WorldWideScience

Sample records for humid-tropical vegetable production

  1. Degradation of chlorpyrifos in humid tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lian-Kuet; Wong, Mee-Hua; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2013-08-15

    The insecticide chlorpyrifos is extensively used in the humid tropics for insect control on crops and soils. Chlorpyrifos degradation and mineralization was studied under laboratory conditions to characterize the critical factors controlling the degradation and mineralization in three humid tropical soils from Malaysia. The degradation was fastest in moist soils (t1/2 53.3-77.0 days), compared to dry (t1/2 49.5-120 days) and wet soils (t1/2 63.0-124 days). Degradation increased markedly with temperature with activation energies of 29.0-76.5 kJ mol(-1). Abiotic degradation which is important for chlorpyrifos degradation in sub-soils containing less soil microbial populations resulted in t½ of 173-257 days. Higher chlorpyrifos dosages (5-fold) which are often applied in the tropics due to severe insects infestations caused degradation and mineralization rates to decrease by 2-fold. The mineralization rates were more sensitive to the chlorpyrifos application rates reflecting that degradation of metabolites is rate limiting and the toxic effects of some of the metabolites produced. Despite that chlorpyrifos is frequently used and often in larger amounts on tropical soils compared with temperate soils, higher temperature, moderate moisture and high activity of soil microorganisms will stimulate degradation and mineralization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential contribution of Leucaena hedgerows intercropped with maize to the production of organic nitrogen and fuelwood in the lowland humid tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, F.

    1983-01-01

    From a brief literature review, it is concluded that intercropping rows of Leucaena leucocephala would increase productivity in systems where existing production of maize is less than 1500 kg/ha. At between-row spacing of 150 cm. Leucaena hedgerows on one ha would produce enough fuelwood to satisfy the annual needs of four people. 10 references.

  3. Belowground carbon cycling in a humid tropical forest decreases with fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Giardina; D. Binkley; M. Ryan; J. Fownes

    2004-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the carbon (C) allocated belowground by trees is retained by soils in long-lived, decay-resistant forms, yet because of the large magnitude of terrestrial primary productivity, even small changes in C allocation or retention can alter terrestrial C storage. The humid tropics exert a disproportionately large influence over terrestrial C storage...

  4. Study of dew water collection in humid tropical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clus, O.; Ortega, P.; Muselli, M.; Milimouk, I.; Beysens, D.

    2008-10-01

    SummaryAn assessment of the potential for dew water to serve as a potable water source during a rainless season in a humid tropical climate was carried out in the Pacific islands of French Polynesia. The climate of these islands, in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations, wind and energy balance, is representative of the climate of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Measurements were obtained at two characteristic sites of this region; a mountainous island (Punaauia, Tahiti Island) and an atoll (Tikehau, Tuamotu Archipelago). Dew was measured daily on a 30° tilted, 1 m 2 plane collector equipped with a thermally insulated radiative foil. In addition, an electronic balance placed at 1 m above the ground with a horizontal 0.16 m 2 condensing plate made of PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (Teflon) was used in Tahiti. Dew volume data, taken during the dry season from 16/5/2005 to 14/10/2005, were correlated with air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover and visible plus infrared radiometer measurements. The data were also fitted to a model. Dew formation in such a tropical climate is characterized by high absolute humidity, weak nocturnal temperature drop and strong Trade winds. These winds prevent dew from forming unless protected e.g. by natural vegetal windbreaks. In protected areas, dew can then form with winds as large as 7 m/s. Such strong winds also hamper at night the formation near the ground of a calm and cold air layer with high relative humidity. As the cooling power is lower than in the Mediterranean islands because of the high absolute humidity of the atmosphere, both effects combine to generate modest dew yields. However, dew events are frequent and provide accumulated amounts of water attractive for dew water harvesting. Slight modifications of existing rain collection devices on roofs can enhance dew formation and collection. Dew harvesting thus appears as an attractive possibility to provide the local population with a

  5. Global bounds on nitrogen gas emissions from humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, E. N. J.; Gerber, S.; Greene, W.; Jones, R. T.; Thomas, S. A.

    2017-03-01

    Denitrification and hydrologic leaching are the two major pathways by which nitrogen (N) is lost from the terrestrial biosphere. Humid tropical forests are thought to dominate denitrification losses from unmanaged lands globally, but there is large uncertainty about the range and key drivers of total N gas emissions across the biome. We combined pantropical measures of small watershed stream chemistry with ecosystem modeling to determine total N gas losses and associated uncertainty across humid tropical forests. Our calculations reveal that denitrification in soils and along hydrologic flow paths contributes on average >45% of total watershed N losses. However, when denitrification occurs exclusively in shallow soils, simulations indicate that gas emissions would exceed N inputs and render plants severely N limited, which contradicts observations of widespread N sufficiency in tropical forests. Our analyses suggest an upper bound on soil denitrification of 80% of total external N losses beyond which tropical plant growth would be compromised.

  6. Amplification of wildfire area burnt by hydrological drought in the humid tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muh, Taufik; Torfs, Paul J.J.F.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Jones, Philip D.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Lanen, van Henny A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Borneo's diverse ecosystems, which are typical humid tropical conditions, are deteriorating rapidly, as the area is experiencing recurrent large-scale wildfires, affecting atmospheric composition and influencing regional climate processes. Studies suggest that climate-driven drought regulates

  7. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  8. Suitability of multipurpose trees, shrubs and grasses to rehabilitate gullies in the sub-humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talema, Ayalew; Muys, Bart; Poesen, Jean; Padro, Roc; Dibaba, Hirko; Diels, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation plays a vital role for sustainable rehabilitation of degraded lands. However, the selection of suitable and effective plant species remains a long-lasting challenge in most parts of the sub-humid tropics. To address this challenge 18 multipurpose plant species (6 trees, 3 shrubs and 9 grasses), preselected from the regional species pool in Southwest Ethiopia were planted in severely degraded gullies and monitored from July 2011 to June 2014. The experiment had a split-plot design with farmyard manure (FYM) application, as main plot and plant species as sub-plot factors repeated in three blocks. The study revealed that grasses were the most successful to rehabilitate the gully within the monitoring period, compared to trees and shrubs. The survival rate of the four most successful grass species, Chrysopogon zizanioides, Pennisetum macrourum, Pennisetum polystachion and Pennisetum purpureum ranged from 61 to 90% with FYM application and from 20 to 85% without FYM, while most of the well-known indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs failed to survive. For the grass Pennisetum purpureum, shoot height, shoot and root dry biomass increased by 300%, 342% and 578% respectively due to FYM application, with a remarkably higher response to FYM compared to all the other studied species. The overall results demonstrate that severely degraded lands can be effectively restored by using early successional species such as locally adapted and selected grasses before the plantation of trees and shrubs.

  9. Plant and microbial controls on nitrogen retention and loss in a Humid Tropical Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templer, P.; Silver, W.; Pett-Ridge, J.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-09-15

    Humid tropical forests are generally characterized by the lack of nitrogen (N) limitation to net primary productivity, yet paradoxically have high potential for N loss. We conducted an intensive field experiment with {sup 15}NH{sub 4} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3} additions to highly weathered tropical forest soils to determine the relative importance of N retention and loss mechanisms. Over half of all the NH{sub 4}{sup +} produced from gross mineralization was rapidly converted to NO{sub 3}{sup -} during the process of gross nitrification. During the first 24 h plant roots took up 28 % of the N mineralized, dominantly as NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and were a greater sink for N than soil microbial biomass. Soil microbes were not a significant sink for added {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -} during the first 24 hr, and only for {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} after 7 d. Patterns of microbial community composition, as determined by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis, were weakly, but significantly correlated with nitrification and denitrification to N{sub 2}O. Rates of dissimilatory NO{sub 3}{sup -} reduction to NH{sub 4}{sup +} (DNRA) were high in this forest, accounting for up to 25 % of gross mineralization and 35 % of gross nitrification. DNRA was a major sink for NO{sub 3}{sup -} which may have contributed to the lower rates of N{sub 2}O and leaching losses. Despite considerable N conservation via DNRA and plant NH{sub 4}{sup +} uptake, the fate of approximately 45% of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} produced and 22% of the NH{sub 4}{sup +} produced were not measured in our fluxes, suggesting that other important pathways for N retention and loss (e.g., denitrification to N{sub 2}) are important in this system. The high proportion of mineralized N that was rapidly nitrified and the fates of that NO{sub 3}{sup -} highlight the key role of gross nitrification as a proximate control on N retention and loss in humid tropical forest soils. Furthermore, our

  10. The impact of forest regeneration on streamflow in 12 meso-scale humid tropical catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, H.E.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Scatera, F.N.; Schellekens, J.; McVicar, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Although regenerating forests make up an increasingly large portion of humid tropical landscapes, little is known of their water use and effects on streamflow (Q). Since the 1950s the island of Puerto Rico has experienced widespread abandonment of pastures and agricultural lands, followed by forest

  11. Temporal Dynamics in Soil Oxygen and Greenhouse Gases in Two Humid Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Liptzin; Whendee L. Silver; Matteo Detto

    2011-01-01

    Soil redox plays a key role in regulating biogeochemical transformations in terrestrial ecosystems, but the temporal and spatial patterns in redox and associated controls within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Upland humid tropical forest soils may be particularly prone to fluctuating redox as abundant rainfall limits oxygen (O2) diffusion through finely...

  12. Taxonomy and remote sensing of leaf mass per area (LMA) in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Roberta E. Martin; Raul Tupayachi; Ruth Emerson; Paola Martinez; Felipe Sinca; George V.N. Powell; S. Joseph Wright; Ariel E. Lugo

    2011-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a trait of central importance to plant physiology and ecosystem function, but LMA patterns in the upper canopies of humid tropical forests have proved elusive due to tall species and high diversity. We collected top-of-canopy leaf samples from 2873 individuals in 57 sites spread across the Neotropics, Australasia, and Caribbean and Pacific...

  13. Growth pattern of the ross broiler in the humid tropical environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of the Ross broiler chicks during an 8th week growing period was studied, in the humid tropical environment of Imo State, Nigeria, using growth data derived from 100 broiler chicken, consisting of 57 males and 53 females. Weekly mean body weight of males and females ranged between 44.24 and ...

  14. Evoking the Knowledge of Tree Tenure in the Humid Tropics: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evoking the Knowledge of Tree Tenure in the Humid Tropics: A Review of Dimensions in Agro-Plantation System in Nigeria. ... Some of the challenges of maintenance forest reserves include diseases and pests, wild fires, poaching, village/community participation, poor budgetary allocation among others. A proper ...

  15. The soil carbon dilemma in the humid tropics: cannot hoard it!?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Rolf; Paul, Birthe; Kihara, Job

    2017-04-01

    As Albrecht (1938) wrote some 70 years ago: "[Soil] Organic matter functions mainly as it is decayed and destroyed. Its value lies in its dynamic nature." Thus, by merely hoarding rather than using soil organic matter (SOM; compare also Janzen, 2006) with the aim to sequester carbon (C) in soils, we risk neglecting the crucial aspect that decomposing SOM and the release of nutrients (and concurrently CO2) is the basis for a healthy crop, decent yields and thus food security. This is even more true so in the tropics, where the majority of soils have low intrinsic fertility. In the absence of sufficient nutrient inputs through fertilizers in smallholder subsistence agriculture predominating e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), SOM turnover is the key driver of crop productivity. On the other hand, humid tropical conditions - high temperatures and long periods of moist conditions - are very conducive to SOM decay. Therefore, maintaining SOM levels requires the constant input of significant amounts of organic matter; material that is often in low supply while then first of all used as animal feed in SSA mixed-crop livestock systems. In this context it is not surprising that for SSA very few studies so far have been published that showcased viable agronomic management systems that did also sequester notable C in the soil. The two long-term trials of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) in Western Kenya are no exception. Neither Conservation Agriculture (CA) nor Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) management practices over a period of 12 years could prevent the topsoil from losing C. But, these two practices could significantly slow down C losses in comparison to treatments representing common farmer practice. Also in comparison to the latter, yields of CA and ISFM plots were 2-4 time higher. This example shows that hoarding SOM in soils under humid tropical conditions is a challenge, and to attain amounts required to come even close to the 4p

  16. New Equation for Estimating Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Humid-Tropical Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangkertadi; R Syafriny

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research focusing on thermal comfort at outdoor spaces in humid tropical climate. The study was conducted in the city of Manado, Indonesia inthe years 2011 and 2012, by way of field-experimentation and measurements of microclimate.From the results of measurements and questionnaires, it was carried out development of regression equations. Through statistical analysis it has been generated three thermal comfort equations for outdoor, which each for normal walk...

  17. IFOAM Training Manual: Training Manual for Organic Agriculture in the Humid Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcher, Lukas; Weidmann, Gilles; Garibay, Salvador V.

    2007-01-01

    The first IFOAM Training Manual for Organic Agriculture in the Tropics (the Basic Manual) was published in 2004. The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) together with partners of the organic movement in the Tropics were commissioned by IFOAM to complete two new training manuals that build on the Basic Manual. The new IFOAM training manuals address the two basic climatic zones of the Tropics, the Arid and Semi-Arid Tropics, and the Humid Tropics. For both new manuals, already e...

  18. Global relation between microwave satellite vegetation products and vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Irene E.; Forkel, Matthias; Jung, Martin; Miralles, Diego G.; Dorigo, Wouter A.

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of unfavourable environmental conditions like droughts commonly reduces the photosynthetic activity of ecosystems and, hence, their potential to take up carbon from the atmosphere. Ecosystem photosynthetic activity is commonly determined using remote sensing observations in the optical domain, which however have limitations particularly in regions of frequent cloud cover, e.g. the tropics. In this study, we explore the potential of vegetation optical depth (VOD) from microwave satellite observations as an alternative source for assessing vegetation productivity. VOD serves as an estimate for vegetation density and water content, which has an impact on plant physiological processes and hence should potentially provide a link to gross primary production (GPP). However, to date, it is unclear how microwave-retrieved VOD data and GPP data are related. We compare seasonal dynamics and anomalies of VOD retrievals from different satellite sensors and microwave frequencies with site level and global GPP estimates. We use VOD observations from active (ASCAT) and passive microwave sensors (AMSR-E, SMOS). We include eddy covariance measurements from the FLUXNET2015 dataset to assess the VOD products at site level. For a global scale analysis, we use the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) observations from GOME-2 as a proxy for GPP and the FLUXCOM GPP product, which presents an upscaling of site measurements based on remote sensing data. Our results demonstrate that in general a good agreement between VOD and GPP or SIF exists. However, the strength of these relations depends on the microwave frequency, land cover type, and the time within the growing season. Correlations between anomalies of VOD and GPP or SIF support the assumption that microwave-derived VOD can be used to monitor vegetation productivity dynamics. The study is performed as part of the EOWAVE project funded by the Vienna University of Technology (http://eowave.geo.tuwien.ac.at/) and

  19. National satellite-based humid tropical forest change assessment in Peru in support of REDD+ implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, P. V.; Dempewolf, J.; Talero, Y.; Hansen, M. C.; Stehman, S. V.; Vargas, C.; Rojas, E. J.; Castillo, D.; Mendoza, E.; Calderón, A.; Giudice, R.; Malaga, N.; Zutta, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent, consistent, and accurate national forest monitoring is required for successful implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs. Collecting baseline information on forest extent and rates of forest loss is a first step for national forest monitoring in support of REDD+. Peru, with the second largest extent of Amazon basin rainforest, has made significant progress in advancing its forest monitoring capabilities. We present a national-scale humid tropical forest cover loss map derived by the Ministry of Environment REDD+ team in Peru. The map quantifies forest loss from 2000 to 2011 within the Peruvian portion of the Amazon basin using a rapid, semi-automated approach. The available archive of Landsat imagery (11 654 scenes) was processed and employed for change detection to obtain annual gross forest cover loss maps. A stratified sampling design and a combination of Landsat (30 m) and RapidEye (5 m) imagery as reference data were used to estimate the primary forest cover area, total gross forest cover loss area, proportion of primary forest clearing, and to validate the Landsat-based map. Sample-based estimates showed that 92.63% (SE = 2.16%) of the humid tropical forest biome area within the country was covered by primary forest in the year 2000. Total gross forest cover loss from 2000 to 2011 equaled 2.44% (SE = 0.16%) of the humid tropical forest biome area. Forest loss comprised 1.32% (SE = 0.37%) of primary forest area and 9.08% (SE = 4.04%) of secondary forest area. Validation confirmed a high accuracy of the Landsat-based forest cover loss map, with a producer’s accuracy of 75.4% and user’s accuracy of 92.2%. The majority of forest loss was due to clearing (92%) with the rest attributed to natural processes (flooding, fires, and windstorms). The implemented Landsat data processing and classification system may be used for operational annual forest cover loss updates at the national level for REDD

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions following incorporation of improved-fallow residues in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, N.; Ndufa, J. K.; Cadisch, G.; Baggs, E. M.

    2004-03-01

    The rotation of crops with fast-growing tree, shrub, and herbaceous N2-fixing legume species (improved fallows) is a central agroforestry technology for soil fertility management in the humid tropics. Maize yields are increased following improved fallows compared with continuous maize cropping or traditional natural-fallow systems consisting of broadleaved weeds and grasses. However, the effect of these improved-fallow systems on N availability and N2O emissions following residue application has yet to be determined. Emissions from these systems not only have a detrimental effect on the environment, but are of additional concern in that they represent a potentially significant loss of N and a reduction in N-use efficiency. Emissions of N2O were measured from improved-fallow agroforestry systems in western Kenya, being characteristic of agroforestry systems in the humid tropics. Emissions were increased after incorporation of fallow residues and were higher after incorporation of improved-fallow legume residues (Sesbania sesban, Crotalaria grahamiana, Macroptilium atropurpureum) than natural-fallow residues (mainly consisting of Digitaria abyssibica, Habiscus cannabinus, Bidens pilosa, Guizotia scabra, Leonotis nepetifolia, Commelina benghalensis). Following incorporation of Sesbania and Macroptilium residues (7.4 t dry matter ha-1; 2.9% N) in a mixed fallow system, 4.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 was emitted over 84 days. The percentages of N applied emitted as N2O following residue incorporation in these tropical agroforestry systems were of the same magnitude as in temperate agricultural systems. N2O (loge) emissions were positively correlated with residue N content (r = 0.93; P < 0.05), and thus the residue composition, particularly its N content, is an important consideration when proposing management practices to mitigate N2O emissions from these systems.

  1. Iron oxidation stimulates organic matter decomposition in humid tropical forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven J; Silver, Whendee L

    2013-09-01

    Humid tropical forests have the fastest rates of organic matter decomposition globally, which often coincide with fluctuating oxygen (O2 ) availability in surface soils. Microbial iron (Fe) reduction generates reduced iron [Fe(II)] under anaerobic conditions, which oxidizes to Fe(III) under subsequent aerobic conditions. We demonstrate that Fe (II) oxidation stimulates organic matter decomposition via two mechanisms: (i) organic matter oxidation, likely driven by reactive oxygen species; and (ii) increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) availability, likely driven by acidification. Phenol oxidative activity increased linearly with Fe(II) concentrations (P oxidative activity occurred in soils under anaerobic conditions, implying the importance of oxidants such as O2 or hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in addition to Fe(II). Reactions between Fe(II) and H2 O2 generate hydroxyl radical, a strong nonselective oxidant of organic compounds. We found increasing consumption of H2 O2 as soil Fe(II) concentrations increased, suggesting that reactive oxygen species produced by Fe(II) oxidation explained variation in phenol oxidative activity among samples. Amending soils with Fe(II) at field concentrations stimulated short-term C mineralization by up to 270%, likely via a second mechanism. Oxidation of Fe(II) drove a decrease in pH and a monotonic increase in DOC; a decline of two pH units doubled DOC, likely stimulating microbial respiration. We obtained similar results by manipulating soil acidity independently of Fe(II), implying that Fe(II) oxidation affected C substrate availability via pH fluctuations, in addition to producing reactive oxygen species. Iron oxidation coupled to organic matter decomposition contributes to rapid rates of C cycling across humid tropical forests in spite of periodic O2 limitation, and may help explain the rapid turnover of complex C molecules in these soils. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Biological effects of plant residues with constrasting chemical compositions on plant and soil under humid tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, G.

    1992-01-01

    A study on plant residues with contrasting chemical compositions was conducted under laboratory, growth chamber and humid tropical field conditions to understand the function of the soil fauna in the breakdown of plant residues, the cycling of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, and the

  3. Humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005 quantified by using multitemporal and multiresolution remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew C.; Stehman, S.V.; Potapov, Peter V.; Loveland, T.R.; Townshend, J.R.G.; DeFries, R.S.; Pittman, K.W.; Arunarwati, B.; Stolle, F.; Steininger, M.K.; Carroll, M.; DiMiceli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Forest cover is an important input variable for assessing changes to carbon stocks, climate and hydrological systems, biodiversity richness, and other sustainability science disciplines. Despite incremental improvements in our ability to quantify rates of forest clearing, there is still no definitive understanding on global trends. Without timely and accurate forest monitoring methods, policy responses will be uninformed concerning the most basic facts of forest cover change. Results of a feasible and cost-effective monitoring strategy are presented that enable timely, precise, and internally consistent estimates of forest clearing within the humid tropics. A probability-based sampling approach that synergistically employs low and high spatial resolution satellite datasets was used to quantify humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005. Forest clearing is estimated to be 1.39% (SE 0.084%) of the total biome area. This translates to an estimated forest area cleared of 27.2 million hectares (SE 2.28 million hectares), and represents a 2.36% reduction in area of humid tropical forest. Fifty-five percent of total biome clearing occurs within only 6% of the biome area, emphasizing the presence of forest clearing “hotspots.” Forest loss in Brazil accounts for 47.8% of total biome clearing, nearly four times that of the next highest country, Indonesia, which accounts for 12.8%. Over three-fifths of clearing occurs in Latin America and over one-third in Asia. Africa contributes 5.4% to the estimated loss of humid tropical forest cover, reflecting the absence of current agro-industrial scale clearing in humid tropical Africa.

  4. Humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005 quantified by using multitemporal and multiresolution remotely sensed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew C; Stehman, Stephen V; Potapov, Peter V; Loveland, Thomas R; Townshend, John R G; DeFries, Ruth S; Pittman, Kyle W; Arunarwati, Belinda; Stolle, Fred; Steininger, Marc K; Carroll, Mark; Dimiceli, Charlene

    2008-07-08

    Forest cover is an important input variable for assessing changes to carbon stocks, climate and hydrological systems, biodiversity richness, and other sustainability science disciplines. Despite incremental improvements in our ability to quantify rates of forest clearing, there is still no definitive understanding on global trends. Without timely and accurate forest monitoring methods, policy responses will be uninformed concerning the most basic facts of forest cover change. Results of a feasible and cost-effective monitoring strategy are presented that enable timely, precise, and internally consistent estimates of forest clearing within the humid tropics. A probability-based sampling approach that synergistically employs low and high spatial resolution satellite datasets was used to quantify humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005. Forest clearing is estimated to be 1.39% (SE 0.084%) of the total biome area. This translates to an estimated forest area cleared of 27.2 million hectares (SE 2.28 million hectares), and represents a 2.36% reduction in area of humid tropical forest. Fifty-five percent of total biome clearing occurs within only 6% of the biome area, emphasizing the presence of forest clearing "hotspots." Forest loss in Brazil accounts for 47.8% of total biome clearing, nearly four times that of the next highest country, Indonesia, which accounts for 12.8%. Over three-fifths of clearing occurs in Latin America and over one-third in Asia. Africa contributes 5.4% to the estimated loss of humid tropical forest cover, reflecting the absence of current agro-industrial scale clearing in humid tropical Africa.

  5. Design of evaporative-cooling roof for decreasing air temperatures in buildings in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindangen, Jefrey I.; Umboh, Markus K.

    2017-03-01

    This subject points to assess the benefits of the evaporative-cooling roof, particularly for buildings with corrugated zinc roofs. In Manado, many buildings have roofed with corrugated zinc sheets; because this material is truly practical, easy and economical application. In general, to achieve thermal comfort in buildings in a humid tropical climate, people applying cross ventilation to cool the air in the room and avoid overheating. Cross ventilation is a very popular path to achieve thermal comfort; yet, at that place are other techniques that allow reducing the problem of excessive high temperature in the room in the constructions. This study emphasizes applications of the evaporative-cooling roof. Spraying water on the surface of the ceiling has been executed on the test cell and the reuse of water after being sprayed and cooled once more by applying a heat exchanger. Initial results indicate a reliable design and successfully meet the target as an effective evaporative-cooling roof technique. Application of water spraying automatic and cooling water installations can work optimally and can be an optimal model for the cooling roof as one of the green technologies. The role of heat exchangers can lower the temperature of the water from spraying the surface of the ceiling, which has become a hot, down an average of 0.77° C. The mass flow rate of the cooling water is approximately 1.106 kg/h and the rate of heat flow is around 515 Watt, depend on the site.

  6. Amplification of wildfire area burnt by hydrological drought in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Muh; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Jones, Philip D.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Borneo's diverse ecosystems, which are typical humid tropical conditions, are deteriorating rapidly, as the area is experiencing recurrent large-scale wildfires, affecting atmospheric composition and influencing regional climate processes. Studies suggest that climate-driven drought regulates wildfires, but these overlook subsurface processes leading to hydrological drought, an important driver. Here, we show that models which include hydrological processes better predict area burnt than those solely based on climate data. We report that the Borneo landscape has experienced a substantial hydrological drying trend since the early twentieth century, leading to progressive tree mortality, more severe than in other tropical regions. This has caused massive wildfires in lowland Borneo during the past two decades, which we show are clustered in years with large areas of hydrological drought coinciding with strong El Niño events. Statistical modelling evidence shows amplifying wildfires and greater area burnt in response to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strength, when hydrology is considered. These results highlight the importance of considering hydrological drought for wildfire prediction, and we recommend that hydrology should be considered in future studies of the impact of projected ENSO strength, including effects on tropical ecosystems, and biodiversity conservation.

  7. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, George [Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Sub Centre, Kottayam South P.O, Kottayam-686 039, Kerala (India); James, E.J. [Water Institute and Dean (Research), Karunya University, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987) in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow) which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010). The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62% when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  8. The formation of fire residues associated with hunter-gatherers in humid tropical environments: A geo-ethnoarchaeological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Ajithparsad, P.; French, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Tropical forests have been an important human habitat and played a significant role in early human dispersal and evolution. Likewise, the use of fire, besides being one of the exceptional characteristics of humans, serves as a marker for human evolution. While the use of fire by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is relatively well documented in arid and temperate environments, the archaeological evidence in humid tropical environment is to date very limited. We first review the archaeological evidence for hunter-gatherer use of fire in humid tropical environments and suggest that better understanding of formation processes is required. We present a geo-ethnoarchaeological study from South India, involving ethnography, excavations and laboratory-based analyses in order to build a new framework to study fire residues in humid tropical forests associated with hunter-gatherer's use of fire. Ethnographic observations point to a dynamic and ephemeral use of hearths. Hearths location were dictated by the social and ever-changing social dynamics of the site. The hearths deposited small amount of residues which were later swept on a daily basis, re-depositing ash and charcoal in waste areas and leaving only a microscopic signal in the original location. Particular acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within tropical sediments result in the complete dissolution of ash and bones while favouring the preservation of charcoal and phytoliths. Consequently, the identification of fire residues in humid tropical forests and the reconstruction of the human use of fire must involve multi-proxy microscopic analysis to detect its micro-signatures.

  9. Improving a native pasture with the legume Arachis pintoi in the humid tropics of México

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Gallegos, E.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of introducing the legume Arachis pintoi CIAT 17434 into a native pasture where native grasses dominated the botanical composition, on establishment, persistence, standing dry matter, botanical composition, soil variables, animal performance, herbage quality and ingestive behaviour of the animals, from 1998 to 2001 in the humid tropics of the east coast of México. The treatments were the native grass pasture (NG) as control and NG associ...

  10. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi; Reny Syafriny

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical ...

  11. Agroecology and healthy food systems in semi-humid tropical Africa: Participatory research with vulnerable farming households in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Kangmennaang, Joseph; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Dakishoni, Laifolo; Lupafya, Esther; Shumba, Lizzie; Katundu, Mangani

    2017-11-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between agroecology, food security, and human health. Specifically, we ask if agroecology can lead to improved food security and human health among vulnerable smallholder farmers in semi-humid tropical Africa. The empirical evidence comes from a cross-sectional household survey (n=1000) in two districts in Malawi, a small country in semi-humid, tropical Africa. The survey consisted of 571 agroecology-adoption and 429 non-agroecology-adoption households. Ordered logistics regression and average treatment effects models were used to determine the effect of agroecology adoption on self-reported health. Our results show that agroecology-adoption households (OR=1.37, p=0.05) were more likely to report optimal health status, and the average treatment effect shows that adopters were 12% more likely to be in optimal health. Furthermore, being moderately food insecure (OR=0.59, p=0.05) and severely food insecure (OR=0.89, p=0.10) were associated with less likelihood of reporting optimal health status. The paper concludes that with the adoption of agroecology in the semi-humid tropics, it is possible for households to diversify their crops and diets, a condition that has strong implications for improved food security, good nutrition and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A critical assessment of the JULES land surface model hydrology for humid tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zulkafli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global land surface models (LSMs such as the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES are originally developed to provide surface boundary conditions for climate models. They are increasingly used for hydrological simulation, for instance to simulate the impacts of land use changes and other perturbations on the water cycle. This study investigates how well such models represent the major hydrological fluxes at the relevant spatial and temporal scales – an important question for reliable model applications in poorly understood, data-scarce environments. The JULES-LSM is implemented in a 360 000 km2 humid tropical mountain basin of the Peruvian Andes–Amazon at 12-km grid resolution, forced with daily satellite and climate reanalysis data. The simulations are evaluated using conventional discharge-based evaluation methods, and by further comparing the magnitude and internal variability of the basin surface fluxes such as evapotranspiration, throughfall, and surface and subsurface runoff of the model with those observed in similar environments elsewhere. We find reasonably positive model efficiencies and high correlations between the simulated and observed streamflows, but high root-mean-square errors affecting the performance in smaller, upper sub-basins. We attribute this to errors in the water balance and JULES-LSM's inability to model baseflow. We also found a tendency to under-represent the high evapotranspiration rates of the region. We conclude that strategies to improve the representation of tropical systems to be (1 addressing errors in the forcing and (2 incorporating local wetland and regional floodplain in the subsurface representation.

  13. Eco-efficiency in oil and gas exploration and production in regions of humid tropical forests: the PETROBRAS case in the Amazon region; Eco-eficiencia na exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas em regioes de florestas tropicais umidas: o caso da PETROBRAS na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyen, Bianca de Castro

    2008-09-15

    This dissertation discourses about the application of eco-efficiency concepts to the case of PETROBRAS oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Amazon Forest, proposing the use of indicators as a systematization tool for this application. First there is a description about the concepts concerning corporate sustainability, corporate social responsibility and eco-efficiency, considering their application to the oil and gas industry. The main exploration and production projects in rainforest regions are described next, with distinction to PETROBRAS case in the Amazon Forest. Finally there is a description about the process of alignment of PETROBRAS Amazon activities management to the eco-efficiency and corporate sustainability, followed by a proposal of a body of indicators to the case study. (author)

  14. PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES IN THE AMUR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokoz Svetlana Vladimirovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Amur region of vegetables in special farms, peasant farmers, and personal subsidiary farms. In the course of agrarian reform in the country, there was a change in the role of each sector, the main production of vegetables in the field moved into the private sector of the population that now produce 87% of vegetable production. The value of gross output in the agricultural enterprises decreased compared to the 1988 – 1991 years. 30 times and now stands at 3% of the total harvest. Peasant farmers produce up to 10% vegetables. Vegetable production in the field for the whole period was lower than recommended intakes of man (139 kg per year in half. Residents are deficient in vegetables, which are a major source of vitamins, fiber, enzymes, minerals and other valuable substances. Products grown on farms, in a trading network of the city was almost no, but basically once implemented special consumers: Ministry of Defence, educational and medical institutions, etc., as well as exported to Khabarovsk, Primorsky Krai, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. Export of vegetables outside the region due to the lack of storage facilities and processing plants. Lack of vegetables in the Amur region filled the importation of products from China. According to statistics from the import of this product is 40%, which puts us in the economic dependence.

  15. The impact of forest regeneration on streamflow in 12 mesoscale humid tropical catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Beck

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although regenerating forests make up an increasingly large portion of humid tropical landscapes, little is known of their water use and effects on streamflow (Q. Since the 1950s the island of Puerto Rico has experienced widespread abandonment of pastures and agricultural lands, followed by forest regeneration. This paper examines the possible impacts of these secondary forests on several Q characteristics for 12 mesoscale catchments (23–346 km2; mean precipitation 1720–3422 mm yr−1 with long (33–51 yr and simultaneous records for Q, precipitation (P, potential evaporation (PET, and land cover. A simple spatially-lumped, conceptual rainfall–runoff model that uses daily P and PET time series as inputs (HBV-light was used to simulate Q for each catchment. Annual time series of observed and simulated values of four Q characteristics were calculated. A least-squares trend was fitted through annual time series of the residual difference between observed and simulated time series of each Q characteristic. From this the total cumulative change ( was calculated, representing the change in each Q characteristic after controlling for climate variability and water storage carry-over effects between years. Negative values of  were found for most catchments and Q characteristics, suggesting enhanced actual evaporation overall following forest regeneration. However, correlations between changes in urban or forest area and values of  were insignificant (p ≥ 0.389 for all Q characteristics. This suggests there is no convincing evidence that changes in the chosen Q characteristics in these Puerto Rican catchments can be ascribed to changes in urban or forest area. The present results are in line with previous studies of meso- and macro-scale (sub-tropical catchments, which generally found no significant change in Q that can be attributed to changes in forest cover. Possible explanations for the lack of a clear signal may include errors in the

  16. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Linkages Along an Urban Elevational Gradient in Humid Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, D. F.; Lee, J. K.; McCleery, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests in and around urban centers face a suite of anthropogenic disturbances that may be muted or absent in more remote forests. In particular, urban-proximate forests are likely to have elevated soil nitrogen (N) levels because of local N deposition. High background N availability common in humid tropical soils may result in soil carbon (C) cycling responses that differ from those observed in N-poor Northern soils. Furthermore, N availability and temperature have been shown to have interacting effects on soil C cycling, such that responses may vary over elevational gradients. We used fragments of secondary forest along an urban elevational gradient in Puerto Rico to address the following questions: (a) Is there evidence that increased N availability in urban-proximate tropical forests alters soil C cycling? (b) Do effects of N availability vary over elevational gradients? To address these questions, we measured soil C and N content, soil respiration, mineral N pools, total dissolved N (TDN), dissolved organic C (DOC), pH, microbial biomass, and decomposer enzyme activities. Data from the urban gradient were compared with results for rural and remote Puerto Rican forests. Forest soils along the urban gradient had elevated levels of soil nitrate (NO3-) relative to rural and remote forests, whereas extractable DOC and TDN were both lower in the urban forest soils. Soil pH was significantly higher and more variable in urban forests, ranging from 4.5 to 8.5 across nine forest stands, whereas remote forests had soil pH ranging from 4.4 to 5.2. Dissolved organic C and TDN declined with increases in pH across all sites (R2 = 0.64 and 0.48 respectively, n = 48, p < 0.05). Microbial biomass was not different among the study areas, but several microbial enzyme activities were lower in urban forest soils relative to the remote forests, including phosphorous-acquiring phosphatase, N-acquiring NAGase, and oxidative enzymes that degrade complex C compounds. Soil

  17. Perceived Thermal Discomfort and Stress Behaviours Affecting Students’ Learning in Lecture Theatres in the Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaraukuro Tammy Amasuomo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between students’ perceived thermal discomfort and stress behaviours affecting their learning in lecture theatres in the humid tropics. Two lecture theatres, LTH-2 and 3, at the Niger Delta University, Nigeria, were used for the study. Two groups of students from the Faculties of Agriculture and Engineering and the Department of Technology Education constituted the population. The sample size selected through random sampling for Groups A and B was 210 and 370 students, respectively. Objective and self-report instruments were used for data collection. The objective instrument involved physical measurement of the two lecture theatres and of the indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement. The self-report instrument was a questionnaire that asked for the students perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and the effect of indoor thermal comfort level on perceived stress behaviours affecting their learning. The objective indoor environmental data indicated thermal discomfort with an average temperature of 29–32 °C and relative humidity of 78% exceeding the ASHARE [1] and Olgyay [2].The students’ experienced a considerable level of thermal discomfort and also perceived that stress behaviours due to thermal discomfort affected their learning. Further, there were no significant differences in the perceived thermal discomfort levels of the two groups of students in LTH-2 and 3. Furthermore, stress behaviours affecting learning as perceived by the two groups of students did not differ significantly. In addition, no correlation existed between the perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and stress behaviour levels affecting learning for students in LTH-2, because the arousal level of the students in the thermal environment was likely higher than the arousal level for optimal performance [3,4]. However, a correlation existed in the case of students in LTH-3, which was expected because it only

  18. non-traditional vegetable production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on farm features included farm size, input and out- put-ctotals, yield and quantity of agro-chemicals used. Other impor- tant areas covered include urban agriculture development related microeconomic policies of Ghana, national vegetable specific poli- cies- and projects, input and output prices and availability and ac-.

  19. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  20. Effect of Stocking Density on Performance of Growing Rabbits in Semi-Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyeghe-Erakpotobor Grace, T.

    2005-01-01

    rabbits as stocking density increases in week 1-2 and 3-4. Feed conversion ratio was poorer at higher densities (16.7, 20 rabbits/m2 than at lower densities (6.7, 10, 13.3 rabbits/m2. There was no definite relationship between stocking density and mortality rate of rabbits. Rabbits stocked at 6.7 to 13.3 rabbits/m2 had significantly higher body condition score and fur condition compared with those stocked at 16.7 and 20 rabbits/m2. There were no differences in fighty bites for all the stocking densities. It is concluded from this study that the optimum stocking density for rabbits in the semi-humid tropics is 13.3 rabbits/m2.

  1. Contradictory hydrological impacts of afforestation in the humid tropics evidenced by long-term field monitoring and simulation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Guillaume; Ribolzi, Olivier; de Rouw, Anneke; Pierret, Alain; Latsachak, Keoudone; Silvera, Norbert; Pham Dinh, Rinh; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Robain, Henri; Taccoen, Adrien; Sengphaathith, Phouthamaly; Mouche, Emmanuel; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Tran Duc, Toan; Valentin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The humid tropics are exposed to an unprecedented modernisation of agriculture involving rapid and mixed land-use changes with contrasted environmental impacts. Afforestation is often mentioned as an unambiguous solution for restoring ecosystem services and enhancing biodiversity. One consequence of afforestation is the alteration of streamflow variability which controls habitats, water resources, and flood risks. We demonstrate that afforestation by tree planting or by natural forest regeneration can induce opposite hydrological changes. An observatory including long-term field measurements of fine-scale land-use mosaics and of hydrometeorological variables has been operating in several headwater catchments in tropical southeast Asia since 2000. The GR2M water balance model, repeatedly calibrated over successive 1-year periods and used in simulation mode with the same year of rainfall input, allowed the hydrological effect of land-use change to be isolated from that of rainfall variability in two of these catchments in Laos and Vietnam. Visual inspection of hydrographs, correlation analyses, and trend detection tests allowed causality between land-use changes and changes in seasonal streamflow to be ascertained. In Laos, the combination of shifting cultivation system (alternation of rice and fallow) and the gradual increase of teak tree plantations replacing fallow led to intricate streamflow patterns: pluri-annual streamflow cycles induced by the shifting system, on top of a gradual streamflow increase over years caused by the spread of the plantations. In Vietnam, the abandonment of continuously cropped areas combined with patches of mix-trees plantations led to the natural re-growth of forest communities followed by a gradual drop in streamflow. Soil infiltrability controlled by surface crusting is the predominant process explaining why two modes of afforestation (natural regeneration vs. planting) led to opposite changes in streamflow regime. Given that

  2. Vegetation Composition, Biomass Production, Carrying Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to characterize vegetation composition and grassland types as well as to estimate biomass production and carrying capacity of the rangeland in Ordolla areas of Shinile zone, eastern Ethiopia in October 2004. The Ordolla grasslands covered 22,621ha on alluvial plain composed of sand and silt ...

  3. Maize Storage in Termite Mound Clay, Concrete, and Steel Silos in the Humid Tropics: Comparison and Effect on Bacterial and Fungal Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the functional suitability of using the readily-available termite mound clay (TMC) for grain silo construction in comparison to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) and galvanized steel (GS) silos for maize storage in the humid tropics. The extent to which temperature and r...

  4. NEW GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGIES FOR VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First decade of XXI century is characterized by significant augmentation in vegetable world’s production. Average annual vegetable production has been 346 million tons, and it has exceeded the average annual potato production (318 million tons. It has occurred due to the use of up-to-date technologies for vegetable production and, particularly, in greenhouses. In Russian Federation, the total production of vegetables was 5 275.6 thousand tons in 2015 that was 13.3% more than in 2014. But the total vegetable production in greenhouses was only 722.8 thousand tons, that was 0.7% less than in 2014 (728.1 thousand tons. It can be explained that the old technologies have been used for many greenhouses around Russia. Up-to-date technologies for greenhouses are described in the article. Small-volume hydroponics. Plants are grown in mineral wadding, packed up in the special chutes. Mineral nutrition and water are supplied through special pipe with many branch pipes toward each plant. Advantage: pH and nutrition are maintained, consumption of water and mineral nutrition are optimized, and that improves plants grow control. Expenditures of labor decreased, quality of fruit became better and the yield increased significantly by 45-50 kg/m2 comparing with growing on the soil (25-30 kg/m2. Hydroponics with flowing water (salad production lines. Conveyor for salad and vegetable growing on horizontal moving chutes with flowing water and nutrition was developed. Advantage: high level of automation and mechanization of all processes of growing increased the effectiveness of the use of greenhouse areas (we can place 30% plants more at the same area. Seedling production lines. Production lines for seedlings enable to grow vegetables and leafy vegetables on stationary benches, being furnished with periodical nutrition and water supply at times. Advantage: 700 seedlings additionally on each m2 a year. Future technologies are

  5. Use of biodegradable mulching in vegetable production

    OpenAIRE

    Minuto, Giovanni; Guerrini, Sara; Versari, Marco; Pisi, Luisa; Tinivella, Federico; Bruzzone, Cinzia; Pini, Stefano; Capurro, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Trials were carried out in Liguria during three years (2004-2006) to evaluate the use of innovative starch based bioplastics for soil mulching. All trials carried out in open field as well as in greenhouse on different vegetable crops demonstrated the effectiveness of biodegradable films in controlling weeds and in increasing yield. The use of biodegradable mulching films found application in integrated production regulations set up by the regional authority and it is potentially adoptable i...

  6. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  7. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  8. Irrigation water consumption modelling of a soilless cucumber crop under specific greenhouse conditions in a humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Alberto Salcedo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The irrigation water consumption of a soilless cucumber crop under greenhouse conditions in a humid tropical climate has been evaluated in this paper in order to improve the irrigation water and fertilizers management in these specific conditions. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted. Two trials were carried out during the years 2011 and 2014 in an experimental farm located in Vinces (Ecuador. In each trial, the complete growing cycle of a cucumber crop grown under a greenhouse was evaluated. Crop development was monitored and a good fit to a sigmoidal Gompertz type growth function was reported. The daily water uptake of the crop was measured and related to the most relevant indoor climate variables. Two different combination methods, namely the Penman-Monteith equation and the Baille equation, were applied. However, the results obtained with these combination methods were not satisfactory due to the poor correlation between the climatic variables, especially the incoming radiation, and the crop's water uptake (WU. On contrary, a good correlation was reported between the crop's water uptake and the leaf area index (LAI, especially in the initial crop stages. However, when the crop is fully developed, the WU stabilizes and becomes independent from the LAI. A preliminary model to simulate the water uptake of the crop was adjusted using the data obtained in the first experiment and then validated with the data of the second experiment.

  9. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical Comfort (OTC model was used for simulation in this study. The model output is comfort scale that refers on ASHRAE definition. The model consists of two regression equations with variables of air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed, humidity and body posture, for two types of activity: walking and seated. From the results it can be stated that there is significant role of wind speed to reduce mean radiant temperature and globe temperature, when the velocity is elevated from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. However, the wind has not play significant role when the speed is changed from 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s. The results of the study may inspire us to implement effectiveness of electrical-fan equipment for outdoor space in order to get optimum wind speed, coupled with optimum design of shading devices to minimize radiant temperature for thermal comfort.

  10. Nitrogen use efficiency of monoculture and hedgerow intercropping in the humid tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowe, E.C.; Noordwijk, van M.; Suprayogo, D.; Cadisch, G.

    2005-01-01

    The design of productive and efficient intercropping systems depends on achieving complementarity between component speciesrsquo resource capture niches. Spatiotemporal patterns of capture and use of pruning and urea nitrogen (N) by trees and intercrops were elucidated by isotopic tracing, and

  11. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A.K.; Rai, S.P.; Datta, A.K.; Das, C.R.; Ghosh, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  12. COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF TWO EDIBLE ECTOTYPE OF GIANT LAND SNAILS FED BANANA LEAVES IN THE HUMID TROPICAL ZONE OF CROSS RIVER STATE

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. UBUA; Agiang, E.A; Ibom, L.A; Ekpo, T. E; Aaron, H.A

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the reproductive potentials of two edible ectotype of giant land snails (Archachatina marginata ovum and Archachatina marginata Saturalis) fed banana leaves in the humid tropical zone of Cross River State within a 16 week period. The reproductive potentials of the two ectotypes of giant lands snail revealed that Archachatina marginata ovum performed better (P 0.05) was observed between the two ectotypes on their Percent egg hatchability

  13. Strong spatial variability in trace gas dynamics following experimental drought in a humid tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tana Wood; W. L. Silver

    2012-01-01

    [1] Soil moisture is a key driver of biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems, strongly affecting carbon (C) and nutrient availability as well as trace gas production and consumption in soils. Models predict increasing drought frequency in tropical forest ecosystems, which could feed back on future climate change directly via effects on trace gasdynamics and...

  14. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BRACHIARIA RUZIZIENSIS X BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA HYBRID UNDER HUMID TROPICAL CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ara G., Miguel; Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura, IVITA-Pucallpa, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Reyes A., César; Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura, IVITA-Pucallpa, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid Brachiaria ruziziensis x Brachiaria brizantha (pasto Mulato) has been released as a highly productive tropical forage. This new option is being tested at Pucallpa in a field trial under a combination of NP fertilizer rates (0, 75 y 150 kg/ha/year of N and 0, 25 y 50 kg/ha/year of P). Establishment evaluations, resulting from measuring seedling emergence and biomass cover at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after planting, showed Mulato as a forage with an excellent establishment potential, pa...

  15. Corrosion study of steels exposed over five years to the humid tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, Juan A.; Iglesias, Josefina

    2017-11-01

    The results of assessing five-year corrosion of low-carbon and conventional weathering steels exposed to the Panamanian tropical atmosphere is presented. Two different test sites, one in Panama City: 5 km from the shoreline of the Pacific Ocean, and another in the marine environment of Fort Sherman, Caribbean coast of Panama; namely, Fort Sherman Coastal site: 100 m from coastline. The corrosion products, formed in the skyward and earthward faces in the studied tropical environment, were mainly identified using room temperature and low temperature (15 K) Mössbauer spectroscopy, and ATR-FTIR. In all samples, lepidocrocite ( γ-FeOOH) and goethite ( α-FeOOH) were the main constituents. Some maghemite ( γ-Fe2 O 3), was also identified in Tocumen by Mössbauer spectroscopy and traces of feroxyhyte ( δ-FeOOH) using ATR-FTIR. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in light of the atmospheric exposure conditions and atmospheric pollutants.

  16. Corrosion study of steels exposed over five years to the humid tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaén, Juan A., E-mail: juan.jaen@up.ac.pa [Departamento de Química Física, Edificio de Laboratorios Científicos-VIP (Panama); Iglesias, Josefina [Laboratorio de Análisis Industriales y Ciencias Ambientales (Panama)

    2017-11-15

    The results of assessing five-year corrosion of low-carbon and conventional weathering steels exposed to the Panamanian tropical atmosphere is presented. Two different test sites, one in Panama City: 5 km from the shoreline of the Pacific Ocean, and another in the marine environment of Fort Sherman, Caribbean coast of Panama; namely, Fort Sherman Coastal site: 100 m from coastline. The corrosion products, formed in the skyward and earthward faces in the studied tropical environment, were mainly identified using room temperature and low temperature (15 K) Mössbauer spectroscopy, and ATR-FTIR. In all samples, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and goethite (α-FeOOH) were the main constituents. Some maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), was also identified in Tocumen by Mössbauer spectroscopy and traces of feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH) using ATR-FTIR. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in light of the atmospheric exposure conditions and atmospheric pollutants.

  17. Microbial surfactant activities from a petrochemical landfarm in a humid tropical region of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, B.M.; Dias, J.C.T.; Santos, A.C.F.; Argolo-Filho, R.C.; Fontana, R.; Loguercio, L.L.; Rezende, R.P. [Univ. Estadual de Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2007-08-15

    Studies have suggested that biosurfactants can enhance the biodegradation of almost insoluble organics by increasing cell uptake availability. In this study, micro-organisms were isolated from a soil sample from a Brazilian petrochemical waste landfarm and grown in petroleum as a carbon source in order to assess their surfactant potential. Isolated colonies were inoculated into tubes, and a drop-collapse method was used to select micro-organisms with surfactant activity. Surfactant activity of the isolates was assessed when the activity was detected for the first time in each culture. The supernatant of each micro-organism was then diluted. The surfactant activity of each dilution was then observed via micelles formation. DNA was then extracted from the samples. A total of 60 microbial strains were selected. Results showed that a variety of petroleum-grown micro-organisms obtained from the landfarm soil showed surfactant activity. Results showed that the micro-organisms were able to use petroleum as a sole carbon source. The production of surfactant compounds occurred during the declining stages of microbial culture curves, which suggested that the nutritional stress achieved on the fourth day of the culture induced the synthesis and secretion of biosurfactants by the isolates. It was concluded that micro-organisms derived from soils polluted with hydrocarbons can be used in bioremediation processes. 21 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  18. Vegetable soybean: seed composition and production research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable soybean (edamame [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is a low input, high nutritional value, short crop cycle and soil-enriching profitable crop. It offers quick economic return and provides health benefits to the consumers. The market demand for edamame has begun to flourish and expand dramatically in recent decades due to increased awareness of nutritional properties, and the change in life styles towards healthier food. This article highlighted the importance of edamame as a nutraceutical and functional food-grade produce, summarised the research advances in seed composition and their roles, cultivar selection and crop establishment, planting date and fertilisation, weed management and harvesting. Current production problem of extensive labor at harvest and future research challenges in improving crop establishment, developing cultivars competitive to weed and resistant to pest insects/diseases, assessing biological activities of edamame elemental and phytochemical properties on cancer cell inhibition, and developing organic production system were also proposed with aims of enhancing farm profitability and expanding opportunities for extensive use of edamame.

  19. Production and marketing challenges of vegetable farming: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the production and marketing challenges of urban vegetable production in the Kumasi Metropolis of the Ashanti Region, Ghana. A simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 300 urban vegetable farmers from the study area. A structured interview schedule was used to collect ...

  20. Biodiversity in humid tropical banana plantations where there has been long-term use of crop protection products

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Vargas

    2006-01-01

    La biodiversidad en plantaciones de banano del trópico húmedo, donde han sido usados compuestos fitosanitarios por períodos prolongados. El cultivo del banano, es afectado por plagas y enfermedades que requieren para su control de compuestos fitosanitarios. Entre los compuestos fitosanitarios se cita: fungicidas, nematicidas, insecticidas y herbicidas. En Costa Rica, el público y la comunidad ambientalista comúnmente asumen que el impacto de estos compuestos es s...

  1. Process for the production of elementary vegetable bast fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Jong, de E.

    1999-01-01

    A process for the production of elementary vegetable bast fibres is provided, which process comprises the steps of a) cutting raw vegetable bast fibres to a fibre length of 8 to 400 mm, b) chemically treating the cut fibres to remove lignin and pectin compounds, c) drying the fibres obtained in step

  2. Vegetable fats and oils as functional ingredients in meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2011-01-01

    Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10%) they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.

  3. Farmers' adoption of improved vegetable production practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... The study was undertaken to evaluate the Fadama phase one vegetable production project in Anambra. State. Data for the study were colleted from 160 vegetable growers (80 project farmers and 80 non- project farmers), through the use of a set of structured interview schedule. Percentages, mean scores.

  4. Review article: Vegetative growth, reproduction, browse production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review deals with issues including the determinants of vegetative growth of woody plants (soil water availability, water stress, soil nutrient availability, carbohydrate reserves, plant hormones, atmospheric CO2 concentration, tree age, competition, defoliation and shoot pruning, fire pathogens, soil and climatic conditions) ...

  5. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were subjected to analysis using descriptive statistics, stochastic frontier model, gross margin and net farm income. The study revealed that farm size, labour and fertilizer positively affect the technical efficiency of the farmers. The mean technical efficiency was 68.5 and vegetable farmers were not operating at ...

  6. Sustainable Production of Underutilized Vegetables to Enhance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of IDRC and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) - aims to increase the food security and economic empowerment of resource-poor rural women farmers in Nigeria through the cultivation, processing, consumption and marketing of underutilized vegetables.

  7. The environmental impact of nitrogen in field vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeteson, J.J.; Carton, O.T.

    2001-01-01

    Many intensive systems of field vegetable production are not sustainable because they lose excessive amounts of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Processes in the N cycle of agricultural systems include assimilation, mineralization/immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia

  8. studies on biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste 115

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    , 2008. Accepted: February, 2009. STUDIES ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM FRUITS AND VEGETABLE. WASTE. 1*Sagagi, B. S., B. Garba and N. S. Usman. Department of Chemistry, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil.

  9. The Vegetable industry in China; Developments in policies, production, marketing and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure

  10. Factors influencing storm-generated suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in four basins of contrasting land use, humid-tropical Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Allen C.

    2013-01-01

    The significant characteristics controlling the variability in storm-generated suspended-sediment loads and concentrations were analyzed for four basins of differing land use (forest, pasture, cropland, and urbanizing) in humid-tropical Puerto Rico. Statistical analysis involved stepwise regression on factor scores. The explanatory variables were attributes of flow, hydrograph peaks, and rainfall, categorized into 5 flow periods: (1) the current storm hydrograph, (2) the flow and rainfall since the previous storm event, (3) the previous storm event, (4) 2nd previous storm event, and (5) the 3rd previous storm event. The response variables (storm generated sediment loads and concentrations) were analyzed for three portions of the storm hydrograph: (1) the entire storm, (2) the rising limb, and (3) the recessional limb. Hysteresis differences in sediment concentration between the rising and falling limb were also analyzed using these explanatory variables.

  11. Genotype-environment interaction of maternal influence characteristics in Nellore cattle bred in the Brazilian humid tropical regions by reaction norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reaction Norm (RN is the study of genotype-environment interaction (GxE that complies with alternative ways of genotypes within different environments. This study was carried out to verify GxE by a reaction norm model of weights at 120 (W120 and 210 (W210 days of age in Nellore cattle raised in the Humid Tropical Regions of Brazil. Environmental gradients were obtained by solutions of contemporary groups which were fitted as co-variables in the random regression model via reaction norms. Mean weight at 120 days of age was 127.97 kg, and environmental gradients ranged between -27 and +26 kg. Average was 185.60 kg at 210 days of age and gradients ranged from -54 to +55 kg. Scale changes in the breeding values and heritability estimates occurred along the gradients for the two weights; the genetic correlations between breeding value breeding values were also similar for both weights. These correlations were high between the close gradients, and low to even negative between extreme environments. Slopes representing the environmental sensitivity were high, with changes of scale and changes in classification of ten bulls with a great numbers of calves for the two traits. When regression slopes of the ten bulls with the highest breeding value breeding values were evaluated, these values were different in W120 from those in W210, perhaps due to the greater influence of maternal effect on W120. These results characterize the influence of GxE on the pre-weaning weights of animals in the humid tropical regions of Brazil. Due to this, it is possible to get greater precision on the predictions of the animals breeding values breeding value. A less biased selection and a greater genetic progress occurred.

  12. Afforestation by natural regeneration or by tree planting: examples of opposite hydrological impacts evidenced by long-term field monitoring in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, G.; Ribolzi, O.; de Rouw, A.; Pierret, A.; Latsachak, K.; Silvera, N.; Pham Dinh, R.; Orange, D.; Janeau, J.-L.; Soulileuth, B.; Robain, H.; Taccoen, A.; Sengphaathith, P.; Mouche, E.; Sengtaheuanghoung, O.; Tran Duc, T.; Valentin, C.

    2015-12-01

    The humid tropics are exposed to an unprecedented modernization of agriculture involving rapid and highly-mixed land-use changes with contrasted environmental impacts. Afforestation is often mentioned as an unambiguous solution for restoring ecosystem services and enhancing biodiversity. One consequence of afforestation is the alteration of streamflow variability controlling habitats, water resources and flood risks. We demonstrate that afforestation by tree planting or by natural forest regeneration can induce opposite hydrological changes. An observatory including long-term field measurements of fine-scale land-use mosaics and of hydro-meteorological variables has been operating in several headwater catchments in tropical Southeast Asia since 2001. The GR2M water balance model repeatedly calibrated over successive 1 year periods, and used in simulation mode with specific rainfall input, allowed the hydrological effect of land-use change to be isolated from that of rainfall variability in two of these catchments in Laos and Vietnam. Visual inspection of hydrographs, correlation analyses and trend detection tests allowed causality between land-use changes and changes in seasonal flows to be ascertained. In Laos, the combination of shifting cultivation system (alternation of rice and fallow) and the gradual increase of teak tree plantations replacing fallow, led to intricate flow patterns: pluri-annual flow cycles induced by the shifting system, on top of a gradual flow increase over years caused by the spread of the plantation. In Vietnam, the abandonment of continuously cropped areas mixed with patches of tree plantations led to the natural re-growth of forest communities followed by a gradual drop in streamflow. Soil infiltrability controlled by surface crusting is the predominant process explaining why two modes of afforestation (natural regeneration or planting) led to opposite changes in flow regime. Given that commercial tree plantations will continue to

  13. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Susana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides present in animal fat or vegetable oils, by displacing glycerine with a low molar mass alcohol. This resulting ester mixture has physico-chemical properties similar to those of petroleum diesel. This paper reviews the synthetic paths that lead to biodiesel by means of the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils. Although methyl esters are at present the only ones produced at industrial scale, the use of ethanol, which can also be obtained from renewable resources, has been considered, since it would generate a cleaner and more biocompatible fuel.El biodiésel se produce mediante la transesterificación de triglicéridos, presentes en grasas animales o aceites vegetales, en un proceso en el que un alcohol de bajo peso molecular desplaza a la glicerina. La mezcla de esteres así resultante posee unas propiedades físico-químicas similares a las del diésel procedente de petróleo. En este artículo se revisan las vías de síntesis de biodiésel mediante la transesterificación catalítica de aceites vegetales. Aunque actualmente a escala industrial solo se producen ésteres metílicos, también se ha considerado el uso de etanol, ya que éste se obtiene también de fuentes renovables, generando así un combustible más limpio y biocompatible.

  14. Energy use pattern analyses of greenhouse vegetable production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M.; Akinci, I. [Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, 07070 Antalya (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    Greenhouse farming is a growing industry in many states. It is a very expensive way to produce greenhouse crops and there are many variables to consider before the farmer decides to take this route. A good location is essential for crop planning and growing. However, current studies related to energy use patterns and resources present in vegetable production are very limited. This research attempts to investigate the energy use patterns in greenhouse vegetable production, to determine the energy output-input ratio and their relationships. Antalya province, which has greenhouse area of about 13,337ha (30.2%), is the center of greenhouse farming in Turkey. A questionnaire was distributed to 101 greenhouse farms from 11 villages in order to obtain the available data for vegetable production. Power requirement of the machines used in greenhouse operations were measured by using a computer based data acquisition system. Energy and economical variables (i.e. output-input ratio, specific energy, production cost, net return, etc.) were calculated by using the standard equations. As a result, the operational energy and energy source requirements of the greenhouse vegetable production were found between the ranges of 23,883.5-28,034.7 and 45,763.3-49,978.8MJ/1000m{sup 2}, respectively. The energy ratio of four major greenhouse vegetables-tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant-was 0.32, 0.19, 0.31, 0.23, respectively. The crop yields increased as a function of the total energy inputs with the best form being second-degree polynomial. The net return of the vegetable production was found in the 595.6-2775.3$/1000m{sup 2} ranges. Among the greenhouse vegetables, tomato cultivation resulted in being the most profitable. (author)

  15. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  16. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Golubeva; O. I. Dolmatova; E. I. Bocharova; G. S. Dolmatova

    2012-01-01

    Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  17. Production and marketing challenges of vegetable farming: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability of large markets in urban communities has given cities enormous potential for food production especially vegetables. This potential partly accounts for mass exodus of people into cities. Poverty is however accompanying urbanisation but food production potential of cities could reduce urban poverty.

  18. Rural Women\\'s Involvement In Dry Season Vegetable Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... problems hampering production activities. It was recommended that policies and programmes aimed at alleviating poverty should be pursued and should be women and youth friendly. Keywords: rural women's involvement, dry season vegetable, production and marketing. Global Approaches to Extension Practice Vol.

  19. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  20. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  1. Vegetable chains in Kenya: Production and consumption of vegetables in the Nairobi metropolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, van der C.J.M.; Snoek, H.M.; Boer, de F.A.; Elings, A.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable consumption in African countries such as Kenya is low, which has a negative impact on the nutritional condition of the population, and on the production by smallholders. The goals of the project were to determine the potentials for consumption and cultivation in the Nairobi metropolitan

  2. Working up a lactofermented vegetable product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy-Gasztonyi, M.; Biekman, E.S.A.; Krebbers, B.

    2002-01-01

    The combination of lactofermentation and enzyme-treatment (Rohament-PL as endo-polygalacturonase and the mixture of Rohament-PL and Rohalase 7069 as cellulase) of sliced carrot and orange juice resulted in a homogeneous product, with pleasant organoleptic features, after 18 h fermentation period.

  3. EFECTO DEL CLIMA SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS SEMINALES DE PORCINOS EN UNA ZONA DE BOSQUE HÚMEDO TROPICAL EFFECT OF CLIMATE ON THE SEMINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BOARS IN A REGION OF HUMID TROPICAL FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Henao Restrepo

    2004-12-01

    from 12 to 24 months of age were selected to evaluate the effect of climatic variables measured on the day of semen collection and for each of preceding 45 days, on seminal characteristics. The variability of each characteristic was separated into a intraindividual component and an interindividual component, using maximum likelihood estimators (PROC VARCOMP of SAS®. In order to relate the seminal characteristics with the climatic variables, morphological abnormalities were grouped according to the affected spermatic region, into head, midsection and mainsection abnormalities; the other characteristics were evaluated without any modification. Possible correlations between seminal characteristics and climatic variables were evaluated. In a total of 298 ejaculates collected weekly during a period of 30 weeks, except for total volume and morphological abnormalities, the seminal characteristics presented low or moderate intra and interindividual variation and were similar to those found in other latitudes, with a tendency to present greater seminal volumes and concentrations. Maximum temperature, minimum temperature, range among temperatures, relative humidity and precipitation of the day of the semen collection and on each of the preceding 45 days had low effects on the seminal characteristics. It is possible that the boars in warm humid tropical areas develop a high level of adaptation that permits an adequate testicular thermoregulation that favors the spermatogenic function of the seminiferous tubules in a way that does not perceptibly affect production the seminal quality.

  4. Soil macroinvertebrates' abundance and diversity in home gardens in Tabasco, Mexico, vary with soil texture, organic matter and vegetation cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta, E.; Wal, van der J.C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the composition of soil invertebrate communities and vegetation in 50 home gardens in the humid tropical lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico, located in five geomorphological regions. Five monoliths were made in each home garden and soil invertebrates were hand sorted, weighed and classified to

  5. Constraints to Vegetable Production among Women in Enugu North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints to Vegetable Production among Women in Enugu North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. ... The major agronomic practices were direct sowing of seed (57.7%), mixed cropping (56.3%), organic manure (67.6%), staking (8.5%), broadcasting method of manuring (66%) and cutting with knife (method of ...

  6. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  7. Evaluation of Production and Carbon Benefit of Different Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed environmental and economic benefits of 8 types of vegetables in 4 different farms over 3 years. The specific results were as follows:(1The input-output ratio and carbon footprint of organic production mode was 18.5% and 87.4% of that of pollution-free mode, respectively; (2Fertilizer and power consumption was the main source of carbon emissions, accounting for 58.76% and 16.67% of total carbon emissions, respectively; (3There were positive correlations between N fertilizer and both carbon emissions and carbon footprint. In other words, higher use of N fertilizer resulted in higher carbon emissions and carbon footprint; (4 When organic fertilizers use reached 122 352 kg·hm-2, the crop production could reach the maximum under organic mode. Under the mode of pollution-free production, when agricultural chemicals input reached 20 103 yuan·hm-2, leafy vegetable production could reach the maximum. Therefore, to increase production and reduce carbon emissions in the process of vegetable production, the main approach was to use organic mode, increase the quantity of organic fertilizer, instead of the use of inorganic N fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals and establish water-saving irrigation system for electricity efficiency.

  8. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  9. Plant-based fertilizers for organic vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    to handle during transport, crop application, and soil incorporation. It is concluded that it is possible to produce green manures with high concentrations of S, P, K, and B, and low C : N ratios and that these properties have a great impact on the value of the green manure for vegetable production.......To ensure high yield and quality in organic vegetable production, crops often require additional fertilizer applied during the season. Due to the risk of contamination of edible plant products from slurry, plant-based fertilizers may be used as an alternative. The purpose of our work was to develop...... mobile green manures with specific high nutrient concentrations (e.g., nitrogen [N], sulfur [S], and phosphorus [P]) that are released quickly after soil incorporation and that are easy to handle during storage and application. To distinguish from traditional green manures that are grown to improve soil...

  10. Water consumption and wastewaters in fresh-cut vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Lehto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled water use is an important component of sustainable fresh-cut vegetable production because of limited water resources, and also for controlling the quality of wastewater re-used in vegetable processing or for irrigating on fields. In our study the water consumption in vegetable processing plants varied from 1.5 to 5.0 m3 t-1 of finished product. In one plant, monitored over three years, almost 90% of water was used for washing and rinsing of vegetables, but more than 90% of the organic load of the wastewater was generated from the processing stage. The results including organic load and the microbial quality of the wastewaters showed that the wastewater should be treated beforere-use.Separate treating of wastewaters from processing stage is recommended.  Pre-treatment of wastewater using precipitation chemicals and sedimentation in basins decreased the organic load and total solids in the water, allowing further treatment of the waters.

  11. Technology of production of fish-vegetable minced products

    OpenAIRE

    Brazhnaya I.E.; Gribova O.M.; Korchunov V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The technology of production of fish minced products with amaranth flour has been presented; losses during heat treatment have been determined; biological value of culinary production and cost of raw materials have been calculated. Normative documents (technical conditions and technological instruction) have been developed

  12. Technology of production of fish-vegetable minced products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazhnaya I.E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of production of fish minced products with amaranth flour has been presented; losses during heat treatment have been determined; biological value of culinary production and cost of raw materials have been calculated. Normative documents (technical conditions and technological instruction have been developed

  13. Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... or the diverticulitis. I once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of ...

  14. Effects of brooding periods on performance of poults and grow-out small bronze turkeys in hot humid tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaodu, Chibuzo Hope; Okoro, Victor Mela Obinna; Uchegbu, Martins Chigozie; Mbajiorgu, Christian Anayochukwu

    2018-01-06

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of varied brooding regimes on the performance of small bronze turkey poults and their grow-outs. One hundred and twenty (n = 120) poults were subjected to four brooding regimes of 0-5, 0-6, 0-7, and 0-8 weeks, designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. Each brooding regime (treatment) was applied to 3 replicates of 10 poults/replicate in a completely randomized design. The feed intake of T1 poults was higher (P grow-out turkeys in all the production parameters measured, as well as in the feed cost per kilogram weight gain of the treatment groups. This result shows that small bronze-type turkeys brooded from 0 to 8 weeks had higher efficiency in terms of feed intake, FCR, and lower economic costs compared to those brooded from 0 to 5, 0-6, and 0-7 weeks at the poult stage. However, at grow-out stage, the period of brooding did not have any effects on their performance.

  15. Climate-based statistical regression models for crop yield forecasting of coffee in humid tropical Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, M; Rajavel, M; Surendran, U

    2016-12-01

    A study on the variability of coffee yield of both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora as influenced by climate parameters (rainfall (RF), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean relative humidity (RH)) was undertaken at Regional Coffee Research Station, Chundale, Wayanad, Kerala State, India. The result on the coffee yield data of 30 years (1980 to 2009) revealed that the yield of coffee is fluctuating with the variations in climatic parameters. Among the species, productivity was higher for C. canephora coffee than C. arabica in most of the years. Maximum yield of C. canephora (2040 kg ha-1) was recorded in 2003-2004 and there was declining trend of yield noticed in the recent years. Similarly, the maximum yield of C. arabica (1745 kg ha-1) was recorded in 1988-1989 and decreased yield was noticed in the subsequent years till 1997-1998 due to year to year variability in climate. The highest correlation coefficient was found between the yield of C. arabica coffee and maximum temperature during January (0.7) and between C. arabica coffee yield and RH during July (0.4). Yield of C. canephora coffee had highest correlation with maximum temperature, RH and rainfall during February. Statistical regression model between selected climatic parameters and yield of C. arabica and C. canephora coffee was developed to forecast the yield of coffee in Wayanad district in Kerala. The model was validated for years 2010, 2011, and 2012 with the coffee yield data obtained during the years and the prediction was found to be good.

  16. Climate-based statistical regression models for crop yield forecasting of coffee in humid tropical Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, M.; Rajavel, M.; Surendran, U.

    2016-12-01

    A study on the variability of coffee yield of both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora as influenced by climate parameters (rainfall (RF), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean relative humidity (RH)) was undertaken at Regional Coffee Research Station, Chundale, Wayanad, Kerala State, India. The result on the coffee yield data of 30 years (1980 to 2009) revealed that the yield of coffee is fluctuating with the variations in climatic parameters. Among the species, productivity was higher for C. canephora coffee than C. arabica in most of the years. Maximum yield of C. canephora (2040 kg ha-1) was recorded in 2003-2004 and there was declining trend of yield noticed in the recent years. Similarly, the maximum yield of C. arabica (1745 kg ha-1) was recorded in 1988-1989 and decreased yield was noticed in the subsequent years till 1997-1998 due to year to year variability in climate. The highest correlation coefficient was found between the yield of C. arabica coffee and maximum temperature during January (0.7) and between C. arabica coffee yield and RH during July (0.4). Yield of C. canephora coffee had highest correlation with maximum temperature, RH and rainfall during February. Statistical regression model between selected climatic parameters and yield of C. arabica and C. canephora coffee was developed to forecast the yield of coffee in Wayanad district in Kerala. The model was validated for years 2010, 2011, and 2012 with the coffee yield data obtained during the years and the prediction was found to be good.

  17. Initial stages of indoor atmospheric corrosion of electronics contact metals in humid tropical climate: tin and nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veleva, L.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Samples of electrolytic tin and nickel have been exposed for 1 to 12 m in indoor environment, inside a box (rain sheltered cabinet, placed in tropical humid marine-urban climate, as a part of Gulf of Mexico. The corrosion aggressiveness of box has been classified as a very high corrosive, based on the monitored chlorides and SO2 deposition rates, and the Temperature/Relative Humidity air daily complex. The annual mass increasing of nickel is approximately twice higher than its values of mass loss (C. The relation between nickel mass loss or increasing and time of wetness (t of metal surface is linear and does not obey the power equation C = A tn, which has be found for tin. The SEM images reveal a localized corrosion on nickel and tin surfaces. XRD detects the formation of SnCl2.H2O as a corrosion product. Within the time on the tin surface appear black spots, considered as organic material.

    Muestras de estaño y níquel electrolíticos han sido expuestas de 1 a 12 m en ambiente interno (indoor, en una caseta (gabinete protegido de lluvia, colocada en clima tropical húmedo marino-urbano del Golfo de México. La agresividad de la caseta ha sido clasificada como muy altamente corrosiva, basada al registro de la velocidad de deposición de cloruros y SO2, y en el complejo diario de temperatura/humedad relativa del aire. El incremento de masa anual de níquel es, aproximadamente, dos veces mayor que del valor de su pérdida de masa (C. La relación entre la pérdida de masa de Ni o su incremento, y el tiempo de humectación (t de la superficie metálica y lineal y no obedece la ley de potencia C = A tn , que ha sido encontrada para el estaño. Las imágenes del SEM revelan una corrosión localizada en las superficie de níquel y estaño. El análisis de rayos-X detecta la formación de SnCl2.H2O como producto de corrosión. Con el tiempo

  18. Vegetable production, consumption and its contribution to diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed low consumption of vegetables (especially the dark green vegetables) mostly in the rural area and limited diversity of vegetables, especially vitamin A rich vegetables and tubers, with only three vegetables (carrots, red pepper and sweet potato) consumed. There was evidence of more inclination toward ...

  19. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  20. [Ecological and food safety considerations about products of vegetable origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Díaz, R V

    1994-12-01

    Media have paid much attention in recent years to emerging microbiological problems in foods of plant origin. The potential for contamination of fruits and vegetables is high because of the wide variety of conditions to which produce is exposed during growth, harvest, processing and distribution. These considerations acquire great significance in the current scenario of the new processing techniques that offer attributes of convenience and fresh-likeness in response to changes in consumption patterns and increased demand of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Thus, reliance on low temperature storage and on improved packaging materials/techniques have increased. Even if produce had not been considered a major vector for foodborne diseases, technologies that extend shelf-life by decreasing the rate of product deterioration might increase the risks associated with pathogenic microorganisms, especially of psychotropic nature, by allowing sufficient time for their growth when retarding the development of competitive spoilage organisms. Processing steps that modify the food microenvironment open new possibilities to support pathogens that, for ecological reason, would have never been naturally present in produce. Ecological and safety aspects related to fruits and vegetables as well as foodborne disease outbreaks traceable to produce and reportedly due to Salmonella and Shigella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni are reviewed.

  1. Evaluation of Production and Carbon Benefit of Different Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    HU Liang; WEN Li-zhang; PENG Yun-peng; YI Qian; XU Lian

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed environmental and economic benefits of 8 types of vegetables in 4 different farms over 3 years. The specific results were as follows:(1)The input-output ratio and carbon footprint of organic production mode was 18.5% and 87.4% of that of pollution-free mode, respectively; (2)Fertilizer and power consumption was the main source of carbon emissions, accounting for 58.76% and 16.67% of total carbon emissions, respectively; (3)There were positive correlations between N fertili...

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-14 - Movement of processed fruits, vegetables, and other products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of processed fruits, vegetables, and other...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES... fruits, vegetables, and other products. (a) Fruits, vegetables, and other products that are processed...

  3. The impact of the quality of coal mine stockpile soils on sustainable vegetation growth and productivity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushia, NM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available , chemical, and biological properties, limiting their capability for sustainable vegetation growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of stockpile soils of differing depth and quality on vegetation growth and productivity. Soils were collected...

  4. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Vegetation Health and Drought Products (VHDP) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The VIIRS Vegetation Health and Drought Products (VHDP) from NDE algorithm provides weekly estimates of the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition...

  5. Vegetable production after flooded rice improves soil properties in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Neeteson, J.J.; Pham Thi Thu, H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable production in South East Asia often is in rotation with °ooded rice. The puddling of the soil with flooded rice production may result in unfavourable soil conditions for the subsequent production of dry land crops. To establish whether permanent vegetable production results in favourable

  6. Tocopherol measurement in edible products of vegetable origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coronado, Diego J M; Ibañez, Elena; Rupérez, F Javier; Barbas, Coral

    2004-10-29

    Since natural antioxidants present increasing interest for food industry due to their beneficial effect on health, new potential sources have been screened among edible aromatic plants and a microalgae, Spirulina platensis. The determination was performed after optimising a previously validated method, because important differences have been found among values described in literature for tocopherol content in products of vegetable origin. Values obtained ranged from 3.42 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g of dill to 132.2 mg/100 g of fresh bay and from 0.14 mg gamma-tocopherol/100 g of spearmint to 3.45 mg/100 g of parsley. In all cases results were calculated from fresh leaves. Preliminary experiments were developed with bay (Laurus nobilis) plant to devise the supercritical fluid extraction of tocopherols, generating environmentally friendly processes to selectively extract fractions enriched with antioxidant compounds while removing fractions corresponding to essential oils, that is, those that correspond to the characteristic aroma of the plants. Another striking result has been the tocopherol content in the microalgae, 1.3 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g of dried commercial spirulina, which do not justify the supposed source of antioxidant vitamins. Results suggest the need of more reliable determinations of tocopherols in vegetable sources to be included in databases.

  7. Process for the production of protein enriched fractions from vegetable materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkink, B.H.; Willemsen, J.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for the production of a protein enriched fraction and a fibre enriched fraction from a vegetable material, wherein the vegetable material comprises a total fat content of 0.1 to 22.0 % by dry weight of the total vegetable material and a total starch content of 0.05 to 20 % by dry weight of the total vegetable material, said method comprising the steps of subjecting the vegetable material to (a) a milling process to obtain a vegetable flour and (b) subje...

  8. Process for the production of protein enriched fractions from vegetable materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkink, B.H.; Willemsen, J.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for the production of a protein enriched fraction and a fibre enriched fraction from a vegetable material, wherein the vegetable material comprises a total fat content of 0.1 to 22.0 % by dry weight of the total vegetable material and a total starch content of

  9. The role of soil processes in determining mechanisms of slope failure and hillslope development in a humid-tropical forest eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Larsen, M.C.; Hupp, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    Translational failures, with associated downslope earthflow components and shallow slides, appear to be the primary mechanism of hillslope denudation in the humid tropical forests of the mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. In-situ weathering of quartz diorite and marine-deposited volcaniclastics produces residual soil (saprolite; up to 21 m deep) / weathered rock profiles. Discontinuous zones of contrasting density and permeability particularly in quartz-diorite slopes at 0.5 m, and between 3 and 7 m, create both pathways and impedances for water that can result in excess pore pressures and, ultimately, aid in determining the location of failure planes and magnitudes of slope failures. In combination with relict fractures which create planes of weakness within the saprolite, and the potential significance of tensile stresses in the upper zone of saprolite (hypothesized to be caused by subsurface soil creep), shear failure can then occur during or after periods of heavy rainfall. Results of in-situ shear-strength testing show negative y-intercepts on the derived Mohr-Coulomb failure envelopes (approximately 50% of all tests) that are interpreted as apparent tensile stresses. Observation of tension cracks 1-2 m deep support the test data. Subsurface soil creep can cause extension of the soil and the development of tensile stresses along upper-slope segments. Shear-strength data support this hypothesis for both geologic types. Apparent values of maximum and mean tensile stress are greatest along upper slopes (16.5 and 6.29 kPa). Previously documented maximum rates of downslope movement coincided with local minima of shear strength, and the shear-strength minimum for all tests was located near 0.5 m below land surface, the shallow zone of contrasting permeabilities. These results indicate that subsurface soil creep, a slow semi-continuous process, may exert a profound influence on rapid, shallow slope failures in saprolitic soils. Data indicate that cove slopes in quartz

  10. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable...... samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg(-1), respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had...

  11. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil: Process design, evaluation and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianimanesh Hamid Reza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of reactor performance/configuration of biodiesel production on process parameters (mass & energy consumption, required facilities etc., two diverse production processes (from vegetable oil were implemented/designed using Aspen HYSYS V7.2. Two series reactors were taken into account where overall conversion was set to be 97.7% and 70% in first and second processes respectively. Comparative analysis showed that an increase in conversion yield caused to consumption reduction of oil, methanol, cold energy and hot energy up to 9.1%, 22%, 67.16% and 60.28% respectively; further, a number of facilities (e.g. boiler, heat exchanger, distillation tower were reduced. To reduce mass & energy consumption, mass/heat integration method was employed. Applying integration method showed that in the first design, methanol, cold and hot energy were decreased by 49.81%, 17.46% and 36.17% respectively; while in the second design, oil, methanol, cold and hot energy were decreased by 9%, 60.57% 19.62% and 36.58% respectively.

  12. Transformation of soil and vegetable conditions at oil production territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatina, Evgeniia

    2017-04-01

    On the territory of modern oil production soil, vegetation, ecosystem conditions of the environment are significantly transformed. Researches have been conducted on the oil production territories located in a boreal coniferous forest natural zone from 2005 to 2015. Standard geobotanical and soil methods are used. Mechanical destruction of a plant cover, change of the water conditions, intake of oil products and salty waters in ecosystems, pollution of the atmosphere are considered as the major technology-related factors defining transformation of land ecosystems at operation of the oil field. Under the mechanical destruction of a plant cover the pioneer plant communities are formed. These communities are characterized by most reduced specific wealth with prevalence of types of meadow groups of plants and presence of types of wetland groups of plants. The biodiversity of biocenosis which are affected linear infrastructure facilities of oil production territories and change of the water conditions, decreases. It is observed decrease in species wealth, simplification of structure of communities. Under the salting of soils in ecosystems there is a decrease species diversity of communities to prevalence nitrophilous and meadow plant species. At the increased content of organic substances in the soils that is a consequence of intake of oil products, is characteristic increase in specific richness of communities, introduction of types of wetland and oligotrophic groups of plants in forest communities. Influence depends on distance to an influence source. In process of removal from a source of atmospheric pollution in forest communities there is a decrease in species diversity and complication of structure of community. It is caused by introduction of types of meadow groups of plants in ecotone sites of the forest communities located near a source of influence and restoration of structural features of forest communities in process of removal from an influence source

  13. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  14. Towards a universal sampling protocol for soil biotas in the humid tropics Em direção a um protocolo universal de amostragem de biotas do solo nos trópicos úmidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Edward Bignell

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the methods for the inventory of below-ground biotas in the humid tropics, to document the (hypothesized loss of soil biodiversity associated with deforestation and agricultural intensification at forest margins. The biotas were grouped into eight categories, each of which corresponded to a major functional group considered important or essential to soil function. An accurate inventory of soil organisms can assist in ecosystem management and help sustain agricultural production. The advantages and disadvantages of transect-based and grid-based sampling methods are discussed, illustrated by published protocols ranging from the original "TSBF transect", through versions developed for the alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Project (ASB to the final schemes (with variants adopted by the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-ground Biodiversity Project (CSM-BGBD. Consideration is given to the place and importance of replication in below-ground biological sampling and it is argued that the new sampling protocols are inclusive, i.e. designed to sample all eight biotic groups in the same field exercise; spatially scaled, i.e. provide biodiversity data at site, locality, landscape and regional levels, and link the data to land use and land cover; and statistically robust, as shown by a partial randomization of plot locations for sampling.Este trabalho faz uma revisão dos métodos de inventariado da biota edáfica nos trópicos úmidos para documentar a (hipotética perda de biodiversidade do solo associada ao desmatamento e à intensificação agrícola nas margens de florestas. A biota foi agrupada em oito categorias, cada uma correspondente a um grande grupo funcional considerado importante ou essencial para a função do solo. Um inventário cuidadoso dos organismos do solo pode auxiliar a gestão de ecossistemas e a sustentabilidade da produção agrícola. As vantagens e desvantagens de métodos de amostragem baseados em

  15. Economics of Dry Season Vegetable Production by Women Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to analyze the economics of dry season vegetable farming among women farmers in Owerri West local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 50 randomly selected dry season women vegetable farmers. Data were analyzed ...

  16. Remotely Sensed Northern Vegetation Response to Changing Climate: Growing Season and Productivity Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Park, Taejin; Choi, Sungho; Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of seasonal total gross primary productivity of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts on growing season and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we first investigate how vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthesis state are evolved and how such components contribute on inter-annual variation of seasonal total gross primary productivity. Furthermore, seasonally different response of northern vegetation to changing temperature and water availability is also investigated. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed data to extract larger scale growing season metrics (growing season start, end and duration) and productivity (i.e., growing season summed vegetation index, GSSVI) for answering these questions. We find that regionally diverged growing season shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity inter-annual variability and trend. Also seasonally different response of vegetation gives different view of spatially varying interaction between vegetation and climate. These results highlight spatially and temporally varying vegetation dynamics and are reflective of biome-specific responses of northern vegetation to changing climate.

  17. Pesticide governance in export supply chains: the case of vegetable and fruit production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of international agrofood supply chains in greening vegetable and fruit products and production in Vietnam. Mainly through contract-based procurement, the export- oriented vegetable and fruit supply chain is better structured and organized than the domestic supply chain.

  18. Yield estimation using SPOT-VEGETATION products: A case study of wheat in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalik, W.; Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Meroni, M.; Raczka, T.U.; Wit, de A.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    In the period 1999-2009 ten-day SPOT-VEGETATION products of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) at 1 km spatial resolution were used in order to estimate and forecast the wheat yield over Europe. The products were

  19. Performance, Economics of Production and Carcass Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain the performance, economics of production and carcass characteristics of broilers exposed to different levels of restricted feeding in a humid tropical environment. Four (4) dietary feed restriction treatments: T0- full or ad libitum fed - control, T75%, T50% and T25% of full or ad libitum ...

  20. PermVeg: A model to design crop sequences for permanent vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Thu Huong, Huong; Everaarts, A.P.; Berg, van den W.; Neeteson, J.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The constraints in current vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, in which vegetables are rotated with flooded rice, called for the design of alternative systems of permanent vegetable production. The practical model, PermVeg, was developed to generate vegetable crop sequences

  1. Seasonal Biophysical Dynamics of the Amazon from Space Using MODIS Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Didan, K.; Ratana, P.; Ferreira, L.

    2002-12-01

    We utilized the Terra- Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Vegetation Index (VI) products to analyze the seasonal and spatial patterns of photosynthetic vegetation activity over the Amazon Basin and surrounding regions of Brazil. The seasonal patterns of vegetation activity were studied along two, eco-climatic transects extending from (1) the cerrado region (Brasilia National Park) to the seasonal tropical forest (Tapajos National Forest) and (2) the caatinga biome to the seasonal and per-humid tropical forests. In addition to the climatic transects, we also investigated the seasonal dynamics of altered, land conversion areas associated with pastures and clearcutting land use activities. Both the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) at 250-m, 500-m, and 1-km were used to extract seasonal profile curves. The quality assurance (QA) information of the output products was used in noise removal and data filtering prior to the generation of the seasonal profiles. Histogram analyses were also performed at coarse (biome) scale and fine, site intensive (flux towers) scale. The seasonal patterns of the cerrado and caatinga were very pronounced with distinct dry and wet seasonal trends. We observed decreasing dry-wet seasonal patterns in the transitional areas near Araguaia National Park. In contrast, the seasonal behavior of the tropical forests were much harder to assess, but indicated slight seasonal trends that ran counter to rainfall activity. This may be attributed to new leaf growth in the dry season. We further found MODIS VI seasonal patterns to vary significantly in land converted and land degraded areas.

  2. Drivers of Global Vegetation Biomass Trends between 1988 and 2008

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation optical depth (VOD) is an indicator of the vegetation water content of both woody and leaf components in terrestrial biomass as derived from passive microwave observations. VOD is distinctly different from products derived from optical remote sensing: it is less prone to saturation in dense canopy; is sensitive to both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic biomass; is less affected by atmospheric conditions; and is of coarser spatial resolution. Here, VOD retrievals from a series of sensors are blended to produce a time series from 1988 through to 2008, and a global analysis is undertaken to quantify and attribute global VOD trends over the same period. We conduct Mann-Kendall linear trend tests on annual average VOD to identify regions of significant change. Patterns for these regions were evaluated against independent datasets to diagnose the underlying cause of the observed trends. Results indicate that: (1) over grassland and shrubland, VOD patterns correspond strongly to temporal precipitation patterns; (2) over croplands, annual average VOD shows a general increase that corresponds to reported crop yield patterns and can be attributed to a combination of precipitation patterns and agricultural improvement; (3) over humid tropical forest, the spatial pattern of VOD decline agrees well with deforestation patterns identified in previous studies; and (4) over boreal forests, regional VOD declines can be attributed to a combination of fires and logging. We conclude that VOD can be used to estimate and interpret global changes in total above ground vegetation biomass. We expect that this new observationally based remote sensing data source will be of considerable interest to hydrological, agricultural, climate change and carbon cycle studies, and provide new insights into these and related process investigations.

  3. Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Trolliet, Franck; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Haineaux, Damien; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Fayolle, Adeline; François, Louis

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are interesting alternatives to study those regions even if the lack of data often prevents sharp calibration and validation of the model projections. Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models that simulate shifts in potential vegetation and its associated biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in response to climate. Initially run at the global scale, DVMs can be run at any spatial scale provided that climate and soil data are available. In the framework of the BIOSERF project ("Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure"), we use and adapt the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) to study the Congo basin vegetation dynamics. The field campaigns have notably allowed the refinement of the vegetation representation from plant functional types (PFTs) to individual species through the collection of parameters such as the specific leaf area or the leaf C:N ratio of common tropical tree species and the location of their present-day occurrences from literature and available database. Here, we test the model ability to reproduce the present spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks (e.g. biomass, soil carbon) and fluxes (e.g. gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP)) as well as the observed distribution of the studied species over the Congo basin. In the lack of abundant and long-term measurements, we compare model results with time series of remote sensing products (e.g. vegetation leaf area index (LAI), GPP and NPP). Several sensitivity tests are presented: we assess consecutively the impacts of the level at which the vegetation is simulated (PFTs or species), the spatial resolution and the initial land

  4. Reanalysis of global terrestrial vegetation trends from MODIS products: Browning or greening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulong Zhang; Conghe Song; Lawrence E. Band; Ge Sun; Junxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Accurately monitoring global vegetation dynamics with modern remote sensing is critical for understanding the functions and processes of the biosphere and its interactions with the planetary climate. The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) product has been a primary data source for this purpose. To date, theMODIS teamhad released...

  5. Evaluating Soil Compaction for an Annual Winter Grazing/Vegetable Production Rotation in North-Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraded soils of Alabama have demonstrated the ability to respond well to conservation tillage in a large variety of crops. Winter annual grazing/sod-based rotations with summer vegetable production can offer reduced economic risks for producers but may change tillage requirements for vegetable pro...

  6. Profitability and sustainability of peri-urban vegetable productions systems in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.G.P.; Midmore, D.J.; Binh, P.T.; Valasayya, S.; Tru, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Results are reported of a study of the income and cropping systems of peri-urban vegetable farmers around Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, as well as the constraints and opportunities for vegetable production and marketing. Urban population growth is fuelling the demand for timely supplies of fresh

  7. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation of statistical parameters within chosen polygons. Results are presented in graphs showing the variation of NDVI for each study area and explaining the changes in trend lines for each field. It is shown that the majority of graphs are similar in shape which is caused by similar weather conditions. To confirm these results, we have conducted data analysis including temperature conditions and information about the accidents for each area. Abnormal changes in NDVI values revealed an emergency situation on the Priobskoe oil field caused by the flood in 2015. To sum up, the research results show that vegetation of studied areas is in a sufficiently stable state.

  8. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  9. Perspective: Animal-vegetation relations which optimise production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad objective is to improve the standard of living of farmers/herders through identification of complementary vegetation-use under mixed animal species grazing. This paper aims to (1) review mixed-grazing research and development carried out in Ireland and in the semi-arid Senegalese Sahel; (2) evaluate results in ...

  10. Vegetable production in Togo and potential impact of pesticide use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In West Africa, market gardening is considered one of the sectors in agriculture that consumes lots of pesticides. In order to study (i) the principal protection practices of vegetables and (ii) the inherent environmental risks to pesticide use practices, a survey was carried in Togo from 2010 to 2011. A random selection of 161 ...

  11. Fruit and Vegetable Co-Products as Functional Feed Ingredients in Farm Animal Nutrition for Improved Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kasapidou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant environmental, economic and social factors favoring the reutilization of fruit and vegetable processing co-products in farm animal nutrition. Current evidence shows that fruit and vegetable processing co-products can be effectively used in farm animal nutrition as functional feed ingredients for the production of food products of improved quality. These ingredients comply with consumer requests for the production of “clean,” “natural” and “eco/green” label food products. The main parameters affecting extensive application of fruit and vegetable processing by-/co-products as functional feed ingredients in livestock nutrition are related to animal factors, logistics, and commercial value. Further research is needed to enable the commercial application of these products to livestock nutrition.

  12. Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA has identified solvent extraction for vegetable oil production processes as major sources of a single hazardous air pollutant (HAP), n-hexane. Learn more about the rule requirements and regulations, as well as find compliance help

  13. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production - Vol 4, No 2 (1977)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed utilisation and the composition of organs of three strains of laying hens fed constant zinc and varying levels of calcium · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Sperm production rates in European Boars raised and maintained in the humid tropics with a note on Sorbitol dehydrogenase activity as an index of ...

  14. THE SUMMARY REPORT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATIONS ON BREEDING AND SEED PRODUCTION IN THE ALLJRUSSIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF VEGETABLE BREEDING AND SEED PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. F. Pivovarov; O. N. Pishnaya; L. K. Gurkina

    2013-01-01

    The main directions and new achievements of the research investigations on vegetable breeding and seed production carried on the All'Russian Research Institute of vegetable breedingand seed production are shown.

  15. Principles of drip irrigation management in vegetable production

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhi BAŞTUĞ

    2014-01-01

    Because drip irrigation normally supplies water to a specific part of the soil volume occupied by plant, limited areas to be wetted in soil volume near each emitter or along each lateral line. This is an important context for irrigation system design, operation and management and cultural practices management. Therefore, this characteristic must be taken into consideration for appropriate management of vegetable drip irrigation systems with knowledge requires including of soil hydraulic chara...

  16. Technical aspects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Janahiraman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has gained significant attention due to the finite nature of fossil energy sources and does not produce sulfur oxides and minimize the soot particulate in comparison with the existing one from petroleum diesel. The utilization of liquid fuels such as biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification process represents one of the most promising options for the use of conventional fossil fuels. In the first step of this experimental research, edible rice bran oil used as test material and converted into methyl ester and non-edible jatropha vegetable oil is converted into jatropha oil methyl ester, which are known as biodiesel and they are prepared in the presence of homogeneous acid catalyst and optimized their operating parameters like reaction temperature, quantity of alcohol and the catalyst requirement, stirring rate and time of esterification. In the second step, the physical properties such as density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, and pour point were found out for the above vegetable oils and their methyl esters. The same characteristics study was also carried out for the diesel fuel for obtaining the baseline data for analysis. The values obtained from the rice bran oil methyl ester and jatropha oil methyl ester are closely matched with the values of conventional diesel and it can be used in the existing diesel engine without any hardware modification. In the third step the storage characteristics of biodiesel are also studied. .

  17. Development of JPSS VIIRS Global Gridded Vegetation Index products for NOAA NCEP Environmental Modeling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Marco; Miura, Tomoaki; Csiszar, Ivan; Zheng, Weizhong; Wu, Yihua; Ek, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) mission, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, was successfully launched in October, 2011, and it will be followed by JPSS-1, slated for launch in 2017. JPSS provides operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). Vegetation products derived from satellite measurements are used for weather forecasting, land modeling, climate research, and monitoring the environment including drought, the health of ecosystems, crop monitoring and forest fires. The operationally produced S-NPP VIIRS Vegetation Index (VI) Environmental Data Record (EDR) includes two vegetation indices: the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the Top of the Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). For JPSS-1, the S-NPP Vegetation Index EDR algorithm has been updated to include the TOC NDV. The current JPSS operational VI products are generated in granule style at 375 meter resolution at nadir, but these products in granule format cannot be ingested into NOAA operational monitoring and decision making systems. For that reason, the NOAA JPSS Land Team is developing a new global gridded Vegetation Index (VI) product suite for operational use by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The new global gridded VIs will be used in the Multi-Physics (MP) version of the Noah land surface model (Noah-MP) in NCEP NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) for plant growth and data assimilation and to describe vegetation coverage and density in order to model the correct surface energy partition. The new VI 4km resolution global gridded products (TOA NDVI, TOC NDVI and TOC EVI) are being designed to meet the needs of directly ingesting vegetation index variables without the need to develop local gridding and compositing procedures. These VI products will be consistent with the already

  18. Assessment of farmers’ knowledge on fertilizer usage for peri-urban vegetable production in the Sunyani Municipality, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Dadzie, Frederick Asankom; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2015-01-01

    farmers’ knowledge on fertilizer usage for intensive vegetable production in peri-urban areas in Ghana where production and marketing of vegetables cause significant export of nutrients from farms. Data were collected from 180 peri-urban vegetable growers in Abesim and Yawhima in the Sunyani Municipality...... services, the media, and at the point of sales are recommended to improve sustainable use of fertilizers for peri-urban vegetable production....

  19. Effects of vegetation management in constructed wetland treatment cells on water quality and mosquito production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, J.S.; Sartoris, J.J.; Walton, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of three vegetation management strategies on wetland treatment function and mosquito production was assessed in eight free water surface wetland test cells in southern California during 1998-1999. The effectiveness of the strategies to limit bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus culm density within the cells was also investigated. Removing accumulated emergent biomass and physically limiting the area in which vegetation could reestablish, significantly improved the ammonia - nitrogen removal efficiency of the wetland cells, which received an ammonia-dominated municipal wastewater effluent (average loading rate = 9.88 kg/ha per day NH4-N). We determined that interspersing open water with emergent vegetation is critical for maintaining the wetland's treatment capability, particularly for systems high in NH4-N. Burning aboveground plant parts and thinning rhizomes only temporarily curtailed vegetation proliferation in shallow zones, whereas creating hummocks surrounded by deeper water successfully restricted the emergent vegetation to the shallower hummock areas. Since the hummock configuration kept open water areas interspersed throughout the stands of emergent vegetation, the strategy was also effective in reducing mosquito production. Decreasing vegetation biomass reduced mosquito refuge areas while increasing mosquito predator habitat. Therefore, the combined goals of water quality improvement and mosquito management were achieved by managing the spatial pattern of emergent vegetation to mimic an early successional growth stage, i.e. actively growing plants interspersed with open water. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Technology versus Agro-Ecology in Designing Vegetable Production Systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Stilma, E.S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Current open field vegetable production systems in the Netherlands do not meet market and societal demands. These demands could not be fulfilled by adapting current production systems. Other kinds of production systems are needed and therefore two types of systems are designed by 1) a technological

  1. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  2. Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Macharia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of pesticide-related cost of illness (COI and acute symptoms, using a balanced panel of 363 farmers interviewed from seven major vegetable producing districts of Kenya. Finding shows that the incidences of pesticide-related health impairments have increased. Variation in number of symptoms and symptom severity significantly explained COI. The personal protective equipment (PPE, education level, record keeping, and geographical location considerably determined health impairments. Encouraging the proper use of PPE and record keeping of pesticide use could greatly reduce poisoning cases and COI.

  3. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  4. Exploring the control of land-atmospheric oscillations over terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Mathieu; Green, Julia; Gentine, Pierre; Liu, Yi; van Eck, Christel; Regnier, Pierre; Dorigo, Wouter; Verhoest, Niko; Miralles, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics play an important role in the climate system due to their control on the carbon, energy and water cycles. The spatiotemporal variability of vegetation is regulated by internal climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing mechanisms, including fires, land use, volcano eruptions or greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean-atmospheric oscillations, affect the fluxes of heat and water over continents, leading to anomalies in radiation, precipitation or temperature at widely separated locations (i.e. teleconnections); an effect of ocean-atmospheric oscillations on terrestrial primary productivity can therefore be expected. While different studies have shown the general importance of internal climate variability for global vegetation dynamics, the control by particular teleconnections over the regional growth and decay of vegetation is still poorly understood. At continental to global scales, satellite remote sensing offers a feasible approach to enhance our understanding of the main drivers of vegetation variability. Traditional studies of the multi-decadal variability of global vegetation have been usually based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which extends back to the early '80s. There are, however, some limitations to NDVI observations; arguably the most important of these limitations is that from the plant physiology perspective the index does not have a well-defined meaning, appearing poorly correlated to vegetation productivity. On the other hand, recently developed records from other remotely-sensed properties of vegetation, like fluorescence or microwave vegetation optical depth, have proven a significantly better correspondence to above-ground biomass. To enhance our understanding of the controls of ocean-atmosphere oscillations over vegetation, we propose to explore the link between climate oscillation extremes and net primary productivity

  5. Uncertainty analysis of the SPOT 4 VEGETATION and MODIS surface reflectance products, and its impact on vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Myers, J.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) are used to monitor the spatial and temporal variations of global vegetation. They provide essential measurements for climate, phenology, and land cover change detection. VIs are typically determined from surface reflectance data that are collected using spaceborne platforms. In order to understand the uncertainty of long-term data records, it is important to understand the uncertainty of the inputs that are used to determine the VIs. The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona uses the reflectance-based approach to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of airborne and satellite sensors in the solar-reflective regime. During a typical field campaign, measurements of the atmosphere and surface are made during a sensor overpass. The surface reflectance is measured using a portable spectroradiometer that operates from 400-2500 nm. This work uses in situ data that were obtained at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, and Railroad Valley, Nevada. The surface reflectance data are compared to those reported by SPOT 4 VEGETATION and both MODIS sensors to acquire an understanding of the uncertainty in the VI data product.

  6. Production of vegetal oil for energetic purposes; Producao de oleo vegetal com fins energeticos a partir de oleoginosas perenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Pinto, R. de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PQ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    The technology to obtain vegetable oil from trans esterification is already dominated. However, the oil grain`s cultures of annual cycle (soy-beans, peanuts, sunflowers) demand fertile and plain lands, which actually ought to be destined for food production, The utilization of slope wise areas, which are often destroyed by means of burning, for the reforestation with perennial oily trees which will be subject for further experimental researches, is studied. Particularly, the studies involves the cultivation of avocado`s varieties, which present pulps with a high oil concentration, in regions of temperate climates. It also involves an analysis of the high productivity and various difficulties to be surpassed, since the development of a simple procedure for thr oils and by-products extraction (in rural properties), until genetic developments of new avocado`s kinds, in order to achieve a better adaptation to the regions climate and to contain a higher oil concentration. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Investigation the possibility of Aggregation fruits and nuts, vegetables, Beans and vegetable products: Using Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabanzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruit and nuts, all kinds of vegetables, legumes and vegetable products, including commodity baskets with high proportion of nutritive value, are of great importance for policymakers of the agricultural sector. Therefore, the study of the conditions and factors affecting the demand for these goods can be predisposing advice to control the market and other factors affecting their use. But when it comes to the country at macro level of household demand, the aggregate commodity group beomes important. In cases where it is necessary to apply the fruits or vegetables as a function of household aggregation of a group of goods to be estimated, it is necessary a group of products with the scientific method to get aggregate and form a group variable as fruits or vegetables are included in the econometric model. Therefore, due to problems such as lack of access to information on each product separately, the high cost of collecting the data, missing observations, multicollinearity problem and limited degrees of freedom, we have to use grouping and composite commodities. But it is important that the correct grouping and consistent is made because of incorrect Aggregation, as specified in the error term appears on demand system estimated and Lead to biased estimation of the values of parameters and elasticity's, Which results in an incorrect picture of consumer behavior. Study of composite conditions of Agricultural commodities, as an important topic in economics, had been considered. Because mostly, access to disaggregate of the goods is not possible, and other problems such as multicollinearity occurs by examining the separation in the econometrics model. Study of composite conditions of Agricultural commodities, as an important topic in economics, had been considered. Due to its importance in the study, condition of Aggregation fruit and nuts, all kinds of vegetables and Bean (legumes are using Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT

  8. A novel sequential vegetable production facility for life support system in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Erokhin, A. N.; Wang, Minjuan

    2012-07-01

    Vegetable cultivation plays a crucial role for dietary supplements and psychosocial benefits of the crew during manned space flight. The idea of onboard vegetables cultivation was generally proposed as the first step of food regeneration in life support system of space. Here a novel sequential vegetable production facility was developed, which was able to simulate microgravity conditions and carry out modularized-cultivation of leaf-vegetables. Its growth chamber (GC) had conic form and volume of 0.12 m ^{3}. Its planting surface of 0.154 m ^{2} was comprised of six ring-shaped root modules with a fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate. Root modules were fastened to a central porous tube supplying water, and moved on along with plant growth. The total illuminated crop area of 0.567 m ^{2} was provided by a combination of both red and white light emitting diodes distributed on the GC cone internal surface. In tests with a 24-hr photoperiod, the productivity of the facility at 0.3 kW for lettuce achieved 254.3 g eatable biomass per week. Compared to lettuce from market, the quality of lettuce of the facility did not change significantly during long-term cultivation. Our results demonstrate that the facility is high efficiency in vegetable production, and basically meets the application requirements of space microgravity environment. Keywords:, vegetable; modularized-cultivation; sequential production; life support system

  9. Principles of drip irrigation management in vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhi BAŞTUĞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because drip irrigation normally supplies water to a specific part of the soil volume occupied by plant, limited areas to be wetted in soil volume near each emitter or along each lateral line. This is an important context for irrigation system design, operation and management and cultural practices management. Therefore, this characteristic must be taken into consideration for appropriate management of vegetable drip irrigation systems with knowledge requires including of soil hydraulic characteristics, plant growth and water use characteristics and evaporative demand. The irrigation schedule must integrate these features and conform to existing irrigation system and cultural constraits. Additionally, irrigation management program must be coupled with the fertilizer management program to avoid excessive water applications that leach plant nutrients in soil.

  10. The transgenosis main directions in vegetable and melon production: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with priority directions of vegetable and melon plants selection. The wide varieties of alien genetic information transferring methods during the transgenic plants creation of vegetable and melon species are grounded. The essence of the new hybrids identification method as genetic engineering products: kind of cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, zucchini, lettuce seed, pea Pisum sativum, common bean, eggplant and capsicum is revealed. The transgenosis main directions of botanical taxa varieties of vegetable and melon plants on condition of the international and national practice holding are proved. The international practice of the state approbation and registration of genetically engineered structures in biological objects (plant varieties and in their processed products are studied. A monitoring about food and pharmaceutical substances based on genetically modified varieties and hybrids structures of vegetable and melon plants have been held.

  11. Comparison between remote sensing and a dynamic vegetation model for estimating terrestrial primary production of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    Africa is an important part of the global carbon cycle. It is also a continent facing potential problems due to increasing resource demand in combination with climate change-induced changes in resource supply. Quantifying the pools and fluxes constituting the terrestrial African carbon cycle is a challenge, because of uncertainties in meteorological driver data, lack of validation data, and potentially uncertain representation of important processes in major ecosystems. In this paper, terrestrial primary production estimates derived from remote sensing and a dynamic vegetation model are compared and quantified for major African land cover types. Continental gross primary production estimates derived from remote sensing were higher than corresponding estimates derived from a dynamic vegetation model. However, estimates of continental net primary production from remote sensing were lower than corresponding estimates from the dynamic vegetation model. Variation was found among land cover classes, and the largest differences in gross primary production were found in the evergreen broadleaf forest. Average carbon use efficiency (NPP/GPP) was 0.58 for the vegetation model and 0.46 for the remote sensing method. Validation versus in situ data of aboveground net primary production revealed significant positive relationships for both methods. A combination of the remote sensing method with the dynamic vegetation model did not strongly affect this relationship. Observed significant differences in estimated vegetation productivity may have several causes, including model design and temperature sensitivity. Differences in carbon use efficiency reflect underlying model assumptions. Integrating the realistic process representation of dynamic vegetation models with the high resolution observational strength of remote sensing may support realistic estimation of components of the carbon cycle and enhance resource monitoring, providing suitable validation data is available.

  12. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  13. Studies on biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that the highest weekly individual production rate is recorded for the cow dung (control) slurry with average production of 1554 cm3, followed by pineapple waste which had 965 cm3 of biogas, then by orange waste which had 612cm3 of biogas, lastly, pumpkin and spinach wastes had 373 cm3 and ...

  14. Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inglese Paolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms, as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1 strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2 improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing

  15. Towards sustainable vegetable production around agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Segnon, Alcade C.; Saïdou, Aliou; Mensah, Guy A.; Aarts, Noelle; Zijpp, van der Akke J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitation and optimized utilization of agro-pastoral dams (APDs), especially for vegetable production, has been recently promoted to boost agricultural production and ensure food security in Benin. However, little information was available on APDs' agricultural potentials and

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  17. trade on non-timber forest products (ntfps) between south west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    INTRODUCTION. Forest, apart from timber, forest contains many useful goods and services of subsistence and commercial value called Non-Timber Forest Products ... A. F. Nkwatoh, Department of Geology and Environmental Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63 Buea, South ... The study area has a humid tropical.

  18. Impacts Of Loss Of Vegetation Influenced By Crop Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of Students T-test analysis at 95% confidence interval showed that there were significant differences in availability of forest products in the past compared ... The study also revealed that arable farmers from the study area are not sufficiently aware that removal of tree species from their farm lands could result in land ...

  19. Exclusion of soil macrofauna did not affect soil quality but increases crop yields in a sub-humid tropical maize-based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, B.K.; Vanlauwe, B.; Hoogmoed, M.; Hurisso, T.T.; Ndabamenye, T.; Terano, Y.; Ayuke, F.O.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Soil macrofauna such as earthworms and termites are involved in key ecosystem functions and thus considered important for sustainable intensification of crop production. However, their contribution to tropical soil and crop performance, as well as relations with agricultural management (e.g.

  20. Short-term variability in labile soil phosphorus is positively related to soil moisture in a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tana E. Wood; Danielle Matthews; Karen Vandecar; Deborah Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Primary productivity in tropical forests is often considered limited by phosphorus (P) availability. Microbial activity is a key regulator of available P through organic matter decomposition (supply) as well as microbial immobilization (depletion). Environmental conditions, such as soil moisture and temperature can fluctuate...

  1. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products; Foerbraenning av flytande animaliska/vegetabiliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  2. Improving technology universal vegetable semi-finished products for the enterprises of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Kutkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy nutrition is one of the main factors that becomes stronger the human immune system, especially in the big cities, forms intellectual abilities of people, increases the qualitative characteristics of living standards etc. The most important components of a healthy nutrition are vegetables and products from them. Rather high moisture content of many vegetables, e.g., fruit, partially fills the needs of the human organism in water, lowers the energy value of the diet, enhances the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. In this regard, the improvement of technology universal product from regional vegetables available has got importance, prolonged pronounced social effect and contributes to health improvement. Among vegetables the zucchini include diet properties, but the use of them is accompanied by certain difficulties associated with seasonal logistics and the limited range of products from them. In this work, there were studied the varietal characteristics of the zucchini, zoned in the North-West region, in terms of their technological properties, morphological characteristics and biochemical composition of fruit during ripening. Were investigated the optimal ways of canning zucchini by drying with freeze-drying and infrared heating that allows you to provide catering universal semi-finished product during the whole year, not only in areas of cultivation, but also in areas outside of growing vegetables. There was discovered the effect of anomalous dehydration of fruit vegetables in the result of the study , which helped to explain the increased, in comparison with other types of vegetables, losses during heat treatment and to justify their methods and technological parameters of drying. It was found that one of the reasons for the reduction of mechanical strength parenchymal tissue of fruit vegetables, is the destruction of cell walls by increasing the pressure inside the air inclusions, in contrast to some other types of fruit

  3. Metop ASCAT soil moisture product: Calibration of the vegetation correction parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sebastian; Melzer, Thomas; Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In this study we investigated the calibration of the vegetation correction parameters in the TU Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm. Unlike conventional soil moisture retrieval techniques used for space-borne microwave instruments, the TU Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm represents a change detection method. The algorithm accounts for heterogeneous land cover and for the effects of vegetation based on empirically derived model parameters. The optimal choice of these parameters can be supported by calibrating the model using external reference data sets. In the past, external data sets have not been used unless they are indispensable to correct or improve the model output (e.g. wet correction in desert environment). Three different study areas (South-East U.S., Central Europe and South-East Australia) were tested to see whether the vegetation correction parameters can be calibrated using in-situ soil moisture information or soil moisture from land surface models. The experiments show that an enhanced vegetation correction leads to a better quality of the Metop ASCAT soil moisture time series signal. Our study demonstrates the need to calibrate the vegetation parametrization in order to remove remaining vegetation effects in the Metop ASCAT soil moisture product.

  4. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  5. Institutional economic analysis of vegetable production and marketing in northern Philippines: social capital, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milagrosa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines vegetable production and marketing among indigenous communities in northernPhilippinesusing an institutional economics approach. It develops a framework that analyses the four levels of

  6. Supplying Vegetables to Asian Cities: Is there a Case for Peri-Urban Production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midmore, D.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the dynamic interplay between peri-urban vegetable producers and their changing production and marketing environments in Asia, using examples from urban conglomerates in South, Southeast and East Asia. We discuss income generation, labour use, management of land and water

  7. The need for integration in the supply chain of vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Jelsøe, Erling; Boelt, Birte

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges in food production is to ensure sufficient food and feed globally. In order to overcome food shortages there is a current need for a better integration in the supply chain of food production and inclusion of an overlooked issue in many supply chains - the availability...... of quality seed. Quality seed also creates the base for quality products which is of increasing interest for the conscious consumers. In all, varying reasons for looking further into how supply chains function. The supply chain within vegetables is represented by seed producers, seed companies, salad....../vegetable producers, retailers/supermarkets and consumers. The various actors of the chain, as well as external actors like media, regulators and politicians, influence product quality from different points of view. Economic factors play a significant role for quality management. Furthermore, the concept of quality...

  8. Gastrointestinal nematode burden in working equids from humid tropical areas of central Veracruz, Mexico, and its relationship with body condition and haematological values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdéz-Cruz, Maura Pilar; Hernández-Gil, Mariano; Galindo-Rodríguez, Leticia; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel

    2013-02-01

    The east coast of Veracruz, Mexico, has an important equine population used for working in rural production systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to calculate the prevalence of tropical working equids (donkeys, mules and horses) infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) and the GINs involved, and (2) to measure the body condition score (BCS) and haematological values for each working equid and its relationship with faecal worm egg count (EPG). One hundred and forty working equids were randomly selected from five different villages along the central coast of the state of Veracruz and faecal and blood samples were obtained from each animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were determined using the McMaster technique. Packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count were measured from each blood sample. Prevalence of infected equids was higher than 90 %. Mules had the highest median faecal worm egg counts (875 EPG), followed by horses and donkeys with 400 EPG. There was no correlation between EPG and BCS or haematological values (p > 0.05). Results suggest that despite the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equids involved in this trial are not being seriously affected. This study provides information which might help in designing future strategies to control nematode infections in working equids in the Mexican tropics; more emphasis should be placed on other inputs (nutrition perhaps), with individual anthelminthic treatment to those animals with the highest EPG or when signs present themselves.

  9. Floodplain Vegetation Productivity and Carbon Cycle Dynamics of the Middle Fork Flathead River of Northwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakins, A. J.; Kimball, J. S.; Relyea, S.; Stanford, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    River floodplains are vital natural features that store floodwaters, improve water quality, provide habitat, and create recreational opportunities. Recent studies have shown that strong interactions among flooding, channel and sediment movement, vegetation, and groundwater create a dynamic shifting habitat mosaic that promotes biodiversity and complex food webs. Multiple physical and environmental processes interact within these systems to influence forest productivity, including water availability, nutrient supply, soil texture, and disturbance history. This study is designed to quantify the role of groundwater depth and meteorology in determining spatial and temporal patterns of net primary productivity (NPP) within the Nyack floodplain of the Middle Fork Flathead River, Northwestern Montana. We examine three intensive field sites composed of mature, mixed deciduous and evergreen conifer forest with varying hydrologic and vegetative characteristics. We use a modified Biome-BGC ecosystem process model with field-collected data (LAI, increment growth cores, groundwater depth, vegetation sap-flow, and local meteorology) to describe the effects of floodplain groundwater dynamics on vegetation community structure, and carbon/nitrogen cycling. Initial results indicate that conifers are more sensitive than deeper-rooted deciduous species to variability in groundwater depth and meteorological conditions. Forest productivity also shows a non-linear response to groundwater depth. Sites with intermediate groundwater depths (0.2-0.5m) allow vegetation to maintain connectivity to groundwater over longer periods during the growing season, are effectively uncoupled from atmospheric constraints on photosynthesis, and generally have greater productivity. Shallow groundwater sites (<0.2m) are less productive due to the indirect effects of reduced soil aerobic decomposition and reduced plant available nitrogen.

  10. Estimating the Fractional Vegetation Cover from GLASS Leaf Area Index Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fractional vegetation cover (FCover is an essential biophysical variable and plays a critical role in the carbon cycle studies. Existing FCover products from satellite observations are spatially incomplete and temporally discontinuous, and also inaccurate for some vegetation types to meet the requirements of various applications. In this study, an operational method is proposed to calculate high-quality, accurate FCover from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS leaf area index (LAI product to ensure physical consistency between LAI and FCover retrievals. As a result, a global FCover product (denoted by TRAGL were generated from the GLASS LAI product from 2000 to present. With no missing values, the TRAGL FCover product is spatially complete. A comparison of the TRAGL FCover product with the Geoland2/BioPar version 1 (GEOV1 FCover product indicates that these FCover products exhibit similar spatial distribution pattern. However, there were relatively large discrepancies between these FCover products over equatorial rainforests, broadleaf crops in East-central United States, and needleleaf forests in Europe and Siberia. Temporal consistency analysis indicates that TRAGL FCover product has continuous trajectories. Direct validation with ground-based FCover estimates demonstrated that TRAGL FCover values were more accurate (RMSE = 0.0865, and R2 = 0.8848 than GEOV1 (RMSE = 0.1541, and R2 = 0.7621.

  11. 21 CFR 101.76 - Health claims: fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.76 Health claims: fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer. 101.76 Section 101.76 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

  12. Control of disinfection by-products in canned vegetables caused by water used in their processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Canned vegetables come into contact with sanitizers and/or treated water in industry during several steps (namely washing, sanitising, blanching and filling with sauces or brine solutions) and therefore they can contain disinfection by-products - DBPs). This study focused on the occurrence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in a wide variety of canned vegetables (75 samples). For each vegetable, the edible solid and liquid phases of the package were separated and analysed individually. DBPs can be present in both solid (up to eight species) and liquid (up to 11 species) phases, their levels being higher in liquid ones. Volatile THMs predominate in the edible solid phase (up to four species), while HAAs do so in the liquid phase (up to five species) according to their ionic and non-volatile nature. The lowest concentrations of DBPs were found in tomatoes because they were often preserved in their own juice, without water.

  13. Sensitivity of vegetation indices and gross primary production of tallgrass prairie to severe drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Xiao, Xiangming; Torn, Margaret S.; Cook, David R.; Matamala, Roser; Fischer, Marc L.; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2014-09-01

    Drought affects vegetation photosynthesis and growth.Many studies have used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is calculated as the normalized ratio between near infrared and red spectral bands in satellite images, to evaluate the response of vegetation to drought. In this study, we examined the impacts of drought on three vegetation indices (NDVI, enhanced vegetation index, EVI, and land surface water index, LSWI) and CO2 flux from three tallgrass prairie eddy flux tower sites in the U.S. Gross primary production (GPP) was also modeled using a satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), and the modeled GPP (GPPVPM) was compared with the GPP (GPPEC) derived from eddy covariance measurements. Precipitation at two sites in Oklahoma was 30% below the historical mean in both years of the study period (2005–2006), while the site in Illinois did not experience drought in the 2005–2007 study period. The EVI explained the seasonal dynamics of GPP better than did NDVI. The LSWI dropped below zero during severe droughts in the growing season, showing its potential to track drought. The result shows that GPP was more sensitive to drought than were vegetation indices, and EVI and LSWI were more sensitive than NDVI. We developed a modified function (Wscalar), calculated as a function of LSWI, to account for the effect of severe droughts on GPP in VPM. The GPPVPM from the modified VPM accounted for the rapid reduction in GPP during severe droughts and the seasonal dynamics of GPPVPM agreed reasonably well with GPPEC. Our analysis shows that 8-day averaged values (temperature, vapor-pressure deficit) do not reflect the short-term extreme climate events well, suggesting that satellite based models may need to be run at daily or hourly scales, especially under unfavorable climatic conditions.

  14. Temporal Changes in Coupled Vegetation Phenology and Productivity are Biome-Specific in the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhui Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has greatly stimulated vegetation growth through both extending the growing season and promoting photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere (NH. Analyzing the combined dynamics of such trends can potentially improve our current understanding on changes in vegetation functioning and the complex relationship between anthropogenic and climatic drivers. This study aims to analyze the relationships (long-term trends and correlations of length of vegetation growing season (LOS and vegetation productivity assessed by the growing season NDVI integral (GSI in the NH (>30°N to study any dependency of major biomes that are characterized by different imprint from anthropogenic influence. Spatial patterns of converging/diverging trends in LOS and GSI and temporal changes in the coupling between LOS and GSI are analyzed for major biomes at hemispheric and continental scales from the third generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset for a 32-year period (1982–2013. A quarter area of the NH is covered by converging trends (consistent significant trends in LOS and GSI, whereas diverging trends (opposing significant trends in LOS and GSI cover about 6% of the region. Diverging trends are observed mainly in high latitudes and arid/semi-arid areas of non-forest biomes (shrublands, savannas, and grasslands, whereas forest biomes and croplands are primarily characterized by converging trends. The study shows spatially-distinct and biome-specific patterns between the continental land masses of Eurasia (EA and North America (NA. Finally, areas of high positive correlation between LOS and GSI showed to increase during the period of analysis, with areas of significant positive trends in correlation being more widespread in NA as compared to EA. The temporal changes in the coupled vegetation phenology and productivity suggest complex relationships and interactions that are induced

  15. Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce.

  16. A Global Corrected SRTM DEM Product Over Vegetated Areas Using LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Guo, Q.; Su, Y.; Hu, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) is one of the most complete and frequently used global-scale DEM products in various applications. However, previous studies have shown that the SRTM DEM is systematically higher than the actual land surface in vegetated mountain areas. The objective of this study is to propose a procedure to calibrate the SRTM DEM over global vegetated mountain areas. To address this, we firstly collected airborne LiDAR data over 200,000 km2 globally used as ground truth data to analyze the uncertainty of the SRTM DEM. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)/ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) data were used as complementary data in areas lack of airborne LiDAR data. Secondly, we modelled the SRTM DEM error for each vegetation type using regression methods. Tree height, canopy cover, and terrain slope were used as dependent variables to model the SRTM DEM error. Finally, these regression models were used to estimate the SRTM DEM error in vegetated mountain areas without LiDAR data coverage, and therefore correct the SRTM DEM. Our results show that the new corrected SRTM DEM can significantly reduce the systematic bias of the SRTM DEM in vegetated mountain areas.

  17. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 2. Vegetative propagation of Eucalypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of large-scale plantation establishment by various methods was examined, and the following conclusions were reached: seedling plantations are limited in potential yield due to genetic variation among the planting stock and often inadequate supplies of appropriate seed; vegetative propagation by rooted cuttings can provide good genetic uniformity of select hybrid planting stock; however, large-scale production requires establishment and maintenance of extensive cutting orchards. The collection of shoots and preparation of cuttings, although successfully implemented in the Congo and Brazil, would not be economically feasible in Florida for large-scale plantations; tissue culture propagation of select hybrid eucalypts offers the only opportunity to produce the very large number of trees required to establish the energy plantation. The cost of tissue culture propagation, although higher than seedling production, is more than off-set by the increased productivity of vegetative plantations established from select hybrid Eucalyptus.

  18. COSTS AND PROFITABILITIES IN THE ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION VEGETABLES IN ESPÍRITO SANTO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacimar Luis de Souza

    2013-07-01

    various components of their costs of production. We used a database of 20 years, from 1990 to 2009, of the Reference Area in Agroecology in the INCAPER, located in the Domingos Martins City, Espírito Santo State. The organic system confirmed large economic viability, with average production cost per hectare 8% lower than the average conventional vegetables. Spending on hand labor was slightly lower in the organic system and proved to be the component of greater participation in the costs of both production systems. The organic squash, strawberries, cabbage and tomato showed lower costs than conventional systems. Conventional systems produce garlic, potatoes and okra showed lower costs than organic systems. Crops of carrots, peppers and yam have similar costs in organic and conventional systems. All vegetable crops in organic farming showed higher net revenues to the conventional, with ratios ranging from 1.1 for strawberry until 28.4 for cabbage.

  19. Pilot batch production of cocoa butter-like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Hu, X.; Balchen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    Chinese vegetable tallow (CVT) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil fatty acids (FHSOFA) as substrates. CVT is a naturally-rich-in-POP vegetable fat containing 80% Sn-POP which is obtained from the outer covering of the seed of the Chinese tallow tree. The FHSOFA contained about 86% stearic acid....../w) 1.3-1.7/1, hexane/substrates(v/w): 1.0:1-1.2:1. Based on the pilot batch plant, the total process is following: substrates, drying, reaction, filtration, fractionation, neutralisation, de-solventization and drying, and product. The fractionation process reduced the free fatty acid content to 5......-8%. And about 90% of the present PPP and PPSt triglycerides were separated from the product. Under above parameters, the final pilot products had similar compositions to those of cocoa butter. In this research, IPPL showed initial interesterification activity at the similar level as Lipozyme IM from Novo...

  20. A spatio-temporal analysis of climatic drivers for observed changes in Sahelian vegetation productivity 1982-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per; Fensholt, Rasmus; Huber Gharib, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Linear trend analysis and seasonal trend analysis are performed on gridded data of vegetation, rainfall, solar radiation flux, and air temperature, in order to examine the influence of the past three decades of climate variability and change on the Sahelian vegetation dynamics. Per......-pixel correlation analyses are conducted on annual and monthly data, and analyses of change in the potential climatic constraints to the natural vegetation development from 1982–2007 are performed. The results reveal two distinct periods: (a) 1982–1994 marked by large increases in vegetation productivity...... and rainfall and little change in average air temperatures and solar radiation and (b) 1995–2007 characterized by no distinct trends in vegetation productivity and rainfall and increase in average air temperatures and decrease in solar radiation flux. Correlations between vegetation productivity and climatic...

  1. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0# diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of atmospheric rivers on vegetation productivity and fire patterns in the southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Christine M.; Dettinger, Michael; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    In the southwestern U.S., the meteorological phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers (ARs) has gained increasing attention due to its strong connections to floods, snowpacks, and water supplies in the West Coast states. Relatively less is known about the ecological implications of ARs, particularly in the interior Southwest, where AR storms are less common. To address this gap, we compared a chronology of AR landfalls on the west coast between 1989 and 2011 and between 25°N and 42.5°N to annual metrics of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an indicator of vegetation productivity) and daily resolution precipitation data to assess influences of AR-fed winter precipitation on vegetation productivity across the southwestern U.S. We mapped correlations between winter AR precipitation during landfalling ARs and (1) annual maximum NDVI and (2) area burned by large wildfires summarized by ecoregion during the same year as the landfalls and during the following year. Interannual variations of AR precipitation strongly influenced both NDVI and area burned by wildfire in some dryland ecoregions. The influence of ARs on dryland vegetation varied significantly depending on the latitude of landfall, with those ARs making landfall below 35°N latitude more strongly influencing these systems, and with effects observed as far as 1300 km from the landfall location. As climatologists' understanding of the synoptic patterns associated with the occurrence of ARs continues to evolve, an increased understanding of how AR landfalls, in aggregate, influence vegetation productivity and associated wildfire activity in dryland ecosystems may provide opportunities to better predict ecological responses to climate and climate change.

  3. Variation in vegetable production among urban farmers in Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf, O.R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture in Nigerian cities has contributed immensely to provision of fresh vegetables and the overall food security in the urban space. Though this vegetable production takes place throughout the year, resource utilization that contributes to productivity among the various groups of urban cultivators is improperly understood. This paper addresses this issue in Ilorin, focusing on seventy farmers drawn from the two major groups of cultivators; Fadama and Okiti. Data were gathered through the use of focus group discussion (FGD, non participant observation, and questionnaire survey. Tabulation, percentages and trend description were employed in data analysis. Multiple Regression Analysis isolated utilization of pump machine, harvest from vegetable plots, utilization of modern input and type of labour used as the determinants of efficiency with a total percentage contribution of 89.6 to land-use, the major resource. Among the major findings is that the operational scale of Fadama cultivators is larger with a corresponding increase in profit compared to Okiti cultivators. It is also discovered that although the two systems are faced with similar constraints of environmental and inaccessibility to input problems, there exist some fundamental differences based on scale and production efficiency. Some solutions proffered to the identified problem include the recognition and integration of urban farmers into urban land use structure so that they can form cooperatives through which they can access productive inputs.

  4. Vegetation productivity responses to drought on tribal lands in the four corners region of the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Vilaly, Mohamed Abd Salam; Didan, Kamel; Marsh, Stuart E.; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Munoz, Armando Barreto

    2017-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Four Corners Region has faced extensive and persistent drought conditions that have impacted vegetation communities and local water resources while exacerbating soil erosion. These persistent droughts threaten ecosystem services, agriculture, and livestock activities, and expose the hypersensitivity of this region to inter-annual climate variability and change. Much of the intermountainWestern United States has sparse climate and vegetation monitoring stations, making fine-scale drought assessments difficult. Remote sensing data offers the opportunity to assess the impacts of the recent droughts on vegetation productivity across these areas. Here, we propose a drought assessment approach that integrates climate and topographical data with remote sensing vegetation index time series. Multisensor Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data from 1989 to 2010 at 5.6 km were analyzed to characterize the vegetation productivity changes and responses to the ongoing drought. A multi-linear regression was applied to metrics of vegetation productivity derived from the NDVI time series to detect vegetation productivity, an ecosystem service proxy, and changes. The results show that around 60.13% of the study area is observing a general decline of greenness (pdrought, shed further light on the future directions and challenges to the region's already stressed ecosystems. Whereas the results provide additional insights into this isolated and vulnerable region, the drought assessment approach used in this study may be adapted for application in other regions where surfacebased climate and vegetation monitoring record is spatially and temporally limited.

  5. Drought footprint on European ecosystems between 1999 and 2010 assessed by remotely sensed vegetation phenology and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivits, Eva; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Drought affects more people than any other natural disaster but there is little understanding of how ecosystems react to droughts. This study jointly analyzed spatio-temporal changes of drought patterns with vegetation phenology and productivity changes between 1999 and 2010 in major European...... bioclimatic zones. The Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was used as drought indicator whereas changes in growing season length and vegetation productivity were assessed using remote sensing time-series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Drought spatio...... on ecosystem and land cover. Northern and Mediterranean ecosystems proved to be more resilient to droughts in terms of vegetation phenology and productivity developments. Western Atlantic regions and Eastern Europe showed strong agglomerations of decreased productivity and shorter vegetation growing season...

  6. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MORA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93% confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003, vegetative growth (2000-2003 and alternate bearing differed signifi cantly among cultivars. Olive selection in intensively managed planting at the southern part of the Atacama Desert depends on matching specifi c cultivars to sites on which they perform the best.

  7. Drought Dynamics and Vegetation Productivity in Different Land Management Systems of Eastern Cape, South Africa—A Remote Sensing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Graw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Cape Province in South Africa has experienced extreme drought events during the last decade. In South Africa, different land management systems exist belonging to two different land tenure classes: commercial large scale farming and communal small-scale subsistence farming. Communal lands are often reported to be affected by land degradation and drought events among others considered as trigger for this process. Against this background, we analyzed vegetation response to drought in different land management and land tenure systems through assessing vegetation productivity trends and monitoring the intensity, frequency and distribution of the drought hazard in grasslands and communal and commercial croplands during drought and non-drought conditions. For the observation period 2000–2016, we used time series of 250 m Vegetation Condition Index (VCI based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Climate Hazard Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS precipitation data with 5 km resolution. For the assessment of vegetation dynamics, we: (1 analyzed vegetation productivity in Eastern Cape over the last 16 years with EVI; (2 analyzed the impact of drought events on vegetation productivity in grasslands as well as commercial and communal croplands; and (3 compared precipitation-vegetation dynamics between the drought season 2015/2016 and the non-drought season 2011/2012. Change in total annual vegetation productivity could detect drought years while drought dynamics during the season could be rather monitored by the VCI. Correlation of vegetation condition and precipitation indicated areas experiencing significant vegetation productivity trends showing low and even negative correlation coefficients indicating other drivers for productivity change and drought impact besides rainfall.

  8. Controls of vegetation structure and net primary production in restored grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    1. Vegetation structure and net primary production (NPP) are fundamental properties of ecosystems. Understanding how restoration practices following disturbance interact with environmental factors to control these properties can provide insight on how ecosystems recover and guide management efforts. 2. We assessed the relative contribution of environmental and restoration factors in controlling vegetation structure, above- and below-ground investment in production across a chronosequence of semiarid Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields recovering from dryland wheat cropping relative to undisturbed grassland. Importantly, we determined the role of plant diversity and how seeding either native or introduced perennial grasses influenced the recovery of vegetation properties. 3. Plant basal cover increased with field age and was highest in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses. In contrast, fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses had tall-growing plants with relatively low basal cover. These vegetation structural characteristics interacted with precipitation, but not soil characteristics, to influence above-ground NPP (ANPP). Fields enrolled in the CRP program for >7 years supported twice as much ANPP as undisturbed shortgrass steppe in the first wet year of the study, but all CRP fields converged on a common low amount of ANPP in the following dry year and invested less than half as much as the shortgrass steppe in below-ground biomass. 4. ANPP in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses for more than 7 years was positively related to species richness, whereas ANPP in CRP fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses were controlled more by dominant species. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seeding with introduced, instead of native, perennial grasses had a strong direct influence on vegetation structure, including species richness, which indirectly affected NPP through time. However, the effects of restoring either native or introduced

  9. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ying

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, producing the safe, high quality and nutritious vegetable products has become the common goal of the food producers and consumers. In doing so, Chinese government vigorously promotes clean production technology of vegetables for the source control and production process control. Unfortunately, lots of vegetables residues are still thrown away after the harvest, which has caused severe environmental pollution in producing areas. Vegetable waste composting technology, an important technology of vegetable cleaner production, has low requirements for technology conditions and is suitable for the promotion of rural households. But it needs additional investment costs including retting pond construction costs during application process and its personal income is less than the social benefits brought by the technology itself, which makes it difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers to adapt cleaner technology and the technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingent valuation method(CVM to understand the farmers' willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay(WTP by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with

  10. Perceptions of using low-quality irrigation water in vegetable production in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayilla, Winfrida; Keraita, Bernard; Ngowi, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine perceptions of the farmers and key informants on the use of low-quality irrigation water for vegetable production in urban and peri-urban areas in Morogoro, Tanzania. The methods used to collect data were farmer surveys (n = 60), focus group discussions (n = 4)...... in formulating policies and creating health promotion awareness for safe use of low-quality water for benefit maximization and health risk reduction.......This study was conducted to examine perceptions of the farmers and key informants on the use of low-quality irrigation water for vegetable production in urban and peri-urban areas in Morogoro, Tanzania. The methods used to collect data were farmer surveys (n = 60), focus group discussions (n = 4......) and key informants interviews (n = 15). The results showed that the respondents had a positive perception on using low-quality irrigation water for vegetable production. The reported benefits include availability of water throughout the year, highest soil and crop nutrients in irrigation water, less costs...

  11. Parameterization of High Resolution Vegetation Characteristics using Remote Sensing Products for the Nakdong River Watershed, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Il Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale regional climate models (RCMs, the primary tool for climate predictions, have recently increased in sophistication and are being run at increasingly higher resolutions to be also used in climate impact studies on ecosystems, particularly in agricultural crops. As satellite remote sensing observations of the earth terrestrial surface become available for assimilation in RCMs, it is possible to incorporate complex land surface processes, such as dynamics of state variables for hydrologic, agricultural and ecologic systems at the smaller scales. This study focuses on parameterization of vegetation characteristics specifically designed for high resolution RCM applications using various remote sensing products, such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre-VEGETATION (SPOT-VGT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The primary vegetative parameters, such as land surface characteristics (LCC, fractional vegetation cover (FVC, leaf area index (LAI and surface albedo localization factors (SALF, are currently presented over the Nakdong River Watershed domain, Korea, based on 1-km remote sensing satellite data by using the Geographic Information System (GIS software application tools. For future high resolution RCM modeling efforts on climate-crop interactions, this study has constructed the deriving parameters, such as FVC and SALF, following the existing methods and proposed the new interpolation methods to fill missing data with combining the regression equation and the time series trend function for time-variant parameters, such as LAI and NDVI data at 1-km scale.

  12. Daily MODIS 500 m Reflectance Anisotropy Direct Broadcast (DB) Products for Monitoring Vegetation Phenology Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Schaaf, Crystal; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Strahler, Alan; Roy, David; Morisette, Jeffrey; Wang, Zhuosen; Nightingale, Joanne; Nickeson, Jaime; Richardson, Andrew D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Land surface vegetation phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring ecosystem variation in response to changes in climatic factors. The primary objective of the current article is to examine the utility of the daily MODIS 500 m reflectance anisotropy direct broadcast (DB) product for monitoring the evolution of vegetation phenological trends over selected crop, orchard, and forest regions. Although numerous model-fitted satellite data have been widely used to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of land surface phenological patterns to understand phenological process and phenomena, current efforts to investigate the details of phenological trends, especially for natural phenological variations that occur on short time scales, are less well served by remote sensing challenges and lack of anisotropy correction in satellite data sources. The daily MODIS 500 m reflectance anisotropy product is employed to retrieve daily vegetation indices (VI) of a 1 year period for an almond orchard in California and for a winter wheat field in northeast China, as well as a 2 year period for a deciduous forest region in New Hampshire, USA. Compared with the ground records from these regions, the VI trajectories derived from the cloud-free and atmospherically corrected MODIS Nadir BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) adjusted reflectance (NBAR) capture not only the detailed footprint and principal attributes of the phenological events (such as flowering and blooming) but also the substantial inter-annual variability. This study demonstrates the utility of the daily 500 m MODIS reflectance anisotropy DB product to provide daily VI for monitoring and detecting changes of the natural vegetation phenology as exemplified by study regions comprising winter wheat, almond trees, and deciduous forest.

  13. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative biofuel that can replace diesel oil without requiring modifications to the engine and advantageously produces cleaner emissions. Biodiesel can be produced through transesterification process between oil or fat and alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The transesterification can be carried out with or without a catalyst. The catalyzed production of biodiesel can be performed by using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme. Meanwhile, non-catalytic transesterification with supercritical alcohol provides a new way of producing biodiesel. Microwave and ultrasound assisted transesterification significantly can reduce reaction time as well as improve product yields. Another process, a plasma technology is promising for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils due to very short reaction time, no soap formation and no glycerol as a by-product. This paper reviews briefly the technologies on transesterification reaction for biodiesel production using homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme catalysts, as well as advanced methods (supercritical, microwave, ultrasonic, and plasma technology. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were described comprehensively. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 17th May 2016; Revised: 20th September 2016; Accepted: 20th September 2016 How to Cite: Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P. (2016. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 406-430 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430

  14. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  15. Industrial vegetable oil by-products increase the ductility of polylactide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruellan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of industrial by-products of the vegetable oil industry as ductility increasing additives of polylactide (PLA was investigated. Vegetable oil deodorization condensates were melt-blended by twin-screw extrusion up to a maximum inclusion quantity of 20 wt% without preliminary purification. Sample films were obtained by single screw cast extrusion. Compounded PLA films featured largely improved ductility in tensile testing with an elongation at break up to 180%. The glass transition temperature remained higher than room temperature. The native mixture of molecules, which composed the deodorization condensates, had superior performance compared to a synthetic mixture of main compounds. The investigation of the correlation between composition of the additives and the ductility of the PLA blends by Principal Component Analysis showed synergy in property improvement between fatty acids having a melting point below and beyond the room temperature. Furthermore, a compatibilizing effect of molecules present in the native mixture was evidenced. Oil deodorization condensates, which are a price competitive by-product of the vegetable oil industry, are therefore a very promising biobased and biodegradable additive for improving the ductility of PLA.

  16. Catchment vegetation and temperature mediating trophic interactions and production in plankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, Anders G; Nilsen, Erlend B; Hendrichsen, Ditte K; Schmidt, Niels Martin

    2017-01-01

    Climatic factors influence the interactions among trophic levels in an ecosystem in multiple ways. However, whereas most studies focus on single factors in isolation, mainly due to interrelation and correlation among drivers complicating interpretation and analyses, there are still only few studies on how multiple ecosystems respond to climate related factors at the same time. Here, we use a hierarchical Bayesian model with a bioenergetic predator-prey framework to study how different climatic factors affect trophic interactions and production in small Arctic lakes. Natural variation in temperature and catchment land-cover was used as a natural experiment to exemplify how interactions between and production of primary producers (phytoplankton) and grazers (zooplankton) are driven by direct (temperature) and indirect (catchment vegetation) factors, as well as the presence or absence of apex predators (fish). The results show that increased vegetation cover increased phytoplankton growth rate by mediating lake nutrient concentration. At the same time, increased temperature also increased grazing rates by zooplankton. Presence of fish increased zooplankton mortality rates, thus reducing grazing. The Arctic is currently experiencing an increase in both temperature and shrub vegetation cover due to climate change, a trend, which is likely to continue. Our results point towards a possible future general weakening of zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton and greening of arctic lakes with increasing temperatures. At the same time, the impact of the presence of an apex predator indicate considerable local variation in the response. This makes direction and strength of global change impacts difficult to forecast.

  17. SMOS-IC: An Alternative SMOS Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fernandez-Moran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission over land surfaces is the production of global maps of soil moisture (SM and vegetation optical depth (τ based on multi-angular brightness temperature (TB measurements at L-band. The operational SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 soil moisture algorithms account for different surface effects, such as vegetation opacity and soil roughness at 4 km resolution, in order to produce global retrievals of SM and τ. In this study, we present an alternative SMOS product that was developed by INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique and CESBIO (Centre d’Etudes Spatiales de la BIOsphère. One of the main goals of this SMOS-INRA-CESBIO (SMOS-IC product is to be as independent as possible from auxiliary data. The SMOS-IC product provides daily SM and τ at the global scale and differs from the operational SMOS Level 3 (SMOSL3 product in the treatment of retrievals over heterogeneous pixels. Specifically, SMOS-IC is much simpler and does not account for corrections associated with the antenna pattern and the complex SMOS viewing angle geometry. It considers pixels as homogeneous to avoid uncertainties and errors linked to inconsistent auxiliary datasets which are used to characterize the pixel heterogeneity in the SMOS L3 algorithm. SMOS-IC also differs from the current SMOSL3 product (Version 300, V300 in the values of the effective vegetation scattering albedo (ω and soil roughness parameters. An inter-comparison is presented in this study based on the use of ECMWF (European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting SM outputs and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. A six-year (2010–2015 inter-comparison of the SMOS products SMOS-IC and SMOSL3 SM (V300 with ECMWF SM yielded higher correlations and lower ubRMSD (unbiased root mean square difference for SMOS-IC over most of the pixels. In terms of τ, SMOS-IC τ was

  18. Energetic Efficiency of the Vegetable Waste Used as Substrate for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janczak Damian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different vegetable waste materials (beetroot leaves, turnip leaves, yellow beans, onion waste, commonly found in Central Poland were tested for estimation of energy efficiency while methane fermentation process. The results showed that the biggest green mass of vegetable waste harvested from field was related to the highest water content. In contrary, the higher methane production from 1 Mg of tested biowaste was obtained in case of the materials with the highest dry mass content (yellow beans and onion waste, 28.03 and 44.33 m3 Mg-1. Although the onion waste was the lowest fermented substrate, however the energy yield for this material is visibly the highest (4435 kWh ha-1 among all tested ones.

  19. The Impact of the Quality of Coal Mine Stockpile Soils on Sustainable Vegetation Growth and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky M Mushia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stockpiled soils are excavated from the ground during mining activities, and piled on the surface of the soil for rehabilitation purposes. These soils are often characterized by low organic matter (SOM content, low fertility, and poor physical, chemical, and biological properties, limiting their capability for sustainable vegetation growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of stockpile soils of differing depth and quality on vegetation growth and productivity. Soils were collected at three different depths (surface, mid, and deep as well as mixed (equal proportion of surface, mid and deep from two stockpiles (named Stockpile 1: aged 10 and Stockpile 2: 20 years at the coal mine near Witbank in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Soils were amended with different organic and inorganic fertilizer. A 2 × 4 × 5 factorial experiment in a completely randomized blocked design with four replications was established under greenhouse conditions. A grass species (Digiteria eriantha was planted in the pots with unamended and amended soils under greenhouse conditions at 26–28 °C during the day and 16.5–18.5 °C at night. Mean values of plant height, plant cover, total fresh biomass (roots, stems and leaves, and total dry biomass were found to be higher in Stockpile 1 than in Stockpile 2 soils. Plants grown on soils with no amendments had lower mean values for major plant parameters studied. Soil amended with poultry manure and lime was found to have higher growth rate compared with soils with other soil amendments. Mixed soils had better vegetation growth than soil from other depths. Stockpiled soils in the study area cannot support vegetation growth without being amended, as evidenced by low grass growth and productivity in this study.

  20. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  1. Genes encoding novel lipid transporters and their use to increase oil production in vegetative tissues of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changcheng; Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Shanklin, John

    2017-12-26

    The present invention discloses a novel gene encoding a transporter protein trigalactosyldiacylglycerol-5 (TGD5), mutations thereof and their use to enhance TAG production and retention in plant vegetative tissue.

  2. Inter-relações entre a anatomia vegetal e a produção vegetal Interrelations between plant anatomy and plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenir Maristela Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available É realizada uma revisão de literatura que procura aproximar a anatomia vegetal do contexto da produção vegetal. O principal objetivo é o de contribuir para que o professor de Botânica possa proporcionar aos alunos dos cursos de Agronomia compreensão da diversidade da organização estrutural do vegetal.A literature revision is accomplished to approach the plant anatomy within the context of the plant production. The main objective is to contribute so that the Botany teacher will be able to make it provide for the students of the Agronomy courses to understand the diversity of behaviors in the structural organization of the plant.

  3. Utilisation of vegetable oils in the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pattana Sripalakit

    2011-01-01

    The effect of vegetable oils as a supplementary carbon source during the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged culture was investigated. The six vegetable oils tested were sesame oil, sunflower oil, soya bean oil, corn oil, palm oil and olive oil. Lovastatin concentration and biomass were measured. Lovastatin production was higher in several oil-containing media compared to control medium. In particular, palm oil and soya bean oil significantly improved lovas...

  4. Agroforestry and sustainable vegetable production case study: Nghia Trung Village, Bu Dang District, Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Du, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes soil conservation studies to be conducted in Vietnam, LTR-5 site. It discusses a baseline study that covered issues on no-tillage vegetable systems and soil and water conservation. It gives a profile of the study area in Vietnam, and outlines the structure of cashew production including farmer perception, intercropping and the potential for future research. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  5. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J, E-mail: pbeck@whrc.org [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  6. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accounting for co-products in energy use, greenhouse gas emission savings and land use of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bos, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for co-products of vegetable oil production is essential in reviewing the sustainability of biodiesel production, especially since oil crops produce valuable protein-rich co-products in different quantities and qualities. Two accounting methods, allocation on the basis of energy

  8. Chemical and physicochemical characterisation of co-products from the vegetable food and agro industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    was responsible for the relatively low EDOM. There was a variation from year to year in the concentration of ash (Pprotein (P=0.04) and EDOM (P=0.003) in pea hull. In conclusion, co-products from the vegetable food and agro industries are characterised by a high......Six co-products from the vegetable food and agro industres in Denmark - brewer's spent grain, pea hull, seed residue (rye grass), potato pulp, sugar beet pulp and pectin residue - were collected eight times during two seasons (four samples from each season) (n = 8; N = 48). The samples were...... analysed for dry matter (DM), ash, sand, protein, amino acids, ether extract (EE), carbohydrate constituents, enzyme digestible organic matter (EDOM) and physicochemical properties-water binding capacity (WBC) and swelling. The co-products in general had a low DM (142-216 g/kg as is), EE (6-54 g/kg DM...

  9. DIVERSIDAD FLORÍSTICA DE DOS ZONAS DE BOSQUE TROPICAL HÚMEDO EN EL MUNICIPIO DE ALTO BAUDÓ, CHOCÓ COLOMBIA Floristic Diversity of Two Zones of Humid Tropical Forest at Alto Baudó, Chocó, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS JAVIER MOSQUERA RAMOS

    Full Text Available Entre junio y agosto de 2005 se determinó la composición florística de las plantas ≥1 cm de DAP en un área de 0,2 ha de bosque húmedo tropical en los corregimientos de Pie de Pató (05º 30' 56" N y 76º 58' 26" W y Nauca (5º 41' 6" N y 77º 00' 36" W, Alto Baudó, Chocó Colombia. En cada sitio se muestreó un área de 0,1 ha, la cual se dividió en diez transecto de 2 x 50 m cada uno. Se registraron 1.618 individuos, representados en 257 especies, 156 géneros y 56 familias botánicas de los cuales 842 individuos, 161 especies, 108 géneros y 46 familias fueron encontrados en Pie de Pató, y 776 individuos, 161 especies, 98 géneros y 45 familias en Nauca. En Pie de Pató las familias mejor representadas en lo que se refiere a géneros y especies fueron: Rubiaceae (doce géneros y 27 especies, Arecaceae (ocho géneros y ocho especies y Bombacaceae (siete géneros y diez especies. En Nauca fueron Rubiaceae (once géneros y 25 especies, Moraceae (ocho géneros y trece especies y Arecaceae (ocho géneros y ocho especies. El índice de riqueza arrojó valores de 23,75 y 24,05 para Pie de Pató y Nauca, en cambio la diversidad fue de 4,43 para ambos sitios. Los resultados indican que los bosques del Alto Baudó son muy diversos y de gran importancia para estudios de la diversidad florística, debido a su ubicación estratégica en el departamento del Chocó.Between June and August of 2005 the floristic composition ≥1 cm of DAP was determined in an area of ? 0.2 ha of humid tropical forest at the localities of Pie de >Pató (05º 30' 56" N and 76º 58' 26" W and Nauca (5º 41' 6" N and 77º 00' 36" W, Alto Baudó, Chocó Colombia . En each locality an area of 0.1 ha was sampled which was divided into smaller areas of 2 x 50 cm each. A total of 1618 inidivduals were recorded represented by 257 species, 156 genres and 56 botanical families from which 842 individuals, 161 species, 108 genres and 46 families where found at Pie de Pató, and

  10. Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, David L; Evans, Kervin O; Appell, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Feruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and ultraviolet-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency. The formation of by-products by residual water in the enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated vegetable oil was investigated using chemical theory and experimental studies by monitoring the reaction over a 22-day period. The hydrolysis of vegetable oil is thermodynamically favored over the hydrolysis of the ethyl ferulate starting material. These results suggest that hydrolyzed vegetable oil products will be experimentally observed in greater concentrations compared to hydrolyzed ethyl ferulate products. Quantum chemical studies identified several reaction mechanisms that explain the formation of side products by water, suggesting that residual water influences product quality. Efforts to reduce residual water can improve product consistency and reduce purification costs. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Vegetable, livestock and agroindustrial products and byproducts: An alternative tilapia feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Salas, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the culture of tilapia limited supply and high cost of fish meal have forced nutritionists to consider alternative sources of protein. Due to the importance of the products and by-products in fish feed, this paper aims to show the alternatives that have been used to partially or totally replace fish meal and soybean meal in tilapia growing. This paper showsthe maximum or optimal use of vegetable by-products for tilapia as cottonseed meal, sunflower, canola, soybean and Leucaena. It also deals with the inclusion with agro-industrial by-product such as corn, sorghum, coffee pulp, cocoa, wheat and citrus. The present study also deals with the use of aquatic plants such as Lemna and Azolla, single-celled plant protein source as antibiotics and probiotics. Finally, this paper also refers to animal by-products as silage, manure and earthworm usage. There is a high potential for using plant, livestock and agro-industrial by-products in fresh and processed food for the tilapia, but depending on the product, pretreatment to improve its balance of nutrients or eliminate anti-nutritional factors may be required.

  12. Can conservation tillage reduce N2O emissions on cropland transitioning to organic vegetable production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guihua; Kolb, Lauren; Cavigelli, Michel A; Weil, Ray R; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2017-10-27

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and a catalyst of stratospheric ozone decay. Agricultural soils are the source of 75% of anthropogenic N2O emissions globally. Recently, significant attention has been directed at examining effects of conservation tillage on carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. However, limited knowledge is available regarding how these practices impact N2O emissions, especially for organic vegetable production systems. In this context, a three-year study was conducted in a well-drained sandy loam field transitioning to organic vegetable production in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of USA to investigate impacts of conservation tillage [strip till (ST) and no-till (NT)] and conventional tillage (CT) [with black plastic mulch (CT-BP) and bare-ground (CT-BG)] on N2O emissions. Each year, a winter cover crop mixture (forage radish: Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus, crimson clover: Trifolium incarnatum L., and rye: Secale cereale L.) was grown and flail-mowed in the spring. Nearly 80% of annual N2O-nitrogen (N) emissions occurred during the vegetable growing season for all treatments. Annual N2O-N emissions were greater in CT-BP than in ST and NT, and greater in CT-BG than in NT, but not different between CT-BG and CT-BP, ST and NT, or CT-BG and ST. Conventional tillage promoted N mineralization and plastic mulch increased soil temperature, which contributed to greater N2O-N fluxes. Though water filled porosity in NT was higher and correlated well with N2O-N fluxes, annual N2O-N emissions were lowest in NT suggesting a lack of substrates for nitrification and denitrification processes. Crop yield was lowest in NT in Year 1 and CT-BP in Year 3 but yield-scaled N2O-N emissions were consistently greatest in CT-BP and lowest in NT each year. Our results suggest that for coarse-textured soils in the coastal plain with winter cover crops, conservation tillage practices may reduce N2O emissions in organic vegetable production

  13. Identifying and understanding vegetation productivity swings in response to ENSO dynamics to improve land surface modeling capability in quantifying extreme events across Australia and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, Mark; Huete, Alfredo; Yu, Qiang; Davies, Kevin; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia

    2013-04-01

    In this study we quantified linkages between climate and vegetation productivity response across large areas in Australia and East Asia, and carried out more detailed analysis for areas and intervals with extreme productivity swings. We first quantified teleconnections between large scale atmospheric oscillations over the western Pacific and vegetation productivity across Australia, Southeast and East Asia. For this purpose we analyzed remotely sensed vegetation productivity (estimated from MODIS vegetation index time series) in response to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). This resulted in a spatially explicit representation of extreme vegetation productivity response to regional climatic variability. For areas and intervals with strong vegetation productivity swings we then investigated the spatial-temporal relationship of remotely sensed vegetation productivity with temperature and rainfall grids as well as with productivity responses predicted by the Australian CSIRO Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model. By conducting this study across various spatial-temporal scales and variable aggregations, we identified geographic areas and intervals with strong vegetation productivity swings related to SOI atmospheric oscillations and attributed these swings to changes in regional temperature and precipitation grids. The final step of quantifying the space-time correlation between extreme swings in remotely sensed vegetation productivity and land surface model predictions provided insight into model capacity and sensitivity. We identified large ENSO drought-related crop productivity declines for Eastern Australia, continental and insular Southeast Asia and, temporally offset, in northeastern China. The largest divergence between extreme remotely sensed vegetation productivity drops and CABLE-predicted productivity occurred over ground water dependent ecosystems.

  14. Constructing vegetation productivity equations by employing undisturbed soils data: An Oliver County, North Dakota case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, J.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Polakowski, K.J.; Fowler, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Surface mine reclamation specialists have been searching for predictive methods to assess the capability of disturbed soils to support vegetation growth. We conducted a study to develop a vegetation productivity equation for reclaiming surface mines in Oliver County, North Dakota, thereby allowing investigators to quantitatively determine the plant growth potential of a reclaimed soil. The study examined the predictive modeling potential for both agronomic crops and woody plants, including: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), grass and legume mixtures, Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Black Hills spruce (Picea glauca var. densata Bailey), Colorado spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scope Engelm.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam), American plum (Prunus americans Marsh.), and chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.). An equation was developed which is highly significant (p<0.0001), explaining 81.08% of the variance (coefficient of multiple determination=0.8108), with all regressors significant (p{le}0.048, Type II Sums of Squares). The measurement of seven soil parameters are required to predict soil vegetation productivity: percent slope, available water holding capacity, percent rock fragments, topographic position, electrical conductivity, pH, and percent organic matter. While the equation was developed from data on undisturbed soils, the equation`s predictions were positively correlated (0.71424, p{le}0.0203) with a small data set (n=10) from reclaimed soils.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  16. Light use efficiency for vegetables production in protected and indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocetta, Giacomo; Casciani, Daria; Bulgari, Roberta; Musante, Fulvio; Kołton, Anna; Rossi, Maurizio; Ferrante, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there is a growing interest for vegetables production in indoor or disadvantaged climatic zones by using greenhouses. The main problem of crop growing indoor or in environment with limited light availability is the correct choice of light source and the quality of lighting spectrum. In greenhouse and indoor cultivations, plant density is higher than in the open field and plants have to compete for light and nutrients. Nowadays, advanced systems for indoor horticulture use light emitting diodes (LED) for improving crop growth, enhancing the plant productivity and favouring the best nutritional quality formation. In closed environments, as indoor growing modules, the lighting system represents the only source of light and its features are fundamental for obtaining the best lighting performances for plant and the most efficient solution. LED lighting engines are more efficient compared to the lighting sources used traditionally in horticulture and allow light spectrum and intensity modulations to enhance the light use efficiency for plants. The lighting distribution and the digital controls are fundamental for tailoring the spectral distribution on each plant in specific moments of its growth and play an important role for optimizing growth and produce high-quality vegetables. LED lights can increase plant growth and yield, but also nutraceutical quality, since some light intensities increase pigments biosynthesis and enhance the antioxidants content of leaves or fruits: in this regards the selection of LED primary light sources in relation to the peaks of the absorbance curve of the plants is important.

  17. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg-1, respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vegetable Charcoal and Pyroligneous Acid: Technological, Economical and Legal Aspects of its Production and Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Daroit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of vegetable charcoal generates atmospheric emissions, which can be controlled by the instalation of collectors for the condensation of such emissions, forming the pyroligneous acid. The development of collectors for the condensations and characterization of the acid for commerce can contribute with the local sustainable development. This study intends to investigate the technological, economical and legal aspects of the production and commerce of the pyroligneous acid. The chosen method was case study in Presidente Lucena/RS, Brazil, with use of surveys, interviews with producers and responsible government sectors’ representatives. The results indicate that the pyroligneous acid extraction technique is little-known and little used by the producers, that the current market does not absorb the pyroligneous acid offering and the ruling is not relevant.

  19. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50 days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11 gVS/(L d) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24 day) and 5.0 (25-50 day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20 g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5 g COD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP). 2; Do Scaled (MODIS) Vegetation Indices Improve Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Shuai, Yanmin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing estimates of Gross Primary Production (GPP) have routinely been made using spectral Vegetation Indices (VIs) over the past two decades. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), the green band Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVIgreen), and the green band Chlorophyll Index (CIgreen) have been employed to estimate GPP under the assumption that GPP is proportional to the product of VI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (where VI is one of four VIs: NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen, or CIgreen). However, the empirical regressions between VI*PAR and GPP measured locally at flux towers do not pass through the origin (i.e., the zero X-Y value for regressions). Therefore they are somewhat difficult to interpret and apply. This study investigates (1) what are the scaling factors and offsets (i.e., regression slopes and intercepts) between the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll of a canopy (fAPARchl) and the VIs, and (2) whether the scaled VIs developed in (1) can eliminate the deficiency and improve the accuracy of GPP estimates. Three AmeriFlux maize and soybean fields were selected for this study, two of which are irrigated and one is rainfed. The four VIs and fAPARchl of the fields were computed with the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images. The GPP estimation performance for the scaled VIs was compared to results obtained with the original VIs and evaluated with standard statistics: the coefficient of determination (R2), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the coefficient of variation (CV). Overall, the scaled EVI obtained the best performance. The performance of the scaled NDVI, EVI and WDRVIgreen was improved across sites, crop types and soil/background wetness conditions. The scaled CIgreen did not improve results, compared to the original CIgreen. The scaled green band indices (WDRVIgreen, CIgreen) did not exhibit superior performance to either the

  1. Climate change and spatial distribution of vegetation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Alarcon Hincapie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation change under two climate change scenarios in different periods of the 21st Century are modeled for Colombia. Vegetation for the years 1970 to 2000 was reproduced using the Holdridge model with climate data with a spatial resolution of 900 meters. The vegetation types that occupied the most territory were sub-humid tropical forest, tropical dry forest and Andean wet forest. These results were validated by comparing with the Colombian ecosystem map (SINA, 2007, which confirmed a high degree of similarity between the modeled spatial vegetation patterns and modern ecosystem distributions. Future vegetation maps were simulated using data generated by a regional climate model under two scenarios (A2 and B2; IPCC, 2007 for the periods 2011-2040 and 2070-2100. Based on our predictions high altitude vegetation will convert to that of lower altitudes and drier provinces with the most dramatic change occurring in the A2 scenario from 2070-2100. The most affected areas are the páramo and other high Andean vegetation types, which in the timeframe of the explored scenarios will disappear by the middle of the 21st Century.

  2. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R2 = 0.62, p ... vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... functions for each plant community. GPP at light saturation modeled from eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements were found to correlate significantly with vegetation greenness for all plant communities in the studied year (i.e., 2010), and the highest correlation was found between modeled fen greenness...

  3. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... in northern Sweden. Both climate and vegetation type were strong interactive controls on ecosystem CO2 production rates during winter. Of all variables tested, soil temperature explained by far the largest amount of variation in respiration rates (41-75%). Our results indicate that vegetation type only....... At the end of winter, within several days of snowmelt, gross ecosystem photosynthesis rates were of a similar magnitude to ecosystem respiration, resulting in significant net carbon gain in some instances. Finally, climate and vegetation type were also strong interactive controls on total wintertime...

  4. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tri Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31

  5. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  6. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J.; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S.

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were p...

  7. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Drought footprint on European ecosystems between 1999 and 2010 assessed by remotely sensed vegetation phenology and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivits, Eva; Horion, Stephanie; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cherlet, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Drought affects more people than any other natural disaster but there is little understanding of how ecosystems react to droughts. This study jointly analyzed spatio-temporal changes of drought patterns with vegetation phenology and productivity changes between 1999 and 2010 in major European bioclimatic zones. The Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was used as drought indicator whereas changes in growing season length and vegetation productivity were assessed using remote sensing time-series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Drought spatio-temporal variability was analyzed using a Principal Component Analysis, leading to the identification of four major drought events between 1999 and 2010 in Europe. Correspondence Analysis showed that at the continental scale the productivity and phenology reacted differently to the identified drought events depending on ecosystem and land cover. Northern and Mediterranean ecosystems proved to be more resilient to droughts in terms of vegetation phenology and productivity developments. Western Atlantic regions and Eastern Europe showed strong agglomerations of decreased productivity and shorter vegetation growing season length, indicating that these ecosystems did not buffer the effects of drought well. In a climate change perspective, increase in drought frequency or intensity may result in larger impacts over these ecosystems, thus management and adaptation strategies should be strengthened in these areas of concerns.

  9. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of soil moisture depletion on vegetable crop uptake of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sergio; Roll, Deborah M; Ray, Chittaranjan; Williams, Clinton; Moravcik, Philip; Knopf, Allan

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural crops have a long history of being irrigated with recycled wastewater (RW). However, its use on vegetable crops has been of concern due to the potential prevalence of microcontaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the latter, which represents a possible health hazard to consumers. We investigated the uptake of three PPCPs (atenolol, diclofenac, and ofloxacin), at three different concentrations in irrigation water (0.5, 5, and 25 μg L -1 ) in relation to three varying volumetric soil moisture depletion levels of 14 % (-4.26 kPa), 10 % (-8.66 kPa), and 7 % (-18.37 kPa) by various vegetable crop species. Experiments were conducted in a split-split block completely randomized design. PPCPs were extracted using a developed method of accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction and analyzed via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). Results indicate that all treated crops were capable of PPCP uptake at nanogram per gram concentrations independent of the applied soil moisture depletion levels and PPCP concentrations. Ofloxacin was the chemical with the highest uptake amounts, followed by atenolol and then diclofenac. Although the results were not statistically significant, higher concentrations of PPCPs were detected in plants maintained under higher soil moisture levels of 14 % (-4.26 kPa).

  12. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Ana V. Lara; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka Univ., Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-02-28

    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content, and by a single addition of methanol. R. oryzae lipase was not inactivated by methanol in concentrations lower than 4 milli-equivalents and 75% water content. Optimum conditions for methanolysis of extracted oils were 75% water content (by weight of substrate), an oil/methanol molar ratio of I:4, and 67 IU/g of substrate with agitation at 175 rpm for 96 h at 35 deg C. The highest conversion yield reached 55% (w/w) with palm oil after 96 h of reaction. Adverse viscosity conditions might have influenced methanolysis of extracted soybean and rapeseed oil in spite of high water or methanol concentrations. (Author)

  13. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  14. Application of Vegetation Indices to Estimate Acorn Production at Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Juan A.; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Recuero, Laura; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Palacios, Alicia; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian pig valued natural resources of the pasture when fattened in mountain. The variability of acorn production is not contained in any line of Spanish agricultural insurance. However, the production of arable pasture is covered by line insurance number 133 for loss of pasture compensation. This scenario is only contemplated for breeding cows and brave bulls, sheep, goats and horses, although pigs are not included. This insurance is established by monitoring ten-day composites Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measured by satellite over treeless pastures, using MODIS TERRA satellite. The aim of this work is to check if we can use a satellite vegetation index to estimate the production of acorns. In order to do so, two Spanish grassland locations have been analyzed: regions of Olivenza (Jerez-Oliva) and Merida (Badajoz). The acorns production was evaluated through 2002-2005 gauging conducted by the Grupo Habitat de la Orden (Badajoz). Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same time period to estimate the ten-day composites NDVI at these locations. Finally, meteorological data was obtained from SIAR and MAGRAMA network stations, calculating the ten-day averaged temperature and ten day accumulated precipitation. Considering two accumulated factors, NDVI and temperature, three phenological stages were well defined being the second one which pointed differences among campaigns. Then, accumulated precipitation versus accumulated NDVI was plot for this second phenological stage obtaining maximum differences at 300 mm of cumulative rainfall. Analyzing acorn production with accumulated NDVI in that moment a production function was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. These results will be discussed in detail. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y

  15. The selective cytotoxicity of the alkenyl glucosinolate hydrolysis products and their presence in Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Nurul H A; David, Rhiannon; Rossiter, John T; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2015-08-06

    Cruciferous vegetable consumption correlates with reduced risk of cancer. This chemopreventative activity may involve glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates have been studied for their toxicity and chemopreventative properties, but other hydrolysis products (epithionitriles and nitriles) have not been thoroughly examined. We report that these hydrolysis products differ in their cytotoxicity to human cells, with toxicity most strongly associated with isothiocyanates rather than epithionitriles and nitriles. We explored mechanisms of this differential cytotoxicity by examining the role of oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability, reduced glutathione levels, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 2-Propenylisothiocyanate and 3-butenylisothiocyanate both inhibited cytochome P450 1A (CYP1A) enzyme activity in CYP expressing MCL-5 cells at high cytotoxic doses. Incubation of MCL-5 cells with non-cytotoxic doses of 2-propenylisothiocyanate for 24h resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, yet failed to affect CYP1A1 mRNA expression indicating interference with enzyme activity rather than inhibition of transcription. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was observed only for 2-propenylisothiocyanate treatment. 2-Propenylisothiocyanate treatment lowered reduced glutathione levels whereas no changes were noted with 3,4-epithiobutylnitrile. Cell cycle analysis showed that 2-propenylisothiocyanate induced a G2/M block whereas other hydrolysis products showed only marginal effects. We found that 2-propenylisothiocyanate and 3-butenylisothiocyanate induced cell death predominantly via necrosis whereas, 3,4-epithiobutylnitrile promoted both necrosis and apoptosis. Thus the activity of glucosinolate hydrolysis products includes cytotoxicity that is compound-class specific and may contribute to their putative chemoprotection properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  16. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactions between herbivory and warming in aboveground biomass production of arctic vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Christian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies investigating the ecosystem effects of global climate change have focused on arctic ecosystems because the Arctic is expected to undergo the earliest and most pronounced changes in response to increasing global temperatures, and arctic ecosystems are considerably limited by low temperatures and permafrost. In these nutrient limited systems, a warmer climate is expected to increase plant biomass production, primarily through increases in shrubs over graminoids and forbs. But, the influence of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores has been largely absent in studies investigating the effects of vegetation responses to climate change, despite the fact that herbivory can have a major influence on plant community composition, biomass and nutrient cycling. Here, we present results from a multi-annual field experiment investigating the effects of vertebrate herbivory on plant biomass response to simulated climate warming in arctic Greenland. Results The results after four years of treatments did not give any clear evidence of increased biomass of shrubs in response climate warming. Nor did our study indicate that vertebrate grazing mediated any increased domination of shrubs over other functional plant groups in response to warming. However, our results indicate an important role of insect outbreaks on aboveground biomass. Intense caterpillar foraging from a two-year outbreak of the moth Eurois occulta during two growing seasons may have concealed any treatment effects. However, there was some evidence suggesting that vertebrate herbivores constrain the biomass production of shrubs over graminoids and forbs. Conclusion Although inconclusive, our results were likely constrained by the overwhelming influence of an unexpected caterpillar outbreak on aboveground biomass. It is likely that the role of large vertebrate herbivores in vegetation response to warming will become more evident as this experiment proceeds and the

  18. A vegetation sensitivity approximation for gross primary production in water limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Jonas; Nycander, Jonas

    2013-04-01

    The most severe impact of climate change on vegetation growth and agriculture is likely to occur under water-limited conditions. Under such conditions the plants optimize the inward flux of CO2 and the outward flux of water vapor (the transpiration) by regulating the size of the stomata openings. Higher temperature increases water loss through transpiration, forcing the plants to diminish the stomata openings, which decreases photosynthesis. This is counteracted by higher CO2 concentration, which allows plants to maintain the inward flux of CO2 through the smaller openings. These two counteracting effects, combined with the change in precipitation, determine the net change of biological productivity in a changed climate. Here, a vegetation sensitivity approximation (VSA) is introduced, in order to understand and estimate the combined effect of changed temperature, CO2-concentration and precipitation on gross primary production (GPP) to first order. According to the VSA, we have: ( ) ?CO2atm ν GP P = ?0 P Here ?CO2atm is the atmospheric CO2 concentration, ?0 is the baseline for atmospheric CO2 concentration, P is precipitation and ν is defined by: -s- ν = 1 - 11°C where s is the climate sensitivity i.e. the increase in temperature when atmospheric CO2 is doubled. The VSA is based on the physical laws of gas flux through the stomata openings, and is only valid under water-limited conditions. It assumes that the temperature depends logarithmically on the CO2 concentration with a given climate sensitivity. Transpiration is assumed to be a constant fraction of precipitation, which is reasonable under water-limited conditions. The VSA is compared to simulations with the dynamic vegetation model LPJ. The agreement is reasonable, and the deviations can be understood by comparison with Köppen's definition of arid climate: in an arid climate growth increases more according to LPJ than according to the VSA, and in non-arid conditions the reverse is true. Both the VSA and

  19. Analysis of teleconnections between AVHRR-based sea surface temperature and vegetation productivity in the semi-arid Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation productivity across the Sahel is known to be affected by a variety of global sea surface temperature (SST) patterns. Often climate indices are used to relate Sahelian vegetation variability to large-scale ocean–atmosphere phenomena. However, previous research findings reporting...... on the Sahelian vegetation response to climate indices have been inconsistent and contradictory, which could partly be caused by the variations in spatial extent/definitions of climate indices and size of the region studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the linkage between climate indices, pixel......-wise spatio-temporal patterns of global sea surface temperature and the Sahelian vegetation dynamics for 1982–2007. We stratified the Sahel into five subregions to account for the longitudinal variability in rainfall. We found significant correlations between climate indices and the Normalized Difference...

  20. Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Running, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by global population and standard of living increases, humanity co-opts a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. In this study, we explored the impact of agriculture on a resource fundamental to life on Earth: terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). We demonstrate that agricultural conversion has reduced terrestrial NPP by ~7.0%. Increases in NPP due to agricultural conversion were observed only in areas receiving external inputs (i.e., irrigation and/or fertilization). NPP reductions were found for ~88% of agricultural lands, with the largest reductions observed in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (~71% and ~66% reductions, respectively). Without policies that explicitly consider the impact of agricultural conversion on primary production, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output will likely continue to drive net declines in global terrestrial productivity, with potential detrimental consequences for net ecosystem carbon storage and subsequent climate warming.

  1. PRODUCT NEEM AZAL T/S - BROAD-SPECTRUM PHYPOPESTICIDE FOR CONTROL OF PESTS ON VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinelina Yankova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments for determination of the effectiveness of product Neem Azal T/S (a. i. azadirachtin were conducted at a concentration of 0,3% against some major pests in vegetable crops grown in greenhouses at the Maritsa Vegetable Crops research Institute, Plovdiv during the period 2010-2016. It was established very good insecticidal and acaricidal action of phytopesticide against: cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glov.; green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulz.; western flower trips (Frankliniella occidentalis Perg.; cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubn.; tomato borer (Tuta absoluta Meyrick and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranichus urticae Koch.. This product is a successful alternative to using chemical insecticides and acaricides.

  2. Agricultural conversion reduces biospheric vegetation productivity in the absence of external inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Cleveland, C. C.; Reed, S.; Running, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing global population, energy demand, and standard of living has driven humanity to co-opt a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. Here, we explored the impact of global-scale agricultural production on a basic resource fundamental to life on Earth: global terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). First, we compared current rates of agricultural NPP - derived from crop-specific agricultural statistics - with rates of natural NPP - derived from satellite measurements. Next, we disaggregated our results by climate zone, conversion type, crop type, management intensity, and region to identify where agricultural conversion has driven significant degradation of biospheric NPP. At the global-scale, our data indicate that agricultural conversion has resulted in a ~7% reduction in biospheric NPP (ΔNPP), although the impact varied widely at the pixel level. Positive ΔNPP values, signifying an increase in NPP due to agricultural conversion, occurred only in areas receiving significant external water and nutrient inputs (i.e., intensively managed areas). Conversely, negative ΔNPP values, signifying a reduction in NPP due to agricultural conversion, occurred over ~90% of agricultural lands globally, with the largest reductions in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (71% and 66% reductions in NPP, respectively). Without new global-scale policies that explicitly consider changes in NPP due to land cover conversion, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output - likely dependent on some level of expansion into natural ecosystems - could continue to drive net declines in biospheric NPP, with potential detrimental consequences for global carbon storage. A spatially explicit estimate of the effect of agricultural land cover conversion on natural primary production for 20 staple crops. ΔNPP was estimated independently for a) irrigated, b) high input, c) low

  3. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  4. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, X.; Ju, W.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs) for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP) estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI) is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE) in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m-2 yr-1 to 4.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m-2 yr-1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI) and elevation have small and additive effects on improving the spatial scaling

  5. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m−2 yr−1 to 4.8 g C m−2 yr−1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m−2 yr−1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI and elevation have small and additive effects on improving

  6. Recent developments in microbial oils production: a possible alternative to vegetable oils for biodiesel without competition with human food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries vegetable oils are consumed as human food but it also finds applications in biodiesel production which is attracting more attention. But due to being in competition with food it could not be sustainable and leads the need to search for alternative. Nowdays microbes-derived oils (single cell oils seem to be alternatives for biodiesel production due to their similar composition to that of vegetable oils. However, the cold flow properties of the biodiesel produced from microbial oils are unacceptable and have to be modified by an efficient transesterification. Glycerol which is by product of transesterification can be valorised into some more useful products so that it can also be utilised along with biodiesel to simplify the downstream processing. The review paper discusses about various potent microorganisms for biodiesel production, enzymes involved in the lipid accumulation, lipid quantification methods, catalysts used in transesterification (including enzymatic catalyst and valorisation of glycerol.

  7. Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Debouk

    Full Text Available Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to environmental changes such as global warming, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of warming only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental warming, and (ii whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a warm continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland. The impacts of simulated warming on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term warming. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after warming were more dependent on trait composition (CWM than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before warming changed less in composition after warming. Results suggest that (i the short-term warming can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short

  8. Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to environmental changes such as global warming, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of warming only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental warming, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a warm continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated warming on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term warming. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after warming were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before warming changed less in composition after warming. Results suggest that (i) the short-term warming can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term warming

  9. Production characteristics of the complex "SLS-vegetables" as the element of bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    Previously we had shown possibility of long-term cultivation of wheat and radish uneven-aged conveyer on the soil-like substrate (SLS) with periodic introduction in the SLS of edible (in the form of a mineral solution after physicochemical burning) and inedible biomass of the plants grown on it. The given work was aimed at the study of production characteristics of the plants cultivated on the SLS with a periodic introduction of plant biomass, which consisted of harvested inedible biomass and wheat straw. The wheat straw was introduced in the SLS to compensate carrying out of mineral elements from the SLS with the edible biomass of the harvested plants. Also possibility of joint cultivation of the chosen vegetable plants under the given way of plant inedible biomass introduction in the SLS was estimated. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were taken as the objects of research. Plants were grown in the regime of the three-species uneven-aged conveyer. Before each next planting of plants we introduced in the SLS all inedible biomass of earlier harvested plants and wheat straw. The amount of introduced wheat straw depended on nitrogen content in edible biomass of the harvested plants. Plants irrigation was performed by means of common nutrient solution containing mineral elements extracted from the SLS. 2 concentration in a vegetation chamber was maintained in limits from 0.1The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS grant 05-1000008-8010

  10. Consistency Between Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Gross Primary Production of Vegetation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Sha; Wagle, Pradeep; Joiner, Joanna; Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang , Geli; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is vital for a better understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of the global carbon cycle. In this study,we estimate GPP in North America (NA) using the satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) images at 8-day temporal and 500 meter spatial resolutions, and NCEP-NARR (National Center for Environmental Prediction-North America Regional Reanalysis) climate data. The simulated GPP (GPP (sub VPM)) agrees well with the flux tower derived GPP (GPPEC) at 39 AmeriFlux sites (155 site-years). The GPP (sub VPM) in 2010 is spatially aggregated to 0.5 by 0.5-degree grid cells and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data from Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2), which is directly related to vegetation photosynthesis. Spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of GPP (sub VPM) and GOME-2 SIF show good consistency. At the biome scale, GPP (sub VPM) and SIF shows strong linear relationships (R (sup 2) is greater than 0.95) and small variations in regression slopes ((4.60-5.55 grams Carbon per square meter per day) divided by (milliwatts per square meter per nanometer per square radian)). The total annual GPP (sub VPM) in NA in 2010 is approximately 13.53 petagrams Carbon per year, which accounts for approximately 11.0 percent of the global terrestrial GPP and is within the range of annual GPP estimates from six other process-based and data-driven models (11.35-22.23 petagrams Carbon per year). Among the seven models, some models did not capture the spatial pattern of GOME-2 SIF data at annual scale, especially in Midwest cropland region. The results from this study demonstrate the reliable performance of VPM at the continental scale, and the potential of SIF data being used as a benchmark to compare with GPP models.

  11. Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHofmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing numbers of outbreaks caused by the consumption of vegetables contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria were reported. The application of organic fertilizers during vegetable production is one of the possible reasons for contamination with those pathogens. In this study laboratory experiments in axenic and soil systems following common practices in organic farming were conducted to identify the minimal dose needed for bacterial colonization of plants and to identify possible factors like bacterial species or serovariation, plant species or organic fertilizer types used, influencing the success of plant colonization by human pathogenic bacteria. Spinach and corn salad were chosen as model plants and were inoculated with different concentrations of Salmonella enterica sv. Weltevreden, Listeria monocytogenes sv. 4b and EGD-E sv. 1/2a either directly (axenic system or via agricultural soil amended with spiked organic fertilizers (soil system. In addition to PCR- and culture-based detection methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was applied in order to localize bacteria on or in plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that shoots were colonized by the pathogenic bacteria at inoculation doses as low as 4x10CFU/ml in the axenic system or 4x105CFU/g in the soil system. In addition, plant species dependent effects were observed. Spinach was colonized more often and at lower inoculation doses compared to corn salad. Differential colonization sites on roots, depending on the plant species could be detected using FISH-CLSM analysis. Furthermore, the transfer of pathogenic bacteria to plants via organic fertilizers was observed more often and at lower initial inoculation doses when fertilization was performed with inoculated slurry compared to inoculated manure. Finally, it could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in

  12. Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Fischer, Doreen; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of outbreaks caused by the consumption of vegetables contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria were reported. The application of organic fertilizers during vegetable production is one of the possible reasons for contamination with those pathogens. In this study laboratory experiments in axenic and soil systems following common practices in organic farming were conducted to identify the minimal dose needed for bacterial colonization of plants and to identify possible factors like bacterial species or serovariation, plant species or organic fertilizer types used, influencing the success of plant colonization by human pathogenic bacteria. Spinach and corn salad were chosen as model plants and were inoculated with different concentrations of Salmonella enterica sv. Weltevreden, Listeria monocytogenes sv. 4b and EGD-E sv. 1/2a either directly (axenic system) or via agricultural soil amended with spiked organic fertilizers (soil system). In addition to PCR- and culture-based detection methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied in order to localize bacteria on or in plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that shoots were colonized by the pathogenic bacteria at inoculation doses as low as 4 × 10 CFU/ml in the axenic system or 4 × 105 CFU/g in the soil system. In addition, plant species dependent effects were observed. Spinach was colonized more often and at lower inoculation doses compared to corn salad. Differential colonization sites on roots, depending on the plant species could be detected using FISH-CLSM analysis. Furthermore, the transfer of pathogenic bacteria to plants via organic fertilizers was observed more often and at lower initial inoculation doses when fertilization was performed with inoculated slurry compared to inoculated manure. Finally, it could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in some cases

  13. Plant Growth Optimization by Vegetable Production System in HI-SEAS Analog Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Gill, Tracy R.; Quincy, Charles D.; Roberson, Luke B.; Binsted, Kim; Morrow, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) is a scientific payload designed to support plant growth for food production under microgravity conditions. The configuration of Veggie consists of an LED lighting system with modular rooting pillows designed to contain substrate media and time-release fertilizer. The pillows were designed to be watered passively using capillary principles but have typically been watered manually by the astronauts in low-Earth orbit (LEO). The design of Veggie allows cabin air to be drawn through the plant enclosure for thermal and humidity control and for supplying CO2 to the plants. Since its delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014, Veggie has undergone several experimental trials by various crews. Ground unit testing of Veggie was conducted during an 8-month Mars analog study in a semi-contained environment of a simulated habitat located at approximately 8,200 feet (2,500 m) elevation on the Mauna Loa volcano on the Island of Hawaii. The Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) offered conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) intended to simulate a planetary exploration mission. This paper provides data and analyses to show the prospect for optimized use of the current Veggie design for human habitats. Lessons learned during the study may provide opportunities for updating the system design and operational parameters for current Veggie experiments being conducted onboard the ISS and for payloads on future deep space missions.

  14. The new Caribbean Nitrogen Index to assess nitrogen dynamics in vegetable production systems in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient loss from agricultural fields is one of the main factors influencing surface- and ground-water quality. Typical fertilizer nitrogen (N) consumption rates in vegetable production systems and horticultural crops in Puerto Rico, fluctuate between 112 to 253 kg N/ha. Nitrogen use efficiency of ...

  15. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes; a food irradiation study on radiation induced stress in vegetable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.

    In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in

  16. Chlorophyll induced fluorescence retrieved from GOME2 for improving gross primary productivity estimates of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Thomas C.; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Sanders, Abram F. J.

    2014-05-01

    Mapping terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is a crucial activity to obtain information on the functional status of vegetation and to improve estimates of light-use efficiency (LUE) and global primary productivity (GPP). GPP quantifies carbon fixation by plant ecosystems and is therefore an important parameter for budgeting terrestrial carbon cycles. Satellite remote sensing offers an excellent tool for investigating GPP in a spatially explicit fashion across different scales of observation. The GPP estimates, however, still remain largely uncertain due to biotic and abiotic factors that influence plant production. Sun-induced fluorescence has the ability to enhance our knowledge on how environmentally induced changes affect the LUE. This can be linked to optical derived remote sensing parameters thereby reducing the uncertainty in GPP estimates. Satellite measurements provide a relatively new perspective on global sun-induced fluorescence, enabling us to quantify spatial distributions and changes over time. Techniques have recently been developed to retrieve fluorescence emissions from hyperspectral satellite measurements. We use data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME2) to infer terrestrial fluorescence. The spectral signatures of three basic components atmospheric: absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance are separated using reference measurements of non-fluorescent surfaces (desserts, deep oceans and ice) to solve for the atmospheric absorption. An empirically based principal component analysis (PCA) approach is applied similar to that of Joiner et al. (2013, ACP). Here we show our first global maps of the GOME2 retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence. First results indicate fluorescence distributions that are similar with that obtained by GOSAT and GOME2 as reported by Joiner et al. (2013, ACP), although we find slightly higher values. In view of optimizing the fluorescence retrieval, we will show the effect of the references

  17. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part I. Wheat cereal products, vegetable products, confectionery and products for infants and children (2004 year)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Plewa, Monika; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    The testing of products of wheat cereal (310 samples), vegetable (418 samples), confectionery (439 samples) and 952 samples of products for infants and children has initiated the 5-years cycle of monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health planned to perform in 2004-2008. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection collecting samples on all over the territory of Poland, both from retail market (of domestic origin as well as imported) and directly from producers; the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene responsible for elaboration of official food control and monitoring plans to be approved by Chief Sanitary Inspectorate and for the substantive supervising of tests performance. The reported metals contents were not of health concern and generally below the levels set forth in food legislation. The health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for cadmium, which has reached 9.4% PTWI for cereal based products and 4.7% PTWI for vegetables. The cadmium content in chocolate and derived products due to contamination of cocoa beans and the levels of this element in products for infants and children originated from contamination of cereal and soybeans row materials should not be ignored. The decrease of lead contamination comparing to those reported in 1990 studies was observed.

  18. Ready-to-eat vegetables production with low-level water chlorination: an evaluation of water quality and of its impact on end products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D'Acunzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the microbiological impact of low-level chlorination (1 ppm free chlorine on the production of ready-to-eat (RTE vegetables by monitoring the microbiological quality of irrigation and processing water in two production plants over a 4-season period, as well as the microbiological quality of unprocessed vegetables and RTE product. Water samples were also characterized in terms of some chemical and physico-chemical parameters of relevance in chlorination management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both producers use water with maximum 1 ppm free chlorine for vegetables rinsing, while the two processes differ by the number of washing cycles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp were detected once in two different irrigation water samples out of nine from one producer. No pathogens were found in the vegetable samples. As expected, the procedure encompassing more washing cycles performed slightly better in terms of total mesophilic count (TCM when comparing unprocessed and RTE vegetables of the same batch. However, data suggest that low-level chlorination may be insufficient in preventing microbial build-up in the washing equipment and/or batch-to batch cross-contamination.

  19. Effective mitigation of nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in intensive vegetable production systems using a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Min; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Changsheng [Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Di, Hong J. [Lincoln Univ., Christchurch (New Zealand). Center for Soil and Environment Research

    2011-07-15

    Vegetable production is one of the most intensive agricultural systems with high rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and irrigation, conditions conducive for nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) leaching, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), in decreasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions in vegetable production systems. Twenty-four undisturbed soil monolith lysimeters (610 mm in diameter; 700 mm in depth; surface area, 0.29 m{sup 2}) with two different soils, Huangzongrang (alfisol) and Chaotu (fluvisols), were collected and installed in a field lysimeter facility in Central China under irrigated vegetable production conditions. Urea fertilizer was applied at 650 kg N ha{sup -1}, and DCD was applied at 10 kg ha{sup -1} to the lysimeters planted with three kinds of vegetables (capsicum, Capsicum annuum L.; amaranth, Amaranthus mangostanus L.; radish, Raphanus sativus L.). The results showed that DCD reduced NO3- leaching by 58.5% and 36.2% and N{sub 2}O emissions factor by 83.8% and 72.7% in the two soils. The average NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N concentration in the drainage water was decreased from 4.9 mg NL{sup -1} to 2.3 mg NL{sup -1} and from 4.4 mg NL{sup -1} to 3.3 mg NL{sup -1}, in the Huangzongrang and Chaotu soils, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits, the use of DCD also increased the yields of capsicum and radish in alfisol soil significantly (P < 0.01); only the amaranth yield in fluvisol soil was declined (P < 0.01), and the other vegetables yields were not affected. Total N concentrations of the three vegetables were increased significantly (P < 0.01) with the application of DCD with urea compared with urea alone. These results showed that the nitrification inhibitor DCD has the potential to significantly reduce NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions and to make vegetable farming more environmentally

  20. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S

    2017-09-23

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were parameterized to identify agricultural land areas meeting crop-specific growing requirements for monthly precipitation and temperature; soil depth and type; cropland availability; and proximity to existing production centers. The results of these analyses demonstrate that crop production can be expanded by nearly 144,000 ha within existing national production centers, generating an additional 0.05 cup-equivalents of fruits and vegetables per capita per day, representing a 1.7% increase above current total F&V availability. Expanding the size of national crop production centers can further increase the availability of all F&V by 2.5%-5.4%, which is still less than the recommended amount. Challenges to increasing F&V production in the US include lack of labor availability, barriers to adoption among producers, and threats to crop yields from environmental concerns.

  1. Collective action on improving environmental and economic performance of vegetable production: Exploring pesticides safety in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravindakshan, S.; Sherief, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    From the chemical input-intensive yield-enhancement practices of the Green Revolution era, agricultural research and development focus is gradually shifting towards establishing Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) in fruits and vegetable sector. The dominant problems affecting fruits and vegetables in

  2. Identifying N fertilizer regime and vegetable production system in tropical Brazil using (15) N natural abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio T; Urquiaga, Segundo; Chalk, Phillip M; Mata, Maria Gabriela F; Souza, Paulo O

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted in areas of vegetable production in tropical Brazil, with the objectives of (i) measuring the variation in δ(15)  N in soils, organic N fertilizer sources and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from different farming systems, (ii) measuring whether plant δ(15)  N can differentiate organic versus conventional lettuce and (iii) identifying the factors affecting lettuce δ(15)  N. Samples of soil, lettuce and organic inputs were taken from two organic, one conventional and one hydroponic farm. The two organic farms had different N-sources with δ(15)  N values ranging from 0.0 to +14.9‰ (e.g. leguminous green manure and animal manure compost, respectively), and differed significantly (P manure inputs. The N from leguminous green manure made a small contribution to the N nutrition of lettuce in the multi-N-source organic farm. To differentiate organic versus conventional farms using δ(15)  N the several subsets of mode of fertilization should be considered. Comparisons of δ(15)  N of soil, organic inputs and lettuce allowed a qualitative analysis of the relative importance of different N inputs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Increasing Methane Production by Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Slaughterhouse with Fruit and Vegetable Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Samadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite fossil fuels, the energy supply from biogas process is of renewable energy resources; this kind of energy can be generated in all parts of the world. Thus, the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for production of methane from wastes of an industrial slaughterhouse and fruit and vegetable center in the Hamadan city, west of Iran, was investigated. The digester was operated under the mesophilic (35 - 37°C condition for a period of 40 days with 3 different C/N ratios (20/1, 30/1 and 40/1. Before operation of digester, the amounts of C and N in the wastes were measured and during the experiments pH and composition of the biogas were determined. The cumulative amounts of the generated total biogas and methane at the 3 examined C/N ratios 20/1, 30/1 and 40/1 were, respectively 181, 201.7 and 162.5 L and 129.8, 149.2 and 114 L. The results indicated that the highest contents of biogas and methane (201.68 and 149.29 L, respectively were obtained at C/N of 30 within 31 days.

  4. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice-wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  5. A description of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota associated with the production of traditional fermented vegetables in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Doan Thi Lam; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Cnockaert, Margo; De Brandt, Evie; Aerts, Maarten; Binh Thanh, Le; Vandamme, Peter

    2013-04-15

    An important part of the daily nourishment in Vietnam constitutes of fermented vegetables. Bacteria and especially lactic acid bacteria play a central role in the production of many fermented vegetables. The current study was conducted to investigate the diversity of native lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in 'dua muoi' (mustard and beet fermentation) and 'ca muoi' (eggplant fermentation), three types of popular traditional fermented vegetables of Vietnamese origin. To this end a polyphasic approach combining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and pheS gene sequence analysis was used. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed as a culture-independent method to complement the observed culturable diversity data. A total of 881 LAB isolates were recovered from 21 different samples. Predominant LAB associated with 'dua muoi' and 'ca muoi' were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (56.6%), Lactobacillus pentosus (24.4%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (17.1%). Less abundant species were Pediococcus pentosaceus (1.0%) and Lactobacillus brevis (0.5%). Species present less than 0.1% included Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus pantheris and Pediococcus acidilactici. In contrast to fermented mustard and beet with the highest prevalence of L. fermentum, the species most recovered from fermented eggplant samples was L. pentosus. In addition, an important degree of genetic variability within the different predominant species was observed and strain dependency correlating with the type of fermented vegetable or location of production could be demonstrated using multivariate statistics. This research gives an extensive and detailed inventory of the LAB diversity associated with the production of diverse Vietnamese fermented vegetables and demonstrates the influence of type of raw material and/or production location and conditions on this diversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Study of the co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil for hydrocarbon oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigang; Wang, Chao; Lu, Weipeng; Yang, Zhengyu

    2010-06-01

    Hydrocarbon oil was obtained by co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil in the work. Results showed the weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil exerted a great effect on the quality of obtained hydrocarbon oil. The optimum weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil was 4.4:1, when alkanes with the content of 50.43% were detected in obtained hydrocarbon oil, with lower oxygen content of 2.52%, which resulted in higher calorific value-up to 43.36 MJ kg(-1). At the same time, removal rate of carbonyl group of vegetable oil in the mixture reached at least 75.11%. The overall efficiency of the deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and the decarboxylation of vegetable oil were both enhanced by adding vegetable oil into biomass. Compared with the oils obtained from vegetable oil and biomass, respectively, distribution of hydrocarbon oil obtained from the mixture was much more similar to that of diesel oil. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal stability of plant sterols and formation of their oxidation products in vegetable oils and margarines upon controlled heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Valk, Iris; van Andel, Vincent; Friedrichs, Silvia; Lütjohann, Dieter; Hrncirik, Karel; Trautwein, Elke A

    2017-10-01

    Fat-based products like vegetable oils and margarines are commonly used for cooking, which may enhance oxidation of plant sterols (PS) present therein, leading to the formation of PS oxidation products (POP). The present study aims to assess the kinetics of POP formation in six different fat-based products. Vegetable oils and margarines without and with added PS (7.5-7.6% w/w) in esterified form were heated in a Petri-dish at temperatures of 150, 180 and 210°C for 8, 12 and 16min. PS and POP were analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS-SIM, respectively. Increasing PS content, temperature and heating time led to higher POP formation in all tested fat-based products. PS (either naturally occurring or added) in margarines were less susceptible to oxidation as compared to PS in vegetable oils. The susceptibility of sitosterol to oxidation was about 20% lower than that of campesterol under all the applied experimental conditions. During heating, the relative abundance of 7-keto-PS (expressed as% of total POP) decreased in all the fat-based products regardless of their PS contents, which was accompanied by an increase in the relative abundance of 7-OH-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS, while PS-triols were fairly unchanged. In conclusion, heating time, temperature, initial PS content and the matrix of the fat-based products (vegetable oil vs. margarine) showed distinct effects on POP formation and composition of individual POP formed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transitions in high-Arctic vegetation growth patterns and ecosystem productivity tracked with automated cameras from 2000 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Pedersen, Stine Højlund

    2017-01-01

    Climate-induced changes in vegetation phenology at northern latitudes are still poorly understood. Continued monitoring and research are therefore needed to improve the understanding of abiotic drivers. Here we used 14 years of time lapse imagery and climate data from high-Arctic Northeast Greenl...... days, resulting in an unchanged growing season length. Vegetation greenness, derived from the imagery, was correlated to primary productivity, showing that the imagery holds valuable information on vegetation productivity.......Climate-induced changes in vegetation phenology at northern latitudes are still poorly understood. Continued monitoring and research are therefore needed to improve the understanding of abiotic drivers. Here we used 14 years of time lapse imagery and climate data from high-Arctic Northeast...... Greenland to assess the seasonal response of a dwarf shrub heath, grassland, and fen, to inter-annual variation in snow-cover, soil moisture, and air and soil temperatures. A late snow melt and start of growing season is counterbalanced by a fast greenup and a tendency to higher peak greenness values. Snow...

  9. Growing Degree Vegetation Production Index (GDVPI): A Novel and Data-Driven Approach to Delimit Season Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. D.; Spruce, J.; Ross, K. W.; Gasser, J.; Grulke, N.

    2014-12-01

    Growing Degree Vegetation Production Index (GDVPI) is a parametric approach to delimiting vegetation seasonal growth and decline cycles using incremental growing degree days (GDD), and NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) 8-day composite cumulative integral data. We obtain a specific location's daily minimum and maximum temperatures from the nearest National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather stations posted on the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) Climate Data Online (CDO) archive and compute GDD. The date range for this study is January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2012. We employ a novel process, a repeating logistic product (RLP), to compensate for short-term weather variability and data drops from the recording stations and fit a curve to the median daily GDD values, adjusting for asymmetry, amplitude, and phase shift that minimize the sum of squared errors when comparing the observed and predicted GDD. The resulting curve, here referred to as the surrogate GDD, is the time-temperature phasing parameter used to convert Cartesian NDVI values into polar coordinate pairs, multiplying the NDVI values as the radial by the cosine and sine of the surrogate GDD as the angular. Depending on the vegetation type and the original NDVI curve, the polar NDVI curve may be nearly circular, kidney-shaped, or pear-shaped in the case of conifers, deciduous, or agriculture, respectively. We examine the points of tangency about the polar coordinate NDVI curve, identifying values of 1, 0, -1, or infinity, as each of these represent natural inflection points. Lines connecting the origin to each tangent point illustrate and quantify the parametrically segmentation of the growing season based on the GDD and NDVI ostensible dependency. Furthermore, the area contained by each segment represents the apparent vegetation production. A particular benefit is that the inflection points are determined

  10. SMOS-IC: An Alternative SMOS Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Product

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto Fernandez-Moran; Amen Al-Yaari; Arnaud Mialon; Ali Mahmoodi; Ahmad Al Bitar; Gabrielle De Lannoy; Nemesio Rodriguez-Fernandez; Ernesto Lopez-Baeza; Yann Kerr; Jean-Pierre Wigneron

    2017-01-01

    .... The operational SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 soil moisture algorithms account for different surface effects, such as vegetation opacity and soil roughness at 4 km resolution, in order to produce global...

  11. L-Glutamic acid production by Bacillus spp. isolated from vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Ogiri” (fermented vegetable proteins) in Nigeria. The isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (6), (27.3%), Bacillus pumilus (5), (22.7%), Bacillus licheniformis (5), (27.3%) and Bacillus polymyxa (6), (22.7%). Four species.

  12. Agroforestry and sustainable vegetable production in Southeast Asian Watersheds: TMPEGS Vietnam team

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Dang Thanh

    2008-01-01

    Major activities conducted by the Vietnam team during the reporting period include the implementation of the experiments and on-farm trials with drip irrigation on vegetables, termite control in young cacao planting, experiment with shade-tolerant indigenous root crop under cashew and vegetables grown under different light regimes, drip irrigation on perennial crop, review of policy related to VAF and stakeholder discussion, conducting field survey on integrated crop and pest management and p...

  13. Percolation transport theory and relevance to soil formation, vegetation growth, and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A. G.; Ghanbarian, B.

    2016-12-01

    Scaling laws of percolation theory have been applied to generate the time dependence of vegetation growth rates (both intensively managed and natural) and soil formation rates. The soil depth is thus equal to the solute vertical transport distance, the soil production function, chemical weathering rates, and C and N storage rates are all given by the time derivative of the soil depth. Approximate numerical coefficients based on the maximum flow rates in soils have been proposed, leading to a broad understanding of such processes. What is now required is an accurate understanding of the variability of the coefficients in the scaling relationships. The present abstract focuses on the scaling relationship for solute transport and soil formation. A soil formation rate relates length, x, and time, t, scales, meaning that the missing coefficient must include information about fundamental space and time scales, x0 and t0. x0 is proposed to be a fundamental mineral heterogeneity scale, i.e. a median particle diameter. to is then found from the ratio of x0 and a fundamental flow rate, v0, which is identified with the net infiltration rate. The net infiltration rate is equal to precipitation P less evapotranspiration, ET, plus run-on less run-off. Using this hypothesis, it is possible to predict soil depths and formation rates as functions of time and P - ET, and the formation rate as a function of depth, soil calcic and gypsic horizon depths as functions of P-ET. It is also possible to determine when soils are in equilibrium, and predict relationships of erosion rates and soil formation rates.

  14. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitrification inhibitors can increase post-harvest nitrous oxide emissions in an intensive vegetable production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; Rowlings, David; Firrell, Mary; Deuter, Peter; Morris, Stephen; Riches, David; Porter, Ian; Grace, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effect of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 3-methylpyrazole 1,2,4-triazole (3MP + TZ), on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable rotation in sub-tropical Australia we monitored soil N2O fluxes continuously over an entire year using an automated greenhouse gas measurement system. The temporal variation of N2O fluxes showed only low emissions over the vegetable cropping phases, but significantly higher emissions were observed post-harvest accounting for 50-70% of the annual emissions. NIs reduced N2O emissions by 20-60% over the vegetable cropping phases; however, this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the NIs treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Annual N2O emissions from the conventional fertiliser, the DMPP treatment, and the 3MP + TZ treatment were 1.3, 1.1 and 1.6 (sem = 0.2) kg-N ha-1 year-1, respectively. This study highlights that the use of NIs in vegetable systems can lead to elevated N2O emissions by storing N in the soil profile that is available to soil microbes during the decomposition of the vegetable residues. Hence the use of NIs in vegetable systems has to be treated carefully and fertiliser rates need to be adjusted to avoid an oversupply of N during the post-harvest phase.

  16. Nitrification inhibitors can increase post-harvest nitrous oxide emissions in an intensive vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; Rowlings, David; Firrell, Mary; Deuter, Peter; Morris, Stephen; Riches, David; Porter, Ian; Grace, Peter

    2017-03-07

    To investigate the effect of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 3-methylpyrazole 1,2,4-triazole (3MP + TZ), on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable rotation in sub-tropical Australia we monitored soil N2O fluxes continuously over an entire year using an automated greenhouse gas measurement system. The temporal variation of N2O fluxes showed only low emissions over the vegetable cropping phases, but significantly higher emissions were observed post-harvest accounting for 50-70% of the annual emissions. NIs reduced N2O emissions by 20-60% over the vegetable cropping phases; however, this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the NIs treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Annual N2O emissions from the conventional fertiliser, the DMPP treatment, and the 3MP + TZ treatment were 1.3, 1.1 and 1.6 (sem = 0.2) kg-N ha-1 year-1, respectively. This study highlights that the use of NIs in vegetable systems can lead to elevated N2O emissions by storing N in the soil profile that is available to soil microbes during the decomposition of the vegetable residues. Hence the use of NIs in vegetable systems has to be treated carefully and fertiliser rates need to be adjusted to avoid an oversupply of N during the post-harvest phase.

  17. Spatial analysis of human-induced vegetation productivity decline over eastern Africa using a decade (2001-2011) of medium resolution MODIS time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Tobias; Dubovyk, Olena

    2014-12-01

    Climate variation and land transformations related to exploitative land uses are among the main drivers of vegetation productivity decline and ongoing land degradation in East Africa. We combined analysis of vegetation trends and cumulative rain use efficiency differences (CRD), calculated from 250-m MODIS NDVI time-series data, to map vegetation productivity loss over eastern Africa between 2001 and 2011. The CRD index values were furthermore used to discern areas of particular severe vegetation productivity loss over the observation period. Monthly 25-km Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data metrics were used to mask areas of rainfall declines not related to human-induced land productivity loss. To provide insights on the productivity decline, we linked the MODIS-based vegetation productivity map to land transformation processes using very high resolution (VHR) imagery in Google Earth (GE) and a Landsat-based land-cover change map. In total, 3.8 million ha experienced significant vegetation loss over the monitoring period. An overall agreement of 68% was found between the rainfall-corrected MODIS productivity decline map and all reference pixels discernable from GE and the Landsat map. The CRD index showed a good potential to discern areas with ‘severe' vegetation productivity losses under high land-use intensities.

  18. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Figiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  19. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figiel, Adam; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-30

    The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  20. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  1. Variations in Vegetation Net Primary Production in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, China, from 1982 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, S.; Fang, J.; He, J. [Department of Ecology, College of Environmental Science, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2006-01-15

    Vegetation net primary production (NPP) derived from a carbon model (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach, CASA) and its interannual change in the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau were investigated in this study using 1982-1999 time series data sets of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and paired ground-based information on vegetation, climate, soil, and solar radiation. The 18-year averaged annual NPP over the plateau was 125 g C m-2 yr-1, decreasing from the southeast to the northwest, consistent with precipitation and temperature patterns. Total annual NPP was estimated between 0.183 and 0.244 Pg C over the 18 years, with an average of 0.212 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g). Two distinct periods (1982-1990 and 1991-1999) of NPP variation were observed, separated by a sharp reduction during 1990-1991. From 1982 to 1990, annual NPP did not show a significant trend, while from 1991 to 1999 a marked increase of 0.007 Pg C yr-2 was observed. NPP trends for most vegetation types resembled that of the whole plateau. The largest annual NPP increase during 1991-1999 appeared in alpine meadows, accounting for 32.3% of the increment of the whole region. Changes in solar radiation and temperature significantly influenced NPP variation, suggesting that solar radiation may be one of the major factors associated with changes in NPP.

  2. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  3. An input-output energy analysis in greenhouse vegetable production: a case study for Antalya region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Akcaoz, Handan [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Antalya (Turkey); Kurklu, Ahmet [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Antalya (Turkey)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy equivalents of inputs and output in greenhouse vegetable production in the Antalya province of Turkey. For this purpose, the data for the production of four greenhouse crops (tomato, cucumber, eggplant and pepper) were collected in eighty-eight greenhouse farms by questionnaire. The results revealed that cucumber production was the most energy intensive of among the four crops investigated. Cucumber production consumed a total of 134.77 GJha{sup -1} followed by tomato with 127.32 GJha{sup -1}. The consumption of energy by eggplants and pepper were 98.68 and 80.25 GJha{sup -1}, respectively. The output-input energy ratio for greenhouse tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant were estimated to be 1.26, 0.99, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in greenhouse vegetable production not accompanied by increase in the final product. This can lead to problems associated with these inputs such as global warming, nutrient loading and pesticide pollution. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy efficient practices to increase the yield without diminishing natural resources. (Author)

  4. Water as contamination source of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in vegetable production in Mexico: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Mendoza, D.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has an extensive infrastructure that has positioned it as a power vegetable producer exporter. However, the use of wastewater represents a potential risk to agriculture, economy and human health, since they are used without due precautions as applied in crop irrigation. In this sense, potential methods for diagnosis have been developed, such as microbiological and molecular methods, which are used for the rapid detection of Samonella and E. coli in minimally processed vegetables. Further studies are needed to determine a threshold dose of pathogens in the water and to correlate the risk that tends to cause pollution of a crop and the specified edible parts of the vegetables marketed in the interior and outside of Mexico.

  5. Drought impacts on vegetation activity, growth and primary production in humid and arid ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Serrano, Sergio Martín; Gouveia, Célia; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Begueria, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Azorín Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán Tejeda, Enrique; Sánchez Lorenzo, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Ponencia presentada en: VIII Congreso de la Asociación Española de Climatología celebrado en Salamanca entre el 25 y el 28 de septiembre de 2012. [EN]We have evaluated the response of the Earth biomes to drought using a new global dataset that captures drought effects on vegetation at various time scales. We show that arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and that the time scale on which droughts most intensively affects vegetation plays a key role in determining the...

  6. Means-end chains for low involvement products: A study of Danish consumers' cognitions regarding different applications of vegetable oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Grunert, Klaus G.

    value maps', which are normally used for analysing laddering data, have been criticised for being questionable representations of raw data. 3. This paper reports on a study in which laddering was used to measure means-end chains for a low involvement product (vegetable oil), explicitly controlling...... for the situation. Also, a possible way of linking means-ends data to overall product perceptions and alternat the 'hierarchical value map' analysis are presented. 4. The study presented is part of the Danish research project Rape seed oil for human consumption. Although modern Danish rape seed oil has nutritional...

  7. Characterization of biomass burning: Fourier transform infrared analysis of wood and vegetation combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Diomaris

    The Fourier transform infrared examination of the combustion products of a selection of forest materials has been undertaken in order to guide future detection of biomass burning using satellite remote sensing. Combustion of conifer Pinus strobus (white pine) and deciduous Prunus serotina (cherry), Acer rubrum (red maple), Friglans nigra (walnut), Fraxinus americana (ash), Betula papyrifera (birch), Querus alba (white oak) and Querus rubra (red oak) lumber, in a Meeker burner flame at temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produces a broad and relatively flat signal with a few distinct peaks throughout the wavelength spectra (400 to 4000 cm-1). The distinct bands located near wavelengths of 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 vary in intensity with an average difference between the highest and lowest absorbing species of 47 percent. Spectral band differences of 10 percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, and support the argument that band differences can be used to discriminate between various types of vegetation. A similar examination of soot and smoke derived from the leaves and branches of the conifer Pinus strobus and deciduous Querus alba (white oak), Querus rubra (red oak), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Acer rubrum (maple) and Tilea americana (American basswood) at combustion temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produce a similar broad spectrum with a shift in peak location occurring in peaks below the 1700 cm-1 wavelength. The new peaks occur near wavelengths of 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. This noted shift in wavelength location may be indicative of a fingerprint region for green woods distinguishable from lumber through characteristic biomass suites. Temperature variations during burning show that the spectra of low temperature smoldered aerosols, occurring near 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, may be distinguished from higher temperature soot aerosols that occur above 600 degrees Fahrenheit. A

  8. Historical and current forest landscapes in eastern Oregon and Washington Part II: Linking vegetation characteristics to potential fire behavior and related smoke production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Huff; Roger D. Ottmar; Ernesto Alvarado; Robert E. Vihnanek; John F. Lehmkuhl; Paul F. Hessburg; Richard L. Everett

    1995-01-01

    We compared the potential fire behavior and smoke production of historical and current time periods based on vegetative conditions in forty-nine 5100- to 13 5OO-hectare watersheds in six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation composition, structure, and patterns were attributed and mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959 (historical)...

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; de Cássia de Souza Schneider, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

  10. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and multivariate analysis for identification of different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; Schneider, Rosana de Cássia de Souza

    2013-03-28

    The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources--canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans--were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cássia de Souza Schneider

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR. For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, interval principal component analysis (iPCA and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.

  12. Effect of cement production on vegetation in a part of southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of cement dust emissions from the factory of West African Portland Cement at Ewekoro in Southwestern Nigeria on the surrounding vegetation was investigated. Sample plots of 20 m x 20 m were established at 1 km intervals from the factory site up to a distance of 10 km intervals from the factory site up to a ...

  13. Hydroponic production of Chinese water chestnut corms for potential use as a functional vegetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut is used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many or healthy corms when grown in plastic pots containing flooded sand in Griffin, GA. This study was conducted to use a drip irriga...

  14. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  15. Estimating farmers’ productive and marketing inefficiency: an application to vegetable producers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the technical and marketing inefficiency of a sample of urban vegetable producers in Benin. Marketing inefficiency is defined as the failure of farmers to achieve better marketing output and is reflected in lower output price indices. The study proposes a Russell-type measure of

  16. Vegetable and animal products as determinants of colon cancer risk in Dutch men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.; Verhoeven, D.; Sloots, L.; Veer, P. van 't

    1995-01-01

    To examine the relationship between colon cancer and food groups from vegetable or animal sources and their possible interactions with gender, we analyzed data from a Dutch case-control study. Dietary patterns were assessed for 232 colon cancer cases and 259 population controls. In multivariate

  17. BIOFERTILISERS - EFFICIENCY ON THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TOMATOES CULTIVATED UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of biofertilisers on the vegetative growth, yield and productivity of tomatoes cultivated under the conditions of organic farming. The research was carried out in the polyethylene greenhouse and experimental field of the Agroecological centre at the Agricultural University- Plovdiv (Bulgaria, in the period from 2013 until 2014 with on determinant tomatoes (solanum lycopersicum l., of the variety of “Trapezitsa”. The standard yield had its highest value upon the application of biofertiliser Emosan on the basic fertilization Boneprot- 3140 kg/da (2013 and 3116 kg/da (2014, thus determining the positive impact of the tested combination of biofertilisers. The combined application of biofertilisers in the form of basic fertilisation and additional vegetation feeding had a positive impact on the formation of the standard yield, the number and the mass of fruits.

  18. Advantages of using satellite soil moisture estimates over precipitation products to assess regional vegetation water availability and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiexi

    2017-04-01

    To improve the understanding of water-vegetation relationships, direct comparative studies assessing the utility of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture, gridded precipitation products, and land surface model output are needed. A case study was investigated for a water-limited, lateral inflow receiving area in northeastern Australia during December 2008 to May 2009. In January 2009, monthly precipitation showed strong positive anomalies, which led to strong positive soil moisture anomalies. The precipitation anomalies disappeared within a month. In contrast, the soil moisture anomalies persisted for months. Positive anomalies of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) appeared in February, in response to water supply, and then persisted for several months. In addition to these temporal characteristics, the spatial patterns of NDVI anomalies were more similar to soil moisture patterns than to those of precipitation and land surface model output. The long memory of soil moisture mainly relates to the presence of clay-rich soils. Modeled soil moisture from four of five global land surface models failed to capture the memory length of soil moisture and all five models failed to present the influence of lateral inflow. This case study indicates that satellite-based soil moisture is a better predictor of vegetation water availability than precipitation in environments having a memory of several months and thus is able to persistently affect vegetation dynamics. These results illustrate the usefulness of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture in ecohydrology studies. This case study has the potential to be used as a benchmark for global land surface model evaluations. The advantages of using satellite remotely sensed soil moisture over gridded precipitation products are mainly expected in lateral-inflow and/or clay-rich regions worldwide.

  19. Vegetable peptones increase production of type I collagen in human fibroblasts by inducing the RSK-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β phosphorylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunsun; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Deokhoon; Kim, Min Hee; Park, Beomseok; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Jongsung

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging appears to be principally attributed to a decrease in type I collagen level and the regeneration ability of dermal fibroblasts. We hypothesized that vegetable peptones promote cell proliferation and production of type I collagen in human dermal fibroblasts. Therefore, we investigated the effects of vegetable peptones on cell proliferation and type I collagen production and their possible mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Vegetable peptones significantly promoted cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the human luciferase type I collagen α2 promoter and type I procollagen synthesis assays showed that the vegetable peptones induced type I procollagen production by activating the type I collagen α2 promoter. Moreover, the vegetable peptones activated p90 ribosomal s6 kinase, which was mediated by activating the Raf-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, the vegetable peptone-induced increase in cell proliferation and type I collagen production decreased upon treatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and enhanced production of type I collagen by vegetable peptones occur primarily by inducing the p90 ribosomal s6 kinase-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β phosphorylation pathway, which is mediated by activating Raf-ERK signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The new Caribbean Nitrogen Index to assess nitrogen dynamics in vegetable production systems in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Oliveras-Berrocales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient loss from agricultural fields is one of the main factors influencing surface- and ground-water quality. Typical fertilizer nitrogen (N consumption rates in vegetable production systems and horticultural crops in Puerto Rico fluctuate between 112 and 253 kg N/ha. The nitrogen use efficiency of vegetable crops is low, increasing the potential for nitrogen losses and high residual soil nitrate content. Quantification of residual soil N and N losses to the environment can be a difficult task. Simulation models such as the USDA-ARS N Index can be used to identify the relative magnitude of varying N-loss pathways and to identify best management practices. Field studies were conducted to quantify residual soil N and crop N removal, and to validate the Nitrogen Index in onion, tropical pumpkin and tomato production systems in the Lajas Valley in southwestern Puerto Rico. Relationships between observed and simulated values were determined to examine the capability of the model for evaluating N losses. There was good correlation between observed and predicted values for residual soil N (r =0.88 and crop N removal (r =0.99 (p<0.05. In the production systems evaluated, the N volatilization losses ranged from 1 to 4 kg N/ha, the denitrification losses ranged from 18 to 46 kg N/ha, the leaching losses ranged from 155 to 779 kg N/ha, and the residual soil nitrate ranged from 64 to 401 kg N/ha. The N use efficiency ranged from 15% to 39%. The results obtained showed that the Nitrogen Index tool can be a useful tool for evaluating N transformations in vegetable production systems of Puerto Rico's semi-arid zone.

  1. Integrated rotation systems for soilborne disease, weed and fertility management in strawberry/vegetable production

    OpenAIRE

    Zavatta, M; Shennan, C; Muramoto, J; Baird, G; Bolda, MP; Koike, ST; Klonsky, K

    2014-01-01

    Organic strawberry/vegetable producers in coastal California face soilborne disease, nutrient, and weed management challenges. In conventional systems, stringent regulations and air quality concerns make the sustainability of fumigantdependent systems uncertain. To evaluate efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), mustard cake (MC) application and broccoli residue incorporation, we initiated trials at an organic farm (Org) and a conventional farm (Conv) with crop rotation (broccoli (B...

  2. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  3. Highly effective ionic liquids for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Yassin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As conventional energy sources deplete, the need for developing alternative energy resources which are environment friendly becomes more imperative. Vegetable oils are attracting increased interest in this purpose. The methanolysis of vegetable oil to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e., biodiesel fuel was catalyzed by commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The imidazolium chloride ionic liquid was frequently chosen for the synthesis of biodiesel. The dual-functionalized’ ionic liquid is prepared by a direct combination reaction between imidazolium cation and various metal chlorides such as CoCl2, CuCl2, NiCl2, FeCl3 and AlCl3. Imidazolium tetrachloroferrate was proved to be a selective catalyst for the methanolysis reaction at a yield of 97% when used at 1:10, catalyst: oil ratio for 8 h at 55 °C. Operational simplicity, reusability of the used catalyst for 8 times at least, high yields and no saponification are the key features of this methodology. The dynamic viscosity and density of the upgraded vegetable oil decreased from 32.1 cP and 0.9227 g/cm3 to 10.2 cP and 0.9044 g/cm3 respectively, compared to those of the base vegetable oil. The objective of this study was the synthesis and characterization of biodiesel using commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The ionic liquid catalysts were characterized using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TG and UV.

  4. Utilization of vegetable dumplings waste from industrial production by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarska, Agnieszka A.; Pilarski, Krzysztof; Ryniecki, Antoni; Tomaszyk, Kamila; Dach, Jacek; Wolna-Maruwka, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides the analysis of results of biogas and methane yield for vegetable dumplings waste: dough with fat, vegetable waste, and sludge from the clarifier. Anaerobic digestion of food waste used in the experiments was stable after combining the substrates with a digested pulp composed of maize silage and liquid manure (as inoculum), at suitable ratios. The study was carried out in a laboratory scale using anaerobic batch reactors, at controlled (mesophilic) temperature and pH conditions. The authors present the chemical reactions accompanying biodegradation of the substrates and indicate the chemical compounds which may lead to acidification during the anaerobic digestion. An anaerobic digestion process carried out with the use of a dough-and-fat mixture provided the highest biogas and methane yields. The following yields were obtained in terms of fresh matter: 242.89 m3 Mg-1 for methane and 384.38 m3 Mg-1 for biogas, and in terms of volatile solids: 450.73 m3 Mg-1 for methane and 742.40 m3 Mg-1 for biogas. Vegetables and sludge from the clarifier (as fresh matter) provided much lower yields.

  5. Effect of the partial replacement of fish meal and oil by vegetable products on performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A four-month growth trial was carried out in order to evaluate performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum fedwith two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having different amounts of vegetable products (Vegetable diet vs. Controldiet. Compared to the Control diet, the Vegetable diet was formulated by increasing the replacement of fish meal (14%with soybean and cereal products, and fish oil (12% with a mixture of vegetable oil. On June, 4 groups of 225 fish (2replicates per dietary treatment were sorted according to live weight and reared in fibreglass tanks over a four- monthlong experimental period. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiety. Offered feed, growth parameters and feed efficiencywere recorded as productive performance. At the end of the trial (October biometric, chemical and reological traits wereexamined to assess fish quality. The dietary treatments showed similar productive performance. The relatively high inclusionof vegetable sources led to a significant modification of body shape, mesenteric fat and viscera weight. Among qualitytraits, Vegetable diet-fed fish demonstrated a significantly lower whole body and fillet crude protein content.Yellowness value of the cooked fillet was significantly lower in the Control diet-fed fish, whereas fillet texture was similar.The results of this research showed that shi drum is a suitable candidate for Mediterranean marine aquaculture andits dietary formulation might include at least the amount of vegetable sources used in this trial.

  6. INFLUENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF VEGETABLES PRODUCTS AND THEIR PRESERVATION LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilevici Constantin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research paper aims to highlight the scientific correlation between the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV onsensory and microbiological characteristics of plant products in the category of leaves (lettuce and other types ofvegetables or fruit (bananas and their preservation’s duration, through their UV irradiation under certain conditions.The literature indicates a germicidal action of UV (medium UV on micro-organisms, optimal for λ = 254 nm. Theeffectiveness of radiation is influenced by duration of irradiation, the distance between the radiation source and thesample product and radiant power source.The action of microbial cell inactivation or destruction can be explained by changes in cellular structure andpermeability with changes at the level of mitochondria and the genetic material as a result of photochemical effects ofUV products. Research highlights the preservative effect of UV radiation (with λ = 254 nm and also their influence onsensory properties and positive to negative for leafy vegetables and fruits (bananas in our case.

  7. Fruit and vegetable by-products as novel ingredients to improve the nutritional quality of baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Manuel; Martinez, Mario M

    2017-03-31

    The industrial manufacturing of fruits and vegetables generates approximately 50% by-product waste, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. Nevertheless, fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) are rich nutrients and extranutritional compounds that contribute to bowel health, weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels and improved control of glycemic and insulin responses. Due to the positive influence of FVB fibers and bioactive compounds during the digestion of glycemic carbohydrates, such as starch, baked goods are ideal food systems to accommodate FVB, since most of them have a high glycemic index. Therefore, this is an area of recent interest with critical environmental, economic and health implications worldwide. However, the utilization of FVB in baked goods leads to the loss of acceptability, in many cases caused by a lack of understanding of the physical structure and composition of FVB and their effects on food quality. The objective of this review is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the impact of the physical structure and composition of FVB on common baked goods and their influence on the nutritional and physical quality of the resulting product. This review will support the use of FVB as ideal ingredients while improving the added value of waste streams.

  8. Quality determination of vegetable oils used as an addition to fermented meat products with different starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šulcerová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were developed samples of fermented meat products of „Mettwurst" with an addition of a starter culture pentosacceus AS-3/100 or probiotic culture Lactobacillus casei Lc-01 and its combinations for this thesis. A part of animal fat was replaced with vegetable oils - sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. For comparison, there was also used a sample without an addition of vegetable oil. There were determined the characteristics of fats in samples: saponification value, acidity value, esteric, iodine and peroxide value. The samples were determined on the day of production and always once a week in a period of three following weeks. Every single sample was hereby determined 3 times. According to the results, it is more advantageous to use the samples with sunflower oil with an addition of specific cultures Lactobacillus casei Lc-01 and Pediococcus pentosaceus AS-3/100. The saponification value when adding sunflower oil detects that the quality of fat remains stable till the 14th day of storage (p <0.05. The comparison of acid value detects that a sample with sunflower oil and culture Pediococcus pentosaceus AS-3/100 is more advantageous due to fast acidification in the first half of storage period. Good results of iodine and peroxide value had the variation of a sample with sunflower oil and a combination of both cultures. The variation of peroxide value maintained the lowest values. By using the samples with sunflower oil and unispecific cultures L. casei Lc-01 and P. pentosaceus AS-3/100, the culture P. pentosaceus AS-3/100, which remained stable till the 14th day of production, reached the best values of peroxide value. The sunflower oil is in spite of high content of PUFA more stable to which also contributes the increased content of vitamin E that works as an antioxidant here. The disadvantage of rapeseed oil is its higher susceptibility to oxidation. For reasons of faster decomposition of vegetable oils would be essential to cut down on the

  9. Productive and economic efficiency of carrot intercropped with cowpea-vegetable resulting from green manure and different spatial arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sarmento Favacho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the agro-economic efficiency of intercropping carrot with cowpea-vegetable in relation to the amounts of biomass of Calotropis procera (Ait. R.Br. (known locally as flor-de-seda incorporated into the soil, and to different spatial arrangements. The study was carried out under field conditions from August to November of 2014, at the Experimental Farm 'Rafael Fernandes' of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-Arid (RFUSA, in Mossoró, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomised complete blocks in a 4 x 3 factorial, consisting of a combination of four different amounts of flor-de-seda biomass incorporated into the soil (20, 35, 50 and 65 t ha-1 of dry matter and three spatial arrangements for the crop rows (2 x 2, 3 x 3 and 4 x 4. The carrot and cowpea cultivars used were ꞌBrasíliaꞌ and ꞌBRS Itaimꞌ. The characteristics under evaluation in the carrot were total, commercial and classified root production (scrap, short, medium and long. For the cowpea-vegetable, the following were evaluated: number, productivity and dry matter weight of green pods, number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and yield of green grains. The agro-economic efficiency indices evaluated in the intercropping were: land equivalent ratio for the system and partial land equivalent ratios for the crops, monetary advantage and modified monetary advantage. The greatest agro-economic efficiency with the intercrop system was recorded in the biomass amount of 30 t ha-1 flor-de-seda. The 2 x 2 spatial arrangement resulted in greater system efficiency. The use of flor-de-seda as green manure is economically viable for the farmer when intercrop carrot with cowpea-vegetable.

  10. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

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    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  11. Wastewater Reuse: An Economic Perspective to Identify Suitable Areas for Poplar Vegetation Filter Systems for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest towards climate change, water and energy saving, and soil protection has led the research community to consider non-conventional water as a sustainable source for irrigation of energy crops. Vegetation filter systems are considered a reliable technique for sustainable biomass cultivation, enabling the use of reclaimed wastewater as water and nutrients sources during irrigation periods. In this study, a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial model was developed to identify areas potentially suitable for creating vegetation filter systems with poplars to size the plants of energy production. An economic assessment allowed us to identify the cost-effectiveness areas for biomass production that can be fertigated by reclaimed wastewater. Considering the Basilicata region as the test region, a surface area of 258,512 ha was investigated, identifying 73,331 ha of SRF soils sited downstream of 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, considering only areas that have positive net present value and are economically attractive, results indicate 1606 ha of SRF falling within the areas of influence of 39 WWTPs. The results show that the sector of dedicated crops, adjacent and linked with WWTPs, expresses a total capacity of 50.56 MW for thermal, 8.25 MW for electricity, and 31 MW for cogeneration (25.07 MWt and 5.94 MWe plants.

  12. Evaluation of used vegetable oil for biogas production in Spain; Evaluacion del potencial de aceite vegetal usado para la obtencion de biogasoleo en la Comunidad de Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, G.; Tinaut, F. V.; Saez, A. R.; Vegas, L.; Briceno, Y. [Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This work studies the potential of the residual vegetal oil that is generated in the Community of Castilla and Leon, evaluating the one that could be destined for the production of biogas. Also, it sets out a management model that will allow to establish a suitable collection and processing of this oil. (Author) 10 refs.

  13. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  14. Development and validation of extensive growth and growth boundary models for psychrotolerant pseudomonads in seafood, meat and vegetable products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    literature data. Performance of the new expanded model was equally good for seafood and meat products, and importance of including the effect of acetic, benzoic, citric acids and CO2 in order to accurately predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads was clearly demonstrated e.g. for brined shrimps......., Int. J. Food Microbiol.216. 110-120, 2016). MIC-values for acetic-, benzoic- and citric acids were determined in broth and terms modelling their antimicrobial effect were added to the model. Cardinal parameter values for CO2 and aw were obtained from literature.The new model included 9 environmental......Extensive growth and growth boundary models were developed and validated for psychrotolerant pseudomonads growing in seafood, meat and vegetable products. The new models were developed by expanding anexisting cardinal parameter-type model for growth of pseudomonads in milk (Martinez-Rios et al...

  15. Productivity and phenological responses of natural vegetation to present and future inter-annual climate variability across semi-arid river basins in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Francisco E; Miranda, Marcelo D; Meza, Francisco J; van Leeuwen, Willem J D

    2016-12-01

    Time series of vegetation indices and remotely sensed phenological data offer insights about the patterns in vegetation dynamics. Both are useful sources of information for analyzing and monitoring ecosystem responses to environmental variations caused by natural and anthropogenic drivers. In the semi-arid region of Chile, climate variability and recent severe droughts in addition to land-use changes pose threats to the stability of local ecosystems. Normalized difference vegetation index time series (2000-2013) data from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was processed to monitor the trends and patterns of vegetation productivity and phenology observed over the last decade. An analysis of the relationship between (i) vegetation productivity and (ii) precipitation and temperature data for representative natural land-use cover classes was made. Using these data and ground measurements, productivity estimates were projected for two climate change scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5) at two altitudinal levels. Results showed negative trends of vegetation productivity below 2000 m a.s.l. and positive trends for higher elevations. Phenology analysis suggested that mountainous ecosystems were starting their growing period earlier in the season, coinciding with a decreased productivity peak during the growing season. The coastal shrubland/grassland land cover class had a significant positive relation with rainfall and a significant negative relation with temperature, suggesting that these ecosystems are vulnerable to climate change. Future productivity projections indicate that under an RCP8.5 climate change scenario, productivity could decline by 12% in the period of 2060-2100, leading to a severe vegetation degradation at lower altitudes and in drier areas.

  16. Environmental and agricultural benefits of a management system designed for sandy loam soils of the humid tropics Benefícios ambientais e agronômicos de um agrossistema definido para solos de textura franco arenosa do trópico úmido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana das Chagas Ferreira Aguiar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility on family farms in the humid tropics is a great challenge and overcoming it would be an enormous benefit for the environment and the farmers. The objective of this study was to assess the environmental and agronomic benefits of alley cropping, based on the evaluation of C sequestration, soil quality indicators, and corn yields. Combinations of four legumes were used in alley cropping systems in the following treatments: Clitoria fairchildiana + Cajanus cajan; Acacia mangium + Cajanus cajan; Leucaena leucocephala + Cajanus cajan; Clitoria fairchildiana + Leucaena leucocephala; Leucaena leucocephala + Acacia mangium and a control. Corn was used as a cash crop. The C content was determined in the different compartments of soil organic matter, CEC, available P, base saturation, percentage of water saturation, the period of the root hospitality factor below the critical level and corn yield. It was concluded that alley cropping could substitute the slash and burn system in the humid tropics. The main environmental benefit of alley cropping is the maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium between C input and output that could sustain up to 10 Mg ha-1 of C in the litter layer, decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Alley cropping is also beneficial from the agricultural point of view, because it increases base saturation and decreases physical resistance to root penetration in the soil layer 0 - 10 cm, which ensures the increase and sustainability of corn yield.O manejo sustentável dos solos de baixa fertilidade natural na agricultura familiar do trópico tem sido um grande desafio, que, se vencido, resultará em vantagens para o ambiente e para os agricultores. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os benefícios ambiental e agronômico de um cultivo em aleias, por meio da determinação do C sequestrado, dos indicadores da qualidade do solo e da produtividade da cultura do milho

  17. Study of the oxidative stability of oils vegetables for production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio R Melo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is technological and estrategical Brazilian oportunity once this country has abundant vegetable species which oils are extracted to produce this biofuel. Oleaginous viability depends on its technical, economical and social-environmental competitiviness. Fatty acid variety determines its thermal and oxidative stability, mainly polyunsaturated ones. In this point of view, this papers aims evaluate oxidative stability and resistence to thermal decomposition of pequi, buriti and macauba oils. These fatty acids profiles are in agreement with literature data. Comparing thermal and oxidative stability of these oils, it can be seen pequi oil is more easily to oxidate than buriti and macauba oils when PetroOXY and Rancimat methods are employed.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FUNCTIONAL CHEESE PRODUCT USING NON-TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Ostrikov; L. I. Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    Summary. As a result of application of the developed technology for the production of cheeses with cheddaring received a high quality product, balanced food and biological value, high organoleptic indices. With biomedical positions obtained proteins are a unique drug: amino acid composition of the protein complex component, the content of essential amino acids almost corresponds to ideal protein, easily digested in the body. Cheese production this group does not require expensive facilities a...

  19. Vegetable production facility as a part of a closed life support system in a Russian Martian space flight scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Smolyanina, S. O.; Krivobok, N. M.; Erokhin, A. N.; Agureev, A. N.; Shanturin, N. A.

    2009-07-01

    A Manned Mars Mission scenario had been developed in frame of the Project 1172 supported International Science & Technology Center in Moscow. The Mars transit vehicle (MTV) supposed to have a crew of 4-6 with Pilot Laboratory compartment volume of 185 m 3 and with inner diameter of 4.1 m. A vegetable production facility with power consumption up to 10 kW is being considered as a component of the life support system to supply crew members by fresh vegetables during the mission. Proposed design of conveyor-type plant growth facility (PGF) comprised of 4-modules. Each module has a cylindrical planting surface and spiral cylindrical LED assembly to provide a high specific productivity relative to utilized onboard resources. Each module has a growth chamber that will be from 0.7 m to 1.5 m in length, and a crop illuminated area from 1.7 m 2 to 4.0 m 2. Leafy crops (cabbage, lettuce, spinach, chard, etc.) have been selected for module 1, primarily because of the highest specific productivity per consumed resources. Dietitians have recommended also carrot crop for module 2, pepper for module 3 and tomato for module 4. The maximal total PGF light energy estimated as 1.16 kW and total power consumption as about 7 kW. The module 1 characteristics have been calculated using own experimental data, information from the best on ground plant growth experiments with artificial light were used to predict crop productivity and biomass composition in the another modules. 4-module PGF could produce nearly 0.32 kg per crew member per day of fresh edible biomass, which would be about 50% of recommended daily vegetable supplement. An average crop harvest index is estimated as 0.75. The MTV food system could be entirely closed in terms of vitamins C and A with help of the PGF. In addition the system could provide 10-25% of essential minerals and vitamins of group B, and about 20% of food fibers. The present state of plant growth technology allows formulating of requirements specification

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FUNCTIONAL CHEESE PRODUCT USING NON-TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. As a result of application of the developed technology for the production of cheeses with cheddaring received a high quality product, balanced food and biological value, high organoleptic indices. With biomedical positions obtained proteins are a unique drug: amino acid composition of the protein complex component, the content of essential amino acids almost corresponds to ideal protein, easily digested in the body. Cheese production this group does not require expensive facilities and reduces the flow of milk. The product is characterized by high protein content, stable functional and technological properties, versatility, affordability. The choice of complex enzyme preparation in the production of cheese products was due to the presence in the mixture of prescription extract lentils. When working with this drug mixture normalized hydrolyzed twice as fast, it does not lead to the formation of bitterness. The obtained experimental data testify that cheese products enriched products processed products lentil have a high nutritional and biological value and can be recommended for functional food of the population of all age groups. Based on the described concept, the obvious need for further research and development works on priority directions of complex issues of healthy nutrition of the population and reduces the flow of milk.

  1. Managing Understory Vegetation for Maintaining Productivity in Black Spruce Forests: A Synthesis within a Multi-Scale Research Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Joanisse

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of boreal ecosystems involves the establishment of vigorous tree regeneration after harvest. However, two groups of understory plants influence regeneration success in eastern boreal Canada. Ericaceous shrubs are recognized to rapidly dominate susceptible boreal sites after harvest. Such dominance reduces recruitment and causes stagnant conifer growth, lasting decades on some sites. Additionally, peat accumulation due to Sphagnum growth after harvest forces the roots of regenerating conifers out of the relatively nutrient rich and warm mineral soil into the relatively nutrient poor and cool organic layer, with drastic effects on growth. Shifts from once productive black spruce forests to ericaceous heaths or paludified forests affect forest productivity and biodiversity. Under natural disturbance dynamics, fires severe enough to substantially reduce the organic layer thickness and affect ground cover species are required to establish a productive regeneration layer on such sites. We succinctly review how understory vegetation influences black spruce ecosystem dynamics in eastern boreal Canada, and present a multi-scale research model to understand, limit the loss and restore productive and diverse ecosystems in this region. Our model integrates knowledge of plant-level mechanisms in the development of silvicultural tools to sustain productivity. Fundamental knowledge is integrated at stand, landscape, regional and provincial levels to understand the distribution and dynamics of ericaceous shrubs and paludification processes and to support tactical and strategic forest management. The model can be adapted and applied to other natural resource management problems, in other biomes.

  2. Development of a Dynamic Web Mapping Service for Vegetation Productivity Using Earth Observation and in situ Sensors in a Sensor Web Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Bergsma, Aldo; Chuma, Beatus; de Bruin, Sytze

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS). A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the Netherlands with a spatial resolution of 250 m. Daily available MODIS surface reflectance products and meteorological parameters obtained through a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) were used as input for a vegetation productivity model. This paper presents the vegetation productivity model, the sensor data sources and the implementation of the automated processing facility. Finally, an evaluation is made of the opportunities and limitations of sensor web based approaches for the development of web services which combine both satellite and in situ sensor sources.

  3. Vegetative biomass predicts inflorescence production along a CO2 concentration gradient in mesic grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely exceed 500 uL L-1 by 2050, often increasing plant community productivity in part by increasing abundance of species favored by increased CA. Whether increased abundance translates to increased inflorescence production is poorly understood, and is important ...

  4. Effect of vegetation type on treatment performance and bioelectric production of constructed wetland modules combined with microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC) treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz, Çağdaş; Türe, Cengiz; Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl

    2018-01-11

    An operation of microcosm-constructed wetland modules combined with microbial fuel cell device (CW-MFC) was assessed for wastewater treatment and bioelectric generation. One of the crucial aims of the present experiment is also to determine effect of vegetation on wastewater treatment process and bioelectric production in wetland matrix with microbial fuel cell. Accordingly, CW-MFC modules with vegetation had higher treatment efficiency compared to unplanted wetland module, and average COD, NH4+, and TP removal efficiency in vegetated wetland modules were ranged from 85 to 88%, 95 to 97%, and 95 to 97%, respectively. However, the highest NO3- removal (63%) was achieved by unplanted control module during the experiment period. The maximum average output voltage, power density, and Coulombic efficiency were obtained in wetland module vegetated with Typha angustifolia for 1.01 ± 0.14 V, 7.47 ± 13.7 mWatt/m2, and 8.28 ± 10.4%, respectively. The results suggest that the presence of Typha angustifolia vegetation in the CW-MFC matrix provides the benefits for treatment efficiency and bioelectric production; thus, it increases microbial activities which are responsible for biodegradation of organic compounds and catalyzed to electron flow from anode to cathode. Consequently, we suggest that engineers can use vegetated wetland matrix with Typha angustifolia in CW-MFC module in order to maximize treatment efficiency and bioelectric production.

  5. Association between nutrition and the evolution of multimorbidity: the importance of fruits and vegetables and whole grain products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Guillaume; Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Zuo, Hui; Kröger, Edeltraut; Sirois, Caroline; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Taylor, Anne W

    2014-06-01

    Multimorbidity is a common health status. The impact of nutrition on the development of multimorbidity remains to be determined. The aim of this study is to determine the association between foods, macronutrients and micronutrients and the evolution of multimorbidity. Data from 1020 Chinese who participated in the Jiangsu longitudinal Nutrition Study (JIN) were collected in 2002 (baseline) and 2007 (follow-up). Three-day weighted food records and status for 11 chronic diseases was determined using biomedical measures (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and anemia) or self-reports (coronary heart disease, asthma, stroke, cancer, fracture, arthritis and hepatitis). Participants were divided in six categories of stage of evolution of multimorbidity. Association of foods, macronutrients and micronutrients at baseline with stages in the evolution of multimorbidity were determined. Data were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, marital status, sedentary lifestyle, smoking status, annual income, education and energy intake. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 14% to 34%. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables (p < 0.05) and grain products other than rice and wheat (p < 0.001) were associated with healthier stages in the evolution of multimorbidity. The consumption of grain products other than rice and wheat was highly correlated with dietary fibers (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001), iron (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001), magnesium (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001) and phosphorus (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) intake which were also associated with healthier stages. This study provides the first evidence of an association between nutrition and evolution towards multimorbidity. More precisely, greater consumption of fruits and vegetable and whole grain products consumption appear to lower the risk of multimorbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Vegetation Responses to Future Climates: Global Variability in Water Use Efficiency and Primary Productivity in a CMIP5 Multimodel Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Zhang, Q.; Middleton, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate projections for the 21st century predict substantial changes in temperature and in the quantity and spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation for large regions on the planet. Reductions in water availability resulting from decreased precipitation and increased water demand by the atmosphere can negatively affect plant metabolism, reduce carbon uptake, and limit services of entire ecosystems. Future increases in temperature and in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations may help offset some of these impacts on vegetation. In particular, plants may adjust their water use efficiency (WUE, plant production per water loss by evapotranspiration) in response to changing environmental conditions. We assessed an ensemble of thirteen models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and analyzed future changes in climate variables, carbon mass in vegetation, vegetation primary productivity and WUE. The analysis considered two representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the period 2006-2099 and compared projections to historical values (1850-2005). Results include differences between historical and projected conditions for global, regional and latitudinal distributions of model outputs, for both RCPs. We observed significant intermodel variability when representing changes in WUE over the century, including high model sensitivity to different greenhouse concentration scenarios. Model agreement varied with RCP (higher agreement for RCP4.5), as well as regionally (higher agreement in Southeast Asia, lower agreement in arid areas, including the Sahara and Western Australia). The majority of models point to an increase in GPP and WUE for most of the planet under both concentration pathways, with changes ranging from zero to 100% of their historical values. These increases were observed to be consistently higher for RCP8.5. In addition, higher increases in GPP and WUE are predicted to occur over higher latitudes in the northern

  7. Global validation of a process-based model on vegetation gross primary production using eddy covariance observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Cai, Wenwen; Xia, Jiangzhou; Dong, Wenjie; Zhou, Guangsheng; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Haicheng; Yuan, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Gross Primary Production (GPP) is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. However, large uncertainties in current global estimations persist. In this study, we examined the performance of a process-based model (Integrated BIosphere Simulator, IBIS) at 62 eddy covariance sites around the world. Our results indicated that the IBIS model explained 60% of the observed variation in daily GPP at all validation sites. Comparison with a satellite-based vegetation model (Eddy Covariance-Light Use Efficiency, EC-LUE) revealed that the IBIS simulations yielded comparable GPP results as the EC-LUE model. Global mean GPP estimated by the IBIS model was 107.50±1.37 Pg C year(-1) (mean value ± standard deviation) across the vegetated area for the period 2000-2006, consistent with the results of the EC-LUE model (109.39±1.48 Pg C year(-1)). To evaluate the uncertainty introduced by the parameter Vcmax, which represents the maximum photosynthetic capacity, we inversed Vcmax using Markov Chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedures. Using the inversed Vcmax values, the simulated global GPP increased by 16.5 Pg C year(-1), indicating that IBIS model is sensitive to Vcmax, and large uncertainty exists in model parameterization.

  8. Global validation of a process-based model on vegetation gross primary production using eddy covariance observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    Full Text Available Gross Primary Production (GPP is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. However, large uncertainties in current global estimations persist. In this study, we examined the performance of a process-based model (Integrated BIosphere Simulator, IBIS at 62 eddy covariance sites around the world. Our results indicated that the IBIS model explained 60% of the observed variation in daily GPP at all validation sites. Comparison with a satellite-based vegetation model (Eddy Covariance-Light Use Efficiency, EC-LUE revealed that the IBIS simulations yielded comparable GPP results as the EC-LUE model. Global mean GPP estimated by the IBIS model was 107.50±1.37 Pg C year(-1 (mean value ± standard deviation across the vegetated area for the period 2000-2006, consistent with the results of the EC-LUE model (109.39±1.48 Pg C year(-1. To evaluate the uncertainty introduced by the parameter Vcmax, which represents the maximum photosynthetic capacity, we inversed Vcmax using Markov Chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC procedures. Using the inversed Vcmax values, the simulated global GPP increased by 16.5 Pg C year(-1, indicating that IBIS model is sensitive to Vcmax, and large uncertainty exists in model parameterization.

  9. Soil Moisture and Vegetation Controls on Surface Energy Balance Using the Maximum Entropy Production Model of Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Parolari, A.; Huang, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to formulate and test plant water stress parameterizations for the recently proposed maximum entropy production (MEP) model of evapotranspiration (ET) over vegetated surfaces. . The MEP model of ET is a parsimonious alternative to existing land surface parameterizations of surface energy fluxes from net radiation, temperature, humidity, and a small number of parameters. The MEP model was previously tested for vegetated surfaces under well-watered and dry, dormant conditions, when the surface energy balance is relatively insensitive to plant physiological activity. Under water stressed conditions, however, the plant water stress response strongly affects the surface energy balance. This effect occurs through plant physiological adjustments that reduce ET to maintain leaf turgor pressure as soil moisture is depleted during drought. To improve MEP model of ET predictions under water stress conditions, the model was modified to incorporate this plant-mediated feedback between soil moisture and ET. We compare MEP model predictions to observations under a range of field conditions, including bare soil, grassland, and forest. The results indicate a water stress function that combines the soil water potential in the surface soil layer with the atmospheric humidity successfully reproduces observed ET decreases during drought. In addition to its utility as a modeling tool, the calibrated water stress functions also provide a means to infer ecosystem influence on the land surface state. Challenges associated with sampling model input data (i.e., net radiation, surface temperature, and surface humidity) are also discussed.

  10. Succinic acid production from fruit and vegetable wastes hydrolyzed by on-site enzyme mixtures through solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Wubliker; Zhang, Wenming; Xin, Fengxue; Dong, Weiliang; Zhang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a novel biorefinery concept of succinic acid (SA) production from fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) hydrolyzed by crude enzyme mixtures through solid state fermentation was designed. Enzyme complex solid mashes from various types of FVWs were on-site produced through solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. This solid was then added to FVW suspensions and undergo hydrolysis reaction to generate fermentable sugars and other essential nutrients for bacterial growth and product formation. The subsequent fungal hydrolysis produced 12.00g/L glucose and 13.83g/L fructose using 10% mass ratio (w/v) of FVW. Actinobacillus succinogenes used this FVW hydrolysate as the sole feedstock and produced 27.03g/L of succinic acid with high yield and productivity of 1.18gSA/g sugar and 1.28gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated that FVWs can be biotransformed to value added products which have considerable potential economics and environmental meaning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah; Ria Yuli Angliawati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk...

  12. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  13. VEGETATIVE RAW MATERIAL FOR RECEPTION OF THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND ENERGY SECURITY OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duca G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increase of energy security of Republic Moldova is examined due to use of own power resources. Application of a biodiesel engine, bioethanol in mixes with traditional kinds of fuel (diesel fuel and gasoline is possible without updating a design of existing engines of internal combustion and can be economic for agriculture and on transport. Results of experiments on definition износоустойчивости lubricants received of vegetative raw material of local manufacture are resulted. Use of bioethanol as the additive to gasoline will lower his{its} cost, will reduce consumption of gasoline to 15-20 % and will allow to reduce considerably harmful emissions in an atmosphere, ecological safety that will favorably be reflected on health of the population will be raised. Manufacture of lubricants with use рапсового oils also will allow to receive serious economic benefit.

  14. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP): I. Impact of MODIS Observation Footprint and Impact of Vegetation BRDF Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Tan, Bin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gross primary production (GPP) is essential for carbon cycle and climate change studies. Three AmeriFlux crop sites of maize and soybean were selected for this study. Two of the sites were irrigated and the other one was rainfed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the green band chlorophyll index (CIgreen), and the green band wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVIgreen) were computed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. We examined the impacts of the MODIS observation footprint and the vegetation bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) on crop daily GPP estimation with the four spectral vegetation indices (VIs - NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen and CIgreen) where GPP was predicted with two linear models, with and without offset: GPP = a × VI × PAR and GPP = a × VI × PAR + b. Model performance was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of variation (CV). The MODIS data were filtered into four categories and four experiments were conducted to assess the impacts. The first experiment included all observations. The second experiment only included observations with view zenith angle (VZA) = 35? to constrain growth of the footprint size,which achieved a better grid cell match with the agricultural fields. The third experiment included only forward scatter observations with VZA = 35?. The fourth experiment included only backscatter observations with VZA = 35?. Overall, the EVI yielded the most consistently strong relationships to daily GPP under all examined conditions. The model GPP = a × VI × PAR + b had better performance than the model GPP = a × VI × PAR, and the offset was significant for most cases. Better performance was obtained for the irrigated field than its counterpart rainfed field. Comparison of experiment 2 vs. experiment 1 was used to examine the observation

  15. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  16. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diglycerides from co-products of vegetable oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkam, Kamol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-products of vegetable oil refining such as a mixed deodorizer distillate resulting from the refining of various vegetable oils, a crude distillate resulting from the physical refining of coconut oil and commercial mixtures of distilled sunflower and coconut fatty acids were used as starting materials for the enzymatic preparation of diglycerides. Reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio for the formation of diglycerides by lipase-catalyzed esterification/transesterification were studied using the mixed deodorizer distillate and glycerol as starting materials. The best results were obtained with the immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 in vacuo at 60 °C leading to moderate proportions (~52% of diglycerides. The proportion of diglycerides increased when residual acylglycerides of the co-products of vegetable oil refining were hydrolyzed prior to esterification. Thus, the esterification of hydrolyzed co-products of vegetable oil refining with glycerol led to high formation (62-72% of diglycerides. Short-path vacuum distillation of the esterification products yielded distillation residues containing from 70% to 94% diglycerides. The proportions of fatty acids and monoglycerides in the distilled residues were quite low (Subproductos del refinado de los aceites vegetales tales como el destilado obtenido en el desodorizador al refinar distintos aceites vegetales, el destilado crudo resultante de la refinación física del aceite de coco, y mezclas comerciales de los ácidos grasos obtenidos en la destilación de aceites de girasol y coco fueron utilizados como materiales de partida para la preparación enzimática de diglicéridos. Se estudiaron las condiciones de reacción (temperatura, presión, relación molar para la formación de diglicéridos mediante esterificación/ transesterificación catalizada por lipasas usando la mezcla obtenida del desodorizador y glicerol como materiales de partida. Los mejores

  17. Biohydrogen production from hyperthermophilic anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes in seawater: Simplification of the culture medium of Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Rafika; Liebgott, Pierre Pol; Gannoun, Hana; Ben Gaida, Lamia; Miladi, Baligh; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib; Auria, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Biohydrogen production by the hyperthermophilic and halophilic bacterium T. maritima, using fruit and vegetable wastes as the carbon and energy sources was studied. Batch fermentation cultures showed that the use of a culture medium containing natural seawater and fruit and vegetable wastes can replace certain components (CaCl2, MgCl2, Balch's oligo-elements, yeast extract, KH2PO4 and K2HPO4) present in basal medium. However, a source of nitrogen and sulfur remained necessary for biohydrogen production. When fruit and vegetable waste collected from a wholesale market landfill was used, no decreases in total H2 production (139 mmol L-1) or H2 yield (3.46 mol mol-1) was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes of the CO2 and CH4 production potential of rewetted fens in the perspective of temporal vegetation shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, D.; Reuter, H.; Augustin, J.; Shatwell, T.; Barth, M.; Gelbrecht, J.; McInnes, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Rewetting of long-term drained fens often results in the formation of eutrophic shallow lakes with an average water depth of less than 1 m. This is accompanied by a fast vegetation shift from cultivated grasses via submerged hydrophytes to helophytes. As a result of rapid plant dying and decomposition, these systems are highly dynamic wetlands characterised by a high mobilisation of nutrients and elevated emissions of CO2 and CH4. However, the impact of specific plant species on these phenomena is not clear. Therefore we investigated the CO2 and CH4 production due to the subaqueous decomposition of shoot biomass of five selected plant species which represent different rewetting stages (Phalaris arundinacea, Ceratophyllum demersum, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis and Carex riparia) during a 154 day mesocosm study. Beside continuous gas flux measurements, we performed bulk chemical analysis of plant tissue, including carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and plant polymer dynamics. Plant-specific mass losses after 154 days ranged from 25% (P. australis) to 64% (C. demersum). Substantial differences were found for the CH4 production with highest values from decomposing C. demersum (0.4 g CH4 kg-1 dry mass day) that were about 70 times higher than CH4 production from C. riparia. Thus, we found a strong divergence between mass loss of the litter and methane production during decomposition. If C. demersum as a hydrophyte is included in the statistical analysis solely nutrient contents (nitrogen and phosphorus) explain varying greenhouse gas production of the different plant species while lignin and polyphenols demonstrate no significant impact at all. Taking data of annual biomass production as important carbon source for methanogens into account, high CH4 emissions can be expected to last several decades as long as inundated and nutrient-rich conditions prevail. Different restoration measures like water level control, biomass extraction and top soil removal are discussed

  19. Photosynthetically supplemental lighting for vegetable crop production with super-bright laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongguang; Li, Pingping; Shi, Jintong

    2007-02-01

    Although many artificial light sources like high-pressure sodium lamp, metal halide lamp, fluorescent lamp and so on are commonly used in horticulture, they are not widely applied because of the disadvantages of unreasonable spectra, high cost and complex control. Recently new light sources of light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) are becoming more and more popular in the field of display and illumination with the improvement of material and manufacturing, long life-span and increasingly low cost. A new type of super-bright red LD (BL650, central wavelength is 650 nm) was selected to make up of the supplemental lighting panel, on which LDs were distributed with regular hexagon array. Drive circuit was designed to power it and adjust light intensity. System performance including temperature rise and light intensity distribution under different vertical/horizontal distances were tested. Photosynthesis of sweet pepper and eggplant leaf under LD was measured with LI-6400 to show the supplemental lighting effects. The results show that LD system can supply the maximum light intensity of 180 μmol/m2 •s at the distance of 50 mm below the panel and the temperature rise is little within 1 °C. Net photosynthetic rate became faster when LD system increased light intensity. Compared with sunlight and LED supplemental lighting system, LD's promotion on photosynthesis is in the middle. Thus it is feasible for LD light source to supplement light for vegetable crops. Further study would focus on the integration of LD and other artificial light sources.

  20. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggblom Per

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6% and rape seed meal (10.0%. Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of third countries usually with an unknown salmonella status.

  1. Climate and vegetation productivity and their impacts on livestock mortality in Mongolia: "zhud" disaster mechanisms revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Jang, K.; Lkhamsuren, B.

    2014-12-01

    Zhud is a term referring either to conditions when melting snow refreezes to form an icy layer covering the grass, or to unusually heavy snow falls in Eurasian arid and semi-arid regions. Under zhud condition, animals cannot obtain food under snow or ice layer, which sometimes results in zhud disaster, i.e. massive livestock kills. It has been recognized that the zhud disaster is directly induced by the harsh winter conditions but often influenced by drought in the previous summer. In this study, data-intensive reanalysis on regional determinants of zhud disaster was conducted for more than 300 soums (an administrative unit equivalent with county in US) in Mongolia. Various climatic, hydrological, and vegetation variables were developed from satellite remote sensing (RS) data, which includes daily mean air temperature, dew temperature, and evapotranspiration, monthly precipitation, and 16-day NDVI from 2003 to 2010. Annual livestock census data were collected for every soums in Mongolia. Each variable was standardized to z-score and utilized for stepwise multiple regression analysis to identify factors statistically significant for explaining soum-level livestock mortality. The regression models were successfully constructed for two-third of total soums. Considerable spatial variability in the determinants of livestock mortality was found across soums in Mongolia. As the primary determinants, summer NDVI and dryness equally explained 22% of the soum mortality, while 33% and 16% of the mortality were explained with winter temperature and precipitation, respectively. In spatial patterns, winter precipitation and temperature were primary determinants in mountain regions and northern cool and semi-arid regions, while summer NDVI and dryness were important in southern hot and arid regions. Our results indicate combined efforts of monitoring RS-based summer NDVI and dryness and forecasting winter temperature and precipitation can provide useful tools for zhud disaster

  2. Assimilation of Remotely-Sensed Leaf Area Index into a Dynamic Vegetation Model for Gross Primary Productivity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative estimation of the magnitude and variability of gross primary productivity (GPP is required to study the carbon cycle of the terrestrial ecosystem. Using ecosystem models and remotely-sensed data is a practical method for accurately estimating GPP. This study presents a method for assimilating high-quality leaf area index (LAI products retrieved from satellite data into a process-oriented Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-DGVM to acquire accurate GPP. The assimilation methods, including the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF and a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD-based ensemble four-dimensional (4D variational assimilation method (PODEn4DVar, incorporate information provided by observations into the model to achieve a better agreement between the model-estimated and observed GPP. The LPJ-POD scheme performs better with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.923 and RMSD of 32.676 gC/m2/month compared with the LPJ-EnKF scheme (r = 0.887, RMSD = 38.531 gC/m2/month and with no data assimilation (r = 0.840, RMSD = 45.410 gC/m2/month. Applying the PODEn4DVar method into LPJ-DGVM for simulating GPP in China shows that the annual amount of GPP in China varied between 5.92 PgC and 6.67 PgC during 2003–2012 with an annual mean of 6.35 PgC/yr. This study demonstrates that integrating remotely-sensed data with dynamic global vegetation models through data assimilation methods has potential in optimizing the simulation and that the LPJ-POD scheme shows better performance in improving GPP estimates, which can provide a favorable way for accurately estimating dynamics of ecosystems.

  3. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) is a product of the Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project, USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping...

  5. THE DESIGN OF AN INFORMATIC MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL VEGETAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela VLAD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present exists a concern over the inability of the small and medium farms managers to accurately estimate and evaluate production systems efficiency in Romanian agriculture. This general concern has become even more pressing as market prices associated with agricultural activities continue to increase. As a result, considerable research attention is now orientated to the development of economical models integrated in software interfaces that can improve the technical and financial management. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an estimation and evaluation model designed to increase the farmer’s ability to measure production activities costs by utilizing informatic systems.

  6. Analysis of humidity effects on growth and production of glasshouse fruit vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Air humidity is a climate factor that can modify final yield and quality of crops through its impact on processes with a short as well as with a long response time. This thesis primarily deals with the long term responses of growth and production of glasshouse cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper

  7. Increasing children's affective responses toward vegetables by character-product congruence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Droog, S.; Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether unfamiliar characters are as effective as familiar characters in stimulating children’s affective responses toward healthy foods. Specifically, we investigated whether an unfamiliar character which is congruent with a product can be as effective as a familiar

  8. Towards industrial production of tree varieties through somatic embryogenesis and other vegetative propagation technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens Iver

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of the research on somatic embryogenesis in nordmanns fir has until recently been on improving the basic protocols in each step of the process. However, with recent developments, one single set of methods has shown to be effective for production of plants from more than 500 differe...

  9. Natural antimicrobial/antioxidant agents in meat and poultry products as well as fruits and vegetables: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Marya; Karboune, Salwa

    2018-02-11

    Synthetic preservatives are widely used by the food industry to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and to inhibit the process of lipid oxidation extending the shelf-life, quality and safety of food products. However, consumer's preference for natural food additives and concern regarding the safety of synthetic preservatives prompted the food industry to look for natural alternatives. Natural antimicrobials, including plant extracts and their essential oils, enzymes, peptides, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, and fermented ingredients have all been shown to have the potential for use as alternatives to chemical antimicrobials. Some spices, herbs and other plant extracts were also reported to be strong antioxidants. The antimicrobial/antioxidant activities of some plant extracts and/or their essential oils are mainly due to the presence of some major bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, terpenes, aldehydes, and flavonoids. The proposed mechanisms of action of these natural preservatives are reported. An overview of the research done on the direct incorporation of natural preservatives agents into meat and poultry products as well as fruit and vegetables to extend their shelf-life is presented. The development of edible packaging materials containing natural preservatives is growing and their applications in selected food products are also presented in this review.

  10. Corrosion and Deterioration Testing in the Humid Tropic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-21

    inert material, such as ceramic insulators, aluminum extruded shapes, or Plexiglas strips. The sample holders should be designed so that the...Seeds? Yes ____ No ____ Pollen? Yes ____ No ____ Spores? Yes ____ No ____ Algae ? Yes ____ No ____ Insect eggs? Yes ____ No

  11. Decision support system for peatland management in the humid tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, H.P.; Grobbe, T.; Chong, T.; Wösten, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Large areas of globally important tropical peatland in Southeast Asia are threatened by land clearance, degradation and fire, jeopardising their natural functions as reservoirs of biodiversity, carbon stores and hydrological buffers. Many development projects on tropical peatlands have failed

  12. Hydrological drought and wildfire in the humid tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Muh

    2017-01-01

    Drought is a recurrent hazard, which has happened throughout human history, and it is anticipated to become more severe in multiple regions across the world. Drought occurs in all climate regimes from humid to dry and from hot to cold. Drought is often viewed through its impact on environment and

  13. Fungi Associated with Materials’ Biodeterioration in the Humid Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    UNIT NUMBERS ATTN: STETC-MTD-P APO Miami 34004 _____________ It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE US Army Test and Evaluation... Controling Office) 1S. SECURITY CLASS. (of tuis reort) UNCLASSIFIED I15a. OECLASSI FICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE If. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of thie...Cephalosphorium sp and Rhizopus sp. The mineral salts cultures again showed the presence of Trichoderma sp and Cephalosporium sp. The fungus Fusarium sp was

  14. Opportunities for Local for Local Food Production: A Case in the Dutch Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Visser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the opportunities for farmers to produce for local consumers, based on a case study in the Dutch horticulture sector. Main requirements for the set-up of a local chain of supply chain actors are investigated. Producer requirements are added value, availability of time, infrastructure and training. Retailer requirements are quality of food, purchasing volumes, food safety, communication to consumers and traceability of products. For consumers taste/freshness, sustainability, health benefits and authenticity are important attributes of local foods. Based on literature review and interviews with stakeholders four possible strategies for local food chains are defined. The ‘keep it local’ strategy means that the local food supply chains will not make use of the current infrastructure of the marketing coop that acts as chain coordinator. Deliveries are directly between farmer and retail outlet. The local products - conventional supply chain strategy implies that current (non-local supply chains are used to distribute local products. The supply chain planning will be more complex since products need to be separated per grower and distributed to several local supermarkets. In the ‘enabling producers’ strategy the marketing coop/chain coordinator is going to enable its member producers to sell their products locally. The marketing coop can support producers in for instance, billing and payments, marketing, logistics. The fourth strategy aims at strengthening current consumer communication strategies. It is argued that connecting producers and consumers, regardless of where they live is advantageous.Conclusion is that strategy 3; ‘Enabling producers’, in combination with strategy 4; ‘Strengthening current consumer communication strategies’ are the most promising options in setting up local food supply chains. Strategies 1 and 2, where the marketing coop/chain coordinator itself takes on the challenge of setting up

  15. PHYTO-BIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SOME FLAVONOID COMPOUNDS OF VEGETAL ORIGIN Note 3. PHYTO-BIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SOME FLAVONOID COMPOUNDS-BASED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Cretu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available . Some flavonoid compounds- based products were tested in order to evaluate the possible phytotoxic and cytogenetic effects. The tests were done on Triticum aestivum L. (Dropia cultivar. We have analized the following parameters: the germination percent, root and stem growth, fresh and dry weight of root and stem and fresh/dried mass ratio respectively, ana- telophasis frequency from root meristem with chromosomal aberrations. These products includ vegetal extracts of Medicago herba, Glycine semen and Trifolii rubri flos and other vegetal powders.

  16. Innovation in vegetable seed production and the role of consumers in the organic and conventional babyleaf chains: The case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina

    2011-01-01

    , aspects of preference for local vegetable products were investigated. The methodological approach has been in the form of two questionnaires presented to consumers in two different chain structures, an industrialized chain (linking actors from ‘farm to fork’) and an alternative chain where organic produce...... step in the babyleaf chain. Dialog among the actors in the chain is essential to meet the consumer demands from both a conventional and an organic perspective. The role of organic seed in organic vegetable productions is discussed....

  17. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A) that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E) feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars) was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6%) and rape seed meal (10.0%). Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P salmonella contamination. Also the level of feed mill contamination of salmonella was higher for feed mills belonging to Company A in comparison to the other companies before and also after heat treatment. Four (10.5%) of the 38 serovars isolated from feed ingredients (28) and feed mills (10) were on the EU 2007 top ten list of human cases of salmonellosis and all but eight (78.9%) on a 12 year list (1997-2008) of cases of human salmonellosis in Sweden. Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient

  18. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of Salmonella contamination in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierup, Martin; Häggblom, Per

    2010-02-17

    The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP--based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A) that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E) feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Salmonella (28 serovars) was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6%) and rape seed meal (10.0%). Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P salmonella contamination. Also the level of feed mill contamination of salmonella was higher for feed mills belonging to Company A in comparison to the other companies before and also after heat treatment. Four (10.5%) of the 38 serovars isolated from feed ingredients (28) and feed mills (10) were on the EU 2007 top ten list of human cases of salmonellosis and all but eight (78.9%) on a 12 year list (1997-2008) of cases of human salmonellosis in Sweden. Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of

  19. Rebuilding Long Time Series Global Soil Moisture Products Using the Neural Network Adopting the Microwave Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a back propagation neural network (BPNN method to rebuild a global and long-term soil moisture (SM series, adopting the microwave vegetation index (MVI. The data used in our study include Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Level 3 soil moisture (SMOSL3sm data, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E, and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 Level 3 brightness temperature (TB data and L3 SM products. The BPNNs on each grid were trained over July 2010–June 2011, and the entire year of 2013, with SMOSL3sm as a training target, and taking the reflectivities (Rs of the C/X/Ku/Ka/Q bands, and the MVI from AMSR-E/AMSR2 TB data, as input, in which the MVI is used to correct for vegetation effects. The training accuracy of networks was evaluated by comparing soil moisture products produced using BPNNs (NNsm hereafter with SMOSL3sm during the BPNN training period, in terms of correlation coefficient (CC, bias (Bias, and the root mean square error (RMSE. Good global results were obtained with CC = 0.67, RMSE = 0.055 m3/m3 and Bias = −0.0005 m3/m3, particularly over Australia, Central USA, and Central Asia. With these trained networks over each pixel, a global and long-term soil moisture time series, i.e., 2003–2015, was built using AMSR-E TB from 2003 to 2011 and AMSR2 TB from 2012 to 2015. Then, NNsm products were evaluated against in situ SM observations from all SCAN (Soil Climate Analysis Network sites (SCANsm. The results show that NNsm has a good agreement with in situ data, and can capture the temporal dynamics of in situ SM, with CC = 0.52, RMSE = 0.84 m3/m3 and Bias = −0.002 m3/m3. We also evaluate the accuracy of NNsm by comparing with AMSR-E/AMSR2 SM products, with results of a regression method. As a conclusion, this study provides a promising BPNN method adopting MVI to rebuild a long-term SM time series, and this could provide useful insights for the future Water

  20. Production, Purification, Stability and Efficacy of Bacteriocin from Isolates of Natural Lactic Acid Fermentation of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Joshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of partially purified bacteriocin produced during natural lactic acid fermentation of carrot, radish and cucumber was assessed and characterized. Out of ten strains, the isolated strain CA 44 of Lactobacillus genus from carrot fermentation produced bacteriocin with maximum antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, though it was more effective against E. coli than others. Bacteriocin was stable at up to 100 °C but its activity declined compared to that at 68 °C and was completely lost at 121 °C. The maximum antimicrobial activity was retained within the pH range of 4–5, but it was adversely affected by the addition of papain. Bacteriocin was also effective against B. cereus in different fruit products (pulp, juice and wine indicating its potential application as a biopreservative in fruit products.

  1. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    In margarine formulation, oils of different melting points are blended to make a product that is spreadable at room temperature. Usually, the blend would be subjected to modification process, either by interesterification (chemical or enzymatic) or partial hydrogenation in order to achieve...... the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose...... they are consumed as a quick source of energy. The remaining 2-monoacyl- glycerol becomes a source of essential fatty acid, after being absorbed through the intestinal wall. This would enhance the nutritional value of the enzymatically interesterified product. However, the incorporation of FO into the blend would...

  2. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman Buchori; Istadi Istadi; Purwanto Purwanto

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative biofuel that can replace diesel oil without requiring modifications to the engine and advantageously produces cleaner emissions. Biodiesel can be produced through transesterification process between oil or fat and alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The transesterification can be carried out with or without a catalyst. The catalyzed production of biodiesel can be performed by using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme. Meanwhile, non-catalytic transesterification...

  3. Changes of the green house gas production potential of inundated peatlands in the perspective of temporal vegetation shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Dominik; Reuter, Hendrik; Augustin, Jürgen; Shatwell, Tom; Barth, Martin; Gelbrecht, Jörg; McInnes, Rob

    2015-04-01

    demersum in the open waterbody have been observed to colonize the area within one or two years of rewetting. With increasing rewetting time, the peat forming plants Phragmites australis and various Carex species, such as Carex riparia, can become re-established. The influence of these predictable vegetation shifts on CO2 and CH4 emissions has not been studied yet. In this paper, the CO2 and CH4 production due to the subaqueous decomposition of these five most abundant plant species, which are considered to be representative of different rewetting stages, will be presented. Beside continuous gas flux measurements, bulk chemical analysis of plant tissue, including C, N, P, and plant polymer dynamics, were performed in order to gain further insights into changing litter characteristics. With respect to temporal vegetation shifts in rewetted fens, the results provide new insights into the mid-term climate effect of these ecosystems.

  4. Vegetable, Sauce, and Bakery Item Production Guides Prepared for Walter Reed Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Bakery and Cereal Products Flour, Wheat, Bread Flour (Hard): NSN 8920-00-165-686U Fed N-F-U81, Type I, Class B, Style 2 Sugar, Confectionery and...Color b 2. Flour, Wheat, Bread Flour (Hard): NSN 8920-00-165-686U Fed N-F-U81, Type I, Class B, Style 2 Sugar, Confectionery and Nuts Sugar: NSN... Confectionery , and Nuts 1. Sugar: NSN 8925-00-127-307*+ Fed JJJ-S-791, Type I, Class (a). 2. Molasses: NSN 8925-00-125-9^ Fed JJJ-M-576 Food Oils and Fats

  5. Energy development and recovery in South Central Wyoming: Soils, vegetation, and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avirmed, Otgonsuren

    Energy development is expanding rapidly in sagebrush ecosystems of Western North America. This ecosystem is a critical habitat for many obligate wildlife species, and contains substantial soil carbon. Although we have some knowledge about how wildlife species are affected by energy development, there is much that remains to be understood about how energy development affects sagebrush ecosystem structure and function. In my research, I explored 1) how fast sagebrush plant communities recover from oil and gas development; 2) how soil organic matter was impacted by historical oil and gas development; and 3) how oil and gas development and wind development affect ecosystem production. My results showed that some components of the sagebrush plant communities recover in ~ 90 years after oil and gas development, but other components to do not recover at all. Sagebrush density recovered in ~65 years, and both grass and shrub cover recovered to pre-disturbance levels in 30 years. However, there was no indication of any recovery of forbs, nor any trend toward recovery. Since forbs represent a critical component of the biological diversity of sagebrush systems, these results indicate that reclamation activities should target forbs to promote plant diversity in sagebrush ecosystems. Ninety years of oil and gas development had no effect on labile, recalcitrant, or total soil organic matter pools. Site specific conditions such as soils texture and shrub-induced heterogeneity explained substantial variance in soil organic matter pools, but the disturbance from oil and gas development showed no significant impact. While the disturbance had no effect on soil organic matter, it did eliminate the heterogeneity associated with individual shrubs. I found that shrub-induced heterogeneity recovered in about 45 years in loamy sand soils, but in sandy soils, heterogeneity did not recover. On the other hand, the insignificant effect of disturbance on soil organic matter leads us re

  6. Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Sauer, Annette Juliane; Abdelkafi-Mesrati, Lobna; Jaoua, Samir; Stephan, Dietrich

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a quantitative determination of the vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A from the culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis either by ELISA or by the conventional quantification method of the Western blot band. The Vip3A protein was produced by fermentation of the B. thuringiensis reference strain BUPM95 in 3 L. By Western blot, the Vip3Aa16 toxin was detected in the culture supernatant during the exponential growth phase of B. thuringiensis BUPM95. However, the detection of Vip3Aa16 on Western blot showed in addition to the toxin two other strips (62 and 180 kDa) recognized by the anti-Vip3Aa16 polyclonal antibodies prepared at the Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax Tunisia. For that reason and in order to develop a technique for reliable quantification of the toxin, we have considered the production of polyclonal antibodies at the Julius Kühn Institute, Germany. These antibodies were the basis for the production of monoclonal antibodies directed against the protein produced by the Vip3Aa16 recombinant strain Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). These monoclonal antibodies were tested by plate-trapped antigen (PTA) and triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). The selection of hybridoma supernatants gave us four positive clones producing monoclonal antibodies.

  7. Assessing the impact of time of spring vegetation renewal on growth, development and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of study focusing on impact of environmental factor – time of spring vegetation renewal (TSVR of soft winter wheat on growth and development of plants, crop productivity and modern varieties response are presented. It is found that in the central part of the Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine this factor is important and it should be considered in planning of spring and summer care techniques, fertilizer system, especially at spring fertilizing, use of pesticides and growth regulators, in taking a decision on reseeding or underseeding of space plants. At the same time, it was determined that the environmental effect of TSVR was not occurred every year, thus it is not always possible to forecast the type of plant development. But in such years it is possible to influence the processes of plants growth, development and survival in spring and summer periods and the formation of their productivity by introducing such intensive technologies as differential crop tending, mineral nutrition optimization, the use of plant growth regulators, trace nutrients, weed, pest and disease control agents.

  8. Bio-ethanol production by fermentation of ricotta cheese whey as an effective alternative non-vegetable source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabro, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele [Department of Engineering Modeling, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 42/A, 87036 Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the feasibility of bio-ethanol production by batch fermentation of ricotta cheese whey (''Scotta''), a dairy industry waste characterized by lactose concentration ranging from 4.5% to 5.0% (w/w) and, with respect to traditional (raw) whey, by much lower protein content. Scotta, therefore, could represent an effective non-vegetable source for renewable energy production. The microrganism used to carry out the fermentation processes was the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Preliminary experiments, performed in aerobic conditions on different volumes of scotta, have shown the actual growth of the yeast. The subsequent fermentation experiments were carried out, in anaerobic conditions, on three different substrates: scotta, raw cheese whey and deproteinized whey. The experimental data have demonstrated the process feasibility: scotta is an excellent substrate for fermentation and exhibits better performance with respect to both raw cheese whey and deproteinized whey. Complete lactose consumption, indeed, was observed in the shortest time (13 h) and with the highest ethanol yield (97% of the theoretical value). (author)

  9. The decreasing range between dry- and wet- season precipitation over land and its effect on vegetation primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    One consequence of climate change is the alteration of global water fluxes, both in amount and seasonality. As a result, the seasonal difference between dry- (p 100 mm/month) precipitation (p) has increased over land during recent decades (1980–2005). However, our analysis expanding to a 60-year period (1950–2009) showed the opposite trend. This is, dry-season precipitation increased steadily, while wet-season precipitation remained constant, leading to reduced seasonality at a global scale. The decrease in seasonality was not due to a change in dry-season length, but in precipitation rate; thus, the dry season is on average becoming wetter without changes in length. Regionally, wet- and dry-season precipitations are of opposite sign, causing a decrease in the seasonal variation of the precipitation over 62% of the terrestrial ecosystems. Furthermore, we found a high correlation (r = 0.62) between the change in dry-season precipitation and the trend in modelled net primary productivity (NPP), which is explained based on different ecological mechanisms. This trend is not found with wet-season precipitation (r = 0.04), These results build on the argument that seasonal water availability has changed over the course of the last six decades and that the dry-season precipitation is a key driver of vegetation productivity at the global scale. PMID:29284050

  10. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils in a small scale circulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel production from canola oil with methanol was performed in the presence of a base-catalyst by a circulation process at room temperature. In this process, the transesterification was accelerated by ultrasonic irradiation of low frequency (20 kHz) with an input capacity of 1 kW. The influences of various parameters on the transesterification reaction, including the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol to oil and the reaction time, were investigated. The objective of this work was to produce biodiesel satisfying the biodiesel-fuel standards of low energy consumption and material savings. The optimal conditions were: methanol/oil molar ratio of 5:1 and 0.7 wt.% catalyst in oil. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters was greater than 99% within the reaction time of 50 min. Crude biodiesel was purified by washing with tap water and drying at 70 degrees C under reduced pressure.

  11. THE VEGETABLES MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia DAVID

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania, due to its favourable climatic conditions, is a country with a long tradition in growing vegetables. The importance of growing vegetables is demonstrated both by area cultivated with vegetables and by the large number of individual producers. In this context, the current study comprises, on the one hand, the evolution of vegetable crops specific indicators, and, on the other hand, the evolution of foreign trade. As for the actual production of vegetables in Romania, it cannot provide the requisites for domestic consumption and for this reason we resort to imports. The imports of vegetables and unprocessed products have a negative influence on the trade balance. The producers, processors and distributors of vegetables and vegetable products are faced with a series of problems that have a negative influence on their economic and financial results. Among these problems, the most important ones are generated by: the use of nonperforming traditional technologies that contributed to lower productions, as compared to the productions obtained by EU vegetable farmers; the difficulty in marketing the vegetables within an optimum time interval because vegetable farmers are not members of associations that have a viable marketing programme, which would ensure an adequate and efficient vegetables distribution; the use of nonperforming seeds in order to obtain vegetables. In conclusion, it is imperative to support vegetable farming in order to provide the requisites for consumption and in order to increase the producers’ revenues in the rural space. This can be achieved by accessing structural funds.

  12. Production Guides for Meat and Vegetable Entrees and Desserts Developed for Use in the Frozen Foil Pack Feeding System, F.E. Warren Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    instead of the existing recipe cards intended for Dining Hall Kitchen operations. This report contains production guides for meat and vegetable entrees...over cake in each pan while still hot. Do not attempt to spread the icing with a spatula for the cake will crumble. 83 FRENCH QUICK COFFEE CAKE

  13. Development of a dynamic web mapping service for vegetation productivity using earth observation and in situ sensors in a sensor web based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Bergsma, A.R.; Chuma, B.; Bruin, de S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS). A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the

  14. Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control treatments in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Paul W. Footen; Robert B. Harrison; Thomas A. Terry; Constance A. Harrington; Scott M. Holub; Peter J. Gould

    2013-01-01

    We sampled trees grown with and without competing vegetation control in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation on a highly productive site in southwestern Washington to create diameter based allometric equations for estimating individual-tree bole, branch, foliar, and total...

  15. Effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control on 5-year seedling performance: a regional comparison of long-term soil productivity sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Fleming; Robert F. Powers; Neil W. Foster; J. Marty Kranabetter; D. Andrew Scott; Felix Jr. Ponder; Shannon Berch; William K. Chapman; Richard D. Kabzems; Kim H. Ludovici; David M. Morris; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul T. Sanborn; Felipe G. Sanchez; Douglas M. Stone; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We examined fifth-year seedling response to soil disturbance and vegetation control at 42 experimental locations representing 25 replicated studies within the North American Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) program. These studies share a common experimental design while encompassing a wide range of climate, site conditions, and forest types. Whole-tree harvest had...

  16. Base catalyzed transesterification of acid treated vegetable oil blend for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar Ali [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak 31750 (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Biodiesel can be produced from low cost non-edible oils and fats. However, most of these sources are of high free fatty acid content which requires two stage transesterification to reduce the acid value and produce biodiesel. The acid treatment step is usually followed by base transesterification since the latter can yield higher conversions of methyl esters at shorter reaction time when compared with acid catalyzed reaction. In the current study, base transesterification in the second stage of biodiesel synthesis is studied for a blend of crude palm/crude rubber seed oil that had been characterized and treated with acid esterification. Optimum conditions for the reaction were established and effect of each variable was investigated. The base catalyzed transesterification favored a temperature of 55 C with methanol/oil molar ratio of 8/1 and potassium hydroxide at 2% (ww{sup -1}) (oil basis). The conversion of methyl esters exceeded 98% after 5 h and the product quality was verified to match that for biodiesel with international standards. (author)

  17. Seed and vegetative production of shrubs and growth of understory conifer regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, B.; Harrington, C.; Tappeiner, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    We observed flower and fruit production for nine understory shrub species in western Washington and Oregon and examined the relationships between shrub reproductive output and plant size, plant age, site factors, and overstory density to determine the factors that control flowering or fruiting in understory shrubs. In Washington, 50 or more shrubs or microplots (for rhizomatous species) were sampled for each of eight species. The variables examined were more useful for explaining abundance of flowers or fruit on shrubs than they were for explaining the probability that a shrub would produce flowers or fruit. Plant size was consistently the most useful predictor of flower/fruit abundance in all species; plant age was also a good predictor of abundance and was strongly correlated with plant size. Site variables (e.g., slope) and overstory competition variables (e.g., presence/absence of a canopy gap) also helped explain flower/fruit abundance for some species. At two Oregon sites, the responses of five species to four levels of thinning were observed for 2-4 yr (15 shrubs or microplots per treatment per year). Thinning increased the probability and abundance of flowering/fruiting for two species, had no effect on one species, and responses for two other species were positive but inconsistent between sites or from year to year. We believe reducing overstory density or creating canopy gaps may be useful tools for enhancing shrub size and vigor, thus, increasing the probability and abundance of fruiting in some understory shrub species.

  18. Sterols and sterol oxides in the potato products, and sterols in the vegetable oils used for industrial frying operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta, Paresh Chandra

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the composition of sterols in vegetable oils used in industrial frying operations, and sterols and sterol oxides in the fried potato products. The sterols and sterol oxides were enriched by saponification of oils and by solid phase extraction. Preparative thin layer chromatography, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were used to give qualitative and quantitative data. The results revealed that the content of desmethylsterols in palm oil, sunflower oil, high oleic sunflower oil, and rapeseed oil/palm oil blend were, 790, 4501, 3550, and 4497 ppm, respectively. Sitosterol was the major desmethylsterol in all samples. Palm oil also contained the lowest levels of total unsaponifiables. The sterols and unsaponifiable contents in sunflower oil were, to some extent, higher than in higholeic sunflower oil. The compositions of sterols after two days of frying were neither markedly different in the oils nor in the potato products fried in these oils compared with the original oils. Isomerised sterols were tentatively quantified to account for 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 20 ppm, in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oils, respectively. Lipids extracted from French fries prepared in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend contained the highest levels of total sterol oxides, 191 ppm, and epoxides of both sitosterol and campesterol were the major contributors, together at a level of 172 ppm. On the other hand, lipids extracted from French fries prepared in sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil contained 7α-hydroxy-, 7β-hydroxy-, 7-keto- and both epimers of epoxysitosterol, generally in equal amounts. All samples also contained small amounts of different oxidation products of campesterol and stigmasterol.

  19. Grafting and Paladin Pic-21 for Nematode and Weed Management in Vegetable Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Hong, Jason C; Bausher, Michael G; McCollum, Greg; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2016-12-01

    or watermelon rootstocks, and yield was lower in both grafted rootstocks compared with the nongrafted control. All soil treatments increased average fruit weight of watermelon compared with the herbicide control, and provided effective weed control, keeping the most predominant weed, purple nutsedge ( Cyperus rotundus L.), density at or below 1/m row. Grafting commercial scions onto M. incognita -resistant rootstocks has potential for nematode management combined with soil treatments or as a stand-alone component in crop production systems.

  20. Development of a Dynamic Web Mapping Service for Vegetation Productivity Using Earth Observation and in situ Sensors in a Sensor Web Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sytze de Bruin; Beatus Chuma; Lammert Kooistra; Aldo Bergsma

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS). A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the Netherlands with a spatial resolution of 250 m. Daily available MODIS surface reflectance products and meteorological parameters obtained through a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) were used as input fo...

  1. Estimating Vegetation Primary Production in the Heihe River Basin of China with Multi-Source and Multi-Scale Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Cui

    Full Text Available Estimating gross primary production (GPP and net primary production (NPP are significant important in studying carbon cycles. Using models driven by multi-source and multi-scale data is a promising approach to estimate GPP and NPP at regional and global scales. With a focus on data that are openly accessible, this paper presents a GPP and NPP model driven by remotely sensed data and meteorological data with spatial resolutions varying from 30 m to 0.25 degree and temporal resolutions ranging from 3 hours to 1 month, by integrating remote sensing techniques and eco-physiological process theories. Our model is also designed as part of the Multi-source data Synergized Quantitative (MuSyQ Remote Sensing Production System. In the presented MuSyQ-NPP algorithm, daily GPP for a 10-day period was calculated as a product of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and its fraction absorbed by vegetation (FPAR using a light use efficiency (LUE model. The autotrophic respiration (Ra was determined using eco-physiological process theories and the daily NPP was obtained as the balance between GPP and Ra. To test its feasibility at regional scales, our model was performed in an arid and semi-arid region of Heihe River Basin, China to generate daily GPP and NPP during the growing season of 2012. The results indicated that both GPP and NPP exhibit clear spatial and temporal patterns in their distribution over Heihe River Basin during the growing season due to the temperature, water and solar influx conditions. After validated against ground-based measurements, MODIS GPP product (MOD17A2H and results reported in recent literature, we found the MuSyQ-NPP algorithm could yield an RMSE of 2.973 gC m(-2 d(-1 and an R of 0.842 when compared with ground-based GPP while an RMSE of 8.010 gC m(-2 d(-1 and an R of 0.682 can be achieved for MODIS GPP, the estimated NPP values were also well within the range of previous literature, which proved the reliability of

  2. Estimating Vegetation Primary Production in the Heihe River Basin of China with Multi-Source and Multi-Scale Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tianxiang; Wang, Yujie; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Chen; Fan, Wenjie; Jiang, Guoqing; Hao, Lvyuan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Estimating gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) are significant important in studying carbon cycles. Using models driven by multi-source and multi-scale data is a promising approach to estimate GPP and NPP at regional and global scales. With a focus on data that are openly accessible, this paper presents a GPP and NPP model driven by remotely sensed data and meteorological data with spatial resolutions varying from 30 m to 0.25 degree and temporal resolutions ranging from 3 hours to 1 month, by integrating remote sensing techniques and eco-physiological process theories. Our model is also designed as part of the Multi-source data Synergized Quantitative (MuSyQ) Remote Sensing Production System. In the presented MuSyQ-NPP algorithm, daily GPP for a 10-day period was calculated as a product of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its fraction absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) using a light use efficiency (LUE) model. The autotrophic respiration (Ra) was determined using eco-physiological process theories and the daily NPP was obtained as the balance between GPP and Ra. To test its feasibility at regional scales, our model was performed in an arid and semi-arid region of Heihe River Basin, China to generate daily GPP and NPP during the growing season of 2012. The results indicated that both GPP and NPP exhibit clear spatial and temporal patterns in their distribution over Heihe River Basin during the growing season due to the temperature, water and solar influx conditions. After validated against ground-based measurements, MODIS GPP product (MOD17A2H) and results reported in recent literature, we found the MuSyQ-NPP algorithm could yield an RMSE of 2.973 gC m(-2) d(-1) and an R of 0.842 when compared with ground-based GPP while an RMSE of 8.010 gC m(-2) d(-1) and an R of 0.682 can be achieved for MODIS GPP, the estimated NPP values were also well within the range of previous literature, which proved the reliability of our

  3. Reducing N2O and NO emissions while sustaining crop productivity in a Chinese vegetable-cereal double cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Yan, Guangxuan; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Liu, Chunyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    High nitrogen (N) inputs in Chinese vegetable and cereal productions played key roles in increasing crop yields. However, emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and atmospheric pollutant nitric oxide (NO) increased too. For lowering the environmental costs of crop production, it is essential to optimize N strategies to maintain high crop productivity, while reducing the associated N losses. We performed a 2 year-round field study regarding the effect of different combinations of poultry manure and chemical N fertilizers on crop yields, N use efficiency (NUE) and N2O and NO fluxes from a Welsh onion-winter wheat system in the North China Plain. Annual N2O and NO emissions averaged 1.14-3.82 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (or 5.54-13.06 g N kg-1 N uptake) and 0.57-1.87 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (or 2.78-6.38 g N kg-1 N uptake) over all treatments, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions increased linearly with increasing total N inputs, and the mean annual direct emission factors (EFd) were 0.39% for N2O and 0.19% for NO. Interestingly, the EFd for chemical N fertilizers (N2O: 0.42-0.48%; NO: 0.07-0.11%) was significantly lower than for manure N (N2O: 1.35%; NO: 0.76%). Besides, a negative power relationship between yield-scaled N2O, NO or N2O + NO emissions and NUE was observed, suggesting that improving NUE in crop production is crucial for increasing crop yields while decreasing nitrogenous gas release. Compared to the current farmers' fertilization rate, alternative practices with reduced chemical N fertilizers increased NUE and decreased annual N2O + NO emissions substantially, while crop yields remained unaffected. As a result, annual yield-scaled N2O + NO emissions were reduced by > 20%. Our study shows that a reduction of current application rates of chemical N fertilizers by 30-50% does not affect crop productivity, while at the same time N2O and NO emissions would be reduced significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival and growth of foodborne pathogens in pesticide solutions routinely used in leafy green vegetables and tomato production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobhal, Shefali; Zhang, Guodong; Royer, Tom; Damicone, John; Ma, Li Maria

    2014-11-01

    The consumption of fresh produce has increased tremendously in the past few years as have outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with these commodities. Pesticides routinely used in crop production could influence the outcomes of foodborne pathogen contamination of fresh produce. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of pesticides on the survival and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Eight commercial fungicides and insecticides commonly used for disease and insect pest control on leafy green vegetables and tomatoes were evaluated. Among the pesticides tested, copper hydroxide, acetamiprid, cypermethrin and permethrin were found to be significantly (P effect was observed for chlorothalonil, flonicamid and methoxyfenozide. At the highest concentration tested (2.66%), azoxystrobin had a significant (P effect on the growth of E. coli O157:H7 after 24 h incubation. The results indicated that some pesticides can stimulate the growth of human pathogens if contaminated water is used in their preparation, whereas others were likely to inhibit or reduce pathogen populations. This information is helpful in mitigating the risk of microbial contamination in fresh produce, which is critical to public health and safety. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Produção segura e rastreabilidade de hortaliças Safe production and traceability of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M Mattos

    2009-12-01

    haja perda de seu valor nutritivo e com qualidade sensorial ótima.Consumers all over the world are aware about the strict relation among health and the necessity of a balanced diet, based on safe products. Nevertheless, interest in food functional properties and, especially, in its antioxidant activity has been increasing. However, the consumption of in natura food may present some risks, which are mainly related to chemical and microbiological contamination during the crop growing season. Considering the high competitiveness of the different productive chains, growers are working to offer products with superior value and quality, with emphasis in food safety and traceability. The hazards in food chain can be managed by monitoring the whole process, from production to distribution, so, in order to minimize the possibility of contamination, ,the implementation of traceability systems and procedures of quality assurance, such as HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points is necessary,. The application of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP to the fruit and vegetable production is a prerequisite for the success of HACCP and, in this context, the Integrated Production Program main objective is to increase quality and competitiveness of Brazilian agribusiness in order to reach the levels required by international market. Its main focus are the preservation of vegetable functional properties and the utilization of techniques that ensure food safety and traceability, ensuring the previously guaranteed quality levels. The present work focuses on technologies that allow consumers to have a safe and traceable product, to prevent nutritional content wastes and to ensure maximum food sensory quality.

  6. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  7. DYNAMICS OF HUMUS CONTENT AND AIR-WATER SOIL PROPERTIES IN INTENSIVE VEGETABLE AND FLOWER GLASSHOUSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted in Magadenovac glasshouses, eastern Croatia during seventeen years (1985. - 2002.. In that period, the glasshouse production of vegetables and flowers was intensive during the whole year. The trial was set up on 500 m2. Because of often crop rotation during the same year, soil tillage must be done fast and soil must be homogenized till depth of about 40 cm. Often in practice it is not possible to plough because of numerous reasons and then main mechanization is roto-digging machine. The aim of this investigation was to determine the consequences of long-term application of the special roto-digging machine and dynamics of organic matter and humus content during 17 years. For this purpose, multiple chemical and physical analyses were done. It was determined that, by intensive production during 17 years, organic matter content in soil surface layer significantly decreased (1995 year - 8.60% and 2002 year - 5.00%. In subsurface layer (35-50 cm organic matter content decreased by about 50%. At the same time, by decreasing organic matter content soil became more acid, because pH value measured in 1M KCl after 17 years was by 1.4 units lower in the surface layer, and by about 0.5 units lower in subsurface layer. Finally, soil became acid (pHKCl = 4.8. Decreasing in organic matter and humus content led to soil compaction, decreased soil porosity and degradation of other physical and chemical properties. It can be concluded, that it is necessary to import complete agricultural operations relative to soil tillage for soil preserving.

  8. Renewable products, towards a new golden age of plants?; Produits renouvelables, vers un nouvel age d'or du vegetal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Our industrial civilization was built on the use of fossil materials. It has only 3 centuries of existence, but the use of these non-renewable resources will necessary come to an end in a near future. However alternate ways already exist through the use of biomass-derived products. These proceedings summarize the main discussions that took place during the different round tables of this colloquium. The first round table makes a status of the shortage of fossil energy reserves and of the new challenges and solutions offered by plants and bio-energies. The second round table presents the reality of the market, products and consumption of todays renewable vegetal resources (environmental advantages, economic aspect and competitiveness of markets). The last round table deals with the role of governments in the political sustain of renewable vegetal products development (genetic research, financial aspects, incentives, competition with food agriculture). (J.S.)

  9. Effect of nitrification inhibitors (DMPP and 3MP+TZ) on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a sub-tropical vegetable production system in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; Deuter, Peter; Firrell, Mary; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrification inhibitors, in combination with ammonium based fertilisers, has been promoted recently as an effective method to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilised agricultural fields, whilst increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Vegetable cropping systems are often characterised by high inputs of nitrogen fertiliser and consequently elevated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) can be expected. However, to date only limited data is available on the use of nitrification inhibitors in sub-tropical vegetable systems. A field experiment investigated the effect of the nitrification inhibitors (DMPP & 3MP+TZ) on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable production system in sub-tropical Australia. Soil N2O fluxes were monitored continuously over an entire year with a fully automated system. Measurements were taken from three subplots for each treatment within a randomized complete blocks design. There was a significant inhibition effect of DMPP and 3MP+TZ on N2O emissions and soil mineral N content directly following the application of the fertiliser over the vegetable cropping phase. However this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the inhibitor treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Cumulative annual N2O emissions amounted to 1.22 kg-N/ha, 1.16 kg-N/ha, 1.50 kg-N/ha and 0.86 kg-N/ha in the conventional fertiliser (CONV), the DMPP treatment, the 3MP+TZ treatment and the zero fertiliser (0N) respectively. Corresponding fertiliser induced emission factors (EFs) were low with only 0.09 - 0.20% of the total applied fertiliser lost as N2O. There was no significant effect of the nitrification inhibitors on yield compared to the CONV treatment for the three vegetable crops (green beans, broccoli, lettuce) grown over the experimental period. This study highlights that N2O emissions from such vegetable cropping system are primarily controlled by post-harvest emissions following the incorporation of vegetable crop

  10. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diversidad florística de dos zonas de bosque tropical húmedo en el municipiode Alto Baudó, Chocó, Colombia Floristic Diversity of Two Zones of Humid Tropical Forest at Alto Baudó, Chocó, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robledo Murillo Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre junio y agosto de 2005 se determinó la composición florística de las plantas ≥1 cm de DAP en un área de 0,2 ha de bosque húmedo tropical en los corregimientos de Pie de Pató (05º 30' 56" N y 76º 58' 26" W y Nauca (5º 41' 6" N y 77º 00' 36" W, Alto Baudó, Chocó Colombia. En cada sitio se muestreó un área de 0,1 ha, la cual se dividió en diez transecto de 2 x 50 m cada uno. Se registraron 1.618 individuos, representados en 257 especies, 156 géneros y 56 familias botánicas de los cuales 842 individuos, 161 especies, 108 géneros y 46 familias fueron encontrados en Pie de Pató, y 776 individuos, 161 especies, 98 géneros y 45 familias en Nauca. En Pie de Pató las familias mejor representadas en lo que se refiere a géneros y especies fueron: Rubiaceae (doce géneros y 27 especies, Arecaceae (ocho géneros y ocho especies y Bombacaceae (siete géneros y diez especies. En Nauca fueron Rubiaceae (once géneros y 25 especies, Moraceae (ocho géneros y trece especies y Arecaceae (ocho géneros y ocho especies. El índice de riqueza arrojó valores de 23,75 y 24,05 para Pie de Pató y Nauca, en cambio la diversidad fue de 4,43 para ambos sitios. Los resultados indican que los bosques del Alto Baudó son muy diversos y de gran importancia para estudios de la diversidad florística, debido a su ubicación estratégica en el departamento del Chocó.Between June and August of 2005 the floristic composition ≥1 cm of DAP was determined in an area of ? 0.2 ha of humid tropical forest at the localities of Pie de >Pató (05º 30' 56" N and 76º 58' 26" W and Nauca (5º 41' 6" N and 77º 00' 36" W, Alto Baudó, Chocó Colombia . En each locality an area of 0.1 ha was sampled which was divided into smaller areas of 2 x 50 cm each. A total of 1618 inidivduals were recorded represented by 257 species, 156 genres and 56 botanical families from which 842 individuals, 161 species, 108 genres and 46 families where found at Pie de Pató, and

  12. Growth inhibitory effects of kimchi (Korean traditional fermented vegetable product) against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Suk; Zheng, Zian-Bin; Shin, Dong-Hwa

    2008-02-01

    Kimchi is a unique Korean traditional vegetable product that is fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is mainly consumed as a side dish with boiled rice. Its main ingredients are brined Chinese cabbage, red pepper powder, and fermented fish sauce, and these are combined with many spices such as garlic, green onion, ginger, and some seaweed. The relationship between the concentration of LAB or the pH and the growth of three gram-positive foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) was evaluated. Heat treatment (HT; 85 degrees C for 15 min) or neutralization treatment (NT; pH 7.0) was conducted on day 0 (0-D group) and day 3 (3-D group) of incubation. The pH in the control group and the NT group dropped sharply to 4.12 to 4.30 after 2 days of incubation and slightly decreased thereafter, whereas the pH in the control group and HT group stayed at 7.0 during incubation. LAB were not detected in the HT kimchi during incubation. B. cereus in the NT-0-D, NT-3-D, and HT-3-D groups was reduced by 1.5 to 3.1 log CFU/ml but increased slightly in the HT-0-D group. L. monocytogenes in HT-3-D and NT-3-D groups disappeared after 5 days of incubation, and S. aureus in the NT-0-D group disappeared after 4 days. These findings indicate that growth of all the foodborne pathogens was inhibited by NT-0-D, HT-3-D, and NT-3-D, but B. cereus was not inhibited by HT-0-D. Thus, growth of LAB in kimchi is an important factor in the control of foodborne pathogens.

  13. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, F; Watanabe, Y; Kishita, A; Enomoto, H [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kishida, H [Environmental Systems Headquarters, Environmental Research and Development Center Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Kyoto 625-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: fmjin@mail.tongji.edu.cn

    2008-07-15

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300 deg. C, 1 min for the first step, and 300 deg. C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  14. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F.; Watanabe, Y.; Kishita, A.; Enomoto, H.; Kishida, H.

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300°C, 1 min for the first step, and 300°C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  15. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  16. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  17. Comprehensive seismic surveys suggest that subsurface water-holding capacity is secondary to bedrock nutrient content as a regulator of vegetation productivity in the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N. J.; Riebe, C. S.; Dueker, K. G.; Goulden, M.; Flinchum, B. A.; Pasquet, S.; Callahan, R. P.; Hahm, W. J.; Keifer, I. S.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Both climate and lithology regulate the distribution of vegetation across Earth's surface. However, lithologic effects on vegetation are inherently difficult to understand, because they integrate both the properties of bedrock and the processes that alter it in the critical zone. For example, bedrock composition can influence overlying vegetation by providing nutrients that promote growth. Likewise weathering, which may depend in part on bedrock composition, can promote growth by increasing subsurface porosity, which provides storage space for life-sustaining water. To disentangle the effects of bedrock on vegetation, we used seismology to quantify subsurface porosity in 3D, integrated from the surface to vegetation rooting depths, at three climatically similar but geologically diverse granitic sites in the Sierra Nevada, California. Evapotranspiration (ET) varies tenfold, allowing us to test the hypothesis that differences in ecosystem productivity are driven by lithologic differences in subsurface water storage capacity. We found that subsurface porosity varies by only 10 percent. Thus our results show little difference in weathering across the sites, despite sharp differences in the abundance of weatherable minerals such as biotite and hornblende. Moreover, porosity does not explain the large inferred variations in ET across our sites. However, ET does correlate strongly with bedrock concentrations of plant-essential nutrients including phosphorus, a correlation that is widespread across the Sierra Nevada Batholith based on our previous work. Together, our results suggest that, for a given climate, ecosystem productivity can depend predominantly on bedrock nutrient concentrations rather than weathering. Bedrock in the Sierra Nevada is similar to granites of other mountain ranges around the world, implying that our results have widespread implications for understanding lithologic effects on the distribution of life across Earth's surface.

  18. Multiresidue analytical procedures for pesticides residues in vegetable products; Metodi mutiresiduo per l`analisi di residui di antiparassitari in prodotti vegetali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruppo di lavoro per i residui di antiparassitari della Commissione permanente di coordinamento interregionale per i problemi relativi al controllo ufficiale dei prodotti alimentari

    1997-09-01

    Multiresidue methods for pesticide residues in vegetable products, most frequently used by laboratories of the Italian national health service, by the regional and provincial agencies for environmental protection and by the National health institute. The analytical behaviour is presented for 249 pesticides through the different steps of extraction and cleanup, along with data for the gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to spectrophotometric detector (HPL/UV).

  19. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    and Research Farm located in the humid tropics of Nigeria. ... manure was sourced from University Teaching and Research Farm (Animal Production ..... Conroy (1997): Survey of cadmium levels in vegetables and soils of greater Sydney. Australia. Journal of Enviromental quality 26; 924-933. Mayhew, S. and A., Penny ...

  20. Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture in Irrigated Lands by Assimilation of Landsat Vegetation Indices, Surface Energy Balance Products, and Relevance Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso F. Torres-Rua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial surface soil moisture can be an important indicator of crop conditions on farmland, but its continuous estimation remains challenging due to coarse spatial and temporal resolution of existing remotely-sensed products. Furthermore, while preceding research on soil moisture using remote sensing (surface energy balance, weather parameters, and vegetation indices has demonstrated a relationship between these factors and soil moisture, practical continuous spatial quantification of the latter is still unavailable for use in water and agricultural management. In this study, a methodology is presented to estimate volumetric surface soil moisture by statistical selection from potential predictors that include vegetation indices and energy balance products derived from satellite (Landsat imagery and weather data as identified in scientific literature. This methodology employs a statistical learning machine called a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM to identify and relate the potential predictors to soil moisture by means of stratified cross-validation and forward variable selection. Surface soil moisture measurements from irrigated agricultural fields in Central Utah in the 2012 irrigation season were used, along with weather data, Landsat vegetation indices, and energy balance products. The methodology, data collection, processing, and estimation accuracy are presented and discussed.

  1. The process greasoline {sup registered}. Catalytic cracking of used vegetable oils and vegetable products; Das greasoline {sup registered} -Verfahren. Katalytisches Cracken von gebrauchten Pflanzenoelen und Pflanzenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzig, Joachim; Fastabend, Anna; Greve, Anna; Heil, Volker; Juricev-Spiric, Marko; Kraft, Axel; Krzanowski, Marcin; Meller, Karl; Menne, Andreas; Unger, Christoph; Urban, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Converting bio-based waste oils and fats as well as non-edible plant oils into oxygen-free components for quality aviation, shipping and automotive fuels represents a promising option to use these materials. Catalytic cracking over microporous and mesoporous catalysts like activated carbon offers a suitable process of considerable commercial and ecological potential. Moreover, this technology can be applied in order to produce high-caloric fuel gases like bio-based LPG. For example, these gases could be used for upgrading bio-methane into true bio-based synthetic natural gas without adding fossil components. Such a mixture would be ready to be fed into natural gas pipelines. In the future, used bio-hydraulic-oils could be collected and used as biofuels feedstock. Conversion of bio-hydraulic-oils as model substances resulted in organic liquid product yields of up to 64 wt.-%. Catalytic cracking of Jatropha Curcas-oil revealed the catalyst's usage time to be as important as the reaction temperature for optimising fuel gas production. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of Two Static in Vitro Digestion Methods for Screening the Bioaccessibility of Carotenoids in Fruits, Vegetables, and Animal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniele B; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Mariutti, Lilian R B; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Failla, Mark L

    2017-12-27

    In vitro digestion methods are routinely used to assess the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and other dietary lipophilic compounds. Here, we compared the recovery of carotenoids and their efficiency of micellarization in digested fruits, vegetables, egg yolk, and salmon and also in mixed-vegetable salads with and without either egg yolk or salmon using the static INFOGEST method22 and the procedure of Failla et al.16 Carotenoid stability during the simulated digestion was ≥70%. The efficiencies of the partitioning of carotenoids into mixed micelles were similar when individual plant foods and salad meals were digested using the two static methods. Furthermore, the addition of cooked egg or salmon to vegetable salads increased the bioaccessibility of some carotenoids. Our findings showed that the two methods of in vitro digestion generated similar estimates of carotenoid retention and bioaccessibility for diverse foods.

  3. Estimation of Carbon Stock Stands using EVI and NDVI Vegetation Index in Production Forest of Lembah Seulawah Sub-District, Aceh Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Pandapotan Situmorang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the distribution of the vegetation indexes to estimate the carbon stocks of forest stands in the Production Forest of Lembah Seulawah sub-district. Aceh Province, Indonesia. A non-destructive method using allometric equations and landscape scale method were applied, where in carbon stocks at the points of samples are correlated with the index values of each transformation of the vegetation indexes; EVI and NDVI.  Results show that EVI values of study area from 0.05 to 0.90 and NDVI values from 0.17 to 0.85. The regression analysis between EVI with carbon stock value of sample locations equation is Y = 151.7X-39.76. with the coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.83. From this calculation, the total carbon stocks in the Production Forest area of Lembah Seulawah sub-district using EVI is estimated 790.344.41 tonnes, and the average value of carbon stocks in average is 51.48 tons per hectare.  Regression analysis between NDVI values at the research locations for the carbon stack measured samples is Y = 204.Xx-102.1 with coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.728. Total carbon stocks in production forest of Lembah Seulawah sub-district using NDVI is estimated 711.061.81 tones. and the average value of carbon stocks is 46.32 tons per hectare. From the above results it can be concluded that the vegetation indexes: EVI and NDVI are vegetation indexed that have a very close correlation with carbon stocks stands estimation. The correlation between EVI with carbon stock and the correlation between NDVI with carbon stock is not significantly different

  4. Semi-determinate growth habit adjusts the vegetative-to-reproductive balance and increases productivity and water-use efficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Mateus Henrique; Zsögön, Agustin; de Sá, Ariadne Felicio Lopo; Ribeiro, Rafael V; Peres, Lázaro E P

    2015-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) shows three growth habits: determinate, indeterminate and semi-determinate. These are controlled mainly by allelic variation in the self-pruning (SP) gene family, which also includes the "florigen" gene single flower TRUSS (SFT). Determinate cultivars have synchronized flower and fruit production, which allows mechanical harvesting in the tomato processing industry, whereas indeterminate ones have more vegetative growth with continuous flower and fruit formation, being thus preferred for fresh market tomato production. The semi-determinate growth habit is poorly understood, although there are indications that it combines advantages of determinate and indeterminate growth. Here, we used near-isogenic lines (NILs) in the cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) with different growth habit to characterize semi-determinate growth and to determine its impact on developmental and productivity traits. We show that semi-determinate genotypes are equivalent to determinate ones with extended vegetative growth, which in turn impacts shoot height, number of leaves and either stem diameter or internode length. Semi-determinate plants also tend to increase the highly relevant agronomic parameter Brix × ripe yield (BRY). Water-use efficiency (WUE), evaluated either directly as dry mass produced per amount of water transpired or indirectly through C isotope discrimination, was higher in semi-determinate genotypes. We also provide evidence that the increases in BRY in semi-determinate genotypes are a consequence of an improved balance between vegetative and reproductive growth, a mechanism analogous to the conversion of the overly vegetative tall cereal varieties into well-balanced semi-dwarf ones used in the Green Revolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of glucosinolate levels throughout the production chain of Brassica vegetables towards a novel predictive modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.

    2002-01-01

     Glucosinolates are a group of plant secondary metabolites, that can have important implications for human health. Vegetables of the Brassica genus, including cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and kohlrabi contribute almost exclusively to our intake of

  6. 21 CFR 101.77 - Health claims: fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain fiber, particularly soluble...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: fruits, vegetables, and grain... 101.77 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.77 Health claims...

  7. Transitions in high-Arctic vegetation growth patterns and ecosystem productivity tracked with automated cameras from 2000 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Pedersen, Stine Højlund

    2017-01-01

    Climate-induced changes in vegetation phenology at northern latitudes are still poorly understood. Continued monitoring and research are therefore needed to improve the understanding of abiotic drivers. Here we used 14 years of time lapse imagery and climate data from high-Arctic Northeast...

  8. Means-End Chains for low involvement food products: A study of Danish consumers' cognitions regarding different applications of vegetable oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Grunert, Klaus G.

    to the use of laddering with low involvement products (Durgee, 1986), the neglecting of the situational factor when doing laddering interviews (eg, Pieters, Steenkamp, & Wedel, 1992), and the lack of a from means-ends chains to constructs which ar e closer to the actual behaviour of consumers (Grunert...... & Gruenert, 1995). This paper reports on a study in which laddering was used to measure means-end chains for a low involvement product, explicitly controlling for situational factors. Also, a possible way of linking means-ends data to overall product percpetions is presented. The study is part of the Danish...... research project "Rape seed oil for human consumption". In Denmark, rape seed oil, li other vegetable oils, must be characterised as a low involvement product....

  9. Investigating the Relationship between the Inter-Annual Variability of Satellite-Derived Vegetation Phenology and a Proxy of Biomass Production in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Meroni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Sahel region, moderate to coarse spatial resolution remote sensing time series are used in early warning monitoring systems with the aim of detecting unfavorable crop and pasture conditions and informing stakeholders about impending food security risks. Despite growing evidence that vegetation productivity is directly related to phenology, most approaches to estimate such risks do not explicitly take into account the actual timing of vegetation growth and development. The date of the start of the season (SOS or of the peak canopy density can be assessed by remote sensing techniques in a timely manner during the growing season. However, there is limited knowledge about the relationship between vegetation biomass production and these variables at the regional scale. This study describes the first attempt to increase our understanding of such a relationship through the analysis of phenological variables retrieved from SPOT-VEGETATION time series of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR. Two key phenological variables (growing season length (GSL; timing of SOS and the maximum value of FAPAR attained during the growing season (Peak are analyzed as potentially related to a proxy of biomass production (CFAPAR, the cumulative value of FAPAR during the growing season. GSL, SOS and Peak all show different spatial patterns of correlation with CFAPAR. In particular, GSL shows a high and positive correlation with CFAPAR over the whole Sahel (mean r = 0.78. The negative correlation between delays in SOS and CFAPAR is stronger (mean r = −0.71 in the southern agricultural band of the Sahel, while the positive correlation between Peak FAPAR and CFAPAR is higher in the northern and more arid grassland region (mean r = 0.75. The consistency of the results and the actual link between remote sensing-derived phenological parameters and biomass production were evaluated using field measurements of aboveground herbaceous biomass

  10. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  11. Treeline advances and associated shifts in the ground vegetation alter fine root dynamics and mycelia production in the South and Polar Urals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily F; Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel A; Andreyashkina, Nelly I; Devi, Nadezhda M; Göransson, Hans; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Trubina, Marina R; Schweingruber, Fritz H; Wilmking, Martin; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Climate warming is shifting the elevational boundary between forests and tundra upwards, but the related belowground responses are poorly understood. In the pristine South and Polar Urals with shifts of the treeline ecotone documented by historical photographs, we investigated fine root dynamics and production of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) along four elevational transects reaching from the closed forest to the treeless tundra. In addition, we analysed elevational differences in climate and vegetation structure, and excavated trees to estimate related changes in the partitioning between below- and aboveground biomass. Fine root biomass of trees (<2 mm) increased by 13-79% with elevation, paralleled by a 35-72% increase in ground vegetation fine roots from the closed forest to the tundra. During the first year of decomposition, mass loss of fine root litter from different vegetation types was greater at lower elevations in the forest-tundra ecotone. The ratio between fine roots of trees and stem biomass largely increased with elevation in both regions, but these increases were not accompanied by a distinct production of EMM. Production of EMM, however, increased with the presence of ectomycorrhizal trees at the transition from the tundra to the forest. Our results imply that the recorded upward expansion of forest into former tundra in the Ural Mountains by 4-8 m per decade is decreasing the partitioning of plant biomass to fine roots. They further suggest that climate-driven forest advances will alter EMM production rates with potential feedbacks on soil carbon and nutrient cycling in these ecosystems.

  12. Biohydrogen from thermophilic co-fermentation of swine manure with fruit and vegetable waste: maximizing stable production without pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, A; Schievano, A; Perazzolo, F; Adani, F; Oberti, R

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen production by dark fermentation may suffer of inhibition or instability due to pH deviations from optimality. The co-fermentation of promptly degradable feedstock with alkali-rich materials, such as livestock wastes, may represent a feasible and easy to implement approach to avoid external adjustments of pH. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio of fruit-vegetable waste with swine manure with the aim of maximizing biohydrogen production while obtaining process stability through the endogenous alkalinity of manure. Fruit-vegetable/swine manure ratio of 35/65 and HRT of 2d resulted to give the highest production rate of 3.27 ± 0.51 L(H2)L(-1)d(-1), with a corresponding hydrogen yield of 126 ± 22 mL(H2)g(-1)(VS-added) and H2 content in the biogas of 42 ± 5%. At these operating conditions the process exhibited also one of the highest measured stability, with daily productions deviating for less than 14% from the average. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved method for the determination of biogenic amines and polyamines in vegetable products by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavizzari, Tommaso; Teresa Veciana-Nogués, Maria; Bover-Cid, Sara; Mariné-Font, Abel; Carmen Vidal-Carou, Maria

    2006-09-29

    Here, we report on the optimisation and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for the determination of 12 biologically active amines from vegetal food products in a single 40-min run. The suitability of the method was checked in five vegetal products of distinct matrix: spinach (leaves), hazelnut (high protein and fat content), banana, potato (high starch content), and milk chocolate (processed). Sample preparation consisted of a 0.6 M perchloric acid extraction from a minced homogeneous aliquot. For samples with high starch content, a previous mild hydrolytic treatment was required to prevent gel formation. The range of linearity was from 0.1 to 10 mg/l, except for serotonin and spermine (from 0.5 to 10 mg/l), and the correlation coefficient was higher than 0.997 (P < 0.001) for all standard curves. The detection limits and the determination limit were below 0.07 and 0.2 mg/l, respectively, except for spermine, which was 0.14 and 0.4 mg/l. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the relative standard deviation obtained for each amine in each product was acceptable according to Horwitz. Recovery was between 77 and 110% for all amines, irrespective of the product.

  14. Water level, vegetation composition, and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Merten; Augustin, Jürgen; Burlo, Andrei; Yarmashuk, Tatsiana; Chuvashova, Hanna; Thiele, Annett; Freibauer, Annette; Tikhonov, Vitalij; Hoffmann, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Peat extraction leaves a land surface with a strong relief of deep cutover areas and higher ridges. Rewetting inundates the deep parts, while less deeply extracted zones remain at or above the water level. In temperate fens the flooded areas are colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis dependent on water depth. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported as large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. Here, we analyze the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse gas emissions were measured campaign-wise with manual chambers every 2 to 4 weeks for 2 years and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions generally increased with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Mesotrophic small sedge reeds with water table around the land surface were small GHG sources in the range of 2.3 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. Eutrophic tall sedge - Typha latifolia reeds on newly formed floating mats were substantial net GHG emitters in the range of 25.1 to 39.1 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr. They represent transient vegetation stages. Phragmites reeds ranged between -1.7 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1 with an overall mean GHG emission of 1.3 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. The annual CO2 balance was best explained by vegetation biomass, which includes the role of vegetation composition and species. Methane emissions were obviously driven by biological activity of vegetation and soil organisms. Shallow flooding of cutover temperate fens is a suitable measure to arrive at low GHG emissions. Phragmites australis establishment should be promoted in deeper flooded areas and will lead to moderate, but

  15. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  16. Thermal and Fluid Dynamic Analysis within a Batch Micro-Reactor for Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels represent an alternative solution to petroleum-based fuels. In particular, biodiesel is very interesting, especially if it is produced from waste vegetable oil. Biodiesel can be used in diesel engines. The aim of this work is to implement a 2D numerical analysis in Comsol Multiphysics in order to verify an uniform temperature field within a non-isothermal batch mixed micro-reactor. An immersion heater system has been studied as a suitable solution to increase the temperature of WVO (Waste Vegetable Oil before the start of the transesterification reaction. Thus, the efficiency of the immersion heating system has been investigated. The results show that the temperature field is not uniform within the fluid domain, because of the convective flux with the external environment. These conditions could lead to a low overall conversion rate.

  17. Bioagents and Commercial Algae Products as Integrated Biocide Treatments for Controlling Root Rot Diseases of Some Vegetables under Protected Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar M. Abdel-Kader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated commercial blue-green algae extracts and bioagents treatments against vegetables root rot incidence when used as soil drench under greenhouse and plastic house conditions were evaluated. All applied treatments reduced significantly root rot incidence at both pre- and postemergence growth stages of cucumber, cantaloupe, tomato, and pepper plants compared with untreated check control. In pot experiment, the obtained results showed that treatments of Trichoderma harzianum or Bacillus subtilis either alone or combined with commercial algae extracts were significantly superior for reducing root rot disease for two tested vegetable plants compared with the other tested treatments as well as control. It is also observed that rising concentrations of either algae products, Oligo-X or Weed-Max, were reflected in more disease reduction. Promising treatments for controlling root rot disease incidence were applied under plastic houses conditions. As for field trails carried out under plastic houses conditions at different locations, the obtained results revealed that the applied combined treatments significantly reduced root rot incidence compared with fungicide and check control treatments. At all locations it was observed that Weed-Max (2 g/L + Bacillus subtilis significantly reduced disease incidence of grown vegetables compared with Oligo-X (2 mL/L + Trichoderma harzianum treatments. An obvious yield increase in all treatments was significantly higher than in the control. Also, the harvested yield in applied combined treatments at all locations was significantly higher than that in the fungicide and control treatments.

  18. Remote-sensing Estimates of Evapotranspiration, its partitioning and Gross Primary Productivity using Solar-Induced Fluorescence and Vegetation Optical Depth (148145)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemohammad, S. H.; Gentine, P.; Fang, B.; Green, J.; Konings, A. G.; Kolassa, J.; Prigent, C.; Aires, F.

    2016-12-01

    We will present a new method to estimate monthly GPP, evapotranspiration as well as its partitioning (transpiration and evaporation) using the GOME-2 Solar-induced Fluorescence (SIF) product along with microwave Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) data sets. The retrieval is based on a new statical method using a Bayesian Neural Network (NN). The prior information is obtained using a Triple Collocation (TC) algorithms, which is used to weight different data according to their likelihood and quality. The retrieval compares very favorably against eddy-covariance towers and highlights errors in other remote sensing products and in particular regional biases. This product can be used to improve ecosystem and land-surface models, and in particular their seasonal and internal variability.

  19. Production of Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Bacillus thuringiensis Vegetative Insecticidal Protein Vip3Aa16

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, D.; Sauer, A.; Abdelkafi-Mesrati, L.; Jaoua, S; Dietrich, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a quantitative determination of the vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A from the culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis either by ELISA or by the conventional quantification method of the Western blot band. The Vip3A protein was produced by fermentation of the B. thuringiensis reference strain BUPM95 in 3 L. By Western blot, the Vip3Aa16 toxin was detected in the culture supernatant during the exponential growth phase of B. thuringiensis BUPM95. ...

  20. Quality-related enzymes in fruit and vegetable products: effects of novel food processing technologies, part 1: high-pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    The activity of endogenous deteriorative enzymes together with microbial growth (with associated enzymatic activity) and/or other non-enzymatic (usually oxidative) reactions considerably shorten the shelf life of fruits and vegetable products. Thermal processing is commonly used by the food industry for enzyme and microbial inactivation and is generally effective in this regard. However, thermal processing may cause undesirable changes in product's sensory as well as nutritional attributes. Over the last 20 years, there has been a great deal of interest shown by both the food industry and academia in exploring alternative food processing technologies that use minimal heat and/or preservatives. One of the technologies that have been investigated in this context is high-pressure processing (HPP). This review deals with HPP focusing on its effectiveness for controlling quality-degrading enzymes in horticultural products. The scientific literature on the effects of HPP on plant enzymes, mechanism of action, and intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the effectiveness of HPP for controlling plant enzymes is critically reviewed. HPP inactivates vegetative microbial cells at ambient temperature conditions, resulting in a very high retention of the nutritional and sensory characteristics of the fresh product. Enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and pectin methylesterase (PME) are highly resistant to HPP and are at most partially inactivated under commercially feasible conditions, although their sensitivity towards pressure depends on their origin as well as their environment. Polygalacturonase (PG) and lipoxygenase (LOX) on the other hand are relatively more pressure sensitive and can be substantially inactivated by HPP at commercially feasible conditions. The retention and activation of enzymes such as PME by HPP can be beneficially used for improving the texture and other quality attributes of processed horticultural products as well as

  1. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  2. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  3. Volatile Composition and Enantioselective Analysis of Chiral Terpenoids of Nine Fruit and Vegetable Fibres Resulting from Juice Industry By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Marsol-Vall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable fibres resulting as by-products of the fruit juice industry have won popularity because they can be valorised as food ingredients. In this regard, bioactive compounds have already been studied but little attention has been paid to their remaining volatiles. Considering all the samples, 57 volatiles were identified. Composition greatly differed between citrus and noncitrus fibres. The former presented over 90% of terpenoids, with limonene being the most abundant and ranging from 52.7% in lemon to 94.0% in tangerine flesh. Noncitrus fibres showed more variable compositions, with the predominant classes being aldehydes in apple (57.5% and peach (69.7%, esters (54.0% in pear, and terpenoids (35.3% in carrot fibres. In addition, enantioselective analysis of some of the chiral terpenoids present in the fibre revealed that the enantiomeric ratio for selected compounds was similar to the corresponding volatile composition of raw fruits and vegetables and some derivatives, with the exception of terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, which showed variation, probably due to the drying process. The processing to which fruit residues were submitted produced fibres with low volatile content for noncitrus products. Otherwise, citrus fibres analysed still presented a high volatile composition when compared with noncitrus ones.

  4. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  5. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  6. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  7. Sweet corn water productivity under several deficit irrigation regimes applied during vegetative growth stage using treated wastewater as water irrigation source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Rami, A.; Laajaj, K.

    2012-01-01

    Yield and Crop Water Productivity are crucial issues in sustainable agriculture, especially in high-demand resource crops such as sweet corn. This study was conducted to investigate agronomic responses such as plant growth, yield and soil parameters (EC and Nitrate accumulation) to several deficit.......4% in terms of dry grain yield, 10.5% in terms of number of ears per plant, 11.5% for the 1000 grains weight and 19% in terms of crop water productivity compared with fully irrigated treatment. While those parameters in addition to root, shoot and plant height has been affected by deficit irrigation during...... vegetative growth stage when increasing water stress degree more than 50% of ETm....

  8. Rhizobium Promotes Non-Legumes Growth and Quality in Several Production Steps: Towards a Biofertilization of Edible Raw Vegetables Healthy for Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fraile, Paula; Carro, Lorena; Robledo, Marta; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Flores-Félix, José-David; Fernández, María Teresa; Mateos, Pedro F.; Rivas, Raúl; Igual, José Mariano; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Peix, Álvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2012-01-01

    The biofertilization of crops with plant-growth-promoting microorganisms is currently considered as a healthy alternative to chemical fertilization. However, only microorganisms safe for humans can be used as biofertilizers, particularly in vegetables that are raw consumed, in order to avoid sanitary problems derived from the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the final products. In the present work we showed that Rhizobium strains colonize the roots of tomato and pepper plants promoting their growth in different production stages increasing yield and quality of seedlings and fruits. Our results confirmed those obtained in cereals and alimentary oil producing plants extending the number of non-legumes susceptible to be biofertilized with rhizobia to those whose fruits are raw consumed. This is a relevant conclusion since safety of rhizobia for human health has been demonstrated after several decades of legume inoculation ensuring that they are optimal bacteria for biofertilization. PMID:22675441

  9. Rhizobium promotes non-legumes growth and quality in several production steps: towards a biofertilization of edible raw vegetables healthy for humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García-Fraile

    Full Text Available The biofertilization of crops with plant-growth-promoting microorganisms is currently considered as a healthy alternative to chemical fertilization. However, only microorganisms safe for humans can be used as biofertilizers, particularly in vegetables that are raw consumed, in order to avoid sanitary problems derived from the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the final products. In the present work we showed that Rhizobium strains colonize the roots of tomato and pepper plants promoting their growth in different production stages increasing yield and quality of seedlings and fruits. Our results confirmed those obtained in cereals and alimentary oil producing plants extending the number of non-legumes susceptible to be biofertilized with rhizobia to those whose fruits are raw consumed. This is a relevant conclusion since safety of rhizobia for human health has been demonstrated after several decades of legume inoculation ensuring that they are optimal bacteria for biofertilization.

  10. Monitoring land surface albedo and vegetation dynamics using high spatial and temporal resolution synthetic time series from Landsat and the MODIS BRDF/NBAR/albedo product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingson; Kim, JiHyun; Erb, Angela M.; Gao, Feng; Roman, Miguel O.; Yang, Yun; Petroy, Shelley; Taylor, Jeffrey; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Papuga, Shirley A.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal vegetation phenology can significantly alter surface albedo which in turn affects the global energy balance and the albedo warming/cooling feedbacks that impact climate change. To monitor and quantify the surface dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes, high temporal and spatial resolution synthetic time series of albedo and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were generated from the 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational Collection V006 daily BRDF/NBAR/albedo products and 30 m Landsat 5 albedo and near-nadir reflectance data through the use of the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The traditional Landsat Albedo (Shuai et al., 2011) makes use of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo products (MCD43) by assigning appropriate BRDFs from coincident MODIS products to each Landsat image to generate a 30 m Landsat albedo product for that acquisition date. The available cloud free Landsat 5 albedos (due to clouds, generated every 16 days at best) were used in conjunction with the daily MODIS albedos to determine the appropriate 30 m albedos for the intervening daily time steps in this study. These enhanced daily 30 m spatial resolution synthetic time series were then used to track albedo and vegetation phenology dynamics over three Ameriflux tower sites (Harvard Forest in 2007, Santa Rita in 2011 and Walker Branch in 2005). These Ameriflux sites were chosen as they are all quite nearby new towers coming on line for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and thus represent locations which will be served by spatially paired albedo measures in the near future. The availability of data from the NEON towers will greatly expand the sources of tower albedometer data available for evaluation of satellite products. At these three Ameriflux tower sites the synthetic time series of broadband shortwave albedos were evaluated using the tower albedo measurements with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) less than 0

  11. Monitoring land surface albedo and vegetation dynamics using high spatial and temporal resolution synthetic time series from Landsat and the MODIS BRDF/NBAR/albedo product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Kim, JiHyun; Erb, Angela M.; Gao, Feng; Román, Miguel O.; Yang, Yun; Petroy, Shelley; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Papuga, Shirley A.

    2017-07-01

    Seasonal vegetation phenology can significantly alter surface albedo which in turn affects the global energy balance and the albedo warming/cooling feedbacks that impact climate change. To monitor and quantify the surface dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes, high temporal and spatial resolution synthetic time series of albedo and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were generated from the 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational Collection V006 daily BRDF/NBAR/albedo products and 30 m Landsat 5 albedo and near-nadir reflectance data through the use of the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The traditional Landsat Albedo (Shuai et al., 2011) makes use of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo products (MCD43) by assigning appropriate BRDFs from coincident MODIS products to each Landsat image to generate a 30 m Landsat albedo product for that acquisition date. The available cloud free Landsat 5 albedos (due to clouds, generated every 16 days at best) were used in conjunction with the daily MODIS albedos to determine the appropriate 30 m albedos for the intervening daily time steps in this study. These enhanced daily 30 m spatial resolution synthetic time series were then used to track albedo and vegetation phenology dynamics over three Ameriflux tower sites (Harvard Forest in 2007, Santa Rita in 2011 and Walker Branch in 2005). These Ameriflux sites were chosen as they are all quite nearby new towers coming on line for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and thus represent locations which will be served by spatially paired albedo measures in the near future. The availability of data from the NEON towers will greatly expand the sources of tower albedometer data available for evaluation of satellite products. At these three Ameriflux tower sites the synthetic time series of broadband shortwave albedos were evaluated using the tower albedo measurements with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) less than 0.013 and a

  12. Energy from Biomass - Comparision of biogas production at ambient temperature and at mesophilic temperature in semicontenous anaerobic digester using vegetable market waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanalakshmi Sridevi V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies are conducted in semicontinuous anaerobic reactors of 2 L Capacity with effective volume of 1.5 L. Experiments were carried out in the mesophilic temperature range maintained at 35°C in a thermostat, and parallel experiments were performed at ambient temperature on biogas production from the month of Februray to August. The reactors were operated with an organic loading rate of 0.5 gVS/L/d with 25 days HRT. The feed stock used for the study was vegetable market waste obtained from Koyambedu vegetable market. The specific biogas production was found to be 0.530 L gVS add-1 for the reactor operated at mesophilic temperature and in the range of 0.431 to 0.732 L gVSadd -1 for the reactor operated in the ambient temperature condition from the month of February to August. The daily biogas production was found to be similar (approximately 350 mL/d when reactors were operated at mesophilic and ambient temperature except for the period of May and June wherein higher amount of daily biogas production (472 and 529 mL/d was observed in the reactor operated at ambient temperature. The ratio of total VFA and alkalinity and propionic acid to acetic acid (PA/AA was found to be in the range of 0.25 – 0.4 and 0.34 - 1.38 during the operation of the reactor for the entire period, which was within the range reported for digester stability.

  13. Carbonaceous material production from vegetable residue and their use in the removal of textile dyes present in wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Cid, A. A.; Tlalpa-Galán, M. A.; Herrera-González, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the adsorption results of acid, basic, direct, vat, and reactive-type dyes on carbonaceous adsorbent materials prepared starting off vegetable residue such as Opuntia ficus indica and Casimiroa edulis fruit wastes. The adsorbents prepared from Opuntia ficus indica waste were designated: TunaAsh, CarTunaT, and CarTunaQ. The materials obtained from Casimiroa edulis waste were named: CenZAP, CarZAPT, and CarZAPQ. TunaAsh and CenZAP consist of ashes obtained at 550 °C CarTunaT and CarZAPT consist of the materials carbonized at 400 °C lastly, CarTunaQ and CarZAPQ consist of chemically activated carbons using H3PO4 at 400 °C. Only the chemically activated materials were washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was obtained after their carbonization. All materials were ground and sieved to obtain a particle size ranging from 0.25 to 0.84 mm. The static adsorption results showed that both ashes and chemically activated carbon are more efficient at dye removal for both vegetable residues. For TunaAsh and CarTunaQ, removal rates of up to 100% in the cases of basic, acid, and direct dyes were achieved. Regarding wastewater containing reactive dyes, the efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%. For vat effluents, it ranged from 42 to 52%. In the case of CenZAP and CarZAPQ, it was possible to treat reactive effluents with rates ranging between 63 and 91%. Regarding vat effluents, it ranged from 57 to 68%. The process of characterization for all materials was done using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Soil quality is key for planning and managing urban allotments intended for the sustainable production of home-consumption vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzel, F; Calderisi, M; Scatena, M; Pini, R

    2016-09-01

    The growing importance of urban allotments in planning and managing urban areas is due to the combined positive effects on ecosystem services, the economy and human well-being, especially of groups of the urban population that can be vulnerable (e.g. the elderly, immigrants, low-income families). Some studies have highlighted the potential risk of contamination by metals of vegetables grown in urban areas and the lack of appropriate site-specific risk assessments. However, surveys are still lacking on the possibilities of using urban soil as a good substrate to produce vegetables for home consumption. We assessed the soil quality in two areas in Pisa (Italy), one intended for urban horticulture and the other already cultivated for that purpose. We analysed the soils for the main chemical and physical characteristics (texture, bulk density, water stability index, pH, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorous) and elements (Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, K, Al and Mn). Our results showed that both areas had physical and chemical heterogeneity due to the effects of urbanization and to the different cultivation techniques employed. The metal content was lower than the guidelines limits, and the soil conditions (pH = 8) greatly reduced the metal mobility. Copper concentration in some of the cultivated area samples was higher than the limits, representing a possible stress factor for the microbial biodiversity and fauna. Our findings demonstrate that site-specific surveys are necessary before planning urban cultivation areas, and educating urban gardeners regarding sustainable cultivation techniques is a priority for a safe environment.

  15. Climate change and its impacts on vegetation distribution and net primary productivity of the alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingzhu; Guo, Yaqi; Xu, Hongmei; Ganjurjav, Hasbagen; Li, Yue; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Liu, Shuo

    2016-06-01

    Changes in climate have caused impacts on ecosystems on all continents scale, and climate change is also projected to be a stressor on most ecosystems even at the rate of low- to medium-range warming scenarios. Alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is vulnerable to climate change. To quantify the climate change impacts on alpine ecosystems, we simulated the vegetation distribution and net primary production in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for three future periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) using climate projection for RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ model) was parameter and test to make it applicable to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Climate projections that were applied to LPJ model in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. Results based on climate projections indicated changes from 1.3°C to 4.2°C in annual temperature and changes from 2% to 5% in annual precipitation. The main impacts on vegetation distribution was increase in the area of forests and shrubs, decrease in alpine meadows which mainly replaced by shrubs which dominated the eastern plateau, and expanding in alpine steppes to the northwest dominated the western and northern plateau. The NPP was projected to increase by 79% and 134% under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The projected NPP generally increased about 200gC·m(-2)·yr(-1) in most parts of the plateau with a gradual increase from the eastern to the western region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at the end of this century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vegetation Dynamics in the Watershed of Salt Pond, Falmouth, Massachusetts in the Aftermath of a Large Paleostorm and Subsequent Wildfire Inferred from Lignin Oxidation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M. L.; Blair, N. E.; Donnelly, J. P.; Hawkes, A. D.; Cederberg, J.

    2010-12-01

    Large storms, such as tropical cyclones and nor’easters, are natural threats in the northeastern United States. Extreme storms are particularly destructive to vegetation communities. Large storms may drive changes in vegetation dynamics in the northeastern United States by clearing ecological space that can be repopulated by species better adapted to the present climatic conditions. We analyzed lignin oxidation product (LOP) distributions in sediments deposited before, during, and after the largest storm deposit (~1350 yr BP) in the 1840-year sedimentary record from Salt Pond, Falmouth, MA to investigate the impact of that event on plant community composition. Salt Pond is a meromictic lake with anoxic bottom waters that occupies a kettle basin and is separated from Vineyard Sound (part of the Atlantic Ocean) by a baymouth bar. Sand and coarse silt (>32μm) are deposited in the pond when storm surge height exceeds the height of the barrier (presently ~2m). The sediment core analyzed is located 500m from Vineyard Sound. LOPs change in response to the storm event. Shortly after the storm (gymnosperm tissue relative to sediments deposited before the event. This material is also more degraded suggesting downed material. A second change in LOP distributions occurs in the sedimentary sequence directly following a charcoal-rich layer deposited after the storm and is consistent with a succession of plant communities where non-woody angiosperms are the first plants to colonize, followed by woody gymnosperms, and finally a mixed angiosperm and gymnosperm ecosystem. The change in vegetation inputs to the pond reflects a combination of effects caused by the large storm and a subsequent fire fueled by downed wood. This sequence illustrates that ecosystem composition can be impacted not only by a major event but also secondary responses to the event.

  17. Use of the product of mean intensity ratio (PMIR) technique for discriminant analysis of lycopene-rich vegetable juice using a portable NIR-excited Raman spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Risa; Ishigaki, Mika; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Genkawa, Takuma

    2018-02-15

    In this study, a lycopene-content-based discriminant analysis was performed using a portable near-infrared-excited Raman spectrometer. In the vegetable-juice Raman spectra, the peak intensity of the lycopene band increased with increasing lycopene concentration, but scattering decreased the repeatability of the peak intensity. Consequently, developing a lycopene-concentration regression model using peak intensity is not straightforward. Therefore, a new method known as the product of mean intensity ratio (PMIR) analysis was developed to rapidly identify lycopene-rich samples on-site. In the PMIR analysis, Raman spectra are measured with short exposure times, confirming only the peaks of carotenoids with high concentrations, and thus the lycopene concentrations of vegetable juice samples could be determined successfully. Exposure times of 20ms and 100ms could detect lycopene concentrations of ≥5mg/100g and ≥2mg/100g with 93.2% and 97.7% accuracy, respectively; thus, lycopene-content-based discriminant analysis using the PMIR and a portable Raman spectrometer is feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiological quality of pre-cut fruit, sprouted seeds, and unpasteurised fruit and vegetable juices from retail and production premises in the UK, and the application of HAACP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2004-09-01

    A study of ready-to-eat pre-cut fruit, sprouted seeds, and unpasteurised fruit and vegetable juices from retail and production premises was undertaken in the UK to determine the microbiological quality of these products, and to verify the application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) procedures by food operators. Almost all (99%; 2,075/2,096) samples were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality. Two (0.1%) samples (melon, beansprouts) were of unacceptable quality due to the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at 102 cfu/g or more while a further 19 (0.9%) were unsatisfactory due to Escherichia coli levels in the range of 102 to 106 cfu/g. Neither Salmonella spp. nor E. coli O157 were detected in samples examined. A hazard analysis system was in place in most (85%) premises visited, and in 80% it was documented. Most managers (83%) had received some form of food hygiene training. Minimally processed produce is exposed to a range of conditions during production and distribution, and this may increase the potential for microbial contamination, highlighting the need of applying good hygiene practices from farm to fork to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth. Such products should be stored and displayed at or below 8 degrees C.

  19. Assessment of agricultural crops and natural vegetation in Scotland for energy production by anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biller, Patrick; Lawson, David; Madsen, René Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    The current paper investigates the use of natural vegetation and agricultural crops commonly found in Scotland as a source of bioenergy. Such biomass is shown to have a high moisture content upon harvest (∼80%) which renders them suitable for wet conversion technologies such as anaerobic digestion...... conversion efficiencies of HTL and AD for different biomass feedstocks are also shown to be an important factor on the overall energy potential. AD averages a mass to energy conversion of 9.1 GJ/t compared to 7.2 GJ/t for HTL. A combination of AD and HTL is investigated by liquefying digestate from rye...... upon harvesting from 1.1 t/ha (dry matter) for bracken to a maximum of 17.5 t/ha for winter rye. These area specific yields are the most influential factor in the final energy yield per area. Area specific energy yields are found to average at 67 GJ/ha for AD and 53 GJ/ha for HTL. The respective...

  20. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2011-08-01

    Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P crop content of the outdoor hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items.

  2. Biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and fruit and vegetable waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavi, Suelen; Kramer, Luis Eduardo; Gomes, Luciana Paulo; Miranda, Luis Alcides Schiavo

    2017-03-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was evaluated in terms of biogas and methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal rate and stability of the process. The batch experiment was conducted in mesophilic conditions (35°C), with four different OFMSW/FVW ratios (VS basis) of 1/0, 1/1, 1/3, and 0/1. The methane yield from the co-digestion was higher than the mono-digestion for OFMSW and FVW. The optimal mixing ratio of OFMSW/FVW was found to be 1/3. The average cumulative biogas and methane yield in this condition was 493.8NmL/gVS and 396.6NmL/gVS, respectively, and the VS removal rate was 54.6%. Compared with the mono-digestion of OFMSW and FVW, the average increase in methane yield was 141% and 43.8%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combining livestock production information in a process-based vegetation model to reconstruct the history of grassland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Campioli, Matteo; Zhang, Xianzhou; Bai, Yongfei; Viovy, Nicolas; Joiner, Joanna; Wang, Xuhui; Peng, Shushi; Yue, Chao; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Peregon, Anna; Kosykh, Natalya; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Grassland management type (grazed or mown) and intensity (intensive or extensive) play a crucial role in the greenhouse gas balance and surface energy budget of this biome, both at field scale and at large spatial scale. However, global gridded historical information on grassland management intensity is not available. Combining modelled grass-biomass productivity with statistics of the grass-biomass demand by livestock, we reconstruct gridded maps of grassland management intensity from 1901 to 2012. These maps include the minimum area of managed vs. maximum area of unmanaged grasslands and the fraction of mown vs. grazed area at a resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°. The grass-biomass demand is derived from a livestock dataset for 2000, extended to cover the period 1901-2012. The grass-biomass supply (i.e. forage grass from mown grassland and biomass grazed) is simulated by the process-based model ORCHIDEE-GM driven by historical climate change, rising CO2 concentration, and changes in nitrogen fertilization. The global area of managed grassland obtained in this study increases from 6.1 × 106 km2 in 1901 to 12.3 × 106 km2 in 2000, although the expansion pathway varies between different regions. ORCHIDEE-GM also simulated augmentation in global mean productivity and herbage-use efficiency over managed grassland during the 20th century, indicating a general intensification of grassland management at global scale but with regional differences. The gridded grassland management intensity maps are model dependent because they depend on modelled productivity. Thus specific attention was given to the evaluation of modelled productivity against a series of observations from site-level net primary productivity (NPP) measurements to two global satellite products of gross primary productivity (GPP) (MODIS-GPP and SIF data). Generally, ORCHIDEE-GM captures the spatial pattern, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability of grassland productivity at global scale well and thus is

  4. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacks Frank M

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pressure with lower sodium intake for both diet groups. Although some critics would argue otherwise, these findings provide important new evidence for the value of the DASH diet and sodium reduction in controlling blood pressure.

  5. Validated UPLC-MS/MS Methods To Quantitate Free and Conjugated Alternaria Toxins in Commercially Available Tomato Products and Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walravens, Jeroen; Mikula, Hannes; Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan; Devos, Tom; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Diana Di Mavungu, José; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Saeger, Sarah

    2016-06-22

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe based analytical methodologies to quantitate both free (alternariol (1), alternariol monomethyl ether (2), tenuazonic acid (3), tentoxin (4), altenuene (5), altertoxin-I (6)) and conjugated (sulfates and glucosides of 1 and 2) Alternaria toxins in fruit and vegetable juices and tomato products were developed and validated. Acceptable limits of quantitation (0.7-5.7 μg/kg), repeatability (RSDr Alternaria toxins (sulfates of 1 and 2) were repeatedly detected. A deterministic dietary exposure assessment revealed the possible risk for human health related to the presence of 1 and 2 in tomato based foodstuffs, whereas 3 is unlikely to be of human health concern.

  6. Study of floristic diversity and the structural dynamics of some species providers of non woody forest products in the vegetable formations of the Centre East of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, J M K; Gnoula, C; Zerbo, P; Simpore, J; Nikiema, J B; Canini, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of certain species providing Non Woody Forest Products (NWFP) in the Centre East of Burkina Faso. This study aims to determine the state of the resources in Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa. For this purpose, an inventory of the vegetation was carried out in circular pieces of land of 1250 m2, as a sample of the zone of work, based on the chart of occupation of the grounds. We are identified 158 species comprising 90 genera and 47 families. Those species represent more than 90% of the trees from which various parts are used in food, traditional pharmacopeia and the craft industry. We also showed that because of the strong anthropisation of the zone, the bad pedoclimatic conditions and the permanent bush fires, the regeneration and growth of Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa are disturbed.

  7. Analysis of lignin oxidation products in a stalagmite from the Herbstlabyrinth-Adventshöhle in Germany and comparison with δ13C and other vegetation proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidke, Inken; Mischel, Simon A.; Scholz, Denis; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Lignin oxidation products (LOPs) are widely used as vegetation proxies in sediment cores and natural waters and can be found in speleothems, too. They not only indicate the quantity of vegetation, but also allow to differentiate between angiosperm and gymnosperm plant sources and woody and herbaceous plant material. Lignin is one of the main constituents of wood and woody plants. It is a biopolymer that mainly consists of three monomers, p-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. The proportion of these three monomers varies with the type of vegetation. To analyse the composition of lignin particles in speleothems, it is necessary to extract the speleothem samples, to digest the lignin polymer in order to split it into its monomeric oxidation products, and to quantify these LOPs.[1] In the method we are presenting here, stalagmite samples are dissolved in hydrochloric acid and the acidic solution is extracted by solid phase extraction. The resulting organic fraction is submitted to an alkaline cupric oxide oxidation using a microwave digestion system.[2] The LOPs are enriched by solid phase extraction and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HRMS). We used this method to analyse the 11000 years old stalagmite NG01 from the Herbstlabyrinth-Adventshöhle cave in Germany.[3] The stalagmite slab was cut in oblong pieces following the growth lines so that the sample weight was ca. 3-5 g and the sample length along the growth axis was ca. 1 cm, corresponding to a time resolution of ca. 200 years per sample. We present the first LOP record of a stalagmite as well as the method validation. The results of the LOP analysis were compared with records of δ13C, δ18O and trace elements of the same stalagmite analysed by Mischel et al. (2016).[3] References [1] C. N. Jex, G. H. Pate, A. J. Blyth, R. G. Spencer, P. J. Hernes, S. J. Khan, A. Baker, Quaternary Science Reviews

  8. Combining Livestock Production Information in a Process-Based Vegetation Model to Reconstruct the History of Grassland Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Campioli, Matteo; Zhang, Xianzhou; Bai, Yongfei; Viovy, Nicolas; Joiner, Joanna; Wang, Xuhui; hide

    2016-01-01

    Grassland management type (grazed or mown) and intensity (intensive or extensive) play a crucial role in the greenhouse gas balance and surface energy budget of this biome, both at field scale and at large spatial scale. However, global gridded historical information on grassland management intensity is not available. Combining modelled grass-biomass productivity with statistics of the grass-biomass demand by livestock, we reconstruct gridded maps of grassland management intensity from 1901 to 2012. These maps include the minimum area of managed vs. maximum area of unmanaged grasslands and the fraction of mown vs. grazed area at a resolution of 0.5deg by 0.5deg. The grass-biomass demand is derived from a livestock dataset for 2000, extended to cover the period 19012012. The grass-biomass supply (i.e. forage grass from mown grassland and biomass grazed) is simulated by the process-based model ORCHIDEE-GM driven by historical climate change, risingCO2 concentration, and changes in nitrogen fertilization. The global area of managed grassland obtained in this study increases from 6.1 x 10(exp 6) km(exp 2) in 1901 to 12.3 x 10(exp 6) kmI(exp 2) in 2000, although the expansion pathway varies between different regions. ORCHIDEE-GM also simulated augmentation in global mean productivity and herbage-use efficiency over managed grassland during the 20th century, indicating a general intensification of grassland management at global scale but with regional differences. The gridded grassland management intensity maps are model dependent because they depend on modelled productivity. Thus specific attention was given to the evaluation of modelled productivity against a series of observations from site-level net primary productivity (NPP) measurements to two global satellite products of gross primary productivity (GPP) (MODIS-GPP and SIF data). Generally, ORCHIDEE-GM captures the spatial pattern, seasonal cycle, and inter-annual variability of grassland productivity at global

  9. Prediction of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) population dynamics in Montana, USA, using satellite-driven vegetation productivity and weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Loehman; Joran Elias; Richard J. Douglass; Amy J. Kuenzi; James N. Mills; Kent Wagoner

    2012-01-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the main reservoir host for Sin Nombre virus, the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Sequential changes in weather and plant productivity (trophic cascades) have been noted as likely catalysts of deer mouse population irruptions, and monitoring and modeling of these phenomena may allow for...

  10. Application of a method of analysis of remote sensing data obtained by targeting the estimated productivity in cane for quantifying panela NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rueda Calier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity estimation sugar cane is very important for Colombian economy. The Net Primary Production (NPP model is applied on present investigation from Kumar & Monteith to regional scale. Analyzing spatiotemporal with geomantic techniques and edaphoclimatic environment characterization. Field surveys were conducted too, to acquire physiological information of plants evaluated and soil conditions of the plantation under study. The data acquired was input in ArcGIS10.1 software, to make processing these. A series thematic map was resulted from data processing from spatiotemporal distribution of plantation soil characteristics and biophysical characteristics. The variables fPAR, PAR, EUR was calculate from Kumar & Monteith efficiency model. Remote sensing and mathematic models related and fraction absorbed photosynthetically active radiation derivates from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and incident photosynthetically active radiation in land sensors recorded was calculated. Chemical and physical properties in laboratory tests were realized to soil, for relation knowledge between edaphoclimatic conditions and biophysical variables related with the sugar cane biomass gainer for Panela production. The information integrated from Geographic Information System (GIS and edaphic data and climatic data in country recorded, shows the behavior of the plantation as it develops.

  11. Maillard reaction products derived from thiol compounds as inhibitors of enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables: the structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaud, C; Maraschin, C; Peyrat-Maillard, M-N; Nicolas, J

    2005-06-01

    Some thiol-derived Maillard reaction products (MRPs) may exert antioxidant activity, depending on the reaction conditions as well as on the sugar and the sulphydryl compound. Recently, we reported that MRPs derived from glucose or fructose with cysteine (CSH) or glutathione (GSH) mixtures greatly inhibited polyphenoloxidases (PPOs), oxidoreductases responsible for discoloration of fresh or minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Glucose and GSH were shown to be the most active in producing inhibitory MRPs. Therefore, we examined the way in which the nature of the reactants affected their synthesis, in order to establish a structure-activity relationship for the inhibitory products. Various aqueous (0.083 M, 0.125 M, or 0.25 M) mixtures of a sugar (hexose, pentose, or diholoside) with either a CSH-related compound (CSH, GSH, N-acetyl-cysteine, cysteamine, cysteic acid, methyl-cysteine, cysteine methyl ester), an amino acid (gamma-glutamic acid, glycine, methionine), or other sulfur compound (thiourea, 1,4-dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol) were heated at 103 degrees C for 14 h. Soluble MRPs were compared for their ability to inhibit apple PPO activity. In the presence of CSH, the rated sugars (same molar concentration) ranked as to inhibitory effect were pentoses > sucrose > hexoses > or = maltose. In the presence of glucose, the simultaneous presence of an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a free thiol group on the same molecule seemed essential for the production of highly inhibitory compounds.

  12. Effect of Production Phase on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Feed Selection of Broilers Raised on Vegetable Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted of two experiments, conducted to assess the impact of phase at which vegetable protein (VP diets are introduced to broiler chicks, and preference of birds for diets based on soybean or canola meal (CM. Two hundred and ten day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into five dietary groups in the main experiment. One group was fed on animal protein (AP diet all through to 21 days of age; two other groups were started on AP diet for 7 days and then switched to diets containing soybean meal (AP-SBM or AP-CM, while two other diets (SBM-AP and CM-AP were started on one of the VP diets for 7 days and then switched to AP diet. A sub-experiment on thirty birds raised on a commercial diet to 7 days was used in a feed selection test to quantify the preference of birds for the diets containing mainly CM or SBM. Chicks were reared under similar care and management conditions and the diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Results of the main experiment showed that chicks on CM-AP diet ate more (p<0.05 than those on the other diets up to day 7. Body weight gain was highest (p<0.001 on the AP-SBM diet while birds on the CM-AP diet weighed the least at 7 d. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality, bone growth, visceral organ development, and activities of digestive enzymes were similar between the groups from hatch to 21 days of age. Results of the second sub-experiment showed that chicks preferred the CM-based diets to the SBM-based diets at 8 to 14 d (p<0.001 and 15 to 21 d (p<0.01 when given a choice. Overall, the birds were not affected by the nature of the starter diet although they tended to prefer the canola to soybean diets.

  13. The effect of dietary supplementation with dried fruit and vegetable pomaces on production parameters and meat quality in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieszka, Marek; Szczurek, Paulina; Bederska-Łojewska, Dorota; Migdał, Władysław; Pieszka, Magdalena; Gogol, Piotr; Jagusiak, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    The presence of biologically active substances in feed mixture is discussed to have beneficial effect on animals' health and products. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with dried apple, chokeberry, black currant, strawberry and carrot pomaces on production parameters and meat quality in fattening pigs. The use of dried pomaces of chokeberry showed tendencies for increased feed intake and reduced fattening period. The dried pomaces had no impact on saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids profile in meat, however in some groups an elevated level of polyunsaturated fatty acids from n-3 family and a decline in total cholesterol level was observed (P≤0.05). The highest oxidative stability and vitamin E content was found after supplementation with black currant (P≤0.05). Summarizing, the used dried pomaces improved several parameters related to meat quality, what might positively influence consumers' health. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in Grazed and Ungrazed pastures: Grazing Optimisation Hypothesis or Local Extinction of Vegetation Species

    OpenAIRE

    Silvanus G. Otieno; Njoka, Jesse T.; Young, Truman P; Mureithi, Stephen M.; Ngugi, Robinson K

    2009-01-01

    The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studies in the last few decades prompted our investigation to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisation hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is real. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional groups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savanna. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, ...

  15. Evolução das disparidades da extração vegetal e da silvicultura na Amazônia Legal: uma aplicação da cadeia de Markov The development of differences in vegetal extraction and silviculture production in the legal amazon: an application of Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bruno Nascimento dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a convergência municipal da produtividade vegetal (extração vegetal e silvicultura na região da Amazônia Legal entre os anos de 1996 e 2006. Para analisar a convergência, optou-se pela metodologia da matriz de transição de Markov (Processo Estacionário de Primeira Ordem de Markov. Os resultados mostram a existência de 13 classes de convergência da produtividade vegetal. No longo prazo, a hipótese de convergência absoluta não se mantém, visto que 68,23% dos municípios encontram-se numa classe inferior à média municipal, 33,54% em uma classe intermediária acima da média e 13,41% em uma classe superior acima da média.This paper analyzes the convergence of the municipalities vegetable productivity in the Legal Amazon region between 1996 and 2006. The convergence analyses use the Markov transition matrix methodology (First Order Stationary Markov Process. The results show that existence of 13 classes of vegetable productivity convergence. In the long run, the hypothesis of absolute convergence is not maintained, whereas 68.23% of the municipalities are in a class lower than the municipal average, 33.54% in an intermediate class above average and 13.41% in a class higher than average.

  16. Developing an automatic classification system of vegetation anomalies for early warning with the ASAP (Anomaly hot Spots of Agricultural Production) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Lemoine, G.

    2016-12-01

    Anomaly maps and time profiles of remote sensing derived indicators relevant to monitor crop and vegetation stress can be accessed online thanks to a rapidly growing number of web based portals. However, timely and systematic global analysis and coherent interpretation of such information, as it is needed for example for SDG 2 related monitoring, remains challenging. With the ASAP system (Anomaly hot Spots of Agricultural Production) we propose a two-step analysis to provide monthly warning of production deficits in water-limited agriculture worldwide. The first step is fully automated and aims at classifying each administrative unit (1st sub-national level) into a number of possible warning levels, ranging from "none" to "watch" and up to "extended alarm". The second step involves the verification of the automatic warnings and integration into a short national level analysis by agricultural analysts. In this paper we describe the methodological development of the automatic vegetation anomaly classification system. Warnings are triggered only during the crop growing season, defined by a remote sensing based phenology. The classification takes into consideration the fraction of the agricultural and rangelands area for each administrative unit that is affected by a severe anomaly of two rainfall-based indicators (the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), computed at 1 and 3-month scale) and one biophysical indicator (the cumulative NDVI from the start of the growing season). The severity of the warning thus depends on the timing, the nature and the number of indicators for which an anomaly is detected. The prototype system is using global NDVI images of the METOP sensor, while a second version is being developed based on 1km Modis NDVI with temporal smoothing and near real time filtering. Also a specific water balance model is under development to include agriculture water stress information in addition to the SPI. The monthly warning classification and crop

  17. Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activities to scale up production and consumption of African leafy vegetables have increased greatly in the recent past. What are the emerging issues in relationship to commercialization of these vegetables, given their previous unexploited state? The market share of ALVs vis-à-vis other vegetable species, particularly kales ...

  18. Next day Salmonella spp. detection method based on real-time PCR for meat, dairy and vegetable food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; Gonzalez-García, Patricia; Delibato, Elisabetta; De Medici, Dario; García-Gimeno, Rosa Maria; Valero, Antonio; Hernandez, Marta

    2014-08-01

    The microbiological standard for detection of Salmonella relies on several cultural steps and requires more than 5 days for final confirmation, and as consequence there is a need for an alternative rapid methodology for its detection. The aim of this study was to compare different detection strategies based on real-time PCR for a rapid and sensitive detection in an ample range of food products: raw pork and poultry meat, ready to eat lettuce salad and raw sheep milk cured cheese. Three main parameters were evaluated to reduce the time and cost for final results: the initial sample size (25 and 50 g), the incubation times (6, 10 and 18 h) and the bacterial DNA extraction (simple boiling of the culture after washing the bacterial pellet, the use of the Chelex resin, and a commercial silica column). The results obtained demonstrate that a combination of an incubation in buffered peptone water for 18 h of a 25 g-sample coupled to a DNA extraction by boiling and a real-time PCR assay detected down to 2-4 Salmonella spp.CFU per sample in less than 21 h in different types of food products. This RTi-PCR-based method is fully compatible with the ISO standard, providing results more rapidly and cost-effectively. The results were confirmed in a large number of naturally contaminated food samples with at least the same analytical performance as the reference method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Supplementation of Vegetable Oil Blends on Omega-3 Fatty Acid Production in Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan Vadivelan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were designed for improved production of mycelial omega-3 fatty acids with particular reference to EPA and DHA from the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15 under submerged low temperatures fermentation supplemented with linseed oil and garden cress oil as an additional energy source. The fungus was grown at 20°C temperature for four days initially followed by 12°C temperature for next five days. The basal medium contained starch, yeast extract, and a blend of linseed oil (LSO and garden cress oil (GCO in the ratio 1 : 1. Results of the study revealed that, after nine days of total incubation period, the enhancement of biomass was up to 16.7 g/L dry weight with a total lipid content of 55.4% (v/w. Enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids indicated a significant increase in fatty acid bioconversion (ALA 32.2±0.42%, EPA 7.9±0.1%, and DHA 4.09±0.2% by 2.5-fold. The two-stage temperature cultivation alters the fatty acid profile due to activation of the desaturase enzyme in the cellular levels due to which arachidonic acid (AA content reduced significantly. It can be concluded that Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15 is a fungal culture suitable for commercial production of PUFAs with enriched EPA and DHA.

  20. [Relationship between vegetable nutrition and nitrate content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihe; Wang, Zhengyin; Li, Baozhen

    2004-09-01

    Nitrate accumulation in vegetables, which related well to vegetable nutrition, becomes one of the limiting factors of non-pollution vegetables production. Preference to nitrate is the nutritional characteristic of vegetables. Nitrate is absorbed by vegetables through high-affinity transport system (HATS) and low-affinity transport system (LATS), and is reduced and transformed under the effect of such essential elements as molybdenum, manganese, iron, copper, sulphur and phosphorus. In this paper, the effects of essential elements on nitrate absorption and reductive transform were reviewed, and the relationships of nitrate accumulation in vegetables with vegetable nutrition of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and mid-and microelements as well as with balanced fertilization were discussed. The research keys in the field were prospected for controlling nitrate accumulation, improving vegetables' quality and producing non-pollution vegetables.

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Petrified Forest National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Petrified Forest National Park Vegetation Map Database was developed as a primary product in the Petrified Forest National Park Vegetation Classification,...

  2. Spatial Vegetation Data for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation Map Database was developed as a primary product in the Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation...

  3. Spatial Vegetation Data for Mesa Verde National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Mesa Verde National Park Vegetation Map Database was developed as a primary product in the Mesa Verde National Park Vegetation Classification, Distribution, and...

  4. Monitoring natural vegetation in Southern Greenland using NOAA AVHRR and field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf

    1991-01-01

    vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI......vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI...

  5. Effects of CO[sub 2] concentration on photosynthesis, transpiration and production of greenhouse fruit vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    1994-10-25

    The effect of the CO[sub 2] concentration of the greenhouse air (C) in the range 200 to 1100 [mu]mol mol[sup -1] was investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), grown in greenhouses. The effect of C on canopy net photosynthetic CO[sub 2] assimilation rate (or photosynthesis, P) was expressed by a set of regression equations, relating P to PAR, C and LAI. A rule of thumb ('CO[sub 2]-rule') was derived, approximating the relative increase of P caused by additional CO[sub 2] at a certain C. This CO[sub 2]-rule is: X = (1000/C)[sup 2] * 1.5 (X in % per 100 [mu]mol[sup -1], and C in [mu]mol mol[sup -1]). Two models for canopy photosynthesis were examined by comparing them with the experimental photosynthesis data. No 'midday depression' in P was observed. The effects of C on leaf conductance (g) and on rate of crop transpiration (E) were investigated. An increase of 100 I[mu]mol mol[sup -1] ' in C reduced g by about 3-4% in sweet pepper, tomato and cucumber and by about 11% in eggplant. The effect of C on E was analyzed by combining the regression equation for g with the Penman-Monteith equation for E. C had only a relatively small effect on E, owing to thermal and hydrological feedback effects. The decoupling of g and E was quantified. No time-dependent variation or 'midday depression' in E was observed, and no significant effect of C on average leaf temperature was established. In five experiments, the effect of C on growth and production and on specific features were analyzed; fruit production (dry weight) was most affected by C in sweet pepper; fresh weight fruit production per unit CO[sub 2] was highest in cucumber; fruit quality was not influenced by C. High C promoted the 'short leaves syndrome' in tomato and 'leaf tip chlorosis' in eggplant, probably related to calcium and boron translocation

  6. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Canadian samples of processed vegetable and dairy products by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.F.; Weber, D.F.

    An HPLC-fluorescence method was developed and used for the determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in samples of milled wheat, finished cereals, milk powders, malt, spinach, and cooking oils. Results showed that the bran portion of milled wheat as well as finished bran ceral had a considerably high PAH content than other fractions or finished products. The use of direct heating or drying milk powders and malt was found in some cases to lead to elevated levels of PAH, and these were found to correlate with levels of nitrosamines present. Three samples of spinach had very low levels of PAH while two of three types of cooking oils had levels of carcinogenic PAH in the low micrograms per kilogram range. 18 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Advantages of Using Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture over Gridded Precipitation Products and Land Surface Model Output in Assessing Regional Vegetation Water Availability and Growth Dynamics for a Lateral Inflow Receiving Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; McVicar, T.R.; Wang, G.J.; Chen, X.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Liu, Y.; Shen, H.; Zhang, F.; Dolman, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the understanding of water-vegetation relationships, direct comparative studies assessing the utility of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture, gridded precipitation products, and land surface model output are needed. A case study was investigated for a water-limited, lateral inflow

  8. Vegetable Peel Waste for the Production of ZnO Nanoparticles and its Toxicological Efficiency, Antifungal, Hemolytic, and Antibacterial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, T. V.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Sarkar, Gargi; Suthindhiran, K.

    2016-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are important materials when making different products like sun screens, textiles, and paints. In the current study, the photocatalytic effect of prepared ZnO NPs from Moringa oleifera ( M. oleifera) was evaluated on degradation of crystal violet (CV) dye, which is largely released from textile industries and is harmful to the environment. Preliminarily, ZnO NP formation was confirmed using a double beam ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer; further, the NP size was estimated using XRD analysis and the functional group analysis was determined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The morphology of the synthesized NPs was found to be a hexagonal shape using SEM and TEM analysis and elemental screening was analyzed using EDX. ZnO NPs were shown sized 40-45 nm and spherical in shape. The degradation percentage of ZnO NPs was calculated as 94% at 70 min and the rate of the reaction -k = 0.0282. The synthesized ZnO NPs were determined for effectiveness on biological activities such as antifungal, hemolytic, and antibacterial activity. ZnO NPs showed good antifungal activity against Alternaria saloni and Sclerrotium rolfii strains. Further, we have determined the hemolytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs and we got successive results in antibacterial and hemolytic activities.

  9. In vitro Applications for the Increasing of Root-Related Secondary Metabolite Production in Medicinal Plants and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunhan Demirci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites, gaining importance in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, perfumery, food industry and agrarian struggle, are synthesized in different organs such as root, leaves, shoot and seed in plants. These compounds are defined as “light in bulk” because of the low synthesis rate but “high in value” because of the wide range of applications, activities and economic values. Obtaining of the secondary metabolites found in roots by conventional methods is based on dismantling of these plants from the nature or the cultural field and isolating by the different methods. Detachment of plants from nature causes the loss of genetic resources. And it has some difficulties as the challenges and differences in terrain and climate conditions, low metabolite yield and quality and more labor. Thus a new approaches is needed to enable more economic, higher metabolite yield and quality compared to the conventional methods. Therefore, in vitro techniques have gained importance. With this review, it was aimed to inform in vitro applications used to increase root-related secondary metabolites production in order to guide future researches.

  10. Angular normalization of GOME-2 Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence observation as a better proxy of vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Liu, Jane; Mo, Gang; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has been regarded as a promising proxy for gross primary productivity (GPP) over land. Considerable uncertainties in GPP estimation using remotely sensed SIF exist due to variations in the Sun-satellite view observation geometry that could induce unwanted variations in SIF observation. In this study, we normalize the far-red Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 SIF observations on sunny days to hot spot direction (SIFh) to represent sunlit leaves and compute a weighted sum of SIF (SIFt) from sunlit and shaded leaves to represent the canopy. We found that SIFh is better correlated with sunlit GPP simulated by a process-based ecosystem model and SIFt is better correlated with the simulated total GPP than the original SIF observations. The coefficient of determination (R2) are increased by 0.04 ± 0.03, and 0.07 ± 0.04 on a global average using SIFh and SIFt, respectively. The most significant increases of the R2 (0.09 ± 0.04 for SIFt and 0.05 ± 0.03 for SIFh) appear in deciduous broadleaf forests.

  11. Vegetative rescue and ex vitro system production of Tibouchina sellowiana clonal plants by cutting and mini-cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the rooting potential of Tibouchina sellowiana through the experiments: I - Cuttings from current-year shoots and epicormic shoots were submitted to IBA concentrations: 0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000mg L-1, in a factorial arrangement 2 x 5 (two types of cuttings x five IBA concentrations, with four replicates and 20 cuttings each; II - mini-stumps of Tibouchina sellowiana were submitted to successive shoots collecting during the four seasons, in a split-plot design, with five replications of ten mini-stumps per experimental unit. From the shoots of mini-stumps, mini-cuttings were produced, which were initially kept in greenhouse and later transferred to full sun, in a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement (four seasons x five collections per season, with four replicates of 12 mini-cuttings. Superiority of epicormic shoots cuttings was reported when compared to the current-year shoots, which showed the highest rooting and leaves maintenance (42.50% and 55.00%, respectively, eliminating the use of IBA. High survival of mini-stumps (over 80% and the mini-cuttings production (170mini-cuttings m-2 month-1 in clonal mini-garden and the mini-cuttings survival (above 80% in the greenhouse demonstrated the technical feasibility, with summer as the most appropriate time to collect mini-cuttings.

  12. Effects of in-situ and reanalysis climate data on estimation of cropland gross primary production using the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Cui; Xiao, Xiangming; Wagle, Pradeep; Griffis, Timothy; Dong, Jinwei; Wu, Chaoyang; Qin, Yuanwei; Cook, David R.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite-based Production Efficiency Models (PEMs) often require meteorological reanalysis data such as the North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as model inputs to simulate Gross Primary Production (GPP) at regional and global scales. This study first evaluated the accuracies of air temperature (TNARR) and downward shortwave radiation (RNARR) of the NARR by comparing with in-situ meteorological measurements at 37 AmeriFlux non-crop eddy flux sites, then used one PEM – the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) to simulate 8-day mean GPP (GPPVPM) at seven AmeriFlux crop sites, and investigated the uncertainties in GPPVPM from climate inputs as compared with eddy covariance-based GPP (GPPEC). Results showed that TNARR agreed well with in-situ measurements; RNARR, however, was positively biased. An empirical linear correction was applied to RNARR, and significantly reduced the relative error of RNARR by ~25% for crop site-years. Overall, GPPVPM calculated from the in-situ (GPPVPM(EC)), original (GPPVPM(NARR)) and adjusted NARR (GPPVPM(adjNARR)) climate data tracked the seasonality of GPPEC well, albeit with different degrees of biases. GPPVPM(EC) showed a good match with GPPEC for maize (Zea mays L.), but was slightly underestimated for soybean (Glycine max L.). Replacing the in-situ climate data with the NARR resulted in a significant overestimation of GPPVPM(NARR) (18.4/29.6% for irrigated/rainfed maize and 12.7/12.5% for irrigated/rainfed soybean). GPPVPM(adjNARR) showed a good agreement with GPPVPM(EC) for both crops due to the reduction in the bias of RNARR. The results imply that the bias of RNARR introduced significant uncertainties into the PEM-based GPP estimates, suggesting that more accurate surface radiation datasets are needed to estimate primary production of terrestrial ecosystems at regional and global scales.

  13. Scientific Verification Test of Orbitec Deployable Vegetable Production System for Salad Crop Growth on ISS- Gas Exchange System design and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldemire, Ashleigh

    2007-01-01

    The ability to produce and maintain salad crops during long term missions would be a great benefit to NASA; the renewable food supply would save cargo space, weight and money. The ambient conditions of previous ground controlled crop plant experiments do not reflect the microgravity and high CO2 concentrations present during orbit. It has been established that microgravity does not considerably alter plant growth. (Monje, Stutte, Chapman, 2005). To support plants in a space-craft environment efficient and effective lighting and containment units are necessary. Three lighting systems were previously evaluated for radish growth in ambient air; fluorescent lamps in an Orbitec Biomass Production System Educational (BPSE), a combination of red, blue, and green LED's in a Deployable Vegetable Production System (Veggie), and a combination of red and blue LED's in a Veggie. When mass measurements compared the entire possible growing area vs. power consumed by the respective units, the Veggies clearly exceeded the BPSE indicating that the LED units were a more resource efficient means of growing radishes under ambient conditions in comparison with fluorescent lighting. To evaluate the most productive light treatment system for a long term space mission a more closely simulated ISS environment is necessary. To induce a CO2 dense atmosphere inside the Veggie's and BPSE a gas exchange system has been developed to maintain a range of 1000-1200 ppm CO2 during a 21-day light treatment experiment. This report details the design and function of the gas exchange system. The rehabilitation, trouble shooting, maintenance and testing of the gas exchange system have been my major assignments. I have also contributed to the planting, daily measurements and harvesting of the radish crops 21-day light treatment verification test.

  14. Is there willingness to buy and pay a surcharge for agro-ecological products? Case study of the production of vegetables in Xochimilco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo-Fernández, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Around the world there are approximately 2.5 trillion small-scale farmers, most of them subsistence farmers. In the 1970s the green revolution unfolded, which brought benefits to some producers, but it also brought costs, especially for small producers. Agro-ecology is presented as an alternative, but it is necessary to examine whether it is accepted in the markets, especially in developing countries. This study proves that there is a potential market, in this case in Mexico, but that it will depend on some socio-economic variables such as age, income, gender, product information, among others. Similarly, it is evident that buyers are willing to make an additional payment as compensation. Agro-ecology should not be considered as subsistence farming incompatible with the markets. It offers good prospects for increasing production and improving the sustainability of agriculture in marginal areas with few economic resources. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. LSA-SAF evapotranspiration products based on MSG/SEVIRI: improvement opportunities from moderate spatial resolution satellites sensors for vegetation (SPOT-VGT, MODIS, PROBA-V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilain, N.; De Roo, F.; Arboleda, A.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) proposes a panel of land surface related products derived from the EUMETSAT satellites, MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) and EPS/METOP, and produced in near-real time over Europe, Africa and part of South America. With LSA-SAF products, key surface variables are observed, and allows to characterizing the main processes governing land atmosphere processes. Land evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the variables monitored within LSA-SAF. ET at a spatial resolution of approximately 3 km at the sub-satellite point above the equator is derived in near-real time, every 30 minutes, using a simplified land surface model, forced by LSA-SAF radiation products derived from MSG/SEVIRI data. Given that spatial resolution, some smaller scale processes cannot be resolved, though their contribution may affect the total MSG pixel area ET estimates. Besides, information with an increased resolution is expected to have a positive impact on the total accuracy of the modeled ET. A variety of new remote sensing products derived from EO data at a higher spatial resolution are now publicly available. This is an opportunity to assess the improvement that moderate spatial resolution (250 m to 1 km) satellites sensors for surface and vegetation characterization could offer to the evapotranspiration monitoring at the MSG/SEVIRI scale in the context of LSA-SAF. On the basis of a global analysis and on test cases, we show the usefulness of EO data acquired from moderate resolution satellites sensors (SPOT-VGT, MODIS/Terra&Aqua, MERIS) towards the improvement of the LSA-SAF ET products derived from MSG/SEVIRI. In particular, 4 different variables/indices (land cover map, LAI, surface albedo, open water bodies detection) are assessed regarding the LSA-SAF ET products: 1) the investigated processes at small scales unresolved by the geostationary satellite, e.g. open water bodies dynamics, are better taken into account in the final

  16. Monitoring land surface albedo and vegetation dynamics using high spatial and temporal resolution synthetic data from Landsat and MODIS BRDF/albedo product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate warming over the past half century has led to observable changes in vegetation phenology and growing season length; which can be measured globally using remote sensing derived vegetation indices. Previous studies in mid- and high northern latitude systems show temperature driven earlier spri...

  17. GAEC cross-compliance standard Vegetation buffer on water courses: possible methods of detection by Remote Sensing products and existing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Tosi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Agency for Agricultural Payments National Payment Agency (AGEA in Italy, in order to manage and control EU farmer subsidies in Agriculture, is supported by SIN, an owned public/private company, aiming at facing technical solutions and innovation developments. Since 2005 SIN-AGEA have been testing and performing innovation tools and methods, especially in CAP cross compliance application. A vegetation buffer strip is requested, flanking pre-defined water streams, by Reg. EC 73/2009, CAP cross compliance policies, with pertinence from 2012. Due to the existing collaboration agreement JRC-AGEA-SIN, and the Rete Rurale Nazionale, tests and feasibility have been started to: - improve the knowledge of cross compliance; - identify feasible farmer obligations and clear rules of behaviour; - develop updated controls methods; - integrate available territorial information, creating awareness and user connection The paper faces criteria definition for water streams identification, application areas, different risk zones, buffer width, efficiency indicators, through: existing data, new Remote Sensing (RS products and GIS tools for watersheds characterization. A shared decision, both for methodology and homogeneous farmer commitments at national/EU level, using validated layers/data set, at contained costs, is the main target.

  18. Advising Consumption of Green Vegetables, Beef, and Full-Fat Dairy Products Has No Adverse Effects on the Lipid Profiles in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen José van der Gaag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In children, little is known about lipid profiles and the influence of dietary habits. In the past, we developed a dietary advice for optimizing the immune system, which comprised green vegetables, beef, whole milk, and full-fat butter. However, there are concerns about a possible negative influence of the full-fat dairy products of the diet on the lipid profile. We investigated the effect of the developed dietary advice on the lipid profile and BMI (body mass index/BMI-z-score of children. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 1–16 years, of whom a lipid profile was determined in the period between June 2011 and November 2013 in our hospital. Children who adhered to the dietary advice were assigned to the exposed group and the remaining children were assigned to the unexposed group. After following the dietary advice for at least three months, there was a statistically significant reduction in the cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoproteins ratio (p < 0.001 and non-HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.044 and a statistically significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.009 in the exposed group, while there was no difference in the BMI and BMI z-scores. The dietary advice has no adverse effect on the lipid profile, BMI, and BMI z-scores in children, but has a significant beneficial effect on the cholesterol/HDL ratio, non-HDL-cholesterol, and the HDL-cholesterol.

  19. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantie Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the initial three years and decreased at an accelerated rate of 31.0 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the final three years, resulting in a total NPP loss of approximately 167 × 106 g∙C. The spatiotemporal of NPP varied obviously in the central area, suburb and exurb of Guangzhou driven by three patterns of weather and LULC changes. By the interactive effects and the weather variation dominated effects, NPP of most areas changed slightly with dynamic index less than 5% of NPP mean value in the central area and the suburb. The LULC change dominated effects caused obvious NPP reduction, by more than 15% of the NPP mean value, which occurred in some areas of the suburb and extended to the exurb with the outward urban sprawl. Importantly, conversion from wood grassland, shrublands and even forests to croplands occupied by urban landscapes proved to be a main process in the conversion from high-NPP coverage to low-NPP coverage, thereby leading to the rapid degradation of urban carbon stock capacity in urban fringe areas. It is helpful for government to monitor urban ecological health and safety and make relevant policies.

  20. The response of aboveground net primary productivity of desert vegetation to rainfall pulse in the temperate desert region of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Zhao, Wenzhi; Liu, Hu

    2013-01-01

    Rainfall events can be characterized as "pulses", which are discrete and variable episodes that can significantly influence the structure and function of desert ecosystems, including shifts in aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). To determine the threshold and hierarchical response of rainfall event size on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a proxy for ANPP) and the difference across a desert area in northwestern China with two habitats - dune and desert - we selected 17 independent summer rainfall events from 2005 to 2012, and obtained a corresponding NDVI dataset extracted from MODIS images. Based on the threshold-delay model and statistical analysis, the results showed that the response of NDVI to rainfall pulses began at about a 5 mm event size. Furthermore, when the rainfall event size was more than 30 mm, NDVI rapidly increased 3- to 6-fold compared with the response to events of less than 30 mm, suggesting that 30 mm was the threshold for a large NDVI response. These results revealed the importance of the 5 mm and 30 mm rainfall events for plant survival and growth in desert regions. There was an 8- to 16-day lag time between the rainfall event and the NDVI response, and the response duration varied with rainfall event size, reaching a maximum of 32 days. Due to differences in soil physical and mineralogical properties, and to biodiversity structure and the root systems' abilities to exploit moisture, dune and desert areas differed in precipitation responses: dune habitats were characterized by a single, late summer productivity peak; in contrast, deserts showed a multi-peak pattern throughout the growing season.

  1. A study on characterization of new bacteriocin produced from a novel strain of Lactobacillus spicheri G2 isolated from Gundruk- a fermented vegetable product of North East India: A novel bacteriocin production from Lactobacillus spicheri G2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Neha; Sharma, Nivedita

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus spicheri G2, isolated from Gundruk - a traditional fermented vegetable product of North East India. L. spicheri G2 identified by morphological, biochemical techniques followed by 16S rRNA gene technique. The 16Sr RNA sequence of bacteriocin producer is registered in NCBI under accession no. JX481912. The bacteriocin producing potential of L. spicheri is being reported for the first time in the present investigation. Bacteriocin of L. spicheri G2 showed strong antagonism against food spoiling and pathogenic bacteria viz. Listeria monocytogenes, Staphlococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin production of L. spicheri G2 was enhanced by optimization of production time, pH of medium and incubation temperature by following one variable at a time method. Maximum bacteriocin activity (2000 AU/ml) was recorded in MRS broth at 34 h with an initial pH of 4.0 after incubating at 35 °C. The bacteriocin was purified by single step gel exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight of this novel bacteriocin was determined by SDS PAGE which was found to be 43 kDa. Purified bacteriocin was found resistant to high temperature and varied pH range but sensitive to proteolytic enzymes like trypsin and proteinase k, the characters desirable for food preservation.

  2. Effects of Fe, Ni, and Fe/Ni metallic nanoparticles on power production and biosurfactant production from used vegetable oil in the anode chamber of a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy

    2017-08-01

    In this study, metallic nanoparticles (Fe, Ni, and Fe/Ni) were used as cathode catalysts to enhance power production and to improve the anode performance of a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC). The metallic nanoparticles were rod-shaped and produced by the precipitation/co-precipitation method. A biosurfactant was produced in the anode chamber of the MFC from used vegetable oil by the bacteria Serratia sp. Overall cell voltage, power density, bacterial growth, and biosurfactant production were studied by applying different types of metallic nanoparticles to the cathode electrode. The influence of various types of nanoparticles on the impedance of the MFC was also investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), including analyses of anode impedance, cathode impedance, anode solution resistance, cathode solution resistance, and membrane resistance. The nanoparticles improved MFC performance in the following order: Fe>Ni>Fe/Ni. The addition of 1.5mg/cm2 Fe nanoparticles to the cathode surface enhanced power production by over 500% to 66.4mW/m3, promoted bacterial growth and biosurfactant production in the anode solution by 132.5% and 32.0%, respectively, and reduced anode impedance, cathode impedance, and membrane resistance by 26.8%, 81.6%, and 33.8% to 159.00Ω, 7.69Ω, and 261.09Ω, respectively. For the first time, biosurfacant production in the anode chamber of the MFC was promoted by using the metallic nanoparticles as cathode catalysts. By improving the cathode properties, this study showed a new way to manipulated the performance of the anode chamber of the MFC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  4. Effects of high dietary fibre diets formulated from by-products from vegetable and agricultural industries on plasma metabolites in gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yde, Christian Clement; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the biochemical influence of feeding high dietary fibre (DF) diets formulated from by-products from the vegetable and agricultural industries to sows during early to mid-gestation. The effect of feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on diurnal plasma metabolites patterns was also examined. The study included a total of 48 gestating sows from four blocks (12 gestating sows in each block). The sows were fed four different diets containing varying levels of starch (304-519 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and DF (171-404 g/kg DM) but with equal amounts of net energy. The low-DF diet (control) was based on barley and wheat, and the three high-DF diets formulated by replacing barley and wheat by pectin residue, sugar beet pulp and potato pulp, respectively. The experimental design comprised two periods of 4 weeks each. Half the sows were fed once daily at 08:00 h in the first period and twice daily at 08:00 and 15:00 h during the second period, and vice versa for the other half of the sows. Plasma samples from vena jugularis were collected by venipuncture at 07:00, 09:00, 12:00 and 19:00 h. Feeding high-DF increased plasma short-chain fatty acids (p = 0.02) and non-esterified fatty acids (p starch by DF affected surprisingly few metabolites in peripheral plasma. No negative effects were found in feeding pectin residue, sugar beet pulp or potato pulp for gestating sows as judged from the minor metabolic changes.

  5. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison between Snow Albedo Obtained from Landsat TM, ETM+ Imagery and the SPOT VEGETATION Albedo Product in a Mediterranean Mountainous Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pimentel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Albedo plays an important role in snow evolution modeling quantifying the amount of solar radiation absorbed and reflected by the snowpack, especially in mid-latitude regions with semiarid conditions. Satellite remote sensing is the most extensive technique to determine the variability of snow albedo over medium to large areas; however, scale effects from the pixel size of the sensor source may affect the results of snow models, with different impacts depending on the spatial resolution. This work presents the evaluation of snow albedo values retrieved from (1 Landsat images, L (16-day frequency with 30 × 30 m pixel size and (2 SPOT VEGETATION albedo products, SV (10-day frequency with 1 × 1 km pixel size in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in South Spain, a Mediterranean site representative of highly heterogeneous conditions. Daily snow albedo map series were derived from both sources, and used as input for the snow module in the WiMMed (Watershed Integrated Management in Mediterranean Environment hydrological model, which was operational at the study area for snow monitoring for two hydrological years, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, in the Guadalfeo river basin in Sierra Nevada. The results showed similar albedo trends in both data sources, but with different values, the shift between both sources being distributed in space according to the altitude. This difference resulted in lower snow cover fraction values in the SV-simulations that affected the rest of snow variables included in the simulation. This underestimation, mainly due to the effects of mixed pixels composed by both snow and snow-free areas, produced higher divergences from both sources during the melting periods when the evapo-sublimation and melting fluxes are more relevant. Therefore, the selection of the albedo data source in these areas, where snow evapo-sublimation plays a very important role and the presence of snow-free patches is very frequent, can condition the final

  7. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  8. Quantitative proteomics by 2DE and MALDI MS/MS uncover the effects of organic and conventional cropping methods on vegetable products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, O.N.

    2011-01-01

    of slurry, in accordance to regulations of organic farming and O2, in which nutrient supply was based mainly on autumn green manures. Proteins were extracted from lyophilized plant tissues into a buffer containing high concentrations of urea/thiourea, two detergents and reducing agent. This approach allowed...... overexpressed in conventionally grown cabbage. Proteins involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, polypeptides and secondary metabolites were affected by different cropping regimes in carrots. The proteomes of conventionally grown vegetables varied from organically grown vegetables to a larger extent than...

  9. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  10. The influence of commitment and confidence to the effectiveness of a local productive arrangement: a study of the local fruits and vegetables cultivation production arrangement of Veranopolis-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Breitenbach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a case study on the relationship marketing practice between members of the supply chain from a local productive arrangement of fruits and vegetables cultivation in the city of Veranópolis-RS. The aim was to analyze the commitment and trust relations as a basis for strengthening the relations between wholesalers, distributors and retailers, according to the relationship marketing practices. A qualitative approach, of exploratory and descriptive character was used as the research method. In depth individual interviews were conducted with the top executives of the companies studied, non-participant observation and document analysis. The analysis technique used was content analysis. From the results it can be concluded that the presence of the trust and commitment variables in the researched relations is the result of relevant and significant long-term investment, involving joint planning. In the studied environment, sometimes the relationships of trust and commitment are present in addition to the opportunism perceived in some relationships.

  11. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  12. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  13. The Rangeland Vegetation Simulator: A user-driven system for quantifying production, succession, disturbance and fuels in non-forest environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Reeves; Leonardo Frid

    2016-01-01

    Rangeland landscapes occupy roughly 662 million acres in the coterminous U.S. (Reeves and Mitchell 2011) and their vegetation responds quickly to climate and management, with high relative growth rates and inter-annual variability. Current national decision support systems in the U.S. such as the Interagency Fuels Treatment Decision Support System (IFT-DSS) require...

  14. Alcohol and red wine consumption, but not fruit, vegetables, fish or dairy products, are associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussel, van B.C.T.; Henry, R.M.A.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are key phenomena in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their dietary modification might explain the observed reduction in CVD that has been associated with a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables and fish, low in dairy

  15. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  16. Industrial uses of vegetable oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erhan, Sevim Z

    2005-01-01

    ..., cotton, sunflower, flax, and rape. Although a major part of these oils are used for food products such as shortenings, salad and cooking oils and margarines, large quantities serve feed and industrial applications. Other vegetable oils widely used industrially include palm, palm kernel, coconut, castor, and tung. However, these are not of domestic or...

  17. Advantages of Using Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture over Gridded Precipitation Products and Land Surface Model Output in Assessing Regional Vegetation Water Availability and Growth Dynamics for a Lateral Inflow Receiving Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiexi Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding of water–vegetation relationships, direct comparative studies assessing the utility of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture, gridded precipitation products, and land surface model output are needed. A case study was investigated for a water-limited, lateral inflow receiving area in northeastern Australia during December 2008 to May 2009. In January 2009, monthly precipitation showed strong positive anomalies, which led to strong positive soil moisture anomalies. The precipitation anomalies disappeared within a month. In contrast, the soil moisture anomalies persisted for months. Positive anomalies of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI appeared in February, in response to water supply, and then persisted for several months. In addition to these temporal characteristics, the spatial patterns of NDVI anomalies were more similar to soil moisture patterns than to those of precipitation and land surface model output. The long memory of soil moisture mainly relates to the presence of clay-rich soils. Modeled soil moisture from four of five global land surface models failed to capture the memory length of soil moisture and all five models failed to present the influence of lateral inflow. This case study indicates that satellite-based soil moisture is a better predictor of vegetation water availability than precipitation in environments having a memory of several months and thus is able to persistently affect vegetation dynamics. These results illustrate the usefulness of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture in ecohydrology studies. This case study has the potential to be used as a benchmark for global land surface model evaluations. The advantages of using satellite remotely sensed soil moisture over gridded precipitation products are mainly expected in lateral-inflow and/or clay-rich regions worldwide.

  18. Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food

  19. The Impact of the Rise in Vegetable Prices on Vegetable Producer Behavior–Based on the survey of vegetable producers in Jiayu, Hubei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the impact of the rise in prices of vegetables on vegetable producers, and to increase the revenue of vegetable producers, this paper does a survey by anonymous sampling questionnaire. Results shows that: most vegetable growers think that vegetable prices should rise and would continue to rise, and that vegetable prices would increase their revenue, thus in the coming year they would expand the planting scale of vegetable variety whose increase rate is the largest in this year. But because of the increase of logistics costs and production costs, some farmers benefit very little from the rising trend of vegetable prices. Most farmers expect too much in the trend estimation of the prices of vegetables and also lack of planning and forward-looking in production, thus the planting area of single variety is often decided by the market of previous year. According to analysis of the impact of the rise in vegetable prices on vegetable producer behavior, this paper gives the following suggestions to increase revenue of vegetable producers: change the mode of thinking, improve rural information platform, and increase capital investment for vegetable production base.

  20. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-05-31

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued.