01

    The present study is the first to report inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and suppression of self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells (bCSC) by a pine bark component (leelamine). Except for a few recent publications in melanoma, anticancer pharmacology of this interesting phytochemical is largely elusive. Leelamine (LLM) dose-dependently inhibited viability of MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative), MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive), and SUM159 (triple-negative) human breast cancer cells in association with apoptotic cell death induction. To the contrary, a normal mammary epithelial cell line derived from fibrocystic breast disease and spontaneously immortalized (MCF-10A) was fully resistant to LLM-mediated cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. LLM also inhibited self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells. Apoptosis induction by LLM in breast cancer cells was accompanied by a modest increase in reactive oxygen species production, which was not due to inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. Nevertheless, ectopic expression of manganese superoxide dismutase conferred partial protection against LLM-induced cell death but only at a lower yet pharmacologically relevant concentration. Exposure of breast cancer cells to LLM resulted in (a) induction and/or activation of multidomain proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak, (b) caspase-9 activation, and (c) cytosolic release of cytochrome c. Bax and Bak deficiency in immortalized fibroblasts conferred significant protection against cell death by LLM. Intraperitoneal administration of LLM (7.5 mg/kg; 5 times/wk) suppressed the growth of orthotopic SUM159 xenografts in mice without any toxicity. In conclusion, the present study provides critical preclinical data to warrant further investigation of LLM. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effets oestrogéniques du macéré aqueux des feuilles de Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Dur & Schinz chez la rate ovariectomisée

    OpenAIRE

    Sawadogo l;; Malpaux B.; Ouédraogo L.; Traoré A.; Zongo D.; Rubio Pellicer MT.; Tamboura HH.; Bayala B.

    2006-01-01

    Oestrogenic effects of macerated aqueous extracts of the leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda (G. Don) Dur & Schinz on ovariectomized rat. Estrogenic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda have been evaluated by uterotrophic assay. Ovariectomized mice were used and treated subcutaneously during seven days with 50, 100, 200 mg.kg-1 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda and with 100, 200 mg.kg-1 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda plus 25 mg.kg-1 of oestradiol 17-β. Estrogenic ac...

  7. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Otero

    Full Text Available In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp. mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp., and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp., aba fish (Gymnarchus sp., several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet., several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish, and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid. Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera.

  8. Nuevos hallazgos documentales y biográficos sobre Alonso Xuárez maestro de Sebastián Durón

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    de la Fuente Charfolé, José Luis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alonso Xuárez was no minor composer in the musical field of his time. The quality and effectiveness of his compositions makes them deserving of a leading place in Spanish and European music of the 17th century. In spite of this almost nothing is known about this composer prior to his being appointed to teach in the chapel of Cuenca cathedral. Virtually all the currently available data is of a secondary and collateral nature and arises from research into his disciple the organist Sebastián Durón, the renowned opera composer and teacher at the Capilla Real of Charles II.

    Alonso Xuárez no fue un compositor menor dentro del panorama musical de su tiempo. La calidad y eficacia de su música merece estar en primera línea de la música española y europea del siglo XVII. Sin embargo, el desconocimiento de este músico es casi completo con anterioridad a su nombramiento en el magisterio de capilla de la catedral de Cuenca. Prácticamente todos los datos expuestos hasta el momento han sido restos secundarios y colaterales desprendidos de otras investigaciones realizadas sobre la figura de su discípulo, el reputado compositor de teatro lírico y maestro de la Capilla Real de Carlos II, el organista Sebastián Durón.

  9. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37–39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  10. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera.

  11. PROFIL PEMIJAHAN IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING, Thunnus albacares DALAM BAK TERKONTROL DENGAN ANALISIS MITOKONDRIA DNA (mt-DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Variasi mitokondria DNA pada ikan tuna sirip kuning, Thunnus albacares menggunakan analisis RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism dapat menyediakan data yang akurat dan memberikan bukti tentang profil pemijahan ikan tuna dalam bak terkontrol. Genotipe mt-DNA yang berasal dari induk dibandingkan dengan genotipe yang ada pada telur untuk memonitor dan mengetahui profil dari pemijahan ikan tuna dalam bak terkontrol. Telur dikumpulkan setiap pemijahan dari tahun 2004-2006. Profil pemijahan dari induk betina diamati dari jumlah genotipe yang ditemukan pada telur. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah 49 induk yang dianalisis ditemukan 42 genotipe, 6 genotipe yang teramati ditemukan pada telur dan 4 diantaranya memiliki genotipe tunggal sedangkan satu genotipe (DABEA dimiliki oleh dua induk. Prakiraan panjang cagak dan bobot induk pada saat memijah adalah 82,2-164 cm and 9,183-28,142 kg. Genotipe yang sama ditemukan hampir setiap hari pada saat sampling selama setahun. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa ikan tuna sirip kuning dapat bertelur sepanjang tahun tergantung kepada suhu air dan kondisi pakan. Study of mitochondrial (mt-DNA variations of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares using (RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphisms can provide evidence of spawning profile of the species in captivity. Mt-DNA genotypes of broodstock were compared with their eggs in order to monitor spawning profile. Spawned eggs were collected on every spawning from 2004 to 2006. The spawning profiles of these females were determined from the genotypes of the eggs. The result showed that from 49  broodstock individuals, 42 genotypes were observed, in which 6 genotypes were observed in their eggs and 4 of them established a single female’s identity and one type (DABEA was shared by two females. Fork length and weight of broodstock female when spawning were ranging from 82.2–164 cm and 9.183-28.142 kg. The same genotypes were observed in almost every sampling

  12. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nicola J.; Balmanno, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway. PMID:28931068

  13. The prospects for the survival of the population of a boreal relict species, Betula humilis Schrk., in a small isolated peat bog in the Łęczna - Włodawa Lakeland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to identify the major risks to the population of Betula humilis Schrk. existing in a small isolated transitional peat bog near Lake Bikcze, in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland. The biometric features of 40 Betula humilis individuals were measured as well as the growth of shoots, flowering and fruiting were observed. Habitat conditions were characterized by making measurements of selected abiotic and biocenotic environmental factors. The obtained results allowed us to identify two main threats to the proper functioning of the study population. The first one is the possible loss of genetic identity of the species as a result of probable ongoing introgression by the potential crossing of Betula humilis with other species of the genus Betula, which are numerous in the flora of the studied area. Another threat is a change in habitat conditions (mainly light and water conditions, which is due to the accelerated secondary succession manifested by the expansion of common species such as Salix cinerea, Betula pendula, and Phragmites australis.

  14. Bax and Bak expression in cervical smears of women with low-and high-risk HPV types: A study of 120 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapsinou, Eirini; Argyri, Elena; Panotopoulou, Efstathia; Daskalopoulou, Dimitra; Patsouris, Efstratios; Nonni, Afroditi; Lazaris, Andreas C; Thomopoulou, Georgia-Heleni

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of squamous cells in uterine cervix cancer, mostly by binding and inactivating the p53 and pRb tumor suppressor genes. Lately, evidence has emerged suggesting that HPV oncoproteins may interact with proteins involved in cellular apoptosis as well. This study aimed to investigate the expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak in women with low-risk and high-risk HPV types as opposed to HPV-negative women, and in women with normal pap smear compared to women with abnormal Papanicolau test (Pap) smear. A total of 120 liquid-based cervical samples were subtyped for HPV types with microarray hybridization and then stained and evaluated immunocytochemically for Bax and Bak expression. Statistical analysis was performed on the Bax and Bak scores (percentage of positive cells × staining intensity), the overall percentage of positive cells, and the most prevalent staining intensity group found in each sample. A weak association between negative Bax staining and cytologically normal Pap smears was discovered, whereas cytologically abnormal samples tended to stain weakly or moderately positive. No other statistically significant difference was found in the other analyzed parameters. Cytologically normal pap smears seem to have a slight tendency to stain negative for Bax as opposed to cytologically abnormal pap smears. Although the association is weak, it is an indication that there might be a connection between the expression of Bax and the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia, which warrants further investigation in larger-scale studies.

  15. Three novel ascomycetous yeast species of the Kazachstania clade, Kazachstania saulgeensis sp. nov., Kazachstaniaserrabonitensis sp. nov. and Kazachstania australis sp. nov. Reassignment of Candida humilis to Kazachstania humilis f.a. comb. nov. and Candida pseudohumilis to Kazachstania pseudohumilis f.a. comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Noémie; Sarilar, Véronique; Urien, Charlotte; Lopes, Mariana R; Morais, Camila G; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Tinsley, Colin R; Rosa, Carlos A; Sicard, Delphine; Casaregola, Serge

    2016-12-01

    Five ascosporogenous yeast strains related to the genus Kazachstania were isolated. Two strains (CLIB 1764T and CLIB 1780) were isolated from French sourdoughs; three others (UFMG-CM-Y273T, UFMG-CM-Y451 and UFMG-CM-Y452) were from rotting wood in Brazil. The sequences of the French and Brazilian strains differed by one and three substitutions, respectively, in the D1/D2 large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The D1/D2 LSU rRNA sequence of these strains differed by 0.5 and 0.7 % from Kazachstania exigua, but their ITS sequences diverged by 8.1 and 8.3 %, respectively, from that of the closest described species Kazachstania barnettii. Analysis of protein coding sequences of RPB1, RPB2 and EF-1α distinguished the French from the Brazilian strains, with respectively 3.3, 6 and 11.7 % substitutions. Two novel species are described to accommodate these newly isolated strains: Kazachstania saulgeensis sp. nov. (type strain CLIB 1764T=CBS 14374T) and Kazachstania serrabonitensis sp. nov. (type strain UFMG-CM-Y273T=CLIB 1783T=CBS 14236T). Further analysis of culture collections revealed a strain previously assigned to the K. exigua species, but having 3.8 % difference (22 substitutions and 2 indels) in its ITS with respect to K. exigua. Hence, we describe a new taxon, Kazachstania australis sp. nov. (type strain CLIB 162T=CBS 2141T), to accommodate this strain. Finally, Candida humilis and Candida pseudohumilis are reassigned to the genus Kazachstania as new combinations. On the basis of sequence analysis, we also propose that Candida milleri and Kazachstania humilis comb. nov. are conspecific.

  16. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bxefficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  17. Requirement of FADD, NEMO, and BAX/BAK for Aberrant Mitochondrial Function in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Necrosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrinki, Krishna M.; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Thapa, Roshan J.; Chandramoorthy, Harish C.; Smith, Frank J.; Jog, Neelakshi R.; Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Kelsen, Steven G.; Houser, Steven R.; May, Michael J.; Balachandran, Siddharth; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2011-01-01

    Necroptosis represents a form of alternative programmed cell death that is dependent on the kinase RIP1. RIP1-dependent necroptotic death manifests as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria and is accompanied by loss of ATP biogenesis and eventual dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced necroptosis requires the adaptor proteins FADD and NEMO. FADD was found to mediate formation of the TNF-α-induced pronecrotic RIP1-RIP3 kinase complex, whereas the IκB Kinase (IKK) subunit NEMO appears to function downstream of RIP1-RIP3. Interestingly, loss of RelA potentiated TNF-α-dependent necroptosis, indicating that NEMO regulates necroptosis independently of NF-κB. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that the overexpression of antioxidants alleviates ROS elevation and necroptosis. Finally, elimination of BAX and BAK or overexpression of Bcl-xL protects cells from necroptosis at a later step. These findings provide evidence that mitochondria play an amplifying role in inflammation-induced necroptosis. PMID:21746883

  18. Bakır biyosorpsiyon işlemine Yapay Sinir Ağı (ANN yaklaşımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Bingöl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu makale, çörek otu kullanılarak bakır biyosorpsiyon işleminin değerlendirilmesi için yapay sinir ağı (ANN modelinin kullanımını göstermektedir. Deneysel değişkenler (sıcaklık, biyosorbent kütlesi, başlangıç bakır derişimi, başlangıç pH’ı çıkış olarak, herhangi bir zamanda adsorplanan bakır miktarını tahmin etmek için kurulan sinir ağında girdi olarak kullanılmıştır. Ağ tahmini ve ilgili deneysel veriler arasındaki yüksek R2-değerleri, eğitim ve test veri setleri için sırasıyla 0,89 ve 0,93, yapay nöron ağını kullanarak biyosorpsiyon işleminin modellemede yeterli bir yöntem olduğunu kanıtlamaktadır. Gibbs serbest enerji (ΔG°, entalpi (AH° ve sorpsiyonun entropi değişimi (ΔS° gibi termodinamik parametreler de değerlendirildi. Biyosorpsiyon işleminin gerçekte kendiliğinden, istemli ve ekzotermik olduğu bulunmuştur. Bakır iyonunun denge sorpsiyonu, Langmuir denklemine göre belirlenmiştir ve 293 K’de 16,13 mg/g olarak bulunmuştur. Model sonuçları ve deneysel veriler arasındaki karşılalaştırma çörek otu kullanılarak bakırın giderilebileceğini göstermektedir.

  19. Etude du méson Bs et mesure de sa durée de vie avec le détecteur ALEPH

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Helder

    A partir des données de 1991 et 1992 du détecteur ALEPH au LEP, nous obtenons un signal provenant du méson Bos en étudiant ses désintégrations semi-leptoniques en un méson D-s et un lepton de signe opposé. L'optimisation du rejet des bruits de fond et de l'efficacité de sélection utilise, entre autres, la mesure d'ionisation des particules chargées. Pour déterminer la durée de vie du B0s, il est nécessaire de mesurer l'énergie de chaque candidat. Cette énergie est la somme des énergies des particules chargées D-s et lepton et de l'énergie manquante, incluant une correction de masse des hémisphères, identifiée à l'énergie du neutrino. Nous utilisons cette mesure d'énergie manquante pour réduire les bruits de fond et mesurer la probabilité Ps qu'un quark beau produise un méson B0s lors de l'hadronisation: Ps = P (b→Bs) = (13,2 ± 4,3 ± 4,4)%. Pour la mesure de la durée de vie du B0s, nous reconstruisons les vertex de désintégration du D-s et du B0s à partir de leurs produits d...

  20. Up-regulation of Mcl-1 and Bak by coronavirus infection of human, avian and animal cells modulates apoptosis and viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxin Zhong

    Full Text Available Virus-induced apoptosis and viral mechanisms that regulate this cell death program are key issues in understanding virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis. Like many other human and animal viruses, coronavirus infection of mammalian cells induces apoptosis. In this study, the global gene expression profiles are first determined in IBV-infected Vero cells at 24 hours post-infection by Affymetrix array, using avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV as a model system. It reveals an up-regulation at the transcriptional level of both pro-apoptotic Bak and pro-survival myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1. These results were further confirmed both in vivo and in vitro, in IBV-infected embryonated chicken eggs, chicken fibroblast cells and mammalian cells at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. Interestingly, the onset of apoptosis occurred earlier in IBV-infected mammalian cells silenced with short interfering RNA targeting Mcl-1 (siMcl-1, and was delayed in cells silenced with siBak. IBV progeny production and release were increased in infected Mcl-1 knockdown cells compared to similarly infected control cells, while the contrary was observed in infected Bak knockdown cells. Furthermore, IBV infection-induced up-regulation of GADD153 regulated the expression of Mcl-1. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathways by chemical inhibitors and knockdown of GADD153 by siRNA demonstrated the involvement of ER-stress response in regulation of IBV-induced Mcl-1 expression. These results illustrate the sophisticated regulatory strategies evolved by a coronavirus to modulate both virus-induced apoptosis and viral replication during its replication cycle.

  1. Up-regulation of Mcl-1 and Bak by coronavirus infection of human, avian and animal cells modulates apoptosis and viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yanxin; Liao, Ying; Fang, Shouguo; Tam, James P; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Virus-induced apoptosis and viral mechanisms that regulate this cell death program are key issues in understanding virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis. Like many other human and animal viruses, coronavirus infection of mammalian cells induces apoptosis. In this study, the global gene expression profiles are first determined in IBV-infected Vero cells at 24 hours post-infection by Affymetrix array, using avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) as a model system. It reveals an up-regulation at the transcriptional level of both pro-apoptotic Bak and pro-survival myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). These results were further confirmed both in vivo and in vitro, in IBV-infected embryonated chicken eggs, chicken fibroblast cells and mammalian cells at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. Interestingly, the onset of apoptosis occurred earlier in IBV-infected mammalian cells silenced with short interfering RNA targeting Mcl-1 (siMcl-1), and was delayed in cells silenced with siBak. IBV progeny production and release were increased in infected Mcl-1 knockdown cells compared to similarly infected control cells, while the contrary was observed in infected Bak knockdown cells. Furthermore, IBV infection-induced up-regulation of GADD153 regulated the expression of Mcl-1. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways by chemical inhibitors and knockdown of GADD153 by siRNA demonstrated the involvement of ER-stress response in regulation of IBV-induced Mcl-1 expression. These results illustrate the sophisticated regulatory strategies evolved by a coronavirus to modulate both virus-induced apoptosis and viral replication during its replication cycle.

  2. Bax and Bak expression in cervical smears of women with low-and high-risk HPV types: A study of 120 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Klapsinou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV is known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of squamous cells in uterine cervix cancer, mostly by binding and inactivating the p53 and pRb tumor suppressor genes. Lately, evidence has emerged suggesting that HPV oncoproteins may interact with proteins involved in cellular apoptosis as well. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak in women with low-risk and high-risk HPV types as opposed to HPV-negative women, and in women with normal pap smear compared to women with abnormal Papanicolau test (Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 liquid-based cervical samples were subtyped for HPV types with microarray hybridization and then stained and evaluated immunocytochemically for Bax and Bak expression. Statistical analysis was performed on the Bax and Bak scores (percentage of positive cells × staining intensity, the overall percentage of positive cells, and the most prevalent staining intensity group found in each sample. Results: A weak association between negative Bax staining and cytologically normal Pap smears was discovered, whereas cytologically abnormal samples tended to stain weakly or moderately positive. No other statistically significant difference was found in the other analyzed parameters. Conclusion: Cytologically normal pap smears seem to have a slight tendency to stain negative for Bax as opposed to cytologically abnormal pap smears. Although the association is weak, it is an indication that there might be a connection between the expression of Bax and the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia, which warrants further investigation in larger-scale studies.

  3. Petri dish versus Winogradsky column: a longue durée perspective on purity and diversity in microbiology, 1880s-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Mathias

    2017-11-29

    Microbial diversity has become a leitmotiv of contemporary microbiology, as epitomized in the concept of the microbiome, with significant consequences for the classification of microbes. In this paper, I contrast microbiology's current diversity ideal with its influential predecessor in the twentieth century, that of purity, as epitomized in Robert Koch's bacteriological culture methods. Purity and diversity, the two polar opposites with regard to making sense of the microbial world, have been operationalized in microbiological practice by tools such as the "clean" Petri dish versus the "dirty" Winogradsky column, the latter a container that mimics, in the laboratory, the natural environment that teems with diverse microbial life. By tracing the impact of the practices and concepts of purity and diversity on microbial classification through a history of techniques, tools, and manuals, I show the shifts in these concepts over the last century. Juxtaposing the dominant purity ideal with the more restricted, but continuously articulated, diversity ideal in microbial ecology not only provides a fresh perspective on microbial classification that goes beyond its intellectual history, but also contextualizes the present focus on diversity. By covering the period of a century, this paper outlines a revised longue durée historiography that takes its inspiration from artifacts, such as Petri dish and the Winogradsky column, and thereby simple, but influential technologies that often remain invisible. This enables the problem of historical continuity in modern science to be addressed and the accelerationist narratives of its development to be countered.

  4. Effets oestrogéniques du macéré aqueux des feuilles de Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don Dur & Schinz chez la rate ovariectomisée

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    Sawadogo l;

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oestrogenic effects of macerated aqueous extracts of the leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda (G. Don Dur & Schinz on ovariectomized rat. Estrogenic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda have been evaluated by uterotrophic assay. Ovariectomized mice were used and treated subcutaneously during seven days with 50, 100, 200 mg.kg-1 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda and with 100, 200 mg.kg-1 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda plus 25 mg.kg-1 of oestradiol 17-β. Estrogenic activity was analysed by uterine dry and wet weight, surrenal gland wet weight, vaginal opening, protein and cholesterol level in uteri horn. Administration of extracts to the doses of 100 and 200 mg.kg-1 exhibits increase of uterine dry and wet weight, surrenal gland wet weight, vaginal opening, protein levels and decrease of level of cholesterol in uterine horn. The results suggest that, aqueous extracts of Holarrhena fl oribunda possesses estrogenic type effect. But when 100 and 200 mg.kg-1 of Holarrhena fl oribunda were given alone with 25 mg.kg-1 of estradiol 17-β, the estrogenic effect was slight. These results supposed that H. fl oribunda is a weak phytoestrogen and the aqueous extracts of the leaves behad as partial agonistic

  5. Artemisinin induces caspase-8/9-mediated and Bax/Bak-independent apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells.

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    Xiao, Feng-Lian; Gao, Wei-Jie; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin (ARTE), an antimalarial phytochemical component from the sweet wormwood plant, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by inducing cell apoptosis. The aim of this report is to explore the mechanism of ARTE-induced human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cell apoptosis. Cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that ARTE induced cytotoxcity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy fluorescence imaging of cells stained with Hoechst 33258 and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis of cells stained with Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) showed that ARTE induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis. Confocal fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging of single living cells expressing SCAT3, SCAT9 or CFP-Bid-YFP and fluorometic substrate assay showed that ARTE induced the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Moreover, inhibition of caspase-8 or -9 completely blocked ARTE-induced apoptosis which was only partially attenuated by caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, silencing Bax and Bak by RNA interference (RNAi) did not attenuate ARTE-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ARTE induces caspase-dependent but Bax/Bak-independent apoptosis in ASTC-a-1 cells.

  6. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles preferentially induce cell death in transformed cells in a Bak/Bax-independent fashion.

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    Zhu, Yanglong; Eaton, John W; Li, Chi

    2012-01-01

    While the cytotoxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles have been under intense investigation, the molecular mechanisms of this cytotoxicity remain unknown. Here we investigated the influence of oncogenic transformation and a major apoptotic signaling pathway on cellular responses to TiO(2) nanoparticles. Isogenic wild-type (WT) and apoptosis-resistant (Bak(-/-)Bax(-/-)) cell lines with and without tumorigenic transformation were examined. TiO(2) nanoparticles preferentially reduced viability of tumorigenic cells in a dose-dependent fashion compared with their untransformed counterparts. Importantly, the elevated cytotoxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles was independent of a major Bak/Bax-dependent apoptosis pathway. Because transformation does not affect cellular fluid-phase endocytosis or nanoparticle uptake, it is likely that the increased cytotoxicity in tumor cells is due to the interaction between TiO(2) nanoparticles and the lysosomal compartment. Overall, our data indicate that TiO(2) nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity preferentially in transformed cells independent of a major apoptotic signaling pathway.

  7. The novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonists/partial agonists CAB2-015 and BAK4-54 inhibit oxycodone-taking and oxycodone-seeking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhi-Bing; Gao, Jun-Tao; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Boateng, Comfort; Cao, Jianjing; Gardner, Eliot L; Newman, Amy Hauck; Xi, Zheng-Xiong

    2017-11-01

    The use of prescription opioid analgesics, particularly oxycodone, has dramatically increased, and parallels escalated opioid abuse and drug-related deaths worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of opioid dependence and expanding treatment options to counter prescription opioid abuse has become a critical public health matter. In the present study, we first evaluated the reinforcing effects of oxycodone in a rat model of self-administration and then explored the potential utility of two novel high affinity dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) antagonists/partial agonists, CAB2-015 and BAK4-54, for treatment of prescription opioid abuse and dependence. We found that rats acquired oxycodone self-administration rapidly within a range of unit doses that was similar to that for heroin, confirming that oxycodone has significant abuse potential. Strikingly, pretreatment with either CAB2-015 or BAK4-54 (0.4-10 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased oxycodone self-administration, and shifted the oxycodone dose-response curve downward. Repeated pretreatment with CAB2-015 or BAK4-54 (0.4-4 mg/kg) facilitated extinction and inhibited oxycodone-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. In addition, pretreatment with CAB2-015 or BAK4-54 (4-10 mg/kg) also dose-dependently decreased oxycodone-enhanced locomotor activity, but only CAB2-015 decreased oral sucrose self-administration. These data suggest that D3R antagonists may be suitable alternatives or adjunctive to opioid-based medications currently used clinically in treating opioid addiction and that the D3R-selective ligands (CAB2-015 or BAK4-54) provide new lead molecules for development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. PERBANDINGAN KEMAMPUAN KITOSAN DARI LIMBAH KULIT UDANG DENGAN ALUMINIUM SULFAT UNTUK MENURUNKAN KEKERUHAN AIR DARI OUTLET BAK PRASEDIMENTASI IPAM NGAGEL 2

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    Cecilia Dwi Triastiningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PDAM Surya Sembada Surabaya menggunakan air dari Kali Surabaya sebagai sumber air baku utama. Koagulan yang digunakan untuk mengolah air baku tersebut adalah aluminium sulfat. Penggunaan aluminium sulfat dapat mempengaruhi pH air dan menyebabkan kerugian baik dalam sisi lingkungan maupun kesehatan konsumen. Di lain hal, terdapat pula masalah peningkatan jumlah limbah kulit udang yang berpotensi namun belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Dari masalah-masalah tersebut muncul ide untuk mencari alternatif koagulan yang ramah lingkungan, efektif, efisien dan sekaligus dapat memanfaatkan limbah kulit udang. Kitosan yang terdapat di kulit udang dapat dijadikan alternatif karena sifatnya tidak beracun, mudah terdegradasi dan bahan bakunya mudah didapatkan. Kitosan adalah senyawa polimer dengan ion positif yang diperoleh dari proses hidrolisis kitin menggunakan basa kuat sehingga terjadi deasetilasi gugus asetamida (NH-COCH3 menjadi gugus amino (NH2. Kitosan diperoleh dari serbuk kulit udang yang melalui proses deproteinasi dengan NaOH 6%, proses demineralisasi dengan HCL 1,1 N, dan proses deasetilasi dengan NaOH 50%. Kitosan yang dihasilkan kemudian di cek kualitasnya dengan melakukan uji kelarutan menggunakan CH3COOH 1% dan pengecekan derajat deasetilasi dengan metode titrasi asam basa. Efektifitas dan efisiensi kitosan diuji dengan metode jar test menggunakan sampel air yang berasal dari outlet bak prasedimentasi IPAM Ngagel 2. Aspek yang diuji adalah kekeruhan dan pH dengan variabel berupa dosis koagulan dan kekeruhan air. Dari sisi biaya, yang akan dibandingkan adalah biaya pemakaian koagulan per hari, per jam dan per m3. Penelitian ini membandingkan kemampuan kitosan dengan aluminium sulfat 17% dan 45% untuk menurunkan kekeruhan air dari outlet bak prasedimentasi IPAM Ngagel 2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aluminium sulfat lebih efektif dari kitosan, namun aluminium sulfat tidak lebih efisien dari kitosan. Dari segi biaya, pemakaian aluminium

  9. Cytotoxic pentacyclic triterpenoids from Combretum sundaicum and Lantana camara as inhibitors of Bcl-xL/BakBH3 domain peptide interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaudon, Marc; Jolly, Claire; Le Callonec, Catherine; Cuong, Dao Din; Retailleau, Pascal; Nosjean, Olivier; Nguyen, Van Hung; Pfeiffer, Bruno; Boutin, Jean A; Guéritte, Françoise

    2009-07-01

    In an effort to discover potent inhibitors of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL, a systematic in vitro evaluation was undertaken on extracts prepared from various parts of Vietnamese plants. The ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the leaves and flowers of Combretum sundaicum and the leaves of Lantana camara were selected for their interaction with the Bcl-xL/Bak association. Bioassay-guided purification of these species led to the isolation of 15 pentacyclic triterpenoids (1-15) possessing olean-12-en-28-oic acid and olean-12-en-29-oic acid aglycons, of which compounds 1-6 and 8-10 are new. Five compounds exhibited binding activity with K(i) values between 5.3 and 17.8 microM. The cytotoxic activity of 1-15 was also evaluated on various cancer cell lines.

  10. JNK-Bcl-2/Bcl-xL-Bax/Bak Pathway Mediates the Crosstalk between Matrine-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis via Interplay with Beclin 1

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    Jiong Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is associated with drug resistance which has been a threat in chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The interconnected molecular regulators between autophagy and apoptosis serve as switching points critical to the ultimate outcome of the cell. Our study was performed to investigate the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in HCC after the treatment of matrine. Flow cytometry and TUNEL (terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay were used to detect apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Bax oligomerization and Cytochrome c release assay were performed. Immunoprecipitation and siRNA transfection were used to detect the interplay between Bcl-2/Bcl-xL,Bax, and Beclin 1. Our results showed that: (1 matrine not only activated caspase and PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, but also triggered autophagy as shown by the increased levels of LC3II, Beclin 1, and PI3KC3, and the decreased level of p62; (2 matrine treatment promoted the JNK-Bcl-2/ Bcl-xL-Bax/Bak pathway; (3 Bax was oligomerized, the mitochondrial membrane potential altered, and Cytochrome c was released subsequently; (4 Bax interacts with Beclin 1 and inhibits autophagy, which may be a new crosstalk point; and (5 finally, we showed that matrine suppressed the growth of a MHCC97L xenograft in vivo for the first time. In conclusion, the JNK-Bcl-2/Bcl-xL-Bax/Bak pathway mediates the crosstalk between matrine-induced autophagy and apoptosis via interplay with Beclin 1.

  11. Perbandingan Kemampuan Kitosan dari Limbah Kulit Udang dengan Aluminium Sulfat untuk Menurunkan Kekeruhan Air dari Outlet Bak Prasedimentasi IPAM Ngagel II

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    Cecilia Dwi Triastiningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Koagulan yang digunakan IPAM Ngagel II untuk mengolah air baku adalah aluminium sulfat. Penggunaan aluminium sulfat yang tidak sesuai dapat mempengaruhi pH air dan menyebabkan kerugian baik dalam sisi lingkungan maupun kesehatan konsumen. Di lain hal, terdapat pula masalah peningkatan jumlah limbah kulit udang yang berpotensi namun belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Dari masalah-masalah tersebut munculah ide untuk mencari alternatif koagulan yang ramah lingkungan, efektif, efisien dan sekaligus dapat memanfaatkan limbah kulit udang. Kitosan yang terdapat di kulit udang dapat dijadikan alternatif karena sifatnya tidak beracun, mudah terdegradasi dan bahan bakunya mudah didapatkan. Kitosan adalah senyawa polimer dengan ion positif yang diperoleh dari proses hidrolisis kitin menggunakan basa kuat sehingga terjadi deasetilasi gugus asetamida (NH-COCH3 menjadi gugus amina (NH2. Kitosan diperoleh dari serbuk kulit udang yang melalui proses deproteinasi dengan NaOH 6%, proses demineralisasi dengan HCl 1,1 N, dan proses deasetilasi dengan NaOH 50%. Kitosan yang dihasilkan kemudian di cek kualitasnya dengan melakukan uji kelarutan menggunakan CH3COOH 1% dan pengecekan derajat deasetilasi dengan metode titrasi asam basa. Efektifitas dan efisiensi kitosan diuji dengan metode jar test menggunakan sampel air yang berasal dari outlet bak prasedimentasi IPAM Ngagel 2. Aspek yang diuji adalah kekeruhan dan pH dengan variabel berupa dosis koagulan dan kekeruhan air. Dari sisi biaya, yang akan dibandingkan adalah biaya pemakaian koagulan per hari dan per jam. Penelitian ini membandingkan kemampuan kitosan dengan aluminium sulfat 45% untuk menurunkan kekeruhan air dari outlet bak prasedimentasi IPAM Ngagel 2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aluminium sulfat 45% lebih efektif dari kitosan, namun kitosan lebih efisien dari aluminium sulfat. Dari segi biaya, pemakaian aluminium sulfat 45% memakan biaya yang jauh lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan pemakaian kitosan.

  12. El saber de la escolarización neoliberal en el discurso del cambio educativo del Gobierno de Sixto Durán Ballén: período 1992-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo López, Lucía

    2011-01-01

    El tema de investigación«El saber de la escolarización neoliberal en el discurso del cambio educativo del Gobierno de Sixto Durán Ballén», Período: 1992-1996,tiene como objetivo principal identificar los enunciados de la escolarización neoliberal y conocer su impacto en la realidad educativa ecuatoriana. El tema tiene como contexto históricola transición del Ecuador, desde una fase del capitalismo dominado por el Estado Nacional, a otra fase liderada por el sistema financiero ...

  13. Académica Maria Mélida Durán Merchán - Académico Miguel Trias Fargas

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    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available

    MARÍA MÉLIDA DURÁN

    Una de las secciones especialmente nostálgicas pero a su vez más trascendentales es esta de Obituarios en la revista “Medicina”. Acostumbra ser uno de los nichos literarios de la prolífica y versátil pluma del Académico Efraím Otero o de la pulida pero algo menos abundante del también Académico Zoilo Cuéllar.

    Puede ser esta sección de igual manera la semilla biográfica para aquellos ilustres médicos colombianos que por esta Institución pasaron, que llamamos “necrológica”, para darle un toque menos fúnebre y más alegre, pues destaca lo mucho de positivo que tuvo la vida de quien se escribe.

    Nos duele hacerlo hoy sobre María Mélida Durán Merchán, a quien me costó trabajo dejar de decirle “de Rueda”, en referencia a su compañero de tantas luchas y padre de su hijo Marcelo, el urólogo de Marly, Manuel Rueda Salazar.

    Y repito que siento consternación al hacerlo pues su edad distaba mucho de la de aquel personaje a quien se refería el Académico Laurentino Muñoz al conversar con su amigo Germán Arciniegas, un par de intelectuales a quienes la senectud no quitó vitalidad alguna. Vio pasar a algún conocido que rondaba en los cien años y dijo: “¿no es ese el que murió el año pasado?”...

    MIGUEL TRIAS FARGAS

    Nacido en Barcelona, Cataluña, el 9 de agosto de 1924, llegó el doctor Trías a Colombia a muy corta edad; se graduó como médico en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y se especializó en Cirugía del Tórax en importantes instituciones de Inglaterra y Francia.

    Ejerció con brillo dicha especialidad en los Hospitales San Carlos, Santa Clara y San José de la ciudad de Bogotá, así como en la Fundación Shaio, a cuyo nacimiento contribuyó. Su trascendental labor en la Asociación Pro Bienestar de la Familia Colombiana, Profamilia, que dirigió desde 1973 hasta 1994, y en la Fundación Pro Derecho a

  14. Anadolu Öğretmen Lisesi Öğrencilerinin Öğretmenlik Mesleğine Bakış Açıları

    OpenAIRE

    GÖZLER, Alpaslan

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışmada nicel araştırma yöntemlerinden betimsel tarama yöntemi ile kullanılmıştır. Kayseri ilindeki tüm Anadolu Öğretmen Liselerinde öğrenim gören, 9 ve 11. sınıflardan 885 öğrenciye, 6 sorudan oluşan kişisel bilgi formu ve 35 sorudan oluşan öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik bakış açılarını inceleyen bir tutum ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Bulgular sonucunda 9 ve 11. sınıf öğrencilerinin öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutumları arasında belirgin bir fark bulunmamaktadır. 11. Sınıf TM alanı öğrenciler...

  15. Subcellular preconditioning of stem cells: mito-Cx43 gene targeting is cytoprotective via shift of mitochondrial Bak and Bcl-xL balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Jiang, Shujia; Ashraf, Muhammad; Haider, Khawaja Husnain

    2012-05-01

    To achieve mitochondria-specific expression of connexin-43 (Cx43) transgene for mitochondrial preconditioning in stem cells to improve their survival post-transplantation during heart cell therapy. Cx43- or GFP-encoding adenoviral vectors with a mitochondrial targeting sequence were constructed for transduction of bone marrow Sca-1(+) cells (>90% transduction efficiency). Double-fluorescence immunostaining for cytochrome-c and Cx43 supported by western blotting confirmed mitochondria-specific Cx43 expression in adenoviral-mito-Cx43-transduced cells ((Cx43)Sca-1(+)). (Cx43)Sca-1(+) showed improved survival under lethal oxygen-glucose deprivation culture conditions. (Cx43)Sca-1(+) showed an increased mitochondrial Bcl-xL:Bak ratio and reduced cytochrome-c release into cytosol with concomitantly abolished caspase-3 activity. An in vivo study was performed such that 2 × 10(6) male (Cx43)Sca-1(+) or (GFP)Sca-1(+) cells were injected into a female rat model of acute myocardial infarction. DMEM-injected rats served as controls. On day 7 post-transplantation, 4.3-fold higher survival of (Cx43)Sca-1(+) cells (p targeted Cx43 expression is a novel approach to improve stem cell survival in the infarcted heart.

  16. Dış Borçlanmaya Teorik Bir Bakış ve Dış Borçların Ekonomik Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Şeker, Murat

    2006-01-01

    Dış borçlanma özellikle ekonomik performansları düşük ve kaynak yetersizliğine sahip gelişmekte olan ülkelerin başvurduğu bir finansman yöntemidir. Gerek gelişmekte olan ülkelerin gerekse gelişmiş ülkelerin dış borçlanmaya giderek, ülke ekonomilerine bir ivme kazandırma çabalarına yıllar boyunca rastlanmıştır. Ancak kimi ülkeler dış borçlanmayı etkin bir şekilde kullanırken, kimileri ise aynı etkinliği sağlayamamıştır. Bu çalışmada dış borçlanma teorik bir bakışla incelenecektir....

  17. L'absentéisme au travail de longue durée pour raisons de santé. Étude comparative entre la France et la Norvège (2000-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Skare, Øivind

    2013-01-01

    Ce mémoire présente les résultats d'une étude comparative sur l'absentéisme pour raisons de santé entre la Norvège et la France pour la période 2000-2013. Les observations du mémoire affirment que le système d'indemnisation est plus généreux en Norvège qu'en France, comme tous les salariés sont indemnisés à 100 % du salaire pendant toute la durée du congé de maladie. Pour la France, le système d'indemnisation est assez hétérogène. Les fonctionnaires sont généralement mieux indemnisés que les ...

  18. The Hermeneutical Horizon and the Ethnohistoric Value in the Philological Annotation of the «Libro de los ritos» (1579 Written by friar Diego Durán (OP

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    Paloma Vargas Montes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The following discussion offers a panorama of the hermeneutical horizon from which the philological annotation apparatus of the Libro de los ritos critical edition was created. The book, written by the Dominican friar Diego Durán in 1579, describes the religious life of the Nahua people with emphasis in the Mexicas or Aztecs of the postclassical period. Also, this work offers some considerations about the ethnohistorical value of the Libro de los ritos and explains how this idea was used as a hypothesis to create the philological annotation apparatus of the critical edition. The value of the analysis of this experience is the contribution that it offers to the discussion between philologists about the proper methodology that must be used for the critical annotation of the Indian chronicles, documents that conserve the memory of the Native American people.

  19. AICAR induces Bax/Bak-dependent apoptosis through upregulation of the BH3-only proteins Bim and Noxa in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gironès, Diana M; Moncunill-Massaguer, Cristina; Iglesias-Serret, Daniel; Cosialls, Ana M; Pérez-Perarnau, Alba; Palmeri, Claudia M; Rubio-Patiño, Camila; Villunger, Andreas; Pons, Gabriel; Gil, Joan

    2013-08-01

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside (AICAR) is a nucleoside analogue that is phosphorylated to 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribotide (ZMP), which acts as an AMP mimetic and activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). It has been recently described that AICAR triggers apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, and its mechanism of action is independent of AMPK as well as p53. AICAR-mediated upregulation of the BH3-only proteins BIM and NOXA correlates with apoptosis induction in CLL cells. Here we propose mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a useful model to analyze the mechanism of AICAR-induced apoptosis. ZMP formation was required for AICAR-induced apoptosis, though direct Ampk activation with A-769662 failed to induce apoptosis in MEFs. AICAR potently induced apoptosis in Ampkα1 (-/-) /α2 (-/-) MEFs, demonstrating an Ampk-independent mechanism of cell death activation. In addition, AICAR acts independently of p53, as MEFs lacking p53 also underwent apoptosis normally. Notably, MEFs lacking Bax and Bak were completely resistant to AICAR-induced apoptosis, confirming the involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in its mechanism of action. Apoptosis was preceded by ZMP-dependent but Ampk-independent modulation of the mRNA levels of different Bcl-2 family members, including Noxa, Bim and Bcl-2. Bim protein levels were accumulated upon AICAR treatment of MEFs, suggesting its role in the apoptotic process. Strikingly, MEFs lacking both Bim and Noxa displayed high resistance to AICAR. These findings support the notion that MEFs are a useful system to further dissect the mechanism of AICAR-induced apoptosis.

  20. The receptor-like kinase SERK3/BAK1 is required for basal resistance against the late blight pathogen phytophthora infestans in Nicotiana benthamiana.

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    Angela Chaparro-Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans causes late blight, an economically important disease, on members of the nightshade family (Solanaceae, such as the crop plants potato and tomato. The related plant Nicotiana benthamiana is a model system to study plant-pathogen interactions, and the susceptibility of N. benthamiana to Phytophthora species varies from susceptible to resistant. Little is known about the extent to which plant basal immunity, mediated by membrane receptors that recognise conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, contributes to P. infestans resistance.We found that different species of Phytophthora have varying degrees of virulence on N. benthamiana ranging from avirulence (incompatible interaction to moderate virulence through to full aggressiveness. The leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK BAK1/SERK3 is a major modulator of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI in Arabidopsis thaliana and N. benthamiana. We cloned two NbSerk3 homologs, NbSerk3A and NbSerk3B, from N. benthamiana based on sequence similarity to the A. thaliana gene. N. benthamiana plants silenced for NbSerk3 showed markedly enhanced susceptibility to P. infestans infection but were not altered in resistance to Phytophthora mirabilis, a sister species of P. infestans that specializes on a different host plant. Furthermore, silencing of NbSerk3 reduced the cell death response triggered by the INF1, a secreted P. infestans protein with features of PAMPs.We demonstrated that N. benthamiana NbSERK3 significantly contributes to resistance to P. infestans and regulates the immune responses triggered by the P. infestans PAMP protein INF1. In the future, the identification of novel surface receptors that associate with NbSERK3A and/or NbSERK3B should lead to the identification of new receptors that mediate recognition of oomycete PAMPs, such as INF1.

  1. The tomato I gene for Fusarium wilt resistance encodes an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein whose function is nevertheless dependent on SOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Do, Huong T T; Bru, Pierrick; de Sain, Mara; Thatcher, Louise F; Rep, Martijn; Jones, David A

    2017-03-01

    We have identified the tomato I gene for resistance to the Fusarium wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and show that it encodes a membrane-anchored leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein (LRR-RLP). Unlike most other LRR-RLP genes involved in plant defence, the I gene is not a member of a gene cluster and contains introns in its coding sequence. The I gene encodes a loopout domain larger than those in most other LRR-RLPs, with a distinct composition rich in serine and threonine residues. The I protein also lacks a basic cytosolic domain. Instead, this domain is rich in aromatic residues that could form a second transmembrane domain. The I protein recognises the Fol Avr1 effector protein, but, unlike many other LRR-RLPs, recognition specificity is determined in the C-terminal half of the protein by polymorphic amino acid residues in the LRRs just preceding the loopout domain and in the loopout domain itself. Despite these differences, we show that I/Avr1-dependent necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana depends on the LRR receptor-like kinases (RLKs) SERK3/BAK1 and SOBIR1. Sequence comparisons revealed that the I protein and other LRR-RLPs involved in plant defence all carry residues in their last LRR and C-terminal LRR capping domain that are conserved with SERK3/BAK1-interacting residues in the same relative positions in the LRR-RLKs BRI1 and PSKR1. Tyrosine mutations of two of these conserved residues, Q922 and T925, abolished I/Avr1-dependent necrosis in N. benthamiana, consistent with similar mutations in BRI1 and PSKR1 preventing their interaction with SERK3/BAK1. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Macrosporogênese, formação e desenvolvimento do saco embrionário, do endosperma e do embrião em Coffea Dewevrei De Wild, et Th. Dur Megasporogenesis, formation and development of embriosac and embryo in Coffea Dewevrei de Wild Et Th. Dur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do saco embrionário nas flores de Coffea Dewevrei é um processo mais demorado do que em C. canephora e muito mais lento do que em C. arabica. As primeiras divisões do megasporo funcional têm início no dia da abertura da flor, raros sacos embrionários se apresentando completos no 1.° dia; em geral estão completos aos oito dias e, independentemente da fertilização, apresentam os núcleos polares fundidos 10 dias após a abertura das flores. A fertilização se dá a partir do 6.° dia, sendo mais comum a partir do 10.° dia. É também a partir do 10.° dia que ocorrem as primeiras divisões do endosperma, que pode apresentar até 20 núcleos antes de se tornar celular, e isto pode ocorrer dos 22 aos 107 dias. Somente depois que o endosperma se apresenta celular é que se dá a l.ª divisão na célula-ôvo; e esta primeira divisão só foi observada aos 142 dias. Em óvulos dessa mesma idade foram observados pró-embriões em estado um pouco mais adiantado de desenvolvimento. O crescimento do endosperma em volume é lento na primeira fase; o óvulo, no entanto, cresce rapidamente em seguida à fertilização, atingindo em média, aos 142 dias, um tamanho 1500 vezes maior que seu tamanho por ocasião da abertura da flor. No mesmo espaço de tempo o endosperma torna-se, em média, somente 230 vezes o volume inicial. Mesmo na falta da fertilização o óvulo cresce ligeiramente durante os 30 primeiros dias; observam-se, porém, os sinais de degenerescência do saco embrionário, que não cresce. Em seguida, os tecidos do óvulo também degeneram e se isto ocorrer nos dois óvulos, o ovário se desprende da árvore; alguns chegam a se manter na planta até 107 dias.The embryo sac development in Coffea Dewevrei De Wild et Th. Dur. is a slower process than in the other diploid species C. canephora and still slower than in the tetra-ploid species C. arábica. First divisions of functional megaspore begin on the day the

  3. Birgivi’nin Tasavvuf ve Tarikatlere Bakışı / The Understanding of Tasawwuf and Tariqat in al-Birgiwi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Demircigil

    2017-09-01

    husustaki bakış açısı ve sergilediği mücadeleyle ilgili lehte ve aleyhte değerlendirmelerde bulunulmuştur. Bu değerlendirmelerin ana temasını onun, temelde dini toplum hayatından ayrı düşündüğü, örf ve adetlere itibar etmediği ve selefi çizginin etkisinde kaldığı yönündeki tenkitler oluşturmaktadır. Ne var ki bu tenkitlerin önemli bir kısmı, Birgivî’nin kitaplarında konuyla ilgili serdettiği yaklaşımlarının bütün halinde incelenmemesinden kaynaklanmakta olup, ya eksik ya da hatalıdır. Bu nedenle, Birgivî’nin çalışmalarında konuyla ilgili dillendirdiği görüşler ayrıntılı olarak ele alındığında  söz konusu yaklaşımlarıyla ilgili kimi tespitlerin gerçekte olduğundan farklı bir portre ortaya çıkardığı görülmektedir. Biz bu makalemizde, eserlerinde serdettiği mülahazalarından yola çıkarak Birgivî’nin tasavvuf ve tarikatlara bakışını ayrıntılı olarak ele alacak ve bu hususla ilgili görüş ve iddiaları inceleyecek, ardından konuyla ilgili tespitlerimizi ortaya koyacağız.

  4. Impasse dans le travail d'infirmières en Centres d'hébergement et de soins de longue durée soumis à des changements organisationnels significatifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIE ALDERSON

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article relate les résultats d'une enquête de psychodynamique du travail (PDT (subventionné par les IRSC dont le but était de relater les liens observés entre la nouvelle gouvernance publique et les changements survenus dans le système de santé québécois, en général ainsi que dans les Centres d'Hébergement et de Soins de Longue Durée CHSLD, en particulier. L'approche théorique et méthodologique retenue est la PDT dont l'objet est " l'analyse dynamique des processus psychiques mobilisés par la confrontation du sujet à la réalité du travail" (Dejours & Abdoucheli, 1990, p. 127. Vingt-six infirmières volontaires ont participé. Les résultats révèlent de profondes sources de souffrance en lien avec diverses contradictions vécues, lesquelles entravent le sens au travail. Un éventail de stratégies défensives déployées par les participantes atteste de la souffrance vécue. La discussion approfondit la question de rôle, de pouvoir ambigu, d'une dommageable impasse dans l'action et d'une identité professionnelle en péril.

  5. The Chechen War: Another Russian Humiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    appreciate the dilemma that Russian military planners faced in December 1994, it is helpful to look to Carl Von Clausewitz . “Clausewitz knew that...On War: the Clauswitzian Ideal and Its Implications”, p.8 14 Carl von Clausewitz , On War, edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret

  6. The Chechen War: Another Russian Humiliation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perrin

    2001-01-01

    ...." Thus began the Chechen War in December 1994, sparked by an out-of-control, breakaway republic and fueled by the Kremlin's need to maintain integrity of the Russian Federation and to control strategic resources...

  7. Kan basıncı ölçüm aletlerimiz ne kadar doğru ölçüyor: kurumsal sürekli bakım programı

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Rauf Onur; Dişcigil, Güzel; Başak, Okay; Kaplan, Hülya; Çeçen, Serpil; Bozkaya, Ayfer

    2006-01-01

    Amaç: Sfigmomanometre fizik muayenenin önemli bir parçasıdır ve kan basıncı kontrolünün temel taslarından birisidir. Sfigmomanometrelerin dogru ölçüm yapabilmesi için kalibrasyonlarının ve bakımlarının yapılması gerekmektedir. Bu çalısma, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi'nde kullanımda olan sfigmomanometrelerin degerlendirmesini yapmak ve aletlerin düzenli aralıklarla kontrolünü saglayabilmek için bir program olusturabilmek mevcut sorunları saptamak amacıyla yapılmıstır. ...

  8. Türkiye’de doğal olarak yetişen artemisia l. (asteraceae) cinsine ait üç türün morfolojik özellikleri bakımından incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Kurşat, Murat; Civelek, Şemsettin

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Türkiye’de doğal olarak yetişen ve sistematik açıdan birbirine çok yakın olan Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss., Artemisia splendens Willd. ve Artemisia caucasica Willd. türleri morfolojik özellikleri bakımından incelenmiştir. Türkiye’de doğal yetişen Artemisia L. cinsinin bütün taksonları üç altcins (Artemisia, Dracunculus ve Seriphidium) içermektedir. Çalışmadaki üç tür de cinse ait Artemisia Less. altcinsi içinde yer almaktadır. Türlerin Türkiye Florası’nda verilen...

  9. İslami Takaful Sigortacılığının Zorluklarının Üstesinden Gelmek İçin Stratejik Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    DAWABA, Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Bu araştırma, bir nizam ve bir akit olarakİslami tekafül sigortacılık kavramının yanı sıra, İslami tekafülsigortacılığının hedefleri, genel ve özel ilkeleri, onunla gelenekselsigortacılık arasındaki temel farklar üzerinde durmayı amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca,İslami tekafül sigortacılığının güçlü yanları ve karşılaştığı zorluklarıbelirtip bu zorlukların üstesinden gelmek için stratejik bir bakış ortayakoymayı hedeflemektedir.

  10. The history of soil erosion: Interpreting historical sources, buried soils and colluvial sediments as archives of past soil erosion and human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus

    2015-04-01

    of human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée.

  11. Ricoeur és a braudeli "hosszú idő" problémája - Ricoeur and the Questions of the Braudelian Longue Durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORÓCZ, Gábor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In his structural theory of history the French historian, Fernand Braudel breaks the tradition of the narrative historiography. He supports achronological thematic approaches and emphasizes the influence of anonymous forces instead of ‘prominent individuals’. He nuances the traditional history of events, the short time span which described impressive, but evanescent events. He analyses economic, social and mental structures (the slow-moving long time span, instead of focusing on public life in the narrow sense of the word. The French thinker, Paul Ricoeur interprets the history and the historicalness of the human being in terms of phenomenology and the existential philosophy. He does not reject the notion of the longue durée, but he redefines it. He criticizes Braudel for considering the geographical time instead of the lived time as the basis of the long time span. Ricoeur’s innovation is the following: he treats the long time span in close connection with the temporality of the world of the action. He stresses that events are not important in themselves; they become significant if they are integrated into a larger, teleological unity, and if they are able to transform certain structures for the long term. According to Ricoeur even Braudel could not break the narrativity of historiography as a historian. Braudel isunderstands himself: he does not reflect on the momentum that his most famous work, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, outlines a quasi-plot. As the closing passage of this plot Braudel describes an event, the death of the Spanish king which is the decisive factor in the collapse of a structure.

  12. Cardiovascular Parameters of Nigerian Physiotherapy Students Dur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination and tests are routine academic task during which students engage in mental exercis-es, writing, and/or practical demonstrations under pressure with stress placed on the cardiovascu-lar system. This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular parameters of students before, during and after an ...

  13. Une intervention en centres d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée visant à réduire les problèmes de santé mentale liés au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vézina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Une intervention visant la diminution des contraintes de l’environnement psychosocial du travail et de leurs effets sur la santé mentale a été mise en place à l’hiver 2002. Cette intervention se résume en cinq étapes : l’engagement du milieu et la constitution d’une équipe d’intervention, l’identification des contraintes, l’élaboration des plans d’action, l’actualisation des plans d’action et l’évaluation de l’intervention. La recherche se déroule dans douze centres d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD et inclut l’ensemble du personnel soignant en contact direct avec la clientèle (N = 493. Un devis quasi-expérimental avec quatre groupes expérimentaux, huit groupes témoins et des mesures avant et après l’intervention a été utilisé.La description des phases de développement et d’implantation de la démarche d’intervention est présent��e ainsi que l’évaluation à 12 mois des effets de l’intervention sur la prévalence des contraintes psychosociales au travail et des problèmes de santé mentale.An intervention aimed at reducing adverse occupational psychosocial factors and their mental health effects was begun during the winter of 2002. This intervention can be summarized in five steps: commitment of stakeholders and setting up of an intervention team, identification of adverse occupational psychosocial factors, development of an action plan, implementation of the action plans, and evaluation of the intervention. The study was conducted in twelve residential and extended care centres (CHSLD and included all care-giving staff in direct contact with patients (N= 493. A quasi-experimental design was used with four experimental groups and eight control groups, and with pre- and post-intervention measurements.The description of the intervention’s development and implementation phases and the evaluation at 12 months of the effects of the intervention on the prevalence of

  14. Yoğun Bakım Hastalarında Basınç Ülseri Sıklığı, Önlenmesi ve Tedavisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namigar Turgut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Çalışma yoğun bakım ünitelerinde (YBÜ basınç ülseri (BÜ gelişimiyle ilişkili olan risk faktörlerini ve sıklığını tartışmayı amaçlamıştır. Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmada 25 yataklı YBÜ’de 1 Ocak 2016-2017 tarihlerinde kabul edilen hastalardan BÜ gelişen hastaların retrospektif analizi yapıldı. Kırk sekiz saatten daha uzun süreyle YBÜ’de kalan hastalar çalışmaya dahil edildi. Yoğun bakımda BÜ gelişen hastaların demografik verileri, YBÜ kalış gün sayısı, Akut Fizyoloji ve Kronik Sağlık Durumu II Skoru, primer tanıları, BÜ gelişen gün sayısı, mekanik ventilasyon gün sayısı, BÜ’lere yaklaşım ve yara yeri enfeksiyonu açısından hastalar incelendi. Bulgular: Norton risk değerlendirme skalası ile yapılan takiplerde YBÜ’ye kabul edilen 1625 hastadan yüksek riskli gruba giren 25 hastada BÜ gelişti (%1,5. Bunların tümü invazif mekanik ventilasyon desteğinde, enteral ve parenteral nütrisyon alan ve sedoanaljezi uygulanan hastalardı (yaş ortalaması 72,5, 12 erkek/13 kadın. BÜ gelişme günü, yatışı takiben ortalama 16,5. gün idi. Yirmi beş hastanın 20’sinde ıslak pansuman uygulandı (Evre II. BÜ enfeksiyonlarında en sık görülen patojenler Acinetobacter Baumanii (3 hastada ve MRSA (2 hastada idi. Sakrum ve koksiks en sık bası yarası gelişen bölgelerdi. Sonuç: BÜ’ler, yoğun bakım ve yaşlı yatalak hastaları için önemli bir sorundur. Bu hastalarda öncelikle BÜ gelişmesini önlemeye yönelik uygulamalar yapılmalıdır, çünkü risk değerlendirmesi ve önleme çabaları oluşum ve ilerlemeyi engelleyebilir.

  15. Çocuk Yoğun Bakım Ünitesine Yatan Hastaların Değerlendirilmesi Evaluation Of The Patients Admitted To The Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yeğin, Lütfiye Nilüfer; Sancak, Yasemin; Aşut, Çiğdem; Gizem, Zeynep; Özdel, Ergün

    2017-01-01

    GİRİŞ ve AMAÇ: Bu çalışmada UludağÜniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı, ÇocukYoğun Bakım Ünitesi’ne (ÇYBÜ)’ne bir yıl içinde yatan hastaların klinik vedemografik özellikleri incelenerek hangi hastalara hizmet verildiğinin vesonuçlarının değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır.YÖNTEM ve GEREÇLER: Merkezimiz ÇYBÜ’ne 01.Mart 2013-01.Mart 2014 tarihleriarasında yatırılmış olan 1 ay-18 yaş arası, yenidoğan ve travma hastalarıhariç, 349 hastanın dosya kayıtları retrospekti...

  16. CERN : Nouveaux records lors d'une période d'exploitation au PS/SPS ; Un nouveau rôle pour les ISR ; Deuxième région d'intersection pour le système pp du SPS ; Détermination de la durée de vie du charme ; Calcul en Sicile et au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    CERN : Nouveaux records lors d'une période d'exploitation au PS/SPS ; Un nouveau rôle pour les ISR ; Deuxième région d'intersection pour le système pp du SPS ; Détermination de la durée de vie du charme ; Calcul en Sicile et au CERN

  17. Analyse des interactions génotype x environnement x conduite culturale des peuplements bispécifiques des cultures associées de blé dur et de légumineuses à graines, à des fins de choix variétal et d’optimisation de leurs itinéraires techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Kammoun, Bochra

    2014-01-01

    Accroître la biodiversité dans les agroécosystèmes est une stratégie écologique qui permettrait de rendre les productions plus durables. Une des pistes prometteuses est la culture en association de deux espèces sur une même parcelle et pendant une durée significative de leur cycle de développement. Ces cultures associées et notamment les mélanges céréalelégumineuse présentent de nombreux avantages, en particulier dans les systèmes à faible disponibilité en azote, en termes de production, de q...

  18. Experience in Rearing Common Carder Bees (Bombus pascuorum Scop., with Some Notes on Three Similar Species: Shrill Carder Bee (B. sylvarum L., Red-shanked Carder Bee (B. ruderarius Müll., and Brown-banded Carder Bee (B. humilis Ill. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Ptáček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearing method under controlled conditions known for Bombus terrestris was successful in initiating egg-laying for 83% of B. pascuorum queens. After larvae had hatched, fresh pollen pellets needed to be inserted into brood pockets daily. After the first workers had emerged, colony development was advanced by placing them outdoors and supplying them with a sugar solution and pollen. The bees were able to use tightly pressed pollen from small plastic pots inserted near the brood. This feeding resulted in large colonies that produced dozens of young queens. In contrast, colonies managed in the laboratory were unable to utilize pollen in a similar manner. They raised only a few workers and several queens. Mating young queens was easy. It was stimulated by daylight, but in the case of B. humilis by direct sunshine. Several B. pascuorum and B. sylvarum queens were overwintered and began the new generation under artificial conditions. However, a lack of fresh pollen limited the development of colonies outside of the vegetation period.

  19. Ectopic overexpression of LAPTM5 results in lysosomal targeting and induces Mcl-1 down-regulation, Bak activation, and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Youn Jun

    Full Text Available Human lysosomal-associated protein multispanning membrane 5 (LAPTM5 was identified by an ordered differential display-polymerase chain reaction (ODD-PCR as an up-regulated cDNA fragment during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA-induced differentiation of U937 cells into monocytes/macrophages. After TPA-treatment, the levels of LAPTM5 mRNA and protein increased and reached a maximum at 18-36 h. In healthy human tissues, LAPTM5 mRNA was expressed at high levels in hematopoietic cells and tissues, at low levels in the lung and fetal liver, and was not detected in other non-hematopoietic tissues. LAPTM5 mRNA was detected in immature malignant cells of myeloid lineage, such as K562, HL-60, U937, and THP-1 cells, and in unstimulated peripheral T cells, but was absent or barely detectable in lymphoid malignant or non-hematopoietic malignant cells. The LAPTM5 level in HL-60 cells increased more significantly during TPA-induced monocyte/macrophage differentiation than during DMSO-induced granulocyte differentiation. Ectopic expression of GFP-LAPTM5 or LAPTM5 in HeLa cells exhibited the localization of LAPTM5 to the lysosome. In HeLa cells overexpressing LAPTM5, the Mcl-1 and Bid levels declined markedly and apoptosis was induced via Bak activation, Δψm loss, activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3, and PARP degradation without accompanying necrosis. However, these LAPTM5-induced apoptotic events except for the decline of Bid level were completely abrogated by concomitant overexpression of Mcl-1. The pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk could suppress the LAPTM5-induced apoptotic sub-G1 peak by ~40% but failed to block the induced Δψm loss, whereas the broad-range inhibitor of cathepsins (Cathepsin Inhibitor I could suppress the LAPTM5-induced apoptotic sub-G1 peak and Δψm loss, by ~22% and ~23%, respectively, suggesting that the LAPTM5-mediated Δψm loss was exerted at least in part in a cathepsin-dependent manner. Together, these results

  20. Alüminyum ve Bakırın Yüksek Devirli Sürtünme Karıştırma Kaynağında Takım Pozisyonunun Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Çakır

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sürtünme karıştırma kaynağı (SKK aynı veya farklı cins malzemelerin birleştirilmesinde kullanılan katı hal birleştirme yöntemidir. Bu yöntem, ilk olarak ergitme kaynak teknikleri ile birleştirilmesinde zorluklarla karşılaşılan alüminyum alaşımlarının birleştirilmesinde kullanılmış olmakla beraber günümüzde farklı malzeme çiftlerinin başarılı bir şekilde birleştirilmesine de olanak vermektedir. Bu çalışmada, alüminyum (AA1050 ve bakır levhalar, ısı girdisini arttırmak amacı ile yüksek takım dönme hızında (2440 dev/dk., üç farklı kaynak hızlarında (20, 30, 50 mm/dk. ve dört farklı takım konumlandırmasında (0-1-1.5-2 mm SKK ile birleştirilmiştir. Kaynak parametrelerinin mekanik ve mikroyapı özeliklerine etkisi incelenmiştir. Mekanik özelliklerinin tespiti amacıyla çekme ve eğme testleri ile mikrosertlik ölçümleri yapılmıştır. Kaynak bölgesi mikroyapıları, optik mikroskop ve taramalı elektron mikroskobu (SEM ile incelenmiş ve EDX analizleri yapılmıştır. Kaynak bölgesinde meydana gelen fazları incelemek için yapılan XRD analiz sonuçlarında intermetalik fazlar tespit edilmiştir. Sürtünme karıştırma kaynağı yapılmış Al-Cu parçaların çekme testi sonuçlarında %83.55 kaynak performansı elde edilmiştir.

  1. Bakü İçeri Şeher’de Selçuklular Döneminden Kalma İki Mescit: Sınıg Gala (Muhammed (1078 Ve Aşur (1169 Mescitleri (Two Masjid Around Baku İçeri Şeher Remaining From Seljuks: Sinig Gala (Muhammed (1078 And Ashur (1169 Masjids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan UYKUR

    2012-12-01

    small scaled buildings,they don't raise anything new, they are both important in order toclosely trail the architectural line of the period. Bakü’de bugün İçeri Şeher adıyla anılan eski Bakü yerleşiminde küçük ölçeklerde inşa edilmiş çok sayıda mescit bulunmaktadır. Bu makalede Selçuklular’ın Anadolu dışında Azerbaycan Bakü’de bıraktığı maddi kültür izlerinden en erken tarihli iki örnek ele alınmıştır. Çalışmada Türk dünyasında az bilinen bu iki eserin tarih, bani, plân, mimari ve bezeme gibi yönleriyle ayrıntılı biçimde ele alınması amaç edinilmiştir. Bu sebeple Bakü ve çevresindeki yapılarda: gerekli ölçümler, teknik çizimler ve fotoğraflama işlemleri yapılmıştır. Bunun ardından Bakü Berpa Arşivi’nde, Ahundov Kütüphanesi’nde ve Türkiye kütüphanelerinde kaynak araştırmaları ile çalışma tamamlanmıştır1. Türkler Anadolu’yu iskân edinmeleri ile başlattıkları süreçte elde ettikleri siyasi/askeri başarılarının yanında; belleklerinde getirdikleri estetik hissi, mimari anlayışı ve sanat biçimlerini de yeni yurtlarında uygulamışlardır. Bu hareketlilik boyunca geçtikleri güzergahlarda meydana getirdikleri kentlerde bıraktıkları izlerden, Anadolu öncesindeki kültürel mirasın örneklerini bulmak mümkündür.Her iki yapının da Selçuklular’dan günümüze ulaşabilmiş en erken tarihli iki eser olması Türk mimarisindeki gelişimin izlenmesi bakımından önemlidir. Selçuklular’ın Bakü’ye gelmesinden sonra inşa edilen ilk yapı olan Sınıg Gala Mescidi statik problemleri olan, sert kaba görüntülü ve yapıdan bağımsız büyük minaresiyle dikkat çekmektedir. Aşur Mescidi ise, çift katlı cephe düzenlemesi ve harimi bölen bezemeli destek kemeriyle az daha gelişmiş mimari arayışın bir ürünüdür. Ancak her iki kübik yapıda göze çarpan kusur; ağır, basık/karanlık başarısız bir mekan uygulamasıdır. Sonuç olarak, k

  2. L’apport des trajectoires sociales pour comprendre la précarité en féminin. L’exemple d’une recherche sur l’insertion professionnelle de chômeuses de longue durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fortino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En développant une approche (théorique et méthodologique fondée sur l’étude des trajectoires sociales, l’auteure se propose d’expliciter les parcours d’insertion professionnelle de femmes, salariées précaires et chômeuses de longue durée. Elle montre comment les rapports de genre façonnent ces trajectoires féminines et ce, dans un contexte de dégradation forte de la qualité des emplois proposés aux femmes sur le marché du travail français. Elle discute également les effets ravageurs d’une socialisation féminine encore largement axée sur des valeurs comme le dévouement, la compassion et le renoncement à soi – socialisation contribuant encore largement à vulnérabiliser le processus d’individuation des femmes.

  3. La misión de narrar: idolatría, evangelización e hibridación en Historia de las Indias de Nueva España e Islas de la Tierra Firme (1581 de fray Diego Durán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Aldao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La Historia de las Indias de Nueva España e Islas de la Tierra Firme (1581 del fraile dominico Diego Durán (Sevilla, 1537-1588 es una de las crónicas de tradición misionera más abordada por la crítica, no sólo por su minuciosa descripción del pasado indígena o sus láminas ilustrativas sino, fundamentalmente, por sus complejos cruces entre la crítica a la idolatría, el panegírico de la evangelización y la hibridación presentes en su texto. El sujeto de la enunciación se presenta como el sujeto agente de evangelización que discursivamente produce un acercamiento a la cultura indígena a través de su tarea escrituraria y misionera.

  4. Müslüman Tüketicilerin İsraf Kavramına Bakışı: Türkiye, Katar ve Endonezya Ölçeğinde Kültürlerarası Bir Mukayese / The Perspective of Muslim Consumers on Extravagance: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study in Turkey, Qatar and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Terzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Perspective of Muslim Consumers on Extravagance: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study in Turkey, Qatar and Indonesia Abstract Islam encourages people to earn halal -or lawful- and sets certain rules on spending. In Quran spending in the way of Allah is praised (57:7 and besides this, eating, drinking and spending extravagantly is forbidden (6:141; 4:6; 7:31; 17:29. In Quran the term “extravagance” refers to various meanings (10:12; 3:146-147; 10:83; 5:32; 7:80-81; 7:31; 17:29. In daily life it means excessive or unnecessary expenditure or outlay of resources. In this regard the viewpoint of Muslim individuals on such phenomena which is forbidden in Quran becomes more crucial. A survey is conducted in Turkey, Qatar and Indonesia to compare the viewpoint of individuals which are adherents of the same religion but from different cultures. Müslüman Tüketicilerin İsraf Kavramına Bakışı: Türkiye, Katar ve Endonezya Ölçeğinde Kültürlerarası Bir Mukayese Öz İslam dini insanın helal yollardan kazanç elde etmesini teşvik etmiş, harcama noktasında belli kurallar getirmiştir. Kuran’da Allah yolunda harcama övülmüş (57:7, harcamada aşırıya gitmek (6:141; 4:6, ihtiyaçtan fazla yiyip içmek (7:31, israf etmek (17:29 yasaklanmıştır. Kuran’da birçok yerde geçen “israf” terimi çeşitli manalarda kullanılmış olsa da (bkz: 10:12; 3:146-147; 10:83; 5:32; 7:80-81; 7:31; 17:29 günlük hayatta gereksiz yere para, zaman, emek vb.ni harcama, savurganlık olarak ifade edilmektedir. Bu bakımdan Kuran’da yasaklanmış bir davranış biçimi olan israf olgusuna Müslüman bireylerin bakış açısı önemli hale gelmektedir. Bu bakış açısını ölçmek amacıyla Türkiye, Katar ve Endonezya’da anket çalışması yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda israf kavramının bireysel ve toplumsal olmak üzere iki boyutu tespit edilmiş, bu boyutlar çerçevesinde kültürler arasında çeşitli y

  5. Sermo humilis and lyricism in Italianesi by Saverio La Ruina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Albanese

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Italianesi, the theatrical monologue composed in 2011 and performed by Calabrian storyteller Saverio La Ruina, that presents in first person the life story of Tonino Cantisani, born in 1951 in an Albanian prison camp to an Italian soldier and an Albanian mother. Although Tonino is a fictional creation, through his protagonist La Ruina gives voice to a true story, a postwar tragedy of denied identity that official histories on both sides of the Cold War have preferred to forget. Suspected of subversion because of their ties to Italy, mother and son are incarcerated by the Albanian communist regime for over forty years, until the death of dictator Enver Hoxha opens the borders and compels Tonino to migrate to Italy. But while he had spent the first half of his life ostracized as an Italian in Albania, he discovers that his new homeland marginalizes him as well, shunning him as an Albanian in Italy. But Tonino and those he represents are redeemed through the profound, haunting simplicity of the Calabro-Italian dialect that La Ruina has invented for him, inserted in a narrative architecture based on a rhetoric of reticence and modesty, where words and silence joined to minimal, essential gestures and movements create a unique, organic discourse of great evocative power.

  6. The experiences and involvements of fathers during 4-12 months of their children’s lives: a mixed method study/Yaşamın 4-12 aylık döneminde babaların bebek bakımına katılımları ve deneyimleri: bir karma yöntem araştırması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şirin Kuruçırak

    2014-08-01

    understanding and explanation of fathers’ involvement with childcare. However there is a need for further investigations conducted with different socio-cultural and economic groups.Key Words: Fatherhood, gender role, mix method studyÖzetAmaç: Araştırma, 4-12 aylık sağlıklı bebeği olan babaların bebek bakımına katılımları ve deneyimlerini belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Yöntem:Bu çalışmada babaların bebek bakımına katılımları ve deneyimlerini belirlemek üzere karma araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Sosyoekonomik statüleri farklı 2 sağlık ocağı merkezinden 260 katılımcı, %95 güven aralığı ve %5 örnekleme hatasıyla belirlenmiştir. Niceliksel veriler araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen Likert tipi bir soru formu olan “Babaların Bebek Bakımına Katılım Soru Formu”yla, yüz yüze görüşülerek toplanmıştır. Niteliksel verilerin elde edilmesinde amaca yönelik olarak seçilen 32 babayla derinlemesine görüşme yöntemi kullanılmıştır.  Araştırmanın niceliksel verileri Varyans Analizi (ANOVA, Bağımsız İki Örnek T Testi, İki Ortalama Arasındaki Farkın Önemlilik Testi ve Stepwise Çoklu Regresyon Analizi Testi ile analiz edilirken, niteliksel verilerin analizinde tematik analiz yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: 5’li Likert soru formu sonuçlarına göre babaların bebek bakımına katılım puan ortalamaları fiziksel bakıma en az ( = 2.5, ilgi ve oyun aktivitelerine en yüksek ( =3.9 olarak bulunmuştur. Babaların bebek bakımına katılım genel puan ortalaması ise =3.0’dır. Babaların bebek bakımına katılımları bebeğe ayrılan zaman (p<0.001, kendilerinin ve eşlerinin eğitim durumu (p<0.001  ve sahip olunan çocuk sayısıyla ilişkili olup (p<0.01, bu değişkenler bebek bakımına katılımlarının %37’sini açıklamaktadır. Niteliksel veri sonuçlarından beş temaya ulaşılmıştır: 1 Babalık: Tanımlaması zor bir kavram, 2 Kibir mi? Yoksa yenilik aray

  7. Doyumsuz Tüketim Arzusu ve Çevre Sorununa Kuran Çerçevesinde Bakış / A View Within the Quran’s Perspective to the Desire of Over- Consumption and Enviromental Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Demir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Özet Tarihin belki de bütün dönemlerinde bir çevre sorunundan söz etmek mümkündür. Ancak özellikle modern dönemdeki çevre sorunu öncekilerden gerek mahiyet gerekse nitelik bakımından çok farklı boyutlardadır. Öncelikle Batıda, Rönesans sonrası bilim alanındaki gelişmeler, sanayi devrimi ve kapitalist dünya ekonomisine geçiş, muazzam bir tüketim ve beraberinde çevre sorununu getirdi. Ahlakî ve dinî değerlerin bir kenara itilerek reddedildiği, maddeye sahip olup onu tüketme düşüncesinin bütün hedeflerin önüne geçtiği bir dünyada doğanın da çaresiz kalacağı muhakkaktır. Dolayısıyla çevre sorununun oluşumunda, tüketimin sınırsızlığı ile tabiî kaynakların sınırlılığı arasındaki diyalektiğin önemli bir rol oynadığını ifade etmek gerekir. Ele alıp irdeleyeceğimiz bu problemlerin ortaya çıkmasında kanaatimizce metafizik değerlerin terk edilmesi önemli bir yer işgal etmektedir. Bu bağlamda Kur’an’ın üretim ve tüketim ile çevre tasavvuru oldukça önemli bir muhteva ortaya koymaktadır. İşte bu makalede doyumsuz tüketim arzusu, çevre sorunu, metafizik değerlerin önemi ele alınarak değerlendirilecektir. A View Within the Quran’s Perspective to the Desire of Over- Consumption and Enviromental Issue Abstract It is possible to say that the enviromental issue has existed almost in all period of history. However, enviromental issue in modern times is very different from others in terms of both content and quality. Firstly, in the West, developments in science after Renaissance, the Industrial Revolotion and transition to capitalistic world economy brought along a huge consumer as well as many enviromental isssues. Nature is definetly helpless in the world in which men often refuse religious and moral values; it is also an important thing to have materials and consume them. Thus, it must be stated that dialectics play an important role in occurence of

  8. The Longue Durée of Black Lives Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alondra

    2016-10-01

    Black Lives Matter was first articulated just a few years ago, but it has been the leitmotif of antiracist struggles for generations. The Movement for Black Lives extends the work of previous movements that challenged forms of oppression that act on Black bodies with impunity. It should be understood in the context of Ida B. Wells' anti-lynching campaign, Fannie Lou Hamer's reproductive justice demands, and the Black Panther Party's health activism. The 50th anniversary of the Black Panther Party is an occasion to recall that its work confronted the callous neglect and the corporeal surveillance and abuse of poor Black communities. Similar demands have been the centrifugal force of social movements that for centuries have refused to have Black lives cast beyond the human boundary.

  9. consumers' understanding and use of textile eco-labels dur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Glock .... Questions were adapted from Van der Merwe and Campbell. (2008) and some questions were also based on literature. Questions focused on the use of. Consumers' ... Need recognition for green textile products. Important information ...

  10. Dora Bruder and the Longue Durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Weiner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modiano's methods in Dora Bruder recall the Annales historiographer's rejection of the history of events in favor of the "long duration," but with human history as its object. Modiano's long duration draws out repetitions and variations between his own life and Dora's as he reconstructs and imagines it, between Dora and fictional characters, between Dora's story and the lives of Holocaust victims and survivors known and unknown. Moreover, the author encourages the reader to take part in the uncanny connections the novel makes, through movements of the imagination not unlike Modiano's own. In so doing, we approach Dora and those who shared her fate through their lives rather than their death, restoring to them the everyday freedom of their thoughts and actions alongside our own.

  11. Influence du débit de base et de la durée des éclusées sur la dérive d'alevins de truite commune : expérimentations en canal semi-naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIEBIG H.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Le fonctionnement par éclusées de certains ouvrages hydroélectriques installés sur des rivières de montagne à peuplement salmonicole est souvent considéré comme responsable du déficit en alevins observé sur les secteurs à l'aval immédiat du rejet. Une des causes majeures avancée de ce déficit est l'entraînement forcé des alevins dès l'émergence. Une approche expérimentale de ce phénomène est apparue nécessaire pour identifier et quantifier les facteurs mis en jeu. Un ancien bras de la rivière Oriège a été ainsi aménagé au niveau du canal de fuite de l'usine hydroélectrique d'Orlu, en Ariège (09. Ce système semi-naturel permet, sur un substrat et des abris naturels, de simuler des éclusées et de quantifier la dérive des alevins résultante. Sur un bief à faciès d'écoulement mixte radier-plat, nous avons testé deux modalités pour la durée des éclusées (10 minutes et 3 heures, associées à deux modalités pour la valeur du débit de base (débit précédant l'éclusée, soit 150 et 250 l/s. Le débit plafond des éclusées a été fixé à 1 500 l/s, ce qui correspond à un facteur de 6 à 10 par rapport aux débits de base, situation fréquemment rencontrée sur l'Oriège. Les résultats sont comparés et discutés. En définitive, il apparaît que les éclusées entraînent systématiquement une dérive forcée des alevins. Cette dérive intervient principalement au démarrage de l'éclusée et est d'autant plus forte que le débit de base est faible.

  12. Ankara koşullarında açıkta yetiştirilen bazı glayöl (Gladiolus grandiflorus) çeşitlerinin kesme çiçek verim ve kalitesi bakımından incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇINTAŞ, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Bahçe Bitkileri Bölümü'nde 2010 yılında gerçekleştirilen bu çalışmanın amacı, Ankara koşullarında açıkta yapılan yetiştiricilikte dünya piyasasında önemli bir yer teşkil eden, soğanlı ve yumrulu süs bitkilerinden glayöl (Gladiolus grandiflorus) bitkisinin, kalite ve verim özellikleri bakımından incelenmesidir. Çalışmada, erkenci, orta mevsim, orta geççi ve geççi olmak üzere 4 farklı çiçeklenme zamanına sahip 11 adet glayöl çeşidi kulla...

  13. Développement d’un modèle statistique de prédiction de la durée de vie du rachis lombaire, dépendant de la contrainte appliquée, de l’âge et de la densité osseuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Ayari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available École de technologie supérieure, 1100, rue Notre-Dame Du fait de l’inhomogénéité densimétrique et structurale des vertèbres entre les individus et du fait que la résistance osseuse dépende de la densité osseuse et de la continuité du réseau trabéculaire, qui change avec l’âge, on ne peut pas considérer que le comportement en fatigue des vertèbres dépende uniquement de la contrainte appliquée. Dans cette étude, un modèle de prédiction de durée de vie est proposé permettant d’évaluer le nombre de cycles de fatigue avant dommage en fonction de la contrainte appliquée, de la densité osseuse et de l’âge du spécimen. Vu leur grande dispersion, les résultats des essais de fatigue publiés par Brinckmann (1988 ont été classifiés afin de pouvoir être analysés par la méthode des plans d’expériences. Un modèle non linéaire présentant un coefficient de détermination R2 de 94 % est établi. En comparant les valeurs prédites par ce modèle avec les résultats des essais de fatigue de Hansson (1987, on constate une certaine cohérence entre les résultats. Cette étude justifie l’hypothèse que la densité osseuse et l’âge outre la contrainte appliquée ont un effet sur la fatigue du rachis.Due to vertebral densimetric and structural inhomogeneity between individuals and the fact that bone strength varies with bone density and discontinuities within the trabecular lattice which changes with age, vertebral fatigue behavior cannot be considered as depending only on the cyclic stress. In this study, a lifetime prediction model is proposed for evaluating the number of cycles before damage as a function of the cyclic stress, bone density and age of the specimen. Due to their large dispersion, the results of the fatigue tests published by Brinckmann (1988 have been classified for analysis using the experiment design method. A nonlinear model presenting a coefficient of determination R2 of 94% has been

  14. Liposomal formulations of prilocaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine prolong analgesic duration : [Des préparations liposomiques de prilocaïne, de lidocaïne et de mépivacaïne prolongent la durée de l'analgésie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia Cereda, Cíntia Maria; Brunetto, Giovana Bruschini; de Araújo Phd, Daniele Ribeiro; de Paula, Eneida

    2006-11-01

    éparation liposomique a été comparé à la solution respective d'anesthésique local dans l'eau par le test de blocage du nerf infra-orbitaire chez des rats. RéSULTATS: Les coefficients de partage ont été de : 57 pour la PLC, 114 pour la LDC et 93 pour la MVC. Les résultats in vivo ont montré que les liposomes témoins sans anesthésique local n'avaient pas d'effet analgésique. Par contre, les préparations en capsules ont augmenté l'intensité anesthésique totale (35,3 %, 26,1 % et 57,1 %) et le temps de récupération (30 %, 23,1 % et 56 %) respectivement pour la PLC, la LDC et la MVC comparées aux solutions simples (P < 0,01). Ces résultats indiquent que les liposomes sont des systèmes de vecteurs de médicaments efficaces pour les anesthésiques locaux de durée moyenne. La MVC a surtout bénéficié, et la LDC le moins, de l'encapsulation liposomique, peut-être à cause de ses plus importantes propriétés vasodilatatrices.

  15. Dini ve Kültürel Çoğulculukta Varoluş Mücadelesine Bir Bakış: Malezya Tecrübesi / An Overview towards the Existence Struggle in Religious and Cultural Pluralism: Malaysia Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Kayadibi

    2016-11-01

    Dini ve Kültürel Çoğulculukta Varoluş Mücadelesine Bir Bakış: Malezya Tecrübesi Öz Malezya sosyo-kültürel yapısı itibari ile çok dinli, çok dilli ve çok kültürlü toplumların barış ve huzur içerisinde yaşayabilme özelliğini göstermesinden dolayı birçok ülkeye örnek oluşturabilecek nadide birlikteliklerden biridir. Bu çok kültürlülük, çok dinlilik ve çok dillilik özelliklerini bir zenginlik olarak görüp, birlikte güçlü bir toplum oluşturabilmenin çabası içerisindedir. Birçok sahada, örneğin İslam Ekonomisi ve Bankacılığı, Helal Gıda, modern bir devlette İslam Hukuku kurallarının uygulanabilme özelliğinde öncü rol oynayabilen, hatta merkez ülke olma yarışında ciddi çalışmaları vardır. Tarihi tecrübe açısından Malezya, konum itibariyle ciddi işgallerin merkezi olmuş, birçok sömürge devletinin izlerini atabilmenin, sömürge psikolojisinden kurtulabilmenin, yaralarını sarabilmenin mücadelesini veren bir ülkedir. Geçmişte sömürge ülkelerinden kalan acı hatıraya rağmen Osmanlı devletinden gördüğü kardeş ve dost yardımlar hafızasının derinliklerinde sağlam izler bırakmıştır. Şimdi ise farklı etnik yapısını huzur ve barış içerisinde birlikte götürebilmenin mücadelesini veren ve diğer ülkelere de örnek oluşturabilecek model bir yapıya sahiptir. Bunun yanında Malezya’yı Türkiye ile karşılaştırmaya çalışmak yanlış sonuçlar doğurabilir. Sömürge geçmişi olmayan, gayr-i Müslim nüfusu neredeyse yok denecek kadar az olan Türkiye’nin Malezya ile kıyaslanması düşünülemez. Bu makalemizde çok dinli toplumlarda Müslümanlar incelenirken Malezya örnek olarak alınacak, onların yaşamları, tarihi ve sosyal evreleri, dini hayatın yaşanmasında sorunların olup olmadığı, milli bir bilinç oluşturmak için nasıl bir strateji geliştirildiği, topyekûn bir bakış açısı ile problemlerin neler olduğu ve ne tür

  16. Axel Olrik’in Epik Yasaları Işığında Oğuz Kağan Destanı’na Bir Bakış A Glance At Oghuz Khagan Saga In The Light Of Axel Olrik’s Epic Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat ÇİFTÇİ

    2013-07-01

    üzündeki varlığını, toplumsal bir mutabakat ile mümkün kılmıştır. Bu mutabakatın belli görüngüleri vardır ve bunlar daha çok kültürel formlarla karşımıza çıkar. Milletlerin toplumsal varlıklarını ortaya koymada karşımıza çıkan ilk verileri ve anlam yüklenmelerini destanlar temerküz eder. Bu bakımdan, destanlara milletlerin toplumsal hafızasının kodları olarak odaklanmak gerekir. İnsanoğlunun ilk atasından bu yana yeryüzünde ortaya koyduğu çabanın birtakım ana amaçlar ve temalar etrafında söz konusu olduğu bir gerçektir. Bu yüzden, barındırdığı arketipler bakımından destanların önemi büyüktür. Bu arketiplerin sadece geçmişi okumakla kalmayıp günümüze de ışık tutacak birtakım içermelere sahip olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu da, milletlerin ve toplumların kültürel görüngülerinin köklerine ulaşmak açısından bazı imkânlar oluşturmaktadır. Türk destanlarına bakıldığında, milletleşme yolunda önemli bir adım sayılacak Oğuz Kağan Destanı’nın bizleri karşıladığı görülür. Destanları anlamak ve anlamlandırmak için bazı farklı yöntemler söz konusu edilmektedir. Bu yöntemlerden birini, Tarihi-Coğrafi Fin Okulunun yöntemlerinden biri olan Axel Olrik’in “Epik Kanunlar Teorisi” oluşturmaktadır. Bu teori, mitolojik ürünlere evrensel bir standardizasyonla yaklaşmaya çalışmakta ve onları belli ilkeler çerçevesinde değerlendirmektedir. Bu makale, Türk tarihinin mitolojik uzantıları açısından sembolik olarak oldukça yüklü olan Oğuz Kağan Destanı’nı, Axel Olrik’in söz konusu epik yasaları ışığında okumayı amaçlamakta olup elde edilen bulguları, destan ve mahiyeti bağlamında tartışmaya çalışmaktadır.

  17. Türkiye Türkçesi Ağızlarında Özellikleri Bakımından Yağış Türlerine Verilen Adlar The Names That Given to Kinds of Precipitation in Turkey Turkish Dialects for Their Charateristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim EMİROĞLU

    2012-09-01

    rkçeye geçmemiş pek çok sözcük halkın dilinde yaşamakta ve kullanılmaktadır. Ağızlarda renk, yemek, organ, akrabalık, hastalık, hayvan, ölçü birimleri, giysi vb. adlar bakımından yüzlerce sözcük bulunmaktadır. Bunlar içerisinde yağış adları da önemli bir yer tutar. Bu çalışmada Türkiye Türkçesi ağızlarında yer alan yağış adları, çeşitli özellikleri göz önünde bulundurularak sınıflandırılmıştır. Yağış türlerinden yağmur ve kar yağışı için kullanılan isimler, bu yağışların sürekliliği, miktarı, hızı; tane veya damlaların büyüklüğü-küçüklüğü; yağışın düştüğü zaman (mevsim, ay, gün, saat vb.; yağışın yönü, diğer tabiat olaylarıyla ( rüzgâr, güneş, sis vb. eş zamanlı meydana gelmesi gibi özellikler dikkate alınarak verilmiştir. Tespit edilen ve sınıflandırılan yağış adları üzerinden çeşitli yorum ve değerlendirmelere ulaşılmıştır. Araştırma, Türklerin, görünüşte aynı sanılan yağış türlerini, bu türlerin çeşitli özelliklerine bakarak farklı adlandırmalarla ustalıklı bir biçimde birbirinden ayırdıklarını göstermektedir. Çalışmanın verileri Derleme Sözlüğü taranarak elde edilmiştir. Ancak Standart Türkçedeki kullanımları da tespit etmek için Büyük Türkçe Sözlük (TDK-BTS taranmıştır. Çalışmanın sonunda, ek olarak, tespit edilen ve özellikleri bakımından sınıflandırılan sözcüklerin anlamlarını içeren bir sözlük bulunmaktadır. Elde edilen veriler, Türkçenin yağış türlerini adlandırmak bakımından söz varlığının zenginliğini ortaya koymaktadır. Ağızlarda geçen yağış adları ile ilgili bu sözcüklerin birçoğunun Standart Türkçeye kazandırılması gerekir.

  18. Environmental education and quality of life | Bak | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the key assumptions in environmental education for sustainable development is that environmental education should improve and ultimately sustain people's 'quality of life'. The main question the paper addresses is how we can measure 'quality of life'. Earlier debates focussed on measuring quantitative factors but ...

  19. Volle bak op nuttige preidag : Landelijke preidag bij Proefboerderij Vredepeel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallen, J.; PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente

    2007-01-01

    Het was druk op de landelijk preidag 2007, bij PPO Vredepeel . Naast belangstelling uit Nederland ontbrak het ook niet aan buitenlandse interesse, met sectorgenoten uit België, Scandinavië, Frankrijk en Engeland. De meeste belangstelling van de aanwezigen ging uit naar de demonstratie van

  20. Rancang Bangun Pengering Surya Tipe Bak Untuk Biji Kopi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Syah

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. The main aim of this study was to design and develop hybrid dryer in which heat sources are coming from coffee husks furnace and solar collectors used for coffee beans drying. We also tested its performance and calculated the energy consumption produced and total costs required to perform coffee beans drying. The study consisted of three stages; (1 structural and functional design of drying chamber, furnace and solar collector, (2 dryer construction and development, (3 functional test. The overall results of this study showed that solar collector was effectively working properly during the ten days drying. Yet, this developed dryer is still heavily influenced by the weather, and thus the use of biomass as an energy supplement is needed. The average air temperature produced by the dryer ranges between 36.2 oC to 48.6 oC, while the relative humidity (RH ranging from 43.6% -72.6%.

  1. Fıkıh ve Siyaseti Şer’iyye Bağlamında Küresel Helal Belgelendirme Çalışmalarına Eleştirel Bir Bakış / A Critical View on Global Halal Certification Activities in Terms of Fiqh and Siyasah Shar’iyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yalçın

    2017-06-01

    Müslümanlar için helal, dini bakımdan yasaklanmamış, izin verilmiş manasında kullanılmakta; haram ve mekruh terimine karşıt, mubah ve caiz terimlerine yakın anlamlar ifade etmektedir. Sanayi öncesi dönemde helal ve haramı ayırt etmek günümüze göre daha basit iken günümüzde sanayi ve teknolojinin getirdiği yeniliklerle ortaya çıkan kompleks ürünler ve bu ürünlerin her yere ulaşabilmesi sebebiyle daha zor ve karmaşık hale gelmiştir. Bu durum Müslümanların satın aldığı ürünlere olan güvenini sarsmış ve giderek karşılaşılan helalliği şüpheli ürünlerin sayısını artırmıştır. Tarihte muhtesiplerin pazar denetimi Müslüman halk için bir güvence oluştururken günümüzde bu denetim ve güvence helal belgelendirme yöntemiyle sağlanmaya çalışılmaktadır. Yarım asırdan bu tarafa helal belgelendirme çalışmaları gelişerek devam etmesine rağmen bu çalışmalar henüz etkin ve yaygın bir helal güvence sağlayacak düzeyde değildir. Fıkhi ihtilaflar, sertifika kurumları arasındaki farklılıklar, helal sertifika ve helal logo farklılıkları, ulusal ve uluslararası düzeyde yasal boşluklar, ülkeler ve sertifika kurumları arasında ticari rekabet, uygulamanın etkinliğini olumsuz etkilemektedir. Helal belgesinin sağlıklı, güvenli ve hijyenik en üst ürün güvencesi olduğu iddiası, ferdi ve toplumsal dindarlığımıza yaptığı katkılar ve ticari alanda Müslümanlara sağladığı avantajlar ve dezavantajlar, dikkat çekici bir araştırma alanıdır.

  2. Birer Şiirinden Hareketle Şeyh Gâlib ve Mehmet Âkif’in İnsana Bakışı Üzerine Bir Karşılaştırma Denemesi A comparison attempt regarding the look of Şeyh Gâlib and Mehmet Âkif to mankind taking their poems as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer ÇAKIR

    2012-09-01

    yle ki, modern Türk edebiyatında Mehmet Âkif kadar hayatı şiire şiiri de hayata dâhil edebilme başarısı gösteren pek az şair vardır. Şeyh Gâlib ile Mehmet Âkif’in ortak yönü her iki şairin de kişiliğinin İslamî bir duyarlılıkla yoğrulmuş olmasıdır. Ancak Şeyh Gâlib’in dünyaya bakış açısını Mevleviliğin şekillendirdiği, Mehmet Âkif’te ise tasavvufî izlerin pek olmadığı malumdur. Makalenin problemi, temelde aynı dünya görüşüne sahip olan bu şairlerin “insana bakış”ının nasıl olduğudur. Zira, Mehmet Kaplan bir yazısında (Türk Edebiyatı Üzerinde Araştırmalar-2-, Dergah Yay., 2.bsk., İst., 1994, s.34 Şeyh Gâlib’in insanı ele alan bir “Tercî-i Bend”i ile Mehmet Âkif’in “İnsan” adlı şiiri arasında muhteva yakınlığı olduğunu ifade etmektedir. İşte bu makalede söz konusu şiirlerinden hareketle iki şairin insana bakışı mukayese edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Mukayesenin neticesi kısaca şöyledir: Mehmet Âkif, insanın yaratılış keyfiyetinden gelen değeri ve mevkii husûsundaki görüşleri yönüyle Şeyh Gâlib’le birleşirken; dünyadaki konumu noktasında ondan ayrılır. Mehmet Âkif’te akıl önemli ölçüde yüceltilmiş; insanın dünya ile irtibatı üzerinde durulmuştur. Bu irtibatın duygu ve düşünce planındaki tezahürleri de bir bir dile getirilmiştir. Şeyh Gâlib ise daha çok insanın iç dünyası ve onun manevî âlem ile olan irtibatına eğilmiştir.

  3. Klasik Edebiyatın Tartışılan Yanları Üzerine Yapılan Değerlendirmelere Toplu Bir Bakış A Collective View To The Evaluation Of The Critisised Aspects On Classical Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim PİLAV

    2013-03-01

    çok yoğun eleştirilere maruz kalmıştır. Dilin yanında işlenen konuların ve estetik zevkin de eleştiri konusu yapılması dikkatleri bu edebiyata yöneltmiştir. Divan edebiyatının, çağıyla uyumlu olması, kendi içindeki bütünlüğü ve özellikle de toplumu yansıtması bakımından oldukça idealist bir edebiyat olduğunu ifade edebiliriz. Bu bağlamda, Divan edebiyatı, kaynağı İslam medeniyetinin temel kaynakları olan, çağıyla uyumlu, içinden çıktığı toplumu bir bütün olarak yansıtan, istikrarlı bir şekilde devam eden; eski yeni çatışmasının olmadığı, tasavvuf felsefesine yaslanan ve gerçek sanatın önemli bir özelliği olan soyutluk vasfına sahip bir edebiyattır. Divan edebiyatı ürünleri Türk milletinin geçmişini, hassasiyetlerini, hayâl, beklenti ve temennilerini üstün bir sanat anlayışının ve estetik zevkin prizması arkasından yansıtmaya çalışmıştır. Divan Edebiyatını, günümüz anlayışı ve ölçütleriyle değil de- bütün sosyal bilimlerde olduğu gibi- kendi döneminin tarihî, toplumsal ve kültürel şartları içinde, kendine mahsus sanat anlayışıyla değerlendirip kabullenmek, bin yıllık bir medeniyetin kültür varlığı olarak görmek daha doğru olacaktır.Bu makalede Divan edebiyatına yönelik eleştiriler ve bu eleştirilere verilen cevaplar belli başlıklar altında tespit edilmiş ve böylece bir kez daha Divan edebiyatının kendine özgü yapısı ve kıymeti dikkatlere sunulmuştur.

  4. Kıbrıs Mülkiyet Tartışmasına Taşınmaz Mal Komisyonu Açısından Bir Bakış Cyprus Property Dispute through the Glance of Immovable Property Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya ÖZVERİ

    2013-07-01

    erçevesindetanımlamak amaçlanmaktadır. Ardından Kıbrıs’ta Türk ve Yunantarafların mülkiyet tartışmasına bakış açılarını da ele alınacaktır. İkitarafında müzakare masasında çok esneme payı bırakmadıkları bubakış açıları birbirinden çok farklı bir yapı da olması, uzlaşınınoluşabilmesini olanaksızlaştırdığından bu argümanlar daha da önemkazanmaktadır. Anlaşmazlığın taraflardan biri olan Türk tarafi ikibölgelilik,Yunan tarafı ise insan hakları argümanları üzerinden konuyayaklaşmaktadır. Taraflar tezlerini bu yönde savunurken, bu çalışmaAvrupa Insan Haklari Mahkemesi´nin iki önemli karari ile (LoizidouTürkiye´ye Karşı ve Xenides-Arestis Türkiye‘ye Karsi kurulmasinasebebiyet verdiği ve kararları ile bir iç hukuk yontemi olaraktüketilmesini ön-kosul olarak gösterdiği Tasinmaz Mal Komisyonu´nuincelemeye çalışacak ve artık görüşme masasında kemikleşmiş bir konuhaline gelmiş, adanın mülkiyet sorununa yeni bir umut ışığıolabileceğini tartışmayı amaçlamaktadır.

  5. Hasan Âli Yücel’in Mûsikî Dünyası, Türk Mûsikîsine Bakışı Ve “Millî Mûsikî” Tartışmalarındaki Yeri Hasan Āli Yucel's Musical Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlı ARSLAN

    2012-12-01

    çoğu ve İslam Ansiklopedisi tercüme edilmiş, İnönü ve Sanat Ansiklopedileri, İlköğretim, Güzel Sanatlar, Tercüme, Tarih Belgeleri, Köy Enstitüleri, Kültür Bakanlığı Dergileri çıkarılmıştır. Hasan Âli Yücel, mûsikî sahasında da fikirler ileri sürmüş, bu konuda Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi’nde tartışmalara girmiştir. Türk mûsikîsi penceresinden bakıldığında, “millî mûsikî” tartışmalarında Hasan Âli Yücel nerede durmaktadır? Necip Asım’ın ilk kez dile getirdiği ve Ziya Gökalp’in sistemleştirerek sürdürdüğü “millî mûsikî” tartışmalarında Hasan Âli Yücel’in yeri nedir ve o fikirlere katkısı ne olmuştur? Bu makalede Hasan Âli Yücel’in kısa biyografisinin ardından mûsikî dünyasına girilecek ve yukarıda andığımız soruların yanıtları aranacaktır.

  6. Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan’ın Kürsî-i İstiğrâk Şiirine Estetik Bir Bakış An Overview Of Aesthetic Abdulhak Hamit Tarhan Kürsî-i İstiğrâk Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş BİNGÖL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theme of poem of Kürsî-i Istiğrâk written by Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan is nature that subject to obtain the philosophy of art from past to present. Looking at the history of art, one of the most processed issues are human and the other nature. Abdülhak Hamit receptions theelements of nature with aestheticism, and takes into categories such asthe aesthetic elements of the sublime and beautiful. Nature is decor andornaments in Divan Literature becomes a resource aesthetic objects inAbdülhak Hamit poems. Hamit asserts as elements in natureconsidered a poem such as the nature form that the work of art. Hereceptions such as measure, musicality and harmony of the elements ofthe art of poetry from nature. Aesthetic analysis of a work of art madewithin the framework aesthetic object, aesthetic subject, aestheticperception, aesthetic value and judgment. Analysis of material that thelanguage of literary products is more complex and laborious task otherworks of art aesthetic analysis. To knowledge the genius psychologicalstate of bringing the body text, to determine philosophical ideaspermeated the fabric of the text and the most importantly connectionsbetween the text and the establishment of the aesthetic discipline isessential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the aesthetic point ofAbdülhak Hamit Kürsî-i Istiğrâk poem. Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan’nın Kürsî-i İstiğrâk adlı manzumesinin konusu, sanat felsefesinin geçmişten günümüze üzerinde durduğu tabiattır. Sanat tarihine bakıldığında, en fazla işlenen iki konudan biri insandır diğeri ise tabiattır. Abdülhak Hamit, tabiattaki unsurları estetize ederek alımlar ve bu unsurları yüce, güzel gibi estetik kategoriler çerçevesinde ele alır. Divan edebiyatında dekor ve süs olan tabiat, Abdülhak Hamit’in şiirlerinde estetik objelerin bulunduğu bir kaynağa dönüşür. Hamit, tabiattaki unsurları birer şiir olarak telakki ederek tabiatın da sanat eseri gibi

  7. Liselerde Madde Bağımlılığı – Mevcut Durum ve Önerilere İlişkin Okul Müdürleri ve Öğretmenlerin Bakış Açıları Opinions of Schoolmaster and Teachers on Drug Addiction – Present Situation and on Advices in Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin KUBANÇ

    2013-03-01

    bulunan liselerde görev yapan okul yöneticileri ve rehber öğretmenleriyle görüşülmüş ve öğrencilerinin uyuşturucu kullanımına ilişkin bakış açıları belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu kapsamda yöneticilere ve rehber öğretmenlere 10 açık uçlu soru yöneltilmiştir. Verilerin analizi ile elde edilen bulgularda uyuşturucuya başlama nedeninin daha çok ailevi nedenlerden kaynaklandığı tespit edilmiştir. Arkadaş grubu, çevre, medya, diğer etkili görülen unsurlar içerisindedir. Okullarda en çok esrar, eroin ve ecstacy kullanılmakta ve öğrenciler uyuşturucu maddeyi, okul dışında ara sokak satıcılarından, internet kafelerden ve okul içinden temin edebilmektedir. Uyuşturucu kullanımı konusunda kız ve erkek öğrenciler arasında anlamlı bir farklılık görülmemektedir. Çözüm yolları olarak, aile, eğitim ve devlet politikaları önde gelen unsurlar olarak göze çarpmaktadır.

  8. Peyami Safa’nın Yalnızız Romanında Kadın ve Aileye Batılılaşma Ekseninden Bakış Overview Of Westernization Axis To Woman And Family In The Novel Of Peyami Safa’s Yalnızız

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümeyye Dinler KÖKSAL

    2013-03-01

    edebiyat dönemi edebî eserler bakımından verimli bir dönemdir. Zira Batılılaşma ile büyük ölçüde değişime uğrayan sosyal yapıda ele alınacak çokça mesele ortaya çıkmıştır. Böylece Batılılaşma, dönemin birçok edebî eserinde temel konuyu teşkil etmiş olur. Toplumun büyük kesiminde yaşanan bu sosyal değişime kayıtsız kalmayan edebî şahsiyetler, Batılılaşmayı her yönüyle sık sık işlemişlerdir. Özellikle roman türünde Peyami Safa’nın Batı’yı ve Batılılaşmayı işleyen eserler verdiğini görürüz. Toplumsal yapıyı oluşturan unsurları Batılılaşma ekseninde titizlikle ele alan Peyami Safa’nın, kadın ve aileyi bu yöndeki değişimine daha çok eğildiği dikkat çekmektedir. Kadının genel karakteri ve Batılılaşma serüveninde oynadığı rol üzerine kafa yoran Peyami Safa, eserlerinde kadınları özenle işler ve onlara önemli vazifeler yükler. Ailenin temel yapısı ve Batılılaşmadan etkilenme oranı üzerine de tespitlerde bulunan Peyami Safa’nın eserleri bu dönem adına önemli belgeler olarak kabul edilebilir. Bu çalışmada Peyami Safa’nın Yalnızız romanında, kadınların ve aile yapısının, Batılılaşma ile nasıl bir değişime uğradığını tespit etmeye çalıştık. Bu eserde kadın ve ailenin Batılılaşma ile nasıl bir değişime uğradığının örneklerini öne çıkarma fırsatını bulmuş olduk.

  9. Köy Edebiyatı Ve Türk Edebiyatında Köye “İçerden” Bakış Doğuşu, Etkileri, Sonuçları Village Literature And An “Emic Look” At The Village In Turkish Literature: Its Birth, Effects And Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol ÇANKAYA

    2013-07-01

    . Therefore, these works can be valued associological documentsas well as literary pieces. This movement notonly conveyed the reality of the village from first hand as a mainstreamuntil 1970s in Turkish literature, but also affected the non-ruralauthors’ interest in the village reality. Türkiye’de modern edebiyat 1839’da Tanzimat hareketi ile başlamakla beraber, uzun yıllar İstanbul merkezli kalmış, Anadolu’ya açılamamıştır. Anadolu’nun Türk edebiyatındaki varlığının ancak Türkçülük akımına bağlı olarak ortaya çıktığı görülür. Bu süreçte aydın, hem halktaki milli kültürü özümsemek ve hem de köyü canlandırmak gibi ikili bir görevle halka, köye gitmek durumundadır. Yeni Türkiye’nin kuruluşuyla, edebiyattaki bu yönelişin hızlandığı görülmektedir. Ne var ki Halkevleri kanalıyla sürdürülen bu Halka Doğru hareketi büyük ölçüde “turistik” kalmış, kentli aydının köyde yaptığı “piknik” olmaktan kurtulamamıştır. Cumhuriyetin “sınıfsız Halkçılık” ilkesinin sonucu olarak bu hareket romantik bir Köycülük hareketi olmaktan öteye gidememiştir. Bu edebiyat, büyük ölçüde, köyü ziyarete gelen kentli aydının “ordaki köy”e “dışarıdan bakış”ının eseri olmaktan öteye gidememiştir.Bu yapının ancak, Cumhuriyet döneminde Anadolu insanının, eğitim olanaklarına kavuşması, bir kısmının yazar olmaya başlamasıyla değiştiği görülür. Bu noktada ise 1940’larda faaliyette bulunan Köy Enstitüleri önemli rol oynamıştır. Köy Enstitüleri’nde eğitim gören on binlerce gençten kimilerinin yazar olacağı bir süreç başlamıştır. Bunların ilk örneği Mahmut Makal ve Bizim Köy (1950 adlı yapıtıdır. Bizim Köy ile başlayan bu yöneliş, Fakir Baykurt, Talip Apaydın, Başaran, Dursun Akçam vb. Köy Enstitüsü mezunu köy kökenli gençlerin edebiyata girişleriyle güçlenerek bir “köy edebiyatı”nın oluşmasını sa

  10. Participation in the ICT Era: Implementation without Humiliation, Misconception and False Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Torill Aagot

    2012-01-01

    The national language of Tanzania is Kiswahili. However, Tanzania has two official languages: English, introduced in colonial times, and Kiswahili, the actual "lingua franca" spoken by 99 per cent of the population. Kiswahili websites and internet content are gradually increasing, and equipment is becoming more affordable. The research…

  11. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  12. Reproductive strategies of two sympatric "small barbs" (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae) in Lake Tana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of two species of 'small barbs' (12,000 fish). Both species have a long breeding period (from March to September), and the distinct bimodal size-frequency distributions of eggs suggest multiple spawning for both species. Absolute fecundity increased exponentially with

  13. When the helper humiliates the patient: a qualitative study about unintended intimidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Thesen, Janecke

    2008-01-01

    -- issues that facilitate the occurrence of intimidation of patients/clients. Yet, the professional remains responsible for his or her moral conduct. High moral awareness and systems with a better balance between reason and emotion are needed to stop vulnerable people being subjected to disempowering...... in a rehabilitation conference. Participants were 48 health and social professionals in six groups. Thirty-seven of the participants provided their written stories. The main outcome measures were descriptions of intimidation episodes according to the level of passivity/activity in the professional responsible....... The first type of intimidation included events where the professional intimidated the patient/client by neglecting various basic needs, such as bodily functions, information, regard, time, and patience. The second type included events where the professional patronized and overruled the patient...

  14. 1826 Tarihli Grek Harfli Türkçe İncil ile 1827 Tarihli Arap Harfli Türkçe İncil'in Çekim Ekleri Bakımından Karşılaştırılması Comparison of the 1826 Turkish Bible in Greek Characters and the 1827 Turkish Bible in Arabic Characters in terms of Inflectional Affixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KILIÇARSLAN

    2013-09-01

    different from the Arabic charecters Turkish Bible. İncil hemen hemen tüm dünya dillerine olduğu gibi Türkçeye de tarih boyunca birçok kez çevirisi yapılmış bir kutsal kitaptır. Türkçe İncil tercümelerinin tarihi neredeyse İngilizce, Fransızca ve Almanca İnciller kadar eskidir. Yeni Ahit (Yeni Antlaşma da denilen İncil’in Osmanlı Türkçesine ilk olarak 1662-1665 yıllarında IV. Mehmed’in baştercümanı Ali Bey (Wojciech Bobowski tarafından yapılmış olduğu bilinmektedir. Türkçe İncil tercümelerinin daha sonraki yüzyıllarda ise matbu olarak da yapıldığı görülür. Bunlardan en eskisi Ali Bey’in tercümesine dayalı olarak 1819 tarihinde Paris’te yayımlanmıştır.Osmanlı Devletinde Arap harfli Osmanlı Türkçesi ile yapılmış İncil tercümelerinin yanı sıra daha az bilinen bir de Grek harfli İncil tercümeleri vardır. Bu çalışmada öncelikle çalışmaya esas olan 1826 tarihli Grek harfli Türkçe bir İncil ile 1827 tarihli Arap harfli Türkçe bir İncil’in tanıtımı yapılmıştır. Daha sonra her iki metnin Markos Bölümü Birinci Bab’ının çekim ekleri yönüyle bir karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır. Bu aşamada her iki metinde geçen çekim ekleri karşılaştırılmış, yeteri kadar örnekle konunun ortaya konmasına çalışılmıştır. Çalışmanın en sonunda ise çalışmada kullanılan İncil’in ilgili bölümünün çevirileri ve tıpkıbasımları yer almaktadır.Bazı Grek harfli Türkçe İncil tercümeleri Arap harfli Türkçe İncil tercümelerinin bire bir neşirleridir. Ancak kimi Grek harfli İncil tercümelerinin ağız hususiyetlerinin nispeten daha fazla olduğu ama bunların sentaks bakımından Arap harfli Türkçe İncillerden fazla farklılıklar göstermediği bilinmektedir. Çalışmamıza konu olan 1826 tarihli Grek harfli Türkçe İncil tercümesinin de Karamanlıca ağız özellikleri taşıyan ancak sentaks bakımından Arap harfli Türkçe İncil terc

  15. Illustrations of the Tenochca wars in Tovar and Durán. Versions and misunderstandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Battcock

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two versions of the war between Tenochtitlan and Azcapotzalco in three sources of indigenous tradition from the second half of the sixteenth century: Fray Diego Duran’s History of the Indies of New Spain, and the two taken from Juan de Tovar’s Segunda Relacion: the Codex Ramirez and the Tovar Manuscript. Through analysis of the differences between the alphabetic and the pictographic accounts of this episode in these sources, this paper presents and discusses the disparities and misinterpretations regarding the pictographic materials that accompany these works.

  16. Resilience of Past Landscapes: Resilience Theory, Society, and the Longue Durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Redman

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Resilience theory is an expanding body of ideas that attempts to provide explanations for the source and role of change in adaptive systems, particularly the kinds of change that are transforming. Scholars from various disciplines have contributed to the current state of this formulation. This article proposes that resilience theory would benefit from an increasing collaboration with archaeologists, who would provide a long-term perspective on adaptive cycles. Although archaeologists and anthropologists have written provocatively about studying the resilience of past and present societies, such an approach has not become common in these disciplines. We suggest, however, that a resilience framework offers a potential mechanism for reinvigorating the conceptual base of archaeological and anthropological disciplines. To make this case, we (1 highlight three features of resilience theory, including cross-scale interactions, information flow, and phases of the adaptive cycle; (2 examine the extent to which purely natural or social science analyses would give complementary or contradictory conclusions; and (3 discuss the implications of using a long-term integrative perspective for understanding linked social and ecological systems.

  17. ”Chat-vejledning dur, men vi skal undervises i at bruge det”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Grethe Fogh

    2014-01-01

    Sådan konkluderer elever på 8. årgang fra Favrdalskolen i Haderslev , der har været genstand for en undersøgelse af, hvad eVejlednings chattilbud kan bruges til, og hvad der skal til for at komme i gang med at bruge det....

  18. Caryopsis transfer system in an Avena magna Murphy et Terrell × A. longiglumis Dur. amphiploid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the structure of the caryopsis transfer system is presented for an Avena magna × A. longiglumis amphiploid. Each component of the system such as vascular bundle, pigment strand, nucellar projection and ventral aleurone layer varies between the amphiploid and its parental species. The number of xylem vessels present in the caryopsis bundle expressed heterosis-like inheritance. The position of the caryopsis xylem bundle in A. longiglumis shows a lower efficiency in assimilate transport. Some anomalies in the development of the ventral aleurone layer and parenchyma, adjacent to the transfer system, are presented.

  19. La nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 oct. 2015 ... Une équipe de recherche internationale met au point des applications fondées sur la nanotechnologie d'hexanal, un extrait végétal naturel qui permet de ... Divers nouveaux matériaux sont mis à l'essai, y compris des pellicules contenant des nanoparticules électrofilées ou vaporisées et imprégnées ...

  20. Persécution, une notion dans la longue durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cavaillé

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pourquoi entreprendre de réfléchir sur la notion de persécution en associant historiens et juristes ? Je voudrais exposer en deux mots comment est né le projet de cette rencontre. Dans un premier temps, je me proposais de préparer une rencontre interdisciplinaire surles relations de la persécution à la clandestinité où, ce qui me paraissait premier, était la question de la clandestinité, pratique par définition illégale, mais susceptible de recevoir une justification politique, éthique et mêm...

  1. Etude des efforts et de la température de coupe lors de tournage dur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation is concerned with the cutting force and temperature measurement during machining of hardened bearing steel AISI 52100 using a Cubic Boron Nitride tool CBN7020. The experimental tests based on both unifatorial and multifactirial methods whose parameters are cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut ...

  2. La tardo-eugenesia en Argentina: un enfoque desde la longue durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda, Marisa A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Eugenics in Argentina, taking a long term view, exhuming historical continuities that survived over time while ignoring deep contextual changes. Thus, in reference to the history of science (of which the history of Eugenics forms a part we can identify longue duree as part of a transcendent cultural phenomenon. This persistence is motivated by the strength of its principles, enabling it to survive more or less unaffected by events occurring in the environment, which, from another perspective, would cause a reversal of the proposed thesis. This paradigmatic strength, which can also be understood as resistance, in biopolitical terms, has granted some immunity and that, in turn, has allowed Eugenics to produce its own antibodies even after the horrors of Nazism became known.Este trabajo analiza la eugenesia en Argentina desde un enfoque de larga duración, que, como tal, se mantuvo en el tiempo con cierta indiferencia a cambios contextuales profundos. Así, respecto a la historia de la ciencia (dentro de cuyo ámbito se incluye a la historia de la eugenesia puede identificarse esa larga duración como parte de un fenómeno cultural que subsistiera, más o menos incólume, ante eventos habidos en el entorno que, desde otra perspectiva, hubieran implicado un trastocamiento inevitable de la tesis propuesta. Esa fortaleza (o resistencia paradigmática es la que, leída en términos biopolíticos, le ha otorgado a la tardo eugenesia cierta inmunidad y que, a la vez, le ha permitido fabricar sus propios anticuerpos luego de conocidos los horrores del nazismo.

  3. THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OFHOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA(G. DON) DUR. AND SCHINZ (APOCYNACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekou, Yao Patrick; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Yerbanga, Rakiswende Serge; Achoribo, Elom; Da, Ollo; Atakpama, Wouyo; Batawila, Komlan

    2017-01-01

    Holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the Togolese folk medicine. A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases. The antimicrobial test was performed using the agar well-diffusion and the NCCLS broth microdilution methods, while the in vivo antimalarial activity was evaluated following the four-day suppressive test of Peters. The acute toxic effects of the extract were monitored after a single oral dose (5,000 mg/kg body weight) administration in NMRI mice. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of leaves of H. floribunda was active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MICs ranging from 0.62 to 1.25 mg/mL. The extract also showed significant parasitaemia suppression in a dose-dependent manner. In the acute toxicity assay, the oral administration of the extract to the mice did not affect the relative weight of vital organs, and there were no signs of toxicity or death during the study period. The LD50 of the tested extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg, indicating its safety. This study demonstrates the antibacterial and antimalarial activities of leaves of H. floribunda and then, supports its medicinal use in the treatment of microbial infections.

  4. ELABORATION PAR RF MAGNETRON ET CARACTERISATIONS DES REVETEMENTS DURS Mo-Cr-N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I RAHIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Des couches ternaires de Mo-Cr-N ont été élaborées par PVD magnétron. L’analyse EDS des films Mo-Cr révèle l’existence du chrome et du molybdène. Ceci est en  accord avec la composition de la cible (Cr 20% at. Mo  80 % at. L’épaisseur des films Mo-Cr-N augmente avec le temps de dépôt. Leur cristallinité se trouve améliorée. La présence de l’azote diminue l’épaisseur des films et augmente la largeur des colonnes. On note que la taille des grains augmente avec la température du recuit. Par contre la distance interréticulaire diminue. Au MEB, il a été montré que la structure des films  Mo-Cr-N  est en « têtes de chou-fleur ». Chaque « tête de chou-fleur » est elle-même constituée de nodules qui terminent des colonnes plus fines.  L’effet d’ombrage, et la relaxation des contraintes peuvent être à l’origine de l’existence de la discontinuité de la matière observée. Les recuits à différentes températures augmentent la cristallinité des films. La diffraction des RX n’a pas révélé de présence de phases d’oxydes. Ce qui indique une bonne stabilité thermique des films élaborés. Mais  l’apparition progressive, en fonction de la température de recuit,  des fissures montre une  mauvaise adhérence des ces films sur le substrat de silicium.

  5. The galenic plague: a breakdown of the imperial pathocoenosis. Pathocoenosis and longue durée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Is 'pathocoenosis', a notion conceived and a word coined by Mirko Grmek (1969), useful as far as ancient history is concerned? The author is interested in Galenic pathocoenosis, that of doctor Galen and his Emperor Marcus Aurelius (IInd cent. A.D.), when a new 'pestilence' or 'plague' (smallpox?) devastated the whole empire, from Mesopotamia to the Danube at least.

  6. THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF HOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA (G. DON) DUR. AND SCHINZ (APOCYNACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekou, Yao Patrick; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Yerbanga, Rakiswende Serge; Achoribo, Elom; Da, Ollo; Atakpama, Wouyo; Batawila, Komlan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the Togolese folk medicine. A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases. Methods: The antimicrobial test was performed using the agar well-diffusion and the NC...

  7. Reproductive strategies of two sympatric 'small barbs'(Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae)in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of two species of 'small barbs' (12,000 fish). Both species have a long breeding period (from March to September), and the distinct bimodal size-frequency distributions of eggs suggest multiple spawning for both species. Absolute fecundity increased exponentially with

  8. The trailing trials of humiliation: Legal, social, and medical perspectives of women facing domestic violence in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumuda Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, violence within the home is universal across culture, religion, class, and ethnicity. Despite its widespread prevalence, such violence is not customarily acknowledged and has remained invisible-a problem thought unworthy of legal or political attention. The social construction of the divide between public and private life underlies the major problem of addressing the hidden nature of domestic violence against women. Legal jurisprudence has historically considered the domain of the house to be within the control and unquestionable authority of the male head of household. Thus, acts of violence against members of the household, whether wife or child, were perceived as discipline and essential for maintaining the rule of authority within the family. Except for sensational cases, the fear of social isolation and inhibition has caused the insidious everyday violence experienced by huge numbers of women to be hidden in the private domain. In this review, we make an attempt towards briefing the legal, social, and medical perspectives of women facing domestic violence.

  9. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California – release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) likely originated in sub-Saharan Africa, where the wild olive Olea europaea cuspidata L. (Wall. ex G. Don) is found and from which the domesticated olive O. europaea europaea L. was derived. Following the path of olive cult...

  10. PERFORMANSI BIOLOGIS CALON INDUK PATIN JAMBAL (Pangasius djambal PADA VOLUME BAK DAN CARA AERASI BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Patin jambal is one of Indonesia indigenous species which is threatened to extinction in Java open water due to development progress as well as over fishing. Further mass production of patin jambal seeds in hatchery faces the unsustainable supply of spawner. Tank size and aeration technique are suspected to affect patin jambal spawner production in captivity since the fish is a riverine species. The experiment aims at providing a suitable environment for such a fish to grow to be productive spawners. Four circular concrete tanks are used to assure maximum water circulation; two tanks were filled with 10 m3 and the other with 20 m3 fresh surface water at equal depth, 130 cm. The surface water was gravitationally flowed from the surface into 2 tanks and from the bottom into 2 other tanks at 0.6-1.0 L sec-1. The fish weighted 1.5 kg each was stocked at 7 female and 3 male into each of 10 m3 tank and at 15 females and 5 males into each of 20 m3 tank.  The experimental units were arranged in a completely randomized design with pseudo replication. The fish fed commercial artificial diet at 3% of biomass weight a day. Fish in the 20 m3 tank equipped with bottom water inlet gained weight 0.601 % day-1 and consequently grew faster (P<0.05 than fish in the other tanks.  Fish in the same tank was also biologically mature faster than fish in the other tanks; four males and one male were found to reach gonad maturity stage IV which was not found in the other tanks. Obviously, a 20 m3 concrete tank equipped with bottom water inlet is suitable for patin jambal spawner production at 15 females to 5 males ratio.

  11. PENANGANAN SAMPAH ORGANIK DENGAN BAK SAMPAH KOMPOSTER DI DUSUN SUSUKAN KELURAHAN SUSUKAN KECAMATAN SUSUKAN KABUPATEN SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aklis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Not properly managed of garbage will impact the health, social and economic. It occurs in RT 03, RT 04 RW 1, Susukan Village, Semarang District. Most residents of both RT are still throwing garbage in any place, and others make puddles for landfills. This paper addresses the issue of handling organic waste from the initially discarded in places and wallow carelessly processed into compost and liquid fertilizer in a composter in Susukan Village , District of Semarang. The activities begins with making management team that are divided according to their respective RT, provision of trash for inorganic waste, manufacture and operation of the composter training for the management team, training provision and operation of the composter for residents. The results of activities undertaken resident of RT 03 RW 04 has a system to manage garbage, produce fertilizer so the impact on improving the quality of health and social citizens.

  12. Proposed Bak Stabilization Tennessee River, River Mile 466.2 - 466.5 Hamilton County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    NONWOVEN GEOTEXTILE , , , , , , I -’--- , , -- ~-------- .:. -- -- ---.:. -- ---- -.:.---- ---.:.- -- ---- .:. -----I--6...v 630 NONWOVEN GEOTEXTILE ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ·~ . ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ 1...8217 ’ ’ ’ . ’ ’ ’ ’ 42’~ GRAYIT.Y SEWER: : : : MINIMUM POOL·- EL. 632 v 10 20 GRADATION 30 . . . NONWOVEN

  13. Future Idealism, The Concern of Saving Generations, Eesthetic View in Understanding the World within the Letters of Prof. Dr. Ramazan Korkmaz (Pioneering a Generation Bir Nesle Öncülük Eden Prof. Dr. Ramazan Korkmaz’ın Mektuplarında Gelecek İdealizmi, Nesilleri Kurtarabilme Kaygısı ve Dünyanın Algılanmasına İlişkin Estetik Bakış (Güneşe Gönderilecekler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitat DURMUŞ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the letters that Prof. Dr. Ramazan Korkmaz wrote between the years 1976 and 2003 were evaluated in respect to thematic approach. These letters consist of those that Professor wrote during the years 1981-1985 when he was a student in Ataturk University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences department of Turkish Language and Literature, those that he did during the years when he was a Research Assistant in Turkish Language and Literature Department of Fırat University and again those he wrote during theyears 1986-1989 when he completed his postgraduate education. It is obvious that an increasing idealism dominated his letters he wrote after doctorate in 1991 and those he wrote during his secondary and primary school years. In this article the letters in question consist overwhelmingly of those ones that Mr. Ramazan wrote to his relatives. Since the letters that he wrote to his friends and fellows are the subject of another study, they were excluded from this study. We think that if dates of the letters are read comparatively with Mr. Ramazan’s life, the expressions which were emphasized will be quite meaningful. Bu çalışmada Prof. Dr. Ramazan Korkmaz’ın 1976-2003 yılları arasında yazdığı mektupları, tematik bakımdan değerlendirilmeye alınmış. Bu mektupların büyük bir kısmı hocanın Atatürk Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Bölümü öğrencisi olduğu yıllarda (1981-1985 yazdığı mektuplar ile Fırat Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Bölümü Yeni Türk Edebiyatı Asistanı olduğu ve yine bu üniversitelerde lisansüstü öğrenim gördüğü yıllarda (1986-1989 yazdığı mektupları kapsamaktadır. Hocanın, doktora sonrasında yazdığı (1991 mektuplar ile ortaokul / lise yıllarında yazdığı mektuplar arasında büyük bir idealizmin hakim olduğu ve artarak devam ettiği görülmüştür. Bu yazıya konu edinilen mektupların büyük bir k

  14. Mesure de durée de vie de porteurs minoritaires dans les structures semiconductrices de basse dimensionnalité

    OpenAIRE

    Daanoune, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The minority carrier lifetime is one of the main parameters used to analyse the semiconductors quality and photoconductivity decay (PCD) is one of the most widely used lifetime characterization method. Thanks to the variety of automated equipment that has developed, lifetime measurement has become a routine technique to assess the quality of semiconductors. However, the micro and nano materials used in the photovoltaic and microelectronics industry require an adaptation of the existing method...

  15. STATE OF JNK AND P38 MAP-KINASE SYSTEM IN BLOOD monon uclea r le ucocytes DUR ING INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Chasovskih

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pogrammed cell death of peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes from patients with acute inflammatory diseases (non-nosocomial pneumonia, acute appendicitis was investigated under ex vivo conditions, upon cultivation of the cells with selective inhibitors of JNK (SP600125 and р38 МАРК (ML3403. In vitro addition of SP600125 and ML3403 under oxidative stress conditions prevents increase of annexinpositive mononuclear cells numbers, thus suggesting JNK and р38 МАР-kinases to be involved into oxidative mechanisms of apoptosis deregulation. A role of JNK in IL-8 production by mononuclear leucocytes was revealed in cases of acute inflammation. Regulatory effect of JNK and p38 MAP-kinases can be mediated through activation of redox-sensitive apoptogenic signal transduction systems, as well as due to changes in cellular cytokine-producing function.

  16. Aplicações de modelos de procura para bens duráveis de baixa liquidez

    OpenAIRE

    Studart, Marcus Eduardo Mathias

    2009-01-01

    I use Search models to study decentralized markets of durable goods. I explore the concept of market liquidity of Lippman and McCall (1986) and show that the theory of optimal search is useful to address the following issues: What governs the time required to make a transaction on these markets? What is the relationship between the price of goods and the time required to make transactions? Why is optimal to wait to make a transaction in markets where individuals discount future...

  17. An olfactory receptor from Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur) mainly tuned to volatiles from flowering host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shu-Wei; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Li, Guo-Qing; Wang, Gui-Rong

    2015-08-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most serious agricultural pests, feeding on a wide range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals and vegetables in the north of China. This insect can frequently switch between habitats and host plants over seasons and prefer plants in bloom. A. lucorum relies heavily on olfaction to locate its host plants finely discriminating different plant volatiles in the environment. Despite its economical importance, research on the olfactory system of this species has been so far very limited. In this study, we have identified and characterized an olfactory receptor which is sensitively tuned to (Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate and several flowering compounds. Besides being present in the bouquet of some flowers, these compounds are produced by plants that have suffered attacks and are supposed to act as chemical messengers between plants. This OR may play an important role in the selection of host plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gaitán Durán o la estética de la evasión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Arango

    1962-11-01

    Full Text Available Totales en el recuerdo y la emoción, un hombre, una tragedia y un magisterio de consumaciones, reavivan, pesándolo y controvirtiéndolo, un testimonio intelectual resuelto en el ademán del misterio.

  19. Préserver la nature en ville: une Coproduction inscrite dans la longue durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Sander

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Preservar a natureza na cidade : uma coprodução inscrita na longa duraçãoO estudo do parque da Caffarella à Roma permite compreender as maneiras pelas quais as interações entre atores contribuem, à longo prazo, para a preservação dos espaços naturais na cidade e em sua transformação em um patrimônio natural coletivo. Esse parque de 200 hectares constitui o prolongamento, em meio urbano, de um grande parque natural regional de 3.400 hectares. A genealogia das representações desse espaço e das lutas em que ele foi objeto demonstra que as razões da preservação desse espaço da natureza na cidade são múltiplas: as ameaças que pesam sobre o sítio evoluem com o tempo, da mesma forma que os argumentos em favor de sua preservação, bem como a natureza das mobilizações. As escalas geográficas e institucionais em jogo evoluíram muito no tempo: o parque concentra hoje fortes valores simbólicos e em termos de quadro de vida, bem como importantes valores fundiários. Ele está, por outro lado, ao mesmo tempo, no coração das políticas de meio-ambiente à escala regional.

  20. Effet de la durée de conservation sur la qualité du pollen en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les présents travaux visent à proposer des voies d'optimisation du rendement de la production de semences par fécondation contrôlée chez le cocotier. Les variétés de cocotier Grand de Comores (GCO) et Nain Jaune de Malaisie (NJM) ont été utilisés à cet effet. Le pollen produit à partir de l'inflorescence est conditionné ...

  1. Antiplasmodial and antipyretic effects of ethanol root extract and fractions of Setaria megaphylla (Steud T. Dur and Schinz (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Akpan Udobang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate various antiplasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities of Setaria megaphylla to authenticate its potential in traditional medicine. Methods: The crude ethanol extract was divided into two portions. Partitioning of one portion into n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions was carried out. The suppressive, prophylactic and curative effects of 150, 300, 450 mg/kg of the remaining extract portion were evaluated, while suppressive and curative activities were evaluated at 300 mg/kg of each of the above mentioned fractions. Artesunate and pyrimethamine at doses of 5 mg/kg and 1.2 mg/kg respectively were the standard drugs. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS was used to perform a qualitative analysis of dichloromethane and n-butanol fractions which had the highest antiplasmodial activity. Antipyretic effect of Setaria megaphylla extract was investigated using the D-amphetamine, 2,4-dinitrophenol and yeastinduced pyrexia models with ASA (100 mg/kg as standard drug. Results: The results on the antiplasmodial and antipyretic activities revealed significant (P < 0.05–0.001 and dose-dependent effects when compared to control. It was observed that the antipyretic activity was quite comparable to the standard drug while the antiplasmodial activity was not. It was also seen that a greater proportion of the components in the fractions subjected to GC-MS were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Conclusions: This research work on S. megaphylla extract and fractions revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents that also accounted for its observed antiplasmodial and antipyretic effects. This result justifies its usage by the Ibibio Tribe in traditional medicine to treat malaria, pains and diverse fevers.

  2. Impact de l'emballage et de la durée de conservation sur la qualité ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English Title: Impact of the packaging and conservation on the quality, nutritional and microbiological of sorghum cookies fortified with moringa and Spirulina. English Abstract. Objective: Changes in the quality of two types of sorghum biscuits enriched with 10% moringa and 4% spirulina were studied in two types of ...

  3. Study of fast electrons from hard-X radiation; Etude des electrons rapides a partir du rayonnement X-dur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.

    1995-12-19

    The goal of this thesis is the study of fast electron dynamics by means of the hard X-ray diagnosis installed in TORE SUPRA and numerical simulations. Fast electrons are generated in the plasma in the presence of the injected lower hybrid (LH) waves. Two aspects are studied in detail: the lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in a periodically perturbed media and 2-D Fokker-Planck modelling of the fast electron dynamics in the presence of the LH power. Ripple effects on lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption are investigated using the ray tracing technique. A cylindrical equilibrium is first studied and a strong modification of the ray dynamics is predicted. Calculations are carried out in a real toroidal geometry corresponding to TORE SUPRA. It is shown that the lack of toroidal axisymmetry of the magnetic field may result in a modification of the ray evolution even if the global ray evolution is governed by the larger poloidal inhomogeneity. Simulation of LH experiments are performed for TORE SUPRA tokamak which has a large magnetic ripple (7% at the plasma edge). By considering ripple perturbation in LH current drive simulations, a better agreement is found with experimental results, in particular with the hard-X spectra and the current density profiles. In the second part of the thesis, a 2-D modeling of the fast electron dynamics in the velocity phase space is considered, based on the 2-D relativistic electron Fokker-Planck equation. Electron distribution functions obtained are used to calculate non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission for different TORE SUPRA shots in a wide range of experimental conditions. (J.S.). 168 refs., 93 figs., 1 tab., 3 appendix.

  4. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f. Cuf.: Role in human nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diriba B Kumssa

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO and M. stenopetala (MS (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND in sub-Saharan Africa.Edible parts of MO (n = 146 and MS (n = 50, co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95 underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, iodine (I, iron (Fe, magnesium (Mg, selenium (Se, and zinc (Zn in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana. In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS.This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form, could reduce the prevalence of MNDs, most notably Se deficiency.

  5. Low Probability Activation of Bax/Bak Can Induce Selective Killing of Cancer Cells by Generating Heterogeneity in Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadip Raychaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic pro-apoptotic agents (e.g., BH3 mimetics have been shown to activate the intrinsic death pathway (Type 2 apoptosis selectively in cancer cells, a mechanism that can be key to developing successful anti-cancer therapy. This work reports mathematical modeling and computer simulations to explore the mechanisms for cancer cell apoptosis. The results indicate that a combination of low probability Bid-Bax type reaction along with overexpressed reactant molecules allows specific killing of cancer cells. Low-probability activation of Bax also emerges as a basis for inherent cell-to-cell variability in apoptotic activation. Variations in Bcl-2 to Bax ratio within a cancer cell population can further affect intrinsic fluctuations generated due to the stochastic Bid-Bax reaction. Such heterogeneity in apoptosis resistance can also provide a mechanism for the origin of cells with higher tumorigenic potential (cancer stem-like cells. The implications of our results for cancer therapy, such as in minimizing stochastic fluctuations in cancer cell death, are discussed.

  6. The International Framework of Information Policies Enformasyon Politikalarına Küresel Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Moore

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of information societies is one of the defining characteristics of the last decade of the twentieth century. Countries all over the world are repositioning themselves to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the information age. They share common objectives although there are significant differences in the motivations underlying the re-positioning and in the mechanisms chosen to implement information society developments. Formal frameworks of policy are being established to steer the development of information societies. There can be few other examples of technological change stimulating formal policy creation in order to bring about social change. This paper surveys the approaches to information policy in various countries all over the world and forecasts future progress with views as to how to ensure that the information society will work for the good of every one. 20. yüzyılın son on yılının belirleyici karakteristiklerinden biri enformasyon toplumlarının ortaya çıkması olmuştur. Dünyanın dört bir yanında ülkeler, enformasyon çağının yarattığı olanaklardan yararlanabilmek için konumlarını gözden geçirmektedirler. Bu ülkelerin hedefleri aynı olmakla birlikte, yönelimlerinin ardındaki motivasyonlar her zaman aynı değildir ve enformasyon toplumu gelişmelerini uygulamaya sokmak için seçtikleri mekanizmalar önemli farklılıklar göstermektedir. Enformasyon toplumuna geçişi harekete geçirmek için resmi politikalar saptanmaktadır. Bunun dışında, teknolojik değişimin, bağlantılı bir toplumsal değişimi sağlamak için resmi politikalar belirlenmesini zorladığı çok ender görülmüştür. Bu bildiride dünyanın çeşitli ülkelerinde enformasyon politikalarına yaklaşımların neler olduğu gözden geçirilmekte, geleceğe yönelik görüşler sunulmakta ve enformasyon toplumunun herkesin yararına gelişmesi için neler yapılması gerektiği konusu işlenmektedir.

  7. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward JM; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise

    2017-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS. Conclusion This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form, could reduce the prevalence of MNDs, most notably Se deficiency. PMID:28388674

  8. Köpeklerde Pyometra ve Tedavi Seçeneklerine Kısa Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZYURTLU, Nihat

    2017-01-01

    Pyometra, dişi köpeklerin komplekspolisistemik bir hastalığıdır. Değişik klinikbulgular ile ilişkilidir. Hem genital hem deekstragenital lezyonlarla ilgili patolojikgöstergeler vardır. Benzer olan diğer terimlerise; pyometra kompleks, pyometritis, kataralendometritis, purulent metritis ve kronik kistikendometritisi içerir. 

  9. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward Jm; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise; Broadley, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS. This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form, could reduce the prevalence of MNDs, most notably Se deficiency.

  10. Korean Innovation Governance under Lee Myung-Bak : A Critical Analysis of Governmental Actors’ New Division of Labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David; Schüller, Margot; Conlé, Marcus; Mahlich, Jörg; Pascha, Werner

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of South Korea’s innovation system is the search for the institutional structure that most suitably supports the country’s ambitious plans to become one of the leading innovation-driven economies. In particular, this involves the search for a state

  11. "Nafta ja veri : Balti energia ja kommunismi pärand" : ÜBAK-i 7. Balti konverents / Karl Altau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Altau, Karl Stephen, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    eelteade Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee korraldusel toimuvast konverentsist Washingtonis 9.-10. veebruarini -teemaks Baltimaade energeetiline julgeolek ja kommunismi pärand, peakõnelejaks Valdas Adamkus. Info: jbanc@jbanc.org või telefon 301-340-1954

  12. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: role in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J.M.; Young, Scott D.; Odee, David W.; Ander, E. Louise; Broadley, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Edible part...

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of solvent fractions of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala Bak. (Moringaceae) in mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrat, Yohannes; Nedi, Teshome; Assefa, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Shibeshi, Workineh

    2017-09-29

    Many people still experience pain and inflammation regardless of the available drugs for treatments. In addition, the available drugs have many side effects, which necessitated a quest for new drugs from several sources in which medicinal plants are the major one. This study evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activity of the solvent fractions of Moringa stenopetala in rodent models of pain and inflammation. Successive soxhlet and maceration were used as methods of extractions using solvents of increasing polarity; chloroform, methanol and water. Swiss albino mice models were used in radiant tail flick latency, acetic acid induced writhing and carrageenan induced paw edema to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The test groups received different doses (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of the three fractions (chloroform, methanol and aqueous). The positive control groups received morphine (20 mg/kg) or aspirin (100 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg) based on the respective models. The negative control groups received the 10 ml/kg of vehicles (distilled water or 2% Tween 80). In all models, the chloroform fraction had protections only at a dose of 400 mg/kg. However, the methanol and aqueous fraction at all doses have shown significant central and peripheral analgesic activities with a comparable result to the standards. The aqueous and methanol fractions significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in a dose dependent manner, in which the highest reduction of inflammation was observed in aqueous fraction at 400 mg/kg. This study provided evidence on the traditionally claimed uses of the plant in pain and inflammatory diseases, and Moringa stenopetala could be potential source for development of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  14. PERBEDAAAN PADAT TEBAR TERHADAP TINGKAT PERTUMBUHAN DAN KELANGSUNGAN HIDUP POST PEURULUS LOBSTER PASIR (Panulirus homarus PADA BAK TERKONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik Cokrowati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Prospek budidaya Panulirus homarus menjanjikan dari segi ekonomi dan keadaan alam di wilayah NTB serta merupakan spesies komoditi ekspor utama di Indonesia.Potensi akuakultur lobster pasir tentunya membutuhkan teknik budidaya yang sesuai agar mendapatkan hasil yang optimal.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan padat tebar terhadap pertumbuhan dan nilai Survival rate (SR serta untuk mengetahui padat tebar yang dapat menghasilkan pertumbuhan dan nilai SR optimum post puerulus Panulirus homarus.Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimental dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan faktor tunggal yaitu padat tebar dengan densitas 20 ekor/m2, 40 ekor/m2, 60 ekor/m2, dan 80 ekor/m2. Parameter yang diamati adalah pertumbuhan spesifik dan kelangsungan hidup (SR post puerulus Panulirus homarus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian perlakuan perbedaan padat tebar berpengaruh (P<0,05 terhadap pertumbuhan spesifik dan kelangsungan hidup (SR post puerulus Panulirus homarus. Nilai SGR dan SR tertinggi terdapat pada kepadatan 20 ekor/m2 sebesar 2,15425% dengan nilai SR 75%, dengan kualitas air sebagai faktor pembatas dengan nilai rata-rata pH 7,2, suhu 26,930 C, salinitas 34,4 ppt dan DO 5,86 mg/l nilai tersebut dalam batas toleransi  sebagai kehidupan biota air khususnya  lobster pasir. Kata kunci : Panulirus homarus, padat tebar, survival rate

  15. Malezya’da Din-Devlet İlişkisine Kısa Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStarting from the second half of the 1960s onwards, socio-religious youth movements, which are regarded as the initial element of civil expressions on university campuses, were constructively influential on the perception of the political elites’ understanding of Islam and political evolution of the Islamisation policies in the process in Malaysia. There are opinions that this effect encompassed the efforts of Islamisation particularly in the 1980s. In this process, the task of the state apparatus, as a political power, which managed the religious domain mostly considered belonging to the civil sector, deserves to be scrutinized in relation with at least some influential factors in the near and distant past of the Muslim Malay community. And, it cannot be overseen that the functions of the traditional Malay rulers, say, Sultans, were transferred, to some or larger extent, to the Federal government after the independence. With regard to this, in this article, the present writer will focus on some aspects of the policies of Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, who has molded majorily the history of modern Malaysia, regarding his Islamisation policy aligned with the state-religion relationship.ÖzetMalezya’da 1960’lı yılların ikinci yarısından itibaren üniversite kampüslerinde başlayan ve sivilleşmenin bir unsuru olarak telâkki edilen dini-toplumsal hareketlerin İslam’ın ülke siyasi elitince algılanmasında ve pratikte İslamlaştırma adıyla anılabilecek politikalara evrilmesinde önemli etkisi olmuştur. Bu etkinin, özellikle 1980’li yıllarda devlet eliyle İslamlaştırma çabalarına yol açtığı konusunda görüşler bulunmaktadır. Bu süreçte, yani devletin siyasi bir güç olarak sivil alana dahil olan dini çekip çevirme işini üstlenmesinde, özellikle Müslüman Malay toplumunun yakın ve uzak geçmişindeki kimi faktörler dikkate alınmayı hak etmektedir. Bu bağlamda, geleneksel Malay devletlerinde Sultanların sahip oldukları işlevlerin bağımsızlık sonrasında Federal yönetime bir tür devri olarak değerlendirilebilecek ilişki göz ardı edilmemelidir. Bu çerçevede, modern Malezya tarihinde bıraktığı izler nedeniyle, din-devlet ilişkisi bağlamında yaşananların odağında yer alan Dr. Mahathir Muhammed’in 22 yıllık iktidarındaki icraatlar kısaca ele alınacaktır.Un bref aperçu de la relation entre la religion et le gouvernement : les politiques de l’islamisation de l’époque de Mahathir Mohamad et ses implicationsRésuméLes mouvements socio-religieux dans les campus universitaires en Malaisie depuis la seconde moitié des années 1960 ont eu une influence considérable à propos de la perception de l’Islam par les élites politiques du pays et du commencement de la réalisation des politiques de l’islamisation. Il existe même des opinions qui défendent l’idée que cette influence était en particulier à la base de l’islamisation du pays par l’Etat dans les années 1980. Pour comprendre le processus de la prise en charge de l’Etat des affaires de la Religion, devenu maintenant une force politique dans la sphère publique, il convient de voir, en particulier, certaines caractéristiques dans les temps passé et présent de la communauté musulmane malaise. Dans ce contexte, il ne faut pas oublier le transfert des fonctions des sultans des états traditionnels malais au Gouvernement fédéral après l’indépendance. Dans cette étude, on va aborder en bref les politiques de l’époque de Dr. Mahathir Muhammed, au pouvoir pendant 22 ans, et qui était au centre des affaires au sujet de la relation entre la religion et l’état de cette période, car cette période a marqué l’histoire du pays.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effect on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the

  17. Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effects on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the

  18. Environ: E00442 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00442 Prunus humilis, Prunus japonica seed Crude drug ... Prunus humilis [TAX:434060], Prunus japon...ica [TAX:97319] ... Rosaceae (rose family) Prunus humilis, Prunus japonica mature seed (dried) ...

  19. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  20. [Comparative analysis of diploid species of Avena l. using cytogenetic and biochemical markers: Avena canariensis baum et fedak and A. longiglumis dur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelukhina, O Iu; Badaeva, E D; Brezhneva, T A; Loskutov, I G; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2008-06-01

    The diploid oat species containing the A genome of two types (Al and Ac) were studied by electrophoresis of grain storage proteins (avenins), chromosome C-banding, and in situ hybridization with probes pTa71 and pTa794. The karyotypes of the studied species displayed similar C-banding patterns but differed in size and morphology of several chromosomes, presumably, resulting from structural rearrangements that took place during the divergence of A genomes from a common ancestor. In situ hybridization demonstrated an identical location of the 45S and 5S rRNA gene loci in Avena canariensis and A. longiglumis similar to that in the A. strigosa genome. However, the 5S rDNA locus in A. longiglumis (5S rDNA1) was considerably decreased in the chromosome 3A1 long arm. The analysis demonstrated that these oat species were similar in the avenin component composition, although individual accessions differed in the electrophoretic mobilities of certain components. A considerable similarity of A. canariensis and A. longiglumis to the Avena diploid species carrying the As genome variant was demonstrated.

  1. Détermination de la durée de vie géochimique du stock de déchets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrodynamic model made it possible to evaluate matter flows starting from the reconstitution of flows to the catchment discharge system. It arises a strong content sulphate of water coming from the dissolution of the pyrite which guides the main geochemical reactions inside the stock of mining waste. The lifetime ...

  2. Contribution à l'étude de la durée d'humectation au sein d'un couvert de pommier

    OpenAIRE

    Leca, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Apples, which are the most cultivated fruit in France, are mainly endangered by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis that cause apple scab disease on apple. This disease can be responsible of major products loss unless orchards are treated against apple scab. Nowadays in France, the phytopathological diseases management policies are encouraging growers to reduce considerably the use of pesticides, while keeping a high quality and yield level. In this context, one must understand better how...

  3. Unexpected Turns: The Aesthetic, the Pathetic and the Adversarial in the Long Durée of Art’s Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Pollock

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a conference organized at the University of Birmingham in 2012, I was invited to reflect upon the current situation in Art History that is posited as being ‘After the New Art History’. What is this after-ness? Succession? Supersession? Replacement? Exhaustion? Erasure? Fashionability? Dare we ask what kind of ‘killing’ of the past or of Oedipal Feminist Mothers and Marxists Fathers is going on here? Or does this indicate simply that we need new directions in our discipline just to keep it alive? There is certainly a feeling around that we are in a period of transition. Former certainties about the tendencies within the discipline of art history have melted. Is this a sign of our condition as Liquid Modernity? There is a risk, however, of casting the recent past as being ‘over’, to be viewed nostalgically, or gratefully cast into the dustbin of has-been histories so that we can get back to business as normal or find new pastures exciting because they are different. Before I acquiesce to such a trend for newness per se, I want to reconsider what is being said to have come before and now is defined as being over. To do so, I shall argue for an understanding of the long-term nature of any one intervention seeking radically to change the ways we study art and the image, past and present. Equally, I suggest that such long-term projects are themselves subject to historical change, shifting in sensitive response to altered conditions and changed priorities, but also registering their own effects and opening new avenues of analysis. Finally this article performs a reading of the call for papers for the conference in order to tease out critical misrepresentations of the past that we are now supposed to come after. Displacing the model of old and new with notions of parallel trajectories and multiple settlements in the expanding, historically shifting but also deeply structured ‘landscape’ of the discipline, I propose as less phallic model of a field with many threads contributing to its complex engagements with art, with visuality, with subjectivity and with their forms of material and symbolic interaction.

  4. Effets de la durée de l'éclairement artificiel sur la croissance végétative du melon (Cucumis melo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Artificial Light Duration on Vegetative Growth of Muskmelon Cucumis melo L. Two varieties of muskmelon, F1.6802 and Super sprint, were lighted, from cotyledon stage, during 30, 50 and 70 days. The artificial light increased total dry matter and organ dry matter (stem, leaf, root, leaves number per plant and leaf area. It also stimulated stem internodes elongation. Best results were obtained with super sprint plants treated during 70 days.

  5. Bose-Einstein correlations between hard photons produced in heavy ions collisions; Correlations Bose-Einstein entre photons durs produits dans les collisions d`ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Moreno, F.M.

    1994-06-01

    Heavy-ion collisions offer the unique possibility to create in the laboratory nuclear matter far from equilibrium. The electromagnetic probe constituted by hard photons and the Bose-Einstein correlations were used to study the properties of such a matter (size, density, temperature...). It is shown how the formalism has evolved from Young experiments to heavy-ion collisions experiments. The experiments performed with the photon multidetector TAPS at Ganil are described. The systems studied are: {sup 86}KR + {sup nat}Ni at 60.0 A.MeV, and {sup 181}Ta + {sup 197}Au at 39.5 A.MeV. Results are presented concerning the production of gamma, pi{sup 0}, e{sup +-} and {gamma}{gamma} correlation. The results are interpreted with the help of static and dynamic calculations describing hard photon production in heavy ion collisions. For the first time in Nuclear Physics, the existence of the Bose-Einstein effect for photons in the range of gamma is demonstrated, and the existence of two different photon sources is postulated, reflecting the density oscillations taking place in the nuclear matter created in heavy-ion collisions. (from author) 55 figs., 22 tabs., 76 refs.

  6. Durée de vie des réseaux d’assainissement, modélisation Service life in sewerage system, simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauberthie R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La modélisation des systèmes physiques peut parfois être rendue difficile par la présence de bruits et perturbations. Lorsqu’il est possible de faire des hypothèses sur les caractéristiques de ces bruits et perturbations, les approches permettant d’inclure un modèle de ces perturbations dans le modèle du processus sont pertinentes et permettent entre autre de reconstruire l’état du processus. Cependant, ces hypothèses sont rarement satisfaites en pratique et, les modèles eux-mêmes sont parfois entachés d’erreurs. Néanmoins, ces grandeurs et paramètres non mesurés sont amenés à fluctuer entre des bornes relativement bien connues. C’est pourquoi il est naturel de se concentrer sur des estimateurs ensemblistes garantis en tout temps, dans un cadre déterministe à erreurs bornées. Ces méthodes relèvent de l’analyse par intervalles, qui est apparue pour la première fois dans l’ouvrage “Interval Analysis”, de R.E. Moore en 1966. Il a été montré que les modèles ensemblistes sont bien adaptés pour la détection d’aléas ou de défauts de processus et la formulation de diagnostics pertinents quant à l’amélioration du déroulement de processus. Après une présentation des modèles les plus courants, une analyse de l’endommagement des ouvrages d’assainissement de la ville de Rennes est entreprise. Ces ouvrages représentent le réseau unitaire et le réseau des eaux usées du système séparatif et sont constitués de matériaux à base cimentaire, armés ou non. L’endommagement est traduit par l’intermédiaire de différents indicateurs des propriétés des matériaux prélevés dans la ville. A ce jour, nous disposons d’une centaine de prélèvements effectués dans différentes rues et caractérisés par des dates de pose comprise entre 1892 à nos jours. Ainsi, dans ce travail, partant d’un modèle ensembliste du comportement des différents tronçons de canalisation des eaux usées, nous utilisons les techniques les plus récentes d’estimation ensembliste afin de diagnostiquer ces éléments. Une attention particulière est portée sur l’estimation du niveau de corrosion permettant d’envisager la programmation d’une réfection totale ou partielle. Building models of physical systems turns out to be an awkward task by the presence of noise and disturbance. It is not always possible to get information about disturbances and noises acting on the system. This may turn the usual stochastic framework inappropriate. In such cases, assuming bounded uncertainties may be a solution. An interesting way to go is then to use guaranteed estimation methods, which learn the state and/or parameters of the models from data. The set-membership models are well suited for fault detection and for making relevant diagnoses to improve the process evolution. A damage analysis of sewerage structures in Rennes (France is undertaken. These systems (unit network rainwater and wastewater or separate system consist of cement-based materials. The damage is quantified through various indicators of material properties (material extracted in the city. One hundred samples characterized by different streets and laying dates between 1892 and our days are analyzed. Thus, in this work, starting from a set-membership model of the behaviour of different sections of pipe wastewater, we use recent techniques of set-membership estimation to model and diagnose the system. A particular attention is paid to estimating the corrosion level for considering the full or partial rehabilitation.

  7. Diversidad cultural, género y derecho (Valencia, Tirant lo Blanch, 2014) de Laurenzo Copello, Patricia y Rafael Durán Muñoz (coords.)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lirola, María

    2014-01-01

    El libro Diversidad cultural, género y derecho recoge los resultados del proyecto de investigación Multiculturalidad, Género y Derecho (DER 2009-08297), financiado por el Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad del Gobierno de España. En dicho libro participan especialistas de primera fila de nuestro país con el fin de establecer relaciones entre la diversidad cultural y los conflictos que ésta lleva consigo en la sociedad española actual, el género como variable fundamental a la hora de estu...

  8. High temperature mechanical behaviour of various cermets and hard metals; Comportement mecanique a haute temperature du metal dur et de differents cermets de coupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viatte, T. [Stellram SA, Nyon (Switzerland); Bolognini, S.; Feusier, G.; Benoit, W. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cutard, T. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 81 - Albi (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the course of development of new cemented carbides, the possibility to join the high toughness properties of WC-Co with the high resistance to plastic deformation of Ti(C,N)-Mo{sub 2}C-Ni cermets remains an important research axis. This paper presents some results of an ongoing project, between Stellram SA-Nyon (Switzerland) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (Switzerland), which is directly inscribed in the field. The aim is to study the effects of several compositional parameters on the microstructure and on the high temperature mechanical behaviour of Ti(C,N)-Mo{sub 2}C-(Ni,Co) cermets and of WC-Co. Microstructures are characterized by conventional and analytical TEM observations and by complementary SEM analysis. The high temperature mechanical behaviour is investigated both by internal friction measurements and by macroscopic three point bend tests. (authors) 16 refs.

  9. Effets de la vitesse et de la durée du remplissage du grain ainsi que de l'accumulation des assimilats de la tige dans l'élaboration du rendement du blé dur (Triticum durum Desf. dans les conditions de culture des hautesplaines orientales d'Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmahammed A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of speed and the duration of grain filling and the accumulation of the assimilates of the stem in developing the durum wheat yield (Triticum durum Desf. in the culture conditions of the high plains of eastern Algeria. The present study was led on the experimental site of station ITGC in Setif. The objective is to determine the differences of duration and speed of filling and the contribution of the assimilates of the stems to the yield of 5 durum wheat genotypes (Triticum durum Desf.. The year effect is significant, what explains the fluctuation of the conditions of one growth year to another. The grain yield is associated to the great quantity of assimilates stored and transferred from the stems to the grain filling. The Mbb genotype which has an important stem height transfers more assimilates. The genotypes ADS497 and Deraa present large standard leaves. The beginning of the active phase of the grain filling corresponds to the beginning of the foliar senescence. Mbb presents a slower foliar drying rate, the speed of drying stationary recorded by ADS497 is of -0.5957 cm2 per day. The speed of grain filling is negatively related to the duration of filling. The participation of the assimilates coming from the stem decreases when the environment allows the expression of a better grain yield.

  10. Kriz Kuramına Nevi Şahsına Münhasır Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    Perelman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    mĕƺŶİƺ ƐĞĕĞŶĞŬ͕ ĚĞŒĞƌŝŶ ƚĞƐƉŝƟŶĞ LJƂŶĞůŝŬ ŝŬƟƐĂĚŝ LJĂŬůĂƔŦŵĚŦƌ͘ Ƶ LJƂŶƚĞŵ ŚĞŵ ŬƵƌĂŵƐĂů ŽůĂƌĂŬ ĞŶ ĞŬƐŝŬƐŝnj ŽůĂŶŦ ŚĞŵ ĚĞ ĞŶ ŬĂLJƉĂŬ ŽůĂŶŦĚŦƌ͘ 7ŬƟƐĂƚ ŬƵƌĂŵŦŶĂ ŐƂƌĞ͕ LJĂƨƌŦŵİŦ ƐĞƌŵĂLJĞLJĞ ŐĞůĞİĞŬƚĞŬŝ ŬąƌůŦůŦŒŦŶĂ ŐƂƌĞ ĚĞŒĞƌ ďŝĕĞƌ͘ EĞ LJĂnjŦŬ Ŭŝ ŐĞůĞİĞŬ ďŝůŝŶŵĞnjůŝŬůĞƌ ŝĕĞƌŝƌ͘ Ƶ LJƺnjĚĞŶ ŝƔůĞƚŵĞůĞƌ ĕŽŒƵŶůƵŬůĂ͕ ďŝůŚĂƐƐĂ ĚĂ ĞŬŽŶŽŵŝŶŝŶ Őƺĕůƺ ŐƂƌƺŶĚƺŒƺ ĚƂŶĞŵůĞƌĚĞ͕ ŐĞůĞİĞŬƚĞŬŝ ŬąƌůŦůŦŒĂ ŝůŝƔŬŝŶ ĂůĂďŝůĚŝŒŝŶĞ ŚĂƚĂůŦ ŝnjůĞŶŝŵůĞƌĚĞŶ ŚĂƌĞŬĞƚ ĞĚĞƌůĞƌ͘ ƂLJůĞ njĂŵĂŶůĂƌĚĂ ďƺLJƺŬ ŬąƌůĂƌŦŶ İĂnjŝďĞƐŝ LJĂƨƌŦŵİŦůĂƌŦ ĕŽŬ ŚŦnjůŦ ŬĂ...

  11. Politik Pazarlama Karmasına Kavramsal Ve Güncel Bir Bakış (An Updated and Conceptual Aspect to the Political Marketing Mix)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kadri Gökhan YILMAZ

    2016-01-01

    The decision making process of voters within the context of the political marketing has been undergoing a transformation and development process as parallel to the gradual changes on the core of marketing...

  12. Muhasebe Meslek Mensuplarının Meslek Etiği Eğitimine Bakışı: Bilecik Uygulaması

    OpenAIRE

    EROL FİDAN, Meral; Özer, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Türkiye Serbest Muhasebeci Mali Müşavirler ve Yeminli Mali Müşavirler Odaları Birliği tarafından “Muhasebe Meslek Mensuplarının Etik Eğitimi ve Etik Sözleşme Yapılması Hakkında Tebliğ” yayınlanmıştır. Tebliğ sonrasında muhasebe meslek mensuplarının eğitimleri 2015 yılında meslek odaları aracılığı ile başlatılmıştır. Tebliğ’in amacı etik öğrenme yönünde isteklilik yaratarak, etik eğitimi ve etik davranış gelişimini sağlamak üzere, muhasebe meslek mensupları ile bunların bağlı oldukları meslek ...

  13. Vergi Uyumunu Belirleyen Faktörlere Genel Bir Bakış(An Overview of The Factors Determining Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan YURDADOĞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to collect taxes is one of the independence indicators of the states. Given the history of the world, there seems to be no state that did not collect taxes from citizens. Topics such as voluntary tax compliance and tax evasion are dated back to the taxation itself. They have constituted an important research area since the early days of tax collection practices. Today, there ise a search for answers in the relevant literature to the following questions; “Why do people pay taxes?” or “Why are people reluctant to pay taxes?”. There is a variety of factors affecting tax compliance that incorporates a range of dimensions including interalia economic, socio-psychological, political, ethical, administrative and legal. Due to the growing need for the establishment of a sustainable public finance system across the world, there is an intensive research agenda on tax compliance. Overall, the purpose of this study is to discuss the factors that affect and determine tax compliance.

  14. Yoğun bakım ünitelerinde güncel fizyoterapi yaklaşımları

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdalan, S. Ufuk

    2011-01-01

    Physiotherapy is a part of the multidisciplinary treatment in different intensive care units. Respiratory, cardiovascular and neuromusculoskeletal- focused physiotherapy programmes and prevention of the respiratory, neuromuscular complications which may be possible, developing the exercise capacity related to inspiratory muscle function in critically patients internalized and postoperative cases in intensive care unit are clinical targets. It is known that physiotherapy initiated early is rel...

  15. Savaşın torunları: Travmatik belleğe kuşaklar ötesi bir bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Topdemir Koçyiğit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires into the relationships between transnational identity and war trauma from the perspective of the grandchildren with transnational identities. I will try to search how the war trauma experienced by German families participated in WWII played a role in identity formation and drifts of tendencies of their next generations. The paper is based on interviews done in Turkey in year 2015 on 45 individuals having mothers of German and fathers of Turkish origin. Survey also shows that German families try to hide their war memories containing experiences of Nazisism from their grandchildren. With an ultimate goal to come out strong form an era marked by war trauma, worth noting are the major changes inflicted by the family elders in forms of commuciations, in understandings of social status and class, possessions, inheritance and ownership patterns.The war generation which survive the war brings up the next generation according to these changes. Current generation perceives their elders’ stock of experiences as a legacy to be followed for their personal maturation. This paper argues that a war that actually might have ended 70 years ago will still cover a vast space in shared memory and still has an important role in constituting identities and habituses throughout new generations.

  16. Osmanlı Devleti'nde Kilise ve Havra Politikasına Yeni Bir Bakış: Çanakkale Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aşkın Koyuncu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new churches and synagogues was not allowed in the Ottoman Empire in accordance with the Sharia law up until the proclamation of the Reform Edict of 1856. The repair or reconstruction of existing temples in accordance with their original forms was bound only to the approval of the Sultan himself. Besides, enlargement or alteration of buildings or any parts thereof during repairs was strictly forbidden. Any violation of this rule led to the demolition of the altered or enlarged parts. There are indeed large number examples of such cases. Against these strict rules, there are many surviving new churches and synagogues which have been constructed in the cities founded during the Ottoman period, or in the cities captured or surrendered during the expansion period. In addition, numerous new churches and even monasteries were built in the villages or rural areas in the 16th-18th centuries, especially in the Balkans. The main question is how they were built and were escaped from destruction. There are no examples of the granting of official permission for the construction of these buildings by the Sultans, yet it can be observed that these new churches and synagogues have acquired legitimacy in time. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Greek and Armenian churches as well as a Jewish synagogue appeared in Çanakkale as well. Besides, an unauthorized Catholic church was built in the city in the year 1852. In this article, after looking through the official Ottoman policy concerning the repairing or (reconstruction of churches and synagogues and its examples in practice, we will study the process of the emergence of Greek, Armenian, Jewish and Catholic temples in Çanakkale. We will also evaluate the Ottoman Empire’s policies about churches and synagogues in Çanakkale before and after the proclamation of the Reform Edict of 1856.

  17. Başlangıcından Karmca'ya Kadar Türk Basın Tarihine Kısa Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Duman

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Her meslek sahibi, her yurttaş için okumak, araştırmak, birkaç süreli yayını izlemek gereği vardır. Süreli yayınlardaki bilgilerin güncelliği kadar izleyenlerin dinamikliği, çevresinde kanaat lideri olmaları da kayda değer. Türkiye'ye matbaanın girişinden 1928 Harf İnkılâbına kadar yayımlanan süreli yayınların tam bir listesi yoktur. İlk kez irdeleyici bir girişim ile İstanbul'un 10 büyük kütüphanesinde yapılan çalışma sonucu 1804 bibliyografik künyedeki süreli yayınların durumu ve hangi kütüphanelerde ne ölçüde mevcut oldukları "Toplu Katalog"da gösterilmiştir. 1831’de yayımlanan ilk gazetemiz "Takvim-i Vakayi" değil, ondan 3 yıl önce 1828'de Kahire'de çıkan Arapça-Türkçe "Vakayı'-ı Mısriyye'dir. Ele alınan süreli yayınların, Arap harfli Türkçe, Arapça, Farsça, Urdu dili v.b. olabildiği gibi bu dillerden biri ya da ikisi birlikte 2-3 dilde olduğu, hatta başka alfabe ve dillerde de yayımlandıkları görülmüştür. Coğrafi alan olarak 4 kıtada; pulculuk, moda ve müzikten bilim, edebiyat, sanat ve sosyolojiye kadar çok konuda yayımlanmışlardır. Araştırıcılar ve yazarlar, Arap harfli süreli yayınlarımızdan kaynak olarak yeterince yararlanmamışlardır. Yakın tarihimiz tozlu raflar arasında kalmamalıdır. Bunlar sürekli yıpranmaktadırlar, fiziksel durumları da iyi değildir. Süratle mikroform ortamına aktarılmaları, tüm dünyanın yararlanmasına sunulmaları zorunluluğu vardır.

  18. Pengelolaan Sanitasi Toilet Umum Dan Analisa Kandungan Candida Albicans Pada Air Bak Toilet Umum Di Beberapa Pasar Tradisional Kota Medan Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Hendlyana, Yeni; Naria, Evi; Hasan, Wirsal

    2013-01-01

    Sanitation management of public toilet and analysis the content of Candida albicans in the tub water of public toilet in some traditional market of Medan city in 2012. Many merchant and visitors influence the need for public toilets. public toilets in Indonesia is inadequate, especially sanitation of public toilet is still far from expected. The bacteria most commonly found in all places in the toilet is a bacteria that normally exist in human skin. Poor sanitation in the toilet will facilita...

  19. Müzik öğretim  yöntemlerinden,orff müzik öğretisine genel bir bakış

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEVİK, D. Beste

    2007-01-01

    Eğitim insanları, toplumları yönlendirmede, yetiştirmede büyük rol oynamaktadır. Eğitim bir süreçtir. Eğitimcinin görevi, öğrencinin özelliklerine göre uygun öğretme stratejilerini geliştirebilmektir. Eğitim her alanda olduğu gibi, müzik alanında da gerçekleşmektedir. Birey müziksel davranışları müzik eğitimi ile kazanır. Eğitim teriminin tanımlanmasından yola çıkılarak Müzik Eğitimi, ‘Bireylere kendi yaşantısı yoluyla amaçlı ve yöntemli olarak belirli müziksel davranışları kazandırma veya bi...

  20. Hamilelikte insan kapitalinin sürdürülebilirliği: Ergonomik bir bakış açısı

    OpenAIRE

    HABLEMİTOĞLU, Şengül; ÖZMETE, Emine; Yildirim, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    Bu çalışma hamilelik döneminde (i)çalışma ortamındaki ergonomik risk faktörleri ve insan kapitali etkileşimini, (ii) çalışan kadınların insan kapitalinin sürdürülebilirliğini engelleyen ergonomik risk faktörlerini ve (iii) bu risk faktörlerini ortadan kaldırma ya da azaltmada gerekli olan makro ve mikro düzeydeki düzenlemeleri ortaya koymaktadır. Hamilelik döneminde kadınların çalışma yaşamında maruz kaldıkları ergonomik risk faktörlerinin göz ardı edilmesi, çoğu zaman kadına karşı gizli ve g...

  1. Çanakkale Savaşlarına Sualtından Bir Bakış A Look From Underwater to The Çanakkale Warfares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Barış ÖZALP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Çanakkale Naval Warfares can basically be defined as a historic moment that tells of the campaign for liberation of its country and the state of defence of a nation’s capital. The importance of all battles taken place in Çanakkale surely are not ignored in winning the war, but the attacks occured around the coastal waters of Çanakkale Strait and Gallipoli Peninsula and sinking of the opposer’s ships and submarines can be evaluated as a significant information which is a proof that the strait can not be surpassed. If the enemy naval forces could not kept down and as a result of this, their willing to arrive at østanbul had come true, the success in Gallipoli campaign was not able to obtain. That can be stated that all arrangements planned by the Entente Powers on succeeding in war are primarily about the passing the Çanakkale Strait. Since the enemy forces and submarines have been stopped with severe damage or sunk, there have achieved success in naval battles and it was accepted by all the enemy forces that the strait was impassable. In this success, the powerfull emplacements deployed on both sides of the strait and our submarines and besides the mines laid by the Minelayer Nusret had a great effect. In Naval Warfares, many battleships and submarines owned by Entente Powers were sunk in the Çanakkale Strait and not allowed to drive into the sea of Marmara. Thus, all the plans of Entente Powers aim for conquering østanbul were interrupted and their will on winning in naval battle has been obstructed.

  2. Environ: E00442 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Prunus japonica [TAX:97319] Rosaceae (rose family) Prunus humilis, Prunus japonica mature seed (dried) Crud...e drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) E00442 Prunus humilis, Prunus japonica seed ...

  3. De la conspiración austracista a la integración a la Nueva Planta : la familia Durán, máximo exponente de la burguesía mercantil en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma García Fuertes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La Guerra de Sucesión constituye uno de los episodios que más han marcado la historia de Cataluña. Sin embargo, este interés aún no ha desvelado todos los interrogantes que suscita el giro dinástico de Cataluña en el año 1705. Entre los muchos puntos oscuros, es preciso avanzar en un mejor conocimiento de las causas que llevaron a los diferentes grupos de la sociedad catalana a su posición política. Así surgió la idea de un estudio monográfico sobre la familia Duran, la dinastía más importante de hombres de negocios de la Barcelona del siglo xviii, no sólo por su posición austracista en la guerra de Sucesión, lo que les acarreó la confiscación de bienes por la autoridad felipista, sino por la rápida integración de la nueva coyuntura generada por los Borbones. En efecto, el camalecnismo político de esta familia perteneciente a la burguesía mercantil, por otro lado nada excepcional, puede resultar ilustrativo para entender la posición de importantes sectores de la sociedad catalana durante la Guerra de Sucesión.The War of Succession is one of the events that most deeply marked the history of Catalonia. However, this interest has not yet revealed all the questions concerning the dinastic shift of Catalonia in 1705. Among other oscure aspects, it is necessary to reach a better knowledge about the reasons that led the different groups of Catalan society to their political position. In this context, the idea arouse to study the Duran familly, the most important dinasty of businessmen in eighteenthcentury Catalonia, not only by his Austracist position in the War of Succession —what brought them the confiscation of all their properties by Philip V's authorities—, but also by their quick integration in the new situation created by the Bourbon Monarchy. In fact, the chamaleon-like political behaviour of this merchant family —otherwise not unusual— can illustrate the political position of important groups of Catalan society during the War of Sucession.

  4. Lutte contre la pauvreté et capacité d’action des femmes dans la longue durée : une discussion autour du concept d’encastrement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bähr Caballero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir des années 1990, une nouvelle version du discours dominant sur le développement fait état de la nécessité de réguler certains aspects du marché et de créer des institutions pour soulager l’impact social de la mise en opération de l’économie de marché. Cette évolution pourrait être interprétée comme un scénario d’inclusion et de ré-encastrement de l’économie, dans la mesure où la construction des activités économiques reconnaît désormais l’existence de conditions sociales et institutionnelles comme étant nécessaires à son fonctionnement. Sommes-nous devant un contre-mouvement visant à contrôler l’expansion du modèle néo-libéral et à ré-encastrer l’économie dans le social ? Dans cet article, nous proposons d’explorer les notions d’encastrement-étayage et d’encastrement-insertion, afin d’éclairer le débat sur le " retour de l’État " et ce, dans le cadre d’une étude de cas sur les femmes paysannes comme actrices du développement au Honduras.From the 90’s on, a new version of the dominant discourse on development mentions the need to regulate certain aspects of the market and to create institutions to alleviate the social impacts of the market economy. This evolution could be interpreted as a scenario for inclusion and reembedding the economy, inasmuch as the construction of economic activities now recognizes the existence of social and institutional conditions as essential to its functioning. Are we in the presence of a counter-movement aiming at controlling the expansion of the neo-liberal model and reembedding the economy in the social? In this article, we propose to explore the notions of embeddedness in its various views (amongst which insertion, in order to contribute to the debate on the « return of the State », in the context of a study on women of Honduras as actors of development.

  5. Variabilité climatique et analyse de séries pluviométriques de longue durée en Afrique de l'Ouest et centrale non sahélienne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Servat, Éric; Lubès-Niel, Hélène; Delattre, Marie-Odile

    1997-11-01

    Annual rainfall time series registered over a long duration for a set of stations all over non-Sahelian Western and Central Africa have allowed the study of spatial and temporal rainfall evolution in this region. The results underline the existence of alternating dry and wet periods since the beginning of the 20th century. However, the current drought has no equivalent neither regarding duration nor intensity, all over the studied period.

  6. Nivel de conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos y su relación con embarazos en adolescentes SCS Recreo-Durán propuesta educativa enero - diciembre 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Dávila, Carmen Alicia

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio se lo realizó para determinar el nivel de conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos y su relación con embarazos en adolescentes, para que tanto personal de salud y educadores unan esfuerzos orientados a la prevención primaria para evitar que las adolescentes se embaracen de forma no planificada. Por la importancia de esta problemática, el presente es un estudio descriptivo ? correlacional ? prospectivo no experimental realizado en 120 pacientes adolescentes embar...

  7. Hard processes and fragmentation in a unified model for interactions at ultra-relativistic energies; Les processus durs et la fragmentation dans un modele unifie pour les interactions aux energies ultra-relativistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J

    1999-06-11

    In this work we have developed hard processes and string fragmentation in the framework of interactions at relativistic energies. The hypothesis of the universality of high energy interactions means that many elements of heavy ion collisions can be studied and simulated in simpler nuclear reactions. In particular this hypothesis implies that the fragmentation observed in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} follows the same rules as in the collision of 2 lead ions. This work deals with 2 nuclear processes: the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation reaction and the deep inelastic diffusion. For the first process the string model has been developed to simulate fragmentation by adding an artificial breaking of string due to relativistic effects. A monte-Carlo method has been used to determine the points in a Minkowski space where this breaking occurs. For the second reaction, the theory of semi-hard pomerons is introduced in order to define elementary hadron-hadron interactions. The model of fragmentation proposed in this work can be applied to more complicated reactions such as proton-proton or ion-ion collisions.

  8. Notes dur l'apparition et l'emploi du comparatif (enfants de 2 a 7 ans) (Notes on the Acquisition and Use of the Comparative [Children Ages 2-7])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentin, Laurence

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a study to determine the origin, development, and use of the comparative in children ages 2-7. The role of adult-child interaction in acquisition is discussed. Tabulated results show that the comparative is used infrequently by young children. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  9. Diversité agro-morphologique et gestion variétale par les agriculteurs du blé dur (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum dans le Pré-Rif marocain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lamyae CHENTOUFI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is a strategic crop in Morocco. Characterization and evaluation of cultivated varieties in different traditional agroecosystems allows safeguard and rehabilitation of this genetic heritage and its use in breeding programs. In this context, a collection of 59 traditional populations of durum wheat from the Pre-Rif region was studied using nine agro-morphological traits. Phenotypic diversity was determined by the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H’ at different levels (totality of sample, by type of wheat and varietal names. Estimated H’ showed a wide genetic variability for different traits with a mean of H’=0.78. The results of the multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering showed a clear distinction between modern and traditional varieties. In traditional varieties, agro-morphological traits do not differentiate between varieties. The results of this work revealed the great phenotypic and nominative diversity of durum wheat varieties as well as the existence of homonyms and synonyms in the names given by farmers.

  10. Experimental Assessment of Battery Cycle Life Within the SIMSTOCK Research Program Évaluation expérimentale de la durée de vie de la batterie dans le programme de recherche SIMSTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyan P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The steadiness over time, of on-board Energy Storage Systems (ESS performances is a major issue fora successful and massive diffusion of electrified, hybrid and electric vehicles. Capacity fade and internal resistance increase due to ageing will directly affect vehicle range and performances. Therefore, ESS ageing forecasting remains an important area of investigations. Reaching this goal involves fundamental research on materials, experimentation, simulation and design by the end users. This paper describes the main results of a 3.5-year, 4.2 M€ collaborative research program on battery ageing, SIMSTOCK, which was finished in fall 2011. This program has involved 15 partners among which, research labs, ESS manufacturers, automotive components suppliers and vehicle manufacturers, with the support of the French agency ADEME. This paper will then focus mainly on modeling and simulation of a lithium-ion high power cell tested within the program. First, it describes the development of a numerical equivalent electrical circuit model of battery, associated with a calibration tool and its experimental validation. Secondly, it describes the construction of a Design of Experiments (DOE, its use and validation, for defining mathematical expressions, representing the battery model parameters evolutions, as a function of battery ageing. Thirdly, the paper details a mathematical method created with the aim to take into account the cycling and the calendar effects on battery characteristics during the experiment on tests benches. Finally, the battery model is integrated in a full hybrid vehicle model, on Imagine Lab AMESim simulation platform, to determine, with realistic driving conditions, the impact of battery ageing on the vehicle performance and fuel consumption. La stabilité dans le temps des performances des systèmes embarqués de stockage d’énergie (Energy Storage Systems, ESS est un enjeu majeur pour une diffusion massive et le succès des véhicules électrifiés, hybrides et électriques. L’affaiblissement de la capacité et l’augmentation de la résistance interne due au vieillissement affecteront directement l’autonomie du véhicule et ses performances. Par conséquent, la prévision du vieillissement des ESS reste un domaine important de recherche. Atteindre cet objectif implique des recherches fondamentales sur les matériaux, l’expérimentation, la simulation et la conception. Ce papier décrit les principaux résultats du programme de recherche collaboratif SIMSTOCK qui s’est déroulé pendant 3,5 années avec un budget de 4,2 M € et qui s’est terminé à l’automne 2011. Ce programme a impliqué 15 partenaires parmi lesquels, des laboratoires de recherche, des fabricants d’ESS, des fournisseurs de composants de véhicules et des constructeurs automobiles et il a bénéficié du soutien de l’ADEME. Cet article se concentre principalement sur la modélisation et la simulation d’une cellule lithium-ion haute puissance testée dans ce programme. En premier lieu, est décrit l’élaboration d’un modèle numérique de circuit électrique équivalent de la batterie, associé à un outil de calibration et à sa validation expérimentale. En second, sont présentées la construction d’un plan d’expériences, son utilisation et sa validation, pour la définition des expressions mathématiques représentant les évolutions des paramètres du modèle de batterie en fonction du vieillissement de la batterie. Ensuite le papier détaille la méthode mathématique créée dans le but de prendre en compte le cycle et les effets calendaires sur les caractéristiques de la batterie lors des expériences sur bancs. Enfin, le modèle de batterie est intégré dans un modèle complet du véhicule hybride dans la plateforme de simulation Imagine Lab AMESim, afin de déterminer, avec des conditions de conduite réalistes, l’impact du vieillissement de la batterie sur la performance du véhicule et la consommation de carburant.

  11. Relation between hard photon production and impact parameter in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies; Dependance de la production de photons durs avec le parametre d`impact dans les collisions entre ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Garcia, G.

    1994-06-01

    Hard photons produced in heavy-ions collisions at intermediate energies have been used in order to study hot and compresses nuclear matter created in these collisions (at Ganil). It was found that Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in np collisions is the main mechanism of hard-photon production for the whole range of impact parameter. Moreover, it was observed a substantial decrease of the hardness of hard-photon spectrum. The BUU model reproduces very well the experimental results, showing that the hardness of the spectrum reflects, mainly, nuclear-matter compression in the first stage of the collision. A new method was developed to measure the density of the nuclear matter created at the beginning of the collision. BUU results and some experimental evidences point out that a significant contribution of hard photons are produced in the last stage of the collision: thermal hard photons. These photons are sensitive to the density oscillation of nuclear matter. Its production cross-section will constitute a measurement of the compressibility of nuclear matter and its spectrum a measure of the temperature. (from author) 64 figs., 60 refs.

  12. Análise ergonómica da actividade, formação e transformação do trabalho: opções para um desenvolvimento durável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Lacomblez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is framed by a long lasting tradition of studies that, since the last third of the twentieth century, have been enhancing the contribution of ergonomic work analysis for professional training, particularly when continuous training is at stake. The main perspectives assumed in these approaches are defined: the training of preventionists for ergonomic work analysis; work analysis as a means for professional training; and a third way that aims to embrace the two former perspectives in projects that comprise of training and work situation transformation. Highlighted in this analysis is the importance given to the consideration of the acquired experience gained throughout a professional course as well as the valorisation of this experience in the scope of projects of transformation of productive processes. In this framework the theme of durable development emerges, despite being dressed up in various meanings that will be characterized in a differential manner.

  13. Caractérisation du seuil de dommage dans les cristaux de saphir dopé au titane avec des impulsions de durée nanoseconde, picoseconde et femtoseconde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, F.; Chambaret, J.-P.; Mourou, G.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Delaporte, P.

    2006-12-01

    Le verrou principal pour le développement des systèmes femtoseconde robustes et rentables est l'incertitude du seuil de dommages du cristal de Ti: Saphir. Nous avons d'abord caractérisé le seuil diélectrique de dommages du Ti : Saphir.

  14. Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system; Etude tribologique de revetements durs sans cobalt destines aux organes d`isolement du circuit primaire des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachon, L.

    1995-10-18

    The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ``Stellites`` coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 {mu}m monolayers of Cr/C{sub x} with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C{sub 1.6} at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 {mu}m of cermets NiCr{sub y} (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 {mu}m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.).

  15. El nacimiento del miedo, 1692. Indios y españoles en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalbo Aizpuru, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the year 1692 there was a shortage of cereals and the became too expensive. On Sunday; June the eighth; the corn was finished and the functionaries responsible of the distribution beat the Indian women that protested. Very soon a lot of people congregated and started a riot. The viceroyal palace and the «cabildo» houses were burned and many shops plundered. The repression was very hard; specially against the Indian people; but the Indians weren’t the only ones involved. Blacks and mestee population were the «plebe»; the populace of the city; offended by the injustices of the government and the humiliations of the proud rich Spaniards. The Spanish population started feeling fear of their neighbors; not only Indians but poor people.

    En 1692 hubo escasez y carestía de cereales en la ciudad de México. Un domingo del mes de junio se acabó el maíz en la alhóndiga y los encargados de repartirlo golpearon a las indias que protestaban. Muy pronto llegó mucha gente y se inició un alboroto que duró varias horas y durante el cual se incendiaron el palacio de los virreyes y las casas del cabildo; muchas tiendas fueron saqueadas. La represión fue muy dura y se dirigió contra los indios; pero no fueron sólo indios los que participaron en el motín, sino la «plebe» de la ciudad, mezcla de todos los grupos resentidos por las injusticias del gobierno y las humillaciones de los ricos españoles. La población española comenzó a sentir miedo de sus vecinos, que ya no se identificaban con los indios.

  16. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46012, Lat: 00.18994 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.81m; Data Range: 20080210-20100130.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  17. Mükellef Haklarına Vergi İdaresi Çalışanlarının Bakışı(The Tax Administration Employees Perspective Regarding the Taxpayers Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş ÇETİN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts to protect individuals in the field of law all over the world bring tax payers’ rights foreground because of the growing importance of human rights. The concept of taxpayer rights which provides to look at tax management in terms of taxpayer is defined as rights recognized by the laws in order to provide adaption of taxpayers to tax. Taxpayers’ rights is a new trend which has already appeared recent years in the world. Taxpayers’ rights is an important issue in the globalizing world to increase the efficacy of the tax administrations. In this study, we analyzed the taxpayer’s rights concept in theoretical circumstances. In addition, opinions of the administrators, who deal with the taxpayers, on the taxpayers’ rights were investigated.

  18. Teaching Motivation of ELT Instructors through Goal Orientation Perspective/Amaca Yönelim Bakış Açısı ile İngilizce Okutmanlarının Öğretme Motivasyonları

    OpenAIRE

    Demiröz, Hakan; Yeşilyurt, Savaş

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACTStudies researching second/foreign language (L2) motivation have mainly focused on the students' motivation to learn. They yielded interesting results which should be considered in the process of teaching. However, studies limited in number have attempted to shed light on teachers' motivation to teach which is very crucial in the process of learning. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the goal orientations of in-service English instructors at various Turkish universi...

  19. Lise Öğrencilerinin Siber-Zorbalığa İlişkin Görüşlerinin Bazı Değişkenler Bakımından İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Murat; Akar, Filiz

    2011-01-01

    Background. The debate on peer bullying among students is increasing rapidly in the last decades (Barrio & at al., 2008; Catherine & at al., 2007; Kartal & Bilgin, 2009; Kepeneckçi & Çınkır, 2006; Perren & Hornung, 2005). In fact, studies show that almost 15% of the students were bullied in schools (Olweus, 1994; Nansel & at al., 2001). Studies also found a strong relationship between bullying and psychological problems i...

  20. Çukurova Üniversitesi Yerleşkesi Açık Alanlarının Fiziksel Engelliler Bakımından Ulaşılabilirliğinin Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Sirel, Berrin; Duymuş, Halil; Boyacıgil, Onur; Konaklı, Nurgül; Altunkasa, Faruk; USLU**, Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Çalışmada fiziksel engelli bireyler açısından Çukurova Üniversitesi yerleşkesi açık alanlarında ulaşılabilirlik kavramı konu edilmiş ve bu alanların belirlenen ölçütler üzerinden kullanılabilirliği değerlendirilmiştir. Bu kapsamda yerleşkeyi temsil ettiği düşünülen beş örnek alan belirlenmiştir. Kültür Merkezi-Güzel Sanatlar Fakültesi Aksı, Mithat Özsan Bulvarı Aksı, TARGET Kafeterya-Merkezi Kafeterya Aksı, Kütüphane ve Merkezi Derslikler Çevresi ile Tören Alanı ve Çevresi engelliler için bel...

  1. Açık Ders Malzemelerine Genel Bakış: Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Örneği=An Overview to Open Courseware: An Example of the Turkish Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Al

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada açık ders malzemeleri konusu genel olarak ele alınmakta, Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi’nin açık ders malzemeleri platformu incelenmektedir. Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi açık ders malzemeleri platformu kapsamında 22 ayrı kategoride 81 adet ders bulunmaktadır. Çalışmamızda Google Analytics aracılığıyla bu derslere ait kullanım verileri analiz edilmektedir. Makale kapsamında Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi açık ders malzemeleri platformuna ilişkin kullanım verilerinin Google Analytics’den elde edildiği ilk tarih olan 15 Ocak 2011 ile 15 Ocak 2013 arasındaki iki yıllık döneme ait veriler incelenmektedir. Buna göre araştırmamıza konu olan iki yıllık süre zarfında siteyi 315.830 kişinin ziyaret ettiği ve bu kişilerin toplamda 445.982 ziyaret gerçekleştirdiği saptanmıştır. Sitenin içeriğinin gelişmesi ve daha yaygın şekilde tanıtılması sonucunda zaman içinde siteye gösterilen ilgide artış olduğu görülmektedir. Ancak siteden ülke çapında yararlanma düzeyinin sınırlı olduğu, kullanımın belli coğrafyalarda yoğunlaştığı ve belli coğrafyalarda kullanım düzeyinin neredeyse yok denecek kadar az olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Dünyadaki konu ile ilgili gelişmeler ve ülkemizdeki üniversite, öğrenci ve akademisyen sayıları dikkate alındığında, açık ders malzemeleri ile ilgili şimdiye kadar yapılanların sorgulanması gerekmektedir. /This study reviews the open courseware approach, its benefits and examines open courseware platform of Turkish Academy of Sciences. This platform has 81 courses in 22 different categories. Our study analyzes usage data of the platform that is obtained from Google Analytics, which includes more than 300.000 visitors’ transaction within a two-year period (January 15, 2011- January 15, 2013. The statistics showed that this platform had been visited 445,982 times by 315,830 people since January, 2011. It was observed that the development of the platform’s content and promotion activities had a positive effect on the traffic of the site. On the other hand, it was seen that countrywide use of the platform was limited and some cities of Turkey did not use the platform at all. Turkey has a major potential in terms of its universities, students and academics’ numbers. However, the advancements in the world related to the open courseware projects make Turkey’s current efforts questionable. It is obvious that, Turkey must examine the past activities and make some critical plans for the future actions.

  2. Açık Ders Malzemelerine Genel Bakış: Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Örneği=An Overview to Open Courseware: An Example of the Turkish Academy of Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Umut Al; Orçun Madran

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışmada açık ders malzemeleri konusu genel olarak ele alınmakta, Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi’nin açık ders malzemeleri platformu incelenmektedir. Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi açık ders malzemeleri platformu kapsamında 22 ayrı kategoride 81 adet ders bulunmaktadır. Çalışmamızda Google Analytics aracılığıyla bu derslere ait kullanım verileri analiz edilmektedir. Makale kapsamında Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi açık ders malzemeleri platformuna ilişkin kullanım verilerinin Google An...

  3. Fizik öğretmenlerinin 2011-2012 öğretim döneminde ilk defa uygulanan 12. sınıf fizik dersi müfredatına bakış

    OpenAIRE

    Sadi, Özlem; Yıldız, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, 2011-2012 öğretim yılında ilk defa uygulamaya konulan 12. Sınıf Fizik Dersi Öğretim Programının, öğretmen görüşleri alınarak içerik, öğrenme ve öğretme süreci (ders işleme stratejileri), hazırlık ve değerlendirme boyutları açısından değerlendirilmesini amaçlanmaktadır. Araştırmaya katılan fizik öğretmenlerine,”Fizik Dersi Müfredatı Değerlendirme Anketi” (FDMDA) uygulanmıştır. FDMDA, içerik, öğrenme ve öğretme süreci, hazırlık ve değerlendirme olmak üzere üç alt başlık altında ...

  4. Sağlık psikolojisi bakış açısından karar anı teşviklerinin merdiven kullanımı üzerindeki etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Taşkale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Bu çalışma güçlü bir fiziksel aktivite olan merdiven kullanımını artırmada karar anı teşviklerini kullanan çalışmaları gözden geçirmektedir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu derleme, 1995-2015 yılları arasında yayımlanmış olan yürüyen merdiven yerine merdiven kullanmayı artırmayı inceleyen çalışmaları içermektedir. Arama “EbscoHOST”, “JSTOR”, “Medline”, “ProQuest”, “PsychInfo”, “Sage”, “ScienceDirect”, “TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM” ve “Wiley Online Library” veri tabanlarında “merdiven, yürüyen merdiven, asansör, fiziksel aktivite, tanıtım, uygulama” anahtar kelimeleri kullanılarak Türkçe ve İngilizce dilindeki yayınlarla gerçekleştirilmiştir.  Bulgular: Karar anı teşvikleri ile merdiven kullanımını artırmayı amaçlayan deneysel çalışmaların gözden geçirilmesi, bu teşviklerin merdiven kullanımını artırmada başarılı bir müdahale olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu teşvikler bir davranışsal ipucu olarak işlev görmekte ve mesajlar yarar, engel ve duyarlılık algılarını etkileyerek ve öz-etkinlik inançlarını yükselterek bireyleri merdiven kullanmaya yönlendirmektedir. Sonuç: Karar anı teşvikleri kullanımı merdiven kullanımını artırmada başarılı bir yöntemdir. Davranışsal bir ipucu görevi yapar. Bununla beraber,  mesajların alt grupların özgül ihtiyaçlarına hitap edebilmesi için, bu teşviklerin kuramsal arka planını değerlendirecek çalışmalara gereksinim vardır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Merdiven kullanımı, karar anı teşviki, sağlık davranışı kuramları

  5. Yoğun Bakım Ünitesinde Hemşirelik Tanılarının Belirlenmesi ve Nanda Tanılarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    AKIN KORHAN, Esra; HAKVERDİOĞLU YÖNT, Gülendam; DEMİRAY, Ayşe; AKÇA, Aliye; EKER, Aynur

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted for the purpose of determining the nursing diagnoses in the nursing care plans of patientswho had been treated in the past year in an adult general intensive care unit, and of evaluating the diagnoses accordingto their conformity to the diagnoses of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA). This descriptiveand retrospective study was carried out in the general intensive care unit of a university hospital. The sample consistedof the nursing care plans o...

  6. Kafkas Üniversitesi Son Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Toplumsal Cinsiyet Rollerine İlişkin Bakış Açıları

    OpenAIRE

    VEFİKULUÇAY, Arş.Gör. Duygu; ZEYNELOĞLU, Arş.Gör. Simge; EROĞLU, Prof.Dr.Kafiye; TAŞKIN, Prof.Dr. Lale

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim to determine point of view of final-year university students at Kafkas University on gender roles regarding work life, social life, marriage and family life. This study is a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was applied to a total of 236 students including 123 females and 113 males. The results of the study reveal that views of students on gender roles related to professional life, social life, family life and marriage exhibit statistically si...

  7. Bütünleşme Kuramlarının Avrupa Birliği Genişlemesine Bakışı(The View of Integration Theories on European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kutay AYTUĞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement, which is on the agenda of European Union since Rome Treaty, is one of the most important political agents. Enlargements, each of which has been carefully devised, canvassed and implemented within the historical process, have been analysed by theories and approaches which try to explain European integration. The Union, on the one hand enlarges, on the other hand attempts to deepen. The theories and approaches which try to explain that process have been developed and diversified with the Union’s evolution. Though such theories are sometimes seen as they compete with each other, actually they complement each other and partly overlap. The aim of this study is to assess views of the following theories and approaches on enlargement: federalism, neo-functionalism, liberal intergovernmentalism, multi level governance, new institutionalism, social constructivism and to display Central and Eastern Europe enlargement from viewpoints of different theories.

  8. Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Kalite Bakımından Öğrenciler Tarafından Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    YANIK, Mehmet; Sunay, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Fixing the satisfaction ratings of students having an education in these instituations providing the physical and sports education in Turkey with together fixing the adequacy of the instituations compose the aim of these study. This study group consists of 10 sport high schools which choosen by coincidental sampling method and in this work group there are 141students in 1st class and 126 students in 4th class who having an education in these high schools. In practice “Student Satisfaction Sur...

  9. Yardım Kredisi’ne (Karz-ı Hasen Peşin Ödemeli “Mesbah Noktası” Kullanarak Yeni Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Behnam Izadyar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Karz-ı Hasen (yardım kredisi, katılımcıların dini veya ahlaki inançlarına dayanan, kredi dönemi boyunca sadece anaparanın geri ödenmesi gerektiği faizsiz bir kredidir. Karz-ı hasen’in finansal borç verme işlemlerinde yaygınlık kazanmamasındaki temel engellerden bazıları, kurumsal yatırımcı katılımının eksikliği ve yüksek yönetim komisyonlarıdır. Bu çalışma “Misbah Noktası (MN” kullanarak karz-ı hasenin kredi uygulamalarındaki geçerliliğini artırmak için yeni bir metot ortaya koymaktadır. Bu metota dayalı olarak borç alan kişi, sıfır faizli ve komisyonsuz kredi almak için en başta optimum bir peşin ödeme yapar.  Kalan anaparanın dağılımı iki senaryo altında incelenmiştir; standart MN ve hızlandırılmış MN. Misbah Finans platformunda karz-ı hasen ödüncü veren ile finansal kuruluşlar, tahakkuk maliyetlerinin üstesinden gelmek, aynı zamanda karz-ı hasen sağlayarak bir miktar kar elde etmek için uygun bir getiri kazanmaktadır. Bu yöntemde getiri oranı, şaşırtıcı olmayan bir şekilde geleneksel yöntemin altında olsa da, aylık ödemelerin geleneksel aylık ödeme seviyelerine hızlandırılması önemli ölçüde bu eksiklikleri gidermekte ve getiri boşluğunu dengelemektedir. Hızlandırılmış MN özellikle uzun vadeli kredi açısından geri ödeme süresini kısaltır, bunun yanı sıra kurumsal yatırımcılar için mümkün olan seviyeye getirileri yükseltir. Karz-ı hasen’in kurumsallaşması İslami bankacılık sisteminde nihai amaçtır ve bu çalışma en zorlu İslami kredi uygulaması olan Karz-ı haseni analiz etmektedir. 

  10. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20020201-20040122.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  11. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20040123-20050123.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  12. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46012, Lat: 00.18994 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.80m; Data Range: 20060131-20080209.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  13. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20040123-20060130.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  14. Ergen Bakış Açısıyla Okulda Şiddet ve Çözüm Önerileri/Adolescents' Perception of School Violence and Suggestions for Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Durmuş, Yrd.Doç.Dr.Emine

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışmada ergenlerin okullarında yaşanan şiddet olaylarına ilişkin algıları incelenmiştir. Araştırma farklı liselere devam eden, yaşları 15 ile 19 arasında değişen, toplam 700 ergenle yapılmıştır. Katılımcılara, okullarda yaşanan şiddet olayları, bu olayların nedenleri ve okulda şiddetin önlenmesi için çözüm önerilerinin neler olduğunu belirlemeyi amaçlayan açık uçlu sorular sorulmuştur. Öğrencilerin açık uçlu bu sorulara verdikleri cevaplar niteliksel olarak incelenmiş ve içerik analizi ...

  15. Kronik Böbrek Yetersizliğinde Fonksiyonel Sağlık Örüntülerine Göre Hemşirelik Bakımı: Olgu Sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    UYSAL, Hilal; KARATAŞ, Ceren

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACTChronic renal failure is defined as the consequent reduction in glomerular filtration value,the adjustment of the fluid-solute balance of the kidney, and the chronic and progressivedeterioration of metabolic-endocrine functions. The aims of nursing care in chronic renalinsufficiency; to reduce the indications, to provide adequate and balanced nutrient intake, toİletişim : pe Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Fakültesi DergisiJournal of Hacettepe University Faculty of ...

  16. Kentsel Yeşil Alanların Düzce Akçakoca Örneğinde Ulaşabilirlik Bakımından İrdelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki DEMİR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kentsel aktif yeşil alan standartları, 3194 Sayılı İmar Kanunu’nun Plan Yapımına Ait Esaslara Dair Yönetmeliği’nde minimum kişi başına 10 m2 “aktif yeşil alan” olarak tanımlanmıştır. Kentlerin düzenli ve sağlıklı bir çevreye kavuşabilmesi, Aktif yeşil alanların, kent içindeki dağılımlarının, büyüklüklerinin, işlevsel ve estetik niteliklerinin sistemli bir planlama ve kentsel tasarım anlayışı içinde gelişmesi ile mümkün olacaktır.Araştırma alanı olarak seçilen Düzce, Akçakoca ilçesi, yeşil alan açısından oldukça zengin bir potansiyele sahip olmakla beraber, aktif yeşil alanlar (kent ve mahalle parkları, çocuk bahçeleri, oyun alanları gibi nitelik ve nicelik olarak yetersiz gözükmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Akçakoca kenti yeşil alanlarının kentteki dağılım ve miktarları incelenerek, yeşil alanların mahalle ölçeğindeki dağılımları, büyüklükleri ve kişi başına düşen oranları değerlendirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada Akçakoca kentsel yeşil alanlarının ulaşabilirliği, etkili hizmet alanlarına bağlı olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Kent halkının yeşil alanlara ulaşım ve yeşil alanların kullanımı yapılan anketler ile saptanmıştır. Mevcut olan sorunların giderilmesi doğrultusunda öneriler geliştirilmiştir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Akçakoca, Yeşil alan, Ulaşabilirlik

  17. Antik Yunan Dönemi Karşılaştırmalı Siyaset Biliminde Siyasal Sistem Sınıflandırmalarına Genel bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat YILMAZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Siyaset Biliminin bir alt disiplini olarak karşılaştırmalı siyaset biliminin popülaritesi günümüzde gittikçe artmaktadır. Bu disiplin, farklı ülkelerin siyasal sistemleri hakkında detaylı bilgiler vermesinden dolayı fazlaca önemsenmektedir. Günümüzde ilginin giderek arttığı böyle bir alanın tarihsel geçmişi ise oldukça eski dönemlere dayanmaktadır. karşılaştırmalı siyaset bilimi alanında yapılan ilk siyasal sistem sınıflandırmaları Antik Yunan döneminde ortaya çıkmıştır. Bundan dolayı bu makalede, batı siyasal düşüncesi içerisinde yer alan Antik Yunan dönemindeki siyasal sistem sınıflandırmalarının bazı düşünürler bağlamında incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Makalede, öncelikle temel kavramlar olan karşılaştırmalı siyaset bilimi ve siyasal sistem kavramlarına değinilmekte ve daha sonra Antik Yunan dönemi siyasal sistem sınıflandırmaları Heredotos, Platon ve Aristoteles örnekleri ile incelenmektedir.

  18. Patau sendromu ön tanılı pediyatrik olguda anestezik yönetim: Olgu sunumu ve literatüre kısa bir bakış

    OpenAIRE

    F, Demir H; A, Erakgün; A, Çertuğ

    2013-01-01

    Patau syndrome (trisomi 13) is a chromosomal syndrome with multisystemic features. The major findings are craniofascial and cardiac abnormalities. Patients with Patau syndrome create a unique group for anesthesiologists because of difficult airways, positional difficulties, and fluid replacement challenges in severe cases. A 2 month old female patient was scheduled for an semi-emergent operation for congenital cataract. The patient was prediagnosed with Patau syndrome and had ASD, VSD, dextro...

  19. Patau sendromu ön tanılı pediyatrik olguda anestezik yönetim: Olgu sunumu ve literatüre kısa bir bakış

    OpenAIRE

    F, Demir H; A, Erakgün; A, Çertuğ

    2013-01-01

    Patau sendromu (trizomi 13) multipl organ sistem anomalileri ile seyreden bir kromozomal sendromdur. En sık bulguları kraniyofasyal ve kardiyak anomalilerdir. Patau sendromlu olgular anesteziyologlar açısından, hava yolu kontrolünün güçlüğü, pozisyon vermede zorluk, ağır olgularda sıvı tedavisinin düzenlenmesinde güçlük gibi sorunlar nedeni ile özelliklidir. 2 aylık kız hastaya konjenital katarakt nedeni ile acil cerrahi operasyon uygulandı. Patau sendromu ön tanısı ile izlenen hastada ASD, V...

  20. Ruminantlarda Kulak ve Kuyruk Kesme: Hayvan Refahı (Gönenci) Bakımından Dünyada ve Türkiye’deki Durumun Karşılaştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Çağrı Çağlar SİNMEZ; YİĞİT, Ali; ÜLGER, İsmail; Yaşar, Aşkın

    2015-01-01

    Bu derlemede, sığır ve koyun yetiştiriciliğinde uygulanan kuyruk ve kulak kesme işlemleri nedeniyle oluşan fizyolojik vedavranışsal tepkilerin tanımlanması, hayvanlara yapılan bu işlemlerin bilimsel gerekliliğinin doğrulanması, yasal mevzuat vehayvan refahı (gönenci) açısından dünyadaki ve Türkiye’deki durumunun değerlendirilmesi amaçlandı. Bilimsel araştırmalarkoyunlarda kuyruk kesme uygulamasının hafif-orta şiddette akut ağrı ve davranışsal tepkilere yol açtığını ve sinek istilasınakarşı ko...

  1. Malezya’da Din-Devlet İlişkisine Kısa Bir Bakış / A Short Overview of the Relationship between Religion and State in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Starting from the second half of the 1960s onwards, socio-religious youth movements, which are regarded as the initial element of civil expressions on university campuses, were constructively influential on the perception of the political elites’ understanding of Islam and political evolution of the Islamisation policies in the process in Malaysia. There are opinions that this effect encompassed the efforts of Islamisation particularly in the 1980s. In this process, the task of the state apparatus, as a political power, which managed the religious domain mostly considered belonging to the civil sector, deserves to be scrutinized in relation with at least some influential factors in the near and distant past of the Muslim Malay community. And, it cannot be overseen that the functions of the traditional Malay rulers, say, Sultans, were transferred, to some or larger extent, to the Federal government after the independence. With regard to this, in this article, the present writer will focus on some aspects of the policies of Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, who has molded majorily the history of modern Malaysia, regarding his Islamisation policy aligned with the state-religion relationship. Özet Malezya’da 1960’lı yılların ikinci yarısından itibaren üniversite kampüslerinde başlayan ve sivilleşmenin bir unsuru olarak telâkki edilen dini-toplumsal hareketlerin İslam’ın ülke siyasi elitince algılanmasında ve pratikte İslamlaştırma adıyla anılabilecek politikalara evrilmesinde önemli etkisi olmuştur. Bu etkinin, özellikle 1980’li yıllarda devlet eliyle İslamlaştırma çabalarına yol açtığı konusunda görüşler bulunmaktadır. Bu süreçte, yani devletin siyasi bir güç olarak sivil alana dahil olan dini çekip çevirme işini üstlenmesinde, özellikle Müslüman Malay toplumunun yakın ve uzak geçmişindeki kimi faktörler dikkate alınmayı hak etmektedir. Bu bağlamda, geleneksel Malay devletlerinde Sultanların sahip oldukları işlevlerin bağımsızlık sonrasında Federal yönetime bir tür devri olarak değerlendirilebilecek ilişki göz ardı edilmemelidir. Bu çerçevede, modern Malezya tarihinde bıraktığı izler nedeniyle, din-devlet ilişkisi bağlamında yaşananların odağında yer alan Dr. Mahathir Muhammed’in 22 yıllık iktidarındaki icraatlar kısaca ele alınacaktır. Un bref aperçu de la relation entre la religion et le gouvernement : les politiques de l’islamisation de l’époque de Mahathir Mohamad et ses implications Résumé Les mouvements socio-religieux dans les campus universitaires en Malaisie depuis la seconde moitié des années 1960 ont eu une influence considérable à propos de la perception de l’Islam par les élites politiques du pays et du commencement de la réalisation des politiques de l’islamisation. Il existe même des opinions qui défendent l’idée que cette influence était en particulier à la base de l’islamisation du pays par l’Etat dans les années 1980. Pour comprendre le processus de la prise en charge de l’Etat des affaires de la Religion, devenu maintenant une force politique dans la sphère publique, il convient de voir, en particulier, certaines caractéristiques dans les temps passé et présent de la communauté musulmane malaise. Dans ce contexte, il ne faut pas oublier le transfert des fonctions des sultans des états traditionnels malais au Gouvernement fédéral après l’indépendance. Dans cette étude, on va aborder en bref les politiques de l’époque de Dr. Mahathir Muhammed, au pouvoir pendant 22 ans, et qui était au centre des affaires au sujet de la relation entre la religion et l’état de cette période, car cette période a marqué l’histoire du pays.

  2. 2010 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members. Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    122 f. Used insults, sarcasm , or gestures to humiliate you?......................... 124 g. Yelled when they were angry...other’s work or ideas; and using insults, sarcasm , or gestures to humiliate others. A higher score indicates the member more frequently perceived hostile...Used insults, sarcasm , or gestures to humiliate you? 1. Never 2. Once or twice 3. Sometimes 4. Often 5. Very often Percentages Percent

  3. Teachers' understanding of students' attitudes and values toward physical activity in physical education dropout rates and adolescent obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    .... Furthermore, teachers stated that the greatest barriers to students who are overweight and/or poorly skilled from enjoying physical education were their feelings of being humiliated, ridiculed...

  4. The War Crimes Act: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    ... of a non-international character. Common Article 3 prohibits protected persons from being subjected to violence, outrages upon personal dignity, torture, and cruel, humiliating, or degrading treatment...

  5. Evaluation of the pilot program on the real-time drug utilization review system in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ji Haeng; Suh, Dong Churl; Kim, Sukil; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2013-10-01

    A pilot drug utilization review (DUR) program was initiated by the Korean government, which provided safety information in real-time at the stage of prescribing and dispensing. This study aimed to compare the "physician/pharmacist Co-DUR" system and the traditional "pharmacist-only DUR" system. Data collected during a DUR pilot program from July 1 to October 31 of 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate DUR-pop up alert rates, categories of alerts, the reasons for dispensing without prescription change after an alert, and changes in drug expenditures associated with the DUR. DUR pop-up alert rates were 8.55% at clinics and 1.90% at pharmacies in the physician/pharmacist Co-DUR, whereas the rate was 2.22% in the pharmacist-only DUR. Rates of pop-up alerts were high for between-prescription ingredient duplication at pharmacies, whereas for clinics, the rate for drug-pregnancy contraindications was high. A greater reduction in drug expenditure was estimated in the physician/pharmacist Co-DUR compared to the pharmacist-only DUR. The physician/pharmacist Co-DUR has better sensitivity at detecting potential adverse drug events than the pharmacist-only DUR. Pharmacists also have opportunities to double-check prescribed drugs when doctors do not voluntarily modify pop-up alerts. Further comprehensive study will be needed to confirm the results of pilot program that favored the physician/pharmacist Co-DUR. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Review of the use of defined daily dose concept in drug utilisation research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lida; Xin, Hua-wen; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to understand the characteristics of drug utilisation researches (DURs) using concepts of defined daily dose in China and to provide further suggestion for future DURs in China. DURs using concepts of defined daily dose published in China were identified from China Journal Full-text Database, and in-depth data analysis was conducted for DURs published in every even-numbered year. In total, 2,911 DURs published between 1989 and 2009 were identified, of which 1,268 were included for further data analysis. All studies were hospital-based. Types of drugs commonly assessed in DURs were Anti-infectives for systemic use (34.1%), drugs for Nervous system (25.5%) and drugs for Alimentary tract and metabolism (14.3%). In addition, 63 DURs published in even-numbered year focusing on Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) were identified. Commonly used sources of defined dose were Xin Bian Yao Wu Xue/New Materia Medica (83.9%), drug information leaflets (66.8%) and Chinese Pharmacopoeia (52.0%). Common indicators used in DURs include defined daily doses (DDDs), drug utilisation index (DUI) and daily dose cost (DDC). DUR is a popular method to explore the use of both pharmaceutical drugs and CHM in China. The definition of defined daily dose and its related indicators presented in the DURs were highly varied. From this, it follows that DURs with more consistent methodology are highly needed for a thorough understanding of drug utilisation in China. Apart from DURs focusing on the hospital setting, more DURs from other health settings are needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Screening of leaf meals as feed supplements in the culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three leaf meals, Gliricidia sepium, cassava (Manihot esculenta), and Stylosanthes humilis were screened as feed supplements in the culture of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The experiment had four treatments. Treatment A had S. humilis leaf meal incorporated in the feed while treatment B had cassava leaf meal ...

  8. 2010 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members. Administration, Datasets, and Codebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    talked about you? ............. Used insults, sarcasm , or gestures to humiliate you? .............................. Yelled when they were angry with you...Never Once or twice Sometimes Often Very often f. Used insults, sarcasm , or gestures to humiliate you...Never Once or twice Sometimes Often Very often Edit NOT ([SRACTDTY] = "No, I was separated or retired") f. Used insults, sarcasm

  9. Environmental Studies of Little River Inlet, Horry County, South Carolina and Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    Rhopilema verrilli (polyp) + + Bougainvillia rugosa + + + + Carveia franciscana + Garveia humilis +iAmhncma dinema++ amanuli na s p. + + Obelia...hlydractiniidae (undet.) + BoufgainyijLLi rugosa + Garvein franciscana + [ Garvcia humi-lis + Amphinema dinema + Pandeidac (undet.) + + Eudendrium sp...pine Pinus elliottii Pe adjacent upland Loblolly pine Pinus taeda Pt adjacent upland Yaupon Ilex voinitoria IV adjacent upland Live oak Quercus

  10. Trachypodaceae. A critical revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van B.O.

    1959-01-01

    1. Trachypus. 1. T. bicolor Reinw. et Hornsch. is divided into 4 varieties: a. var. bicolor, b. var. hispidus (C. Muell.) Card., c. var. viridulus (Mitt.) Zant. comb. nov., d. var. scindifolius (Sak.) Nog. 2. T. humilis Lindb. is divided into 2 varieties: a. var. humilis, b. var. tenerrimus (Herz.)

  11. La misión de narrar: idolatría, evangelización e hibridación en Historia de las Indias de Nueva España e Islas de la Tierra Firme (1581 de fray Diego Durán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Aldao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dominican Friar Diego Duran’s Historia de las Indias de Nueva España e Islas de la Tierra Firme (1581 is one of the most studied chronicles of missionary tradition, not only due to its thorough description of the aboriginal past and its illustrative prints, but fundamentally because of its complex mixture between criticism of idolatry, panegyric of evangelization and the hybridization present in the text. The speaking subject is presented as the agent of evangelization who discursively produces an approach to the aboriginal culture through his missionary and writing work.

  12. Des animaux pour humaniser les soins : Éthique des soins et récits de zoothérapie canine auprès de résidents de centres d’hébergement de soins de longue durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilsdonk, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In animal assisted therapy, people can both benefit from interactions and relationships with a human and an animal. This text presents some anecdotal experiences to illustrate how pet therapy can contribute to the social and emotional well-being of patients. This text emphasizes that our social nature makes an ethics of care possible for caregivers and necessary for patients, all while drawing a parallel between the skills of my dogs and my own. I also plead for us not neglect the socio-emotional needs of patients.

  13. Diseño e implementación de un servidor SNMP (a través de nagios), DHCP, DNS y Netflow sobre la arquitectura de Raspberry PI2 para el monitoreo y administración del ISP urbanet en el cantón Durán.

    OpenAIRE

    González Sierra, Darío Xavier

    2016-01-01

    El mundo de la tecnología, encargada específicamente en el área de brindar servicios de Internet ha estado en constante desarrollo, esto debido al incremento de usuarios que buscan este tipo de servicios. Se han creado empresas que no necesariamente tienen gran magnitud, pero que son capaces de brindar este servicio. En este documento se presenta el análisis e implementación de un gestor de red habilitado para las operaciones básicas de un ISP. Este proceso será supervisado con la herramienta...

  14. L'apport des trajectoires sociales pour comprendre la précarité en féminin. L'exemple d'une recherche sur l'insertion professionnelle de chômeuses de longue durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fortino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desarrollando un acercamiento (teórico y metodológico sostenido por el estudio de trayectorias sociales, la autora se propone explicitar recorridos de inserción profesional de mujeres asalariadas precarias y paradas de larga duración. Muestra cómo las relaciones de género dan forma a estas trayectorias femeninas en un contexto de fuerte degradación de la calidad de los empleos que se ofrecen a las mujeres en el mercado de trabajo francés. Asimismo, discute los efectos devastadores de una socialización femenina que todavía está fuertemente soportada por valores como la entrega, la compasión y la renuncia de sí -socialización que contribuye aún a la vulnerabilidad del proceso de individuación de las mujeres.

  15. Étude de l'influence des défauts de soudage sur le comportement plastique et la durée de vie en fatigue de soudures par friction-malaxage d'un alliage Al-Cu-Li

    OpenAIRE

    Le Jolu, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Co-encadrement de la thèse : Thilo Morgeneyer; With the aim of reducing aircraft weight, a friction stir welded Al-Cu-Li alloy (2198-T8) is considered by aircraft manufacturers for its use in fuselage or lower wing skin applications. The purpose of this study is to assess the fatigue behaviour of friction stir welds and the influence of some weld defects on fatigue properties for a target lifetime of 105 cycles. Base material, sound welds (produced via welding in one sheet), welds bearing a j...

  16. Contribution à l'étude structurale par PY/CG-SM de la matière organique liée aux particules fines (0-50 µm dans quelques sols sous formations naturelles de longue durée au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallo, FJP.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to the study by PY/GC-MS of organic matter linked to fine particles (0-50 µm in some soils under long-term natural formations in Burkina Faso. The study aims to enhance the knowledge on organic matter of Arenosols, Ferralsols, and Cambisols in Burkina Faso. It deals with the distribution of C and N in three particles size fractions and is focused on the structures of organic matter linked to the (0-50 µm fraction. The results showed that total organic matter was lower than 2% in all soil units. More than 70% of total carbon were held by the finest fraction. The main products released by PY/GC-MS technique of the (0-50 µm fraction were lignin derived compounds, non lignin derived aromatic compounds, carbohydrates derived compounds, fatty acids methyl esters and nitrogen derived compounds. The aliphatic compounds ranged from C12 to C18, C16 being the dominant one. The aliphatic compounds were negatively correlated with the aromatic compounds. A positive correlation was observed between the nitrogen derived compounds and the amounts of clay. On the other hand, the carbohydrates derived compounds were negatively correlated with clay particles. Furthermore, the study pointed out some different structures of lignin such as syringyl, guaiacyl, and p.hydrophenyl. Depending on the nature of wood (hard wood, soft wood and grasses, they reflected the composition of vegetation on the studied sites. Therefore, PY/GC-MS technique was efficient for structural characterization of low amounts of soil organic matter.

  17. Prévention des TMS dans la durée : des acteurs institutionnels facilitent une démarche d’entreprise Sustainable prevention of musculoskeletal disorders: institutional actors make a company approach easier Prevención de las lesions músculo esqueléticas a largo plazo: los actors institucionales facilitan un proceso en la empresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tayar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Un projet départemental de prévention des TMS est né en 2003 à l’initiative du Service Médical Inter-entreprises de l’Anjou et de l’Action Régionale pour l’Amélioration des Conditions de Travail des Pays de Loire pour répondre aux difficultés des entreprises à mettre en place des projets efficaces et pérennes. Il réunit dans un engagement pour 5 ans, 6 entreprises volontaires qui en acceptent les exigences.Les acteurs institutionnels de prévention apportent, dans une approche pluridisciplinaire, une méthodologie de projet et la possibilité d’échanges et de retours d’expérience entre les entreprises. Cet accompagnement est orienté sur la constitution de groupes de travail animés par des consultants privés pour réfléchir sur des situations à risques de TMS et mettre en commun des décisions de changement.Après 3 ans de conduite du projet dans un abattoir de viande bovine, un processus d’appropriation est à l’œuvre. Les évaluations mettent en lumière des changements humains, organisationnels et techniques. Cette expérience interroge le rôle des acteurs institutionnels et l’intérêt de l’articulation entre les acteurs externes et internes à l’entreprise.A departmental musculoskeletal disorder (MSD prevention project was begun in 2003 on the initiative of the Anjou inter-company medical service and the Regional action for the improvement of working conditions in the Pays de Loire to respond to companies’ difficulties in establishing effective and ongoing projects. It brought together 6 volunteer companies in a commitment to a 5-year agreement.The institutional prevention actors provide, in a multi-disciplinary approach, a project methodology and the opportunity for exchanges and feedback between the companies. This accompanying action focused on the creation of working groups led by private consultants to consider situations that could lead to musculoskeletal disorders and to share decisions for change.After the project had been conducted in a bovine slaughterhouse for 3 years, an adaptation process is now being carried out. The evaluations are revealing human, organizational and technical changes. This experiment questions the role of institutional actors and the interest of the link between external actors and actors inside the company.Un proyecto departamental de prevención de las lesiones músculo esqueléticas (LMS nació en el 2003, a iniciativa del Servicio Médico Inter-empresas de Anjou y de la Acción Regional por la Mejora de las Condiciones de Trabajo de los Países de Loire. El proyecto reune, con un compromiso de 5 años, 6 empresas voluntarias que aceptaron las exigencias, con el fin dar respuesta a las dificultades que las empresas tienen para implementar proyectos eficaces y perennes. Los actores institucionales de prevención aportan en un enfoque pluridisciplinario, una metodología de proyecto y la posibilidad de intercambios y de retorno de experiencia entre las empresas. Este acompañamiento esta orientado a la constitución de grupos de trabajo animados por consultantes privados para reflexionar sobre situaciones a riesgo de LMS y para poner en común las decisiones de cambio. Luego de conducir el proyecto durante 3 años en un matadero de carne bovina, un proceso de apropiación esta en curso. Las evaluaciones muestran cambios individuales, organizacionales y técnicos. Esta experiencia interroga el rol de los actores institucionales y el interés de la articulación entre actores internos y externos a la empresa.

  18. The Ethnic Hate Speech was Networked: What Social Media Online Political Discussions Reveal about the 2013 General Elections in Kenya / El discurso étnico del odio se difundió por las redes. Análisis de las discusiones políticas en las redes sociales dur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Mwende Maweu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter examines if the increased political discussions on social media especially Twitter and Face Book before and after the March 4th, 2013 general elections in Kenya translated to a more robust Alternative Public Sphere that broke the hegemony of the traditional media as Agenda setters or an alternative space for the audience to vent out their frustrations and grievances about the election. In the last most contentious elections in 2007, in Kenya, both new and old media were blamed for fueling ethnic hate speech which culminated into the 2007/ 2008 post election violence. It is argued in this chapter that although voting patterns in the March 2013 elections were clearly along ethnic lines just like in 2007, there was no physical post election violence like was the case in 2008. What was clearly evident was Ethnic hate speech before and after the general elections on social media networks. We therefore observe that unlike in 2008 where ethnic violence was fought in the streets, in the 2013 general elections, the ‘Ethnic War was Networked’. The chapter analyses the content of some of the messages send on Twitter and Face Book to argue that social media platforms only acted as alternative spaces for Kenyans to fight out their ethnic political wars and not alternative public spheres for constructive political deliberation. The chapter concludes by observing that social media networks in the 2013 general elections in Kenya acted as ‘Opiums of the Masses’ only serving the function of keeping Kenya ‘quiet and peaceful’ to prevent a repeat of the 2008 post election violence, but not alternative public spheres to facilitate constructive political deliberation. En este artículo se analiza si el aumento de las discusiones políticas sobre las redes sociales, especialmente Twitter y Facebook, antes y después de las elecciones generales en Kenia del 04 de marzo de 2013, se tradujeron en una esfera pública alternativa sólida que rompiera con la hegemonía de los medios de comunicación tradicionales en tanto que fijadores de la agenda, o un espacio alternativo para la audiencia en el que tratar sus frustraciones y quejas sobre las elecciones. En las últimas elecciones más polémicas en Kenia, en 2007, tanto los nuevos medios como los tradicionales fueron acusados de alimentar la incitación al odio étnico, que culminó en la violencia sufrida a finales de 2007 y principios de 2008, después de las elecciones. El argumento de este texto señala que aunque los patrones de voto en las elecciones de marzo 2013 se delinearon claramente siguiendo un patrón étnico al igual que en 2007, no hubo violencia física postelectoral, como ocurrió en 2008. La incitación al odio étnico era ya evidente antes y después de las elecciones generales en las redes sociales. Por lo tanto, observamos que, a diferencia de 2008 donde la violencia étnica se libró en las calles, en las elecciones generales de 2013, esta violencia se canalizó a través de la red. El artículo utiliza el análisis de contenido cualitativo de algunos de los mensajes enviados a través de Twitter y Facebook para sostener que estas plataformas sólo sirvieron para los kenianos como espacios alternativos en los que escenificar su confrontación política étnica, y no como esferas públicas alternativas para la deliberación política constructiva. Por lo tanto, se concluye señalando que las redes sociales en las elecciones generales de 2013 en Kenia actuaron como "el opio del pueblo", que sólo sirvió para mantener Kenia tranquila y pacífica, con el fin de evitar que se repitiera la violencia post-electoral de 2008, pero no como esfera pública alternativa que facilitara la deliberación política constructiva.

  19. Effect of drug utilization reviews on the quality of in-hospital prescribing: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabot Isabelle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug utilization review (DUR programs are being conducted in Canadian hospitals with the aim of improving the appropriateness of prescriptions. However, there is little evidence of their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of both a retrospective and a concurrent DUR programs on the quality of in-hospital prescribing. Methods We conducted an interrupted time series quasi-experimental study. Using explicit criteria for quality of prescribing, the natural history of cisapride prescription was established retrospectively in three university-affiliated hospitals. A retrospective DUR was implemented in one of the hospitals, a concurrent DUR in another, whereas the third hospital served as a control. An archivist abstracted records of all patients who were prescribed cisapride during the observation period. The effect of DURs relative to the control hospital was determined by comparing estimated regression coefficients from the time series models and by testing the statistical significance using a 2-tailed Student's t test. Results The concurrent DUR program significantly improved the appropriateness of prescriptions for the indication for use whereas the retrospective DUR brought about no significant effect on the quality of prescribing. Conclusion Results suggest a retrospective DUR approach may not be sufficient to improve the quality of prescribing. However, a concurrent DUR strategy, with direct feedback to prescribers seems effective and should be tested in other settings with other drugs.

  20. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2017-04-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107-667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  1. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis preferentially via a Bim-mediated intrinsic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guiqi; Zhao, ChuBiao; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Hongyu; Quan, Yingyao; Chai, Liuying; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-08-01

    This report is designed to dissect the detail molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DHA induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and externalization of phosphatidylserine indicative of apoptosis induction. Compared with the modest inhibitory effects of silencing Bax, silencing Bak largely prevented DHA-induced ΔΨm collapse and apoptosis though DHA induced a commensurable activation of Bax and Bak, demonstrating a key role of the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. DHA did not induce Bid cleavage and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria and had little effects on the expressions of Puma and Noxa, but did increase Bim and Bak expressions and decrease Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of DHA was remarkably reduced by silencing Bim, and modestly but significantly reduced by silencing Puma or Noxa. Silencing Bim or Noxa preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bak activation, while silencing Puma preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bax activation, demonstrating that Bim and to a lesser extent Noxa act as upstream mediators to trigger the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In addition, silencing Mcl-1 enhanced DHA-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a crucial role of Bim in preferentially regulating the Bak/Mcl-1 rheostat to mediate DHA-induced apoptosis in HCC cells.

  2. Self-organization and complexity in historical landscape patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janine Bolliger; Julien C. Sprott; David J. Mladenoff

    2003-01-01

    Self-organization describes the evolution process of complex structures where systems emerge spontaneously, driven internally by variations of the system itself. Self-organization to the critical state is manifested by scale-free behavior across many orders of magnitude (Bak et al. 1987, Bak 1996, Sole et a1. 1999). Spatial scale-free behavior implies fractal...

  3. Page 1 530 Saroj K Nayak and Ramakrishna Ramaswamy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alder BJ and Wainright T E 1957 J. Chem. Phys. 27 1208. Allen M P and Tildesley DJ 1987 Computer simulation of liquids (Oxford: Clarendon). Bak P, Tang C and Weisenfeld K 1987 Phys. Rev. Lett. 59381. Bak P, Tang C and Weisenfeld K 1988 Phys, Rev. A38 364. Berry R. S. Jellinek J and Natanson GN 1984 Phys. Rev.

  4. Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Azerbaycan Türkçesinde “Su” Unsurlu Atasözlerinin Gramer Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÖKSÜZ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Öz İnsanın yaşam tarzı, tarihi, kültürü, hayata bakış açısı dilde yansıtılır. Atalarımızdan bize aktarılan ve anların üzün süre gözlemleyip bir sonuca vararak öğüt ve nasihat şeklinde aktarmış oldukları özlü sözlerdir. Atasözleri değişik dillerde farklı terimlerle telaffuz edilmiştir; Türkçede ise Kaşkarlı Mahmut sav şeklinde ifade ederken daha sonraları Osmanlı Türkçesinde ise darbımesel veya durûb-i emsal kelime grubuyla ifade edilmiştir. Günümüz Türkçesinde ise atasözü şeklinde söylenmektedir. Azerbaycan Türkçesinde ise Atalar sözü terimiyle ifade edilmektedir. Atasözleri toplumda yaşanan olaylardan çıkarılması gereken dersleri bir nasihat bir öğüt şeklinde kısaca anlatır, dile getirir. O nedenle atasözlerini deyimlerden ayıran en önemli tarafı atasözlerinin bir yargı bildirmesidir. Bu öğüt bütün toplumu kapsar ve her zaman doğruya ve iyiye yönlendirir. Diğer taraftan değişik Türk toplulukları kendi atasözlerini toplamışlar ve üzerinde dil çalışmaları yapmışlardır. Bu bakımdan atasözleri ve deyimlerin incelenmesi özel önem taşımaktadır. Türkiye ve Azerbaycan tarihten bu güne hem dilde hem de kültürde birlikteliği sağlamış iki devlettir. Aynı dili konuşmamızın yanında farklı komşuluk ilişkilerine sahip olmamız ve farklı kültürlerden etkilenmemiz nedeni ile hem dilde hem de kültürde azda olsa farklılıklar vardır. Bu farklılıklar atasözlerinde de görülmektedir. Biz bu araştırmamızda iki Türkçede su ile ilgili söylenmiş atasözlerinin gramer özellikleri üzerinde durarak farklı ve benzer yanları nelerdir; bunu ortaya koymaya çalışacağız. Anahtar kelimeler: Atasözleri, Türkiye Türkçesi, Azerbaycan Türkçesi, Türkçe gramer, Türk kültürü, Su kültürü, dil kültürü. The Grammatical Features of the Word “Water” in the Proverbs of Turkey and Azerbaijan Abstract The lifestyle

  5. AN IMPROVED CHARACTERISATION OF THE INTERIOR OF THE COMPLETELY POSITIVE CONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, Peter J. C.

    2010-01-01

    A symmetric matrix is defined to be completely positive if it allows a factorisation BB(T), where B is an entrywise nonnegative matrix. This set is useful in certain optimisation problems. The interior of the completely positive cone has previously been characterised by Dur and Still [M. Dur and G.

  6. “Dede Korkut Kitabı” Nokta-i Nazarından “Dürüstlük, Sözünde Durma, Mütevazılık ve Merhamet” Erdemlerine Felsefî Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    DÖNMEZ, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    ÖzetMakalede ilk defa Dede Korkut Kitabı esasında insan olmada ayırıcı bir vasıf olan değerlerin adı geçen kitaptan seçtiğimiz ‘tevazu, merhamet, sözünde durma ve dürüstlük’ erdemleri üzerinden tarih içre ontik bir gerçekliğe (onto-etik) sahip olduklarını göstermeye çalıştık. İnsan olmada nasıl tevazu merhametten ayrılamıyorsa, merhametin de sözünde durma ile dürüstlükle tamamlanması gerekir. Elbette her bir erdem, müstakil olarak ele alınıp incelenebilirdi. Ancak biz bu çalışmada bütünleştir...

  7. Annelerin Ebeveynlik Öz Yeterlik Algıları ile Gelişimi Risk Altında Olan Bebeklerin Gelişimleri Arasındaki İlişkiyi İnceleyen Araştırmalara Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Aksoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, ebeveynlerin (özellikle annelerin öz yeterlik düzeyleri ile çocuklarının erken çocukluk dönemindeki gelişimleri arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen araştırmaları gözden geçirmektir. Bu amaçla betimsel alan yazın taraması yapılmıştır. Ele alınan makalelerdeki bulgular, annelerin sahip olduğu ebeveyn öz yeterlik algısının düzeyi ile çocukların bilişsel, sosyal ve dil gelişimleri arasında ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca ebeveynlik öz yeterlik düzeyleri sosyo-ekonomik durum, sosyal destekler, bekâr anne olma ve annelik yaşı gibi değişkenlerden etkilenmektedir. Annelerin öz yeterlikleriyle çocuğun problem davranışları, annelik depresyonu ve stresi gibi değişkenler arasında da ilişkiler olduğu çalışmalarda rapor edilmiştir. The purpose of this study is to overview studies on relationship between the parental self-efficacy levels (especially mothers’ self-efficacy and development of their young children. For this purpose, a narrative literature review was carried out. Based on the review of the literature, it is observed that there are relationships between the parental self-efficacy and children’s cognitive, social and language development. Moreover, parental self-efficacy level is affected by some variables such as socio-economical condition, social supports, being a single mother and mother’s age. Also, studies pointed out that there is a relationship between selfefficacy levels of mothers and child’s problem behaviors, maternal depression and stress.

  8. Ankara Koşullarında Açıkta Yetiştirilen Glayöl (Gladiolus grandiflorus) Çeşitlerinin Bazı Bitki Gelişim Özellikleri Bakımından İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇINTAŞ, Ceren; ELLİALTIOĞLU, Ş.Şebnem; GÜMÜŞ, Cevdet

    2017-01-01

    Glayöl bitkisi,kesme çiçek sektörü için açıkta yetiştiriciliği yapılabilen ve dünya çapındaönemli yer tutan süs bitkilerinden birisidir. Ankara koşullarında farklı kormdikim zamanlarının bitki gelişim özelliklerinden bazıları üzerindeki etkileriincelenmiştir. Çalışmada erkenci, orta mevsim, orta geççi ve geççi olmak üzere4 farklı çiçeklenme zamanına sahip olan 11 adet glayöl çeşidi kullanılmıştır.31 Mayıs, 15 Haziran, 30 Haziran ve 15 Temmuz olmak üzere 4 farklı dikim zamanıdenenerek, çıkış v...

  9. Üstün Zekâlı Öğrencilerin Bakış  Açısıyla Üstün Zekâ Etiketinin Öğrencilerin Çeşitli Algıları Üzerindeki Etkileri (Effects of Gifted Label on Gifted Students' Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Öpengin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Significance: Labels function in education as means of delivering specialized services to identified students (Hickey & Toth, 1990 and the label “gifted” is widely used to describe advanced academic performance or cognitive development. The label gifted can affect both familial and peer relationships. It may also affect the child’s sense of self-worth both directly and through the response of others to the label. The related literature shows that the label “gifted” has been hypothesized to be perceived both positively and negatively by students, their parents and friends. Nevertheless, such a hypothesis has not been investigated sufficiently to draw certain conclusions. The purpose of the current study was to investigate possible positive and negative effects of gifted label. The study was distinct in terms of its methodology through which labeling effects were investigated both before and after students were labeled as gifted and comparisons were made with a control group. The following research questions were examined: 1.Do gifted students’ perceptions about themselves and about their parents’ and friends’ attitudes towards them differ from non-gifted students’ perceptions?2.Do gifted students’ perceptions of themselves before they are identified as gifted differ from their perceptions after they are identified as gifted?3.Do gifted students’ perceptions of their parents’ attitudes towards them before they are identified as gifted differ from their perceptions after they are identified as gifted?4.Do gifted students’ perceptions of their friends’ attitudes towards them before they are identified as gifted differ from their perceptions after they are identified as gifted?Method: Research participants consisted of 415 sixth-grade students (47.5% female and 52.5% male who applied to the Education Programs for Talented Students (EPTS at Anadolu University in Eskisehir in Turkey and who filled out the Gifted Label Effects-Scale (GLE-S during their applications. The gifted group included 28 students who were identified to be gifted among the 415 students by the identification system of the EPTS. These students were accepted to the EPTS programs. Because two of them dropped out the program before the posttest was administered, the research group included 26 gifted students. The comparative group included 387 non-labeled students who applied to the EPTS but not identified to be gifted. Of the gifted sample 23.1% was female and 76.9% were male. As a posttest the GLE-S was administered to the gifted students after they attended the EPTS programs for 4 months. We had such a time period between the pretest and posttest because we hypothesized that labeling effects did not appear soon after the identification; instead a reasonable time period was necessary for the emergence of the effects. GLE-S is composed of 3 subscales. They measure self-perceptions, perceptions of parental attitudes and perceptions of friends’ attitudes (see Appendix A. Each subscale includes 8 items, of which 4 are related to positive perceptions and the other 4 are related to negative perceptions. In total, the scale includes twenty-four items, half of which are negative perceptions and the other half are positive perceptions. A four point likert-type scale is used for scoring the items in the scale. Each item is scored from “0” to “3” (“0” = It does not suit me, “1” = It suits me slightly, “2” = It suits me mostly, “3” = It suits me completely. The items related to negative perceptions are coded in reverse. Total score on the scale can range from 0 to 72. Scores closer to “0” mean negative perceptions whereas those closer to “72” mean positive perceptions. Cronbach alpha coefficient for the reliability of the GLE-S for 24 items was found to be .72.Pretest and posttest scores were compared at total score, subtest score and item level since each item in the scale was supposed to have its distinct significance. Paired-samples t-test was used to compare pretest and posttest differences at total score and subtest levels whereas Wilcoxon sign-ranks test was used to compare pretest and posttest differences at item level. Independent-samples t-test was used to compare gifted students’ scores with the scores of the students who were not identified to be gifted.Results: A significant difference was found between the perception score of non-gifted students (X=54.93 and the posttest perception score of gifted students (X=51.80, t (411 =2.12, (p<.05 in the total GLE-S score. Follow-up analysis showed that the difference came from their perceptions of their friends’ attitudes, t (411 =2.025, (p<.05. That is, gifted students held less positive perceptions than 387 students about their friends’ attitudes towards them. A comparison of gifted students’ perception scores before the identification and their scores 4 months after the identification using Paired-samples t-test analysis yielded no significant difference. That is, gifted students’ scores at the subscale level did not change significantly from pretest to posttest. However, Wilcoxon sign-ranks item by item analysis showed significant increases for 3 items out of 24. These perceptions were as follows: “I feel alone among my friends.” “My family compares me with other children too often.” “My friends make fun of my weaknesses.”Discussion: A comparison of gifted and non-gifted students’ perceptions related to labeling effects shows that gifted students hold less positive perceptions than other students about their friends’ attitudes towards them. However, whether or not this difference comes from gifted labeling is unknown because gifted students’ perceptions related to labeling effects did not change significantly from the pretest to the posttest at the subscale level. Although pretest-posttest scores (self-perceptions, parents attitudes and friends attitudes at the subscale level did not change significantly, as reported before, we found significant increases in three items, related to negative perceptions, in the item level analysis. For example, gifted students’ scores in the item “My friends make fun of my weaknesses “significantly increased after labeling. Several reasons can be speculated about the increase in negative perceptions related to labeling. Either gifted students’ perceptions might have changed or their friends and parents’ attitudes might have changed. For example, in the case of students’ making fun of gifted students’ weaknesses, their actual purpose might be to camouflage gifted students’ abilities because of jealousy. These speculations bring into mind a need for directly measuring labeling effects on parents and friends rather than gifted students’ perceptions. There could be more differences than the ones found in this study between gifted and non-gifted students’ perceptions related to labeling effects if different samples are used in re-search. We prefer to make a speculation here. The education system in Turkey could be one of the principal reasons behind the absence of significant effects of labeling on gifted students’ perceptions. The education system is thoroughly test-oriented which entails competition among students to obtain the highest grades across the classroom, the school, the city and yet across the country. Higher grades are also considered to be the most important criterion of achievement among the community. Most of the participants in the current study who applied to the EPTS usually held the “top” ranks of academic success in their classes. As a consequence, they already were implicitly labeled by their social environment and were exposed to effects of labeling even before they took part in the EPTS.This study is distinct in its methodology compared to other studies about the labeling effect. First, the current study diverges from previous studies by measuring and comparing gifted students’ perceptions both before and after labeling. Second, unlike previous studies in which effects of “gifted” label were directly asked to gifted and other students, we did not ask students effects of gifted label; instead we included in our measurement behaviors or perceptions that could be changed by “gifted” label. More research is needed to fully understand possible effects of gifted label. Particularly need is the experimental study that includes gifted and non-gifted control groups.

  10. Köyyollarının Takibi, Bakım Ve Onarımı İçin Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemi (CBS Esaslı Yönetim Modeli: Denizli Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetiş Şazi Murat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri (CBS özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde her alanda sıklıkla kullanılan bir araç haline gelmişken Türkiye' de, merkezi ve yerel yönetimlerce benimsenmiş olmakla birlikte kamu hizmetlerinde kullanımı ise henüz emekleme aşamasındadır. Denizli İl Özel İdaresi Yol ve Ulaşım Hizmetleri Müdürlüğü bünyesinde il sınırları içindeki sorumluluk ve hizmet alanında bulunan köyyolları envanterinin güncellenmesi, farklı analiz sonuçları üzerinden Müdürlüğün kırsal altyapı hizmetlerine modern ve teknik yöntemlerle yön verilmesi amaçlı CBS destekli bir çalışma ortaya konulmuştur. Strateji Geliştirme Müdürlüğü ile birlikte yürütülen bu çalışmada farklı amaçlar için geliştirilmiş olan katmanlar, topoğrafik haritalar, uydu fotoğrafları vb. araçlardan istifade edilerek köyyolları ile ilgili yürütülen hizmetin doğru ve güncel verilere dayalı olmasına çalışılmıştır. Kamu kaynaklarının etkin kullanılmasını sağlayabilecek hassas ve hızlı analiz sonuçlarına göre köyyolları ulaşımının yeniden planlanması, eksik ve hatalı durumların tespiti ile tam ve bütünleşik bir yönetim sistemi kurulması amaçlı pilot bir proje ortaya konulmaya ve ürün olarak kullanılması yoluna gidilmiştir.

  11. Yapı İşleri Mevzuatı ve Yapım İşleri Genel Şartnamesi Üzerine Yüklenici İnşaat Firmaları Orijinli Eleştirel Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Onur UĞUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Türkiye Resmi Sektör İnşaat Müteahhitleri İşveren Sendikası (Türkinşa üyesi yapım firmalarından Ankara merkezli olanlara, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti kamu yapım projelerinde geçerli olan yapım işleri mevzuatının bazı düzenlemeleri ve Yapım İşleri Genel Şartnamesi (YİGŞ esasları üzerine bir anket uygulanmıştır. Anket uygulanan firmaların tamamı kamuya taahhüt işleri gerçekleştirmiş/gerçekleştiriyor olan kuruluşlardır. Anketi yanıtlayan firmalardan, yanıtladıkları her sorunun (konunun yüklenimlerini yaptıkları inşaat projelerinin süresine, maliyetlerine ve kalitesine etkilerinin derecelerini belirlemek amacı ile puanlar vermeleri istenmiştir. Edinilen veriler üzerinde frekans ve yüzde dağılım analizleri; düzenleme esaslarının maliyet, süre ve kalite düzeylerine etkilerin belirlenebilmesi için yapılan puanlamalara göre önemlilik analizleri yapılmıştır. Çalışmada Türk yapım firmalarının uygulamadaki YİGŞ ve bazı hukuki düzenlemeler ile ilgili problemleri belirlenmiş, mevcut düzenlemelere eleştiriler getirilmiş ve mevcut sistemin revize edilmesine katkıda bulunabilecek önerilerde bulunulmuştur

  12. Çokuluslu Şirketlerin Kaynak-Tabanlı Biyo-Politik Üretiminde Rekabetçi Gücün Diyalektiği -Eleştirel ve Bütünsel Bakış-

    OpenAIRE

    PAPATYA,   Prof.Dr.Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to reveals the effects of the dialectic of competitive power of Multinational Corporations’ (MNCs) connected to the resourcebased applications on bio-political production with critical and holistic perspective. The basic assumptions of the study, has been arranged from the three outputs of the "bio-political production" concepts of Foucault and Hardt-Negri's. The first problematic point derives from the power/ideologybased management approaches emerging as restr...

  13. Çokuluslu Şirketlerin Kaynak-Tabanlı Biyo-Politik Üretiminde Rekabetçi Gücün Diyalektiği -Eleştirel ve Bütünsel Bakış-

    OpenAIRE

    PAPATYA,   Prof.Dr.Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to reveals the effects of the dialectic of competitive power of Multinational Corporations’ (MNCs) connected to the resourcebased applications on bio-political production with critical and holistic perspective. The basic assumptions of the study, has been arranged from the three outputs of the "bio-political production" concepts of Foucault and Hardt-Negri's. The first problematic point derives from the power/ideologybased management approaches emerging as restructuring the de...

  14. Türkiye ve Bulgaristan’da İlkokuma Yazma Sürecinde Öğrencilerin Ürettikleri Yazıların Okunaklılık Bakımından İncelenmesi Investigation of Manuscript Legibility Produced by students in the Process of Early Writing-Reading in Turkey and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim COŞKUN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful transfer of thoughts and emotions that speaking and writing skills, know-how requires a number of skills and knowledge. This accumulation of knowledge and skills in the elementary foundations are being laid. One of the expressive language skills writing is from skills of the individual, academic, cultural and social life most used. Children in the process of development, but the receptive language and expressive language skills, listening skills, preschool speech, expressive language, receptive language skills of reading and writing skills in the elementary school are gaining. Starting first grade literacy teaching process consists of encoding and decoding activities. Does not change from person to person are universal criteria for readability. No matter which language you made a post about writing as long as it complies with the criteria "legible" provision given. From this point in the process of teaching reading and writing of this study, Turkish and Bulgarian primary criteria was to investigate the legibility of texts produced by first grade children. This study was designed according to the technique of qualitative case study research model data 2012-2013 academic year in Edirne, Turkey, the first year of primary school going 15 (9 male, 6 female in the 2012-2013 academic year the student data and Bulgaria capital Sofia the first year of the ongoing 15 (8 female and 7 male were collected from samples of student writing. Samples taken from both countries, letters, syllables, words, sentences, and attention is paid to the stages of the text. Criteria for determining the legibility of domestic and foreign literature were reviewed and according to the criteria determined by the researcher “enough", "developed" and "inadequate," he rated. The data were analyzed by the researcher and with five experts in the field. Legibility of the data by the researcher analyzed separately according to the criteria of whether the raters’ reliability coefficient was calculated as .87. Analysis results are expressed in terms of percentage and frequency used for the quantification of qualitative data and direct extracts from the writings of students interpreted. Text examples of straight-line placement of text, the space between words, letter-spacing, letter format, suitable to produce, including six main categories of contiguity and the curvature examined. The findings of the study, the writing researchers, reading and writing documents and material authors,designers, classroom teachers and classroom teacher candidates will contribute important. Duygu ve düşüncelerin başarılı bir şekilde aktarılmasını sağlayankonuşma ve yazma becerileri, bir takım bilgi ve becerilerin birikiminigerektirmektedir. Bu bilgi ve becerilerin birikiminin temelleri iseilkokullarda atılmaktadır. İfade edici dil becerilerinden yazma becerisibireyin akademik, kültürel ve sosyal hayatında en çok kullandığıbecerilerdendir. Çocuklar, gelişim sürecinde olmakla birlikte, alıcı dilbecerilerinden dinlemeyi ve ifade edici dil becerilerinden konuşmayıokul öncesi dönemde, alıcı dil becerilerinden okuma ve ifade edici dilbecerilerinden yazmayı ise ilkokul döneminde kazanmaktadır. İlkokulbirinci sınıfta başlayan okuma yazma öğretim süreci şifreleme ve şifreyiçözme etkinliklerinden oluşmaktadır. Okunaklılığın kişiden kişiyedeğişmeyen evrensel kriterleri vardır. Bir yazı hangi dilde üretilmişolursa olsun bu kriterlere uyduğu sürece yazı hakkında “okunaklı”hükmü verilebilir. Buradan hareketle bu çalışmada Türkçe ve Bulgarcaokuma yazma öğretim sürecinde ilkokul birinci sınıf çocuklarınınürettiği yazıların okunaklılık kriterlerine incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır.Nitel araştırma modelinin durum çalışması tekniğine göre desenlenenbu araştırmada Türkiye’deki veriler 2012-2013 Öğretim Yılında Edirneilinde ilkokul birinci sınıfa devam eden 15 (9 erkek, 6 kız öğrencinin veBulgaristan’daki veriler ise 2012-2013 Öğretim Yılında başkent Sofya’dabirinci sınıfa devam eden 15 (8 kız, 7 erkek öğrencinin yazıörneklerinden toplanmıştır. Her iki ülkeden alınan yazı örneklerindeharf, hece, kelime, cümle ve metin aşamalarının olmasına dikkatedilmiştir. Okunaklılığın ölçütleri belirlenirken yerli ve yabancı literatürtaranmış ve kriterler buna göre belirlenerek araştırmacı tarafından“uygun”, “geliştirilmeli” ve “yetersiz” şeklinde derecelendirilmiştir.Araştırmada veriler araştırmacıyla birlikte 5 alan uzmanı tarafındananaliz edilmiştir. Veriler araştırmacı tarafından okunaklılık kriterlerinegöre ayrı ayrı analiz edilip puanlayıcılar arasındaki güvenirlik katsayısı.87 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları; nitel verilerinsayısallaştırılmasında kullanılan yüzde ve frekans ile ifade edilmiş veöğrenci yazılarından doğrudan alıntılar yapılarak yorumlanmıştır. Yazıörnekleri; yazının satıra doğrusal olarak yerleştirilmesi, kelimeler arası boşluk, harfler arası boşluk, harfi formatına uygun üretme, bitişiklik ve eğiklik olmak üzere altı ana kategoride incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın bulgularının; yazı ve yazma araştırmacılarına, okuma yazma dokümanlarını hazırlayanlara ve materyal tasarımcılarına, sınıf öğretmenlerine ve sınıf öğretmeni adaylarına önemli katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.

  15. The Analysis of the Learning Strategies Utilized By Students in Music Class in Terms of Some Psychosocial Variables (Öğrencilerin Kullandığı Müziği Öğrenme Stratejilerinin Bazı Psikososyal Değişkenler Bakımından Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep SEVER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to bring up learning strategies in music used by 4th, 5th and 6th graders in primary schools in terms of some psychosocial variables. This study is important as it lights the way for the future of our education system and specially strategy teaching in music. The problems and their possible solutions faced during learning of the music were represented. The Sample of this study was composed of totally 200, 4th, 5th and 6th graders in two different primary schools from İzmir-Bornova. The method of the study was Survey model. The opinions of the students regarding their strategies of learning music were gathered by the triple Likert type scale called “Scale for Strategies of Learning Music” which was developed by Kocabaş (1998b. The data analysis was computed under SSPS 15.0 program by using T-test and one way variance. The reliability of the scale of this study was 0,83. As a result of this study, it was observed that gender; school types, the existence of musical education outsources, a person in the family having musical background or playing a musical instrument were effective on the opinions about the strategies followed and used by students during learning music.

  16. Yönetim ve Örgüt Yapısına Kuantum Mekaniği Açısından Bir Bakış = A Review of the structure of Management and Organization from the Perspective of Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem UTKU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporations have been a model of Newtonian organization, thriving on certainty and predictability. They are hierarchical, with power emanating from the top, and control exercised at every level. Heavily bureaucratic and rule-bound, they are necessarily inflexible and are managed as though the part organizes the whole. This article argues that we are moving away from a Newtonian to a complexity-based system and the insights of modern quantum physics can illuminate our understanding of everyday life-our relationships to ourselves, to others, and to the world. This article offers a new conceptual structure for a fundamental transformation of corporation.

  17. Otimização, isolamento, identificação e atividade antiproliferativa da violaceina obtida por processo fermentativo

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Semedo Mendes

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: A violaceína é um pigmento produzido pela bactéria Chromobacterium violaceum e estudada por vários grupos de pesquisadores mundialmente, sendo já relatada as seguintes atividades biológicas para este pigmento: bactericida (Durán 1990), tripanocida (Caldas et aI. 1978; Durán et al. 1989; Durán & Haun, 1991), anti-viral (May et al. 1991), tumoricida (Durán et al. 1996), atividade citotóxica em células de mamíferos (Durán et aI. 1989; Haun et al. 1992), antioxidante (De Azevedo et al 200...

  18. Downregulation of microRNA-125a is involved in intervertebral disc degeneration by targeting pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the role of the microRNA-125a (miR-125a and BAK1 in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD. Materials and Methods: Degenerative lumbar nucleus pulposus (NP tissues were obtained from 193 patients who underwent resection, and normal controls consisted of normal NP tissues from 32 patients with traumatic lumbar fracture in our hospital. All patients were graded according to the Pfirrmann criteria. QRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-125a and BAK1, and apoptosis of NP tissues detected by TUNEL staining. After isolation of non- degenerative and degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs, the targeting relationship between miR-125a and BAK1 was verified by dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Flow cytometry was determined the NPCs apoptosis, and Western blot to measure the expressions of BAK1, Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. Results: MiR-125a was reduced while BAK1 was elevated in IDD patients with the increase of Pfirrmann grade. Besides, miRNA-125a was negatively correlated to the NPCs apoptosis, while BAK1 mRNA was positively correlated to cell apoptosis. Additionally, BAK1 is the target gene of miRNA-125a. When transfection of miR-125a mimics in vitro, the apoptosis of NPCs were inhibited, with the down-regulation of BAK1, Caspase-3, and Bax, and the upregulation of Bcl-2. In addition, siBAK1 can reverse the pro-apoptosis function of miR-125a inhibitors in NPCs. Conclusion: miRNA-125a may regulate the apoptosis status of the NPCs by inhibiting the expression of its target gene BAK1, which provided a potential strategy for further development of IDD therapies.

  19. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MOSS FLORA OF URUGUAY: THE GENUS POHLIA (BRYOPHYTA, BRYALES, A NEW RECORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Pohlia se presenta como un nuevo registro para Uruguay, donde está representado por dos especies: P. wahlenbergii y P. humilis (=P. tenuifolia. Pohlia humilis también se registra por primera vez para Colombia. Se propone a P. loriformis, una especie poco conocida descrita para Bolivia, como un nuevo sinónimo de P. humilis. Se designan lectotipos para P. loriformis y Mielichhoferia brachycarpa. Se presenta una clave para las especies de Pohlia de Uruguay y se indican, para P. humilis, los sinónimos de América del Sur, comentarios breves, su distribución e ilustraciones.

  20. Uued plaadid / Marko Tiidelepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiidelepp, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Mr. Lawrence "19/90-99", Indigolapsed "Voorimehe viis" ja "Ei tea kumb?", Lament "Lament", Tokio Hotel "Zimmer 483 - Live In Europe", OneRepublic "Dreaming Out Loud", "Jim Arrow & The Anachrones", Nice Try", Shower "Brain Piracy" ja "Humiliator"

  1. Developing a Prison Education Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskew, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This chapter calls for educators to specifically engage the needs of African-American men, who often comprise the largest demographic in prison, in what the author calls the Humiliation-to-Humility Perspective.

  2. Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...

  3. Different roles of resilience in depressive patients with history of suicide attempt and no history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Maria C; Tosone, Adele; Stratta, Paolo; Collazzoni, Alberto; Santarelli, Valeria; Guadagni, Elisabetta; Rossi, Rodolfo; Rossi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Suicidal ideation is modulated by several risk and protective factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between patients with a history of suicide attempt and those with no such history, with special attention to depression, interpersonal sensitivity, humiliation, and resilience. One hundred consecutively admitted patients with an index depressive episode were recruited. The Brief Symptom Inventory, Humiliation Inventory, and Resilience Scale for Adult were administered. Scores for humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression were higher in subjects with history of suicide attempt, while higher scores for resilience were observed in the group with no such history. Different patterns of relationships among the variables of interest were found in the two groups. Resilience dimensions such as social resources and familial cohesion were strongly and negatively correlated with humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression in subjects with a past suicide attempt. Resilience factors can modulate and reduce the impact of suicide risk. Assessing risk and protective factors could enhance the ability to intervene appropriately.

  4. Anwar El Sadat and the Art of the Possible: A Look at the Yom Kippur War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spofford, Cosmas R; Henderson, Warren L

    2001-01-01

    .... In the 1967 War, the Israelis successfully executed a preemptive attack that defeated the Egyptian army and seized large parts of the Sinai and the Suez Canal, greatly humiliating the Egyptians...

  5. [Hepatic intra-arterial infusion of biological response modifier (BRM)-activated killer immune lymphocytes to treat liver cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Takusaburo

    2012-11-01

    To enable "life with cancer" while maintaining quality of life(QOL) and freedom from adverse effects, we have devised biological response modifier (BRM)-activated killer (BAK) therapy, a new immune cell therapy using CD56-positive lymphocytes designed to treat advanced solid cancers. This treatment is yet to be applied to liver cancer, because BAK cells administered by intravenous infusion are unlikely to reach lesions via the complex vascular and lymphatic systems. Here, we report a case in which the patient, a surgeon, requested that we attempt to deliver BAK cells to cancer lesions in the liver via hepatic intra-arterial infusion. In 2005, with the patient's consent, we injected autologous lymphocytes intra-arterially into the liver using a catheter and confirmed the absence of adverse effects. In December 2008, we began injecting BAK cells intra-arterially into the liver of the patient, a male physician aged 52 years at the time, after identifying liver metastases following surgery for rectal cancer. We injected 10 billion cells intra-arterially into the liver via a catheter once a month for 6 months, and then undertook conventional BAK therapy by monthly intravenous infusion. Based on images obtained by positron emission tomography-computed tomography, BAK therapy led to complete remission and disappearance of the liver metastases. This case highlights the effectiveness of hepatic intra-arterial infusion of BAK cells in cases of liver cancer.

  6. Effect of low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride on acanthamoebal survival and its potential impact on empirical therapy of infectious keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Elmer Y; Shoff, Megan E; Gao, Weihua; Joslin, Charlotte E

    2013-05-01

    The significant antiacanthamoebal effect of benzalkonium chloride, at or below concentrations used for preservation of common ophthalmic preparations, should be understood both when choosing empiric antibiotic therapy for infectious keratitis and when assessing the persistent rise in Acanthamoeba cases in the United States since 2003. To characterize the antiacanthamoebal efficacy of low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) for drug preservation and therapeutic effect against Acanthamoeba. Experimental study with a review of the literature. Laboratory. A concentration of 10(4) trophozoites of 3 well-characterized clinical strains of Acanthamoeba were exposed at 0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5 hours to BAK (0.001%, 0.002%, and 0.003%), moxifloxacin hydrochloride (0.5%), and moxifloxacin (0.5%) + BAK (0.001% and 0.003%) with hydrogen peroxide (3%) and amoeba saline controls. Amoeba survival was calculated using the most probable number method recorded as log kill values. The relationship of BAK concentration and exposure time as well as the relative effect of BAK and moxifloxacin on acanthamoebal survival were analyzed. Amoebicidal activity of BAK is both time dependent and concentration dependent in pooled and strain-stratified analyses (P independent inhibitory effect or additive effect to BAK efficacy on acanthamoebal survival. The profound antiacanthamoebal effect of BAK, 0.003%, was similar to that of hydrogen peroxide for certain strains. Low concentrations of BAK, previously demonstrated to concentrate and persist in ocular surface epithelium, exhibit significant antiacanthamoebal activity in vitro at or below concentrations found in commercially available ophthalmic anti-infectives. The unexplained persistence of the Acanthamoeba keratitis outbreak in the United States, clusters abroad, and clinical studies reporting resolution or modification of Acanthamoeba keratitis without specific antiacanthamoebal therapy suggests that other contributing factors

  7. A conceptual exploration of values education in the context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propositional know- ledge) or knowing how to do things (procedural knowledge), but in the everyday lived realities of people as they .... Bak, then schools should provide the appropriate environment for socialization augmented by critical individuation, ...

  8. Reference: 754 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in root hair growth. 2 624-35 18408046 2008 Jun Plant physiology Bak Gwangbae|Cho Hyung-Taeg|Choi Yunjung|Chuang Wen-I|Lee Youngsook|Lee Yuree

  9. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bahir Dar University

    shrub. Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Bak. Fabaceae. Birbira. Tree. Myrica salicifolia A.Rich. Myricaceae. Shinet. Tree/shrub. Myrsine africana L. Myrsinaceae kechemo. Tree/shrub. Mytenus undata(A.D.C)f.wheat celastraceae. Checho. Tree/shrub.

  10. Daling transvetzuren, maar niet in alle grootverbruikproducten: vetzuursamenstelling van spijsvetten, koek en snacks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Kosmeijer-Schuil, J.G.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Deze vetzuren hebben een ongunstige invloed op het lipoproteineprofiel in het bloed. In een tabel is de vetzuursamenstelling van geselecteerde koek en snacks weergegeven. Tegenwoordig bevatten de margarines, bak- en braadvetten aanzienlijk minder verzadigd vet

  11. Best practices of using shotcrete for wall fascia and slope stabilization (phase 1 study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Shotcrete has become attractive and holds potential to replace cast-in-place (CIP) concrete for elements like retaining walls and slope stabilization. However, this practice is still limited due to concerns of drying shrinkage cracking, long-term dur...

  12. Oxcarbazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depakote); proton-pump inhibitors such as lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), and pantoprazole (Protonix); theophylline (Theo-Dur); and ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you are using hormonal contraceptives, you should ...

  13. Mineralogy and chemistry of manganese nodules from the Southern part of Carlsberg Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    of todorokite. Scanning electron micrographs indicate that they are made up of small and large botryoids; and occasional platelets of todorokite, within cavities formed dur to post depositional recrystallization. X-ray diffraction patterns do not show any peaks...

  14. Aminophylline overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are found in medicines with these names (with brand names in parentheses): Aminophylline Theophylline (Theo-Dur, Slo- ... AND JOINTS Muscle twitching and cramping NERVOUS SYSTEM Confusion Convulsions Dizziness Fever Hallucinations (thinking something is there, ...

  15. Reference: 645 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rter AtDUR3 in nitrogen nutrition in Arabidopsis. In transgenic lines expressing ... impaired growth on urea as a sole nitrogen source were used to investigate a role of the H+/urea co-transpo

  16. Sweet Dreams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jack Kohane

    2010-01-01

      It was the icing on the cake for Dur net Rosenberg when she recently opened the doors of two more retail locations of her specialty pastry shops, joining the original bakery she founded almost 35 years ago...

  17. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in particular, Rodolfo. Aramayo and Patrick Shiu) has now revealed that the barren phenotype is caused by a newly discov- ered gene-silencing process called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). MSUD occurs dur- ing meiosis and ...

  18. Pentoxifylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to caffeine-containing products (coffee, tea, colas), pentoxifylline, theobromine, theophylline (Theo-Dur), or any other drugs.tell ... of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not ...

  19. Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Dur. And schinz (apocynaceae). Yao Patrick Hoekou, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Simplice Damintoti Karou, Rakiswende Serge Yerbanga, Elom Achoribo, Ollo Da, Wouyo Atakpama, Komlan Batawila ...

  20. Patterns of prescribing and utilization of asthma medications in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    month period. Patients ... DURs help regulators implement the appropriate interventions to address certain issues in the health care systems. Among which is designing educational programs to ... of education, family history and smoking status.

  1. Prognostic role of sensitive-to-apoptosis gene expression in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozden, Sevgi A; Ozyurt, Hazan; Ozgen, Zerrin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between prognosis of rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and expression of sensitive-to-apoptosis (SAG), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-X(L)) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak).......To investigate the association between prognosis of rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and expression of sensitive-to-apoptosis (SAG), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-X(L)) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak)....

  2. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). Reef-Building Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    spined sea urchin Diadema to remove coarse sediments and only antillarum is known to eat Acropora weakly able to remove fine sediments. (Bak and Van...Houston, Tex. 435 pp. Bak, R.P.M., and G. Van Eys. 1975. Buddemeir, R.W., and R.A. Kinzie. Predation of the sea urchin Diadema 1976. Coral growth. Oceanogr...vi NOMENCLATURE, TAXONOMY, AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE............................. 1 MORPHOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION

  3. Histone Code Modulation by Oncogenic PWWP-Domain Protein in Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Upon confluence, selected cells assaged and serially cultured. th in soft agar and Matrigel agar assays were performed as previously described or three...interest is the apparent inverse relationship in expression between KDM5A and BAK1 (BCL2-antagonist/ killer 1). BAK1 plays a key role in trigging...forward into clinical trials. However, one must keep in mind the caveat that most GASC1 inhibitor scaffolds derive from other struc- turally or

  4. Humilhação: o desrespeito no rebaixamento moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Moulin de Alencar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of the present work is to approach the theme of humiliation, defined as moral degradation. It is about the intention of making someone feel inferior, of diminishing someone. It is therefore, a theme of moral interest. We divided this article into three big sections. On the first one, we shall mention some examples of humiliation and we shall emphasize the importance of studying this theme. On the second one, we shall deal with some theoretical concepts related to the pertaining theme, that is: the notion of respect, kinds of humiliation as to their form and content and, finally, the relationship of the concept of humiliation with that of shame and honor. On the third section, our objective was to present a review on the literature of researches made in Brazil related to the theme in question. Finally, the sequence which finalizes this work, deals with some characteristics which can be analyzed on studies about humiliation. In a preliminary but instigating way we make evident the need for new researches.

  5. Reducing cyberbullying: A theory of reasoned action-based video prevention program for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Ashley N; Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 665-IJBCS-Article-Alexis N Lepengue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    INTRODUCTION. Le bananier plantain est l'une des principales plantes alimentaires de base des pays en voie de développement dont le Gabon est le 19e ... et biochimiques. Durée de conservation. Pour chaque traitement, la durée de conservation des bananes a été évaluée par le temps s'écoulant entre le début d' ...

  7. Comparing the Medicaid Retrospective Drug Utilization Review Program Cost-Savings Methods Used by State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I

    2017-12-01

    The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires each state to measure prescription drug cost-savings generated from its DUR programs on an annual basis, but it provides no guidance or unified methodology for doing so. To describe and synthesize the methodologies used by states to measure cost-savings using their Medicaid retrospective DUR program in federal fiscal years 2014 and 2015. For each state, the cost-savings methodologies included in the Medicaid DUR 2014 and 2015 reports were downloaded from Medicaid's website. The reports were then reviewed and synthesized. Methods described by the states were classified according to research designs often described in evaluation textbooks. In 2014, the most often used prescription drugs cost-savings estimation methodology for the Medicaid retrospective DUR program was a simple pre-post intervention method, without a comparison group (ie, 12 states). In 2015, the most common methodology used was a pre-post intervention method, with a comparison group (ie, 14 states). Comparisons of savings attributed to the program among states are still unreliable, because of a lack of a common methodology available for measuring cost-savings. There is great variation among states in the methods used to measure prescription drug utilization cost-savings. This analysis suggests that there is still room for improvement in terms of

  8. Articles du site CRDI.ca les plus populaires en 2014 | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 déc. 2014 ... La nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais. Une équipe de recherche internationale met au point des applications fondées sur la nanotechnologie d'hexanal, un extrait végétal naturel qui p. Voir davantageLa nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais.

  9. Une technologie de pointe venue d'Asie modernise un secteur ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... La nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais. Une équipe de recherche internationale met au point des applications fondées sur la nanotechnologie d'hexanal, un extrait végétal naturel qui p. Voir davantageLa nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais.

  10. L'élevage de la poule indigène, gage de résilience pour les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 juin 2016 ... La nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais. Une équipe de recherche internationale met au point des applications fondées sur la nanotechnologie d'hexanal, un extrait végétal naturel qui p. Voir davantageLa nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais ...

  11. Les vaccins pour animaux : un facteur clé de la santé et de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 oct. 2013 ... La nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais. Une équipe de recherche internationale met au point des applications fondées sur la nanotechnologie d'hexanal, un extrait végétal naturel qui p. Voir davantageLa nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais.

  12. Renforcer la collaboration entre les universités canadiennes et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 juin 2016 ... La nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais. Une équipe de recherche internationale met au point des applications fondées sur la nanotechnologie d'hexanal, un extrait végétal naturel qui p. Voir davantageLa nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais ...

  13. AJU 3099.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    autre part, à la .... jour post-opératoire. Cette fistulisation était traitée par un simple sondage pendant une durée supplémentaire d'un mois. La durée moyenne de suivi était de 28 mois (6-50 mois). Trois patients (12%) avaient présenté une ...

  14. Aydın’da Faaliyet Gösteren KOBİ’lerin Bilgi Teknolojileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi Bakış Açısı ile Verimlilik Araştırması(Productivity Investigation of Small and Medium Size Organizations’ (SME’s in Aydın Province with Information Technology and Human Resources Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Hamit TURAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SME are made up an important part of a developed or developing country’s economy, at the same time, they create most of the employment opportunities. On the other hand, productivity is very important for organizations’ survival and success. In this study, the factors that have influence on organizational productivity have been tested empirically. A survey instrument with field study has been carried out in Aydın province. Various dependent and independent factors especially Information Technology and Human Resources variables that could influence productivity of an SME were tested with regression analysis and the result reported and interpreted.

  15. Hayata ve Vücut Dokunulmazlığına Karşı İşlenen Suçlarda Kadın Suçluluğu ve Dindarlık İlişkisi / Female Criminality and Religiosity in the Homicide and Assault Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kenevir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract        This study consists of the results of the research conducted with convicted female prisoners who committed crimes against the immunity and body immunity in Ankara (Sincan, İzmir (Şakran and İstanbul (Bakırköy women's closed prisons. The scope of the research includes women convicted of crimes against life and body immunity, who are more religious than prisoners convicted of theft, drugs etc. In this respect, the factors that lead to the criminality of women, who were convicted of murder or attempt murder, convicted of wounding offenses and who defined themselves as religious, are determined. Another aim is to demonstrate the crime and victim relationship, how convicts explain criminal actions to themselves and their surroundings and how they justify themselves. Questionnaires and semi-structured interview techniques were used as a method. In this direction, the findings obtained from the results of the questionnaire conducted with 151 women convicts were evaluated by descriptive statistical method and the results of semi-structured interviews with 8 women were included in the results. These types of explanations, included in neutralization techniques, are: commitment to values, the role of the victim, and rejection of responsibility. In the first place, the victim sees the situation as a matter of honor and explains the guilt involved with their beliefs / beliefs. Secondly, the violence (domestic problems that is experienced is said to be the result, as in the opposite party deserves it. In the third place, the victim rejects the responsibility, indicating that the mental illness or depression is the result of suicide. Öz      Bu çalışma, Ankara (Sincan, İzmir (Şakran ve İstanbul (Bakırköy kadın kapalı ceza infaz kurumlarında bulunan hayata ve vücut dokunulmazlığına karşı suç işlemiş hükümlü kadın mahkûmlarla yapılan araştırma sonuçlarından oluşmaktadır. Araştırmanın kapsam

  16. Efeitos da lidocaína por via venosa sobre a farmacodinâmica do rocurônio Efectos de la lidocaína por vía venosa sobre la farmacodinámica del rocuronio Effects of intravenous lidocaine on the pharmacodynamics of rocuronium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sotto Maior Cardoso

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O rocurônio é um bloqueador neuromuscular (BNM não-despolarizante de ação intermediária que apresenta início de ação mais rápido, indicado para situações onde há necessidade de intubação traqueal rápida. A lidocaína é freqüentemente utilizada por via venosa para diminuir as respostas hemodinâmicas associadas à intubação traqueal. A associação de um BNM a um anestésico local resulta em potencialização dos efeitos bloqueadores neuromusculares. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a interação entre a lidocaína e a farmacodinâmica do rocurônio avaliada por aceleromiografia. MÉTODO: Pacientes estado físico ASA I e II, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos, aleatoriamente distribuídos em dois grupos (GC: controle e GL: lidocaína, receberam rocurônio como bloqueador neuromuscular. O GL recebeu lidocaína (1,5 mg.kg-1 3 minutos antes do rocurônio. A função neuromuscular foi avaliada pela resposta do músculo adutor do polegar à seqüência de quatro estímulos (SQE. Após a injeção do BNM foram anotados os tempos para a primeira resposta (T1 até a SQE atingir 10% e 0% do valor controle, e recuperar 25%, 75% e 95% da altura de contração (Dur25%, Dur75%, Dur95%. Anotou-se também o tempo de recuperação de T4/T1 = 0,8 e os intervalos Dur75%-Dur25% (IR25-75 e T4/T1 = 0,8 - Dur25%. RESULTADOS: Este estudo não demonstrou diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos quando comparados T1= 10%, T1 = 0, IR25-75, T4/T1 = 0,8 - Dur25%. Os tempos para Dur25%, Dur75%, Dur95% no GL foram estatisticamente superiores aos do GC. CONCLUSÕES: A associação de lidocaína ao rocurônio prolongou a fase inicial de recuperação do bloqueio sem interferir com o início de ação ou com a fase de recuperação final.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El rocuronio es un bloqueador neuromuscular (BNM no despolarizante de acción intermediaria que presenta un inicio de acción más rápido, indicado para

  17. Seduction and revenge in Virginia Woolf's Orlando.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Virginia Woolf's Orlando was characterized by Nigel Nicolson as a "charming love letter" to his mother, Vita Sackville-West. The fictional biography was actually an attempt by Woolf to organize herself after the unbearable humiliation of Vita's abandoning her for another woman. In imagining, writing, and publishing Orlando, Woolf turns her despair about Vita's betrayal into a monument of revenge, defending against disorganizing feelings of humiliation, powerlessness, rage, and loss by creating her own scathing portrait of Vita. In the novel, Woolf also intermittently merges herself with Orlando/Vita to create a permanent tie to the woman who--like her mother and sister--excited and rejected her.

  18. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to long-term HIV care and treatment services: a systematic review; Mise en contact des femmes avec un test VIH-positif dans les services liés à la grossesse avec les services de soins et de traitement de longue durée du VIH: revue systématique; Conectando a las mujeres con una prueba positiva de VIH durante el embarazo a los servicios de larga duración de cuidados y tratamiento para VIH: revisión sistemática

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Ferguson; Alison D. Grant; Deborah Watson-Jones; Tanya Kahawita; John O. Ong'ech; David A. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services in low- or middle-income countries and to explore...

  19. ATAP DESALINASI SEBAGAI SOLUSI PEMENUHAN KEBUTUHAN AIR BERSIH DI DAERAH PESISIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulvi Pri Astuti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi pengolahan air laut atau air payau menjadi air tawar dikenal dengan desalinasi. Dari beberapa teknik desalinasi, yang cukup efektif dan ekonomis adalah desalinasi dengan evaporasi terutama untuk kawasan pesisir yang intensitas mataharinya lebih besar. Dalam jurnal ini akan membahas mengenai perencanaan atap desalinasi di rumah penduduk daerah pesisir dengan mendesain atap rumah masyarakat pesisir. Perencanaan bak evaporasi dan pelat dasar bak untuk ukuran rumah 4,5m×10m terbuat dari floordeck 600 yang dilapisi beton setebal 5,4 cm. Ukuran bak evaporasi adalah 3 m ×10m×0,02m. Saluran penampung air tawar yang terdapat disamping bak seluas 0,75m×10m. Kerangka atap menggunakan kuda-kuda yang terbuat dari baja ringan profil C 100×50×20×4 dan gording yang terbuat dari besi hollow 40×40×0.5. Bahan penutup atap luar adalah polytron polycarbonate setebal 4,2 mm dan penutup atap dalam adalah fiberglass setebal 1mm. Volume air tawar yang dapat dihasilkan dengan luasan bak 3m×10m×0,003m sebesar 89,74 L dengan pemanasan selama 7 jam pada intensitas matahari 485W/m2.

  20. FIRST NOVEL IN KAZAK LITERATURE –BAKITSIZ JAMAL- / KAZAK EDEBIYATINDA ILK ROMAN -BAKITSIZ JAMAL-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Metin ARIKAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakıtsız Jamal, which was published in 1910 as anovel by Mirjakıp Duvlatulı, has a big importance in thehistory of Kazak literature while it has been the first workused that name till that time. In the work, oral expression- especially the meddah stories- was sodominant, the author did not focus on the details somuch and did not give very much space for longdescriptions. Bakıtsız Jamal can be considered as a shortnovel comparing to the novel type and reflect theproperties of transition from poetry to prose and from folkstory to story. In fact, Ali and Cemile’s love told inBakıtsız Jamal has no difference from other publiclyknown love stories such as Leyla and Mecnun, Ferhatand Sirin or Kerem and Aslı. Although there exists such asimilarity with folk stories, Bakıtsız Jamal can beconsidered as a step forward for a new era while thiswork had an important difference inside. Injustice towardwomen in society was put forward to be discussed in thenovel which is very important in order to reflect thesociety began to change and opened to West. As a result,in spite of the deficiencies, Mirjakıp Duvlatulı’s BakıtsızJamal has an important function as a new stage intransition to novel, which is a new type in Kazakliterature.

  1. Agp2, a member of the yeast amino acid permease family, positively regulates polyamine transport at the transcriptional level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Aouida

    Full Text Available Agp2 is a plasma membrane protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transporter family, involved in high-affinity uptake of various substrates including L-carnitine and polyamines. The discovery of two high affinity polyamine permeases, Dur3 and Sam3, prompted us to investigate whether Agp2 directly transports polyamines or acts instead as a regulator. Herein, we show that neither dur3Δ nor sam3Δ single mutant is defective in polyamine transport, while the dur3Δ sam3Δ double mutant exhibits a sharp decrease in polyamine uptake and an increased resistance to polyamine toxicity similar to the agp2Δ mutant. Studies of Agp2 localization indicate that in the double mutant dur3Δ sam3Δ, Agp2-GFP remains plasma membrane-localized, even though transport of polyamines is strongly reduced. We further demonstrate that Agp2 controls the expression of several transporter genes including DUR3 and SAM3, the carnitine transporter HNM1 and several hexose, nucleoside and vitamin permease genes, in addition to SKY1 encoding a SR kinase that positively regulates low-affinity polyamine uptake. Furthermore, gene expression analysis clearly suggests that Agp2 is a strong positive regulator of additional biological processes. Collectively, our data suggest that Agp2 might respond to environmental cues and thus regulate the expression of several genes including those involved in polyamine transport.

  2. Agp2, a Member of the Yeast Amino Acid Permease Family, Positively Regulates Polyamine Transport at the Transcriptional Level

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2013-06-03

    Agp2 is a plasma membrane protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transporter family, involved in high-affinity uptake of various substrates including L-carnitine and polyamines. The discovery of two high affinity polyamine permeases, Dur3 and Sam3, prompted us to investigate whether Agp2 directly transports polyamines or acts instead as a regulator. Herein, we show that neither dur3? nor sam3? single mutant is defective in polyamine transport, while the dur3? sam3? double mutant exhibits a sharp decrease in polyamine uptake and an increased resistance to polyamine toxicity similar to the agp2? mutant. Studies of Agp2 localization indicate that in the double mutant dur3? sam3?, Agp2-GFP remains plasma membrane-localized, even though transport of polyamines is strongly reduced. We further demonstrate that Agp2 controls the expression of several transporter genes including DUR3 and SAM3, the carnitine transporter HNM1 and several hexose, nucleoside and vitamin permease genes, in addition to SKY1 encoding a SR kinase that positively regulates low-affinity polyamine uptake. Furthermore, gene expression analysis clearly suggests that Agp2 is a strong positive regulator of additional biological processes. Collectively, our data suggest that Agp2 might respond to environmental cues and thus regulate the expression of several genes including those involved in polyamine transport. © 2013 Aouida et al.

  3. 327 Protest against Racial Discrimination in Tess Onwueme's Play ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Abstract. Riot in Heaven projects a protest and a rejection of negative Black images and experiences of the blacks in the West. The play reveals that the Western world or race works with class to isolate most black people from mainstream life. This paper examines catalogues of humiliating experiences of ...

  4. Protest against Racial Discrimination in Tess Onwueme's Play Riot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riot in Heaven projects a protest and a rejection of negative Black images and experiences of the blacks in the West. The play reveals that the Western world or race works with class to isolate most black people from mainstream life. This paper examines catalogues of humiliating experiences of the blacks in the western ...

  5. Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    who was academically humiliated and whose creativity was suppressed - so such things do happen in science. And in a Guest. Editorial, R K Varma reflects on the problems of science education in India. What the situation should have been, and what it is - what a falling off there has been. Time indeed to try one's best to.

  6. Fighting With One Arm Behind Our Back: Cultural Capability in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    humiliation of ANSF members, urinating in public, widespread cursing and insulting Afghan security forces and civilians.12 American complaints...outlook on the part of Army leaders and better prepare them for the networked nature of the 21st century environment. PME provides the most fertile

  7. The Role of Islamic Fundamentalism in Algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    humiliation and this is felt by many Algerians who suffer under a Mafia dominated party and army apparatus. The high rate of unemployment and the production capacity being reduced by 50 percent are partly a result of the "good business" which powerful state officials conduct in a climate of economic failure. The majority ...

  8. Gender, Dress and Self-Empowerment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One measure of relative poverty, humiliation and indignity among. Batswana is wearing tattered clothes (makatana). Literally, a dress. (seaparo) means to adorn oneself. Particular kinds of clothes have multi- ple meanings and authorise and legitimise participation of certain social groups in given situations in society.

  9. A Case Analysis of the Turkish Football in Regard to the UEFA's 10-Point Action Plan against Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrahoglu, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Football is enjoyable and meaningful together with the fans. However, the hate crimes (racism, discrimination, humiliation, xenophobia and Islamophobia) are social diseases of some fan groups, and threaten public safety and the social life. UEFA has been determined to fight against hate crimes in football by creating a network called FARE, and by…

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    developing anxiety, depression and increased risk of suicide among subjects with emotional pain. (10,11). Emotional pain has been described as the experience of ... humiliation, loneliness, fear, anger, dread and anguish (17). High level of psychache predisposes individuals to suicidal behavior. The original psychometric ...

  11. A China Policy for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    which it is rising are vastly more complex. No bumper sticker suffices to describe a relationship that is simultaneously cooperative and competitive...dismember, weaken, and humiliate China. The admirably stiff upper lip and unwillingness to politicize the Olympics that President Bush has shown in the

  12. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Azochil, Axochitl, Ahuejotes, Flor de agua, Palo de agua. 12 Hamelia patens Jacq. Rubiaceae. Coral, Trompetilla, Jicarillo. 13 Swietenia humilis Zucc. Meliaceae. Zopilote, Cóbano, Palo de zopilote. 14 Stemmadenia bella Miers. Apocynaceae. 15 Rupechtia fusca. Polygonaceae. Guayabillo, Azulillo.

  13. Giovanni ciampoli e la storia dell'istoria di pollonia | Syska ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giovanni Ciampoli, intellectual and poet, Secretary of Secret Briefs at the. Roman Curia, considered a “friend of New Philosophy” — i.e. a supporter of. Galileo — was removed from his post in 1632 by Pope Urban VIII. Banned from Rome to the Marches, a remote area of the papal States, humiliated and nearly forgotten, ...

  14. Author: SB Gericke THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL LAW AND LABOUR LAW IN. SOUTH AFRICA: ... German Institute for Human Rights published a 60-page study on the reported widespread humiliation .... where an employer commits a criminal offence to employ an immigrant without the. 27. See Davies and ...

  15. The Unintended Consequences of Killing Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    mutilation, torture, cruel and humiliating treatment of enemy prisoners, such as those held at Abu Ghraib and similar facilities, until President George...York: Crown Publishing Group, 2010), xiii. 113 Ellen Knickmeyer, , “Details Emerge in Alleged Army Rape, Killings,” The Washington Post online (July

  16. Collective Emotion and Communal Memory: Psychopolitical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Threats to these core identities unleash primordial collective emotions with dramatic consequences which shape world events. These psychopolitical dimensions of intractable confl ict are explored in this article which also describes how unaddressed collective emotions, such as fear, hate and especially humiliation, cause ...

  17. High-Tech Cruelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W.

    2011-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing problem because increasing numbers of young people use computers, cell phones, and other interactive devices as their main form of social interaction. Cyberbullies use technology to harass, threaten, or humiliate their peers. Online aggression isn't just traditional bullying with new tools. It's widespread, devastating,…

  18. Racial Regard as a Predictor for Hazing Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Joyce Cryzant

    2009-01-01

    The practice of requiring others to engage in activities that humiliate, degrade, abuses, and/or endangers them in order to join an organization is becoming increasingly prevalent on college campuses and beyond. These activities have resulted in physical and emotional scars are well as lead to deaths. Using Racial Identity Theory and Social…

  19. venadillo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRASAS Y ACEITES

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Physicochemical properties of Swietenia humilis Zucc seed oils were determined along with its fatty acid composition, by using gas-liquid chromatography. The oil content found in the germ portion of the seeds was 45.38%. From physicochemical oil evaluations, an oil density of 0.9099 mg∙ml-1 at 28°C; a.

  20. Mentoring as a Way to Change a Culture of Academic Bullying and Mobbing in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Angela M.; Petit, Angela; Sieber, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the "Chronicle of Higher Education" defined "academic mobbing" as "a form of bullying in which members of a department gang up to isolate or humiliate a colleague". In their call for a special issue on mobbing for "Workplace: A Journal for Academic Labor", editors Stephen Petrina and E. Wayne Ross…

  1. 3 CFR 13491 - Executive Order 13491 of January 22, 2009. Ensuring Lawful Interrogations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conventions. (d) “Convention Against Torture” means the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or... Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, August 12, 1949...,” “mutilation,” “cruel treatment,” “torture,” “outrages upon personal dignity,” and “humiliating and degrading...

  2. Ester: Vroulike durf binne 'n manlike bestel | Spies | HTS Teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a fierce political struggle, Haman is brought to a fall and Mordechai, a Diaspora Jew who risks his Jewishness for his ambition, replaces him as vice-roy of Persia. God's absence in the Book of Esther is explained in that God might perhaps speak through the weak, the insignificant and the humiliated or that God withdraws ...

  3. Interpersonal Mediators Linking Acculturation Stressors to Subsequent Internalizing Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee

    2009-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…

  4. The Rise of Women's Modern Schooling in Late Qing China (1840-1911)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    The rise of women's modern schooling in late Qing China was deemed to be, by the historical trend of modern China, a progress that coincided with China's modernization and national self-strengthening movement after the humiliating defeat of the Opium War. This article is an examination of this process from 1840 to 1911, which had undergone three…

  5. Christianity in Early Kenyan Novels: Ngugi Wa Thiong'o's Weep Not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dominant feature in the novels of Ngugi Wa Thiong'o is the way he presents Christians and Christianity, at best as indifferent to the plight of the majority of the people, and at worst as accomplices in institutionalized exploitation, humiliation and dehumanization of the greater majority. Parts of the explanation for Ngugi's ...

  6. The Korean Question--Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    of the humiliation and explotation suffered in the thirty-six years under Japanese colonial rule. The ruling elites ensure the past is not forgotten...on fire . As he became engulfed with flames, he shouted, "Out with U.S. imperialists!" and jumped off a third -story ledge at Seoul National University

  7. Women's social status and social justice in contemporary Tswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research revealed that certain provisions of the statutory laws continue to discriminate against women, adversely impact on their life chances and contravene their human rights. The quest for social justice and gender equality in Botswana has implications for a social policy that must override any practices that humiliate ...

  8. Ecological position of 'small barbs' and their potential for fisheries: an option to reduce fishing pressure on 'large barbs' of Lake Tana (Ethiopia)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The two barbs, Barbus humilis and Barbus tanapelagius are important pelagic fish in Lake Tana. These 'small barb' species (<10 cm fork length) play a key role in the Lake's ecosystem as a link between zooplankton and the top predators, mostly 'large barbs'. This paper presents an overview on the

  9. When Teens Turn Cyberbullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber harassment involves using an electronic medium to threaten or harm others. E-mail, chat rooms, cell phones, instant messaging, pagers, text messaging, and online voting booths are tools used to inflict humiliation, fear, and a sense of helplessness. This type of intimidation differs from traditional bullying in several important ways. Unlike…

  10. Real-virtual relational practices among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    aggression, humiliation and destruction effect bullying and other kinds of relational aggression amongst kids at school? My goal with this paper is to bring in conceptualisations – taken primarily from two different theoretical frameworks: Karen Barad’s agential realism and Giorgi Agamben’s philosophical...

  11. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  12. Special rights for the development of Indigenous Peoples (IPS) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous Peoples (IPs) have been subjected to a series of humiliation, discrimination and in some cases dis-membership of a state. This is germane, but not peculiar, to the developing states with special reference to Africa. Globalization and efforts to link human, cultural and social rights to the IPs remain blurred and ...

  13. Doxing: a conceptual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, David

    2016-01-01

    Doxing is the intentional public release onto the Internet of personal information about an individual by a third party, often with the intent to humiliate, threaten, intimidate, or punish the identified individual. In this paper I present a conceptual analysis of the practice of doxing and how it

  14. Curriculum as Conversation: Vulnerability, Violence, and Pedagogy in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to respond creatively to humiliation, affliction, degradation, or shame, just as it is difficult to respond creatively to the experience of undergoing or inflicting violence. In this article Aislinn O'Donnell argues that if we are to think about how to address gun violence--including mass shootings- in schools, then we need to talk…

  15. October 2001

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-10-01

    Oct 1, 2001 ... These include physical assault (hitting, slapping, kicking, beatings, cutting), psychological abuse (threats, controlling behaviour, isolation from family or friends, denial of freedom of movement, intimidation, degrading behaviour or humiliation); and sexual abuse (coercive sex)(l). Women are more likely to be ...

  16. Different roles of resilience in depressive patients with history of suicide attempt and no history of suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Rossetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Suicidal ideation is modulated by several risk and protective factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between patients with a history of suicide attempt and those with no such history, with special attention to depression, interpersonal sensitivity, humiliation, and resilience. Methods: One hundred consecutively admitted patients with an index depressive episode were recruited. The Brief Symptom Inventory, Humiliation Inventory, and Resilience Scale for Adult were administered. Results: Scores for humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression were higher in subjects with history of suicide attempt, while higher scores for resilience were observed in the group with no such history. Different patterns of relationships among the variables of interest were found in the two groups. Resilience dimensions such as social resources and familial cohesion were strongly and negatively correlated with humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression in subjects with a past suicide attempt. Conclusions: Resilience factors can modulate and reduce the impact of suicide risk. Assessing risk and protective factors could enhance the ability to intervene appropriately.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 476 - 500 of 1840 ... ... Competition for nectar between Argentine ants (Iridomyrmex humilis) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) on black ironbark (Eucalyptus sideroxylon) ... to the functional morphology of fishes Part VI: The jaw mechanism and feeding of the Holocephalan, Callorhynchus capensis Dumeril, Abstract PDF.

  18. African Zoology - Vol 22, No 2 (1987)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of diet on the gastric papiDae and microflora of the rodents Mystro'!'ys albicaudatus and Cricetomys gambiluuls · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... Competition for nectar between Argentine ants (Iridomyrmex humilis) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) on black ironbark (Eucalyptus sideroxylon) · EMAIL FREE ...

  19. Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type…

  20. Fit for Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  1. A homiletic reflection on the theological aesthetics involved in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-04

    May 4, 2011 ... Other people have interpreted this as an isolated incident that amounts to no reason for national alarm. President Jacob ..... does not end in (melancholic) contemplation, but leads to social-ethical action. Without .... and humiliating pain and loneliness, even for those people who do not involve themselves in ...

  2. Social phobia. Helping patients who are disabled by fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J R

    1991-12-01

    Persistent fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social situations can paralyze a person's educational and career advancement and lead to loneliness and isolation. What are the clinical signs of social phobia? How does it lead to disability and impairment? Dr Marshall answers these questions and discusses differential diagnosis and management.

  3. Microbiological and physico-chemical characteristic of Rwandese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yeast was identified by API 20 C test and confirmed by PCR-Sequencing of ITS-5.8S region of rDNA. Seventy yeasts isolated in the samples were found to belong to either Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida inconspicua, Issatchenkia orientalis, Candida magnolia and Candida humilis. Lactic acid bacteria were ...

  4. POWER AND AUTHORITY IN MATTHEW'S GOSPEL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kingdom of God and ironically counters their unfair rule with his authority. 1. INTRODUCTION. Matthew's text reveals an underlying conflict and struggle for authority (Stanton. 1993:26). In Matthean studies, this struggle ...... to physical abuse (spitting and beating Him) (Matt. 27:28-31). After this deep humiliation, He was ...

  5. Women and Violence: A Study of Women's Empowerment and Its Challenges in Jammu and Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to highlight the violence against women's in Jammu and Kashmir. In Jammu and Kashmir Woman are the most vulnerable and worst hit section of the society especially under situations of violence caused by militancy and armed conflict. They don't only suffer from intense humiliation and harassment but also undergo traumatic…

  6. Learning to See the Ball Using the Alexander Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Gaynelle

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a personal anecdote from the author, for whom childhood P.E. classes were exercises in frustration and humiliation largely because she could not master the coordination needed to catch, throw, or hit a ball. She could not keep her eye on the ball despite well-meaning instruction from coaches, friends, and family members.…

  7. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 667 ... DNA sequences from the Little Brown Bustard Eupodotis humilis suggest its close phylogenetic relationship to the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax, Abstract. José Luis Horreo, Juan Carlos Alonso, Borja Milá. Vol 75, No 3 (2004), Short Note Ecology and dispersion of Swainson's Spurfowl, Pternistis ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milá, Borja. Vol 85, No 1 (2014) - Articles Short Note DNA sequences from the Little Brown Bustard Eupodotis humilis suggest its close phylogenetic relationship to the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax. Abstract. ISSN: 0030-6525. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  9. Cyberbullying Involvement among Students with ADHD: Relation to Loneliness, Self-Efficacy and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Eden, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is defined as an intentional online act via electronic media, to harm, embarrass and/or humiliate another person. As adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at a higher risk in being involved in bullying behaviour as perpetrators or victims, the main purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of…

  10. Social anxiety disorder/social phobia : Epidemiology, diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, JA

    2000-01-01

    Some anticipatory anxiety is expected on specific occasions such as giving a speech. However, some individuals have an excessive fear of such situations when they are under scrutiny, believing that their performance will cause them embarrassment or humiliation, frequently leading to deliberate

  11. Victimisation and PTSD in a Greenlandic Youth sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsberg, Sidsel; Lasgaard, Mathias; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    been indirectly exposed to at least one PTE. The mean number of directly experienced PTEs was 2.8 and the mean number of indirectly experienced PTEs was 3.9. The most frequent direct events recorded were: death of someone close, near drowning, threatened to be beaten, humiliation or persecution...

  12. 2009 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Active Duty Members - Tabulation of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    theirs? ............................. 176 e. Spread rumors or gossiped about you or others?............................... 178 f. Used insults, sarcasm ...Examples include intentionally interfering with other’s work performance, taking credit for other’s work or ideas, and using insults, sarcasm or...have you (or others in your workplace) had experiences where coworkers or supervisors... f. Used insults, sarcasm , or gestures to humiliate you or

  13. Abolishing Harrassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Although society is more aware of sexual harassment than it was in the past, the problem is not disappearing. Many school children are afraid to talk about it for fear of reprisal and humiliation. The articles in this issue focus on harassment and the schools in the following papers: (1) "Harassment Revisited" (Percy Bates); (2) "Sexual…

  14. Human Rights That Influence The Mentally Ill Patient In South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invariably the mentally ill person encounters rejectionand humiliation that are in some way tantamount to a "second illness." The combination either disrupts or puts beyond reach the usual personal and social life stages of marriage, family life, raising children, sexual relationships, the choice of treatment, affordable housing, ...

  15. Coping Strategies and Perceived Effectiveness in Fourth through Eighth Grade Victims of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Laura S.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Parris, Leandra

    2011-01-01

    Victimization resulting from bullying affects millions of school children worldwide each year (e.g. Nansel et al., 2001; Sapouna, 2008; Smokowski & Kopasz, 2005). These children face the fear and humiliation of verbal, physical, and relational aggression and as a result, often suffer psychological ill effects (e.g. Kochenderfer-Ladd, & Skinner,…

  16. Sex, Politics And All That: An Explication Of Arthur Maimane's "Hate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    And what could easily have developed into a healthy man-woman liaison, deteriorates to a racially-motivated violation of a white woman by a black man as an act of retribution for years of humiliation and abuse at the hands of white people. But the author, under the influence of Mandela's Truth and Reconciliation policy, ...

  17. Lessons on Lookism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Polly

    1996-01-01

    Lookism, more pervasive than sexism or racism, is the ranking of persons that attributes worth based on random variations in supposed attributes of personal attractiveness. Presents the changes educators must bring about if girls--and boys--are to break free of the humiliation of societally determined unattractiveness. (LSR)

  18. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    humiliation, beating, homelessness and other indignities and calling for appropriate intervention to minimize the magnitude of these problems. According to UNHCR 2004, sub-Saharan. Africa has over four million displaced persons, the largest number in the world. In an attempt to reduce problems of displaced persons, the.

  19. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. Chapter 3. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter). Volume 1. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    lentiginosus Doug. var. ursinus (A. Gray) Barneby ASLEUI *Astragalus limnocharis Barneby ASLI 1 Astragalus mohavensis Wats. var. hemnigyrus (Clokey...sunfish X L. microlophus redear sunfish S X X X L. macrochirus bluegill S X X X L. humilis orange -spotted sunfish S X X L. megalotis longear sunfish

  20. 168 | P a g e

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    c. humiliating and degrading treatment, including rape, enforced prostitution or any form of indecent assault; d. the passing of sentences and carrying out of executions without previous judgements pronounced by regular courts which afford all the judicial guarantees recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

  1. Spiritual Dimension of Land Identity Crisis in Igboland of Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    paper presents the Igbo ethical conceptualization of land ownership with regard to spiritual identity. .... will punish them and a hardened evildoer may receive the final humiliation, refusal of burial in the earth. The ala is ... According to Igbo belief and tradition, ala (land) is a gift from God (Chukwu), and from ancestors has not ...

  2. Bullying and School Liability--Implications for School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is a serious and escalating problem in public schools across America. Each day, thousands of students face taunts and humiliation stemming from bullies. Bullying victims experience emotional and psychological problems that may persist for a lifetime. Other victims commit suicide or retaliate against bullies out of fear for their own…

  3. The genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) at Palau, Micronesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofwegen, van L.P.

    2008-01-01

    A collection of Sinularia specimens from Palau has been studied, which represents 38 different species. Of these, 15 are new to science, which are described and figured: S. babeldaobensis; S. bisulca; S. crebra; S. digitata; S. finitima; S. flaccida; S. foliata; S. humilis; S. luxuriosa; S.

  4. Filling South Korea’s Counterinsurgency Gap: Looking Ahead to Potential Problems Facing South Korea in the Aftermath of North Korea’s Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    groups. In 1167, a young civil administrator humiliated a respected general, Jeong Jung -bu, by burning his long beard with a candle during a royal...prison conditions, forced labor, public executions, prohibitions or severe restrictions on freedom of speech, the press, movement, assembly, religion

  5. Comparative pharmacobotanic study and ethnopharmacological uses of the "Botones de oro" from Argentinean folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Gette

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of six Argentinean plants - commonly known as "botones de oro"- are indistinctly used either in folk medicine or to obtain herbal remedies and phytotherapics. However, these entities belong to three different genera of the Tribe Helenieae (Asteraceae: Gaillardia, Helenium and Hymenoxys, being the most used species Gaillardia megapotamica var. megapotamica (Spreng. Bak.; G. megapotamica var. scabiosoides (Arn. Bak.; G. megapotamica var. radiata (Griseb. Bak.; Helenium donianum (Hook. & Arn. Seckt; H. argentinum Ariza and Hymenoxys anthemoides (Juss. Cass. In this work, we studied the relationships between the mentioned taxa from the morphological point of view, their coexistence in natural populations and their reputed pharmacological actions. Their histological features are described and illustrated, in order to obtain an accurate botanical identification of the products found in the market so as to guarantee their quality, especially because the samples are often already powdered or grounded.

  6. What is dignity in prehospital emergency care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelsson, Anna; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2017-05-01

    Ethics and dignity in prehospital emergency care are important due to vulnerability and suffering. Patients can lose control of their body and encounter unfamiliar faces in an emergency situation. To describe what specialist ambulance nurse students experienced as preserved and humiliated dignity in prehospital emergency care. The study had a qualitative approach. Data were collected by Flanagan's critical incident technique. The participants were 26 specialist ambulance nurse students who described two critical incidents of preserved and humiliated dignity, from prehospital emergency care. Data consist of 52 critical incidents and were analyzed with interpretive content analysis. Ethical considerations: The study followed the ethical principles in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The result showed how human dignity in prehospital emergency care can be preserved by the ambulance nurse being there for the patient. The ambulance nurses meet the patient in the patient's world and make professional decisions. The ambulance nurse respects the patient's will and protects the patient's body from the gaze of others. Humiliated dignity was described through the ambulance nurse abandoning the patient and by healthcare professionals failing, disrespecting, and ignoring the patient. It is a unique situation when a nurse meets a patient face to face in a critical life or death moment. The discussion describes courage and the ethical vision to see another human. Dignity was preserved when the ambulance nurse showed respect and protected the patient in prehospital emergency care. The ambulance nurse students' ethical obligation results in the courage to see when a patient's dignity is in jeopardy of being humiliated. Humiliated dignity occurs when patients are ignored and left unprotected. This ethical dilemma affects the ambulance nurse students badly due to the fact that the morals and attitudes of ambulance nurses are reflected in their actions toward the patient.

  7. Influence du décapage sur la tenue en fatigue de l'alliage Al7010-T7451 traité par oxydation anodique chromique

    OpenAIRE

    Chaussumier, Michel; Shahzad, Majid; Mabru, Catherine; Chieragatti, Rémy; Rezaï-Aria, Farhad

    2009-01-01

    L’oxydation anodique chromique (OAC) est un procédé de traitement des alliages d’aluminium pour améliorer leur tenue à la corrosion. L’influence de ce traitement sur la durée de vie de l’alliage 7010-T7451 est étudiée à partir d’essais de fatigue en flexion rotative. Une réduction de la durée de vie par rapport à l’état usiné est observée. Il est montré que cette diminution de la durée de vie est imputable en grande partie à la dégradation de la rugosité de la surface occasionnée par la phase...

  8. Left-sided Duane's syndrome and retinal coloboma associated with contralateral microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica-Hayashi, Rosa E; Vargas-Ortega, Jessica; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Case report of a 15-year-old girl presenting with a left-sided Duane's retraction syndrome (DURS) in combination with ipsilateral retinal coloboma and contralateral microphthalmia. Abduction limitation as well as narrowing of the palpebral fissure and globe retraction during attempted adduction (type I DURS) was demonstrated in the left eye. Additionally, a retinal coloboma was observed in the nasal inferior quadrant of the left eye. No other somatic or developmental abnormalities were observed and karyotypic analysis was normal. This is the first case of non-syndromic unilateral DURS associated with a contralateral major ocular malformation. This unusual clinical combination probably arose from the embryonic action of an eye-specific disruptor.

  9. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety

  10. Restoring conjunctival tolerance by topical nuclear factor-κB inhibitors reduces preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Mauricio; Sabbione, Florencia; Gabelloni, María Laura; Vanzulli, Silvia; Trevani, Analía Silvina; Giordano, Mirta Nilda; Galletti, Jeremías Gastón

    2014-09-04

    To evaluate the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in eye drop preservative toxicity and the effect of topical NF-κB inhibitors on preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis. Balb/c mice were instilled ovalbumin (OVA) combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and/or NF-κB inhibitors in both eyes. After immunization, T-cell responses and antigen-induced ocular inflammation were evaluated. Nuclear factor-κB activation and associated inflammatory changes also were assessed in murine eyes and in an epithelial cell line after BAK exposure. Benzalkonium chloride promoted allergic inflammation and leukocyte infiltration of the conjunctiva. Topical NF-κB inhibitors blocked the disruptive effect of BAK on conjunctival immunological tolerance and ameliorated subsequent ocular allergic reactions. In line with these findings, BAK induced NF-κB activation and the secretion of IL-6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor in an epithelial cell line and in the conjunctiva of instilled mice. In addition, BAK favored major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II expression in cultured epithelial cells in an NF-κB-dependent fashion after interaction with T cells. Benzalkonium chloride triggers conjunctival epithelial NF-κB activation, which seems to mediate some of its immune side effects, such as proinflammatory cytokine release and increased MHC II expression. Breakdown of conjunctival tolerance by BAK favors allergic inflammation, and this effect can be prevented in mice by topical NF-κB inhibitors. These results suggest a new pharmacological target for preservative toxicity and highlight the importance of conjunctival tolerance in ocular surface homeostasis. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. C__Users_HP Pro 2000_Desktop_MOUNDZEO.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    où Rgo est le rayonnement extra-terrestre, , l'albédo de la surface évaporante ; a et b sont des coefficients empiriques qui dépendent de la latitude, la longitude, la hauteur du soleil et de la transmissivité de l'atmosphère. Le facteur n, est la durée effective de l'insolation,. N, la durée théorique du jour et le rapport n/N,.

  12. pluviosite en region soudano-sahelienne au nord du cameroun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    toute la région à un climat tropical à deux saisons très contrastées. La saison pluvieuse, d'une durée de 7 mois vers le Sud-Bénoué (d'avril à octobre), est réduite à 3 mois (juin à août) dans la région du Chari. De façon générale, les hauteurs pluviométriques annuelles et la durée de la saison des pluies augmentent vers le ...

  13. Optimisation du procédé traditionnel de maltage du sorgho pour la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse de variance a révélé que la durée de trempage et la durée de germination ont un effet significatif sur l'extrait sec, le pH, le pouvoir diastasique et le rapport α/β-amylasique des malts dérivés. Une analyse en composantes principales a été effectuée sur les caractéristiques des malts produits en conditions ...

  14. Yerel Medya Çalışanlarının Sosyo-Demografik Özellikleri Ve Sektör Sorunlarına Bakışı: Kayseri Ve Nevşehir Yerel Medyasına Yönelik Alan Araştırması/ Socıo-Demographıc Sıtuatıon Of Local Medıa Employees And Outlook Of Local Medıa Problems: A Study In Kayser

    OpenAIRE

    Temel, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Ali; Somuncu, Burak; Şilen, Kenan

    2013-01-01

    Demokrasinin vazgeçilmez unsurlarından biri olan medyanın, haber verme, bilgilendirme, eğitme, eğlendirme, kamuoyu oluşturma,  hükümeti denetleme gibi bir takım işlevleri vardır. Yerel medyanın da, genel gazetecilik işlevlerinin yanında, bölge halkının görüşlerini yansıtmak, yerel değerlerin koruyucusu olmak gibi kendine özgü bazı işlevleri vardır. Bölge halkının gören gözü, işiten kulağı konumunda olan yerel medyanın sağlıklı bir şekilde işlevlerini yerine getirmesi için ise,  ekonomik yeter...

  15. Discovery and Innovation - Vol 17 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larvicidal efficacy of Tephrosia nyikensis Bak subsp. victoriensis Gellet and Brummit crude leaf extract on Anopheles mosquitoes · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FME Wanjala, RA Oriedo, DMS Karanja, 56-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v17i1.15688 ...

  16. Simulation of a Casimir-like effect in a granular pile with avalanches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.V.; Villanueva, Y. Y.; Wijngaarden, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for sand piles, we simulate a Casimir-like effect in a granular pile with avalanches. Results obtained in the simulation are in good agreement with results previously acquired experimentally: two parallel walls are attracted to each other at small

  17. 445-IJBCS-Article-Prof Jean Lagarde Betti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Gambeya africana (G. Don. ex Bak.) Pierre. Sapotaceae. 1. Megaphrynium macrostachyum (Benth,) ... Tableau 3: Citations des recettes populaires utilisées contre les maux de dos dans la réserve du Dja au Cameroun. Recette Espèce. Plante associée. Organe. Mode de. Préparation. Mode d'administration. Ménage. Rec1.

  18. Fremtidens fødevareanalyser vil fokusere på bakteriers virulens-potentiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Hurtig og sikker identifikation af sygdomsfremkaldende bakterier i forurenede fødevarer er af stor betydning for fødevareindustrien. Imidlertid tyder ny forskning på, at det ikke er nok blot at identificere og kvantificere de sygdomsfremkaldende bakterier. Man skal derimod også ind og vurdere bak...

  19. Salting-out solvent extraction for the off-line preconcentration of benzalkonium chloride in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, T S; Huie, C W

    2001-07-01

    The use of salting-out effect for the off-line preconcentration of charged analytes in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated for the first time. Using benzalkonium chloride (BAK) as model compound, a mixture of cationic surfactants consisting of even-numbered alkylbenzyl quaternary ammonium homologues (C8-C18), the addition of appropriate amounts of sodium chloride and acetonitrile in the sample solution (2 mL sample volume) was found to be capable of providing ca. 40-fold enhancement in detection sensitivity. In addition to affording a preconcentrating effect due to the extraction of BAK in the smaller volume water-miscible organic solvent phase (acetonitrile), the organic solvent also serves to improve the peak area and shape of the longer chain surfactants. Optimal experimental conditions, such as volume of acetonitrile and concentration of sodium chloride, for the preconcentration of BAK with good preconcentration factors and reproducibility were investigated. The usefulness of the present method was demonstrated for the improved determination of BAK present in commercially available industrial and pharmaceutical products.

  20. Preparation for the Implantation of an Intracortical Visual Prosthesis in a Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    because it might cause bond wire breakage and facilitate moisture penetration on to the die resulting in contamination and possible corrosion in a...neurophysiologist Craig Wardrip, DVM – veterinarian Other team members: Marty Bak – (MicroProbes for Life Sciences) bioengineer Stuart Cogan, DSc

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWOBOSHI, LC. Vol 3, No 2 (2003) - Articles Litter fall and macronutrients return of Millettia thonningii [Schumach and V Thonn.]Bak and Pterocarpus santalinoides[L´ Herite, ex Dc.] stands in south-western Nigeria Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  2. Betulinic acid-induced mitochondria-dependent cell death is counterbalanced by an autophagic salvage response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potze, L.; Mullauer, F. B.; Colak, S.; Kessler, J. H.; Medema, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BetA) is a plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid that exerts potent anti-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo. It was shown to induce apoptosis via a direct effect on mitochondria. This is largely independent of proapoptotic BAK and BAX, but can be inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA),

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mshelia, EH. Vol 1, No 2 (2008) - Articles Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Screening of Asparagus Flagellaris (Kunth) Bak used in The Traditional Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Urinary Infections Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-0507. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. A unifying theory The universe on a string

    CERN Multimedia

    Greene, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-five years ago, Albert Einstein completed his unified field theory; but, as had happened before and would happen again, Einstein had to go bak to the drawing board. Much progress have been inspired, with the most recent advances coming from an approach called string theory. (1,5 page)

  5. A double-masked study to compare the efficacy and safety of topical cromolyn for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-lin Liu

    2011-11-01

    Conclusion: Cromolyn 2 % ophthalmic solution was effective and safe to treat allergic conjunctivitis. A short-term use of cromolyn 2 % ophthalmic solution with 0.01% BAK would not cause any significant toxicity in patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Preservative-free cromolyn may be beneficial to the compromised eyes or eyes required of long-term medication.

  6. Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee eestlaste juhtimisel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    alates 2005. aasta märtsist, need on : Mati Kõiva ÜBAK president, Lya Karm - esinaine, Erik Puskar - liige, Karl Altau - büroojuhataja. Peamiseks tegevuseks on USA Kongressi saadikutekojas läbi viia esitatud resolutsioon, mis nõuab, et Venemaa vabandaks 1940. aasta Balti riikide okupeerimise pärast

  7. Savoir traditionnel sur les plantes antipaludiques à propriétés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    92,8%) et majoritairement administrées par voie orale (52,6%). Les espèces recensées provenaient principalement des savanes, foret, champs de culture et de jachère. Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze, Afrormosia laxiflora (Benth. ex Bak.) ...

  8. Acha (Digitaria exilis) Malt as a Source of Enzyme for Bio-Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    These results have demonstrated that acha malt has great potential application in brewery and ethanol .... experimental farm of the Department of Crop. Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The cassava tubers were peeled, washed with clean water and milled. The milled .... Baks Tim (2007) Process development for.

  9. T-Pharmacytes for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    2012) Synapse-directed delivery of immunomodulators using T-cell-conjugated nanoparticles. Biomaterials, 33:5776. • Bak SP, Barnkob MS, Wittrup KD...antago- nistic CD80 or CD86 Abs abrogates the immunosuppressive en- vironment and reduces tumor growth (17). BMDCs exhibit robust FIGURE 1. PD-1 is

  10. From Wardens Air Force to Boyds Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    planners to overlook the 7 complex internal dynamics of an adversary system, which as physicist Per Bak states, can be “simply, bewilderingly...perfectly in line with Joint Publication 3-0 which states “successful mission command demands that subordinate leaders at all echelons exercise

  11. Effects of Geven root extract on proliferation of HeLa cells and bcl-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell kinetic parameters as proliferation rate (MTT assay), Mitotic Index and apoptotic index were used for experimental cytotoxicity assay of root extract. Furthermore, effects of root extract on gene expression rates which take place in apoptosis mechanism as Bcl-2, Bax, Bak, Bcl-x, Bik, Mcl-1, Bfl-1 were determined by ...

  12. Infant ERPs Separate Children at Risk of Dyslexia Who Become Good Readers from Those Who Become Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuijen, Titia L.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A. M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with phonological processing deficits that can be reflected in the event-related potentials (ERPs). Here, we recorded ERPs from 2-month-old infants at risk of dyslexia and from a control group to investigate whether their auditory system processes /bAk/ and /dAk/ changes differently. The speech sounds were…

  13. Infant ERPs separate children at risk of dyslexia who become good readers from those who become poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijen, Titia L.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A. M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; van der Leij, Aryan

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with phonological processing deficits that can be reflected in the event-related potentials (ERPs). Here, we recorded ERPs from 2-month-old infants at risk of dyslexia and from a control group to investigate whether their auditory system processes /bAk/ and /dAk/

  14. Magnetic Ordering in Cerium Monochalcogenides: A Test Case for Epsilon-Expansions with n=4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, H. R.; Kjems, Jørgen; Hulliger, F.

    1979-01-01

    CeSe and CeTe are found by neutron diffraction to be type-II antiferromagnets with the moment along the propagation vector. The phase transitions are continuous with the critical exponent for the magnetization β=0.36±0.02. This constitutes a violation of the ε-expansion predictions of Bak, Krinsky...

  15. Effects of early cholesterol intake on cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression in piglets receiving sow's breast milk or infant formula until weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike breast milk, infant formulas are not rich in cholesterol. To compensate for the dietary loss, hepatic cholesterol synthesis is increased in formula-fed infants. Observational studies have reported significant increases in serum cholesterol and triglycerides in adults that received formula dur...

  16. (Lakshadweep) Sea as observed by the Coastal Zone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The nutrient-poverty of the Laccadive Sea in the region of Boxes C–D is especially remarkable dur- ing the SW monsoon because of the wide cyclonic eddy modeled by Shankar and Shetye (1997), which would facilitate upward nutrient transport in its center. The July climatology (1998–2001) of Sea-. WiFS shows a “finger” ...

  17. Antisynchronization of a novel hyperchaotic system with parameter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082,. People's Republic of China. ∗ ... Introduction. Chaos has attracted wide attention after Lorenz [1] found the first chaotic system dur- ing his studies of the atmospheric convection in 1963. Many new chaotic attractors, such as the Rössler ...

  18. TEMPERATURE INDEPENDENT PHOTOLUMINESCENCE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    [1] C.A.K. Gouvˆea, F. Wypych, S.G. Moraes, N. Dur´an, P. Peralta-Zamora, Semiconductor- assisted photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution, Chemosphere. 427(2000) 40. [2] D.C Look, Equation of state for the study of temperature dependence of volume thermal expansion of nanomaterials, Mater.

  19. A DFT study of temperature dependent dissociation mechanism of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    study also reveals that HF is a stronger acid in water cluster than in bulk water. Further, the ... of H2O are needed to stabilize the acid-water cluster system. .... models. Those molecules which are involved in dissoci- ation process are represented in ball-stick model. Dur- ing the dissociation, barrier height of reaction was esti-.

  20. Renforcement des capacités d'évaluation et de communication en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enfin, des produits de communication seront mis au point en vue de transmettre ces enseignements concrets aux praticiens, aux chercheurs et aux responsables des politiques. Projet nᵒ. 107064. État du projet. Actif. Durée. 48 mois. Agent(e) responsable du CRDI. Matthew Smith. Financement total. CAD$ 728,060. Pays.