WorldWideScience

Sample records for human-system safety methods

  1. Human-system safety methods for development of advanced air traffic management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, William R.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems (author) (ml)

  2. Using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laboratory for Safety Focused Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey .C; Boring, Ronald L.

    2016-07-01

    Under the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) to conduct critical safety focused Human Factors research and development (R&D) for the nuclear industry. The LWRS program has the overall objective to develop the scientific basis to extend existing nuclear power plant (NPP) operating life beyond the current 60-year licensing period and to ensure their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. One focus area for LWRS is the NPP main control room (MCR), because many of the instrumentation and control (I&C) system technologies installed in the MCR, while highly reliable and safe, are now difficult to replace and are therefore limiting the operating life of the NPP. This paper describes how INL researchers use the HSSL to conduct Human Factors R&D on modernizing or upgrading these I&C systems in a step-wise manner, and how the HSSL has addressed a significant gap in how to upgrade systems and technologies that are built to last, and therefore require careful integration of analog and new advanced digital technologies.

  3. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Establish Human System Interface Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Across all fields of human-system interface design it is vital to posses a sound methodology dictating the constraints on the system based on the capabilities of the human user. These limitations may be based on strength, mobility, dexterity, cognitive ability, etc. and combinations thereof. Data collected in an isolated environment to determine, for example, maximal strength or maximal range of motion would indeed be adequate for establishing not-to-exceed type design limitations, however these restraints on the system may be excessive over what is basally needed. Resources may potentially be saved by having a technique to determine the minimum measurements a system must accommodate. This paper specifically deals with the creation of a novel methodology for establishing mobility requirements for a new generation of space suit design concepts. Historically, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station vehicle and space hardware design requirements documents such as the Man-Systems Integration Standards and International Space Station Flight Crew Integration Standard explicitly stated that the designers should strive to provide the maximum joint range of motion capabilities exhibited by a minimally clothed human subject. In the course of developing the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) for the new space exploration initiative (Constellation), an effort was made to redefine the mobility requirements in the interest of safety and cost. Systems designed for manned space exploration can receive compounded gains from simplified designs that are both initially less expensive to produce and lighter, thereby, cheaper to launch.

  4. Reactor safety method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachon, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature

  5. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  6. Methods for safety culture improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1998-01-01

    New IAEA publication concerning the problems of safety assurance covering different aspects beginning from terminology applied and up to concrete examples of well and poor safety culture development at nuclear facilities is discussed. The safety culture is defined as such set of characteristics and specific activities of institutions and individual persons which states that safety problems of a nuclear facility are given the attention determined by their importance as being of highest priority. The statements of the new document have recommended, not mandatory character. It is emphasized that the process of safety culture improvement at nuclear facilities should be integral component of management procedure, not a bolt on extra

  7. Safety training for working youth: Methods used versus methods wanted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2016-04-07

    Safety training is promoted as a tool to prevent workplace injury; however, little is known about the safety training experiences young workers get on-the-job. Furthermore, nothing is known about what methods they think would be the most helpful for learning about safe work practices. To compare safety training methods teens get on the job to those safety training methods teens think would be the best for learning workplace safety, focusing on age differences. A cross-sectional survey was administered to students in two large high schools in spring 2011. Seventy percent of working youth received safety training. The top training methods that youth reported getting at work were safety videos (42%), safety lectures (25%), and safety posters/signs (22%). In comparison to the safety training methods used, the top methods youth wanted included videos (54%), hands-on (47%), and on-the-job demonstrations (34%). This study demonstrated that there were differences in training methods that youth wanted by age; with older youth seemingly wanting more independent methods of training and younger teens wanting more involvement. Results indicate that youth want methods of safety training that are different from what they are getting on the job. The differences in methods wanted by age may aid in developing training programs appropriate for the developmental level of working youth.

  8. Evaluation method of human-system interface for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, Junichi; Kawai, Jun; Masui, Takao; Ezaki, Ikuko

    2000-01-01

    We have developed HSI evaluation method based on a model of human cognitive processes in order to provide the viewpoint of the evaluation on the operability of interface. The model describes systematically the human error categories of GEMS by Reason. Based on the model together with reference to the other published information such as NUREG-0700Rev.1, the evaluation items for HSI have embodied in the electronic handbook HIBISCUS. The applicability of HIBISCUS have been assessed by evaluating experimental results using a simulator equipped with control panel using CRTs and touch operations. From the results, the usefulness of the handbook has been confirmed. (author)

  9. Evaluation method of human-system interface for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanji, Junichi [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp. (NUPEC), Tokyo (Japan); Kawai, Jun; Masui, Takao; Ezaki, Ikuko [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We have developed HSI evaluation method based on a model of human cognitive processes in order to provide the viewpoint of the evaluation on the operability of interface. The model describes systematically the human error categories of GEMS by Reason. Based on the model together with reference to the other published information such as NUREG-0700Rev.1, the evaluation items for HSI have embodied in the electronic handbook HIBISCUS. The applicability of HIBISCUS have been assessed by evaluating experimental results using a simulator equipped with control panel using CRTs and touch operations. From the results, the usefulness of the handbook has been confirmed. (author)

  10. Human systemic exposure to [¹⁴C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-∞) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Watershed safety and quality control by safety threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Wei Tsai, David; Mengjung Chou, Caroline; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Honglay Chen, Paris

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan was warned as one of the most dangerous countries by IPCC and the World Bank. In such an exceptional and perilous island, we would like to launch the strategic research of land-use management on the catastrophe prevention and environmental protection. This study used the watershed management by "Safety Threshold Method" to restore and to prevent the disasters and pollution on island. For the deluge prevention, this study applied the restoration strategy to reduce total runoff which was equilibrium to 59.4% of the infiltration each year. For the sediment management, safety threshold management could reduce the sediment below the equilibrium of the natural sediment cycle. In the water quality issues, the best strategies exhibited the significant total load reductions of 10% in carbon (BOD5), 15% in nitrogen (nitrate) and 9% in phosphorus (TP). We found out the water quality could meet the BOD target by the 50% peak reduction with management. All the simulations demonstrated the safety threshold method was helpful to control the loadings within the safe range of disasters and environmental quality. Moreover, from the historical data of whole island, the past deforestation policy and the mistake economic projects were the prime culprits. Consequently, this study showed a practical method to manage both the disasters and pollution in a watershed scale by the land-use management.

  12. Application of Software Safety Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G. Y.; Hur, S.; Cheon, S. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, S. J.; Koo, Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    A fully digitalized reactor protection system, which is called the IDiPS-RPS, was developed through the KNICS project. The IDiPS-RPS has four redundant and separated channels. Each channel is mainly composed of a group of bistable processors which redundantly compare process variables with their corresponding setpoints and a group of coincidence processors that generate a final trip signal when a trip condition is satisfied. Each channel also contains a test processor called the ATIP and a display and command processor called the COM. All the functions were implemented in software. During the development of the safety software, various software safety analysis methods were applied, in parallel to the verification and validation (V and V) activities, along the software development life cycle. The software safety analysis methods employed were the software hazard and operability (Software HAZOP) study, the software fault tree analysis (Software FTA), and the software failure modes and effects analysis (Software FMEA)

  13. Advanced repair methods for enhanced reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornfeldt, H.

    1993-01-01

    A few innovative concepts are described of the ABB Atom Service Division for repair and mitigation techniques for primary systems in nuclear power plants. The concepts are based on Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) technology. A basic feature of all methods is that welding and component replacement is being avoided and the radiation dose imposed on maintenance personnel reduced. The SMA-based repair methods give plant operators new ways to meet increased safety standards and rising maintenance costs. (Z.S.) 4 figs

  14. Computational methods for nuclear criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragni, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety analyses require the utilization of methods which have been tested and verified against benchmarks results. In this work, criticality calculations based on the KENO-IV and MCNP codes are studied aiming the qualification of these methods at the IPEN-CNEN/SP and COPESP. The utilization of variance reduction techniques is important to reduce the computer execution time, and several of them are analysed. As practical example of the above methods, a criticality safety analysis for the storage tubes for irradiated fuel elements from the IEA-R1 research has been carried out. This analysis showed that the MCNP code is more adequate for problems with complex geometries, and the KENO-IV code shows conservative results when it is not used the generalized geometry option. (author)

  15. Using simplex method in verifying software safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević-Janičić Milena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have discussed the application of the Simplex method in checking software safety - the application in automated detection of buffer overflows in C programs. This problem is important because buffer overflows are suitable targets for hackers' security attacks and sources of serious program misbehavior. We have also described our implementation, including a system for generating software correctness conditions and a Simplex based theorem prover that resolves these conditions.

  16. METHODS OF CONTROL DIPHTHERIA VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isayenko Ye. Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination success depends not only on the timely coverage of threatened contingents, but also on the quality of vaccines. Every day, the requirements for security guarantees vaccines and their use guarantees of security increases. For the fast, reliable and independent scientific assessment of vaccine safety issues, WHO in 1999 created the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety. To enhance the capacity of pharmaceutical supervision in relation to vaccines in 2012 it was developed the Global Vaccine Safety Initiative. The main directions of the Global Vaccine Safety programs are considered in this review. It’s noted more strict requirements of Ukrainian pharmaceutical industry to produce public immunization drugs regulated Supplements to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in comparison with other countries. This review considered diphtheria vaccine safety monitoring in the process of production according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO, described a subcutaneous method for determining the specific toxicity of the combined purified toxoid, characterized an intracutaneous method of determining of the presence of diphtheria toxin in each sample of the combined purified toxoid, that additionally used by some manufacturers. The definition of diphtheria toxin in dilutions of purified toxoid is presented. This review considered diphtheria vaccine safety monitoring in the process of production according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO, described a subcutaneous method for determining the specific toxicity of the combined purified toxoid, characterized an intracutaneous method of determining of the presence of diphtheria toxin in each sample of the combined purified toxoid, that additionally used by some manufacturers. The definition of diphtheria toxin in dilutions of purified toxoid is presented. As methods for determination of diphtheria toxin must be able to detect even a small amount

  17. Methods and Effects of Safety Enhancement in Korean PSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gab; Park, Jong Woon

    2009-01-01

    Periodic Safety Review (PSR) is a comprehensive study on a nuclear power plant safety, taking into account aspects such as operational history, ageing, safety analyses and advances in code and standards since the time of construction. In Korea, PSRs have been performed for 20 units and have been effectively used to obtain an overall view of actual plant safety to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to obtain a higher level of safety approaching that of modern plants. Among many safety enhancements achieved from Korean PSRs, new safety analyses are the important methods to confirm plant safety by increasing safety margin for specific safety issues. Methods and effects of safety enhancements applied in Korean PSRs are reviewed in this paper in light of new safety analyses to obtain additional safety margins

  18. Safety evaluations required in the safety regulations for Monju and the validity confirmation of safety evaluation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to perform the safety evaluations of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju' and to confirm the validity of the safety evaluation methods. In JFY 2012, the following results were obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination achieved for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as a core damage analysis code, were carried out according to the plan. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)

  19. Human-Systems Integration (HSI) Methodology Development for NASA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Human-Systems Integration (HSI) refers to design activities associated with ensuring that manpower, personnel, training, human factors engineering, safety, health...

  20. Safety and Waste Management for SAM Chemistry Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the chemical analytes included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  1. Safety and Waste Management for SAM Pathogen Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the pathogens included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  2. Safety and Waste Management for SAM Radiochemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the radiochemical analytes included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  3. Safety and Waste Management for SAM Biotoxin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the biotoxins included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  4. Safety relief valve alternate analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.H.; Javid, A.; Khatua, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental test program was started in the United States in 1976 to define and quantify Safety Relief Valve (SRV) phenomena in General Electric Mark I Suppression Chambers. The testing considered several discharged devices and was used to correlate SRV load prediction models. The program was funded by utilities with Mark I containments and has resulted in a detailed SRV load definition as a portion of the Mark I containment program Load Definition Report (LDR). The (USNRC) has reviewed and approved the LDR SRV load definition. In addition, the USNRC has permitted calibration of structural models used for predicting torus response to SRV loads. Model calibration is subject to confirmatory in-plant testing. The SRV methodology given in the LDR requires that transient dynamic pressures be applied to a torus structural model that includes a fluid added mass matrix. Preliminary evaluations of torus response have indicated order of magnitude conservatisms, with respect to test results, which could result in unrealistic containment modifications. In addition, structural response trends observed in full-scale tests between cold pipe, first valve actuation and hot pipe, subsequent valve actuation conditions have not been duplicated using current analysis methods. It was suggested by others that an energy approach using current fluid models be utilized to define loads. An alternate SRV analysis method is defined to correct suppression chamber structural response to a level that permits economical but conservative design. Simple analogs are developed for the purpose of correcting the analytical response obtained from LDR analysis methods. Analogs evaluated considered forced vibration and free vibration structural response. The corrected response correlated well with in-plant test response. The correlation of the analytical model at test conditions permits application of the alternate analysis method at design conditions. (orig./HP)

  5. New safety management method at Cominak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallam, A.

    1993-01-01

    Operations manager Mr. Kallam presents the new safety management system, its implementation and results in this underground uranium mine in northern Niger, where the rate of accidents increased dangerously during the eighties. 3 figs., 3 photos

  6. Empirical Bayes methods in road safety research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelesang, R.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Road safety research is a wonderful combination of counting fatal accidents and using a toolkit containing prior, posterior, overdispersed Poisson, negative binomial and Gamma distributions, together with positive and negative regression effects, shrinkage estimators and fiercy debates concerning

  7. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology.

  8. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub

    2012-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology

  9. Probabilistic safety analysis : a new nuclear power plants licensing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de.

    1982-04-01

    After a brief retrospect of the application of Probabilistic Safety Analysis in the nuclear field, the basic differences between the deterministic licensing method, currently in use, and the probabilistic method are explained. Next, the two main proposals (by the AIF and the ACRS) concerning the establishment of the so-called quantitative safety goals (or simply 'safety goals') are separately presented and afterwards compared in their most fundamental aspects. Finally, some recent applications and future possibilities are discussed. (Author) [pt

  10. Formal Methods and Safety Certification: Challenges in the Railways Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Ferrari, Alessio; Gnesi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The railway signalling sector has historically been a source of success stories about the adoption of formal methods in the certification of software safety of computer-based control equipment.......The railway signalling sector has historically been a source of success stories about the adoption of formal methods in the certification of software safety of computer-based control equipment....

  11. Models and methods for hot spot safety work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that millions DKK each year are spent on improving roadsafety in Denmark, funds for traffic safety are limited. It is therefore vital to spend the resources as effectively as possible. This thesis is concerned with the area of traffic safety denoted "hot spot safety work", which...... is the task of improving road safety through alterations of the geometrical and environmental characteristics of the existing road network. The presently applied models and methods in hot spot safety work on the Danish road network were developed about two decades ago, when data was more limited and software...... and statistical methods less developed. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to improving "State of the art" in Denmark. Basis for the systematic hot spot safety work are the models describing the variation in accident counts on the road network. In the thesis hierarchical models disaggregated on time...

  12. Method of safety evaluation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraszkiewicz, P.; Zahn, P.

    1988-01-01

    A novel quantitative technique for evaluating safety of subsystems of nuclear power plants based on expert estimations is presented. It includes methods of mathematical psychology recognizing the effect of subjective factors in the expert estimates and, consequently, contributes to further objectification of evaluation. It may be applied to complementing probabilistic safety assessment. As a result of such evaluations a characteristic 'safety of nuclear power plants' is obtained. (author)

  13. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U.

    2008-03-01

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  14. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  15. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  16. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Impact of Human Systems Community of Interest D O T M L P F $450M COI Budget Has Broad Impact in Several DOTMLPF Areas Decision Making Selection...and fit to a military career. • 26 personality dimensions such as optimism, excitement seeking, and non- delinquency • Applicant chooses from...Adaptive Collaborative Control Technologies ( IMPACT ) architecture designed • IMPACT “DoD Virtual Lab” established (Year 1) • 1 operator x 6 vehicles

  17. THE FLUORBOARD A STATISTICALLY BASED DASHBOARD METHOD FOR IMPROVING SAFETY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The FluorBoard is a statistically based dashboard method for improving safety. Fluor Hanford has achieved significant safety improvements--including more than a 80% reduction in OSHA cases per 200,000 hours, during its work at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington state. The massive project on the former nuclear materials production site is considered one of the largest environmental cleanup projects in the world. Fluor Hanford's safety improvements were achieved by a committed partnering of workers, managers, and statistical methodology. Safety achievements at the site have been due to a systematic approach to safety. This includes excellent cooperation between the field workers, the safety professionals, and management through OSHA Voluntary Protection Program principles. Fluor corporate values are centered around safety, and safety excellence is important for every manager in every project. In addition, Fluor Hanford has utilized a rigorous approach to using its safety statistics, based upon Dr. Shewhart's control charts, and Dr. Deming's management and quality methods

  18. Suggestions on the Development of Safety Culture Assessment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kim, Woong Sik

    2006-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to assess safety culture of organization that operates nuclear power plants in Korea. The MOST and KINS played a major role to develop assessment methods and KHNP applied them to its NPPs. This paper explains the two methods developed by KINS briefly and presents the insights obtained from the two different applications. It concludes with some suggestions for safety culture assessment based on the insights

  19. Emerging research methods and their application to road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Andrew; Boyle, Linda Ng; Montella, Alfonso

    2013-12-01

    The study of road safety has seen great strides over the past few decades with advances in analytical methods and research tools that allow researchers to provide insights into the complex interactions of the driver, vehicle, and roadway. Data collection methods range from traditional traffic and roadway sensors to instrumented vehicles and driving simulators, capable of providing detailed data on both the normal driving conditions and the circumstances surrounding a safety critical event. In September 2011, the Third International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation was held in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, which was hosted by the Purdue University Center for Road Safety and sponsored by the Transportation Research Board and its three committees: ANB20 Safety Data, Analysis and Evaluation, AND30 Simulation and Measurement of Vehicle and Operator Performance, and ABJ95 Visualization in Transportation. The conference brought together two hundred researchers from all over the world demonstrating some of the latest research methods to quantify crash causality and associations, and model road safety. This special issue is a collection of 14 papers that were presented at the conference and then peer-reviewed through this journal. These papers showcase the types of analytical tools needed to examine various crash types, the use of naturalistic and on-road data to validate the use of surrogate measures of safety, and the value of driving simulators to examine high-risk situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Operation safety of control systems. Principles and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubry, J.F.; Chatelet, E.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the main operation safety methods that can be implemented to design safe control systems taking into account the behaviour of the different components with each other (binary 'operation/failure' behaviours, non-consistent behaviours and 'hidden' failures, dynamical behaviours and temporal aspects etc). To take into account these different behaviours, advanced qualitative and quantitative methods have to be used which are described in this article: 1 - qualitative methods of analysis: functional analysis, preliminary risk analysis, failure mode and failure effects analyses; 2 - quantitative study of systems operation safety: binary representation models, state space-based methods, event space-based methods; 3 - application to the design of control systems: safe specifications of a control system, qualitative analysis of operation safety, quantitative analysis, example of application; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  1. Risk prediction, safety analysis and quantitative probability methods - a caveat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    Views are expressed on the use of quantitative techniques for the determination of value judgements in nuclear safety assessments, hazard evaluation, and risk prediction. Caution is urged when attempts are made to quantify value judgements in the field of nuclear safety. Criteria are given the meaningful application of reliability methods but doubts are expressed about their application to safety analysis, risk prediction and design guidances for experimental or prototype plant. Doubts are also expressed about some concomitant methods of population dose evaluation. The complexities of new designs of nuclear power plants make the problem of safety assessment more difficult but some possible approaches are suggested as alternatives to the quantitative techniques criticized. (U.K.)

  2. A reliability evaluation method for NPP safety DCS application software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunjian; Zhang Lei; Liu Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) digital i and c application, reliability evaluation for safety DCS application software is a key obstacle to be removed. In order to quantitatively evaluate reliability of NPP safety DCS application software, this paper propose a reliability evaluating method based on software development life cycle every stage's v and v defects density characteristics, by which the operating reliability level of the software can be predicted before its delivery, and helps to improve the reliability of NPP safety important software. (authors)

  3. Project and implementation of the human/system interface laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor R. de; Obadia, Isaac Jose; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez

    2002-01-01

    Analog instrumentation is being increasingly replaced by digital technology in new nuclear power plants, such as Angra III, as well as in existing operating plants, such as Angra I and II, for modernization and life-extension projects. In this new technological environment human factors issues aims to minimize failures in nuclear power plants operation due to human error. It is well known that 30% to 50% of the detected unforeseen problems involve human errors. Presently, human factors issues must be considered during the development of advanced human-system interfaces for the plant. IAEA has considered the importance of those issues and has published TECDOC's and Safety Series Issues on the matter. Thus, there is a need to develop methods and criteria to asses, compare, optimize and validate the human-system interface associated with totally new or hybrid control rooms. Also, the use of computer based operator aids is en evolving area. In order to assist on the development of methods and criteria and to evaluate the effects of the new design concepts and computerized support systems on operator performance, research simulators with advanced control rooms technology, such the IEN's Human System Interface Laboratory, will provide the necessary setting. (author)

  4. A proactive method for safety management in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; Santos, Isaac Antonio Luquetti dos

    2014-01-01

    Due to the modern approach to address the safety of nuclear facilities which highlights that these organizations must be able to assess and proactively manage their activities becomes increasingly important the need for instruments to evaluate working conditions. In this context, this work presents a proactive method of managing organizational safety, which has three innovative features: 1) the use of predictive indicators that provide current information on the performance of activities, allowing preventive actions and not just reactive in safety management, different from safety indicators traditionally used (reactive indicators) that are obtained after the occurrence of undesired events; 2) the adoption of resilience engineering approach in the development of indicators - indicators are based on six principles of resilience engineering: top management commitment, learning, flexibility, awareness, culture of justice and preparation for the problems; 3) the adoption of the concepts and properties of fuzzy set theory to deal with subjectivity and consistency of human trials in the evaluation of the indicators. The fuzzy theory is used primarily to map qualitative models of decision-making, and inaccurate representation methods. The results of this study aim an improvement in performance and safety in organizations. The method was applied in a radiopharmaceutical shipping sector of a nuclear facility. The results showed that the method is a good monitoring tool objectively and proactively of the working conditions of an organizational domain

  5. A simple reliability block diagram method for safety integrity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Haitao; Yang Xianhui

    2007-01-01

    IEC 61508 requires safety integrity verification for safety related systems to be a necessary procedure in safety life cycle. PFD avg must be calculated to verify the safety integrity level (SIL). Since IEC 61508-6 does not give detailed explanations of the definitions and PFD avg calculations for its examples, it is difficult for common reliability or safety engineers to understand when they use the standard as guidance in practice. A method using reliability block diagram is investigated in this study in order to provide a clear and feasible way of PFD avg calculation and help those who take IEC 61508-6 as their guidance. The method finds mean down times (MDTs) of both channel and voted group first and then PFD avg . The calculated results of various voted groups are compared with those in IEC61508 part 6 and Ref. [Zhang T, Long W, Sato Y. Availability of systems with self-diagnostic components-applying Markov model to IEC 61508-6. Reliab Eng System Saf 2003;80(2):133-41]. An interesting outcome can be realized from the comparison. Furthermore, although differences in MDT of voted groups exist between IEC 61508-6 and this paper, PFD avg of voted groups are comparatively close. With detailed description, the method of RBD presented can be applied to the quantitative SIL verification, showing a similarity of the method in IEC 61508-6

  6. Advances in methods and applications of reliability and safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieandt, J.; Hossi, H.; Laakso, K.; Lyytikaeinen, A.; Niemelae, I.; Pulkkinen, U.; Pulli, T.

    1986-01-01

    The know-how of the reliability and safety design and analysis techniques of Vtt has been established over several years in analyzing the reliability in the Finnish nuclear power plants Loviisa and Olkiluoto. This experience has been later on applied and developed to be used in the process industry, conventional power industry, automation and electronics. VTT develops and transfers methods and tools for reliability and safety analysis to the private and public sectors. The technology transfer takes place in joint development projects with potential users. Several computer-aided methods, such as RELVEC for reliability modelling and analysis, have been developed. The tool developed are today used by major Finnish companies in the fields of automation, nuclear power, shipbuilding and electronics. Development of computer-aided and other methods needed in analysis of operating experience, reliability or safety is further going on in a number of research and development projects

  7. Validation of calculational methods for nuclear criticality safety - approved 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactors, N16.1-1975, states in 4.2.5: In the absence of directly applicable experimental measurements, the limits may be derived from calculations made by a method shown to be valid by comparison with experimental data, provided sufficient allowances are made for uncertainties in the data and in the calculations. There are many methods of calculation which vary widely in basis and form. Each has its place in the broad spectrum of problems encountered in the nuclear criticality safety field; however, the general procedure to be followed in establishing validity is common to all. The standard states the requirements for establishing the validity and area(s) of applicability of any calculational method used in assessing nuclear criticality safety

  8. Methods of checking general safety criteria in UML statechart specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pap, Zsigmond; Majzik, Istvan; Pataricza, Andras; Szegi, Andras

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes methods and tools for safety analysis of UML statechart specifications. A comprehensive set of general safety criteria including completeness and consistency is applied in automated analysis. Analysis techniques are based on OCL expressions, graph transformations and reachability analysis. Two canonical intermediate representations of the statechart specification are introduced. They are suitable for straightforward implementation of checker methods and for the support of the proof of the correctness and soundness of the applied analysis. One of them also serves as a basis of the metamodel of a variant of UML statecharts proposed for the specification of safety-critical control systems. The analysis is extended to object-oriented specifications. Examples illustrate the application of the checker methods implemented by an automated tool-set

  9. The Demon-Angel method in systematic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassakis, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since 'design for safety' of large engineering systems with a high level of innovation requires an exhaustive safety analysis and since a subsequent corrective action may become a very large bottleneck in improving such a system, fundamental knowledge in designing safe systems is essential. The lack of any 'rule of thumb' makes such knowledge a matter of personal experience rather than the subject of an academic course. This paper proposes a new method for the theoretical safety study of different system configurations independently of any particular application. This method aims to help the construction of a 'rule of thumb' for what is a safe system and what is not. The Demon and Angel ideas are explained and the schematic presentation of these elements is introduced. Four representative case studies demonstrate the use of this method

  10. Modeling patient safety incidents knowledge with the Categorial Structure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, Julien; Bousquet, Cédric; Lewalle, Pierre; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Rodrigues, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    Following the WHO initiative named World Alliance for Patient Safety (PS) launched in 2004 a conceptual framework developed by PS national reporting experts has summarized the knowledge available. As a second step, the Department of Public Health of the University of Saint Etienne team elaborated a Categorial Structure (a semi formal structure not related to an upper level ontology) identifying the elements of the semantic structure underpinning the broad concepts contained in the framework for patient safety. This knowledge engineering method has been developed to enable modeling patient safety information as a prerequisite for subsequent full ontology development. The present article describes the semantic dissection of the concepts, the elicitation of the ontology requirements and the domain constraints of the conceptual framework. This ontology includes 134 concepts and 25 distinct relations and will serve as basis for an Information Model for Patient Safety.

  11. Research on fuzzy comprehensive assessment method of nuclear power plant safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yuanyuan; Chen Xukun; Xu Rongbin

    2012-01-01

    Considering the traits of safety culture in nuclear plant, 38 safety culture assessment indexes are established from 4 aspects such as safety values, safety institution, safety behavior and safety sub- stances. Based on it, a comprehensive assessment method for nuclear power plant safety culture is constructed by using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) approach and fuzzy mathematics. The comprehensive assessment method has the quality of high precision and high operability, which can support the decision making of safety culture development. (authors)

  12. Motion simulation of hydraulic driven safety rod using FSI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jaeho; Kim, Sanghaun; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Jong In

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic driven safety rod which is one of them is being developed by Division for Reactor Mechanical Engineering, KAERI. In this paper the motion of this rod is simulated by fluid structure interaction (FSI) method before manufacturing for design verification and pump sizing. A newly designed hydraulic driven safety rod which is one of reactivity control mechanism is simulated using FSI method for design verification and pump sizing. The simulation is done in CFD domain with UDF. The pressure drop is changed slightly by flow rates. It means that the pressure drop is mainly determined by weight of moving part. The simulated velocity of piston is linearly proportional to flow rates so the pump can be sized easily according to the rising and drop time requirement of the safety rod using the simulation results

  13. Probabilist methods applied to electric source problems in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.; Llory, M.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear Safety has frequently been asked to quantify safety margins and evaluate the hazard. In order to do so, the probabilist methods have proved to be the most promising. Without completely replacing determinist safety, they are now commonly used at the reliability or availability stages of systems as well as for determining the likely accidental sequences. In this paper an application linked to the problem of electric sources is described, whilst at the same time indicating the methods used. This is the calculation of the probable loss of all the electric sources of a pressurized water nuclear power station, the evaluation of the reliability of diesels by event trees of failures and the determination of accidental sequences which could be brought about by the 'total electric source loss' initiator and affect the installation or the environment [fr

  14. Cluster monte carlo method for nuclear criticality safety calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Lucheng

    1984-01-01

    One of the most important applications of the Monte Carlo method is the calculation of the nuclear criticality safety. The fair source game problem was presented at almost the same time as the Monte Carlo method was applied to calculating the nuclear criticality safety. The source iteration cost may be reduced as much as possible or no need for any source iteration. This kind of problems all belongs to the fair source game prolems, among which, the optimal source game is without any source iteration. Although the single neutron Monte Carlo method solved the problem without the source iteration, there is still quite an apparent shortcoming in it, that is, it solves the problem without the source iteration only in the asymptotic sense. In this work, a new Monte Carlo method called the cluster Monte Carlo method is given to solve the problem further

  15. Method of operator safety assessment for underground mobile mining equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Działak, Paulina; Karliński, Jacek; Rusiński, Eugeniusz

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a method of assessing the safety of operators of mobile mining equipment (MME), which is adapted to current and future geological and mining conditions. The authors focused on underground mines, with special consideration of copper mines (KGHM). As extraction reaches into deeper layers of the deposit it can activate natural hazards, which, thus far, have been considered unusual and whose range and intensity are different depending on the field of operation. One of the main hazards that affect work safety and can become the main barrier in the exploitation of deposits at greater depths is climate threat. The authors have analysed the phenomena which may impact the safety of MME operators, with consideration of accidents that have not yet been studied and are not covered by the current safety standards for this group of miners. An attempt was made to develop a method for assessing the safety of MME operators, which takes into account the mentioned natural hazards and which is adapted to current and future environmental conditions in underground mines.

  16. Method of operator safety assessment for underground mobile mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Działak Paulina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of assessing the safety of operators of mobile mining equipment (MME, which is adapted to current and future geological and mining conditions. The authors focused on underground mines, with special consideration of copper mines (KGHM. As extraction reaches into deeper layers of the deposit it can activate natural hazards, which, thus far, have been considered unusual and whose range and intensity are different depending on the field of operation. One of the main hazards that affect work safety and can become the main barrier in the exploitation of deposits at greater depths is climate threat. The authors have analysed the phenomena which may impact the safety of MME operators, with consideration of accidents that have not yet been studied and are not covered by the current safety standards for this group of miners. An attempt was made to develop a method for assessing the safety of MME operators, which takes into account the mentioned natural hazards and which is adapted to current and future environmental conditions in underground mines.

  17. PWR core safety analysis with 3-dimensional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensler, A.; Kühnel, K.; Kuch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of AREVA’s safety analysis codes their coupling is provided. • The validation base and licensing applications of these codes are summarized. • Coupled codes and methods provide improved margins and non-conservative results. • Examples for REA and inadvertent opening of the pressurizer safety valve are given. - Abstract: The main focus of safety analysis is to demonstrate the required safety level of the reactor core. Because of the demanding requirements, the quality of the safety analysis strongly affects the confidence in the operational safety of a reactor. To ensure the highest quality, it is essential that the methodology consists of appropriate analysis tools, an extensive validation base, and last but not least highly educated engineers applying the methodology. The sophisticated 3-dimensional core models applied by AREVA ensure that all physical effects relevant for safety are treated and the results are reliable and conservative. Presently AREVA employs SCIENCE, CASMO/NEMO and CASCADE-3D for pressurized water reactors. These codes are currently being consolidated into the next generation 3D code system ARCADIA®. AREVA continuously extends the validation base, including measurement campaigns in test facilities and comparisons of the predictions of steady state and transient measured data gathered from plants during many years of operation. Thus, the core models provide reliable and comprehensive results for a wide range of applications. For the application of these powerful tools, AREVA is taking benefit of its interdisciplinary know-how and international teamwork. Experienced engineers of different technical backgrounds are working together to ensure an appropriate interpretation of the calculation results, uncertainty analysis, along with continuously maintaining and enhancing the quality of the analysis methodologies. In this paper, an overview of AREVA’s broad application experience as well as the broad validation

  18. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial.

  19. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M. Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Summary Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial. PMID:20354968

  20. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than 10 yr ago, considerably prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline

  1. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRS) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operators overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline, hereafter referred to as the ''Guideline.''

  2. Computational Methods for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis in Criticality Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Rearden, B.T.

    1999-01-01

    Interest in the sensitivity methods that were developed and widely used in the 1970s (the FORSS methodology at ORNL among others) has increased recently as a result of potential use in the area of criticality safety data validation procedures to define computational bias, uncertainties and area(s) of applicability. Functional forms of the resulting sensitivity coefficients can be used as formal parameters in the determination of applicability of benchmark experiments to their corresponding industrial application areas. In order for these techniques to be generally useful to the criticality safety practitioner, the procedures governing their use had to be updated and simplified. This paper will describe the resulting sensitivity analysis tools that have been generated for potential use by the criticality safety community

  3. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    two-page assessment representing the state of knowledge/evidence of that risk, available risk mitigations, traceability to the Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS) and program requirements, and future work required. These data then can drive coordinated budgets across the Human Research Program, the International Space Station, Crew Health and Safety and Advanced Exploration System budgets to provide the most economical and timely mitigations. The risk assessments were completed for the 6 DRMs and serve as the baseline for which subsequent research and technology development and crew health care portfolios can be assessed. The HSRB reviews each risk at least annually or when new evidence/information is available that adds to the body of evidence. The current status of each risk can be reported to program management for operations, budget reviews and general oversight of the human system risk management program.

  4. Economic evaluation in patient safety: a literature review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Bruna Alves; Or, Zeynep; Com-Ruelle, Laure; Michel, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    Patient safety practices, targeting organisational changes for improving patient safety, are implemented worldwide but their costs are rarely evaluated. This paper provides a review of the methods used in economic evaluation of such practices. International medical and economics databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications on economic evaluations of patient safety between 2000 and 2010 in English and French. This was complemented by a manual search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Grey literature was excluded. Studies were described using a standardised template and assessed independently by two researchers according to six quality criteria. 33 articles were reviewed that were representative of different patient safety domains, data types and evaluation methods. 18 estimated the economic burden of adverse events, 3 measured the costs of patient safety practices and 12 provided complete economic evaluations. Healthcare-associated infections were the most common subject of evaluation, followed by medication-related errors and all types of adverse events. Of these, 10 were selected that had adequately fulfilled one or several key quality criteria for illustration. This review shows that full cost-benefit/utility evaluations are rarely completed as they are resource intensive and often require unavailable data; some overcome these difficulties by performing stochastic modelling and by using secondary sources. Low methodological transparency can be a problem for building evidence from available economic evaluations. Investing in the economic design and reporting of studies with more emphasis on defining study perspectives, data collection and methodological choices could be helpful for strengthening our knowledge base on practices for improving patient safety.

  5. On Some Methods in Safety Evaluation in Geotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puła Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates how the reliability methods can be utilised in order to evaluate safety in geotechnics. Special attention is paid to the so-called reliability based design that can play a useful and complementary role to Eurocode 7. In the first part, a brief review of first- and second-order reliability methods is given. Next, two examples of reliability-based design are demonstrated. The first one is focussed on bearing capacity calculation and is dedicated to comparison with EC7 requirements. The second one analyses a rigid pile subjected to lateral load and is oriented towards working stress design method. In the second part, applications of random field to safety evaluations in geotechnics are addressed. After a short review of the theory a Random Finite Element algorithm to reliability based design of shallow strip foundation is given. Finally, two illustrative examples for cohesive and cohesionless soils are demonstrated.

  6. On Some Methods in Safety Evaluation in Geotechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puła, Wojciech; Zaskórski, Łukasz

    2015-06-01

    The paper demonstrates how the reliability methods can be utilised in order to evaluate safety in geotechnics. Special attention is paid to the so-called reliability based design that can play a useful and complementary role to Eurocode 7. In the first part, a brief review of first- and second-order reliability methods is given. Next, two examples of reliability-based design are demonstrated. The first one is focussed on bearing capacity calculation and is dedicated to comparison with EC7 requirements. The second one analyses a rigid pile subjected to lateral load and is oriented towards working stress design method. In the second part, applications of random field to safety evaluations in geotechnics are addressed. After a short review of the theory a Random Finite Element algorithm to reliability based design of shallow strip foundation is given. Finally, two illustrative examples for cohesive and cohesionless soils are demonstrated.

  7. Safety equipment and methods for evaluating its effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, F I; Nadtoka, T B [DPI (Ukraine)

    1993-05-01

    Analyzes relations between technologies (especially for roof support) used in black coal mining and work safety in mines. The share of manual work and accident rate are compared for mining by narrow and wide web shearer loaders and by coal plows with powered and individual support. Protection from occupational injury is discussed at three levels: safety engineering, work organization and the human factor. A method of evaluating the social and economic effectiveness of protection from occupational injury developed at the DPI institute is presented. The method uses the knowledge of probability distribution of failure situations, failures and protective means to determine the probabilistic characteristics of the functioning of protection systems and to calculate, for a given period, the occurrence probability and mean number of accidents. Each state of the system is characterized by determined social and/or economic results. The method was used in designing equipment intended for protective power cut-off in electric mine networks.

  8. SACS2: Dynamic and Formal Safety Analysis Method for Complex Safety Critical System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is one of the most widely used safety analysis technique in the development of safety critical systems. However, over the years, several drawbacks of the conventional FTA have become apparent. One major drawback is that conventional FTA uses only static gates and hence can not capture dynamic behaviors of the complex system precisely. Although several attempts such as dynamic fault tree (DFT), PANDORA, formal fault tree (FFT) and so on, have been made to overcome this problem, they can not still do absolute or actual time modeling because they adapt relative time concept and can capture only sequential behaviors of the system. Second drawback of conventional FTA is its lack of rigorous semantics. Because it is informal in nature, safety analysis results heavily depend on an analyst's ability and are error-prone. Finally reasoning process which is to check whether basic events really cause top events is done manually and hence very labor-intensive and timeconsuming for the complex systems. In this paper, we propose a new safety analysis method for complex safety critical system in qualitative manner. We introduce several temporal gates based on timed computational tree logic (TCTL) which can represent quantitative notion of time. Then, we translate the information of the fault trees into UPPAAL query language and the reasoning process is automatically done by UPPAAL which is the model checker for time critical system

  9. Human reliability analysis methods for probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P.

    2000-11-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) includes identifying human actions from safety point of view, modelling the most important of them in PSA models, and assessing their probabilities. As manifested by many incidents and studies, human actions may have both positive and negative effect on safety and economy. Human reliability analysis is one of the areas of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that has direct applications outside the nuclear industry. The thesis focuses upon developments in human reliability analysis methods and data. The aim is to support PSA by extending the applicability of HRA. The thesis consists of six publications and a summary. The summary includes general considerations and a discussion about human actions in the nuclear power plant (NPP) environment. A condensed discussion about the results of the attached publications is then given, including new development in methods and data. At the end of the summary part, the contribution of the publications to good practice in HRA is presented. In the publications, studies based on the collection of data on maintenance-related failures, simulator runs and expert judgement are presented in order to extend the human reliability analysis database. Furthermore, methodological frameworks are presented to perform a comprehensive HRA, including shutdown conditions, to study reliability of decision making, and to study the effects of wrong human actions. In the last publication, an interdisciplinary approach to analysing human decision making is presented. The publications also include practical applications of the presented methodological frameworks. (orig.)

  10. Methods and strategies for future reactor safety goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Steven Andrew

    -informed analyses and discussions. This dissertation examines potential approaches to updating the safety goals that include the establishment of new quantitative safety goal associated with the comparative risk of generating electricity by viable competing technologies and modifications of the goals to account for multi-plant reactor sites, and issues associated with the use of safety goals in both initial licensing and operational decision making. This research develops a new quantitative health objective that uses a comparable benefit risk metric based on the life-cycle risk of the construction, operation and decommissioning of a comparable non-nuclear electric generation facility, as well as the risks associated with mining and transportation. This dissertation also evaluates the effects of using various methods for aggregating site risk as a safety metric, as opposed to using single plant safety goals. Additionally, a number of important assumptions inherent in the current safety goals, including the effect of other potential negative societal effects such as the generation of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) have on the risk of electric power production and their effects on the setting of safety goals, is explored. Finally, the role risk perception should play in establishing safety goals has been explored. To complete this evaluation, a new method to analytically compare alternative technologies of generating electricity was developed, including development of a new way to evaluate risk perception, and a new method was developed for evaluating the risk at multiple units on a single site. To test these modifications to the safety goals a number of possible reactor designs and configurations were evaluated using these new proposed safety goals to determine the goals' usefulness and utility. The results of the analysis showed that the modifications provide measures that more closely evaluate the potential risk to the public from the operation of nuclear power plants than

  11. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  12. Research on neutron source multiplication method in nuclear critical safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qingfu; Shi Yongqian; Hu Dingsheng

    2005-01-01

    The paper concerns in the neutron source multiplication method research in nuclear critical safety. Based on the neutron diffusion equation with external neutron source the effective sub-critical multiplication factor k s is deduced, and k s is different to the effective neutron multiplication factor k eff in the case of sub-critical system with external neutron source. The verification experiment on the sub-critical system indicates that the parameter measured with neutron source multiplication method is k s , and k s is related to the external neutron source position in sub-critical system and external neutron source spectrum. The relation between k s and k eff and the effect of them on nuclear critical safety is discussed. (author)

  13. Development of evaluation method for software safety analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tu, W.; Shih, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, W.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C.; Chen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Following the massive adoption of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system for nuclear power plant (NPP), various Software Safety Analysis (SSA) techniques are used to evaluate the NPP safety for adopting appropriate digital I and C system, and then to reduce risk to acceptable level. However, each technique has its specific advantage and disadvantage. If the two or more techniques can be complementarily incorporated, the SSA combination would be more acceptable. As a result, if proper evaluation criteria are available, the analyst can then choose appropriate technique combination to perform analysis on the basis of resources. This research evaluated the applicable software safety analysis techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/ noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. These indexes may help the decision makers and the software safety analysts to choose the best SSA combination arrange their own software safety plan. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various SSA combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (without transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and Simulation-based model analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantage are the completeness complexity

  14. [Experience feedback committee: a method for patient safety improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Sellier, E; Imburchia, F; Mallaret, M-R

    2013-04-01

    An experience feedback committee (CREX, Comité de Retour d'EXpérience) is a method which contributes to the management of safety of care in a medical unit. Originally used for security systems of civil aviation, the method has been adapted to health care facilities and successfully implemented in radiotherapy units and in other specialties. We performed a brief review of the literature for studies reporting data on CREX established in hospitals. The review was performed using the main bibliographic databases and Google search results. The CREX is designed to analyse incidents reported by professionals. The method includes monthly meetings of a multi-professional committee that reviews the reported incidents, chooses a priority incident and designates a "pilot" responsible for investigating the incident. The investigation of the incident involves a systemic analysis method and a written synthesis presented at the next meeting of the committee. The committee agrees on actions for improvement that are suggested by the analysis and follows their implementation. Systems for the management of health care, including reporting systems, are organized into three levels: the medical unit, the hospital and the country as a triple loop learning process. The CREX is located in the base level, short loop of risk management and allows direct involvement of care professionals in patient safety. Safety of care has become a priority of health systems. In this context, the CREX can be a useful vehicle for the implementation of a safety culture in medical units. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness.

  16. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness

  17. Methods for the sodium cooled fast reactor fire safety provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, B.V.; Dergachev, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    Problems of fire safety provision on NPPs with sodium cooled fast reactor are under discussion. Methods of sodium leak localization, measures eliminating sodium flaring up during leaks and main means of sodium fire extinguishing are considered. An extinguishing of sodium flaring up is performed by means of sodium temperatUre decrease and by limitation of hydrogen access to the flaring up surface. A conclusion is made that the most effective methods of extinguishing are the following: self-extinguishing (due to hydrogen burning out in a limiting volume); extinguishing by a gas mixture of nitrogen and carbonic acid (initial filling and blowing of rooms during sodium flaring up); extinguishing by special powders

  18. Method for selection of optimal road safety composite index with examples from DEA and TOPSIS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosić, Miroslav; Pešić, Dalibor; Kukić, Dragoslav; Antić, Boris; Božović, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Concept of composite road safety index is a popular and relatively new concept among road safety experts around the world. As there is a constant need for comparison among different units (countries, municipalities, roads, etc.) there is need to choose an adequate method which will make comparison fair to all compared units. Usually comparisons using one specific indicator (parameter which describes safety or unsafety) can end up with totally different ranking of compared units which is quite complicated for decision maker to determine "real best performers". Need for composite road safety index is becoming dominant since road safety presents a complex system where more and more indicators are constantly being developed to describe it. Among wide variety of models and developed composite indexes, a decision maker can come to even bigger dilemma than choosing one adequate risk measure. As DEA and TOPSIS are well-known mathematical models and have recently been increasingly used for risk evaluation in road safety, we used efficiencies (composite indexes) obtained by different models, based on DEA and TOPSIS, to present PROMETHEE-RS model for selection of optimal method for composite index. Method for selection of optimal composite index is based on three parameters (average correlation, average rank variation and average cluster variation) inserted into a PROMETHEE MCDM method in order to choose the optimal one. The model is tested by comparing 27 police departments in Serbia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea.

  20. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea

  1. Methods and criteria for safety analysis (FIN L2535)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In response to the NRC request for a proposal dated October 20, 1992, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) submit this proposal to provide contractural assistance for FIN L2535, ''Methods and Criteria for Safety Analysis,'' as specified in the Statement of Work attached to the request for proposal. The Statement of Work involves development of safety analysis guidance for NRC licensees, arranging a workshop on this guidance, and revising NRC Regulatory Guide 3.52. This response to the request for proposal offers for consideration the following advantages of WSRC in performing this work: Experience, Qualification of Personnel and Resource Commitment, Technical and Organizational Approach, Mobilization Plan, Key Personnel and Resumes. In addition, attached are the following items required by the NRC: Schedule II, Savannah River Site - Job Cost Estimate, NRC Form 189, Project and Budget Proposal for NRC Work, page 1, NRC Form 189, Project and Budget Proposal for NRC Work, page 2, Project Description

  2. Probabilistic methods in the field of reactor safety in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhofer, A [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktordynamik und Reaktorsicherheit

    1979-01-01

    The present status and future prospects in Germany of reliability, as well as risk analysis, in the field of reactor safety are examined. The development of analytical methods with respect to the available data base is reviewed with consideration of the roles of reliability codes, component data, common mode failures, human influence, structural analysis and process computers. Some examples of the application of probability assessments are discussed and the extension of reliability analysis beyond the loss-of-coolant accident is considered. In the case of risk analysis, the object is to determine not only the probability of failure of systems but also the probability and extent of possible consequences. Some risk studies under investigation in Germany and the methodology of risk analysis are discussed. Reliability and risk analysis are involved to an increasing extent in safety research and licensing procedures and their influence in other fields such as the public perception of risk is also discussed.

  3. Human-Systems Integration Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to baseline a Human-Systems Integration Processes (HSIP) document as a companion to the NASA-STD-3001 and Human Integration Design...

  4. A simple graphical method for measuring inherent safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.P.; Edwards, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Inherently safer design (ISD) concepts have been with us for over two decades since their elaboration by Kletz [Chem. Ind. 9 (1978) 124]. Interest has really taken off globally since the early nineties after several major mishaps occurred during the eighties (Bhopal, Mexico city, Piper-alfa, Philips Petroleum, to name a few). Academic and industrial research personnel have been actively involved into devising inherently safer ways of production. The regulatory bodies have also shown deep interest since ISD makes the production safer and hence their tasks easier. Research funding has also been forthcoming for new developments as well as for demonstration projects. A natural question that arises is as to how to measure ISD characteristics of a process? Several researchers have worked on this [Trans. IChemE, Process Safety Environ. Protect. B 71 (4) (1993) 252; Inherent safety in process plant design, Ph.D. Thesis, VTT Publication Number 384, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, 1999; Proceedings of the Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center Symposium, 2001, p. 509]. Many of the proposed methods are very elegant, yet too involved for easy adoption by the industry which is scared of yet another safety analysis regime. In a recent survey [Trans. IChemE, Process Safety Environ. Prog. B 80 (2002) 115], companies desired a rather simple method to measure ISD. Simplification is also an important characteristic of ISD. It is therefore desirable to have a simple ISD measurement procedure. The ISD measurement procedure proposed in this paper can be used to differentiate between two or more processes for the same end product. The salient steps are: Consider each of the important parameters affecting the safety (e.g., temperature, pressure, toxicity, flammability, etc.) and the range of possible values these parameters can have for all the process routes under consideration for an end product. Plot these values for each step in each process route and compare. No

  5. A SOFTWARE RELIABILITY ESTIMATION METHOD TO NUCLEAR SAFETY SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEE-YONG PARK

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A method for estimating software reliability for nuclear safety software is proposed in this paper. This method is based on the software reliability growth model (SRGM, where the behavior of software failure is assumed to follow a non-homogeneous Poisson process. Two types of modeling schemes based on a particular underlying method are proposed in order to more precisely estimate and predict the number of software defects based on very rare software failure data. The Bayesian statistical inference is employed to estimate the model parameters by incorporating software test cases as a covariate into the model. It was identified that these models are capable of reasonably estimating the remaining number of software defects which directly affects the reactor trip functions. The software reliability might be estimated from these modeling equations, and one approach of obtaining software reliability value is proposed in this paper.

  6. Study and application of human reliability analysis for digital human-system interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Ming; Liu Yanzi; Zhang Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of human-orientated abilities and limitations could be used to digital human-system interface (HSI) design by human reliability analysis (HRA) technology. Further, control room system design could achieve the perfect match of man-machine-environment. This research was conducted to establish an integrated HRA method. This method identified HSI potential design flaws which may affect human performance and cause human error. Then a systematic approach was adopted to optimize HSI. It turns out that this method is practical and objective, and effectively improves the safety, reliability and economy of nuclear power plant. This method was applied to CRP1000 projects under construction successfully with great potential. (authors)

  7. The discussion on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kefu

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental methods for safely culture evaluation are described. Combining with the practice of the quantitative evaluation of safety culture in Daya Bay NPP, the quantitative evaluation method for safety culture are discussed. (author)

  8. Collection of methods for reliability and safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.; Rasmuson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Burdick, G.R.; Zipperer, J.C.

    1976-04-01

    The document presented contains five reports each describing a method of reliability and safety engineering. Report I provides a conceptual framework for the study of component malfunctions during system evaluations. Report II provides methods for locating groups of critical component failures such that all the component failures in a given group can be caused to occur by the occurrence of a single separate event. These groups of component failures are called common cause candidates. Report III provides a method for acquiring and storing system-independent component failure logic information. The information stored is influenced by the concepts presented in Report I and also includes information useful in locating common cause candidates. Report IV puts forth methods for analyzing situations that involve systems which change character in a predetermined time sequence. These phased missions techniques are applicable to the hypothetical ''accident chains'' frequently analyzed for nuclear power plants. Report V presents a unified approach to cause-consequence analysis, a method of analysis useful during risk assessments. This approach, as developed by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission, is modified to reflect the format and symbology conventionally used for other types of analysis of nuclear reactor systems

  9. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  10. First human systemic infection caused by Spiroplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Ana; Masiá, Mar; López, Pilar; Galiana, Antonio J; Tovar, Juan; Andrés, María; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2015-02-01

    Spiroplasma species are organisms that normally colonize plants and insects. We describe the first case of human systemic infection caused by Spiroplasma bacteria in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia undergoing treatment with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic agents. Spiroplasma turonicum was identified through molecular methods in several blood cultures. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline plus levofloxacin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Group & Intergroup Relations in Living Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    organizational diagnosis , the group is itself a living human system. A group may be underbounded, overbounded, or optimally bounded. The state of group...very im- portant to understand and to use in order to conduct organizational diagnosis " using group methods. 2 -43 (Alderfer, 1977b). The group...Boundary Relations and Organizational Diagnosis . In H. Meltzer and F.W. Wickert (eds.) Humanizing Organizational Behavior. Springfield, Illinois: Thomas

  12. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  13. Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2014-05-01

    A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

  14. Time Based Workload Analysis Method for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Oh, Eung Se [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    During the design basis event, the safety system performs safety functions to mitigate the event. The most of safety system is actuated by automatic system however, there are operator manual actions that are needed for the plant safety. These operator actions are classified as important human actions in human factors engineering design. The human factors engineering analysis and evaluation is needed for these important human actions to assure that operator successfully perform their tasks for plant safety and operational goals. The work load analysis is one of the required analysis for the important human actions.

  15. Time Based Workload Analysis Method for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Oh, Eung Se

    2016-01-01

    During the design basis event, the safety system performs safety functions to mitigate the event. The most of safety system is actuated by automatic system however, there are operator manual actions that are needed for the plant safety. These operator actions are classified as important human actions in human factors engineering design. The human factors engineering analysis and evaluation is needed for these important human actions to assure that operator successfully perform their tasks for plant safety and operational goals. The work load analysis is one of the required analysis for the important human actions.

  16. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    , established a comprehensive risk management and configuration management plan and data sharing policy. These major developments of standards, the HRP, the HMTA and a forum for review of human system risks (HSRB) facilitated the integration of human research, medical operations, systems engineering and many other disciplines in the comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB began a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30 where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit 6 and 12 months, deep space sortie for 30 days and 1 year, a one year lunar mission, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary assessment representing the state of knowledge/evidence base for that risk, the available risk mitigations, traceability to the SFHSS and program requirements, and future work required. These data then can drive coordinated budgets across the HRP, the International Space Station, Crew Health and Safety and Advanced Exploration System budgets. These risk assessments were completed for 6 DRMs in December of 2014 and serve as the baseline for which subsequent research and technology development and crew health care portfolios can be assessed. The HSRB will review each risk at least annually and especially when new information is available that must be considered for effective risk mitigation. The current status of each risk can be reported to program management for operations, budget

  17. Software Safety Life cycle and Method of POSAFE-Q System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Kwon, Kee-Choon

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the overall safety life cycle and the software safety life cycle during the development of the software based safety systems of Nuclear Power Plants. This includes the design and evaluation activities of components as well as the system. The paper also compares the safety life cycle and planning activities defined in IEC 61508 with those in IEC 60880, IEEE 7-4.3.2, and IEEE 1228. Using the KNICS project as an example, software safety life cycle and safety analysis methods applied to the POSAFE-Q are demonstrated. KNICS software safety life cycle is described by comparing to the software development, testing, and safety analysis process with international standards. The safety assessment of the software for POSAFE-Q is a joint Korean German project. The assessment methods applied in the project and the experiences gained from this project are presented

  18. Method to Find Recovery Event Combinations in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Riley, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    These research activities may develop mathematical methods, engineering analyses, and business processes. The research activities of the project covered by this scope are directed toward the specific issues of implementing the methods and strategies on a computational platform, identifying the features and enhancements to EPRI tools that would be necessary to realize significant improvements to the risk assessments performed by the end user. Fault tree analysis is extensively and successfully applied to the risk assessment of safety-critical systems such as nuclear, chemical and aerospace systems. The fault tree analysis is being used together with an event tree analysis in PSA of nuclear power plants. Fault tree solvers for a PSA are mostly based on the cutset-based algorithm. They generate minimal cut sets (MCSs) from a fault tree. The most popular fault tree solver in the PSA industry is FTREX. During the course of this project, certain technical issues (see Sections 2 to 5) have been identified that need to be addressed regarding how minimal cut sets are generated and quantified. The objective of this scope of the work was to develop new methods or techniques to address these technical limitations. By turning on all the cutset initiators (%1, %2, %3, %), all the possible minimal cut sets can be calculated easier than with the original fault tree. It is accomplished by the fact that the number of events in the minimal cut sets are significantly reduced by using cutset initiators instead of random failure events. And byy turning on a few chosen cutset initiators and turning off the other cutset initiators, minimal cut sets of the selected cutset initiator(s) can be easily calculated. As explained in the previous Sections, there is no way to calculate these minimal cut sets by turning off/on the random failure events in the original fault tree

  19. Method to Find Recovery Event Combinations in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Woo Sik [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Riley, Jeff [Electric Power Research, Palo Alto (United States)

    2016-05-15

    These research activities may develop mathematical methods, engineering analyses, and business processes. The research activities of the project covered by this scope are directed toward the specific issues of implementing the methods and strategies on a computational platform, identifying the features and enhancements to EPRI tools that would be necessary to realize significant improvements to the risk assessments performed by the end user. Fault tree analysis is extensively and successfully applied to the risk assessment of safety-critical systems such as nuclear, chemical and aerospace systems. The fault tree analysis is being used together with an event tree analysis in PSA of nuclear power plants. Fault tree solvers for a PSA are mostly based on the cutset-based algorithm. They generate minimal cut sets (MCSs) from a fault tree. The most popular fault tree solver in the PSA industry is FTREX. During the course of this project, certain technical issues (see Sections 2 to 5) have been identified that need to be addressed regarding how minimal cut sets are generated and quantified. The objective of this scope of the work was to develop new methods or techniques to address these technical limitations. By turning on all the cutset initiators (%1, %2, %3, %), all the possible minimal cut sets can be calculated easier than with the original fault tree. It is accomplished by the fact that the number of events in the minimal cut sets are significantly reduced by using cutset initiators instead of random failure events. And byy turning on a few chosen cutset initiators and turning off the other cutset initiators, minimal cut sets of the selected cutset initiator(s) can be easily calculated. As explained in the previous Sections, there is no way to calculate these minimal cut sets by turning off/on the random failure events in the original fault tree.

  20. Assessing the safety of the road network : a simple method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Research by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research in The Netherlands assessing the safety of the Dutch road network is presented. In The Netherlands urban and rural roads and motorways are used roughly equally, however accident rates vary greatly. These are discussed in this paper. Tables show

  1. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  2. Understanding the relationship between safety culture dimensions and safety performance of construction projects through partial least square method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Machfudiyanto, Rossy A.; Arifuddin, Rosmariani; Yogiswara, Yoko

    2017-03-01

    Based on the data, 32% of accidental cases in Indonesia occurs on constructional sectors. It is supported by the data from Public Work and Housing Department that 27.43% of the implementation level of Safety Management System policy at construction companies in Indonesia remains unsafe categories. Moreover, there are dimensions of occupational safety culture formed including leadership, behavior, strategy, policy, process, people, safety cost, value and contract system. The aim of this study is to determine the model of an effective safety culture and know the relationship between dimensions in construction industry. The method used in this research was questionnaire survey which was distributed to the sample of construction companies either in a national private one in Indonesia. The result of this research is supposed to be able to illustrate the development of the relationship among occupational safety culture dimensions which have influences to the performances of constructional companies in Indonesia.

  3. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study

  4. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  5. Computational methods for criticality safety analysis within the scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Bucholz, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The criticality safety analysis capabilities within the SCALE system are centered around the Monte Carlo codes KENO IV and KENO V.a, which are both included in SCALE as functional modules. The XSDRNPM-S module is also an important tool within SCALE for obtaining multiplication factors for one-dimensional system models. This paper reviews the features and modeling capabilities of these codes along with their implementation within the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequences (CSAS) of SCALE. The CSAS modules provide automated cross-section processing and user-friendly input that allow criticality safety analyses to be done in an efficient and accurate manner. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. A Reliability Assessment Method for the VHTR Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Sok; Jae, Moo Sung; Kim, Yong Wan

    2011-01-01

    The Passive safety system by very high temperature reactor which has attracted worldwide attention in the last century is the reliability safety system introduced for the improvement in the safety of the next generation nuclear power plant design. The Passive system functionality does not rely on an external source of energy, but on an intelligent use of the natural phenomena, such as gravity, conduction and radiation, which are always present. Because of these features, it is difficult to evaluate the passive safety on the risk analysis methodology having considered the existing active system failure. Therefore new reliability methodology has to be considered. In this study, the preliminary evaluation and conceptualization are tried, applying the concept of the load and capacity from the reliability physics model, designing the new passive system analysis methodology, and the trial applying to paper plant.

  7. ECORA - Evaluation of Computational Methods for Reactor Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuerer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    There were three motivations behind the ECORA Project: - the shortcomings of 0-D system codes in the simulation of 3-D, local flow and heat transfer phenomena, - increased interest in the application of 3-D CFD software as supplement to system codes, - high safety requirements in the nuclear industry required consistent standards for the use and assessment of CFD software. The purpose of ECORA was therefore: - to establish performance criteria for the assessment of CFD software, - to establish Best Practice Guidelines for application and use of CFD software, with the following objectives: - assessment of CFD applications in reactor safety: flows in containment (PANDA experiments) and flows in primary system (UPTF experiments) - Best Practice Guidelines for reactor safety: starting point (ERCOFTAC Best Practice Guidelines), adaptation to CFD application for nuclear safety, extension to assessment of experimental data - recommendations for improvements of CFD software, - network of European 'Centres of Competence for CFD Applications in Reactor Safety'. Currently, there were twelve partners in the ECORA Project, representing nine European countries. The Project was scheduled to last until September 2004. Ms Scheuerer then described the work programme and project structure, the Best Practice Guidelines for CFD simulations, the procedures for quantifying errors, applications of Best Practice Guidelines, Best Practice Guidelines for experimental data, applications to primary system, UPTF and PANDA data. Her conclusions were the following: - the Project had led to the improvement of the quality of CFD calculations in reactor safety, through: the ECORA Best Practice Guidelines, the assessment of shortcomings and the improvement of mathematical models. - It had also led to higher acceptance of CFD in reactor safety. - The next step was the establishment of European 'Centres of Competence for CFD Applications in reactor Safety'

  8. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved

  9. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved.

  10. Method of accounting for code safety valve setpoint drift in safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, K.R.; Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    In performing the safety analyses for transients that result in a challenge to the reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary, the general acceptance criterion is that the peak RCS pressure not exceed the American Society of Mechanical Engineers limit of 110% of the design pressure. Without crediting non-safety-grade pressure mitigating systems, protection from this limit is mainly provided by the primary and secondary code safety valves. In theory, the combination of relief capacity and setpoints for these valves is designed to provide this protection. Generally, banks of valves are set at varying setpoints staggered by 15- to 20-psid increments to minimize the number of valves that would open by an overpressure challenge. In practice, however, when these valves are removed and tested (typically during a refueling outage), setpoints are sometimes found to have drifted by >50 psid. This drift should be accounted for during the performance of the safety analysis. This paper describes analyses performed by Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) to account for setpoint drift in safety valves from testing. The results of these analyses are used to define safety valve operability or acceptance criteria

  11. Teen worker safety training: methods used, lessons taught, and time spent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2015-05-01

    Safety training is strongly endorsed as one way to prevent teens from performing dangerous tasks at work. The objective of this mixed methods study was to characterize the safety training that teenagers receive on the job. From 2010 through 2012, focus groups and a cross-sectional survey were conducted with working teens. The top methods of safety training reported were safety videos (42 percent) and safety lectures (25 percent). The top lessons reported by teens were "how to do my job" and "ways to spot hazards." Males, who were more likely to do dangerous tasks, received less safety training than females. Although most teens are getting safety training, it is inadequate. Lessons addressing safety behaviors are missing, training methods used are minimal, and the time spent is insignificant. More research is needed to understand what training methods and lessons should be used, and the appropriate safety training length for effectively preventing injury in working teens. In addition, more research evaluating the impact of high-quality safety training compared to poor safety training is needed to determine the best training programs for teens. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Safety and reliability analysis based on nonprobabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, I.O.; Petersen, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Imprecise probabilities, being developed during the last two decades, offer a considerably more general theory having many advantages which make it very promising for reliability and safety analysis. The objective of the paper is to argue that imprecise probabilities are more appropriate tool for reliability and safety analysis, that they allow to model the behavior of nuclear industry objects more comprehensively and give a possibility to solve some problems unsolved in the framework of conventional approach. Furthermore, some specific examples are given from which we can see the usefulness of the tool for solving some reliability tasks

  13. Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2015-01-01

    The NASA/SP-2015-3709, Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide, also known as the "HSIPG," provides a tool for implementing HSI activities within the NASA systems engineering framework. The HSIPG is written to aid the HSI practitioner engaged in a program or project (P/P), and serves as a knowledge base to allow the practitioner to step into an HSI lead or team member role for NASA missions. Additionally, this HSIPG is written to address the role of HSI in the P/P management and systems engineering communities and aid their understanding of the value added by incorporating good HSI practices into their programs and projects. Through helping to build a community of knowledgeable HSI practitioners, this document also hopes to build advocacy across the Agency for establishing strong, consistent HSI policies and practices. Human Systems Integration (HSI) has been successfully adopted (and adapted) by several federal agencies-most notably the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-as a methodology for reducing system life cycle costs (LCCs). These cost savings manifest themselves due to reductions in required numbers of personnel, the practice of human-centered design, decreased reliance on specialized skills for operations, shortened training time, efficient logistics and maintenance, and fewer safety-related risks and mishaps due to unintended human/system interactions. The HSI process for NASA establishes how cost savings and mission success can be realized through systems engineering. Every program or project has unique attributes. This HSIPG is not intended to provide one-size-fits-all recommendations for HSI implementation. Rather, HSI processes should be tailored to the size, scope, and goals of individual situations. The instructions and processes identified here are best used as a starting point for implementing human-centered system concepts and designs across programs and projects of varying types, including

  14. New method for distance-based close following safety indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharizli, A A; Rahizar, R; Karim, M R; Saifizul, A A

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of fatalities caused by road accidents involving heavy vehicles every year has raised the level of concern and awareness on road safety in developing countries like Malaysia. Changes in the vehicle dynamic characteristics such as gross vehicle weight, travel speed, and vehicle classification will affect a heavy vehicle's braking performance and its ability to stop safely in emergency situations. As such, the aim of this study is to establish a more realistic new distance-based safety indicator called the minimum safe distance gap (MSDG), which incorporates vehicle classification (VC), speed, and gross vehicle weight (GVW). Commercial multibody dynamics simulation software was used to generate braking distance data for various heavy vehicle classes under various loads and speeds. By applying nonlinear regression analysis to the simulation results, a mathematical expression of MSDG has been established. The results show that MSDG is dynamically changed according to GVW, VC, and speed. It is envisaged that this new distance-based safety indicator would provide a more realistic depiction of the real traffic situation for safety analysis.

  15. Method for quantitative assessment of nuclear safety computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearien, J.A.; Davis, C.B.; Matthews, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the quantitative assessment of nuclear safety computer codes and tested by comparison of RELAP4/MOD6 predictions with results from two Semiscale tests. This paper describes the developed procedure, the application of the procedure to the Semiscale tests, and the results obtained from the comparison

  16. An Energy based Method to Measure the Crowd Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, H.; Li, D.; Zheng, X.

    2014-01-01

    How to evaluate crowd safety in crowded areas is a tough, but important, problem. According to accident-causing theory, uncontrolled release of hazardous energy among overcrowded pedestrians is the basic cause of crowd disaster. Therefore, crowd energy is modeled in this paper, which takes both

  17. Development of safety evaluation methods and analysis codes applied to the safety regulations for the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to develop the safety evaluation methods and analysis codes needed in the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). In JFY 2012, the following results are obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination conducted for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as core damage analysis code, were carried out following the planned schedule. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)

  18. Probabilistic assessment methods as a tool for developing nations to make safety decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumley, P.; Inamdar, S.V.

    1985-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of probabilistic safety assessment methods in making safety decisions. It discusses the question of adequate safety - what it means to a country buying a nuclear power plant, and how probabilistic safety assessment studies of the reference plant can be used for ensuring this adequate safety. It is proposed that adequate safety means ensuring that the plant would behave, in accident conditions, in a manner similar to the way it is expected to behave were it in the country of origin. For this one needs to know how the plant responds under somewhat altered conditions. These altered conditions can arise from such factors as varying reliability of electrical grids, different manufacturing technology, local systems design and operator capability. In the design of nuclear power plants, the traditional approach to safety has led to the belief that availability and effectiveness of safety systems alone are all that is required to ensure plant safety. This belief can result in design oversights leading to potential problems arising from the power production systems and the service systems. Participation by the buying country in the design of such systems, and understanding the safety implications thereof, can be facilitated by probabilistic safety assessment methods. This philosophy is illustrated in this paper by examples. (author)

  19. An Evaluation Method for Team Competencies to Enhance Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, S. M.; Seong, P. H.; Kim, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture has received attention in safety-critical industries, including nuclear power plants (NPPs), due to various prominent accidents such as concealment of a Station Blackout (SBO) of Kori NPP unit 1 in 2012, the Sewol ferry accident in 2014, and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Analysis reports have pointed out that one of the major contributors to the cause of the accidents is ‘the lack of safety culture’. The term, nuclear safety culture, was firstly defined after the Chernobyl accident by the IAEA in INSAG report no. 4, as follows “Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted their significance.” Afterwards, a wide consensus grew among researchers and nuclear-related organizations, that safety culture should be evaluated and managed in a certain manner. Consequently, each nuclear-related organization defined and developed their own safety culture definitions and assessment methods. However, none of these methods provides a way for an individual or a team to enhance the safety culture of an organization. Especially for a team, which is the smallest working unit in NPPs, team members easily overlook their required practices to improve nuclear safety culture. Therefore in this study, we suggested a method to estimate nuclear safety culture of a team, by approaching with the ‘competency’ point of view. The competency is commonly focused on individuals, and defined as, “underlying characteristics of an individual that are causally related to effective or superior performance in a job.” Similar to safety culture, the definition of competency focuses on characteristics and attitudes of individuals. Thus, we defined ‘safety culture competency’ as “underlying characteristics and outward attitudes of individuals that are causally related to a healthy and strong nuclear safety

  20. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  1. Development of safety evaluation methods applied to the safety regulations for the operation stage of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study is to establish the safety evaluation methods needed in the operation stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). Related the above purpose of this study, some investigation studies for the technical standard applied to Monju were achieved in JFY 2012. (author)

  2. Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Choi, Sun Woo; Ko, Hee Ran; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition

  3. Ageing management by probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.; Bhawal, R.N.; Maiti, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The process and safety system of a nuclear power plant must achieve the reliability/availability target throughout the plant life or for extended plant life. It is therefore necessary to assess the trend of component or system ageing and to take preventive measures so that ageing effect can be counter balanced. In this paper a mathematical model has been established to predict ageing effect and to find out time dependent inspection or test interval to upgrade the system availability. (author). 5 figs

  4. En Route Patient Safety: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Army, Navy, volunteers, and civilians who meet the planes lack proper safety training First-names-only rule • MCD often refuses to give report...record; EMED = emergency medical; GPMRC = Global Patient Movement Requirements Center; MCD = medical crew director; MDG = Medical Group; OI...crews voiced concerns that “the biggest issue as far as taking report from the MCD is it’s always second hand.” However, several nurses who filled

  5. Crane Safety Assessment Method Based on Entropy and Cumulative Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the safety status of cranes is an important problem. To overcome the inaccuracies and misjudgments in such assessments, this work describes a safety assessment method for cranes that combines entropy and cumulative prospect theory. Firstly, the proposed method transforms the set of evaluation indices into an evaluation vector. Secondly, a decision matrix is then constructed from the evaluation vectors and evaluation standards, and an entropy-based technique is applied to calculate the index weights. Thirdly, positive and negative prospect value matrices are established from reference points based on the positive and negative ideal solutions. Thus, this enables the crane safety grade to be determined according to the ranked comprehensive prospect values. Finally, the safety status of four general overhead traveling crane samples is evaluated to verify the rationality and feasibility of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the method described in this paper can precisely and reasonably reflect the safety status of a crane.

  6. INNOVATIVE FORMS SUPPORTING SAFE METHODS OF WORK IN SAFETY ENGINEERING FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENT SPECIALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna GEMBALSKA-KWIECIEŃ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses innovative forms of participation of employees in the work safety system. It also presents the advantages of these forms of employees’ involvement. The aim of empirical studies was the analysis of their behavior and attitude towards health and safety at work. The issues considered in the article have a significant impact on the improvement of methods of prevention related to work safety and aided the creation of a healthy society.

  7. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  8. New methods for the safety testing of transgenic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten; Kledal, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    for guiding the precise design of the animal study. The genetically modified food plants to be used for this test development will be 3 transgenic rice varieties (2 types of lectins and the Bt toxin). Objectives The overall objective of this project is to develop and validate the scientific methodology which......Background This project proposal deals with the development of a sensitive and specific animal test which is necessary for safety analysis of genetically modified plants according to the Opinion of the Scientific Committee for Food on the assessment of novels foods. The test will be based...

  9. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, Dina; Pieters, Wolter; Teixeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by implementing suitable risk treatment plans. However, an overarching overview of these methods, systematizing the characteristics of such methods, is missing. In this paper, we conduct a systematic l...

  10. Human-system Interfaces for Automatic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins,J. (BNL); Fleger, S.; Barnes V. (NRC)

    2010-11-07

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, our study identified several topics for additional research.

  11. The Influence of Teaching Methods on Learners' Perception of E-Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimandl, Václav; Dobiáš, Václav; Šerý, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The traditional method of teaching e-safety by lecturing is not very effective. Despite learners often being equipped with the right knowledge, they reject the need to act accordingly. There is a need to improve the way digital e-safety is taught. Background: The study compares four different teaching styles, examining how each…

  12. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Pieters, Wolter; Texeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by

  13. Expert opinions on the acceptance of alternative methods in food safety evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Ans; Bouwmeester, Hans; Schiffelers, Marie Jeanne W.A.; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Inclusion of alternative methods that replace, reduce, or refine (3R) animal testing within regulatory safety evaluations of chemicals generally faces many hurdles. The goal of the current work is to i) collect responses from key stakeholders involved in food safety evaluations on what they consider

  14. Neutronics methods for transient and safety analysis of fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Modeling the evolution of possible or postulated accidents in nuclear reactors is fundamental in designing safe systems. For the next generation of reactors, in particular fast reactors, fuel movement during an accident can, in principle, drive an energetic event. Such is the issue of recriticality. The thermal energy produced during these events will, possibly, be converted into mechanical energy by some mechanisms. For example, the nuclear heat deposited in the fuel could cause fuel vaporization and its subsequent expansion. This movement would accelerate the surrounding sodium: part of the initial energy in the fuel is thus converted into sodium kinetic energy. This mechanical energy will finally be absorbed, in some way or another, by the reactor vessel. Providing an accurate estimate for the maximum mechanical work that any accidental sequence can do onto the reactor vessel is an essential step in designing a reactor containment that would withstand any load generated by any accident. That would assure accident containment, without consequences for the general public. Fast reactor accident modeling is a complicated task. The outcome of an accident is determined by different physical phenomena, all acting at almost the same time. Safety analysts must track all these different phenomena. Multi-physics codes have been developed for this task. They must contain accurate models for fluid-dynamics, neutronics, and structures. This work has to do with neutronics modeling of such accidents. Past and recent analyses have been limited to the approximate description of the neutronic field, for example by using a rough description of the energy and/or of the angular dependence of the neutron flux. In this work, different neutronic solvers are selected and coupled into a general multi-physics code for fast reactor accident analysis. Performances of each of them is then assessed. Some emphasis has been put also in assessing the speed of these solvers for determining the

  15. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT WITH THE USE OF BRAINSTORMING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Woźny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Health and safety at work issue concerns every employer. Adjusting the work environment to legal requirements and standards is the key to creating health and safety culture. In every functioning OSH system there are various types of problems that employers face. The subject of the article is how to solve the problem of safety in production systems using the brainstorming method. The basic ele-ment of creating health and safety culture is an appropriate approach to occupational risk manage-ment. Risk assessment in the workplace should take place in teams as it is possible to reliably identi-fy hazards and accurately assess them.

  16. Ranking the types of intersections for assessing the safety of pedestrians using TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin ŞERBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more than 1500 accidents with pedestrian occur in the intersections in Romania. The number of accidents involving pedestrians in roundabouts intersections type increased approximately three times in 2013 compared to 2009 in Romania. This alarming increase led to the need of assessing the safety of pedestrians in intersections with or without safety systems. The safety systems for pedestrians and drivers include: the road marking, the pedestrian crossings marking, signal intersections with road signs, traffic lights or pedestrian safety barriers. We propose to assess the types of intersections with TOPSIS method.

  17. Perspectives on nuclear material safety management methods at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The management of nuclear materials, and fissile materials in particular, at the USDOE facilities is undergoing significant changes. These result in large part from decreasing requirements for these materials in the US weapons program. Not only is new production no longer required, but returns must be handled and safely stored. Eventually surplus fissile material will be used for power production, or else put into a form suitable for long term disposition. In the meanwhile concentrates must be stored with protection against releases of radioactive material to the environment, and also against theft or deliberate dispersion. In addition, cleaning up large volumes of materials contaminated with fissile isotopes will be a major activity, and there will also be some quantity of spent fuel containing enriched uranium that cannot readily be processed. All these activities pose safety problems, some of which are addressed here

  18. Operation safety of control systems. Principles and methods; Surete de fonctionnement des systemes de commande. Principes et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, J.F. [Institut National Polytechnique, 54 - Nancy (France); Chatelet, E. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 10 (France)

    2008-09-15

    This article presents the main operation safety methods that can be implemented to design safe control systems taking into account the behaviour of the different components with each other (binary 'operation/failure' behaviours, non-consistent behaviours and 'hidden' failures, dynamical behaviours and temporal aspects etc). To take into account these different behaviours, advanced qualitative and quantitative methods have to be used which are described in this article: 1 - qualitative methods of analysis: functional analysis, preliminary risk analysis, failure mode and failure effects analyses; 2 - quantitative study of systems operation safety: binary representation models, state space-based methods, event space-based methods; 3 - application to the design of control systems: safe specifications of a control system, qualitative analysis of operation safety, quantitative analysis, example of application; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  20. A Generalised Sweep-Line Method for Safety Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed sweep-line method exploits progress present in many concurrent systems to explore the full state space of the system while storing only small fragments of the state space in memory at a time. A disadvantage of the sweep-line method is that it relies on a monotone and global...

  1. Triangulation and the importance of establishing valid methods for food safety culture evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Lone; Wallace, Carol A

    2017-10-01

    The research evaluates maturity of food safety culture in five multi-national food companies using method triangulation, specifically self-assessment scale, performance documents, and semi-structured interviews. Weaknesses associated with each individual method are known but there are few studies in food safety where a method triangulation approach is used for both data collection and data analysis. Significantly, this research shows that individual results taken in isolation can lead to wrong conclusions, resulting in potentially failing tactics and wasted investments. However, by applying method triangulation and reviewing results from a range of culture measurement tools it is possible to better direct investments and interventions. The findings add to the food safety culture paradigm beyond a single evaluation of food safety culture using generic culture surveys. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Safety assessment of cast steel valve housing using NDE- and FM-methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blauel, J G; Hodulak, L [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1988-12-31

    This document presents some results concerning the safety assessment of cast steel valve housing. This risk assessment is performed through the Non Destructive Examination and Fracture Mechanics methods. (TEC).

  3. Method of calculating the safety factor profile on the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianmei; Lu Yuancheng; Wan Baonian

    2001-01-01

    A method of calculating the safety factor profile on the HT-7 tokamak has been described. It is derived from Maxwell's equations, among which the authors mainly use two of them: one is the magnetic field diffusion equation, and the other is Ampere's Law. This method can be also used to evaluate the safety factor on other devices with a circular cross sections. It is helpful to the study of the plasma MHD behavior on the HT-7 tokamak

  4. Illustration of an analytical method for quantification of the safety of technical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegel, M.

    1981-01-01

    The safety analysis of technical products will in future be required more and more also for simple technical systems. The fault-tree analysis is a method for safety judgement used in particular in aviation and space engineering as well as in energy engineering. This analytical method can also be applied to simple technical constructions, as the article shows, using as example an acially rotatable load hook. (orig.) [de

  5. Analysis Method of Common Cause Failure on Non-safety Digital Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Oh, Eun Gse [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The effects of common cause failure on safety digital instrumentation and control system had been considered in defense in depth analysis with safety analysis method. However, the effects of common cause failure on non-safety digital instrumentation and control system also should be evaluated. The common cause failure can be included in credible failure on the non-safety system. In the I and C architecture of nuclear power plant, many design feature has been applied for the functional integrity of control system. One of that is segmentation. Segmentation defenses the propagation of faults in the I and C architecture. Some of effects from common cause failure also can be limited by segmentation. Therefore, in this paper there are two type of failure mode, one is failures in one control group which is segmented, and the other is failures in multiple control group because that the segmentation cannot defense all effects from common cause failure. For each type, the worst failure scenario is needed to be determined, so the analysis method has been proposed in this paper. The evaluation can be qualitative when there is sufficient justification that the effects are bounded in previous safety analysis. When it is not bounded in previous safety analysis, additional analysis should be done with conservative assumptions method of previous safety analysis or best estimation method with realistic assumptions.

  6. Use of the event tree method for evaluate the safety of radioactive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, A.; Cornejo D, N.; Callis F, E.

    2006-01-01

    The work shows the validity of the use of Trees of Events like a quantitative method appropriate to carry out evaluations of radiological safety. Its were took like base the evaluations of safety of five Radiotherapy Departments, carried out in the mark of the process of authorization of these facilities. The risk values were obtained by means of the combination of the probabilities of occurrence of the events with its consequences. The use of the method allowed to suggest improvements to the existent safety systems, as well as to confirm that the current regulator requirements for this type of facilities to lead to practices with acceptable risk levels. (Author)

  7. Cross-comparison of three surrogate safety methods to diagnose cyclist safety problems at intersections in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureshyn, Aliaksei; Goede, Maartje de; Saunier, Nicolas; Fyhri, Aslak

    2017-08-01

    Relying on accident records as the main data source for studying cyclists' safety has many drawbacks, such as high degree of under-reporting, the lack of accident details and particularly of information about the interaction processes that led to the accident. It is also an ethical problem as one has to wait for accidents to happen in order to make a statement about cyclists' (un-)safety. In this perspective, the use of surrogate safety measures based on actual observations in traffic is very promising. In this study we used video data from three intersections in Norway that were all independently analysed using three methods: the Swedish traffic conflict technique (Swedish TCT), the Dutch conflict technique (DOCTOR) and the probabilistic surrogate measures of safety (PSMS) technique developed in Canada. The first two methods are based on manual detection and counting of critical events in traffic (traffic conflicts), while the third considers probabilities of multiple trajectories for each interaction and delivers a density map of potential collision points per site. Due to extensive use of microscopic data, PSMS technique relies heavily on automated tracking of the road users in video. Across the three sites, the methods show similarities or are at least "compatible" with the accident records. The two conflict techniques agree quite well for the number, type and location of conflicts, but some differences with no obvious explanation are also found. PSMS reports many more safety-relevant interactions including less severe events. The location of the potential collision points is compatible with what the conflict techniques suggest, but the possibly significant share of false alarms due to inaccurate trajectories extracted from video complicates the comparison. The tested techniques still require enhancement, with respect to better adjustment to analysis of the situations involving cyclists (and vulnerable road users in general) and further validation. However, we

  8. Assessing Knowledge Retention of an Immersive Serious Game vs. a Traditional Education Method in Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca; Buttussi, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to the increasing availability of consumer head-mounted displays, educational applications of immersive VR could now reach to the general public, especially if they include gaming elements (immersive serious games). Safety education of citizens could be a particularly promising domain for immersive serious games, because people tend not to pay attention to and benefit from current safety materials. In this paper, we propose an HMD-based immersive game for educating passengers about aviation safety that allows players to experience a serious aircraft emergency with the goal of surviving it. We compare the proposed approach to a traditional aviation safety education method (the safety card) used by airlines. Unlike most studies of VR for safety knowledge acquisition, we do not focus only on assessing learning immediately after the experience but we extend our attention to knowledge retention over a longer time span. This is a fundamental requirement, because people need to retain safety procedures in order to apply them when faced with danger. A knowledge test administered before, immediately after and one week after the experimental condition showed that the immersive serious game was superior to the safety card. Moreover, subjective as well as physiological measurements employed in the study showed that the immersive serious game was more engaging and fear-arousing than the safety card, a factor that can contribute to explain the obtained superior retention, as we discuss in the paper.

  9. Review of studies on criticality safety evaluation and criticality experiment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamane, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, many studies on criticality safety evaluation have been conducted in Japan. Computer code systems were developed initially by employing finite difference methods, and more recently by using Monte Carlo methods. Criticality experiments have also been carried out in many laboratories in Japan as well as overseas. By effectively using these study results, the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook was published in 1988, almost the intermediate point of the last 50 years. An increased interest has been shown in criticality safety studies, and a Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS) was set up by the Nuclear Science Committee of Organisation Economic Co-operation and Development in 1997. WPNCS has several task forces in charge of each of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program (ICSBEP), Subcritical Measurement, Experimental Needs, Burn-up Credit Studies and Minimum Critical Values. Criticality safety studies in Japan have been carried out in cooperation with WPNCS. This paper describes criticality safety study activities in Japan along with the contents of the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook and the tasks of WPNCS. (author)

  10. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical results

  11. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-07-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical

  12. Thermal-hydraulic methods in fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.P.; Briggs, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for the solution of thermal-hydraulic problems in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) arising primarily from transient accident analysis are reviewed. Principal emphasis is given to the important phenomenological issues of sodium boiling and fuel motion. Descriptions of representative phenomenological and mathematical models, computational algorithms, advantages and limitations of the approaches, and current research needs and directions are provided

  13. Review of current study methods for VRU safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Kamaluddin, Noor Azreena; Várhelyi, András

    written questionnaires (either online or paper-based), interviews may be performed (either face-to-face or via telephone) and people may be asked to report their accident via an app on their mobile device. The method for gaining self-reported information thus varies greatly – and so does the information...

  14. Optimization method concerning target conflicts between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1991-01-01

    The simplified cost-benefit analysis has not been considered for applications in nuclear engineering with complex decisions between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects. The extended cost-benefit analysis encounters problems with non-monetary criteria. Solutions are in sight, however with a subjective element. A major problem in implementing the method is the psychological barrier as against an evaluation of human life. The multi-attribute utility analysis overcomes the difficulties of the extended cost-benefit analysis, however, it also creates new problems on account of the complicated construction of the utility functions. The problems are solved most elegantly with the multi-criteria outranking analysis, the only disadvantage possibly being less transparency at first sight. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Feasibility studies of safety assessment methods for programmable automation systems. Final report of the AVV project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Pulkkinen, U.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.; Tuulari, E.

    1995-10-01

    Feasibility studies of two different groups of methodologies for safety assessment of programmable automation systems has been executed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The studies concerned the dynamic testing methods and the fault tree (FT) and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methods. In order to get real experience in the application of these methods, an experimental testing of two realistic pilot systems were executed and a FT/FMEA analysis of a programmable safety function accomplished. The purpose of the studies was not to assess the object systems, but to get experience in the application of methods and assess their potentials and development needs. (46 refs., 21 figs.)

  16. Use of decision analytic methods in nuclear safety. An international survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1996-12-01

    This report reviews applications of formal decision analysis methods in resolving nuclear safety related issues. The review is based on selected published reports and a questionnaire sent to the members of the Principal Working Group 5 on risk analysis (PWG5) of OECD/NEA/CSNI. In the report, decision analysis methodology is shortly described. The applications discussed in this review are related to probabilistic safety goals of safety criteria, operational safety management, nuclear waste management and emergency management. The experiences from the application decision analysis methodology have been mainly positive. The advantages provided by the decision analytical thinking are the structured view over the problem under consideration and the explicit statements on uncertainties, values and preferences. The decision analysis methodology is rather mature to be applied in solution of nuclear safety issues. Although the applications have been mainly research oriented, it can be expected that the practical use of the methodology shall be more common in future. (orig.) (27 refs.).

  17. Use of decision analytic methods in nuclear safety. An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1996-12-01

    This report reviews applications of formal decision analysis methods in resolving nuclear safety related issues. The review is based on selected published reports and a questionnaire sent to the members of the Principal Working Group 5 on risk analysis (PWG5) of OECD/NEA/CSNI. In the report, decision analysis methodology is shortly described. The applications discussed in this review are related to probabilistic safety goals of safety criteria, operational safety management, nuclear waste management and emergency management. The experiences from the application decision analysis methodology have been mainly positive. The advantages provided by the decision analytical thinking are the structured view over the problem under consideration and the explicit statements on uncertainties, values and preferences. The decision analysis methodology is rather mature to be applied in solution of nuclear safety issues. Although the applications have been mainly research oriented, it can be expected that the practical use of the methodology shall be more common in future. (orig.) (27 refs.)

  18. Development of numerical methods for thermohydraulic problems in reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrillac, M.; Kavenoky, A.; Le Coq, G.; L'Heriteau, J.P.; Stewart, B.; Rousseau, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical methods are being developed for the LOCA calculation; the first part is devoted to the BERTHA model and the associated characteristic treatment for the first seconds of the blowdown, the second part presents the problems encountered for accounting for velocity difference between phases. The FLIRA treatment of the reflooding is presented in the last part: this treatment allows the calculation of the quenching front velocity

  19. Principle of human system interface (HSI) design for new reactor console of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Mohd Idris Taib; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: This paper will describe the principle of human system interface design for new reactor console in control room at TRIGA reactor facility. In order to support these human system interface challenges in digital reactor console. Software-based instrumentation and control (I and C) system for new reactor console could lead to new human machine integration. The proposed of Human System Interface (HSI) which included the large display panels which shows reactor status, compact and computer-based workstations for monitoring, control and protection function. The proposed Human System Interface (HIS) has been evaluated using various human factor engineering. It can be concluded that the Human System Interface (HIS) is designed as to address the safety related computer controlled system. (author)

  20. Some problems of neutron source multiplication method for site measurement technology in nuclear critical safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yongqian; Zhu Qingfu; Hu Dingsheng; He Tao; Yao Shigui; Lin Shenghuo

    2004-01-01

    The paper gives experiment theory and experiment method of neutron source multiplication method for site measurement technology in the nuclear critical safety. The measured parameter by source multiplication method actually is a sub-critical with source neutron effective multiplication factor k s , but not the neutron effective multiplication factor k eff . The experiment research has been done on the uranium solution nuclear critical safety experiment assembly. The k s of different sub-criticality is measured by neutron source multiplication experiment method, and k eff of different sub-criticality, the reactivity coefficient of unit solution level, is first measured by period method, and then multiplied by difference of critical solution level and sub-critical solution level and obtained the reactivity of sub-critical solution level. The k eff finally can be extracted from reactivity formula. The effect on the nuclear critical safety and different between k eff and k s are discussed

  1. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little is known about their effects on the behaviour of healthcare professionals and patient safety outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care and to explore the processes and mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods and design Our study aims to evaluate an audit system to monitor and improve patient safety in a hospital setting. We are using a mixed-method evaluation with a before-and-after study design in eight departments of one university hospital in the period October 2011–July 2014. We measure several outcomes 3 months before the audit and 15 months after the audit. The primary outcomes are adverse events and complications. The secondary outcomes are experiences of patients, the standardised mortality ratio, prolonged hospital stay, patient safety culture, and team climate. We use medical record reviews, questionnaires, hospital administrative data, and observations to assess the outcomes. A process evaluation will be used to find out which components of internal auditing determine the effects. Discussion We report a study protocol of an effect and process evaluation to determine whether auditing improves patient safety in hospital care. Because auditing is a complex intervention targeted on several levels, we are using a combination of methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about patient safety at the patient, professional, and department levels. This study is relevant for hospitals that want to

  2. An efficient method for evaluating the effect of input parameters on the integrity of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zuo, Ming J.; Xiao, Ningcong

    2016-01-01

    Safety systems are significant to reduce or prevent risk from potentially dangerous activities in industry. Probability of failure to perform its functions on demand (PFD) for safety system usually exhibits variation due to the epistemic uncertainty associated with various input parameters. This paper uses the complementary cumulative distribution function of the PFD to define the exceedance probability (EP) that the PFD of the system is larger than the designed value. Sensitivity analysis of safety system is further investigated, which focuses on the effect of the variance of an individual input parameter on the EP resulting from epistemic uncertainty associated with the input parameters. An available numerical technique called finite difference method is first employed to evaluate the effect, which requires extensive computational cost and needs to select a step size. To address these difficulties, this paper proposes an efficient simulation method to estimate the effect. The proposed method needs only an evaluation to estimate the effects corresponding to all input parameters. Two examples are used to demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain more accurate results with less computation time compared to reported methods. - Highlights: • We define a sensitivity index to measure effect of a parameter for safety system. • We analyze the physical meaning of the sensitivity index. • We propose an efficient simulation method to assess the sensitivity index. • We derive the formulations of this index for lognormal and beta distributions. • Results identify important parameters on exceedance probability of safety system.

  3. A New Method for the Evaluation of Vaccine Safety Based on Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Momose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years, quality control and safety tests have been used to evaluate vaccine safety. However, conventional animal safety tests need to be improved in several aspects. For example, the number of test animals used needs to be reduced and the test period shortened. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a new vaccine evaluation system. In this review, we show that gene expression patterns are well correlated to biological responses in vaccinated rats. Our findings and methods using experimental biology and genome science provide an important means of assessment for vaccine toxicity.

  4. Safety based on organisational learning (SOL) - Conceptual approach and verification of a method for event analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.; Wilpert, B.; Fahlbruch, B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for analysing safety-relevant events in NPP which is known as 'SOL', safety based on organisational learning. After discussion of the specific organisational and psychological problems examined in the event analysis, the analytic process using the SOL approach is explained as well as the required general setting. The SOL approach has been tested both with scientific experiments and from the practical perspective, by operators of NPPs and experts from other branches of industry. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Safety and reliability of pressure components with special emphasis on advanced methods of NDT. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The 12 papers discuss topics of strength and safety in the field of materials technology and engineering. Conclusions for NPP component safety and materials are drawn. Measurements and studies relate to fracture mechanics methods (oscillation, burst, material strength, characteristics). The dynamic analysis of the behaviour of large test specimens, the influence of load velocity on crack resistance curve and the development of forged parts from austenitic steel for fast breeder reactors are presented. (DG) [de

  6. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a d...

  7. A comparative study of formal methods for safety critical software in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Se Do; Seong Poong Hyun

    2000-01-01

    The requirement of ultra high reliability of the safety critical software can not be demonstrated by testing alone. The specification based on formal method is recommended for safety system software. But there exist various kinds of formal methods, and this variety of formal method is recognized as an obstacle to the wide use of formal method. In this paper six different formal method have been applied to the same part of the functional requirements that is calculation algorithm intensive. The specification results were compared against the criteria that is derived from the characteristics that good software requirements specifications should have and regulatory body recommends to have. The application experience shows that the critical characteristics should be defined first, then appropriate method has to e selected. In our case, the Software Cost Reduction method was recommended for internal condition or calculation algorithm checking, and state chart method is recommended for the external behavioral description. (author)

  8. Validation of innovative technologies and strategies for regulatory safety assessment methods: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William S; Wind, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Advances in science and innovative technologies are providing new opportunities to develop test methods and strategies that may improve safety assessments and reduce animal use for safety testing. These include high throughput screening and other approaches that can rapidly measure or predict various molecular, genetic, and cellular perturbations caused by test substances. Integrated testing and decision strategies that consider multiple types of information and data are also being developed. Prior to their use for regulatory decision-making, new methods and strategies must undergo appropriate validation studies to determine the extent that their use can provide equivalent or improved protection compared to existing methods and to determine the extent that reproducible results can be obtained in different laboratories. Comprehensive and optimal validation study designs are expected to expedite the validation and regulatory acceptance of new test methods and strategies that will support improved safety assessments and reduced animal use for regulatory testing.

  9. Alternative perspectives of safety in home delivered health care: a sequential exploratory mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discover and describe how patients, carers and case management nurses define safety and compare it to the traditional risk reduction and harm avoidance definition of safety. Care services are increasingly being delivered in the home for patients with complex long-term conditions. However, the concept of safety remains largely unexplored. A sequential, exploratory mixed method design. A qualitative case study of the UK National Health Service case management programme in the English UK National Health Service was deployed during 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with patients (n = 9) and carers (n = 6) and three focus groups with nurses (n = 17) from three community care providers. The qualitative element explored the definition of safety. Data were subjected to framework analysis and themes were identified by participant group. Sequentially, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2013 in a fourth community care provider (patient n = 35, carer n = 19, nurse n = 26) as a form of triangulation. Patients and carers describe safety differently to case management nurses, choosing to focus on meeting needs. They use more positive language and recognize the role they have in safety in home-delivered health care. In comparison, case management nurses described safety similarly to the definitions found in the literature. However, when offered the patient and carer definition of safety, they preferentially selected this definition to their own or the literature definition. Patients and carers offer an alternative perspective on patient safety in home-delivered health care that identifies their role in ensuring safety and is more closely aligned with the empowerment philosophy of case management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Construction of Earthquake - Proof Safety Evaluaiton Methods for Pipes with Wall Thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, H.; Sekimura, N.; Takizawa, M.; Mastumoto, M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, the importance of 'system safety' has been recognized anew. Particularly, system safety assessment of plants in operation from the various degradation perspectives, specifically, transition of time is very important. Accordingly, assessment on degradation will focus on the degradation of functions with passing of time, combined with the changes in the safety standards and concept of safety. Reliability assessment will be made on the consolidation of important functions, and not on individual components. The boundary function of the system will be one of the focus of this study. For the purpose of reliability assessment on the system by evaluating and quantifying the damage (or rupture) risk of piping - method for confirming the integrity of the system through the assessment on the damage (rupture) risk of the system when an external force caused by an earthquake is applied (the system is sound if the damage (rupture) risk is small) was examined on the basis of the prediction results for each of the parts in pipe wall thinning. In the next phase, the prediction results will be verified by tests, whereby, the improvement in reliability will be confirmed, and a combined assessment will be made in relation to the degradation factors of other systems. 'System safety' assessment method of plants in operation will be developed in a manner where a comprehensive assessment on the safety of the entire plant can be made. Specifically, the changes in the conditions, such as material degradations that degrade performance will be assessed on the entire system. Whereby, the risk caused by functional failure (damage) due to degradation will be regarded as the total of risk in the assessment. A framework on safety assessment will be structured, where the degree of safety will be measured by functional degradation, taking into consideration the changes made in the safety standards up to present. (author)

  11. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; Zegers, Marieke; Boeijen, Wilma; Westert, Gert P; van Gurp, Petra J; Wollersheim, Hub

    2013-06-22

    Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little is known about their effects on the behaviour of healthcare professionals and patient safety outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care and to explore the processes and mechanisms underlying these effects. Our study aims to evaluate an audit system to monitor and improve patient safety in a hospital setting. We are using a mixed-method evaluation with a before-and-after study design in eight departments of one university hospital in the period October 2011-July 2014. We measure several outcomes 3 months before the audit and 15 months after the audit. The primary outcomes are adverse events and complications. The secondary outcomes are experiences of patients, the standardised mortality ratio, prolonged hospital stay, patient safety culture, and team climate. We use medical record reviews, questionnaires, hospital administrative data, and observations to assess the outcomes. A process evaluation will be used to find out which components of internal auditing determine the effects. We report a study protocol of an effect and process evaluation to determine whether auditing improves patient safety in hospital care. Because auditing is a complex intervention targeted on several levels, we are using a combination of methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about patient safety at the patient, professional, and department levels. This study is relevant for hospitals that want to early detect unsafe care and improve patient

  12. Safety assessment of infrastructures using a new Bayesian Monte Carlo method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Demirbilek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    A recently developed Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) method and its application to safety assessment of structures are described in this paper. We use a one-dimensional BMC method that was proposed in 2009 by Rajabalinejad in order to develop a weighted logical dependence between successive Monte Carlo

  13. Development of Nuclear Safety Culture evaluation method for an operation team based on the probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Lee, Seung Min; Yim, Ho Bin; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •We proposed a Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method. •Positive relationship between the ‘success’ states of NSC and performance was shown. •The state probability profile showed a unique ratio regardless of the scenarios. •Cutset analysis provided not only root causes but also the latent causes of failures. •Pro-SCHEMe was found to be applicable to Korea NPPs. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to propose a new quantitative evaluation method for Nuclear Safety Culture (NSC) in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation teams based on the probabilistic approach. Various NSC evaluation methods have been developed, and the Korea NPP utility company has conducted the NSC assessment according to international practice. However, most of methods are conducted by interviews, observations, and the self-assessment. Consequently, the results are often qualitative, subjective, and mainly dependent on evaluator’s judgement, so the assessment results can be interpreted from different perspectives. To resolve limitations of present evaluation methods, the concept of Safety Culture Healthiness was suggested to produce quantitative results and provide faster evaluation process. This paper presents Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method (Pro-SCHEMe) to generate quantitative inputs for Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Evaluation items which correspond to a basic event in PSA are derived in the first part of the paper through the literature survey; mostly from nuclear-related organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC), and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Event trees (ETs) and fault trees (FTs) are devised to apply evaluation items to PSA based on the relationships among such items. The Modeling Guidelines are also suggested to classify and calculate NSC characteristics of

  14. [Comparative study on four kinds of assessment methods of post-marketing safety of Danhong injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelin; Tang, Jinfa; Meng, Fei; Li, Chunxiao; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    To study the adverse reaction of Danhong injection with four kinds of methods, central monitoring method, chart review method, literature study method and spontaneous reporting method, and to compare the differences between them, explore an appropriate method to carry out post-marketing safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine injection. Set down the adverse reactions' questionnaire of four kinds of methods, central monitoring method, chart review method, literature study method and collect the information on adverse reactions in a certain period. Danhong injection adverse reaction information from Henan Province spontaneous reporting system was collected with spontaneous reporting method. Carry on data summary and descriptive analysis. Study the adverse reaction of Danhong injection with four methods of central monitoring method, chart review method, literature study method and spontaneous reporting method, the rates of adverse events were 0.993%, 0.336%, 0.515%, 0.067%, respectively. Cyanosis, arrhythmia, hypotension, sweating, erythema, hemorrhage dermatitis, rash, irritability, bleeding gums, toothache, tinnitus, asthma, elevated aminotransferases, constipation, pain are new discovered adverse reactions. The central monitoring method is the appropriate method to carry out post-marketing safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine injection, which could objectively reflect the real world of clinical usage.

  15. Classifying Secondary Task Driving Safety Using Method of F-ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to build an evaluation system for secondary task driving safety by using method of Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (F-ANP. Forty drivers completed driving on driving simulator while interacting with or without a secondary task. Measures of fixations, saccades, and vehicle running status were analyzed. According to five experts' opinions, a hierarchical model for secondary task driving safety evaluation was built. The hierarchical model was divided into three levels: goal, assessment dimension, and criteria. Seven indexes make up the level of criteria, and the assessment dimension includes two clusters: vehicle control risk and driver eye movement risk. By method of F-ANP, the priorities of the criteria and the subcriteria were determined. Furthermore, to rank the driving safety, an approach based on the principle of maximum membership degree was adopted. At last, a case study of secondary task driving safety evaluation by forty drivers using the proposed method was done. The results indicated that the application of the proposed method is practically feasible and adoptable for secondary task driving safety evaluation.

  16. Online probabilistic operational safety assessment of multi-mode engineering systems using Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yufei; Chen, Maoyin; Zhou, Donghua

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, engineering systems become more and more complex, and generally work at different operational modes. Since incipient fault can lead to dangerous accidents, it is crucial to develop strategies for online operational safety assessment. However, the existing online assessment methods for multi-mode engineering systems commonly assume that samples are independent, which do not hold for practical cases. This paper proposes a probabilistic framework of online operational safety assessment of multi-mode engineering systems with sample dependency. To begin with, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to characterize multiple operating modes. Then, based on the definition of safety index (SI), the SI for one single mode is calculated. At last, the Bayesian method is presented to calculate the posterior probabilities belonging to each operating mode with sample dependency. The proposed assessment strategy is applied in two examples: one is the aircraft gas turbine, another is an industrial dryer. Both examples illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method

  17. A safety culture assessment by mixed methods at a public maternity and infant hospital in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listyowardojo TA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tita Alissa Listyowardojo,1 Xiaoling Yan,2,3 Stephen Leyshon,1 Bobbie Ray-Sannerud,1 Xin Yan Yu,4 Kai Zheng,4 Tao Duan2,3 1Life Sciences Program, Group Technology and Research, DNV GL, Hovik, Norway; 2Quality and Safety Department, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, 3Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 4Healthcare Department, Business Assurance, DNV GL, Beijing, China Objective: To assess safety culture at a public maternity hospital in Shanghai, China, using a sequential mixed methods approach. The study was part of a bigger study looking at the application of the mixed methods approach to assess safety culture in health care in different organizations and countries.Methodology: A mixed methods approach was utilized by first distributing the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire measuring six safety culture dimensions and five independent items to all hospital staff (n=1482 working in 18 departments at a single hospital. Afterward, semistructured interviews were conducted using convenience sampling, where 48 hospital staff from nine departments at the same hospital were individually interviewed.Results: The survey received a response rate of 96%. The survey findings show significant differences between the hospital departments in almost all safety culture dimensions and independent items. Similarly, the interview findings revealed that there were different, competing priorities between departments perceived to result in a reduced quality of collaboration and bottlenecks in care delivery. Another major finding was that staff who worked more hours per week would perceive working conditions significantly more negatively. Issues related to working conditions were also the most common concerns discussed in the interviews, especially the issue on high workload. High workload was also reflected in the fact that 91.45% of survey respondents reported that they worked 40 hours or longer per week. Finally, interview findings complemented

  18. Using network screening methods to determine locations with specific safety issues: A design consistency case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsick, Andrew J; Wood, Jonathan S; Jovanis, Paul P

    2017-09-01

    The Highway Safety Manual provides multiple methods that can be used to identify sites with promise (SWiPs) for safety improvement. However, most of these methods cannot be used to identify sites with specific problems. Furthermore, given that infrastructure funding is often specified for use related to specific problems/programs, a method for identifying SWiPs related to those programs would be very useful. This research establishes a method for Identifying SWiPs with specific issues. This is accomplished using two safety performance functions (SPFs). This method is applied to identifying SWiPs with geometric design consistency issues. Mixed effects negative binomial regression was used to develop two SPFs using 5 years of crash data and over 8754km of two-lane rural roadway. The first SPF contained typical roadway elements while the second contained additional geometric design consistency parameters. After empirical Bayes adjustments, sites with promise (SWiPs) were identified. The disparity between SWiPs identified by the two SPFs was evident; 40 unique sites were identified by each model out of the top 220 segments. By comparing sites across the two models, candidate road segments can be identified where a lack design consistency may be contributing to an increase in expected crashes. Practitioners can use this method to more effectively identify roadway segments suffering from reduced safety performance due to geometric design inconsistency, with detailed engineering studies of identified sites required to confirm the initial assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on safety evaluation method for impact protection structures of spent nuclear fuel carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hisayoshi; Yamada, Yasuhira; Hashizume, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    From a safety assessment view point, tanker ships transporting spent nuclear fuels such as plutonium including MOX (mixed oxide) fuels and high level radioactive wastes, are required to have security structures for collision accidents. The requirement is now reviewing in keeping with reality of the preset condition. Here, as a typical scenario, the probabilistic safety of VLCC (very large crude carrier) was examined. The FEM (finite element method) simulation analysis and new simple analyses in behalf of Minorsky method based on experience rule have been developed to analyze the collision strength, and their validity were examined. (A. Hishinuma)

  20. Current Methods Applied to Biomaterials - Characterization Approaches, Safety Assessment and Biological International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justine P R; Ortiz, H Ivan Melendez; Bucio, Emilio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Mathor, Monica B; Varca, Gustavo H C; Lugao, Ademar B

    2018-04-10

    Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physicalchemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Presentation of a method for the sequential analysis of incidents - NPP safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delage, M; Giroux, C; Quentin, P

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents a method which is designed to assist in the analysis of safety and based on the graphic representation of the occurrence of incidents significant for safety in 900-MWe PWR units. The graphs obtained are linked together to produce a general tree of events. With this tool, and on the basis of operating experience, it is then possible to imagine complex incident scenarios, to evaluate the potential consequences of a particular incident, or to seed out the causes which could lead to a given event. Interactions between systems or common mode faults can also be evidenced with this method.

  2. A new assessment method for demonstrating the sufficiency of the safety assessment and the safety margins of the geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohi, Takao; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Chiba, Tamotsu; Takase, Toshio; Hane, Koji

    2013-01-01

    A new method for demonstrating the sufficiency of the safety assessment and safety margins of the geological disposal system has been developed. The method is based on an existing comprehensive sensitivity analysis method and can systematically identify the successful conditions, under which the dose rate does not exceed specified safety criteria, using analytical solutions for nuclide migration and the results of a statistical analysis. The successful conditions were identified using three major variables. Furthermore, the successful conditions at the level of factors or parameters were obtained using relational equations between the variables and the factors or parameters making up these variables. In this study, the method was applied to the safety assessment of the geological disposal of transuranic waste in Japan. Based on the system response characteristics obtained from analytical solutions and on the successful conditions, the classification of the analytical conditions, the sufficiency of the safety assessment and the safety margins of the disposal system were then demonstrated. A new assessment procedure incorporating this method into the existing safety assessment approach is proposed in this study. Using this procedure, it is possible to conduct a series of safety assessment activities in a logical manner. (author)

  3. Application of the AHP method to analyze the significance of the factors affecting road traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SORDYL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the number of vehicles registered in Poland has grown rapidly. At the same time, a relatively small increase in the length of the road network has been observed. As a result of the limited capacity of available infrastructure, it leads to significant congestion and to increase of the probability of road accidents. The overall level of road safety depends on many factors - the behavior of road users, infrastructure solutions and the development of automotive technology. Thus the detailed assessment of the importance of individual elements determining road safety is difficult. The starting point is to organize the factors by grouping them into categories which are components of the DVE system (driver - vehicle - environment. In this work, to analyze the importance of individual factors affecting road safety, the use of analytic hierarchy process method (AHP was proposed. It is one of the multi-criteria methods which allows us to perform hierarchical analysis of the decision process, by means of experts’ opinions. Usage of AHP method enabled us to evaluate and rank the factors affecting road safety. This work attempts to link the statistical data and surveys in significance analysis of the elements determining road safety.

  4. Research on consequence analysis method for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear fuel facilities (4). Investigation of safety evaluation method for fire and explosion incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Ueda, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    A special committee on 'Research on the analysis methods for accident consequence of nuclear fuel facilities (NFFs)' was organized by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) under the entrustment of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The committee aims to research on the state-of-the-art consequence analysis method for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NFFs, such as fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. The objective of this research is to obtain the useful information related to the establishment of quantitative performance objectives and to risk-informed regulation through qualifying issues needed to be resolved for applying PSA to NFFs. The research activities of the committee were mainly focused on the analysis method of consequences for postulated accidents with potentially large consequences in NFFs, e.g., events of criticality, spill of molten glass, hydrogen explosion, boiling of radioactive solution, and fire (including rapid decomposition of TBP complexes), resulting in the release of radio active materials into the environment. The results of the research were summarized in a series of six reports, which consist of a review report and five technical ones. In this technical report, the research results about basic experimental data and the method for safety evaluation of fire and explosion incidents were summarized. (author)

  5. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  6. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  7. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  8. Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3.5 cyanide species analytical methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern

  9. Information System Hazard Analysis: A Method for Identifying Technology-induced Latent Errors for Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jens H; Mason-Blakley, Fieran; Price, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Many health information and communication technologies (ICT) are safety-critical; moreover, reports of technology-induced adverse events related to them are plentiful in the literature. Despite repeated criticism and calls to action, recent data collected by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and other organization do not indicate significant improvements with respect to the safety of health ICT systems. A large part of the industry still operates on a reactive "break & patch" model; the application of pro-active, systematic hazard analysis methods for engineering ICT that produce "safe by design" products is sparse. This paper applies one such method: Information System Hazard Analysis (ISHA). ISHA adapts and combines hazard analysis techniques from other safety-critical domains and customizes them for ICT. We provide an overview of the steps involved in ISHA and describe.

  10. CESAR cost-efficient methods and processes for safety-relevant embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The book summarizes the findings and contributions of the European ARTEMIS project, CESAR, for improving and enabling interoperability of methods, tools, and processes to meet the demands in embedded systems development across four domains - avionics, automotive, automation, and rail. The contributions give insight to an improved engineering and safety process life-cycle for the development of safety critical systems. They present new concept of engineering tools integration platform to improve the development of safety critical embedded systems and illustrate capacity of this framework for end-user instantiation to specific domain needs and processes. They also advance state-of-the-art in component-based development as well as component and system validation and verification, with tool support. And finally they describe industry relevant evaluated processes and methods especially designed for the embedded systems sector as well as easy adoptable common interoperability principles for software tool integratio...

  11. Implementation of child safety and health management system by means of FMEA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari Neisiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, many accidents leading to physical injuries in kindergartens, indicates that a very large percentage of them are related to the safety concerns and lack of hygiene in these places. Families, due to their busy life style and working hours and also children needs of preschool education, are searching to find most suitable kindergartens for their children. Selecting a kindergarten with various suitable training programs, although very important criteria for selection, but is not sufficient. Indicators such as health, safety and environment issues in these places must be crucial factors in this decision making. Child safety and health management system is an integrated system, derived from health, safety and environmental management regulations which helps the kindergartens complies with relevant regulations to reduce the number of accidents occurrence. The present case study has tried, by using failure modes and effects analysis method and child safety and health management system to find the best practicable indicators to assess the relative impact of different failures in order to identify the parts of the process that are most in need of change. In this regards, 10 semi-governmental kindergartens located in Tehran District 6 of Tehran Municipality, which are supervised by municipality of Tehran were selected and evaluated. The results showed that according to the child safety and health management system and failure modes and effects analysis, all these places need massive infrastructural changes according to the preventive action list in order to be considered a safe and hygienic place for the children.

  12. A probabilistic method for optimization of fire safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Sprey, W.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive fire safety study for German Nuclear Power Plants a probabilistic method for the analysis and optimization of fire safety has been developed. It follows the general line of the American fire hazard analysis, with more or less important modifications in detail. At first, fire event trees in selected critical plant areas are established taking into account active and passive fire protection measures and safety systems endangered by the fire. Failure models for fire protection measures and safety systems are formulated depending on common parameters like time after ignition and fire effects. These dependences are properly taken into account in the analysis of the fire event trees with the help of first-order system reliability theory. In addition to frequencies of fire-induced safety system failures relative weights of event paths, fire protection measures within these paths and parameters of the failure models are calculated as functions of time. Based on these information optimization of fire safety is achieved by modifying primarily event paths, fire protection measures and parameters with the greatest relative weights. This procedure is illustrated using as an example a German 1300 MW PWR reference plant. It is shown that the recommended modifications also reduce the risk to plant personnel and fire damage

  13. Criticality safety analysis for plutonium dissolver using silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Miki; Sugikawa, Susumu; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Egashira, Tetsurou

    1998-08-01

    Design and construction of a plutonium dissolver using silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method are promoted in NUCEF. Criticality safety analysis for the plutonium dissolver is described in this report. The electrolytic plutonium dissolver consists of connection pipes and three pots for MOX powder supply, circulation and electrolysis. The criticality control for the dissolver is made by geometrically safe shape with mass limitation. Monte Carlo code KENO-IV using MGCL-137 library based on ENDF/B-IV was used for the criticality safety analysis for the plutonium dissolver. Considering the required size for construction and criticality safety, diameter of pot and distance between two pots were determined. On this condition, the criticality safety analysis for the plutonium dissolver with connection pipes was carried out. As the result of the criticality safety analysis, an effective neutron multiplication factor keff of 0.91 was obtained and the criticality safety of the plutonium dissolver was confirmed on the basis of criteria of ≤0.95. (author)

  14. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  15. Measurement tools and process indicators of patient safety culture in primary care. A mixed methods study by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dianne; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is little guidance available to healthcare practitioners about what tools they might use to assess the patient safety culture. Objective: To identify useful tools for assessing patient safety culture in primary care organizations in Europe; to identify those aspects of performance that should be assessed when investigating the relationship between safety culture and performance in primary care. Methods: Two consensus-based studies were carried out, in which subject matter experts and primary healthcare professionals from several EU states rated (a) the applicability to their healthcare system of several existing safety culture assessment tools and (b) the appropriateness and usefulness of a range of potential indicators of a positive patient safety culture to primary care settings. The safety culture tools were field-tested in four countries to ascertain any challenges and issues arising when used in primary care. Results: The two existing tools that received the most favourable ratings were the Manchester patient safety framework (MaPsAF primary care version) and the Agency for healthcare research and quality survey (medical office version). Several potential safety culture process indicators were identified. The one that emerged as offering the best combination of appropriateness and usefulness related to the collection of data on adverse patient events. Conclusion: Two tools, one quantitative and one qualitative, were identified as applicable and useful in assessing patient safety culture in primary care settings in Europe. Safety culture indicators in primary care should focus on the processes rather than the outcomes of care. PMID:26339832

  16. Patient safety initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe: A mixed methods approach by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Esmail, Aneez; Dovey, Susan; Wensing, Michel; Parker, Dianne; Kowalczyk, Anna; Błaszczyk, Honorata; Kosiek, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Despite patient safety being recognized as an important healthcare issue in the European Union, there has been variable implementation of patient safety initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Objective: To assess the status of patient safety initiatives in countries in CEE; to describe a process of engagement in Poland, which can serve as a template for the implementation of patient safety initiatives in primary care. Methods: A mixed methods design was used. We conducted a review of literature focusing on publications from CEE, an inventory of patient safety initiatives in CEE countries, interviews with key informants, international survey, review of national reporting systems, and pilot demonstrator project in Poland with implementation of patient safety toolkits assessment. Results: There was no published patient safety research from Albania, Belarus, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, or Russia. Nine papers were found from Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Serbia, and Slovenia. In most of the CEE countries, patient safety had been addressed at the policy level although the focus was mainly in hospital care. There was a dearth of activity in primary care. The use of patient improvement strategies was low. Conclusion: International cooperation as exemplified in the demonstrator project can help in the development and implementation of patient safety initiatives in primary care in changing the emphasis away from a blame culture to one where greater emphasis is placed on improvement and learning. PMID:26339839

  17. Applied probabilistic methods in the field of reactor safety in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of applied reliability and risk analysis methods in nuclear safety and the present role of both in Germany, are discussed. First, some comments on the status and applications of reliability analysis are given. Second, some conclusions that can be drawn from previous work on the German Risk Study are summarized. (orig.)

  18. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.

  19. Methods of Certification tests PLC-Networks in Compliance Safety Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Balaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was description of the methodology of the audit plc-network to meet the requirements of information security. The technique is based on the provisions of the guidance documents and model FSTEC Russia test object methods of information on safety information.

  20. Health economics and outcomes methods in risk-based decision-making for blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custer, Brian; Janssen, Mart P.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical methods appropriate for health economic assessments of transfusion safety interventions have not previously been described in ways that facilitate their use. Within the context of risk-based decision-making (RBDM), health economics can be important for optimizing decisions among competing

  1. Software Safety Analysis of Digital Protection System Requirements Using a Qualitative Formal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Kwon, Kee-Choon; Cha, Sung-Deok

    2004-01-01

    The safety analysis of requirements is a key problem area in the development of software for the digital protection systems of a nuclear power plant. When specifying requirements for software of the digital protection systems and conducting safety analysis, engineers find that requirements are often known only in qualitative terms and that existing fault-tree analysis techniques provide little guidance on formulating and evaluating potential failure modes. A framework for the requirements engineering process is proposed that consists of a qualitative method for requirements specification, called the qualitative formal method (QFM), and a safety analysis method for the requirements based on causality information, called the causal requirements safety analysis (CRSA). CRSA is a technique that qualitatively evaluates causal relationships between software faults and physical hazards. This technique, extending the qualitative formal method process and utilizing information captured in the state trajectory, provides specific guidelines on how to identify failure modes and the relationship among them. The QFM and CRSA processes are described using shutdown system 2 of the Wolsong nuclear power plants as the digital protection system example

  2. Development of advanced methods and related software for human reliability evaluation within probabilistic safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmowski, K.T.; Mertens, J.; Degen, G.; Reer, B.

    1994-06-01

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important part of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). The first part of this report consists of an overview of types of human behaviour and human error including the effect of significant performance shaping factors on human reliability. Particularly with regard to safety assessments for nuclear power plants a lot of HRA methods have been developed. The most important of these methods are presented and discussed in the report, together with techniques for incorporating HRA into PSA and with models of operator cognitive behaviour. Based on existing HRA methods the concept of a software system is described. For the development of this system the utilization of modern programming tools is proposed; the essential goal is the effective application of HRA methods. A possible integration of computeraided HRA within PSA is discussed. The features of Expert System Technology and examples of applications (PSA, HRA) are presented in four appendices. (orig.) [de

  3. Survey of probabilistic methods in safety and risk assessment for nuclear power plant licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    After an overview about the goals and general methods of probabilistic approaches in nuclear safety the main features of probabilistic safety or risk assessment (PRA) methods are discussed. Mostly in practical applications not a full-fledged PRA is applied but rather various levels of analysis leading from unavailability assessment of systems over the more complex analysis of the probable core damage stages up to the assessment of the overall health effects on the total population from a certain practice. The various types of application are discussed in relation to their limitation and benefits for different stages of design or operation of nuclear power plants. This gives guidance for licensing staff to judge the usefulness of the various methods for their licensing decisions. Examples of the application of probabilistic methods in several countries are given. Two appendices on reliability analysis and on containment and consequence analysis provide some more details on these subjects. (author)

  4. Considerations on Applying the Method for Assessing the Level of Safety at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costica Bejinariu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of the method for assessing the level of safety at work starts with a document that contains the cover page, the description of the company (name, location, core business, organizational chart etc., description of the work system, a detailed list of its components, and a brief description of the assessment method. It continues with a Microsoft Excel document, which represents the actual application of the method and, finally, there is another document presenting conclusions, proposals, and prioritizations, which leads to the execution of the Prevention and Protection Plan. The present paper approaches the issue of developing the Microsoft Excel document, an essential part of the method for assessing the level of safety at work. The document is divided into a variable number of worksheets, showing the risk categories of general, specific, and management.

  5. An Introduction to Formal Methods for the Development of Safety-critical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This report is a delivery to The Danish Government’s railway authority, Trafikstyrelsen, as a part of the Public Sector Consultancy service offered by the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the report is to give the reader an insight into the stateof-the-art of formal methods. The reader...... is assumed to have some knowledge about software development, but not on formal methods. The background for the railway authorities’ interest in formal methods is the fact that during the next decade a total renewal of the Danish signalling infrastructure is going to take place. Central parts of the new...... systems will be software components that must fulfill strong safety requirements: in order to get the software certified at the highest Safety Integrity Levels of the European CENELEC standards for railway applications, the software providers are expected to use formal methods....

  6. Suggestions for an improved HRA method for use in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, Gareth W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses why an improved Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) approach for use in Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) is needed, and proposes a set of requirements on the improved HRA method. The constraints imposed by the need to embed the approach into the PSA methodology are discussed. One approach to laying the foundation for an improved method, using models from the cognitive psychology and behavioral science disciplines, is outlined

  7. Results of a survey on accident and safety analysis codes, benchmarks, verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the information submitted by AECL, CIAE, JAERI, ORNL and Siemens in response to a need identified at the 'Workshop on R and D Needs' at the IGORR-3 meeting. The survey compiled information on the national standards applied to the Safety Quality Assurance (SQA) programs undertaken by the participants. Information was assembled for the computer codes and nuclear data libraries used in accident and safety analyses for research reactors and the methods used to verify and validate the codes and libraries. Although the survey was not comprehensive, it provides a basis for exchanging information of common interest to the research reactor community

  8. Study on the selection method of feed water heater safety valves in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianzhong; Huang Chao; Hu Youqing

    2014-01-01

    The selection of the high pressure feedwater heater's safety valve usually follows the principle recommended by HEI standards in thermal power plant. However, the nuclear power plant's heaters generally need to accept a lots of drain from a moisture separator reheater (MSR). When the drain regulating valve was failure in fully open position, a large number of high pressure steam will directly goes into the heater. It make high-pressure heater have a risk of overpressure. Therefore, the safety valve selection of the heaters for nuclear power plants not only need to follow the HEI standards, but also need to check his capacity in certain special conditions. The paper established a calculation method to determine the static running point of the heaters based on characteristic equations of the feed water heater, drain regulating valve and steam extraction pipings, and energy balance principle. The method can be used to calculate the equilibrium pressure of various special running conditions, so further determine whether the capacity of the safety valve meets the requirements of safety and emissions. The method proposed in this paper not only can be used for nuclear power plants, can also be used for thermal power plants. (authors)

  9. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work

  10. Cost-Efficient Methods and Processes for Safety Relevant Embedded Systems (CESAR) - An Objective Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Graham

    For developing embedded safety critical systems, industrial companies have to face increasing complexity and variety coupled with increasing regulatory constraints, while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently (addressing only a part of the complexity: e.g. Safety) in the absence of internationally recognized open standards. CESAR has been established under ARTEMIS, the European Union's Joint Technology Initiative for research in embedded systems, with the aim to improve this situation and this pa-per will explain what CESAR's objectives are, how they are expected to be achieved and, in particular, how current best practice can ensure that safety engineering requirements can be met.

  11. Security warning method and system for worker safety during live-line working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chilong; Zou, Dehua; Long, Chenhai; Yang, Miao; Zhang, Zhanlong; Mei, Daojun

    2017-09-01

    Live-line working is an essential part in the operations in an electric power system. Live-line workers are required to wear shielding clothing. Shielding clothing, however, acts as a closed environment for the human body. Working in a closed environment for a long time can change the physiological responses of the body and even endanger personal safety. According to the typical conditions of live-line working, this study synthesizes environmental factors related to shielding clothing and the physiological factors of the body to establish the heart rate variability index RMSSD and the comprehensive security warning index SWI. On the basis of both indices, this paper proposes a security warning method and system for the safety live-line workers. The system can monitor the real-time status of workers during live-line working to provide security warning and facilitate the effective safety supervision by the live operation center during actual live-line working.

  12. Participatory/problem-based methods and techniques for training in health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskam, E

    2001-01-01

    More knowledgeable and trained people are needed in the area of occupational health, safety, and environment (OSHE) if work-related fatalities, accidents, and diseases are to be reduced. Established systems have been largely ineffective, with few employers taking voluntary measures to protect workers and the environment and too few labor inspectors available. Training techniques using participatory methods and a worker empowerment philosophy have proven value. There is demonstrated need for the use of education for action, promoting the involvement of workers in all levels of decision-making and problem-solving in the workplace. OSH risks particular to women s jobs are virtually unstudied and not addressed at policy levels in most countries. Trade unions and health and safety professionals need to demystify technical areas, empower workers, and encourage unions to dedicate special activities around women s jobs. Trained women are excellent motivators and transmitters of safety culture. Particular emphasis is given to train-the-trainer approaches.

  13. Presentation of a Software Method for Use of Risk Assessment in Building Fire Safety Measure Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koohpaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The property loss and physical injuries due to fire events in buildings demonstrate the necessity of implementation of efficient and performance based fire safety measures. Effective and high efficiency protection is possible when design and selection of protection measures are based on risk assessment. This study aims at presenting a software method to make possible selection and design of building fire safety measures based upon quantitative risk assessment and building characteristics. Methods: based on “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineer (FRAME” a program in MATLB software was written. The first section of this program, according to the FRAME method and based on the specification of a building, calculates the potential risk and acceptable risk level. In the second section, according to potential risk, acceptable risk level and the fire risk level that user want, program calculate concession of protective factor for that building.Results: The prepared software make it possible to assign the fire safety measure based on quantitative risk level and all building specifications. All calculations were performed with 0.001 of precision and the accuracy of this software was assessed with handmade calculations. During the use of the software if an error occurs in calculations, it can be distinguished in the output. Conclusion: Application of quantitative risk assessment is a suitable tool for increasing of efficiency in designing and execution of fire protection measure in building. With using this software the selected fire safety measure would be more efficient and suitable since the selection of fire safety measures performed on risk assessment and particular specification of a building. Moreover fire risk in the building can be managed easily and carefully.

  14. Radiation safety assessment of cobalt 60 external beam radiotherapy using the risk-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo, C; Vilaragut, J.J.; Ferro, R.; Guillen, A.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, M.; McDonnell, J.D.; Papadopulos, S.; Pereira, P.P.; Goncalvez, M.; Morales, J.; Larrinaga, E.; Lopez Morones, R.; Sanchez, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Sanchez, C.; Somoano, F.

    2008-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy is the only practice in which humans are placed directly in a radiation beam with the intention to deliver a very high dose. This is why safety in radiotherapy is very critical, and is a matter of interest to both radiotherapy departments and regulatory bodies. Accidental exposures have occurred throughout the world, thus showing the need for systematic safety assessments, capable to identify preventive measures and to minimize consequences of accidental exposure. Risk-matrix is a systematic approach which combines the relevant event features to assess the overall risk of each particular event. Once an event sequence is identified, questions such as how frequent the event, how severe the potential consequences and how reliable the existing safety measures are answered in a risk-matrix table. The ultimate goal is to achieve that the overall risk for events with severe consequences should always be low o very low. In the present study, the risk-matrix method has been applied to an hypothetical radiotherapy department, which could be equivalent to an upper level hospital of the Ibero American region, in terms of safety checks and preventive measures. The application of the method has identified 76 event sequences and revealed that the hypothetical radiotherapy department is sufficiently protected (low risk) against them, including 23 event sequences with severe consequences. The method has revealed that the risk of these sequences could grow to high level if certain specific preventive measures were degraded with time. This study has identified these preventive measures, thus facilitating a rational allocation of resources in regular controls to detect any loss of reliability. The method has proven to have an important practical value and is affordable at hospital level. The elaborated risk-matrix can be easily adapted to local circumstances, in terms of existing controls and safety measures. This approach can help hospitals to identify

  15. Study on mixed analysis method for fatigue analysis of oblique safety injection nozzle on main piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xifeng; Zhang Yixiong; Ai Honglei; Wang Xinjun; He Feng

    2014-01-01

    The simplified analysis method and the detailed analysis method were used for the fatigue analysis of the nozzle on the main piping. Because the structure of the oblique safety injection nozzle is complex and some more severe transients are subjected. The results obtained are more penalized and cannot be validate when the simplified analysis method used for the fatigue analysis. It will be little conservative when the detailed analysis method used, but it is more complex and time-consuming and boring labor. To reduce the conservatism and save time, the mixed analysis method which combining the simplified analysis method with the detailed analysis method is used for the fatigue analysis. The heat transfer parameters between the fluid and the structure which used for analysis were obtained by heat transfer property experiment. The results show that the mixed analysis which heat transfer property is considered can reduce the conservatism effectively, and the mixed analysis method is a more effective and practical method used for the fatigue analysis of the oblique safety injection nozzle. (authors)

  16. The role of simulation in mixed-methods research: a framework & application to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Hansen, Matthew; Lambert, William; O'Brien, Kerth

    2017-05-04

    Research in patient safety is an important area of health services research and is a national priority. It is challenging to investigate rare occurrences, explore potential causes, and account for the complex, dynamic context of healthcare - yet all are required in patient safety research. Simulation technologies have become widely accepted as education and clinical tools, but have yet to become a standard tool for research. We developed a framework for research that integrates accepted patient safety models with mixed-methods research approaches and describe the performance of the framework in a working example of a large National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded R01 investigation. This worked example of a framework in action, identifies the strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research approaches commonly used in health services research. Each approach builds essential layers of knowledge. We describe how the use of simulation ties these layers of knowledge together and adds new and unique dimensions of knowledge. A mixed-methods research approach that includes simulation provides a broad multi-dimensional approach to health services and patient safety research.

  17. Efficient improvement of nuclear power plant safety by reorganization of risk-informed safety importance evaluation methods for piping welded portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, Takashi; Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Suyama, Takeshi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Morota, Hidetsugu; Kojima, Sigeo; Mizuno, Yoshinobu [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    In this work, risk information was used to evaluate the safety importance of piping welded portions which were important for plant operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. There are two types of risk-informed safety importance evaluation methods, namely the ASME method and the EPRI method. Since both methods have advantages and disadvantages, elements of each method were combined and reorganized. Considerations included whether the degradation mechanisms would be objectively evaluated and whether plant safety would be efficiently improved. The most objective and efficient method was as follows. Piping failure potential is quantitatively and objectively evaluated for failure with probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and for other degradation mechanisms with empirical failure rates, and conditional core damage probability (CCDP) is calculated with PSA. This method reduces the inspected segment numbers to 1/4 of the deterministic method and increases the ratio of risk, which is covered by the inspected segments, to total risk from 80% of the deterministic method to 95%. Piping inspection numbers decreased for safety injection systems that were required the inspections by the deterministic method. Piping inspections were required for part of main feed water and main steam systems that were not required the inspections by the deterministic method. (author)

  18. A Study on the Improvement of Safety Testing Standards and Methods for Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Jung, Ah Young; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Do Wan; Jang, Gi Won; Cha, Sang Hoon; Jo, Sang Won; Park, Ji Koon

    2012-01-01

    To establish the improved national safety testing standards and methods for mammography. We investigated and compared the current status of mammographic equipment installation with the national and international safety and quality control programs and methods. We established and verified the draft for safety testing standards and methods. We propose that the investigations of the conductor system, hardware leakage radiation profile, illumination intensity test, comparison between X-ray and light photon exposure, X-ray dose exposure on the chest wall, compression equipment size, timing equipment, and the average effective radiation dose, should all be maintained as they are in the present state without any changes. However, the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp and mAs, and the half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised. Moreover, compression pressure and autonomic exposure control system (AEC) tests should be included as new criteria. Other parameter controls included in the phantom image analysis which overlap with total quality assurance should be excluded. We recommend that AEC and compression pressure tests should be included as new criteria and the methods for the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp, and mAs, and half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised.

  19. Perturbative methods for sensitivity calculation in safety problems of nuclear reactors: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Fernando R.A.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Gandini, Augusto

    1995-01-01

    During the last two decades perturbative methods became an efficient tool to perform sensitivity analysis in nuclear reactor safety problems. In this paper, a comparative study taking into account perturbation formalisms (Diferential and Matricial Mthods and generalized Perturbation Theory - GPT) is considered. Then a few number of applications are described to analyze the sensitivity of some functions relavant to thermal hydraulics designs or safety analysis of nuclear reactor cores and steam generators. The behaviours of the nuclear reactor cores and steam generators are simulated, respectively, by the COBRA-IV-I and GEVAP codes. Results of sensitivity calculations have shown a good agreement when compared to those obtained directly by using the mentioned codes. So, a significative computational time safe can be obtained with perturbative methods performing sensitivity analysis in nuclear power plants. (author). 25 refs., 5 tabs

  20. A proposed safety assurance method and its application to the fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, T.; Seki, Y.; Inabe, T.; Aoki, I.

    1995-01-01

    Importance categorization and hazard identification methods have been proposed for a fusion experimental reactor. A parameter, the system index, is introduced in the categorization method. The relative importance of systems with safety functions can be classified by the largeness of the system index and whether or not the system acts as a boundary for radioactive materials. This categorization can be used as the basic principle in determining structure design assessment, seismic design criteria etc. For the hazard identification the system time energy matrix is proposed, where the time and spatial distributions of hazard energies are used. This approach is formulated more systematically than an ad-hoc identification of hazard events and it is useful to select design basis events which are employed in the assessment of safety designs. (orig.)

  1. Application of probabilistic methods for sizing of safety factors in studies on defect harm fullness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardillon, E.; Pitner, P.

    1996-01-01

    The design rules that are currently under application in nuclear engineering recommend the use of deterministic analysis methods. Probabilistic methods allow the uncertainties inherent in input variables of the analytical model to be taken into account owing to data provided by operation feedback so as to better evaluate the link between the deterministic margins adopted and the actual risk level. In the Resistance R/Loading L elementary case where the variables are Gaussian, there is an explicit relation between the required safety level and the partial safety coefficients which affect each variable. In the complex case of a flawed pipe subjected to various modes of ruin where many random variables are not Gaussian, one can obtain implicit relations. These relations allow a certain flexibility when choosing the coefficients, which poses the problem of their optimum calibration. The choice of coefficients based upon the coordinates of the ''most probable failure point'' illustrates this approach. (authors). 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Safety evaluation methods applied at the Technical department of the Institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1990-12-01

    Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IPSN) has established a Technical emergency center (CTC) for nuclear facilities with the aim to supply the public with technical data analysis of incidents, mainly, all the predicted consequences of radioactive release into the environment. From technical point of view, the functioning of CTC relies on the work of two units, one in charge of the state of accident installation, and the second responsible for evaluation of radiological environmental effects. The latter is concerned with the meteorological situation, it relies sometimes on local, and sometimes on national weather forecast in order to compile data needed for calculating atmospheric transport at the and in the vicinity of the affected site, and further in the region and across the borders. For this analysis the Unit possesses operational computer codes. The code (SIROCCO) can take into account the kinetics of particulates and all the time dependent meteorological conditions. This calculation model can either treat the dispersed isotopes or isotope chains (rare gases, cesium isotopes, iodine isotopes...). One version of this code enables calculation of the consequences at medium and long distances using the methods of Meteorologie Nationale [fr

  3. Improving safety culture in hospitals: Facilitators and barriers to implementation of Systemic Falls Investigative Method (SFIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecevic, Aleksandra A; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Ngo, Charity; Halligan, Michelle; Kothari, Anita

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the facilitators and barriers to implementation of the Systemic Falls Investigative Method (SFIM) on selected hospital units. A cross-sectional explanatory mixed methods design was used to converge results from a standardized safety culture survey with themes that emerged from interviews and focus groups. Findings were organized by six elements of the Ottawa Model of Research Use framework. A geriatric rehabilitation unit of an acute care hospital and a neurological unit of a rehabilitation hospital were selected purposefully due to the high frequency of falls. Hospital staff who took part in: surveys (n = 39), interviews (n = 10) and focus groups (n = 12), and 38 people who were interviewed during falls investigations: fallers, family, unit staff and hospital management. Implementation of the SFIM to investigate fall occurrences. Percent of positive responses on the Modified Stanford Patient Safety Culture Survey Instrument converged with qualitative themes on facilitators and barriers for intervention implementation. Both hospital units had an overall poor safety culture which hindered intervention implementation. Facilitators were hospital accreditation, strong emphasis on patient safety, infrastructure and dedicated champions. Barriers included heavy workloads, lack of time, lack of resources and poor communication. Successful implementation of SFIM requires regulatory and organizational support, committed frontline staff and allocation of resources to identify active causes and latent contributing factors to falls. System-wide adjustments show promise for promotion of safety culture in hospitals where falls happen regularly. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Biasing transition rate method based on direct MC simulation for probabilistic safety assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lei Pan; Jia-Qun Wang; Run Yuan; Fang Wang; Han-Qing Lin; Li-Qin Hu; Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is a powerful probabilistic safety assessment method for accounting dynamics of the system.But it is not efficient at simulating rare events.A biasing transition rate method based on direct MC simulation is proposed to solve the problem in this paper.This method biases transition rates of the components by adding virtual components to them in series to increase the occurrence probability of the rare event,hence the decrease in the variance of MC estimator.Several cases are used to benchmark this method.The results show that the method is effective at modeling system failure and is more efficient at collecting evidence of rare events than the direct MC simulation.The performance is greatly improved by the biasing transition rate method.

  5. A Survey of a System of Methods for Fire Safety Design of Traditional Concrete Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    constructions DS411. And the bases for many of the methods have been distributed by CIB W14 reports. But a survey of all the methods in coherence has never been presented, and much of this documentation and the additional documentation produced for the work with the codes needs still to be printed in papers......During the years since 1978 the author has been developing a series of calculation methods and sup-porting test methods for the fire safety design of concrete constructions. The basic methods have been adopted in the fire chapters of the Eurocode ENV1992-1-2 and the Danish code for concrete.......It is the aim of this paper to give a coherent presentation of the design methods, their degree of documentation and the available references in order to facilitate the application of them....

  6. Application of reliability analysis methods to the comparison of two safety circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.-P.

    1975-01-01

    Two circuits of different design, intended for assuming the ''Low Pressure Safety Injection'' function in PWR reactors are analyzed using reliability methods. The reliability analysis of these circuits allows the failure trees to be established and the failure probability derived. The dependence of these results on test use and maintenance is emphasized as well as critical paths. The great number of results obtained may allow a well-informed choice taking account of the reliability wanted for the type of circuits [fr

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of Behavior-Based Safety education methods for commercial vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Xing, Yilun; Luo, Lian; Yu, Rongjie

    2018-08-01

    Risky driving behavior is one of the main causes of commercial vehicle related crashes. In order to achieve safer vehicle operation, safety education for drivers is often provided. However, the education programs vary in quality and may not always be successful in reducing crash rates. Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) education is a popular approach found effective by numerous studies, but even this approach varies as to the combination of frequency, mode and content used by different education providers. This study therefore evaluates and compares the effectiveness of BBS education methods. Thirty-five drivers in Shanghai, China, were coached with one of three different BBS education methods for 13 weeks following a 13-week baseline phase with no education. A random-effects negative binomial (NB) model was built and calibrated to investigate the relationship between BBS education and the driver at-fault safety-related event rate. Based on the results of the random-effects NB model, event modification factors (EMF) were calculated to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the methods. Results show that (1) BBS education was confirmed to be effective in safety-related event reduction; (2) the most effective method among the three applied monthly face-to-face coaching, including feedback with video and statistical data, and training on strategies to avoid driver-specific unsafe behaviors; (3) weekly telephone coaching using statistics and strategies was rated by drivers as the most convenient delivery mode, and was also significantly effective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards a Usability and Error "Safety Net": A Multi-Phased Multi-Method Approach to Ensuring System Usability and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre; Senathirajah, Yalini; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The usability and safety of health information systems have become major issues in the design and implementation of useful healthcare IT. In this paper we describe a multi-phased multi-method approach to integrating usability engineering methods into system testing to ensure both usability and safety of healthcare IT upon widespread deployment. The approach involves usability testing followed by clinical simulation (conducted in-situ) and "near-live" recording of user interactions with systems. At key stages in this process, usability problems are identified and rectified forming a usability and technology-induced error "safety net" that catches different types of usability and safety problems prior to releasing systems widely in healthcare settings.

  9. Dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, Alain; Saint-Pierre, Francois; Turcotte, Bernard [Le Groupe S.M. International Inc., Sherbrooke, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Dams built at the beginning of the twentieth century include concrete structures that were put in under rehabilitation works. In some cases, the details of the structures are not well documented. In other cases, concrete damage can be hidden under new layers of undamaged material. This requires that the dam safety review in a real investigation gather the information necessary for carrying out the hydraulic and stability studies required by the Dam Safety Act. This paper presented the process of dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structures. Two reinforced concrete dams built in the 1900's, the Eustic dam on the Coaticook River and the Frontenac dam on the Magog River near Sherbrooke, were evaluated by S.M. International using non-destructive methods such as sonic and ground penetrating radar methods. The studies allowed mapping of concrete damage and provided geometric information on some non visible structure elements that were part of previous reinforcement operations.

  10. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  11. Development of 3D CFD simulation method in nuclear reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan; Mariah Adam

    2012-01-01

    One of the most prevailing issues in the operation of nuclear reactor is the safety of the system. Worldwide publicity on a few nuclear accidents as well as the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing have always brought about public fear on anything related to nuclear. Most findings on the nuclear reactor accidents are closely related to the reactor cooling system. Thus, the understanding of the behaviour of reactor cooling system is very important to ensure the development and improvement on safety can be continuously done. Throughout the development of nuclear reactor technology, investigation and analysis on reactor safety have gone through several phases. In the early days, analytical and experimental methods were employed. For the last three decades 1D system level codes were widely used. The continuous development of nuclear reactor technology has brought about more complex system and processes of nuclear reactor operation. More detailed dimensional simulation codes are needed to assess these new reactors. This paper discusses the development of 3D CFD usage in nuclear reactor safety analysis worldwide. A brief review on the usage of CFD at Malaysia's Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI is also presented. (author)

  12. MODELS AND METHODS OF SAFETY-ORIENTED PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS: METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Богданович ЗАЧКО

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods and models of safety-oriented project management of the development of complex systems are proposed resulting from the convergence of existing approaches in project management in contrast to the mechanism of value-oriented management. A cognitive model of safety oriented project management of the development of complex systems is developed, which provides a synergistic effect that is to move the system from the original (pre condition in an optimal one from the viewpoint of life safety - post-project state. The approach of assessment the project complexity is proposed, which consists in taking into account the seasonal component of a time characteristic of life cycles of complex organizational and technical systems with occupancy. This enabled to take into account the seasonal component in simulation models of life cycle of the product operation in complex organizational and technical system, modeling the critical points of operation of systems with occupancy, which forms a new methodology for safety-oriented management of projects, programs and portfolios of projects with the formalization of the elements of complexity.

  13. A Study on the Optimization Method of the Main Steam Safety Valve Characteristics for Overpressure Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Ryun; Kim, Ung Soo; Pakr, Min Soo; Lee, Gyu Cheon; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO EnC Company Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The safety analysis on Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) event should be performed in accordance with Standard Review Plan (SRP) for pressurized water reactor. SRP is prepared for the guidance of staff reviewers in the office of nuclear reactor regulation in performing safety reviews of applications to operate nuclear power plants. The recent SRP requires that peak pressure in the primary and secondary system be evaluated separately since initial conditions are different for the primary and secondary systems. This paper presents an evaluation of the effect of the MSSVs characteristics with the analysis of LOCV event in order to have the sufficient safety margin of RCS and secondary system. This study has been conducted with the sensitivity analysis on the design parameters of MSSV which are the opening logic, set-point pressure and discharging capacity to the atmosphere. In this work, the effect of optimization method for the MSSV is evaluated from the viewpoints of opening logic change, discharge capacity increase and opening set-point decrease to mitigate the RCS and secondary system peak pressure resulting in additional safety margin. From the results, the optimization method is identified to be effective in reducing system peak pressure, especially for the secondary system. The opening logic which has increased number of MSSVs in the 1''st MSSV bank remarkably decreases the pressure of the secondary system. In the cases of 1/1/3, 2/1/2, the peak pressure of the main steam system is limited to the set-point of the 3''rd bank of MSSVs, and in the case of 3/1/1 it is limited to the set- point of the 2''nd bank of MSSVs. Consequently, the opening logic of the MSSVs is very important parameter to have the safety margin of the secondary system. The capacity and set-point of MSSVs do not involve increasing the peak pressure of RCS. It is recommended that the new design method of MSSVs as shown in this study be adopted to have the sufficient

  14. Trends in HFE Methods and Tools and Their Applicability to Safety Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Plott, C.; Milanski, J.; Ronan, A.; Scheff, S.; Laux, L.; and Bzostek, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) conducts human factors engineering (HFE) safety reviews of applicant submittals for new plants and for changes to existing plants. The reviews include the evaluation of the methods and tools (M&T) used by applicants as part of their HFE program. The technology used to perform HFE activities has been rapidly evolving, resulting in a whole new generation of HFE M&Ts. The objectives of this research were to identify the current trends in HFE methods and tools, determine their applicability to NRC safety reviews, and identify topics for which the NRC may need additional guidance to support the NRC's safety reviews. We conducted a survey that identified over 100 new HFE M&Ts. The M&Ts were assessed to identify general trends. Seven trends were identified: Computer Applications for Performing Traditional Analyses, Computer-Aided Design, Integration of HFE Methods and Tools, Rapid Development Engineering, Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. We assessed each trend to determine its applicability to the NRC's review by considering (1) whether the nuclear industry is making use of M&Ts for each trend, and (2) whether M&Ts reflecting the trend can be reviewed using the current design review guidance. We concluded that M&T trends that are applicable to the commercial nuclear industry and are expected to impact safety reviews may be considered for review guidance development. Three trends fell into this category: Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. The other trends do not need to be addressed at this time.

  15. Trends in HFE Methods and Tools and Their Applicability to Safety Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Plott, C.; Milanski, J.; Ronan, A.; Scheff, S.; Laux, L.; Bzostek, J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) conducts human factors engineering (HFE) safety reviews of applicant submittals for new plants and for changes to existing plants. The reviews include the evaluation of the methods and tools (M and T) used by applicants as part of their HFE program. The technology used to perform HFE activities has been rapidly evolving, resulting in a whole new generation of HFE M and Ts. The objectives of this research were to identify the current trends in HFE methods and tools, determine their applicability to NRC safety reviews, and identify topics for which the NRC may need additional guidance to support the NRC's safety reviews. We conducted a survey that identified over 100 new HFE M and Ts. The M and Ts were assessed to identify general trends. Seven trends were identified: Computer Applications for Performing Traditional Analyses, Computer-Aided Design, Integration of HFE Methods and Tools, Rapid Development Engineering, Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. We assessed each trend to determine its applicability to the NRC's review by considering (1) whether the nuclear industry is making use of M and Ts for each trend, and (2) whether M and Ts reflecting the trend can be reviewed using the current design review guidance. We concluded that M and T trends that are applicable to the commercial nuclear industry and are expected to impact safety reviews may be considered for review guidance development. Three trends fell into this category: Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. The other trends do not need to be addressed at this time.

  16. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system.

  17. An application of probabilistic safety assessment methods to model aircraft systems and accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1998-08-01

    A case study modeling the thrust reverser system (TRS) in the context of the fatal accident of a Boeing 767 is presented to illustrate the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment methods. A simplified risk model consisting of an event tree with supporting fault trees was developed to represent the progression of the accident, taking into account the interaction between the TRS and the operating crew during the accident, and the findings of the accident investigation. A feasible sequence of events leading to the fatal accident was identified. Several insights about the TRS and the accident were obtained by applying PSA methods. Changes proposed for the TRS also are discussed.

  18. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H.

    2008-06-01

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system

  19. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  20. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the ways in which operators interact with systems. At present, however, the only guidance available to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces, NUREG-0700, was written prior to these technological changes and is thus not designed to address them. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will be implemented, in part, as a portable, computer-based, interactive document for field use. The paper describes the overall guideline development methodology, the present status of the document, and the plans for further guideline testing and development. 21 refs., 3 figs

  1. The Role of Probabilistic Design Analysis Methods in Safety and Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2016-01-01

    For the last several years, NASA and its contractors have been working together to build space launch systems to commercialize space. Developing commercial affordable and safe launch systems becomes very important and requires a paradigm shift. This paradigm shift enforces the need for an integrated systems engineering environment where cost, safety, reliability, and performance need to be considered to optimize the launch system design. In such an environment, rule based and deterministic engineering design practices alone may not be sufficient to optimize margins and fault tolerance to reduce cost. As a result, introduction of Probabilistic Design Analysis (PDA) methods to support the current deterministic engineering design practices becomes a necessity to reduce cost without compromising reliability and safety. This paper discusses the importance of PDA methods in NASA's new commercial environment, their applications, and the key role they can play in designing reliable, safe, and affordable launch systems. More specifically, this paper discusses: 1) The involvement of NASA in PDA 2) Why PDA is needed 3) A PDA model structure 4) A PDA example application 5) PDA link to safety and affordability.

  2. Health economics and outcomes methods in risk-based decision-making for blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Brian; Janssen, Mart P

    2015-08-01

    Analytical methods appropriate for health economic assessments of transfusion safety interventions have not previously been described in ways that facilitate their use. Within the context of risk-based decision-making (RBDM), health economics can be important for optimizing decisions among competing interventions. The objective of this review is to address key considerations and limitations of current methods as they apply to blood safety. Because a voluntary blood supply is an example of a public good, analyses should be conducted from the societal perspective when possible. Two primary study designs are recommended for most blood safety intervention assessments: budget impact analysis (BIA), which measures the cost to implement an intervention both to the blood operator but also in a broader context, and cost-utility analysis (CUA), which measures the ratio between costs and health gain achieved, in terms of reduced morbidity and mortality, by use of an intervention. These analyses often have important limitations because data that reflect specific aspects, for example, blood recipient population characteristics or complication rates, are not available. Sensitivity analyses play an important role. The impact of various uncertain factors can be studied conjointly in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The use of BIA and CUA together provides a comprehensive assessment of the costs and benefits from implementing (or not) specific interventions. RBDM is multifaceted and impacts a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Gathering and analyzing health economic evidence as part of the RBDM process enhances the quality, completeness, and transparency of decision-making. © 2015 AABB.

  3. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses applied to criticality safety validation, methods development. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Childs, R.L.; Parks, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the application of sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis methodologies to the code/data validation tasks of a criticality safety computational study. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods were first developed for application to fast reactor studies in the 1970s. This work has revitalized and updated the available S/U computational capabilities such that they can be used as prototypic modules of the SCALE code system, which contains criticality analysis tools currently used by criticality safety practitioners. After complete development, simplified tools are expected to be released for general use. The S/U methods that are presented in this volume are designed to provide a formal means of establishing the range (or area) of applicability for criticality safety data validation studies. The development of parameters that are analogous to the standard trending parameters forms the key to the technique. These parameters are the D parameters, which represent the differences by group of sensitivity profiles, and the ck parameters, which are the correlation coefficients for the calculational uncertainties between systems; each set of parameters gives information relative to the similarity between pairs of selected systems, e.g., a critical experiment and a specific real-world system (the application)

  4. An approach of sensitivity and uncertainty analyses methods installation in a safety calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, G.; Sallaberry, C.

    2003-01-01

    Simulation of the migration in deep geological formations leads to solve convection-diffusion equations in porous media, associated with the computation of hydrogeologic flow. Different time-scales (simulation during 1 million years), scales of space, contrasts of properties in the calculation domain, are taken into account. This document deals more particularly with uncertainties on the input data of the model. These uncertainties are taken into account in total analysis with the use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. ANDRA (French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) carries out studies on the treatment of input data uncertainties and their propagation in the models of safety, in order to be able to quantify the influence of input data uncertainties of the models on the various indicators of safety selected. The step taken by ANDRA consists initially of 2 studies undertaken in parallel: - the first consists of an international review of the choices retained by ANDRA foreign counterparts to carry out their uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, - the second relates to a review of the various methods being able to be used in sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in the context of ANDRA's safety calculations. Then, these studies are supplemented by a comparison of the principal methods on a test case which gathers all the specific constraints (physical, numerical and data-processing) of the problem studied by ANDRA

  5. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim

    2018-04-10

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic information. In many applications, location-based services are the main service, and localization accuracy is the main problem. VANETs also require accurate vehicle location information in real time. To fulfill this requirement, a number of algorithms have been proposed; however, the location accuracy required for public safety applications in VANETs has not been achieved. In this paper, an improved subspace algorithm is proposed for time of arrival (TOA) measurements in VANETs localization. The proposed method gives a closed-form solution and it is robust for large measurement noise, as it is based on the eigen form of a scalar product and dimensionality. Furthermore, we developed the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) to evaluate the performance of the proposed 3D VANETs localization method. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparison with the CRLB and other localization algorithms available in the literature through numerous simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed 3D VANETs localization method is better than the literature methods especially for fewer anchors at road side units and large noise variance.

  6. Seniors managing multiple medications: using mixed methods to view the home care safety lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariella; Macdonald, Marilyn; Marck, Patricia; Toon, Lynn; Griffin, Melissa; Easty, Tony; Fraser, Kimberly; MacKinnon, Neil; Mitchell, Jonathan; Lang, Eddy; Goodwin, Sharon

    2015-12-12

    Patient safety is a national and international priority with medication safety earmarked as both a prevalent and high-risk area of concern. To date, medication safety research has focused overwhelmingly on institutional based care provided by paid healthcare professionals, which often has little applicability to the home care setting. This critical gap in our current understanding of medication safety in the home care sector is particularly evident with the elderly who often manage more than one chronic illness and a complex palette of medications, along with other care needs. This study addresses the medication management issues faced by seniors with chronic illnesses, their family, caregivers, and paid providers within Canadian publicly funded home care programs in Alberta (AB), Ontario (ON), Quebec (QC) and Nova Scotia (NS). Informed by a socio-ecological perspective, this study utilized Interpretive Description (ID) methodology and participatory photographic methods to capture and analyze a range of visual and textual data. Three successive phases of data collection and analysis were conducted in a concurrent, iterative fashion in eight urban and/or rural households in each province. A total of 94 participants (i.e., seniors receiving home care services, their family/caregivers, and paid providers) were interviewed individually. In addition, 69 providers took part in focus groups. Analysis was iterative and concurrent with data collection in that each interview was compared with subsequent interviews for converging as well as diverging patterns. Six patterns were identified that provide a rich portrayal of the complexity of medication management safety in home care: vulnerabilities that impact the safe management and storage of medication, sustaining adequate supports, degrees of shared accountability for care, systems of variable effectiveness, poly-literacy required to navigate the system, and systemic challenges to maintaining medication safety in the home

  7. Risk analysis methods: their importance for safety assessment of practices using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo, C; Vilaragut, J.J.; Ferro, R.; Guillen, A.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, M.; McDonnell, J.D.; Papadopulos, S.; Pereira, P.P.; Goncalvez, M.; Morales, J.; Larrinaga, E.; Lopez Morones, R.; Sanchez, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Sanchez, C.; Somoano, F.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation safety has been based for many years on verification of compliance with regulatory requirements, codes of practice and international standards, which can be considered prescriptive methods. Accident analyses have been published, lessons have been learned and safety assessments have incorporated the need to check whether a facility is ready to avoid accidents similar to the reported ones. These approaches can be also called 'reactive methods'. They have in common the fundamental limitation of being restricted to reported experience, but do not take into account other potential events, which were never published or never happened, i.e. latent risks. Moreover, they focus on accident sequences with major consequences and low probability but may not pay enough attention to other sequences leading to lower, but still significant consequences with higher probability. More proactive approaches are, therefore, needed, to assess risk in radiation facilities. They aim at identifying all potential equipment faults and human error, which can lead to predefined unwanted consequences and are based on the general risk equation: Risk = Probability of occurrence of an accidental sequence * magnitude of the consequences. In this work, a review is given of the experience obtained by the countries of the Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Organizations, by applying proactive methods to radiotherapy practice. In particular, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) used for external beam treatments with linear electron accelerators and two studies, on cobalt 60 therapy and brachytherapy using the risk-matrix approach are presented. The work has identified event sequences, their likelihood of occurrence, the consequences, the efficiency of interlocks and control checks and the global importance in terms of overall risk, to facilitate decision making and implementation of preventive measures. A comparison is presented of advantages and limitations of

  8. Safety assessment and detection method of genetically modified Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea cv. alboglabra ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Lu, Chien-Te; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-03-11

    Sporamins are tuberous storage proteins and account for 80% of soluble protein in sweet potato tubers with trypsin-inhibitory activity. The expression of sporamin protein in transgenic Chinese kale (line BoA 3-1) conferred insecticidal activity toward corn earworm [ Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)] in a previous report. In this study, we present a preliminary safety assessment of transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1. Bioinformatic and simulated gastric fluid (SGF) analyses were performed to evaluate the allergenicity of sporamin protein. The substantial equivalence between transgenic Chinese kale and its wild-type host has been demonstrated by the comparison of important constituents. A reliable real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method was also developed to control sample quality. Despite the results of most evaluations in this study being negative, the safety of sporamin in transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1 was uncluded because of the allergenic risk revealed by bioinformatic analysis.

  9. Construction of Earthquake-Proof Safety Evaluation Methods for Pipes with Wall Thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Sekimura, Naoto; Takizawa, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the extreme importance of 'system safety' evaluation has been recognized. In this study, some fundamental ways of thinking about the concept of 'system safety' for operating plants is shown, and concrete evaluation structures of system safety are proposed. System safety for nuclear power plants and safety assessment for aging plants are constructed. (author)

  10. A new method for testing and evaluating grassy airfields and its effects upon flying safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław PYTKA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of methods and technologies developed during a research project entitled “Methods of testing and evaluation of grassy airfields”, conducted at the Lublin University of Technology between 2011 and 2014. Based on the terramechanical studies of wheel-soil interactions, the authors have developed a method for the determination of wheel-grass friction and rolling resistance coefficients, which are of critical importance for the ground performance of an airplane. Moreover, a mobile application has been created for use by pilots, controllers or airfield administration crew. The application connects online with a weather service to gather atmospheric data as inputs for a mathematical model that produces a real-time cone index (CI value for a given airfield. The paper also discusses the applicability of the method within the air transportation system, as well as possible effects of the described technology upon the safety of flight operations on grassy airfields.

  11. The method for assurance to operational safety of cryogenics equipment through definite maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghel, Vasile

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports about a method of ensuring operational safety of cryogenics equipment through specific maintenance measures which imply a definite concept of maintainability and operational reliability, methods of maintenance, necessary logistic and necessary personnel. The stages of the concept should succeed in a logical order and must be based on detailed analyses of the process of maintenance. The method starts from the operation conditions of cryogenic equipment in nuclear regime. Thus maintenance policy must be well defined within the boundaries of the nuclear plant through definition of coherent objectives and responsibility delegation for the personnel implied in maintenance activity. This method ensures performance in maintenance and an efficient feedback from equipment analysis. (author)

  12. Finite test sets development method for test execution of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Min; Kim, Hee Eun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lee, Sung Jiun

    2014-01-01

    The V and V method has been utilized for this safety critical software, while SRGM has difficulties because of lack of failure occurrence data on developing phase. For the safety critical software, however, failure data cannot be gathered after installation in real plant when we consider the severe consequence. Therefore, to complement the V and V method, the test-based method need to be developed. Some studies on test-based reliability quantification method for safety critical software have been conducted in nuclear field. These studies provide useful guidance on generating test sets. An important concept of the guidance is that the test sets represent 'trajectories' (a series of successive values for the input variables of a program that occur during the operation of the software over time) in the space of inputs to the software.. Actually, the inputs to the software depends on the state of plant at that time, and these inputs form a new internal state of the software by changing values of some variables. In other words, internal state of the software at specific timing depends on the history of past inputs. Here the internal state of the software which can be changed by past inputs is named as Context of Software (CoS). In a certain CoS, a software failure occurs when a fault is triggered by some inputs. To cover the failure occurrence mechanism of a software, preceding researches insist that the inputs should be a trajectory form. However, in this approach, there are two critical problems. One is the length of the trajectory input. Input trajectory should long enough to cover failure mechanism, but the enough length is not clear. What is worse, to cover some accident scenario, one set of input should represent dozen hours of successive values. The other problem is number of tests needed. To satisfy a target reliability with reasonable confidence level, very large number of test sets are required. Development of this number of test sets is a herculean

  13. Study of applicable methods on safety verification of disposal facilities and waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Three subjects about safety verification on the disposal of low level radioactive waste were investigated in FY. 2012. For radioactive waste disposal facilities, specs and construction techniques of covering with soil to prevent possible destruction caused by natural events (e.g. earthquake) were studied to consider verification methods for those specs. For waste packages subject to near surface pit disposal, settings of scaling factor and average radioactivity concentration (hereafter referred to as ''SF'') on container-filled and solidified waste packages generated from Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit 1-5, setting of cesium residual ratio of molten solidified waste generated from Tokai and Tokai No.2 Power Stations, etc. were studied. Those results were finalized in consideration of the opinion from advisory panel, and publicly opened as JNES-EV reports. In FY 2012, five JNES reports were published and these have been used as standards of safety verification on waste packages. The verification method of radioactive wastes subject to near-surface trench disposal and intermediate depth disposal were also studied. For radioactive wastes which will be returned from overseas, determination methods of radioactive concentration, heat rate and hydrogen generation rate of CSD-C were established. Determination methods of radioactive concentration and heat rate of CSD-B were also established. These results will be referred to verification manuals. (author)

  14. The use of human factors methods to identify and mitigate safety issues in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: New radiation therapy technologies can enhance the quality of treatment and reduce error. However, the treatment process has become more complex, and radiation dose is not always delivered as intended. Using human factors methods, a radiotherapy treatment delivery process was evaluated, and a redesign was undertaken to determine the effect on system safety. Material and methods: An ethnographic field study and workflow analysis was conducted to identify human factors issues of the treatment delivery process. To address specific issues, components of the user interface were redesigned through a user-centered approach. Sixteen radiation therapy students were then used to experimentally evaluate the redesigned system through a usability test to determine the effectiveness in mitigating use errors. Results: According to findings from the usability test, the redesigned system successfully reduced the error rates of two common errors (p < .04 and p < .01). It also improved the mean task completion time by 5.5% (p < .02) and achieved a higher level of user satisfaction. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated the importance and benefits of applying human factors methods in the design of radiation therapy systems. Many other opportunities still exist to improve patient safety in this area using human factors methods.

  15. The importance of simulation facilities for the development of review criteria for advanced human system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control room (ACR) concepts are being developed in the commercial nuclear industry as part of future reactor designs. The ACRs will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role (function) in the system, the method of information presentation, the ways in which the operator interacts with the system, and the requirements on the operator to understand and supervise an increasingly complex system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The NRC is developing guidelines to support their review of these advanced designs. As part of this effort, a methodology for guidance development was established, and topics in need of further research were identified. Simulators of various kinds are likely to play important roles in the development of review guidelines and in the evaluation of ACRs. This paper describes a general approach to review criteria development, and discusses the role of simulators in addressing research needs

  16. Usability Methods for Ensuring Health Information Technology Safety: Evidence-Based Approaches. Contribution of the IMIA Working Group Health Informatics for Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, E; Kushniruk, A; Nohr, C; Takeda, H; Kuwata, S; Carvalho, C; Bainbridge, M; Kannry, J

    2013-01-01

    Issues related to lack of system usability and potential safety hazards continue to be reported in the health information technology (HIT) literature. Usability engineering methods are increasingly used to ensure improved system usability and they are also beginning to be applied more widely for ensuring the safety of HIT applications. These methods are being used in the design and implementation of many HIT systems. In this paper we describe evidence-based approaches to applying usability engineering methods. A multi-phased approach to ensuring system usability and safety in healthcare is described. Usability inspection methods are first described including the development of evidence-based safety heuristics for HIT. Laboratory-based usability testing is then conducted under artificial conditions to test if a system has any base level usability problems that need to be corrected. Usability problems that are detected are corrected and then a new phase is initiated where the system is tested under more realistic conditions using clinical simulations. This phase may involve testing the system with simulated patients. Finally, an additional phase may be conducted, involving a naturalistic study of system use under real-world clinical conditions. The methods described have been employed in the analysis of the usability and safety of a wide range of HIT applications, including electronic health record systems, decision support systems and consumer health applications. It has been found that at least usability inspection and usability testing should be applied prior to the widespread release of HIT. However, wherever possible, additional layers of testing involving clinical simulations and a naturalistic evaluation will likely detect usability and safety issues that may not otherwise be detected prior to widespread system release. The framework presented in the paper can be applied in order to develop more usable and safer HIT, based on multiple layers of evidence.

  17. An integrated framework for cost- benefit analysis in road safety projects using AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mohamadian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost benefit analysis (CBA is a useful tool for investment decision-making from economic point of view. When the decision involves conflicting goals, the multi-attribute analysis approach is more capable; because there are some social and environmental criteria that cannot be valued or monetized by cost benefit analysis. The complex nature of decision-making in road safety normally makes it difficult to reach a single alternative solution that can satisfy all decision-making problems. Generally, the application of multi-attribute analysis in road sector is promising; however, the applications are in preliminary stage. Some multi-attribute analysis techniques, such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP have been widely used in practice. This paper presents an integrated framework with CBA and AHP methods to select proper alternative in road safety projects. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a case study of improving a road to reduce the accidents in Iran. The framework is used as an aid to cost benefit tool in road safety projects.

  18. Application of probabilistic methods to safety R and D and design choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavigan, F.X.; Griffith, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) safety program is committed to identifying and exploiting areas in which probabilistic methods can be developed and used in making reactor safety R and D choices and optimizing designs of safety systems. Emphasis will be placed on a positive approach of solidifying and expanding our knowledge. This will provide the groundwork for a consensus on FBR risk. The management structure which will be used is based on a mechanistic approach to an LMFBR Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) with risk partitioned into ''Lines of Assurance,'' i.e., independent, phenomenologically-based barriers which will impede or mitigate the progression and consequences of accident sequences. Quantitative determination of the probability of breach of these barriers through the completion of work identified for each Line of Assurance will allow the quantification of the contribution to risk reduction associated with the success of each barrier. This process can lead to better use of resources by channeling R and D in directions which promise the greatest potential for reducing risk and by identifying an orderly approach to the development and demonstration of design features which will keep LMFBR risks at an acceptable level

  19. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar[BWR safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daaviittila, A [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus (Finland)

    2003-10-01

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  20. Major structural response methods used in the seismic safety margins research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.K.; Lo, T.; Vagliente, V.

    1979-01-01

    In order to evaluate the conservatisms in present nuclear power plant seismic safety requirements, a probabilistic based systems model is being developed. This model will also be used to develop improved requirements. In Phase I of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP), this methodology will be developed for a specific nuclear power plant and used to perform probabilistic sensitivity studies to gain engineering insights into seismic safety requirements. Random variables in the structural response analysis area, or parameters which cause uncertainty in the response, are discussed and classified into three categories; i.e., material properties, structural dynamic characteristics and related modeling techniques, and analytical methods. The sensitivity studies are grouped into two categories; deterministic and probabilistic. In a system analysis, transfer functions in simple form are needed since there are too many responses which have to be calculated in a Monte Carlo simulation to use the usual straightforward calculation approach. Therefore, the development of these simple transfer functions is one of the important tasks in SSMRP. Simplified as well as classical transfer functions are discussed

  1. Test and assessment method of Automotive Safety Systems (SSB) particularly to monitor traffic incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, B.; Łukjanow, S.; Burliński, R.

    2016-09-01

    The rapid development of telematics, particularly mobile telephony (GSM), wireless data transmission (GPRS) and satellite positioning (GPS) noticeable in the last decade, resulted in an almost unlimited growth of the possibilities for monitoring of mobile objects. These solutions are already widely used in the so-called “Intelligent Transport Systems” - ITS and affect a significant increase for road safety. The article describes a method of testing and evaluation of Car Safety Systems (Polish abbreviation - SSB) especially for monitoring traffic incidents, such as collisions and accidents. The algorithm of SSB testing process is also presented. Tests are performed on the dynamic test bench, part of which is movable platform with car security system mounted on it. Crash tests with a rigid obstacle are carried out instead of destructive attempts to crash test of the entire vehicle which is expensive. The tested system, depending on the simulated traffic conditions, is mounted in such a position and with the use of components, indicated by the manufacturer for the automotive safety system installation in a vehicle, for which it is intended. Then, the tests and assessments are carried out.

  2. The impact of cooking methods on the nutritional quality and safety of chicken breaded nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Albuquerque, Tânia; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Cristina Bento, Ana; Costa, Helena S

    2016-06-15

    The impact of cooking methods (industrial pre-frying, deep-fat frying and baking) on the nutritional quality and safety of chicken breaded nugget samples from supermarket and commercial brands was evaluated. The changes in the quality characteristics (nutritional composition, fatty acids profile, cholesterol and salt) of the fried food and frying oil, after ten consecutive frying operations, were evaluated. The total fat content of nuggets varied between 10.9 and 22.7 g per 100 g of edible portion and the salt content ranged from 0.873 to 1.63 g per 100 g. Taking into account one portion of nuggets, the daily intake of salt can reach 49%, which can have a significant impact on the health of those who regularly consume this type of food, especially considering the prevalence of hypertension around the world. The analysed chicken breaded nuggets are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which have been related with potential health benefits, namely regarding cardiovascular diseases. The cholesterol content of baked samples was two times higher when compared with the fried ones. The trans fatty acids and polar compounds contents of the frying oil used for frying significantly increased, but the values were still away from the maximum recommended by legal entities for its rejection. From a nutritional point of view, it is possible to conclude that the applied cooking methods can significantly influence the nutritional quality and safety of the analysed chicken breaded nuggets. This study will contribute to important knowledge on how the applied cooking methods can change the nutritional quality and safety of foods, namely of chicken nuggets, and can be very useful for dietary recommendations and nutritional assessment.

  3. V and V based Fault Estimation Method for Safety-Critical Software using BNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung Seop; Park, Gee Yong; Jang, Seung Cheol; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative software reliability measurement approaches have severe limitations in demonstrating the proper level of reliability for safety-critical software. These limitations can be overcome by using some other means of assessment. One of the promising candidates is based on the quality of the software development. Particularly in the nuclear industry, regulatory bodies in most countries do not accept the concept of quantitative goals as a sole means of meeting their regulations for the reliability of digital computers in NPPs, and use deterministic criteria for both hardware and software. The point of deterministic criteria is to assess the whole development process and its related activities during the software development life cycle for the acceptance of safety-critical software, and software V and V plays an important role in this process. In this light, we studied a V and V based fault estimation method using Bayesian Nets (BNs) to assess the reliability of safety-critical software, especially reactor protection system software in a NPP. The BNs in the study were made for an estimation of software faults and were based on the V and V frame, which governs the development of safety-critical software in the nuclear field. A case study was carried out for a reactor protection system that was developed as a part of the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System. The insight from the case study is that some important factors affecting the fault number of the target software include the residual faults in the system specification, maximum number of faults introduced in the development phase, ratio between process/function characteristic, uncertainty sizing, and fault elimination rate by inspection activities

  4. Methods for addressing "innocent bystanders" when evaluating safety of concomitant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley V; Abdurrob, Abdurrahman; Spoendlin, Julia; Lewis, Edwin; Newcomer, Sophia R; Fireman, Bruce; Daley, Matthew F; Glanz, Jason M; Duffy, Jonathan; Weintraub, Eric S; Kulldorff, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The need to develop methods for studying the safety of childhood immunization schedules has been recognized by the Institute of Medicine and Department of Health and Human Services. The recommended childhood immunization schedule includes multiple vaccines in a visit. A key concern is safety of concomitant (same day) versus separate day vaccination. This paper addresses a methodological challenge for observational studies using a self-controlled design to investigate the safety of concomitant vaccination. We propose a process for distinguishing which of several concomitantly administered vaccines is responsible for increased risk of an adverse event while adjusting for confounding due to relationships between effect modifying risk factors and concomitant vaccine combinations. We illustrate the approach by re-examining the known increase in risk of seizure 7 to 10 days after measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and evaluating potential independent or modifying effects of other vaccines. Initial analyses suggested that DTaP had both an independent and potentiating effect on seizure. After accounting for the relationship between age at vaccination and vaccine combination, there was little evidence for increased risk of seizure with same day administration of DTaP and MMR; incidence rate ratio, 95% confidence interval 1.2 (0.9-1.6), P value = θ.226. We have shown that when using a self-controlled design to investigate safety of concomitant vaccination, it can be critically important to adjust for time-invariant effect modifying risk factors, such as age at time of vaccination, which are structurally related to vaccination patterns due to recommended immunization schedules. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Integration of Active and Passive Safety Technologies--A Method to Study and Estimate Field Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Flannagan, Carol A; Bao, Shan; McCoy, Robert W; Siasoco, Kevin M; Barbat, Saeed

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method that uses a combination of field data analysis, naturalistic driving data analysis, and computational simulations to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities of integrating passive and active safety systems in frontal impact conditions. For the purposes of this study, the active safety system is actually a driver assist (DA) feature that has the potential to reduce delta-V prior to a crash, in frontal or other crash scenarios. A field data analysis was first conducted to estimate the delta-V distribution change based on an assumption of 20% crash avoidance resulting from a pre-crash braking DA feature. Analysis of changes in driver head location during 470 hard braking events in a naturalistic driving study found that drivers' head positions were mostly in the center position before the braking onset, while the percentage of time drivers leaning forward or backward increased significantly after the braking onset. Parametric studies with a total of 4800 MADYMO simulations showed that both delta-V and occupant pre-crash posture had pronounced effects on occupant injury risks and on the optimal restraint designs. By combining the results for the delta-V and head position distribution changes, a weighted average of injury risk reduction of 17% and 48% was predicted by the 50th percentile Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) model and human body model, respectively, with the assumption that the restraint system can adapt to the specific delta-V and pre-crash posture. This study demonstrated the potential for further reducing occupant injury risk in frontal crashes by the integration of a passive safety system with a DA feature. Future analyses considering more vehicle models, various crash conditions, and variations of occupant characteristics, such as age, gender, weight, and height, are necessary to further investigate the potential capability of integrating passive and DA or active safety systems.

  6. A probabilistic analysis method to evaluate the effect of human factors on plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.

    1987-01-01

    A method to evaluate the effect of human factors on probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is developed. The main features of the method are as follows: 1. A time-dependent multibranch tree is constructed to treat time dependency of human error probability. 2. A sensitivity analysis is done to determine uncertainty in the PSA due to branch time of human error occurrence, human error data source, extraneous act probability, and human recovery probability. The method is applied to a large-break, loss-of-coolant accident of a boiling water reactor-5. As a result, core melt probability and risk do not depend on the number of time branches, which means that a small number of branches are sufficient. These values depend on the first branch time and the human error probability

  7. The Increase of Operational Safety of Ships by Improving Diagnostic Methods for Marine Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Witkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the importance of the diagnostic improvement methods of marine engines to boost the economy and safety of operation of marine cargo ships. The need to implement effective diagnostic methods is justified by presenting statistical data of marine diesel engines failure and the cost of their operation. Based on the own research has been proven, for the chosen example, that indicator diagrams and analysis of indicated parameters have limited utility in the diagnosis of damages of marine engine, although this is a method commonly used in operational practice. To achieve greater diagnostic effectiveness, when, based on indicator diagrams, are calculated and then the characteristics of heat release is analyzed - net of heat release characteristics and the intensity of the heat release, it was demonstrated. This procedure is particularly effective in the diagnosis of damage of injection system components marine diesel engine.

  8. Training method for enhancement of safety attitude in nuclear power plant based on crew resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Akira; Karikawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Wakabayashi, Toshio; Kitamura, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    A conventional training program for nuclear power plant operators has been developed with emphasis on improvement of knowledge and skills of individual operators. Although it has certainly contributed to safety operation of nuclear power plants, some recent incidents have indicated the necessity of an improved training program aiming at improvement of the performance of operators working as a team. In the aviation area, crew resource management (CRM) training has shown the effect of resolving team management issues of flight crews, aircraft maintenance crews, and so on. In the present research, we attempted to introduce the CRM concept into operator training in nuclear power plants as training for conceptual skill enhancement. In this paper, a training method specially customized for nuclear power plant operators based on CRM is proposed. The proposed method has been practically utilized in the management training course of Japan Nuclear Technology Institute. The validity of the proposed method has been evaluated by means of a questionnaire survey. (author)

  9. Reliability Quantification Method for Safety Critical Software Based on a Finite Test Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Min; Kim, Hee Eun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lee, Seung Jun

    2014-01-01

    Software inside of digitalized system have very important role because it may cause irreversible consequence and affect the whole system as common cause failure. However, test-based reliability quantification method for some safety critical software has limitations caused by difficulties in developing input sets as a form of trajectory which is series of successive values of variables. To address these limitations, this study proposed another method which conduct the test using combination of single values of variables. To substitute the trajectory form of input using combination of variables, the possible range of each variable should be identified. For this purpose, assigned range of each variable, logical relations between variables, plant dynamics under certain situation, and characteristics of obtaining information of digital device are considered. A feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed through an application to the Reactor Protection System (RPS) software trip logic

  10. Numerical methods for reliability and safety assessment multiscale and multiphysics systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hami, Abdelkhalak

    2015-01-01

    This book offers unique insight on structural safety and reliability by combining computational methods that address multiphysics problems, involving multiple equations describing different physical phenomena, and multiscale problems, involving discrete sub-problems that together  describe important aspects of a system at multiple scales. The book examines a range of engineering domains and problems using dynamic analysis, nonlinear methods, error estimation, finite element analysis, and other computational techniques. This book also: ·       Introduces novel numerical methods ·       Illustrates new practical applications ·       Examines recent engineering applications ·       Presents up-to-date theoretical results ·       Offers perspective relevant to a wide audience, including teaching faculty/graduate students, researchers, and practicing engineers

  11. Use of a risk assessment method to improve the safety of negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, Anne-Sophie; Martelli, Nicolas; Bonan, Brigitte; Prognon, Patrice; Pineau, Judith

    2014-06-01

    To conduct a risk analysis of the negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) care process and to improve the safety of NPWT, a working group of nurses, hospital pharmacists, physicians and hospital managers performed a risk analysis for the process of NPWT care. The failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) method was used for this analysis. Failure modes and their consequences were defined and classified as a function of their criticality to identify priority actions for improvement. By contrast to classical FMECA, the criticality index (CI) of each consequence was calculated by multiplying occurrence, severity and detection scores. We identified 13 failure modes, leading to 20 different consequences. The CI of consequences was initially 712, falling to 357 after corrective measures were implemented. The major improvements proposed included the establishment of 6-monthly training cycles for nurses, physicians and surgeons and the introduction of computerised prescription for NPWT. The FMECA method also made it possible to prioritise actions as a function of the criticality ranking of consequences and was easily understood and used by the working group. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to use the FMECA method to improve the safety of NPWT. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care: results of a mixed-method evaluation (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; Zegers, Marieke; Westert, Gert P; Boeijen, Wilma; Teerenstra, Steven; van Gurp, Petra J; Wollersheim, Hub

    2018-06-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of internal auditing in hospital care focussed on improving patient safety. A before-and-after mixed-method evaluation study was carried out in eight departments of a university medical center in the Netherlands. Internal auditing and feedback focussed on improving patient safety. The effect of internal auditing was assessed 15 months after the audit, using linear mixed models, on the patient, professional, team and departmental levels. The measurement methods were patient record review on adverse events (AEs), surveys regarding patient experiences, safety culture and team climate, analysis of administrative hospital data (standardized mortality rate, SMR) and safety walk rounds (SWRs) to observe frontline care processes on safety. The AE rate decreased from 36.1% to 31.3% and the preventable AE rate from 5.5% to 3.6%; however, the differences before and after auditing were not statistically significant. The patient-reported experience measures regarding patient safety improved slightly over time (P audit. The SWRs showed that medication safety and information security were improved (P auditing was associated with improved patient experiences and observed safety on wards. No effects were found on adverse outcomes, safety culture and team climate 15 months after the internal audit.

  13. Improvement of numerical simulation methods on safety assessment of the spent fuel storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Improvement of numerical simulation methods on safety assessment of the spent fuel storage facility is one of main objectives of JNES activities. For the thermal and structural analyses, the radiative heat transfer analysis code S-FOKS has been developed to reduce computing time and to avoid using large memory area. In order to simulate the specular reflection, a new model (called 'model-2') is planned to install to S-FOKS code. The theoretical values with the specular reflection in simple geometry were lead to verify S-FOKS model-2. (author)

  14. Formation of normative-methodical maintenance of quality and safety of campsites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherepanov Daniil A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organization of campsites construction for auto tourists in Russia is an effective means of ensuring their rest and sleep during travel. Formation of normative and methodological support of campsites fire safety should take into account not only security, but also meet consumers' motivation to visit them. The authors examine conditions and requirements for the infrastructure of campsites and their localization, as well as methods of fire risk assessment in camping. They propose camping localization techniques and expert evaluation of fire risk in them.

  15. Operational experience review and methods to enhance safety and reliability in the NPP-Leibstadt (KKL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusermann, R [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, Leibstadt (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    In the nuclear community it became clear that an integrated feedback system of operating experience must also include the unsuccessful results. The deviations, expected to achieved performance are analysed to the failure mode and its effect. KKL has lowered the number of safety significant events since commercial operation started. The thoroughness of the review/analysis of the events has increased with high priority set to human factor induced events in operation and maintenance. Since the participation of the author in the ASSET-Mission in Smolensk in 1993, KKL introduced the ASSET-Root-Cause method and has supplemented it by the HPES (Human Performance Enhancement System). 4 refs, 6 figs.

  16. Increasing the quality and safety of meat products through high technology methods during their storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miteva, D.; Nacheva, I.; Georgieva, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the quality and safety of different meat products by applying two high technology methods – lyophilization and gamma-irradiation. Object of study were chicken, pork and beef meat products. The organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological properties after lyophilization, irradiation with gamma-rays and during the preservation of the samples were studied. The results indicated that the application of the two original technologies for preservation could ensure qualitative and long-lasting preservation of meat products with excellently preserved taste and organoleptic properties

  17. Operational experience review and methods to enhance safety and reliability in the NPP-Leibstadt (KKL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusermann, R.

    1997-01-01

    In the nuclear community it became clear that an integrated feedback system of operating experience must also include the unsuccessful results. The deviations, expected to achieved performance are analysed to the failure mode and its effect. KKL has lowered the number of safety significant events since commercial operation started. The thoroughness of the review/analysis of the events has increased with high priority set to human factor induced events in operation and maintenance. Since the participation of the author in the ASSET-Mission in Smolensk in 1993, KKL introduced the ASSET-Root-Cause method and has supplemented it by the HPES (Human Performance Enhancement System). 4 refs, 6 figs

  18. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  19. An abnormal situation modeling method to assist operators in safety-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2015-01-01

    One of the main causes of accidents in safety-critical systems is human error. In order to reduce human errors in the process of handling abnormal situations that are highly complex and mentally taxing activities, operators need to be supported, from a cognitive perspective, in order to reduce their workload, stress, and the consequent error rate. Of the various cognitive activities, a correct understanding of the situation, i.e. situation awareness (SA), is a crucial factor in improving performance and reducing errors. Despite the importance of SA in decision-making in time- and safety-critical situations, the difficulty of SA modeling and assessment means that very few methods have as yet been developed. This study confronts this challenge, and develops an innovative abnormal situation modeling (ASM) method that exploits the capabilities of risk indicators, Bayesian networks and fuzzy logic systems. The risk indicators are used to identify abnormal situations, Bayesian networks are utilized to model them and a fuzzy logic system is developed to assess them. The ASM method can be used in the development of situation assessment decision support systems that underlie the achievement of SA. The performance of the ASM method is tested through a real case study at a chemical plant. - Highlights: • Bayesian networks are applied to represent operators’ mental models when confront with abnormal situations. • A fuzzy logic system is used to resemble operators’ generating assessment results for every abnormal situation. • A virtual plant user interface and a prototype based on proposed method are developed to simulate a real case

  20. Methods and tools used at the IPSN for the safety assessment of critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, P.; Henry, J.Y.

    1998-01-01

    A significant feature of EDF's latest 1400MWe ''N4'' generation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the extensive use of computerized instrumentation and control, including a fully digital system for the reactor protection function. For the safety assessment of the software driving the operation of this digital reactor protection called SPIN, IPSN has developed and implemented a set of methods and tools. Using the lessons learned from this experience, IPSN has worked at improving those methods and tools, mainly trying to make them more automatic to use, and has participated in an international assessment exercise to test some other methods and tools, either new products on the market or self-developed products. As a result of these works, this paper presents an up to date overview of the IPSN methods and tools used for the assessment of safety critical software. This assessment, which consists of an analysis of all the documentation associated with the technical specifications and of a representative set of functions, is usually carried out in five steps: (1) critical examination of the documents, (2) evaluation of the quality of the code, (3) determination of the critical software components, (4) development of test cases and choice of testing strategy, (5) dynamic analysis (consistency and robustness). This paper also presents methods and tools developed or implemented by IPSN in order to: evaluate the completeness and consistency of specification and design documents written in natural language; build a model and simulate specification or design items; evaluate the quality of the source code; carry out FMEA analysis; run the binary code and perform tests (CLAIRE); perform random or mutational tests. (author)

  1. Investigation of human system interface design in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan; Zhang Yunbo; Wang Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the importance of HFE in designing nuclear power plant, and introduces briefly the content and scope of HFE, discusses human system interface design of new built nuclear power plants. This paper also describes human system interface design of foreign nuclear power plant, and describes in detail human system interface design of domestic nuclear power plant. (authors)

  2. Language barriers and patient safety risks in hospital care. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosse, Floor; de Bruijne, Martine; Suurmond, Jeanine; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Wagner, Cordula

    2016-02-01

    A language barrier has been shown to be a threat for quality of hospital care. International studies highlighted a lack of adequate noticing, reporting, and bridging of a language barrier. However, studies on the link between language proficiency and patient safety are scarce, especially in Europe. The present study investigates patient safety risks due to language barriers during hospitalization, and the way language barriers are detected, reported, and bridged in Dutch hospital care. We combined quantitative and qualitative methods in a sample of 576 ethnic minority patients who were hospitalized on 30 wards within four urban hospitals. The nursing and medical records of 17 hospital admissions of patients with language barriers were qualitatively analyzed, and complemented by 12 in-depth interviews with care providers and patients and/or their relatives to identify patient safety risks during hospitalization. The medical records of all 576 patients were screened for language barrier reports. The results were compared to patients' self-reported Dutch language proficiency. The policies of wards regarding bridging language barriers were compared with the reported use of interpreters in the medical records. Situations in hospital care where a language barrier threatened patient safety included daily nursing tasks (i.e. medication administration, pain management, fluid balance management) and patient-physician interaction concerning diagnosis, risk communication and acute situations. In 30% of the patients that reported a low Dutch proficiency, no language barrier was documented in the patient record. Relatives of patients often functioned as interpreter for them and professional interpreters were hardly used. The present study showed a wide variety of risky situations in hospital care for patients with language barriers. These risks can be reduced by adequately bridging the language barrier, which, in the first place, demands adequate detecting and reporting of a

  3. Origins, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Analytical Methods and Safety of Cortex Moutan (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortex Moutan (CM, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, is commonly used for treating various diseases in China and other eastern Asian countries. Recorded in Pharmacopeias of several countries, CM is now drawing increasing attention and under extensive studies in various fields. Phytochemical studies indicate that CM contains many valuable secondary metabolites, such as monoterpene glycosides and phenols. Ample evidence from pharmacological researches suggest that CM has a wide spectrum of activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular protective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, various analytical methods were established for the quality evaluation and safety control of CM. This review synopsizes updated information concerning the origins, phytochemistry, pharmacology, analytical method and safety of CM, aiming to provide favorable references for modern CM research and application. In conclusion, continuing pharmacological investigations concerning CM should be conducted to unravel its pharmacological mechanisms. Further researches are necessary to obtain comprehensive and applicable analytical approach for quality evaluation and establish harmonized criteria of CM.

  4. Safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath canning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L H; Remmenga, M D; Bock, M A

    1998-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath processing method. In the first study, plain tomatillos were processed for 25, 37.5, 50 and 62.5 min. In the second study, five tomatillo/onion combinations were prepared while five tomatillo/green chile combinations were prepared in the third study. pH evaluations were conducted to determine safety in all studies using pH 4.2 as the cut-off value. No differences in the pH of plain tomatillos were detected due to processing time. All jars of plain tomatillos had pH values below 4.1. All combinations of tomatillos/onions and tomatillos/green chile containing more than 50% tomatillo had pH values below the 4.2 cut-off value. Results of the three studies indicate (1) acidification of plain tomatillos is probably unnecessary for canning by the water-bath processing method and (2) combinations of acidic tomatillos and low-acid onions or green chile must contain more than 50% tomatillos to have a pH low enough for safe water-bath processing.

  5. A Method to Select Test Input Cases for Safety-critical Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heeeun; Kang, Hyungook; Son, Hanseong

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new testing methodology for effective and realistic quantification of RPS software failure probability. Software failure probability quantification is important factor in digital system safety assessment. In this study, the method for software test case generation is briefly described. The test cases generated by this method reflect the characteristics of safety-critical software and past inputs. Furthermore, the number of test cases can be reduced, but it is possible to perform exhaustive test. Aspect of software also can be reflected as failure data, so the final failure data can include the failure of software itself and external influences. Software reliability is generally accepted as the key factor in software quality since it quantifies software failures which can make a powerful system inoperative. In the KNITS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Systems) project, the software for the fully digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) was developed under a strict procedure including unit testing and coverage measurement. Black box testing is one type of Verification and validation (V and V), in which given input values are entered and the resulting output values are compared against the expected output values. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) were used in implementing critical systems and function block diagram (FBD) is a commonly used implementation language for PLC

  6. Utilization of probabilistic methods for evaluating the safety of PWRs built in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.; Brisbois, J.; Lanore, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Firstly, it is recalled that, in France, PWRs are designed on a deterministic basis by studying the consequences of a limited number of conventional incidents whose estimated frequency is specified in order-of-magnitude terms and for which it is shown that the consequences, for each category of frequency, predominate over those of the other situations in the same category. These situations are called dimensioning situations. The paper then describes the use made of probabilistic methods. External attacks and loss of redundant systems are examined in particular. A probabilistic approach is in fact well suited to the evaluation of risks due, among other things, to aircraft crashes and the industrial environment. Analysis of the reliability of redundant systems has shown that, in the light of the overall risk assessment objective, their loss should be examined with a view to instituting counteraction to reduce the risks associated with such loss (particularly the introduction of special control procedures). Probabilistic methods are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the counteraction proposed and such a study has been carried out for total loss of electric power supply. Finally, the probabilistic study of hazard initiated post factum by the French safety authorities for the standardized 900 MW(e) power units is described. The study, which is not yet complete, will serve as the basis for a permanent safety analysis tool taking into account control procedures and the total operating experience acquired using these power units. (author)

  7. Study on safety of crystallization method applied to dissolver solution in fast breeder reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Fujine, Yukio; Asakura, Toshihide; Murazaki, Minoru; Koyama, Tomozo; Sakakibara, Tetsuro; Shibata, Atsuhiro

    1999-03-01

    The crystallization method is proposed to apply for recovery of uranium from dissolution liquid, enabling to reduce handling materials in later stages of reprocessing used fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuels. This report studies possible safety problems accompanied by the proposed method. Crystallization process was first defined in the whole reprocessing process, and the quantity and the kind of treated fuel were specified. Possible problems, such as criticality, shielding, fire/explosion, and confinement, were then investigated; and the events that might induce accidental incidents were discussed. Criticality, above all the incidents, was further studied by considering exampled criticality control of the crystallization process. For crystallization equipment, in particular, evaluation models were set up in normal and accidental operation conditions. Related data were selected out from the nuclear criticality safety handbooks. The theoretical densities of plutonium nitrates, which give basic and important information, were estimated in this report based on the crystal structure data. The criticality limit of crystallization equipment was calculated based on the above information. (author)

  8. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  9. Bayesian Network Assessment Method for Civil Aviation Safety Based on Flight Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Huawei Wang; Jun Gao

    2013-01-01

    Flight delays and safety are the principal contradictions in the sound development of civil aviation. Flight delays often come up and induce civil aviation safety risk simultaneously. Based on flight delays, the random characteristics of civil aviation safety risk are analyzed. Flight delays have been deemed to a potential safety hazard. The change rules and characteristics of civil aviation safety risk based on flight delays have been analyzed. Bayesian networks (BN) have been used to build ...

  10. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Human reliability analysis for probabilistic safety assessments - review of methods and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, G.; Guptan, Rajee; Malhotra, P.K.; Ghadge, S.G.; Chandra, Umesh

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the two major events in World Nuclear Power Plant Operating history, namely the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, were Human failure events. Subsequent to these two events, several significant changes have been incorporated in Plant Design, Control Room Design and Operator Training to reduce the possibility of Human errors during plant transients. Still, human error contribution to Risk in Nuclear Power Plant operations has been a topic of continued attention for research, development and analysis. Probabilistic Safety Assessments attempt to capture all potential human errors with a scientifically computed failure probability, through Human Reliability Analysis. Several methods are followed by different countries to quantify the Human error probability. This paper reviews the various popular methods being followed, critically examines them with reference to their criticisms and brings out issues for future research. (author)

  12. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  13. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  14. Application and problems of probability methods in technical safety assessment in the field of nuclear engineering and other technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a deterministic safety concept that has been developed in nuclear engineering, approaches for a probabilistic interpretation of existing safety requirements and for a further risk assessment are described. The procedures in technical reliability analysis and its application in nuclear engineering are discussed. By the example of a reliability analysis for a reactor protection system the author discusses the question as to what extent methods of reliability analysis can be used to interpret deterministically derived safety requirements. The the author gives a survey of the current value and application of probabilistic reliability assessments in non-nuclear technology. The last part of this report deals with methods of risk analysis and its use for safety assessment in nuclear engineering. On the basis of WASH 1,400 the most important phases and tasks of research work in risk assessment are explained, showing the basic criteria and the methods to be applied in risk analysis. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D.; Truppa, W.; Aravena, M.; Tamayo, B.

    2015-09-01

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  16. Promoters and Barriers to Implementation of Tracheal Intubation Airway Safety Bundle: A Mixed-Method Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn Davis, Katherine; Napolitano, Natalie; Li, Simon; Buffman, Hayley; Rehder, Kyle; Pinto, Matthew; Nett, Sholeen; Jarvis, J Dean; Kamat, Pradip; Sanders, Ronald C; Turner, David A; Sullivan, Janice E; Bysani, Kris; Lee, Anthony; Parker, Margaret; Adu-Darko, Michelle; Giuliano, John; Biagas, Katherine; Nadkarni, Vinay; Nishisaki, Akira

    2017-10-01

    To describe promoters and barriers to implementation of an airway safety quality improvement bundle from the perspective of interdisciplinary frontline clinicians and ICU quality improvement leaders. Mixed methods. Thirteen PICUs of the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children network. Remote or on-site focus groups with interdisciplinary ICU staff. Two semistructured interviews with ICU quality improvement leaders with quantitative and qualitative data-based feedbacks. Bundle implementation success (compliance) was defined as greater than or equal to 80% use for tracheal intubations for 3 consecutive months. ICUs were classified as early or late adopters. Focus group discussions concentrated on safety concerns and promoters and barriers to bundle implementation. Initial semistructured quality improvement leader interviews assessed implementation tactics and provided recommendations. Follow-up interviews assessed degree of acceptance and changes made after initial interview. Transcripts were thematically analyzed and contrasted by early versus late adopters. Median duration to achieve success was 502 days (interquartile range, 182-781). Five sites were early (median, 153 d; interquartile range, 146-267) and eight sites were late adopters (median, 783 d; interquartile range, 773-845). Focus groups identified common "promoter" themes-interdisciplinary approach, influential champions, and quality improvement bundle customization-and "barrier" themes-time constraints, competing paperwork and quality improvement activities, and poor engagement. Semistructured interviews with quality improvement leaders identified effective and ineffective tactics implemented by early and late adopters. Effective tactics included interdisciplinary quality improvement team involvement (early adopter: 5/5, 100% vs late adopter: 3/8, 38%; p = 0.08); ineffective tactics included physician-only rollouts, lack of interdisciplinary education, lack of data feedback to frontline clinicians

  17. An image-based method to measure all-terrain vehicle dimensions for engineering safety purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Miller, Nathan S; Tang, Kaiyang; Denning, Gerene M

    2014-04-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are a serious public health and safety concern. Engineering approaches that address ATV injury prevention are critically needed. Avenues to pursue include evidence-based seat design that decreases risky behaviours, such as carrying passengers and operation of adult-size vehicles by children. The goal of this study was to create and validate an image-based method to measure ATV seat length and placement. Publicly available ATV images were downloaded. Adobe Photoshop was then used to generate a vertical grid through the centre of the vehicle, to define the grid scale using the manufacturer's reported wheelbase, and to determine seat length and placement relative to the front and rear axles using this scale. Images that yielded a difference greater than 5% between the calculated and the manufacturer's reported ATV lengths were excluded from further analysis. For the 77 images that met inclusion criteria, the mean±SD for the difference in calculated versus reported vehicle length was 1.8%±1.2%. The Pearson correlation coefficient for comparing image-based seat lengths determined by two independent measurers (20 models) and image-based lengths versus lengths measured at dealerships (12 models) were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. The image-based method provides accurate and reproducible results for determining ATV measurements, including seat length and placement. This method greatly expands the number of ATV models that can be studied, and may be generalisable to other motor vehicle types. These measurements can be used to guide engineering approaches that improve ATV safety design.

  18. Kartini reactor tank inspection using NDT method for safety improvement of the reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarip; Sutondo, Tegas; Saleh, Chaerul; Nitiswati; Puradwi; Andryansah; Mudiharjo

    2002-01-01

    The inspection of Kartini reactor tank liner (TRK) by using Non Destructive Testing (NDT) methods to improve the reactor operation safety, have been done. The type of NDT used were: visual examination using an underwater camera and magnifier, replication survey using dental putty, hardness test using an Equotip D indentor, thickness test using ultrasonic probe, and dye penetrant test. The visual examination showed that the surface of TRK was in good condition. The hardness readings were considered to be consistent with the original condition of the tank and the slight hardness increase at the reactor core area consistent with the neutron fluence experienced -10 1 4 n/cm 2 . Results of ultrasonic thickness survey showed that in average the TRK thickness is between 5,0 mm - 6,5 mm, a low 2,1 mm thickness exists at the top of the TRK in the belt area (double layer aluminum plat, therefore do not influencing the safety ). The replica and dye penetrant test at the low thickness area and several suspected areas showed that it could be some defect from original manufacture. Therefore, it can be concluded that the TRK is still feasible for continued operation safely

  19. System principles, mathematical models and methods to ensure high reliability of safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskyi, V.

    2017-04-01

    Modern safety and security systems are composed of a large number of various components designed for detection, localization, tracking, collecting, and processing of information from the systems of monitoring, telemetry, control, etc. They are required to be highly reliable in a view to correctly perform data aggregation, processing and analysis for subsequent decision making support. On design and construction phases of the manufacturing of such systems a various types of components (elements, devices, and subsystems) are considered and used to ensure high reliability of signals detection, noise isolation, and erroneous commands reduction. When generating design solutions for highly reliable systems a number of restrictions and conditions such as types of components and various constrains on resources should be considered. Various types of components perform identical functions; however, they are implemented using diverse principles, approaches and have distinct technical and economic indicators such as cost or power consumption. The systematic use of different component types increases the probability of tasks performing and eliminates the common cause failure. We consider type-variety principle as an engineering principle of system analysis, mathematical models based on this principle, and algorithms for solving optimization problems of highly reliable safety and security systems design. Mathematical models are formalized in a class of two-level discrete optimization problems of large dimension. The proposed approach, mathematical models, algorithms can be used for problem solving of optimal redundancy on the basis of a variety of methods and control devices for fault and defects detection in technical systems, telecommunication networks, and energy systems.

  20. Cooperative project on methods and techniques for assessment of ageing and safety of nuclear objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundara, B.; Udovc, M.; Cvelbar, R.; Vojvodic Tuma, J.; Celin, R.; Cizelj, L.; Simonovski, I.; Pirs, B.; Zabric, I.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants are so far the most demanding electric power plants concerning the extent and complexity of knowledge that is needed for design, construction, installation, safe operation and proper maintenance. For safe operation of the NPP it is important to have reliable inspection procedures and methods to detect the relevant defects in the components. It is also important to have effective techniques and efficient methodology that enable precise estimation of the material degradation and reliable prediction of the remaining period of the safe service of structures and components. During the operation of NPP its materials, structures and components are exposed to various impacts that have for the result changes in the material. Changes usually manifest as deviation from the origin (generally considered as defects) and can be observed at level of microstructure and/or at structural level. Defects are consequence of ageing and ageing is a consequence of mechanical, thermal, chemical, radiation induced and other processes. Complexity of the NPP and continuous operation at high level of safety demands extensive cooperation of researchers and engineers with different scientific and educational background. In the paper is discussed the importance of sufficient support to the NPP related research projects and the need for cooperation between institutes. As an example is presented the cooperative project that bands the research groups with different scientific background into complementary team working on multidisciplinary project focused on assessment of ageing and safety of nuclear objects. (author)

  1. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  3. Study on quantification method based on Monte Carlo sampling for multiunit probabilistic safety assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kye Min [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Yang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In Korea, many nuclear power plants operate at a single site based on geographical characteristics, but the population density near the sites is higher than that in other countries. Thus, multiunit accidents are a more important consideration than in other countries and should be addressed appropriately. Currently, there are many issues related to a multiunit probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). One of them is the quantification of a multiunit PSA model. A traditional PSA uses a Boolean manipulation of the fault tree in terms of the minimal cut set. However, such methods have some limitations when rare event approximations cannot be used effectively or a very small truncation limit should be applied to identify accident sequence combinations for a multiunit site. In particular, it is well known that seismic risk in terms of core damage frequency can be overestimated because there are many events that have a high failure probability. In this study, we propose a quantification method based on a Monte Carlo approach for a multiunit PSA model. This method can consider all possible accident sequence combinations in a multiunit site and calculate a more exact value for events that have a high failure probability. An example model for six identical units at a site was also developed and quantified to confirm the applicability of the proposed method.

  4. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program scenario analysis methods for use in assessing the safety of the geologic isolation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenborg, J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Pelto, P.J.; Voss, J.W.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Forbes, I.A.; Fussell, J.B.; Burkholder, H.C.

    1978-11-01

    The relative utility of the various safety analysis methods to scenario analysis for a repository system was evaluated by judging the degree to which certain criteria are satisfied by use of the method. Six safety analysis methods were reviewed in this report for possible use in scenario analysis of nuclear waste repositories: expert opinion, perspectives analysis, fault trees/event trees, Monte Carlo simulation, Markov chains, and classical systems analysis. Four criteria have been selected. The criteria suggest that the methods: (1) be quantitative and scientifically based; (2) model the potential disruptive events and processes, (3) model the system before and after failure (sufficiently detailed to provide for subsequent consequence analysis); and (4) be compatible with the level of available system knowledge and data. Expert opinion, fault trees/event trees, Monte Carlo simulation and classical systems analysis were judged to have the greatest potential appliation to the problem of scenario analysis. The methods were found to be constrained by limited data and by knowledge of the processes governing the system. It was determined that no single method is clearly superior to others when measured against all the criteria. Therefore, to get the best understanding of system behavior, a combination of the methods is recommended. Monte Carlo simulation was judged to be the most suitable matrix in which to incorporate a combination of methods

  5. A method for quantitative measurement of safety culture based on ISO 26262

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khabbaz Saberi, A.; Benders, F.; Koch, R.; Lukkien, J.J.; van den Brand, M.G.J.; Parsons, M.; Kelly, T.

    2018-01-01

    Safety culture is the collective attitude of members of an organization regarding safety issues: awareness, communication, knowledge, etc. In the automotive industry, specifically in its Research and Development (R&D) environments, safety culture is relatively new. Recent incidents related to

  6. EFFECT OF THE METHOD OF PREPARATION OF RYE GRAIN ON ITS MICROSTRUCTURE AND SAFETY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. One of the main issues in the baking industry is currently the development and introduction of new products increased nutritional value. By promising area of enrichment products include the use of whole grains. Currently pressing issue is expanding the range of bakery products by applying the functional orientation of the whole grain rye. Expand the range of bread from a mixture of rye and wheat flour can be due to the use of whole grain rye. German company "Irex" developed a method of preparing a mixture of products from rye and wheat flour with the addition of acidified whole rye "Saftkorn." The experiment was conducted microstructure definition, content of toxic elements (cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic and microbiological indicators rye "Saftkorn" and "Avanguard". The microstructure and grain safety performance prepared in different ways. The difference in the microstructure of rye "Saftсorn" (Germany and "Аvangard" (Russia. Proven that their microbiological parameters were within acceptable limits.

  7. Results of a survey on accident and safety analysis codes, benchmarks, verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1996-03-01

    During the 'Workshop on R and D needs' at the 3rd Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR-III), the participants agreed that it would be useful to compile a survey of the computer codes and nuclear data libraries used in accident and safety analyses for research reactors and the methods various organizations use to verify and validate their codes and libraries. Five organizations, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, Canada), China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE, People's Republic of China), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI, Japan), Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL, USA), and Siemens (Germany) responded to the survey. The results of the survey are compiled in this report. (author) 36 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Load assumption for fatigue design of structures and components counting methods, safety aspects, practical application

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Michael; Pötter, Kurt; Zenner, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the fatigue behaviour of structural components under variable load amplitude is an essential prerequisite for safe and reliable light-weight design. For designing and dimensioning, the expected stress (load) is compared with the capacity to withstand loads (fatigue strength). In this process, the safety necessary for each particular application must be ensured. A prerequisite for ensuring the required fatigue strength is a reliable load assumption. The authors describe the transformation of the stress- and load-time functions which have been measured under operational conditions to spectra or matrices with the application of counting methods. The aspects which must be considered for ensuring a reliable load assumption for designing and dimensioning are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the theoretical background for estimating the fatigue life of structural components is explained, and the procedures are discussed for numerous applications in practice. One of the prime intentions of the authors ...

  9. Xingnao Kaiqiao needling method for acute ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis of safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-xin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Results: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. The meta-analysis showed that between Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture and the control treatment, Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture reduced the disability rate [risk ratio (RR = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.27–0.98, z = 2.03, P 0.05. Conclusion: The Xingnao Kaiqiao needling method is effective and safe for acute ischemic stroke. However, there was selective bias in this study, and the likelihood of measurement bias is high. Thus, more high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to provide reliable evidence of the efficacy and safety of Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

  10. Safety assessment on the key equipment of coal gasification based on SDG-HAZOP method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Xu, X.; Ma, X.; Wu, C. [Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-15

    An example of the coal gasification process was introduced after the explanation of the graphical representation method known as the sign directed graph (SDG). The systematic modeling procedure was also introduced. Firstly, the key variables of the whole system were selected. Then the relationship equations were listed. Finally, the SDG-HAZOP (hazard and operability) model was derived after attaching the abnormal causes and adverse consequences. In order to get a credible SDG model, the model was checked by technicians in the factory. Based on computer-aided analysis, this model can express almost all the dangerous features of the gasification process. It can also reveal the mechanisms of danger propagation, which may effectively help safety engineers to identify potential hazards. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Development of Applicabe Methods for Evaluating the Safety of Offsshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sigurdsson, Gudfinnur

    ] was published in January 1985 and describes the computer programme package UNZIP by which the reliability of 3-dimensional structures can be evaluated. The present paper describes progress made during the first four months of 1985. A new program package called MEKBETA is described. By this program fundamental......The research project "Development of applicable methods for evaluating the safety of offshore structures" was initiated in August 1984. It is in 1985 supported by Danish Ministry of Energy with D. kr. 380.000. The results obtained will be published in a series of papers. The first paper [1...... mechanisms can be identified automatically. Also significant mechanisms in plane and space frame and lattice structures are identified automatically. Finally, the reliability of the structural system is estimated on the basis of the identified significant mechanisms. The automatic generation of fundamental...

  12. Efficacy, Safety, and Feasibility of the Morphine Microdose Method in Community-Based Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Denise M; Orillosa, Susan J; Hustak, Erik C; Williams, Courtney G; Doulatram, Gulshan R; Solanki, Daneshvari R; Garcia, Eduardo A; Huang, Li-Yen M

    2017-06-13

    The goal of this study was to assess the success of the morphine microdose method in a community pain clinic setting by monitoring follow-up frequency, dose escalation, and monotherapy/polytherapy ratio. The morphine microdose method involves a pretrial reduction or elimination of systemic opioids followed by a period of abstinence. Intrathecal (IT) morphine is then started at doses of less than 0.2 mg per day. Systemic opioid abstinence is then continued after pump implant and IT morphine monotherapy. Retrospective review of medical records. Private and academic pain clinic practices. Chronic noncancer pain patients. We reviewed the charts of 60 patients who had completed a microdose regimen and had an IT pump implanted between June 11, 2008, and October 11, 2014. During IT therapy, dose change over time, pain scores, side effects, max dose, and duration were recorded. The majority of patients (35/60, 58%) were successfully managed solely on morphine microdose monotherapy. These patients did not require additional oral therapy. There was a significant reduction in mean pain scores, from 7.4 ± 0.32 before microdose therapy to 4.8 ± 0.3 after microdose therapy. Microdose therapy achieved analgesia, improved safety, and avoided systemic side effects. The safety of IT therapy was increased by using a lower concentration (2 mg/mL) and lower daily doses (microdose therapy was feasible, safe, and cost-effective in the outpatient setting. 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. A hybrid multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method for robust safety design of a rail vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Houidi, Ajmi; Affi, Zouhaier; Romdhane, Lotfi

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the robust safety design optimization of a rail vehicle system moving in short radius curved tracks. A combined multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method is developed and used for the robust multi-objective optimization of the rail vehicle system. This robust optimization of rail vehicle safety considers simultaneously the derailment angle and its standard deviation where the design parameters uncertainties are considered. The obtained results showed that the robust design reduces significantly the sensitivity of the rail vehicle safety to the design parameters uncertainties compared to the determinist one and to the literature results.

  14. Geoelectrical Methods and Monitoring for Dam Safety Assessment, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. K.; Oldenburg, D.; Kang, S.; Song, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    Geoelectrical methods and monitoring to detect the seepage and internal erosion are essential for the safety assessment of earth dams. This work aims to develop improved methodologies to analyze the observed data and to monitor changes in seepage flow using direct current (DC) and self-potential (SP) methods. The seasonal variation of water level at dams causes a change in seepage and water saturation and hence alters the resistivity of the dam material. DC data are sensitive to water saturation and hence changes in saturation can be obtained by repeatedly measuring DC data. However, a more diagnostic parameter for safety assessment is fluid flow, and resistivity is only weakly coupled to that. Fortunately SP signals are directly related to fluid flow, and thus an SP survey has the potential to characterize fluid flow through the earth matrix. In Korea, the safety assessment of earth fill dams has been dealt by Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC). Most of the dams are relatively old ( >50 years), hence assessing deterioration and corresponding seepage of those dams are crucial. In order to evaluate the engineering geological properties of the soil at earth dams in Korea, two boreholes in each dam were drilled to a bedrock depth that exceeds the height of the dam. A large set of field tests, including standard penetration tests (SPT) and in-situ permeability tests, were carried out along the boreholes. However, seepage paths in the dam is complex hence those limited measurements at a few points is not sufficient to delineate the zone of preferential seepage flow. For this, KRC developed permanent DC monitoring systems at a number of agricultural dams in Korea. The data were automatically collected every 6 hours. During the monitoring, the measurements of the water level at two boreholes were gathered at the same time. In this presentation we select an agricultural dam and delineate an anomalous leakage zone by inverting and interpreting time-lapse DC resistivity

  15. Applying the trigger review method after a brief educational intervention: potential for teaching and improving safety in GP specialty training?

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, John; de Wet, Carl; Kelly, Moya; Bowie, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background:\\ud The Trigger Review Method (TRM) is a structured approach to screening clinical records for undetected patient safety incidents (PSIs) and identifying learning and improvement opportunities. In Scotland, TRM participation can inform GP appraisal and has been included as a core component of the national primary care patient safety programme that was launched in March 2013. However, the clinical workforce needs up-skilled and the potential of TRM in GP training has yet to be teste...

  16. Development of the evaluation methods in reactor safety analyses and core characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In order to support the safety reviews by NRA on reactor safety design including the phenomena with multiple failures, the computer codes are developed and the safety evaluations with analyses are performed in the areas of thermal hydraulics and core characteristics evaluation. In the code preparation of safety analyses, the TRACE and RELAP5 code were prepared to conduct the safety analyses of LOCA and beyond design basis accidents with multiple failures. In the core physics code preparation, the functions of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis were incorporated in the lattice physics code CASMO-4. The verification of improved CASMO-4 /SIMULATE-3 was continued by using core physics data. (author)

  17. Formal methods and their applicability in the development of safety critical software systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievertsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has for a number of years been involved in the development and application of a formal software specification and development method based on algebraic specification and the HRP Prover. In parallel to this activity the Project has been evaluating and comparing different methods and approaches to formal software development by their application on realistic case examples. Recent work has demonstrated that algebraic specification and the HRP Prover can be used both in the specification and design of a software system, even down to a concrete model which can be translated into the chosen implementation language. The HRP Prover is currently being used in a case study on the applicability of the methodology in the development of a power range monitoring system for a nuclear power plant. The presentation reviews some of the experiences drawn from the Project's research activities in this area, with special emphasis on questions relating to applicability and limitations, and the role of formal methods in the development of safety-critical software systems. (14 refs., 1 fig.)

  18. Examining the association between motivations for induced abortion and method safety among women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biney, Adriana A E; Atiglo, D Yaw

    2017-10-01

    This article draws on data from 552 women interviewed in the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey to examine the association between motivations for women's pregnancy terminations and the safety of methods used. Women's reasons for induced abortions represented their vulnerability types at the critical time of decision making. Different motivations can result in taking various forms of action with the most vulnerable potentially resorting to the most harmful behaviors. Analysis of survey data pointed to spacing/delaying births as the main reason for abortion. Furthermore, women were more likely to terminate pregnancies unsafely if their main motivation for abortion was financial constraints. Especially among rural women, abortions for any reason were more likely associated with safe methods than if for financial reasons. These findings suggest a theme of vulnerability, resulting from poverty, as the motivations for women to resort to harmful abortion methods. Therefore, interventions formulated to reduce instances of unsafe pregnancy terminations should target reducing poverty and capacity building with the aim of economic advancement, in addition to curbing the root of the problem: unintended pregnancy.

  19. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety

  20. Integrating spaceflight human system risk research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2017-10-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of exploration mission success and to maintain crew health, both during exploration missions and long term after return to Earth. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. ;Human System Risks; (Risks) have been identified, and 32 are currently being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  1. A case for human systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J L

    2015-06-18

    Can the human brain itself serve as a model for a systems neuroscience approach to understanding the human brain? After all, how the brain is able to create the richness and complexity of human behavior is still largely mysterious. What better choice to study that complexity than to study it in humans? However, measurements of brain activity typically need to be made non-invasively which puts severe constraints on what can be learned about the internal workings of the brain. Our approach has been to use a combination of psychophysics in which we can use human behavioral flexibility to make quantitative measurements of behavior and link those through computational models to measurements of cortical activity through magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, we have tested various computational hypotheses about what neural mechanisms could account for behavioral enhancement with spatial attention (Pestilli et al., 2011). Resting both on quantitative measurements and considerations of what is known through animal models, we concluded that weighting of sensory signals by the magnitude of their response is a neural mechanism for efficient selection of sensory signals and consequent improvements in behavioral performance with attention. While animal models have many technical advantages over studying the brain in humans, we believe that human systems neuroscience should endeavor to validate, replicate and extend basic knowledge learned from animal model systems and thus form a bridge to understanding how the brain creates the complex and rich cognitive capacities of humans. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Data-driven drug safety signal detection methods in pharmacovigilance using electronic primary care records: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Ming Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Data-driven analytic methods are a valuable aid to signal detection of ADEs from large electronic health records for drug safety monitoring. This study finds the methods can detect known ADE and so could potentially be used to detect unknown ADE.

  3. The development and evaluation of guidelines for the review of advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced control rooms for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes a general approach to advanced human-system interface review, development of human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems, and the results of a guideline test and evaluation program

  4. Human Systems Interface Design Methods Using Ecological Interface Design Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seung Kweon; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Sun Su; Sim, Kwang Pyo; Yuk, Seung Yul; Choi, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Seung Hyun

    2009-12-01

    The results of this study categorized into two parts. The first part is the guidelines for EID designs. The procedure to observe for EID design is composed of 6 steps; 1) to define a target system, 2) to make an abstraction hierarchy model, 3) to check the link structure among each components included in the layers of abstraction hierarchy model, 4) to transform information requirements to variables, 5) to make the graphs related to each variables, 6) to check the graphs by visual display design principles and heuristic rules. The second part is an EID design alternative for nuclear power plant. The EID for high level function represents the energy balance and energy flow in each loop of nuclear power plant. The EID for middle level function represents the performance indicators of each equipment involved in the all processes of changing from coolants to steam. The EID for low level function represents the values measured in each equipment such as temperature, pressure, water level and so on

  5. Analysis of a calculation method for the determination of the value of safety or control bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.; Torres A, C.; Filio L, C.

    1982-09-01

    Due to the control or safety bars in a nuclear reactor are constituted by strongly absorbent materials, the Diffusion Theory like tool for the calculation of bar values is not directly applicable, should it use the Transport Theory. However the speed and economy of the Diffusion codes for the reactors calculation, those make attractiveness and by this reason its are used in the determination of characteristic parameters and even in the determination of bar values, not without before to make some theoretical developments that allow to make applicable this theory. The application of the Diffusion Theory in strongly absorbent media is based on the use of some effective cross sections distinct from the real ones obtained when imposing the reason that among the flow and it gradient in the external surface of such media (control element in general, bar type or flagstone) be similar to the one obtained using Transport Theory in all the control region (multiplicative and absorbent media) with those real cross sections. The effective cross sections were obtained of the Leopard-NUMICE cell code which has incorporate the respective calculation theory of effective cross sections. Later these constants its were used in the bidimensional diffusion code Exterminator-II, simulating in it, the distribution of safety or control bars. From the cell code its were also obtained the respective constants of the homogeneous fuel cell. The results as soon as those obtained bar values of the diffusion code, its were compared with some experimental results obtained in the Rφ Swedish reactor of natural uranium and heavy water. In this work an analysis of the bar value of one of them, trying to determine the applicability of the method is made. (Author)

  6. Safety evaluation and regulation of chemicals. 2. Impact of regulations - improvement of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homburger, F [ed.

    1985-01-01

    This volume assesses the impact of new scientific knowledge on the testing and regulation of chemicals, including food additives, drugs, cosmetics, pesticides, and other commercial substances. Apart from describing the newest tests, regulations, and risk assessment strategies, chapters reflect changes forced by both the growing need for cost containment and the mounting pressure to find alternatives to animal testing. Based on an international congress, the book also brings the advantage of diversity in the background and nationality of the authors, thus allowing a view of central problems according to the different interests of academics, industry scientists, government scientists, and regulators. The book opens with coverage of national and international regulations designed to prevent and control damage to human health and the environment. Topics range from basic problems of policy design and enforcement to the specific requirements for chemical regulation in developing countries. The next chapters cover new tests, systems, and assays used in in vivo safety testing. Readers will find a critical assessment of tests used to determine teratogenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity and chemical lethality. Other topics include factors operating in the public perception of chemical hazards, guidelines for decision making in the management and regulation of risks, and future trends in the methodology of safety evaluation. The volume concludes with an overview of in vitro methods for testing hepatotoxicity. Several short-term in vitro test models and limited in vivo bioassays are presented and evaluated in terms of their capacity to substitute for long-term animal studies. Expert and thorough in its coverage, the book offers a wealth of technical and practical information for toxicologists, pharmacologists, industrial policy makers, and government regulators. (orig.). With 67 figs., 34 tabs.

  7. Pediatric Nurses' Perceptions of Medication Safety and Medication Error: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Albara; Wilson, Val; Solman, Annette; Bajorek, Beata; Tinsley, Patricia

    2017-05-30

    This study aims to outline the current workplace culture of medication practice in a pediatric medical ward. The objective is to explore the perceptions of nurses in a pediatric clinical setting as to why medication administration errors occur. As nurses have a central role in the medication process, it is essential to explore nurses' perceptions of the factors influencing the medication process. Without this understanding, it is difficult to develop effective prevention strategies aimed at reducing medication administration errors. Previous studies were limited to exploring a single and specific aspect of medication safety. The methods used in these studies were limited to survey designs which may lead to incomplete or inadequate information being provided. This study is phase 1 on an action research project. Data collection included a direct observation of nurses during medication preparation and administration, audit based on the medication policy, and guidelines and focus groups with nursing staff. A thematic analysis was undertaken by each author independently to analyze the observation notes and focus group transcripts. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyze the audit data. The study was conducted in a specialized pediatric medical ward. Four key themes were identified from the combined quantitative and qualitative data: (1) understanding medication errors, (2) the busy-ness of nurses, (3) the physical environment, and (4) compliance with medication policy and practice guidelines. Workload, frequent interruptions to process, poor physical environment design, lack of preparation space, and impractical medication policies are identified as barriers to safe medication practice. Overcoming these barriers requires organizations to review medication process policies and engage nurses more in medication safety research and in designing clinical guidelines for their own practice.

  8. Stochastic methods for uncertainty treatment of functional variables in computer codes: application to safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanty, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This work relates to the framework of uncertainty quantification for numerical simulators, and more precisely studies two industrial applications linked to the safety studies of nuclear plants. These two applications have several common features. The first one is that the computer code inputs are functional and scalar variables, functional ones being dependent. The second feature is that the probability distribution of functional variables is known only through a sample of their realizations. The third feature, relative to only one of the two applications, is the high computational cost of the code, which limits the number of possible simulations. The main objective of this work was to propose a complete methodology for the uncertainty analysis of numerical simulators for the two considered cases. First, we have proposed a methodology to quantify the uncertainties of dependent functional random variables from a sample of their realizations. This methodology enables to both model the dependency between variables and their link to another variable, called co-variate, which could be, for instance, the output of the considered code. Then, we have developed an adaptation of a visualization tool for functional data, which enables to simultaneously visualize the uncertainties and features of dependent functional variables. Second, a method to perform the global sensitivity analysis of the codes used in the two studied cases has been proposed. In the case of a computationally demanding code, the direct use of quantitative global sensitivity analysis methods is intractable. To overcome this issue, the retained solution consists in building a surrogate model or meta model, a fast-running model approximating the computationally expensive code. An optimized uniform sampling strategy for scalar and functional variables has been developed to build a learning basis for the meta model. Finally, a new approximation approach for expensive codes with functional outputs has been

  9. Guidance for Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger; Valerie Barnes

    2010-09-27

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions, including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: Levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration.

  10. Human systems integration in remotely piloted aircraft operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P

    2006-12-01

    The role of humans in remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs) is qualitatively different from manned aviation, lessening the applicability of aerospace medicine human factors knowledge derived from traditional cockpits. Aerospace medicine practitioners should expect to be challenged in addressing RPA crewmember performance. Human systems integration (HSI) provides a model for explaining human performance as a function of the domains of: human factors engineering; personnel; training; manpower; environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH); habitability; and survivability. RPA crewmember performance is being particularly impacted by issues involving the domains of human factors engineering, personnel, training, manpower, ESOH, and habitability. Specific HSI challenges include: 1) changes in large RPA operator selection and training; 2) human factors engineering deficiencies in current RPA ground control station design and their impact on human error including considerations pertaining to multi-aircraft control; and 3) the combined impact of manpower shortfalls, shiftwork-related fatigue, and degraded crewmember effectiveness. Limited experience and available research makes it difficult to qualitatively or quantitatively predict the collective impact of these issues on RPA crewmember performance. Attending to HSI will be critical for the success of current and future RPA crewmembers. Aerospace medicine practitioners working with RPA crewmembers should gain first-hand knowledge of their task environment while the larger aerospace medicine community needs to address the limited information available on RPA-related aerospace medicine human factors. In the meantime, aeromedical decisions will need to be made based on what is known about other aerospace occupations, realizing this knowledge may have only partial applicability.

  11. Human-system interfaces for the ABWR control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.; O'Neil, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    The 1300-MW(electric) advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) design has been developed by General Electric Co. (G.E.) and its technical associates, Hitachi Ltd. and Toshiba Corporation, under the sponsorship of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. Key features of the ABWR include simplification, improved safety and reliability, reduced occupational exposure and radwaste, improved maneuverability, and reduced construction, fuel, and operating costs. The ABWR incorporates the best proven features from BWR designs in Japan, Europe, and the United States, combined with the broad-scope application of leading-edge technology. The first application of the ABWR design will be at TEP-CO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station units 6 and 7, which are scheduled to begin commercial operation in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The ABWR is also the lead plant in the U.S. standard plant design certification program. It is scheduled to receive final approval from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in early 1994. The development of the human system interaces (HSI) for the ABWR is an extension of the operating experience of existing man-machine interfaces currently being used at GE-designed plants

  12. How to use an optimization-based method capable of balancing safety, reliability, and weight in an aircraft design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Cristina [Mendeley, Broderna Ugglasgatan, Linkoping (Sweden); Derelov, Micael; Olvander, Johan [Linkoping University, IEI, Dept. of Machine Design, Linkoping (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    In order to help decision-makers in the early design phase to improve and make more cost-efficient system safety and reliability baselines of aircraft design concepts, a method (Multi-objective Optimization for Safety and Reliability Trade-off) that is able to handle trade-offs such as system safety, system reliability, and other characteristics, for instance weight and cost, is used. Multi-objective Optimization for Safety and Reliability Trade-off has been developed and implemented at SAAB Aeronautics. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the implemented method might work to aid the selection of optimal design alternatives. The method is a three-step method: step 1 involves the modelling of each considered target, step 2 is optimization, and step 3 is the visualization and selection of results (results processing). The analysis is performed within Architecture Design and Preliminary Design steps, according to the company's Product Development Process. The lessons learned regarding the use of the implemented trade-off method in the three cases are presented. The results are a handful of solutions, a basis to aid in the selection of a design alternative. While the implementation of the trade-off method is performed for companies, there is nothing to prevent adapting this method, with minimal modifications, for use in other industrial applications.

  13. How to use an optimization-based method capable of balancing safety, reliability, and weight in an aircraft design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Cristina; Derelov, Micael; Olvander, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In order to help decision-makers in the early design phase to improve and make more cost-efficient system safety and reliability baselines of aircraft design concepts, a method (Multi-objective Optimization for Safety and Reliability Trade-off) that is able to handle trade-offs such as system safety, system reliability, and other characteristics, for instance weight and cost, is used. Multi-objective Optimization for Safety and Reliability Trade-off has been developed and implemented at SAAB Aeronautics. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the implemented method might work to aid the selection of optimal design alternatives. The method is a three-step method: step 1 involves the modelling of each considered target, step 2 is optimization, and step 3 is the visualization and selection of results (results processing). The analysis is performed within Architecture Design and Preliminary Design steps, according to the company's Product Development Process. The lessons learned regarding the use of the implemented trade-off method in the three cases are presented. The results are a handful of solutions, a basis to aid in the selection of a design alternative. While the implementation of the trade-off method is performed for companies, there is nothing to prevent adapting this method, with minimal modifications, for use in other industrial applications

  14. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant control rooms as a result of several factors. These include: (1) incorporation of new systems such as safety parameter display systems, (2) backfitting of current control rooms with new technologies when existing hardware is no longer supported by equipment vendors, and (3) development of advanced control room concepts. Control rooms of the future will be developed almost exclusively with advanced instrumentation and controls based upon digital technology. In addition, the control room operator will be interfacing with more intelligent systems which will be capable of providing information processing support to the operator. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the operator's role in the system as well as the ways in which he interacts with it. At present, however, the only guidance available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces is NUREG-0700. It is a document which was written prior to these technological changes and is, therefore, tailored to the technologies used in traditional control rooms. Thus, the present guidance needs to be updated since it is inadequate to serve as the basis for NRC staff review of such advanced or hybrid control room designs. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline suitable for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will take the form of a portable, interactive, computer-based document that may be conveniently used by an inspector in the field, as well as a text-based document

  15. Health-safety and environmental risk assessment of power plants using multi criteria decision making method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozi Ali Seyed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of environmental issues at global and regional levels including pollution of water, air etc. as well as the outcomes such as global warming and climate change has led to being considered environmental aspects as effective factors for power generation. Study ahead, aims at examination of risks resulting from activities of Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant located in Iran. Method applied in the research is analytical hierarchy process. After identification of factors causing risk, the analytical hierarchy structure of the power plant risks were designed and weight of the criteria and sub-criteria were calculated by intensity probability product using Eigenvector Method and EXPERT CHOICE Software as well. Results indicate that in technological, health-safety, biophysical and socio economic sections of the power plant, factors influenced by the power plant activities like fire and explosion, hearing loss, quantity of groundwater, power generation are among the most important factors causing risk in the power plant. The drop in underground water levels is the most important natural consequence influenced on Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant.

  16. Development of a Method for Quantifying the Reliability of Nuclear Safety-Related Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zhang; Golay, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    The work of our project is intended to help introducing digital technologies into nuclear power into nuclear power plant safety related software applications. In our project we utilize a combination of modern software engineering methods: design process discipline and feedback, formal methods, automated computer aided software engineering tools, automatic code generation, and extensive feasible structure flow path testing to improve software quality. The tactics include ensuring that the software structure is kept simple, permitting routine testing during design development, permitting extensive finished product testing in the input data space of most likely service and using test-based Bayesian updating to estimate the probability that a random software input will encounter an error upon execution. From the results obtained the software reliability can be both improved and its value estimated. Hopefully our success in the project's work can aid the transition of the nuclear enterprise into the modern information world. In our work, we have been using the proprietary sample software, the digital Signal Validation Algorithm (SVA), provided by Westinghouse. Also our work is being done with their collaboration. The SVA software is used for selecting the plant instrumentation signal set which is to be used as the input the digital Plant Protection System (PPS). This is the system that automatically decides whether to trip the reactor. In our work, we are using -001 computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tool of Hamilton Technologies Inc. This tool is capable of stating the syntactic structure of a program reflecting its state requirements, logical functions and data structure

  17. A method to construct covariance files in ENDF/B format for criticality safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naberejnev, D.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is providing support for a criticality safety analysis project that is being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ANL role is to provide the covariance information needed by ORNL for this project. The ENDF/B-V evaluation is being used for this particular criticality analysis. In this evaluation, covariance information for several isotopes or elements of interest to this analysis is either not given or needs to be reconsidered. For some required materials, covariance information does not exist in ENDF/B-V: 233 U, 236 U, Zr, Mg, Gd, and Hf. For others, existing covariance information may need to be re-examined in light of the newer ENDF/B-V evaluation and recent experimental data. In this category are the following materials: 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, Fe, H, C, N, O, Al, Si, and B. A reasonable estimation of the fractional errors for various evaluated neutron cross sections from ENDF/B-V can be based on the comparisons between the major more recent evaluations including ENDF/B-VI, JENDL3.2, BROND2.2, and JEF2.2, as well as a careful examination of experimental data. A reasonable method to construct correlation matrices is proposed here. Coupling both of these considerations suggests a method to construct covariances files in ENDF/B format that can be used to express uncertainties for specific ENDF/B-V cross sections

  18. A proactive method for safety management in nuclear facilities; Um metodo proativo para gerenciamento da seguranca em instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; Santos, Isaac Antonio Luquetti dos, E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana

    2014-07-01

    Due to the modern approach to address the safety of nuclear facilities which highlights that these organizations must be able to assess and proactively manage their activities becomes increasingly important the need for instruments to evaluate working conditions. In this context, this work presents a proactive method of managing organizational safety, which has three innovative features: 1) the use of predictive indicators that provide current information on the performance of activities, allowing preventive actions and not just reactive in safety management, different from safety indicators traditionally used (reactive indicators) that are obtained after the occurrence of undesired events; 2) the adoption of resilience engineering approach in the development of indicators - indicators are based on six principles of resilience engineering: top management commitment, learning, flexibility, awareness, culture of justice and preparation for the problems; 3) the adoption of the concepts and properties of fuzzy set theory to deal with subjectivity and consistency of human trials in the evaluation of the indicators. The fuzzy theory is used primarily to map qualitative models of decision-making, and inaccurate representation methods. The results of this study aim an improvement in performance and safety in organizations. The method was applied in a radiopharmaceutical shipping sector of a nuclear facility. The results showed that the method is a good monitoring tool objectively and proactively of the working conditions of an organizational domain.

  19. Study on a quantitative evaluation method of equipment maintenance level and plant safety level for giant complex plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a quantitative method on maintenance level which is determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability by maintenance crew is discussed. And also a quantitative evaluation method on safety level for giant complex plant system is discussed. As a result of consideration, the following results were obtained. (1) It was considered that equipment condition after maintenance work was determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability possessed by maintenance crew. The equipment condition determined by the two factors was named as 'equipment maintenance level' and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (2) It was considered that CDF in a nuclear power plant, evaluated by using a failure rate counting the above maintenance level was quite different from CDF evaluated by using existing failure rates including a safety margin. Then, the former CDF was named as 'plant safety level' of plant system and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (3) Enhancing equipment maintenance level means an improvement of maintenance quality. That results in the enhancement of plant safety level. Therefore, plant safety level should be always watched as a plant performance indicator. (author)

  20. An Innovative Hybrid Loop-Pool SFR Design and Safety Analysis Methods: Today and Tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Vincent Mousseau

    2008-01-01

    Investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants will become possible only if SFRs achieve economic competitiveness as compared to light water reactors and other Generation IV reactors. Toward that end, we have launched efforts to improve the economics and safety of SFRs from the thermal design and safety analyses perspectives at Idaho National Laboratory. From the thermal design perspective, an innovative hybrid loop-pool SFR design has been proposed. This design takes advantage of the inherent safety of a pool design and the compactness of a loop design to further improve economics and safety. From the safety analyses perspective, we have initiated an effort to develop a high fidelity reactor system safety code

  1. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  2. A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in Hispanic families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A

    2014-12-01

    Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (≤10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n = 90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n = 52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56% ± 11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent Trends In The Methods Of Safety Assessment Of Rad Waste Treatment And Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, N.S.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste management system involves a huge variety of processes and activities. This includes; collection and segregation, pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, storage and finally disposal. To assure the safety of the different facility of each step in the waste management system, the operator should prepare a safety analysis report to be assessed by the national regulatory body. The content of the safety analysis report must include all data about the site, facility design, operational phase, waste materials, and safety assessment methodologies. Safety assessment methodologies are iterative processes involving site-specific, prospective modeling evaluations of the pre-operational, operational, and post-closure time in case of disposal facilities. The safety assessment focuses primarily on a decision about compliance with performance objectives, rather than the much more difficult problem of predicting actual radiological impacts on the public at far future times. The recent organization processes of the safety assessment are improved by the ISAM working group from IAEA for waste disposal site. These safety assessment methodologies have been modified within SADRWMS IAEA project for the establishment of safety methodologies for the pre-disposal facilities (treatment and storage facilities) and the disposal site.

  4. Safety evaluations by means of the method use of the risk matrix in radiotherapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, L.; Diaz, A.; Correa, T.; Gonzalez, Y.

    2014-08-01

    The quality of a radiotherapy treatment is linked to multidisciplinary factors that need to be taken into account in combined form whenever an evaluation of the safety is carried out. Knowing the accidents happened in this area, and to guarantee their prevention, the causes and sequences that could behave to them should be controlled, for what is necessary to make periodic evaluations of the same one. Our objective was to carry out the safety evaluation to the treatment process of a radiotherapy service and to identify the causes and consequences that can cause these accidental exposures, for patients, worker or people, from the equipment installation until the treatment completion. The method of Risk Matrices was used, by means the SEVRRA system carried out by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias of Mexico; this system allows to carry out a combined analysis of the occurrence frequency of the event initiator, the probability of human errors or barrier failures and the graveness of the consequences, facilitating the identification of the associated risk to the radiotherapy procedures. The method establishes priorities for the risk administration and identifies the main causes that could cause accidental exposures; also allows preventing the accidents occurrence using risk criterions that take into account the probability and magnitude of the potential exposures. This method, although does not allow to quantify numerically the risk, makes possible to classify it in levels, what is enough to establish priorities, without carrying out risks analysis but precise but more expensive. As a result we obtained that for the Co 60 77% of the treatments, is realized with low or half risk and 23% with high risk; the work load that is elevated in our case, intervenes directly in 46 initiators, in second and third place, the non realization of a portal image in the first treatment section and in the weekly continuation, as a consequences reducer, but these

  5. Health, safety and environment risk assessment in gas pipelines by indexing method:case of Kermanshah Sanandaj oil pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Hamidi; I. Mohamadfam; M. Motamedzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Background and AimsUsing pipelines for oil products transportation involves ranges of safety, health and environmental risks, this option however, is dominant with numerous  advantages. The purpose of this study was; relative risk assessment of abovementioned risk in Kermanshah-Sanandaj Oil Pipeline.MethodsThe method used in this study was Kent Muhlbauer method in which relative risk was assessed using third-party damage, corrosion, design, incorrect operations and leak impact  factor.Results...

  6. Use of risk-matrix methods in the radiation safety analysis of PET/CT facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón Marín, Carlos F.; González González, Joaquín J.; Quesada Cepero, Waldo; Sinconegui Gómez, Belkys; Solá Rodríguez, Yeline; Duménigo Ámbar, Cruz; Guerrero Cancio, Mayka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Radiological safety is essential during clinical applications of ionizing radiations. Cuban legislation considers it mandatory to carry out risk analysis during safety assessments of facilities where Nuclear Medicine practices are performed. The Risk Matrix (R-M) method has been used in risk assessments in Radiotherapy and some experiences in Nuclear Medicine have been reported. In the present work the results of the safety evaluation, using the M-R method, of the first PET / CT center constructed at the Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology in Havana, are shown. The facilities will work as a satellite center and the production of radioactive drugs of 68 Ga will be conceived. The images will be acquired with a Philips Gemini TF64 scanner. Several stages and sub-stages were considered, including the design of the facility, quality control programs, review of the relevance of study requests, radiopharmaceutical reception and fractionation, 68 Ga radiopharmaceuticals production, management of Patient during the administration of radiopharmaceuticals and patient positioning. Initiating events (IEs), available barriers, as well as measures for the reduction of frequency (RFMs) of IEs and consequences (RCMs) were identified. In addition, IEs sequences are considered for CT scans. The incidence of risk reduction was assessed by the ratio of the number of times they were used and the total number of IEs. The calculation of the R-M was made by modeling the practice with the SEVRRA code R iskAssessmentSystem . Results. As a result, 76 IEs were identified with a distribution of 72% affecting patients, 7.9% in the Public and 19.7% on Occupationally Exposed Workers (TOEs). 89.5% of IEs are caused by human errors. Barriers and consequences and frequency reducers produced a risk distribution of 2.6% of high risk IEs, 64.5% medium risk and 32.9% low risk. The high-risk IEs are related to errors in the calculation of the shielding requirements of the facility that

  7. Finite test sets development method for test execution of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bordany Ayman; Yun, Won Young

    2014-01-01

    It reads inputs, computes new states, and updates output for each scan cycle. Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) has recently developed a fully digitalized Reactor Protection System (RPS) based on PLD. As a digital system, this RPS is equipped with a dedicated software. The Reliability of this software is crucial to NPPs safety where its malfunction may cause irreversible consequences and affect the whole system as a Common Cause Failure (CCF). To guarantee the reliability of the whole system, the reliability of this software needs to be quantified. There are three representative methods for software reliability quantification, namely the Verification and Validation (V and V) quality-based method, the Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM), and the test-based method. An important concept of the guidance is that the test sets represent 'trajectories' (a series of successive values for the input variables of a program that occur during the operation of the software over time) in the space of inputs to the software.. Actually, the inputs to the software depends on the state of plant at that time, and these inputs form a new internal state of the software by changing values of some variables. In other words, internal state of the software at specific timing depends on the history of past inputs. Here the internal state of the software which can be changed by past inputs is named as Context of Software (CoS). In a certain CoS, a software failure occurs when a fault is triggered by some inputs. To cover the failure occurrence mechanism of a software, preceding researches insist that the inputs should be a trajectory form. However, in this approach, there are two critical problems. One is the length of the trajectory input. Input trajectory should long enough to cover failure mechanism, but the enough length is not clear. What is worse, to cover some accident scenario, one set of input should represent dozen hours of successive values

  8. A computational method for probabilistic safety assessment of I and C systems and human operators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2006-01-01

    To make probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) more realistic, the improvements of human reliability analysis (HRA) are essential. But, current HRA methods have many limitations including the lack of considerations on the interdependency between instrumentation and control (I and C) systems and human operators, and lack of theoretical basis for situation assessment of human operators. To overcome these limitations, we propose a new method for the quantitative safety assessment of I and C systems and human operators. The proposed method is developed based on the computational models for the knowledge-driven monitoring and the situation assessment of human operators, with the consideration of the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators. The application of the proposed method to an example situation demonstrates that the quantitative description by the proposed method for a probable scenario well matches with the qualitative description of the scenario. It is also demonstrated that the proposed method can probabilistically consider all possible scenarios and the proposed method can be used to quantitatively evaluate the effects of various context factor on the safety of nuclear power plants. In our opinion, the proposed method can be used as the basis for the development of advanced HRA methods

  9. A method for risk-informed safety significance categorization using the analytic hierarchy process and bayesian belief networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    A risk-informed safety significance categorization (RISSC) is to categorize structures, systems, or components (SSCs) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) into two or more groups, according to their safety significance using both probabilistic and deterministic insights. In the conventional methods for the RISSC, the SSCs are quantitatively categorized according to their importance measures for the initial categorization. The final decisions (categorizations) of SSCs, however, are qualitatively made by an expert panel through discussions and adjustments of opinions by using the probabilistic insights compiled in the initial categorization process and combining the probabilistic insights with the deterministic insights. Therefore, owing to the qualitative and linear decision-making process, the conventional methods have the demerits as follows: (1) they are very costly in terms of time and labor, (2) it is not easy to reach the final decision, when the opinions of the experts are in conflict and (3) they have an overlapping process due to the linear paradigm (the categorization is performed twice - first, by the engineers who propose the method, and second, by the expert panel). In this work, a method for RISSC using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and bayesian belief networks (BBN) is proposed to overcome the demerits of the conventional methods and to effectively arrive at a final decision (or categorization). By using the AHP and BBN, the expert panel takes part in the early stage of the categorization (that is, the quantification process) and the safety significance based on both probabilistic and deterministic insights is quantified. According to that safety significance, SSCs are quantitatively categorized into three categories such as high safety significant category (Hi), potentially safety significant category (Po), or low safety significant category (Lo). The proposed method was applied to the components such as CC-V073, CV-V530, and SI-V644 in Ulchin Unit

  10. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, M.E.; Zegers, M.; Boeijen, W.M.J.; Westert, G.P.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Wollersheim, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its

  11. Method of V ampersand V for safety-critical software in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang-Yeol; Lee, Jang-Soo; Kwon, Kee-Choon

    1997-01-01

    Safety-critical software is software used in systems in which a failure could affect personal or equipment safety or result in large financial or social loss. Examples of systems using safety-critical software are systems such as plant protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs), process control systems in chemical plants, and medical instruments such as the Therac-25 medical accelerator. This paper presents verification and validation (V ampersand V) methodology for safety-critical software in NPP safety systems. In addition, it addresses issues related to NPP safety systems, such as independence parameters, software safety analysis (SSA) concepts, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software evaluation criteria, and interrelationships among software and system assurance organizations. It includes the concepts of existing industrial standards on software V ampersand V, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standards 1012 and 1059. This safety-critical software V ampersand V methodology covers V ampersand V scope, a regulatory framework as part of its acceptance criteria, V ampersand V activities and task entrance and exit criteria, reviews and audits, testing and quality assurance records of V ampersand V material, configuration management activities related to V ampersand V, and software V ampersand V (SVV) plan (SVVP) production

  12. Slope Safety Calculation With A Non-Linear Mohr Criterion Using Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Safety factors for soil slopes are calculated using a non-linear Mohr envelope. The often used linear Mohr-Coulomb envelope tends to overestimate the safety as the material parameters are usually determined at much higher stress levels, than those present at slope failure. Experimental data...

  13. Food safety culture assessment using a comprehensive mixed-methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyarugwe, Shingai P.; Linnemann, Anita; Nyanga, Loveness K.; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2018-01-01

    Food safety challenges are a global concern especially in emerging economies, which are in the midst of developmental changes. The challenges are directly or indirectly related to the behaviour and decision-making of personnel, and to an organisation's food safety culture. This study evaluated the

  14. Use of electronic group method in assessing food safety training needs and delivery methods among international college students in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden-Robinson, Julie; Eighmy, Myron A; Lyonga, Agnes Ngale

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of unfamiliar foods international students in the U.S. encounter and to assess food safety information that international students would like to receive for mitigating risks associated with handling and preparing unfamiliar foods. The study identified preferred instructional delivery methods and media for receiving food safety training or information. An electronic group method was used for this study. The electronic group method was chosen to maximize group efficiency by allowing participants to share ideas simultaneously and anonymously with minimal use of time and resources.Types of different (unfamiliar) foods were grouped into major categories. Fast and ready-to-eat foods, and processed and frozen foods constituted a major change for some international students, who were accustomed to homemade and fresh foods in their countries. Participants were interested in receiving information about how to safely handle and prepare unfamiliar foods in their new environment. Preferred methods for receiving food safety information included written materials, online publications, presentations, and materials provided during student orientation. Food packages, websites, and television programs were other preferred methods of receiving food safety information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of geostatistical methods to long-term safety analyses for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehlig, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Long-term safety analyses are an important part of the design and optimisation process as well as of the licensing procedure for final repositories for radioactive waste in deep geological formations. For selected scenarios describing possible evolutions of the repository system in the post-closure phase, quantitative consequence analyses are performed. Due to the complexity of the phenomena of concern and the large timeframes under consideration, several types of uncertainties have to be taken into account. The modelling work for the far-field (geosphere) surrounding or overlaying the repository is based on model calculations concerning the groundwater movement and the resulting migration of radionuclides which possibly will be released from the repository. In contrast to engineered systems, the geosphere shows a strong spatial variability of facies, materials and material properties. The paper presented here describes the first steps towards a quantitative approach for an uncertainty assessment taking into account this variability. Due to the availability of a large amount of data and information of several types, the Gorleben site (Germany) has been used for a case study in order to demonstrate the method. (orig.)

  16. A document-driven method for certifying scientific computing software for use in nuclear safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W. Spencer; Koothoor, Mimitha

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a documentation and development method to facilitate the certification of scientific computing software used in the safety analysis of nuclear facilities. To study the problems faced during quality assurance and certification activities, a case study was performed on legacy software used for thermal analysis of a fuel pin in a nuclear reactor. Although no errors were uncovered in the code, 27 issues of incompleteness and inconsistency were found with the documentation. This work proposes that software documentation follow a rational process, which includes a software requirements specification following a template that is reusable, maintainable, and understandable. To develop the design and implementation, this paper suggests literate programming as an alternative to traditional structured programming. Literate programming allows for documenting of numerical algorithms and code together in what is termed the literate programmer's manual. This manual is developed with explicit traceability to the software requirements specification. The traceability between the theory, numerical algorithms, and implementation facilitates achieving completeness and consistency, as well as simplifies the process of verification and the associated certification

  17. A document-driven method for certifying scientific computing software for use in nuclear safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W. Spencer; Koothoor, Mimitha [Computing and Software Department, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents a documentation and development method to facilitate the certification of scientific computing software used in the safety analysis of nuclear facilities. To study the problems faced during quality assurance and certification activities, a case study was performed on legacy software used for thermal analysis of a fuel pin in a nuclear reactor. Although no errors were uncovered in the code, 27 issues of incompleteness and inconsistency were found with the documentation. This work proposes that software documentation follow a rational process, which includes a software requirements specification following a template that is reusable, maintainable, and understandable. To develop the design and implementation, this paper suggests literate programming as an alternative to traditional structured programming. Literate programming allows for documenting of numerical algorithms and code together in what is termed the literate programmer's manual. This manual is developed with explicit traceability to the software requirements specification. The traceability between the theory, numerical algorithms, and implementation facilitates achieving completeness and consistency, as well as simplifies the process of verification and the associated certification.

  18. Development of a Method for Quantifying the Reliability of Nuclear Safety-Related Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Zhang; Michael W. Golay

    2003-10-01

    The work of our project is intended to help introducing digital technologies into nuclear power into nuclear power plant safety related software applications. In our project we utilize a combination of modern software engineering methods: design process discipline and feedback, formal methods, automated computer aided software engineering tools, automatic code generation, and extensive feasible structure flow path testing to improve software quality. The tactics include ensuring that the software structure is kept simple, permitting routine testing during design development, permitting extensive finished product testing in the input data space of most likely service and using test-based Bayesian updating to estimate the probability that a random software input will encounter an error upon execution. From the results obtained the software reliability can be both improved and its value estimated. Hopefully our success in the project's work can aid the transition of the nuclear enterprise into the modern information world. In our work, we have been using the proprietary sample software, the digital Signal Validation Algorithm (SVA), provided by Westinghouse. Also our work is being done with their collaboration. The SVA software is used for selecting the plant instrumentation signal set which is to be used as the input the digital Plant Protection System (PPS). This is the system that automatically decides whether to trip the reactor. In our work, we are using -001 computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tool of Hamilton Technologies Inc. This tool is capable of stating the syntactic structure of a program reflecting its state requirements, logical functions and data structure.

  19. Radiation safety assessment of treatment teletherapy linear accelerators using the method of the risk matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo Gonzalez, Cruz; Vilaragut Llanes, Juan J.; Morales Lopez, Jorge L.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents in the world of radiation, demonstrating the need for deepen security assessments. This study evaluates the safety of the treatment of teletherapy linear accelerator (LINAC) at a hospital in Cuba, based on applying the method Risk Matrix. This method has been used for many years in conventional industry, is simple, easy to apply and is based on the equation General risk R = f * P * C (where: f frequency of occurrence of the initiating event, P probability of failure of all barriers and magnitude of the consequences C expected). We have evaluated 140 accident sequences that were identified during the analysis of the treatment process. It was identified that 5 sequences are associated with the level of risk is very low, 96 low-risk, high risk and 39 with no very high risk. All accident sequences associated with high risk (considered unacceptable), have an impact on patients, and no concerns workers and public, which reaffirms that major security problems are related to radiation protection of patients. 34 sequences accidental high risk are associated with human errors and failures only 5 to equipment (LINAC, TPS, TAC, etc.). demonstrating the importance of human error. It shows that 35 of the 39 high-risk accident sequences leading to serious or very serious consequences for patients, which would mean the death of one or more patients, making specific recommendations to reduce risk in these cases. The findings of this work and regulators allow users to refine their programs quality assurance and inspection and suggest the hospital management, prioritize material resources according to criteria of irrigation management. (author)

  20. Safety of a silicone elastomer vaginal ring as potential microbicide delivery method in African women: A Phase 1 randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Annaléne; Martins, Janine; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ramjee, Gita; Masenga, Gileard; Rees, Helen; van Niekerk, Neliëtte

    2018-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are in urgent need of female-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventative methods. Vaginal rings are one dosage form in development for delivery of HIV microbicides. However, African women have limited experience with vaginal rings. This Phase I, randomized, crossover trial assessed and compared the safety, acceptability and adherence of a silicone elastomer placebo vaginal ring, intended as a microbicide delivery method, inserted for a 12-week period in healthy, HIV-negative, sexually active women in South Africa and Tanzania. 170 women, aged 18 to 35 years were enrolled with 88 women randomized to Group A, using a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks followed by a 12-week safety observation period. 82 women were randomized to Group B and observed for safety first, followed by a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks. Safety was assessed by clinical laboratory assessments, pelvic/colposcopy examinations and adverse events. Possible carry-over effect was addressed by ensuring no signs or symptoms of genital irritation at crossover. No safety concerns were identified for any safety variables assessed during the trial. No serious adverse events were reported considered related to the placebo vaginal ring. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common adverse event occurring in 11% of participants during each trial period. Vaginal discharge (2%), vaginal odour (2%), and bacterial vaginitis (2%) were assessed as possibly or probably related to the vaginal ring. Thirty-four percent of participants had sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at screening, compared to 12% of participants who tested positive for STIs at crossover and the final trial visit. Three participants (2%) tested HIV positive during the trial. The silicone elastomer vaginal ring had no safety concerns, demonstrating a profile favorable for further development for topical release of antiretroviral-based microbicides.

  1. V and V methods of a safety-critical software for a programmable logic controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Seung Ju [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    This paper addresses the Verification an Validation(V and V) process and the methodology for an embedded real time software of a safety-grade Programmable Logic Controller(PLC). This safety-grade PLC is being developed as one of the Korean Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System(KNICS) project KNICS projects are developing a Reactor Protection System(RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System(ESF-CCS) as well as a safety-grade PLC. The safety-grade PLC will be a major component that encomposes the RPS systems and the ESF-CCS systems as nuclear instruments and control equipment. This paper describes the V and V guidelines an procedures, V and V environment, V and V process and methodology, and the V and V tools in the KNICS projects. Specifically, it describes the real-time operating system V and V experience which corresponds to the requirement analysis phase, design phase and the implementation and testing phase of the software development life cycle. Main activities of the V and V for the PLC system software are a technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, software safety analysis, and a software configuration management. The proposed V and V methodology satisfies the Standard Review Plan(SRP)/Branch Technical Position(BTP)-14 criteria for the safety software in nuclear power plants. The proposed V and V methodology is going to be used to verify the upcoming software life cycle in the KNICS projects.

  2. Software V and V methods for a safety - grade programmable logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang Yeol Kim; Young Jun Lee; Kyung Ho Cha; Se Woo Cheon; Jang Soo Lee; Kee Choon Kwon

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the Verification and Validation(V and V) process and the methodology for an embedded real time software of a safety-grade Programmable Logic Controller(PLC). This safety- grade PLC is being developed as one of the Korean Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) projects. KNICS projects are developing a Reactor Protection System(RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System(ESF-CCS) as well as a safety-grade PLC. The safety-grade PLC will be a major component that encomposes the RPS systems and the ESF-CCS systems as nuclear instruments and control equipment. This paper describes the V and V guidelines and procedures, V and V environment, V and V process and methodology, and the V and V tools in the KNICS projects. Specifically, it describes the real-time operating system V and V experience which corresponds to the requirement analysis phase, design phase and the implementation and testing phase of the software development life cycle. Main activities of the V and V for the PLC system software are a technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, software safety analysis, and a software configuration management. The proposed V and V methodology satisfies the Standard Review Plan(SRP)/Branch Technical Position(BTP)-14 criteria for the safety software in nuclear power plants. The proposed V and V methodology is going to be used to verify the upcoming software life cycle in the KNICS projects. (author)

  3. V and V methods of a safety-critical software for a programmable logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kong, Seung Ju

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the Verification an Validation(V and V) process and the methodology for an embedded real time software of a safety-grade Programmable Logic Controller(PLC). This safety-grade PLC is being developed as one of the Korean Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System(KNICS) project KNICS projects are developing a Reactor Protection System(RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System(ESF-CCS) as well as a safety-grade PLC. The safety-grade PLC will be a major component that encomposes the RPS systems and the ESF-CCS systems as nuclear instruments and control equipment. This paper describes the V and V guidelines an procedures, V and V environment, V and V process and methodology, and the V and V tools in the KNICS projects. Specifically, it describes the real-time operating system V and V experience which corresponds to the requirement analysis phase, design phase and the implementation and testing phase of the software development life cycle. Main activities of the V and V for the PLC system software are a technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, software safety analysis, and a software configuration management. The proposed V and V methodology satisfies the Standard Review Plan(SRP)/Branch Technical Position(BTP)-14 criteria for the safety software in nuclear power plants. The proposed V and V methodology is going to be used to verify the upcoming software life cycle in the KNICS projects

  4. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  5. Towards an Industrial Application of Statistical Uncertainty Analysis Methods to Multi-physical Modelling and Safety Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinzhao; Segurado, Jacobo; Schneidesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Since 1980's, Tractebel Engineering (TE) has being developed and applied a multi-physical modelling and safety analyses capability, based on a code package consisting of the best estimate 3D neutronic (PANTHER), system thermal hydraulic (RELAP5), core sub-channel thermal hydraulic (COBRA-3C), and fuel thermal mechanic (FRAPCON/FRAPTRAN) codes. A series of methodologies have been developed to perform and to license the reactor safety analysis and core reload design, based on the deterministic bounding approach. Following the recent trends in research and development as well as in industrial applications, TE has been working since 2010 towards the application of the statistical sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods to the multi-physical modelling and licensing safety analyses. In this paper, the TE multi-physical modelling and safety analyses capability is first described, followed by the proposed TE best estimate plus statistical uncertainty analysis method (BESUAM). The chosen statistical sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods (non-parametric order statistic method or bootstrap) and tool (DAKOTA) are then presented, followed by some preliminary results of their applications to FRAPCON/FRAPTRAN simulation of OECD RIA fuel rod codes benchmark and RELAP5/MOD3.3 simulation of THTF tests. (authors)

  6. Development of a Reality-Based Multimedia Case Study Teaching Method and Its Effect on Students' Planned Food Safety Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Caitlin M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.

    2017-01-01

    There is opportunity to decrease the frequency of foodborne illnesses by improving food safety competencies and planned behaviors of college students before they begin careers in the food industry. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a multimedia case study teaching method that provides real world context for food science education;…

  7. Comparison of event tree, fault tree and Markov methods for probabilistic safety assessment and application to accident mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, H.; Harris, M.J.; Hall, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is used extensively in the nuclear industry. The main stages of PSA and the traditional event tree method are described. Focussing on hydrogen explosions, an event tree model is compared to a novel Markov model and a fault tree, and unexpected implication for accident mitigation is revealed. (author)

  8. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim; Saeed, Nasir; Haq, Mian Imtiaz Ul; Cho, Sunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic

  9. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y.; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A. van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights • A workflow for an exposure driven chemical safety assessment to avoid animal testing. • Hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling and biokinetic considerations. • A tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing.

  10. Time series analysis in road safety research uisng state space methods

    OpenAIRE

    BIJLEVELD, FD

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we present a comprehensive study into novel time series models for aggregated road safety data. The models are mainly intended for analysis of indicators relevant to road safety, with a particular focus on how to measure these factors. Such developments may need to be related to or explained by external influences. It is also possible to make forecasts using the models. Relevant indicators include the number of persons killed permonth or year. These statistics are closely watch...

  11. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, M.E.; Zegers, M.; Boeijen, W.M.J.; Westert, G.P.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Wollersheim, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little i...

  12. Review of Risk Reduction Methods using Probabilistic Safety Assessment Insights and Improved Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Chan; Choi, Byung-Pil [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As seen in the process of the periodic safety review of domestic nuclear power plants, the risk management objectives such as core damage frequency and large early release frequency are not easy to be met without continuous safety improvements and the integratoin of the improved technologies into the PSA evaluation methodologies. Because external event analyses have a protion of uncertainty factors in the current analysis methodologies, the technical efforts in various perspectives.

  13. Probabilistic methods of optimization of scheduled tests for heat equipment of safety systems of reactor at full power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilej, D.V.; Fridman, N.A.; Kolykhanov, V.N.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    This article generalises the basic results of a long-term teamwork with respect to a scientific and technical substantiation of perfection of the regulations of safe operation power units with VVER. This perfection is concerning a periodicity and volumes of tests of safety systems when a reactor works at full power. The article shows that the application of the probabilistic approaches connected to minimisation of a risk criterion function is an effective methodical base for the optimisation. For certain safety systems of serial power units with VVER 1000 the results of calculated substantiations are presented

  14. Development of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Evaluation Method for the Automation Algorithm Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Geun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is commonly believed that replacing human operators to the automated system would guarantee greater efficiency, lower workloads, and fewer human error. Conventional machine learning techniques are considered as not capable to handle complex situations in NPP. Due to these kinds of issues, automation is not actively adopted although human error probability drastically increases during abnormal situations in NPP due to overload of information, high workload, and short time available for diagnosis. Recently, new machine learning techniques, which are known as ‘deep learning’ techniques have been actively applied to many fields, and the deep learning technique-based artificial intelligences (AIs) are showing better performance than conventional AIs. In 2015, deep Q-network (DQN) which is one of the deep learning techniques was developed and applied to train AI that automatically plays various Atari 2800 games, and this AI surpassed the human-level playing in many kind of games. Also in 2016, ‘Alpha-Go’, which was developed by ‘Google Deepmind’ based on deep learning technique to play the game of Go (i.e. Baduk), was defeated Se-dol Lee who is the World Go champion with score of 4:1. By the effort for reducing human error in NPPs, the ultimate goal of this study is the development of automation algorithm which can cover various situations in NPPs. As the first part, quantitative and real-time NPP safety evaluation method is being developed in order to provide the training criteria for automation algorithm. For that, EWS concept of medical field was adopted, and the applicability is investigated in this paper. Practically, the application of full automation (i.e. fully replaces human operators) may requires much more time for the validation and investigation of side-effects after the development of automation algorithm, and so the adoption in the form of full automation will take long time.

  15. Development of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Evaluation Method for the Automation Algorithm Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Geun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly believed that replacing human operators to the automated system would guarantee greater efficiency, lower workloads, and fewer human error. Conventional machine learning techniques are considered as not capable to handle complex situations in NPP. Due to these kinds of issues, automation is not actively adopted although human error probability drastically increases during abnormal situations in NPP due to overload of information, high workload, and short time available for diagnosis. Recently, new machine learning techniques, which are known as ‘deep learning’ techniques have been actively applied to many fields, and the deep learning technique-based artificial intelligences (AIs) are showing better performance than conventional AIs. In 2015, deep Q-network (DQN) which is one of the deep learning techniques was developed and applied to train AI that automatically plays various Atari 2800 games, and this AI surpassed the human-level playing in many kind of games. Also in 2016, ‘Alpha-Go’, which was developed by ‘Google Deepmind’ based on deep learning technique to play the game of Go (i.e. Baduk), was defeated Se-dol Lee who is the World Go champion with score of 4:1. By the effort for reducing human error in NPPs, the ultimate goal of this study is the development of automation algorithm which can cover various situations in NPPs. As the first part, quantitative and real-time NPP safety evaluation method is being developed in order to provide the training criteria for automation algorithm. For that, EWS concept of medical field was adopted, and the applicability is investigated in this paper. Practically, the application of full automation (i.e. fully replaces human operators) may requires much more time for the validation and investigation of side-effects after the development of automation algorithm, and so the adoption in the form of full automation will take long time

  16. A simplified method for quantitative assessment of the relative health and safety risk of environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Smith, T.H.; Peatross, R.G.; Stepan, I.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents a simplified method to assess the health and safety risk of Environmental Management activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The method applies to all types of Environmental Management activities including waste management, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning. The method is particularly useful for planning or tradeoff studies involving multiple conceptual options because it combines rapid evaluation with a quantitative approach. The method is also potentially applicable to risk assessments of activities other than DOE Environmental Management activities if rapid quantitative results are desired

  17. Working conditions and workplace health and safety promotion in home care: A mixed-method study from Swedish managers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Gunvor; Larsson, Agneta

    2017-11-02

    Today, we can see a trend toward increased psychosocial strain at work among home-care managers and staff. The aim of this study is to describe home care managers' views on their own psychosocial working conditions and on how to promote workplace health and safety in a municipality in northern Sweden. A mixed-methods design was used, including questionnaire and qualitative focus group data. The qualitative data were analyzed by manifest content analysis. The results indicate that most managers perceived increased variety in work and opportunities for development at work, but at the same time increased demands. The managers suggested that workplace health and safety could be improved by risk assessment and improved communication, a clear communication chain by a real as well as a virtual platform for communication. In summary, workplace health and safety could be improved by risk assessments and by a physical as well as a virtual platform for communication.

  18. The safety and effectiveness of different methods of earwax removal: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, A J; Loveman, E; Gospodarevskaya, E; Harris, P; Bird, A; Bryant, J; Scott, D A; Davidson, P; Little, P; Coppin, R

    2010-06-01

    Build-up of earwax is a common reason for attendance in primary care. Current practice for earwax removal generally involves the use of a softening agent, followed by irrigation of the ear if required. However, the safety and benefits of the different methods of removal are not known for certain. To conduct evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the interventions currently available for softening and/or removing earwax and any adverse events (AEs) associated with the interventions. Eleven electronic resources were searched from inception to November 2008, including: The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (OVID), PREMEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (OVID), EMBASE (OVID); and CINAHL. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts for eligibility. Inclusion criteria were applied to the full text or retrieved papers and data were extracted by two reviewers using data extraction forms developed a priori. Any differences were resolved by discussion or by a third reviewer. Study criteria included: interventions - all methods of earwax removal available and combinations of these methods; participants - adults/children presenting requiring earwax removal; outcomes - measures of hearing, adequacy of clearance of wax, quality of life, time to recurrence or further treatment, AEs and measures of cost-effectiveness; design - randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) for clinical effectiveness, cohort studies for AEs and cost-effectiveness, and costing studies for cost-effectiveness. For the economic evaluation, a deterministic decision tree model was developed to evaluate three options: (1) the use of softeners followed by irrigation in primary care; (2) softeners followed by self-irrigation; and (3) a 'no treatment' option. Outcomes were assessed in terms of benefits to patients and costs incurred, with costs presented by exploratory cost-utility analysis. Twenty-six clinical trials conducted in primary

  19. ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SAFETY OF CHILLED MEAT USING THE METHOD OF ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Timakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world practice, the radiation technologies for food product processing are extensively used; with that, free radicals are found in products. Scientists have not made a final conclusion about the complete safety of the method of radiation sterilization, so it is very important to control irradiated food products to determinea fact of irradiation and residual effects. The experimental data obtained on the domestic spectrometer EPR series Labrador Expert X, which was developed by Spektr LLC with the assistance of the research team of the authors from the Institute of Natural Sciences of UrFU named after Yeltsin B. N., indicate the presence of free radicals in the samples of boneless beef, which is probably associated with °Ccurrence of ante-mortem technological and slaughter stress in animals. Irradiation of the chicken meat samples carried out in laboratory conditions allows a comparison of the spectra before and after irradiation. The dose of irradiation of poultry was 12 kGy. This dose was selected based on the practice of recognizing the radiation doses of 10-12 kGy as safe, which was established in many countries. It was found that in the range of the magnetic fields from 3272 to 3280 Gs, there was a weak EPR signal with an amplitude of 7.28 e-05 and D less than 1. Such a background signal can be explained by stress in the birds, peculiarities of feeding and other factors. After irradiation at a dose of 12 kGy, the ESR signal increased in the range of the magnetic fields from 3273 to 3286 Gs and D was higher than 1. This technology or, in other words, radappertization, is an industrialsterilization of food products for long storage at positive temperatures, which precludes re-contamination by microorganisms. After irradiation, the fivefold increase in the amplitude of the ESR signal was observed and two additional signals with small amplitude appeared. The fact of irradiation/absence of irradiation of the samples was also confirmed by

  20. Nature of Blame in Patient Safety Incident Reports: Mixed Methods Analysis of a National Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer; Edwards, Adrian; Williams, Huw; Sheikh, Aziz; Parry, Gareth; Hibbert, Peter; Butlin, Amy; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    A culture of blame and fear of retribution are recognized barriers to reporting patient safety incidents. The extent of blame attribution in safety incident reports, which may reflect the underlying safety culture of health care systems, is unknown. This study set out to explore the nature of blame in family practice safety incident reports. We characterized a random sample of family practice patient safety incident reports from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System. Reports were analyzed according to prespecified classification systems to describe the incident type, contributory factors, outcomes, and severity of harm. We developed a taxonomy of blame attribution, and we then used descriptive statistical analyses to identify the proportions of blame types and to explore associations between incident characteristics and one type of blame. Health care professionals making family practice incident reports attributed blame to a person in 45% of cases (n = 975 of 2,148; 95% CI, 43%-47%). In 36% of cases, those who reported the incidents attributed fault to another person, whereas 2% of those reporting acknowledged personal responsibility. Blame was commonly associated with incidents where a complaint was anticipated. The high frequency of blame in these safety, incident reports may reflect a health care culture that leads to blame and retribution, rather than to identifying areas for learning and improvement, and a failure to appreciate the contribution of system factors in others' behavior. Successful improvement in patient safety through the analysis of incident reports is unlikely without achieving a blame-free culture. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  1. Comparison of methods for uncertainty analysis of nuclear-power-plant safety-system fault-tree models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.; Beckman, R.J.; Campbell, K.; Whiteman, D.E.; Booker, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    A comparative evaluation is made of several methods for propagating uncertainties in actual coupled nuclear power plant safety system faults tree models. The methods considered are Monte Carlo simulation, the method of moments, a discrete distribution method, and a bootstrap method. The Monte Carlo method is found to be superior. The sensitivity of the system unavailability distribution to the choice of basic event unavailability distribution is also investigated. The system distribution is also investigated. The system distribution is especially sensitive to the choice of symmetric versus asymmetric basic event distributions. A quick-and dirty method for estimating percentiles of the system unavailability distribution is developed. The method identifies the appropriate basic event distribution percentiles that should be used in evaluating the Boolean system equivalent expression for a given fault tree model to arrive directly at the 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of the system unavailability distribution

  2. Environment assessing for airborne radioactive particulate release-introduction of methods in IAEA safety report series No.19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Dan; Yang, Liu; Shen, Fu; Yang, Yi; Ma, Yinghao; Ma, Tao; Zhang, Zhilong; Fu, Cuiming

    2016-01-01

    Airborne radioactive particulate in many important nuclear facilities (particularly nuclear power plants) will have a strong impact on the relative public dose if they are released into the corresponding environment traversing the stack or vents. The radiation protection researchers have regarded the relative environment assessing and estimation of public doses. And the model of assessing impact of discharges radioactive substance to the environment have been recommended by many international organizations (e.g. IAEA) with the nuclear energy safety and radiation protection. This paper introduced the generic models that were suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for use in assessing the impact of discharges of radioactive substances to the environment (e.g. IAEA Safety Report Series No.19). The writers of this paper, based on the recommend methods, assessed the discharge limits in some airborne radioactive substances discharging standards. The reasons that IAEA method are introduced are mainly the following considerations: IAEA is one of international organizations with some authorities in the nuclear energy safety and radiation protection; and, more important, the recommend modes are operational methods rather than the methods having little operations such as that have used by some researchers. It is wish that the introduced methods in this paper can be referenced in draft or revise of the standards related to discharges of radioactive substances to the environment

  3. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: Trends in culture-independent methods for assessing dairy food quality and safety: emerging metagenomic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marie

    2012-12-01

    Enhancing the quality and safety of dairy food is critical to maintaining the competitiveness of dairy products in the food and beverage market and in reinforcing consumer confidence in the dairy industry. Raw milk quality has a significant effect on finished product quality. Several microbial groups found in raw milk have been shown to adversely affect the shelf life of pasteurized milk. Current microbiological criteria used to define milk quality are based primarily on culture-dependent methods, some of which are perceived to lack the desired sensitivity and specificity. To supplement traditional methods, culture-independent methods are increasingly being used to identify specific species or microbial groups, and to detect indicator genes or proteins in raw milk or dairy products. Some molecular subtyping techniques have been developed to track the transmission of microbes in dairy environments. The burgeoning "-omics" technologies offer new and exciting opportunities to enhance our understanding of food quality and safety in relation to microbes. Metagenomics has the potential to characterize microbial diversity, detect nonculturable microbes, and identify unique sequences or other factors associated with dairy product quality and safety. In this review, fluid milk will be used as the primary example to examine the adequacy and validity of conventional methods, the current trend of culture-independent methods, and the potential applications of metagenomics in dairy food research. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environment assessing for airborne radioactive particulate release-introduction of methods in IAEA safety report series No.19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Dan; Yang, Liu; Shen, Fu; Yang, Yi; Ma, Yinghao; Ma, Tao; Zhang, Zhilong; Fu, Cuiming [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-12-15

    Airborne radioactive particulate in many important nuclear facilities (particularly nuclear power plants) will have a strong impact on the relative public dose if they are released into the corresponding environment traversing the stack or vents. The radiation protection researchers have regarded the relative environment assessing and estimation of public doses. And the model of assessing impact of discharges radioactive substance to the environment have been recommended by many international organizations (e.g. IAEA) with the nuclear energy safety and radiation protection. This paper introduced the generic models that were suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for use in assessing the impact of discharges of radioactive substances to the environment (e.g. IAEA Safety Report Series No.19). The writers of this paper, based on the recommend methods, assessed the discharge limits in some airborne radioactive substances discharging standards. The reasons that IAEA method are introduced are mainly the following considerations: IAEA is one of international organizations with some authorities in the nuclear energy safety and radiation protection; and, more important, the recommend modes are operational methods rather than the methods having little operations such as that have used by some researchers. It is wish that the introduced methods in this paper can be referenced in draft or revise of the standards related to discharges of radioactive substances to the environment.

  5. Design and construction of safety devices utilizing methods of measurement and control engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, B; Weidlich, S

    1982-08-01

    This article considers a proposed concept for the design and construction of measurement and control devices for the safety of chemical plants with the aim of preventing danger to persons and the environment and damage. Such measurement and control devices are generally employed when primary measures adopted for plant safety, such as safety valves, collection vessels, etc. are not applicable or insufficient by themselves. The concept regards the new sheet no. 3 of the VDI/VDE code draft 2180 ''Safety of chemical engineering plant'' and proposes a further subdivision of class A into safety classes A0, A1, and A2. Overall, it is possible, on the basis of the measures for raising the availability of measurement and control equipment which are presented in this article, to make selection appropriate to the potential danger involved. The proposed procedure should not, however, be regarded as a rigid scheme but rather as leading to a systematic view and supporting decisions resting on sound operating experience.

  6. Food safety issues and training methods for ready-to-eat foods in the grocery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Margaret; Ghiselli, Richard

    2005-10-01

    As Americans have become more pressed for time, the use of convenient, simplified meals become a way of life. One aspect of this trend, known as Home Meal Replacement (IIMR), has increased in sales since its inception. Between 1999 and 2001, the average annual expenditure per consumer rose 5.6 pereent, and $958 per person per year was spent in 2002. Along with this growth, food safety risks may have increased. The study reported here examined efforts being undertaken by grocery and convenience stores to control the wholesomeness of INR food items. After a convenience sample of 500 grocery store executives was identified, a 32-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to the executives. The results indicate that the industry has taken food safety seriously with only 10 pereent reporting that they have no food safety training. The executives cited employee turnover as a major concern in food safety today, along with lack of food safety knowledge of the consumer and improper holding temperatures.

  7. Method and practice on safety software verification and validation for digital reactor protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Duo; Zhang Liangju; Feng Junting

    2010-01-01

    The key issue arising from digitalization of reactor protection system for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is in essence, how to carry out Verification and Validation (V and V), to demonstrate and confirm the software is reliable enough to perform reactor safety functions. Among others the most important activity of software V and V process is unit testing. This paper discusses the basic concepts on safety software V and V and the appropriate technique for software unit testing, focusing on such aspects as how to ensure test completeness, how to establish test platform, how to develop test cases and how to carry out unit testing. The technique discussed herein was successfully used in the work of unit testing on safety software of a digital reactor protection system. (author)

  8. Method to classify the safety class of Structure, System and Components in a Defueled Condition of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hak; Jeon, Dang-Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    During pre-decommissioning phase, licensing and engineering work need to change the design basis of the plant such as safety analysis report, downgrade of systems, technical specifications and program and procedures to change of NPP condition from in an operation condition to in a defueled condition. The many systems to need to operate in an operational condition will not be operated during in a defueled condition and the function of systems will be changed from in an operation condition to in a defueled condition. So a downgrade of systems may be needed and reclassifying the safety class of structure, system and component (SSC) may be conducted. By the reclassification of SSC, activity related with quality assurance and maintenance of SSC is affected. In this paper, the method to reclassify SSC in a defueled condition is studied. The many systems to need to operate in an operational condition will not be operated during in a defueled condition and the function of systems will be changed from in an operation condition to in a defueled condition. The operation of NPP during a defueled condition need to conduct licensing and engineering work need to change the design basis of the plant optimize by downgrading systems and reclassifying the safety class of SSC. In this paper, the method to reclassify safety class for a defueled condition is studied.

  9. A safety culture assessment by mixed methods at a public maternity and infant hospital in China

    OpenAIRE

    Listyowardojo, Tita Alissa; Yan, Xiaoling; Leyshon, Stephen; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Yu, Xin Yan; Zheng, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Tita Alissa Listyowardojo,1 Xiaoling Yan,2,3 Stephen Leyshon,1 Bobbie Ray-Sannerud,1 Xin Yan Yu,4 Kai Zheng,4 Tao Duan2,3 1Life Sciences Program, Group Technology and Research, DNV GL, Hovik, Norway; 2Quality and Safety Department, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, 3Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 4Healthcare Department, Business Assurance, DNV GL, Beijing, China Objective: To assess safety culture at a public maternity hospital in Shanghai, China, using a sequenti...

  10. Methods used to seismically upgrade. The safety related components of Belgian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaille, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Belgian nuclear power amounts to about 6,000 MW, generated by seven plants that started operation as early as 1967. The latest plant started in 1985. Some of these plants were designed with no seismic requirements whatsoever. Even for those that had seismic requirements at the design stage, seismic demand was raised after design had been frozen (late during construction or at the 10 years revision). As a consequence all the plants had to undergo, to a variable extent, a seismic reevaluation and/or backfitting. Civil structures were concerned as well as electro-mechanical equipment and piping systems. The present paper deals with the mechanical aspect of the problem (equipment and piping). In order to minimize hardware modifications, advanced analytical techniques were used throughout the process, starting with the elaboration of a site specific spectrum, and using a full soil-structure interaction in order to get as 'realistic' as possible floor response spectra. In some instances, non linear elasto-plastic time history analysis was performed on piping-systems in order to qualify them without hardware modifications. In other cases a 'Load Coefficient Method' was used. Sometimes stresses or displacements taken from the original stress reports and scaled by comparison of applicable spectra, allowed to assess the seismic validity of the system under investigation. Seismic acceptability of installed active equipment is more difficult to demonstrate, as this is usually done by testing. This problem is a generic issue in the US, identified under the label USI-A-46 (Unresolved Safety Issue). It is treated by. a group of Utilities (SQUG = Seismic Qualification Utilities Group). The Belgian Utility is member of that group since 1985. The application of this program is starting in the US. SQUG methodology has been applied to three Belgian plants starting in 1988 and is now completed. The required fixes are being implemented. Experience gained in the process has been applied

  11. Development of safety assessment method for human intrusion scenario in Japan. Part 1. Drilling scenario database for safety assessment of geological disposal (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Hirokazu; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo; Sasaki, Toshihisa

    2010-11-01

    In deep geological disposal or intermediate depth disposal, human intrusion, i.e. accidental excavation or drilling into the disposal site, may make a direct or an indirect effect on the disposal system. Safety assessment method for the human intrusion scenario, that is, the evaluation code of radiological effect from the human intrusion and the data to examine the reduction of the probability of the human intrusion occurring, is essential for the future safety regulation. Assuming that drilling action into the disposal site leads to the human proximity to the radioactive waste or the damage to the barrier system (drilling scenario), we have collected both the data on borehole drilling implemented in Japan and information on actual situation of drilling activities. Based on the data and information, we provide concrete exposure scenarios associated with borehole drilling in the vicinity of the repository and model for estimating the frequency on borehole reaching the depth of repository. The frequency is characterized with the relation to objective of excavation, geographical features, and region in Japan etc. We have developed an assembly of the information mentioned above as database, including the model parameters used in the code to assess radiation dose for drilling scenario. (author)

  12. Language barriers and patient safety risks in hospital care. A mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rosse, Floor; de Bruijne, Martine; Suurmond, Jeanine; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Wagner, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    A language barrier has been shown to be a threat for quality of hospital care. International studies highlighted a lack of adequate noticing, reporting, and bridging of a language barrier. However, studies on the link between language proficiency and patient safety are scarce, especially in Europe.

  13. Language barriers and patient safety risks in hospital care: a mixed methods study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosse, F. van; Bruijne, M. de; Suurmond, J.; Essink-Bot, M.L.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A language barrier has been shown to be a threat for quality of hospital care. International studies highlighted a lack of adequate noticing, reporting, and bridging of a language barrier. However, studies on the link between language proficiency and patient safety are scarce,

  14. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  15. Applications and limits of application of fracture mechanics methods in assessing the safety of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlberg, R.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of fracture mechanics calculations and experimental investigations, it is shown how cracks of different shape and location behave under given static and cyclic loads. In particular, component safety with regard to spontaneous failure and crack growth behaviour in different components are discussed. [de

  16. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    We describe and illustrate a workflow for chemical safety assessment that completely avoids animal testing. The workflow, which was developed within the SEURAT-1 initiative, is designed to be applicable to cosmetic ingredients as well as to other types of chemicals, e.g. active ingredients in plant protection products, biocides or pharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to develop a workflow to assess chemical safety without relying on any animal testing, but instead constructing a hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling, biokinetic considerations and then by targeted non-animal testing. For illustrative purposes, we consider a hypothetical new ingredient x as a new component in a body lotion formulation. The workflow is divided into tiers in which points of departure are established through in vitro testing and in silico prediction, as the basis for estimating a safe external dose in a repeated use scenario. The workflow includes a series of possible exit (decision) points, with increasing levels of confidence, based on the sequential application of the Threshold of Toxicological (TTC) approach, read-across, followed by an "ab initio" assessment, in which chemical safety is determined entirely by new in vitro testing and in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by means of mathematical modelling. We believe that this workflow could be applied as a tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing, where necessary, and to gain confidence in safety decision making without the need for animal testing.

  17. Applicability of object-oriented design methods and C++ to safety-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthill, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study identifying risks and benefits of using a software development methodology containing object-oriented design (OOD) techniques and using C++ as a programming language relative to selected features of safety-critical systems development. These features are modularity, functional diversity, removing ambiguous code, traceability, and real-time performance

  18. New method of safety assessment for pressure vessel of nuclear power plant--brief introduction of master curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wendou

    2011-01-01

    The new Master Curve Method is called as a revolutionary advance to the assessment of- reactor pressure vessel integrity in USA. This paper explains the origin, basis and standard of the Master Curve from the reactor pressure-temperature limit curve which assures the safety of nuclear power plant. According to the characteristics of brittle fracture which is greatly susceptible to the microstructure, the theory and the test method of the Master Curve as well as its statistical law which can be modeled using Weibull distribution are described in this paper. The meaning, advantage, application and importance of the Master Curve as well as the relation between the Master Curve and nuclear power safety are understood from the fitting formula for the fracture toughness database by Weibull distribution model. (author)

  19. Comparison between Canadian probabilistic safety assessment methods formulated by Atomic Energy of Canada limited and probabilistic risk assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, H.S.; Smith, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures used by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to perform probabilistic safety assessments (PRAs) differ somewhat from conventionally accepted probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) procedures used elsewhere. In Canada, PSA is used by AECL as an audit tool for an evolving design. The purpose is to assess the safety of the plant in engineering terms. Thus, the PSA procedures are geared toward providing engineering feedback so that necessary changes can be made to the design at an early stage, input can be made to operating procedures, and test and maintenance programs can be optimized in terms of costs. Most PRAs, by contrast, are performed in plants that are already built. Their main purpose is to establish the core melt frequency and the risk to the public due to core melt. Also, any design modification is very expensive. The differences in purpose and timing between PSA and PRA have resulted in differences in methodology and scope. The PSA procedures are used on all plants being designed by AECL

  20. Computational methods assuring nuclear power plant structural integrity and safety: an overview of the recent activities at VTT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinaenen, H.; Talja, H.; Rintamaa, R.

    1998-01-01

    Numerical, simplified engineering and standardised methods are applied in the safety analyses of primary circuit components and reactor pressure vessels. The integrity assessment procedures require input relating both to the steady state and transient loading actual material properties data and precise knowledge of the size and geometry of defects. Current procedures bold extensive information regarding these aspects. It is important to verify the accuracy of the different assessment methods especially in the case of complex structures and loading. The focus of this paper is on the recent results and development of computational fracture assessment methods at VTT Manufacturing Technology. The methods include effective engineering type tools for rapid structural integrity assessments and more sophisticated finite-element based methods. An integrated PC-based program system MASI for engineering fracture analysis is described. A summary of the verification of the methods in computational benchmark analyses and against the results of large scale experiments is presented. (orig.)

  1. Utilisation of best estimate system codes and best estimate methods in safety analyses of VVER reactors in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, Jiri; Kral, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The content of the presentation was as follows: Conservative versus best estimate approach, Brief description and selection of methodology, Description of uncertainty methods, Examples of the BE methodology. It is concluded that where BE computer codes are used, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses should be included; if best estimate codes + uncertainty are used, the safety margins increase; and BE + BSA is the next step in licensing analyses. (P.A.)

  2. Prioritizing Roads Safety Based on the Quasi-Induced Exposure Method and Utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad rezaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Safety analysis of the roads through the accident rates which is one of the widely used tools has been resulted from the direct exposure method which is based on the ratio of the vehicle-kilometers traveled and vehicle-travel time. However, due to some fundamental flaws in its theories and difficulties in gaining access to the data required such as traffic volume, distance and duration of the trip, and various problems in determining the exposure in a specific time, place, and individual categories, there is a need for an algorithm for prioritizing the road safety so that with a new exposure method, the problems of the previous approaches would be resolved. In this way, an efficient application may lead to have more realistic comparisons and the new method would be applicable to a wider range of time, place, and individual categories. Therefore, an algorithm was introduced to prioritize the safety of roads using the quasi-induced exposure method and utilizing the analytical hierarchy process. For this research, 11 provinces of Iran were chosen as case study locations. A rural accidents database was created for these provinces, the validity of quasi-induced exposure method for Iran’s accidents database was explored, and the involvement ratio for different characteristics of the drivers and the vehicles was measured. Results showed that the quasi-induced exposure method was valid in determining the real exposure in the provinces under study. Results also showed a significant difference in the prioritization based on the new and traditional approaches. This difference mostly would stem from the perspective of the quasi-induced exposure method in determining the exposure, opinion of experts, and the quantity of accidents data. Overall, the results for this research showed that prioritization based on the new approach is more comprehensive and reliable compared to the prioritization in the traditional approach which is dependent on various

  3. Development of probabilistic methods for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, H.; Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Since its introduction by the German Risk Study, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has developed in Germany to a valuable tool in regulatory decision-making. Plant specific PSAs of Level 1+ are now conducted for all nuclear power plants in the frame of Periodic Safety Reviews. This paper is devoted to the description or key elements set out in the regulatory guidelines for PSA-Level 1+ and the corresponding technical documents and the further development of PSA methodology in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the course of the next years it is intended to make progress in the modeling of common cause failures, human reliability evaluation, reduction of uncertainties in PSA modeling techniques and data estimation, analysis of low power and shut down states as well as in reaching a mature methodology for inclusion of external events into the analysis. (author)

  4. Using Traffic Conflict Method in Evaluating Traffic Safety at the Reconstructed Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of organised social system, traffic is subjected togeneral social tendency towards adequate safety and sustainabilityof relations in such a system, probabilistically marked bythe risk of danger. Inte1polation of subjective factor facilitatesthe occwTence of negative phenomena. Road traffic system ischaracterised by extremely massive participation in traffic, contributingthus to a greater possibility of negative features characteristicfor imperfect human mechanism. This is precisely thereason why this paper deals with the problem of traffic safety onthe concrete example of the intersection between the SavskaStreet and the Slavonska and LjubljanskaAvenues over the periodof time prior to constmcting the new unde1pass solution,and the period of time immediately after the construction workswere completed. The used data have been provided by the TrafficPolice Department - Lucko.

  5. Preclinical imaging methods for assessing the safety and efficacy of regenerative medicine therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Lauren; Brillant, Nathalie; Kumar, J. Dinesh; Ali, Noura; Alrumayh, Ahmed; Amali, Mohammed; Barbellion, Stephane; Jones, Vendula; Niemeijer, Marije; Potdevin, Sophie; Roussignol, Gautier; Vaganov, Anatoly; Barbaric, Ivana; Barrow, Michael; Burton, Neal C.; Connell, John; Dazzi, Francesco; Edsbagge, Josefina; French, Neil S.; Holder, Julie; Hutchinson, Claire; Jones, David R.; Kalber, Tammy; Lovatt, Cerys; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Patel, Sara; Patrick, P. Stephen; Piner, Jacqueline; Reinhardt, Jens; Ricci, Emanuelle; Sidaway, James; Stacey, Glyn N.; Starkey Lewis, Philip J.; Sullivan, Gareth; Taylor, Arthur; Wilm, Bettina; Poptani, Harish; Murray, Patricia; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Park, B. Kevin

    2017-10-01

    Regenerative medicine therapies hold enormous potential for a variety of currently incurable conditions with high unmet clinical need. Most progress in this field to date has been achieved with cell-based regenerative medicine therapies, with over a thousand clinical trials performed up to 2015. However, lack of adequate safety and efficacy data is currently limiting wider uptake of these therapies. To facilitate clinical translation, non-invasive in vivo imaging technologies that enable careful evaluation and characterisation of the administered cells and their effects on host tissues are critically required to evaluate their safety and efficacy in relevant preclinical models. This article reviews the most common imaging technologies available and how they can be applied to regenerative medicine research. We cover details of how each technology works, which cell labels are most appropriate for different applications, and the value of multi-modal imaging approaches to gain a comprehensive understanding of the responses to cell therapy in vivo.

  6. Probabilistic safety analyses. Status and further development of methods and models, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Schott, H.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the topics of the deterministic and probabilistic approach. The PSA is used in order to investigate event sequences beyond design limits; in particular the expected frequency of core melting is important. The basis of PSA is described including its limits. Moreover, the current state of the art of science and technology in the field of PSA including the so-called 'living PSA' are explained. Some measures which result in order to improve the safety of a nuclear power plant from the German Risk-Study are shown. An overview is given on the status of PSA in periodic safety reviews in German nuclear power plants. Moreover, the main topics of running investigations are presented. (orig.) [de

  7. Aviation Risk and Safety Management : Methods and Applications in Aviation Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) decision to require aviation organizations to adopt Safety Management Systems poses a major problem especially for small and medium sized aviation companies. The complexity of regulations overstrains the aviation stakeholders who seek to fully advantage from them but have no clear guidance. The aim of the book is to show the implementation of such a new system with pragmatic effort in order to gain a gradation for smaller operators. This ...

  8. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 2. Test Methods, Specifications and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Chairman: Dr. Seymour L. Blum Vice President Northern Energy Corporation 70 Memorial Drive Cambridge, MA 02142 Dr. George S. Ansell Dean, School...limitations, is perhaps the most firmly grounded and thoroughly docu- mented of any in the fire safety field (Benjamin and Adams , 1976). Having established...of the largest fire experiments ever undertaken. Operation Euroka, a 50 acre wildland fuel fire in Australia ( Adams et al., 1973). Scaling and

  9. Development and validation of mass spectrometry-based methods for food quality and food safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bignardi, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, analytical chemistry plays a significant role in the assessment of food quality and safety; in particular, three different topics have been addressed to and they are presented into three chapters in which different analytical methodologies have been developed, validated and applied successfully in different topics of food chemistry research. The first chapter is focused on an innovative analytical technique, capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to tandem mass spectrom...

  10. Comprehensive method of common-mode failure analysis for LMFBR safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unione, A.J.; Ritzman, R.L.; Erdmann, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is demonstrated which allows the systematic treatment of common-mode failures of safety system performance. The technique uses log analysis in the form of fault and success trees to qualitatively assess the sources of common-mode failure and quantitatively estimate the contribution to the overall risk of system failure. The analysis is applied to the secondary control rod system of an early sized LMFBR

  11. Implementation of child safety and health management system by means of FMEA method

    OpenAIRE

    B. Akbari Neisiani; S.M. Seyedan; A. Hadian

    2016-01-01

    Every year, many accidents leading to physical injuries in kindergartens, indicates that a very large percentage of them are related to the safety concerns and lack of hygiene in these places. Families, due to their busy life style and working hours and also children needs of preschool education, are searching to find most suitable kindergartens for their children. Selecting a kindergarten with various suitable training programs, although very important criteria for selection, but is not suff...

  12. Automatic Crack Detection and Classification Method for Subway Tunnel Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cracks are an important indicator reflecting the safety status of infrastructures. This paper presents an automatic crack detection and classification methodology for subway tunnel safety monitoring. With the application of high-speed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS industrial cameras, the tunnel surface can be captured and stored in digital images. In a next step, the local dark regions with potential crack defects are segmented from the original gray-scale images by utilizing morphological image processing techniques and thresholding operations. In the feature extraction process, we present a distance histogram based shape descriptor that effectively describes the spatial shape difference between cracks and other irrelevant objects. Along with other features, the classification results successfully remove over 90% misidentified objects. Also, compared with the original gray-scale images, over 90% of the crack length is preserved in the last output binary images. The proposed approach was tested on the safety monitoring for Beijing Subway Line 1. The experimental results revealed the rules of parameter settings and also proved that the proposed approach is effective and efficient for automatic crack detection and classification.

  13. Automatic crack detection and classification method for subway tunnel safety monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyu; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Qi, Dapeng; Liu, Yun

    2014-10-16

    Cracks are an important indicator reflecting the safety status of infrastructures. This paper presents an automatic crack detection and classification methodology for subway tunnel safety monitoring. With the application of high-speed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) industrial cameras, the tunnel surface can be captured and stored in digital images. In a next step, the local dark regions with potential crack defects are segmented from the original gray-scale images by utilizing morphological image processing techniques and thresholding operations. In the feature extraction process, we present a distance histogram based shape descriptor that effectively describes the spatial shape difference between cracks and other irrelevant objects. Along with other features, the classification results successfully remove over 90% misidentified objects. Also, compared with the original gray-scale images, over 90% of the crack length is preserved in the last output binary images. The proposed approach was tested on the safety monitoring for Beijing Subway Line 1. The experimental results revealed the rules of parameter settings and also proved that the proposed approach is effective and efficient for automatic crack detection and classification.

  14. Large scale organisational intervention to improve patient safety in four UK hospitals: mixed method evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Amirta; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Suokas, Anu; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Dawson, Jeremy; Barber, Nick; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Girling, Alan; Hemming, Karla; Carmalt, Martin; Rudge, Gavin; Naicker, Thirumalai; Nwulu, Ugochi; Choudhury, Sopna

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To conduct an independent evaluation of the first phase of the Health Foundation’s Safer Patients Initiative (SPI), and to identify the net additional effect of SPI and any differences in changes in participating and non-participating NHS hospitals. Design Mixed method evaluation involving five substudies, before and after design. Setting NHS hospitals in the United Kingdom. Participants Four hospitals (one in each country in the UK) participating in the first phase of the SPI (SPI1); 18 control hospitals. Intervention The SPI1 was a compound (multi-component) organisational intervention delivered over 18 months that focused on improving the reliability of specific frontline care processes in designated clinical specialties and promoting organisational and cultural change. Results Senior staff members were knowledgeable and enthusiastic about SPI1. There was a small (0.08 points on a 5 point scale) but significant (Porganisational climate). Qualitative evidence showed only modest penetration of SPI1 at medical ward level. Although SPI1 was designed to engage staff from the bottom up, it did not usually feel like this to those working on the wards, and questions about legitimacy of some aspects of SPI1 were raised. Of the five components to identify patients at risk of deterioration—monitoring of vital signs (14 items); routine tests (three items); evidence based standards specific to certain diseases (three items); prescribing errors (multiple items from the British National Formulary); and medical history taking (11 items)—there was little net difference between control and SPI1 hospitals, except in relation to quality of monitoring of acute medical patients, which improved on average over time across all hospitals. Recording of respiratory rate increased to a greater degree in SPI1 than in control hospitals; in the second six hours after admission recording increased from 40% (93) to 69% (165) in control hospitals and from 37% (141) to 78% (296

  15. Large scale organisational intervention to improve patient safety in four UK hospitals: mixed method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Amirta; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Suokas, Anu; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Dawson, Jeremy; Barber, Nick; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Girling, Alan; Hemming, Karla; Carmalt, Martin; Rudge, Gavin; Naicker, Thirumalai; Nwulu, Ugochi; Choudhury, Sopna; Lilford, Richard

    2011-02-03

    To conduct an independent evaluation of the first phase of the Health Foundation's Safer Patients Initiative (SPI), and to identify the net additional effect of SPI and any differences in changes in participating and non-participating NHS hospitals. Mixed method evaluation involving five substudies, before and after design. NHS hospitals in the United Kingdom. Four hospitals (one in each country in the UK) participating in the first phase of the SPI (SPI1); 18 control hospitals. The SPI1 was a compound (multi-component) organisational intervention delivered over 18 months that focused on improving the reliability of specific frontline care processes in designated clinical specialties and promoting organisational and cultural change. Senior staff members were knowledgeable and enthusiastic about SPI1. There was a small (0.08 points on a 5 point scale) but significant (P organisational climate). Qualitative evidence showed only modest penetration of SPI1 at medical ward level. Although SPI1 was designed to engage staff from the bottom up, it did not usually feel like this to those working on the wards, and questions about legitimacy of some aspects of SPI1 were raised. Of the five components to identify patients at risk of deterioration--monitoring of vital signs (14 items); routine tests (three items); evidence based standards specific to certain diseases (three items); prescribing errors (multiple items from the British National Formulary); and medical history taking (11 items)--there was little net difference between control and SPI1 hospitals, except in relation to quality of monitoring of acute medical patients, which improved on average over time across all hospitals. Recording of respiratory rate increased to a greater degree in SPI1 than in control hospitals; in the second six hours after admission recording increased from 40% (93) to 69% (165) in control hospitals and from 37% (141) to 78% (296) in SPI1 hospitals (odds ratio for "difference in difference" 2

  16. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  17. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J. [Carlow International Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  18. Applying the Trigger Review Method after a brief educational intervention: potential for teaching and improving safety in GP specialty training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, John; de Wet, Carl; Kelly, Moya; Bowie, Paul

    2013-08-30

    The Trigger Review Method (TRM) is a structured approach to screening clinical records for undetected patient safety incidents (PSIs) and identifying learning and improvement opportunities. In Scotland, TRM participation can inform GP appraisal and has been included as a core component of the national primary care patient safety programme that was launched in March 2013. However, the clinical workforce needs up-skilled and the potential of TRM in GP training has yet to be tested. Current TRM training utilizes a workplace face-to-face session by a GP expert, which is not feasible. A less costly, more sustainable educational intervention is necessary to build capability at scale. We aimed to determine the feasibility and impact of TRM and a related training intervention in GP training. We recruited 25 west of Scotland GP trainees to attend a 2-hour TRM workshop. Trainees then applied TRM to 25 clinical records and returned findings within 4-weeks. A follow-up feedback workshop was held. 21/25 trainees (84%) completed the task. 520 records yielded 80 undetected PSIs (15.4%). 36/80 were judged potentially preventable (45%) with 35/80 classified as causing moderate to severe harm (44%). Trainees described a range of potential learning and improvement plans. Training was positively received and appeared to be successful given these findings. TRM was valued as a safety improvement tool by most participants. This small study provides further evidence of TRM utility and how to teach it pragmatically. TRM is of potential value in GP patient safety curriculum delivery and preparing trainees for future safety improvement expectations.

  19. Application of condition-based HRA method for a manual actuation of the safety features in a nuclear power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2006-01-01

    A practical approach to develop a more realistic fault-tree model with a consideration of various conditions endured by a human operator is proposed. In safety-critical systems, the generation failure of an actuation signal is caused by the concurrent failures of the automated systems and an operator action. These two sources of safety signals are complicatedly correlated. The failures of sensors or automated systems will cause a lack of necessary information for a human operator and result in error-forcing contexts such as the loss of corresponding alarms and indications. It is well known that the error-forcing contexts largely affect the operator's performance. An automated system which consists of multiple processing channels and complex components is also affected by the availability of the sensors. This paper proposes a condition-based human reliability assessment (CBHRA) method in order to address these complicated conditions in a practical way. We apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of the safety features such as a reactor trip and auxiliary feedwater actuation in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants. Even the human error probability of each given condition is simply assumed, the application results prove that the CBHRA effectively accommodates the complicated error-forcing contexts into the fault trees

  20. THE EFFICIENCY IMPROVING OF PILOTS AND CADETS TRAINING TO SAFETY CONTROL USING THE MODIFICATIONS OF CLASSICAL METHOD OF "ROY" (PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Yurasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the use of modifications the classical method PSO to optimize the training pilots task on aircraft simulators. Model is based on the identification of the specific guarantee of safety in the task of training pilots of the features of simulation with the use of modern optimization models for long-term quantitative forecast of random processes. The author proved that the classical optimization techniques to aircraft supporting function, the input and output variables, and classes of equations defined by the model author. These circumstances lead to the fact that the obtained models do not have sufficient flexibility that in turn affects their behavior when adding new data points. The increased accuracy and the introduction of additional variables in the optimization problem of security is solved based on the methodology PSO. On the basis of mathematical simulation shows the potential of the PSO for the identification of quality indicators of a new level for the purpose of guaranteeing flight safety. The method of group accounting of arguments presents an original method for solving problems that require structural and parametric identification of models. The author's approach to the problem of optimization consists in taking into account qualitative indicators in terms of aviation events at the gym. On the basis of the mathematical apparatus created a dynamic model based on the classical method PSO. The results obtained are of high precision in compliance with international regulations guaranteeing flight safety and pilot training ICAO and SHEL. Therefore, the method of group accounting of arguments will be effective mathematical tool to build the model and training procedures.

  1. Postauthorization safety surveillance of ADVATE [antihaemophilic factor (recombinant), plasma/albumin-free method] demonstrates efficacy, safety and low-risk for immunogenicity in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, J; Goudemand, J; Valentino, L; Richards, M; Luu, H; Kriukov, A; Gajek, H; Spotts, G; Ewenstein, B

    2010-11-01

      Postauthorization safety surveillance of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates is essential for assessing rare adverse event incidence. We determined safety and efficacy of ADVATE [antihaemophilic factor (recombinant), plasma/albumin-free method, (rAHF-PFM)] during routine clinical practice. Subjects with differing haemophilia A severities and medical histories were monitored during 12 months of prophylactic and/or on-demand therapy. Among 408 evaluable subjects, 386 (95%) received excellent/good efficacy ratings for all on-demand assessments; the corresponding number for subjects with previous FVIII inhibitors was 36/41 (88%). Among 276 evaluable subjects receiving prophylaxis continuously in the study, 255 (92%) had excellent/good ratings for all prophylactic assessments; the corresponding number for subjects with previous FVIII inhibitors was 41/46 (89%). Efficacy of surgical prophylaxis was excellent/good in 16/16 evaluable procedures. Among previously treated patients (PTPs) with >50 exposure days (EDs) and FVIII≤2%, three (0.75%) developed low-titre inhibitors. Two of these subjects had a positive inhibitor history; thus, the incidence of de novo inhibitor formation in PTPs with FVIII≤2% and no inhibitor history was 1/348 (0.29%; 95% CI, 0.01-1.59%). A PTP with moderate haemophilia developed a low-titre inhibitor. High-titre inhibitors were reported in a PTP with mild disease (following surgery), a previously untreated patient (PUP) with moderate disease (following surgery) and a PUP with severe disease. The favourable benefit/risk profile of rAHF-PFM previously documented in prospective clinical trials has been extended to include a broader range of haemophilia patients, many of whom would have been ineligible for registration studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    This thesis proposes new methods and gives new insight to safety and reliability assessments of safety instrumented systems (SISs). These systems play an important role in many industry sectors and are used to detect the onset of hazardous events and mitigate their consequences to humans, the environment, and material assets. The thesis focuses on SIS applications in the oil and gas industry. Here, the SIS must respond to hazardous events such as gas leakages, fires, and over pressurization. Because there are personnel onboard the oil and gas installations, the operations take place in a vulnerable marine environment, and substantial values are associated with the offshore facilities, the reliability of SIS is of great concern to the public, the authorities, and the plant owners. The objective of this project has been to identify some of the key factors that influence the SIS reliability, clarify their effects on reliability, and suggest means to improve the treatment of these factors in safety and reliability assessments in design and operation. The project builds on concepts, methods, and definitions in two key standards for SIS design, construction, and operation: IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The main contributions from this project are: A product development model that integrates reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) requirements with product development. The contributions have been presented in ten articles, five published in international journals, two submitted for publication, and three presented at conferences and in conference proceedings. The contributions are also directed to the industry and the actors that are involved in SIS design, construction, and operation. Even if the oil and gas industry is the main focus area, the results may be relevant for other industry sectors as well. SIS manufacturers and SIS designers face a large number of requirements from authorities, oil companies, international standards, and so on. At the same

  3. A cascade method of training for the revised CEGB Radiological Safety Rules and the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.R.; John, P.G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to achieve compliance with the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 the CEGB has introduced a revised set of Radiological Safety Rule. These Rules are for implementation at all sites under the Board's control where ionising radiations are used. It was a requirement that the new Safety Rules be brought into operation on a common date and to a consistent standard of performance throughout the industry; this necessitated a considerable training programme to familiarise and inform some 8,000 staff working at a large number of locations. The training week of identified groups of staff varied widely, according to their different levels of authority and responsibility. The paper sets out the means by which the chosen cascade method of training was selected and developed, and gives details of the modular package of training material which was produced. It also relates how the management objectives were met within the constraints of an uncompromising time schedule. (author)

  4. Corrective actions to gas accumulation in safety injection system pipings of PWRs and gas void detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    In the US, gas accumulation events of safety injection systems of PWRs during plant operation are continuously reported. As the events may result in loss of safety function, the USNRC is alerting licensees by Information Notices. The cause of the events is coolant leakage to interfacing systems with lower pressure, or gas dissolution of primary coolant by partial pressure drop. In this study, it was clarified by the evaluation of the cause of the events of US plants, gas accumulation in piping between an accumulator and Residual Heat Removal System should be quantitatively investigated regarding Japanese plants. Also, effectiveness of ultrasonic testing which is used for monthly gas accumulation surveillance in US plants was demonstrated using a model loop. In addition, the method was confirmed applicable by an experiment carried out at INSS to detect cavitation voids in piping systems. (author)

  5. A study of digital hardware architectures for nuclear reactors protection systems applications - reliability and safety analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benko, Pedro Luiz

    1997-01-01

    A study of digital hardware architectures, including experience in many countries, topologies and solutions to interface circuits for protection systems of nuclear reactors is presented. Methods for developing digital systems architectures based on fault tolerant and safety requirements is proposed. Directives for assessing such conditions are suggested. Techniques and the most common tools employed in reliability, safety evaluation and modeling of hardware architectures is also presented. Markov chain modeling is used to evaluate the reliability of redundant architectures. In order to estimate software quality, several mechanisms to be used in design, specification, and validation and verification (V and V) procedures are suggested. A digital protection system architecture has been analyzed as a case study. (author)

  6. Study on the safety evaluation method development for D and D of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, S. W.; Kang, G. D.; Kim, H. S.; Son, J. G.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, K. J.; Koh, E. O.; Kim, K. D.; Ha, J. H. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The final goal of decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant is to remove or to isolate the radioactivity existing at the nuclear facilities which are confronted with termination of operation. The regulatory guidance and technologies of decommissioning have been developed strategically in some advanced countries. They have already stepped into the application stage from the research and development stage. The contents and the scope of this study is as follows, preparation of standard evaluation plan and establishment of standard safety evaluation system for D and D.

  7. Study on the safety evaluation method development for D and D of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, S. W.; Kang, G. D.; Kim, H. S.; Son, J. G.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, K. J.; Koh, E. O.; Kim, K. D.; Ha, J. H.

    2004-02-01

    The final goal of decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant is to remove or to isolate the radioactivity existing at the nuclear facilities which are confronted with termination of operation. The regulatory guidance and technologies of decommissioning have been developed strategically in some advanced countries. They have already stepped into the application stage from the research and development stage. The contents and the scope of this study is as follows, preparation of standard evaluation plan and establishment of standard safety evaluation system for D and D

  8. Development of comprehensive HFE guidelines for the evaluation of NPP human systems interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Wachtel, J.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control room (ACR) concepts are being developed in the commercial nuclear power industry as part of future reactor designs. The ACRs will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the ways in which the operator interacts with and supervises an increasingly complex system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The NRC is developing guidelines to support its review of these advanced designs. This paper discusses (1) the development of guidelines for advanced HSI review, (2) the integration of those guidelines with existing guidance, and (3) a methodology for further guidance development

  9. Research on the measurement technology and evaluation method of photobiological safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cai-hong; Wu, Zhi-feng; Chen, Bin-hua; Wang, Yan-fei; Li, Xiang-zhao; Fu, Lei

    2013-12-01

    Lamps and lamp system are widely used in large quantities in an era. The evaluation and control of optical radiation hazards of lamps and lamp systems is far more complicated. A special measurement and traceability facility was set up at NIM (National Institute of Metrology, China) to evaluate the optical radiation safety of lamp and lamp system, which includes a double grating spectroradiometer OL750D with two different entrance systems of spectral radiance and spectral irradiance traceable to the national primary standard of spectral irradiance by a 1000W spectral irradiance standard lamp, 40W deuterium lamp and a standard diffuser plate. The technical requirements of the measurement instrumentation used for optical radiation safety evaluation including monochromator type, wavelength accuracy, input optics, spectral scan interval and calibration sources are recommended also in this paper. Spectral radiance of a series of LED electric torches and infrared sources were measured by using the new developed system, and potential radiation hazards of retinal blue light hazard and retinal thermal hazard are calculated and evaluated. The optical radiation hazards of some samples are listed in Risk Group 2 (Moderate-Risk).

  10. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  11. Derivation methods for clearance levels and safety assessments for very low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru

    2001-01-01

    The clearance level was evaluated by the dose of concrete and metal when they would be recycled and reused from shallow land burial of radioactive facilities. The state of waste after clearance is not specified, so that we studied large scale of exposure pathways. The parameter values used for safety assessment were determined as the average values under the consideration of natural and social environment in Japan. Propriety of these values was confirmed by a probability analysis. On the safety assessment of very low-level waste disposal facility, the disposer pathway and parameters were determined under the consideration of special site conditions (natural and social environment) and properties of waste. However, the same exposure pathway of them used the same model for external (exposure by sky shine' s ray) and internal exposure. The calculation results of estimated pathway showed 1.2x10 -5 mSv/y the largest dose for the external exposure pathway by sky shine's ray. (S.Y.)

  12. Research on consequence analysis method for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear fuel facilities (5). Evaluation method and trial evaluation of criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yuichi; Abe, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Ken; Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Arisawa, Jun; Hayami, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    A special committee of 'Research on the analysis methods for accident consequence of nuclear fuel facilities (NFFs)' was organized by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) under the entrustment of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The committee aims to research on the state-of-the-art consequence analysis method for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NFFs, such as fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. The objectives of this research are to obtain information useful for establishing quantitative performance objectives and to demonstrate risk-informed regulation through qualifying issues needed to be resolved for applying PSA to NFFs. The research activities of the committee were mainly focused on the consequence analysis method for postulated accidents with potentially large consequences in NFFs, e.g., events of criticality, spill of molten glass, hydrogen explosion, boiling of radioactive solution and fire (including the rapid decomposition of TBP complexes), resulting in the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The results of the research were summarized in a series of six reports, which consist of a review report and five technical ones. In this report, the evaluation methods of criticality accident, such as simplified methods, one-point reactor kinetics codes and quasi-static method, were investigated and their features were summarized to provide information useful for the safety evaluation of NFFs. In addition, several trial evaluations were performed for a hypothetical scenario of criticality accident using the investigated methods, and their results were compared. The release fraction of volatile fission products in a criticality accident was also investigated. (author)

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Traditional Training Methods in Non-Traditional Training Programs for Adult Learners through a Pre-Test/Post-Test Comparison of Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Caleb D.; Burris, Scott; Fraze, Steve; Doerfert, David; McCulloch, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of hot and cold food bars into grocery stores in an effort to capture a portion of the home meal replacement industry is presenting new challenges for retail food establishments. To ensure retail success and customer safety, employees need to be educated in food safety practices. Traditional methods of training are not meeting…

  14. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Methods and data for HTGR fuel performance and radionuclide release modeling during normal operation and accidents for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.; Martin, R.C.; Moormann, R.

    1993-01-01

    The previous status report released in 1987 on reference data and calculation models for fission product transport in High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) safety analyses has been updated to reflect the current state of knowledge in the German HTGR program. The content of the status report has been expanded to include information from other national programs in HTGRs to provide comparative information on methods of analysis and the underlying database for fuel performance and fission product transport. The release and transport of fission products during normal operating conditions and during the accident scenarios of core heatup, water and air ingress, and depressurization are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. A human reliability based usability evaluation method for safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, R. L.; Tran, T. Q.; Gertman, D. I.; Ragsdale, A.

    2006-01-01

    Boring and Gertman (2005) introduced a novel method that augments heuristic usability evaluation methods with that of the human reliability analysis method of SPAR-H. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to individual heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). Although this UEP is not a literal probability of error, it nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. This method allows one to seamlessly prioritize and identify usability issues (i.e., a higher UEP requires more immediate fixes). However, the original version of this method required the usability evaluator to assign priority weights to the final UEP, thus allowing the priority of a usability issue to differ among usability evaluators. The purpose of this paper is to explore an alternative approach to standardize the priority weighting of the UEP in an effort to improve the method's reliability. (authors)

  17. Lessons learned from HRA and human-system modeling efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    Human-System modeling is not unique to the field of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). Since human factors professionals first began their explorations of human activities, they have done so with the concept of open-quotes systemclose quotes in mind. Though the two - human and system - are distinct, they can be properly understood only in terms of each other: the system provides a context in which goals and objectives for work are defined, and the human plays either a pre-defined or ad hoc role in meeting these goals. In this sense, every intervention which attempts to evaluate or improve upon some system parameter requires that an understanding of human-system interactions be developed. It is too often the case, however, that somewhere between the inception of a system and its implementation, the human-system relationships are overlooked, misunderstood, or inadequately framed. This results in mismatches between demands versus capabilities of human operators, systems which are difficult to operate, and the obvious end product-human error. The lessons learned from human system modeling provide a valuable feedback mechanism to the process of HRA, and the technologies which employ this form of modeling

  18. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Wahl, K.; Steele, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular focus on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY)

  19. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk

  20. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reisinger, K.; Hoffmann, S.; Alépée, N.; Ashikaga, T.; Barroso, J.; Elcombe, C.; Gellatly, N.; Galbiati, V.; Gibbs, S.; Groux, H.; Hibatallah, J.; Keller, D.; Kern, P.; Klaric, M.; Kolle, S.; Kuehnl, J.; Lambrechts, N.; Lindstedt, M.; Millet, M.; Martinozzi-Teissier, S.; Natsch, A.; Petersohn, D.; Pike, I.; Sakaguchi, H.; Schepky, A.; Tailhardat, M.; Templier, M.; van Vliet, E; Maxwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has

  1. Method for assessing reliability of a network considering probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.

    2005-01-01

    A method for assessment of reliability of the network is developed, which uses the features of the fault tree analysis. The method is developed in a way that the increase of the network under consideration does not require significant increase of the model. The method is applied to small examples of network consisting of a small number of nodes and a small number of their connections. The results give the network reliability. They identify equipment, which is to be carefully maintained in order that the network reliability is not reduced, and equipment, which is a candidate for redundancy, as this would improve network reliability significantly. (author)

  2. The development of calculational methods and assessment standards for AGR refuelling safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.W.; Grant, R.J.; Thomas, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the methods used to assess the protection needed against hazards in the AGR fuel route. These methods are all directed towards the objective of showing that all postulated events taking place during refuelling are acceptable within agreed criteria of severity versus frequency. The methods allow the determination of temperatures arising in various hazards, from which estimates can be made of the radiological release, if any, which would occur. Comparison of this estimate with the level considered acceptable at the fault frequency leads to the requirement for protection. (author)

  3. Search for a transport method for the calculation of the PWR control and safety clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, G.B.; Van Frank, C.; Vergain, M.L.; Chauvin, J.P.; Palmiotti, G.; Nobile, M.

    1990-01-01

    The project studies of power reactors rely mainly on diffusion calculations, but transport ones are often needed for assessing fine effects, intimately linked to geometry and spectrum heterogeneities. Accurate transport computations are necessary, in particular, for shielded cross section generation, and when homogenization and dishomogenization processes are involved. The transport codes, generally, offer the user a variety of computational options, related to different approximation levels. In every case, it is obviously desirable to be able to choose the reliable degree of approximation to be accepted in any particular computational circumstance of the project. The search for such adapted procedures is to be made on the basis of critical experiments. In our studies, this task was made possible by the availability of suitable results of the CAMELEON critical experiment, carried on in the EOLE facility at CEA's Center of Cadarache. In this paper, we summarize some of the work in progress at FRAMATOME on the definition of an assembly based transport calculation scheme to be used for PWR control and safety cluster computations. Two main items, devoted to the search of the optimum computational procedures, are presented here: - a parametrical study on computational options, made in an infinite medium assembly geometry, - a series of comparisons between calculated and experimental values of pin power distribution

  4. Methods for the computerized control of nuclear power plants for improved safety, quality, and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this research project was to translate the Total Quality Control (TQC) management system to the operation of nuclear power plants. This work began on September 30, 1986 and continued through December 30, 1988 at an original funding level of $251,000. Four graduate research assistants were employed during the two year project period, with all four completing master's level degree theses or projects. In addition, several papers were presented at technical conferences regarding this work. Currently, one paper has been accepted for publication in the journal of Operations Research, and two more papers are currently being written for submission in the near future. The project also received favorable publicity at the university and elsewhere. The major findings of this work was that, indeed, the Japanese management system of Total Quality Control (TQC) may be applied to nuclear power plant operation to achieve enhanced safety and increased efficiency. Two utilities are already heavily engaged in implementing TQC at their nuclear power plants: the Kansai Electric Company of Osaka, Japan and the Florida Power and Light Company of Miami, Florida. We have documented in detail the progress of these utilities in their attempts to implement TQC, as well as highlighting ''success stories'' of TQC implementation in other industries

  5. Review of best estimate plus uncertainty methods of thermal-hydraulic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosek, A.; Mavko, B.

    2003-01-01

    In 1988 United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the revised rule on the acceptance of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) performance. Since that there has been significant interest in the development of codes and methodologies for best-estimate loss-of-coolant accident (LOCAs) analyses. Several new best estimate plus uncertainty methods (BEPUs) were developed in the world. The purpose of the paper is to review the developments in the direction of best estimate approaches with uncertainty quantification and to discuss the problems in practical applications of BEPU methods. In general, the licensee methods are following original methods. The study indicated that uncertainty analysis with random sampling of input parameters and the use of order statistics for desired tolerance limits of output parameters is today commonly accepted and mature approach. (author)

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  7. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children’s Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O’Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children’s Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. PMID:26949970

  8. Safety assessment for electricity generation failure accident of gas cooled nuclear power plant using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The power production failure happens in the loss of coolant of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The air ingress is a serious accident in gas cooled NPPs. The quantification of the study performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulation, which is performed by the Monte-Carlo method. Two kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties are important in NPPs. The result shows the stability of the operation when the power can be decided. The maximum value of risk is the 11.77 in 43rd and the minimum value is 0.0 in several years. So, the success of the circulation of coolant is simulated by the dynamical values. (orig.)

  9. Data and methods for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue, highway safety and long-term driver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Hal S; Blower, Daniel; Cohen, Michael L; Czeisler, Charles A; Dinges, David F; Greenhouse, Joel B; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J; Hartenbaum, Natalie P; Krueger, Gerald P; Mallis, Melissa M; Pain, Richard F; Rizzo, Matthew; Sinha, Esha; Small, Dylan S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Wegman, David H

    2018-03-09

    This article summarizes the recommendations on data and methodology issues for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue of a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine study. A framework is provided that identifies the various factors affecting driver fatigue and relating driver fatigue to crash risk and long-term driver health. The relevant factors include characteristics of the driver, vehicle, carrier and environment. Limitations of existing data are considered and potential sources of additional data described. Statistical methods that can be used to improve understanding of the relevant relationships from observational data are also described. The recommendations for enhanced data collection and the use of modern statistical methods for causal inference have the potential to enhance our understanding of the relationship of fatigue to highway safety and to long-term driver health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing a Prototype ALHAT Human System Interface for Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the

  11. An overview of modeling methods for thermal mixing and stratification in large enclosures for reactor safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2010-10-01

    Thermal mixing and stratification phenomena play major roles in the safety of reactor systems with large enclosures, such as containment safety in current fleet of LWRs, long-term passive containment cooling in Gen III+ plants including AP-1000 and ESBWR, the cold and hot pool mixing in pool type sodium cooled fast reactor systems (SFR), and reactor cavity cooling system behavior in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), etc. Depending on the fidelity requirement and computational resources, 0-D steady state models (heat transfer correlations), 0-D lumped parameter based transient models, 1-D physical-based coarse grain models, and 3-D CFD models are available. Current major system analysis codes either have no models or only 0-D models for thermal stratification and mixing, which can only give highly approximate results for simple cases. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries. Due to prohibitive computational expenses for long transients in very large volumes, 3-D CFD simulations remain impractical for system analyses. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, UC Berkeley developed 1-D models basing on Zuber’s hierarchical two-tiered scaling analysis (HTTSA) method where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. This paper will present an overview on important thermal mixing and stratification phenomena in large enclosures for different reactors, major modeling methods and their advantages and limits, potential paths to improve simulation capability and reduce analysis uncertainty in this area for advanced reactor system analysis tools.

  12. Optimized method of dispersion of titanium dioxide nanoparticles for evaluation of safety aspects in cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Karina Penedo, E-mail: carvalho.kp@gmail.com; Martins, Nathalia Balthazar; Ribeiro, Ana Rosa Lopes Pereira; Lopes, Taliria Silva [National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Laboratory of Tissue Bioengineering, Division of Materials Applied To Life Sciences (Brazil); Sena, Rodrigo Caciano de [National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Laboratory of Inorganic Analysis, Division of Chemical Metrology (Brazil); Sommer, Pascal [Institute of Biology and Chemistry of Proteins (IBCP), Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering (France); Granjeiro, José Mauro [National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Laboratory of Tissue Bioengineering, Division of Materials Applied To Life Sciences (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    Nanoparticles agglomerate when in contact with biological solutions, depending on the solutions’ nature. The agglomeration state will directly influence cellular response, since free nanoparticles are prone to interact with cells and get absorbed into them. In sunscreens, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}-NPs) form mainly aggregates between 30 and 150 nm. Until now, no toxicological study with skin cells has reached this range of size distribution. Therefore, in order to reliably evaluate their safety, it is essential to prepare suspensions with reproducibility, irrespective of the biological solution used, representing the above particle size distribution range of NPs (30–150 nm) found on sunscreens. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a unique protocol of TiO{sub 2} dispersion, combining these features after dilution in different skin cell culture media, for in vitro tests. This new protocol was based on physicochemical characteristics of TiO{sub 2}, which led to the choice of the optimal pH condition for ultrasonication. The next step consisted of stabilization of protein capping with acidified bovine serum albumin, followed by an adjustment of pH to 7.0. At each step, the solutions were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The final concentration of NPs was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Finally, when diluted in dulbecco’s modified eagle medium, melanocytes growth medium, or keratinocytes growth medium, TiO{sub 2}–NPs displayed a highly reproducible size distribution, within the desired size range and without significant differences among the media. Together, these results demonstrate the consistency achieved by this new methodology and its suitability for in vitro tests involving skin cell cultures.

  13. Optimized method of dispersion of titanium dioxide nanoparticles for evaluation of safety aspects in cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Karina Penedo; Martins, Nathalia Balthazar; Ribeiro, Ana Rosa Lopes Pereira; Lopes, Taliria Silva; Sena, Rodrigo Caciano de; Sommer, Pascal; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles agglomerate when in contact with biological solutions, depending on the solutions’ nature. The agglomeration state will directly influence cellular response, since free nanoparticles are prone to interact with cells and get absorbed into them. In sunscreens, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO_2-NPs) form mainly aggregates between 30 and 150 nm. Until now, no toxicological study with skin cells has reached this range of size distribution. Therefore, in order to reliably evaluate their safety, it is essential to prepare suspensions with reproducibility, irrespective of the biological solution used, representing the above particle size distribution range of NPs (30–150 nm) found on sunscreens. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a unique protocol of TiO_2 dispersion, combining these features after dilution in different skin cell culture media, for in vitro tests. This new protocol was based on physicochemical characteristics of TiO_2, which led to the choice of the optimal pH condition for ultrasonication. The next step consisted of stabilization of protein capping with acidified bovine serum albumin, followed by an adjustment of pH to 7.0. At each step, the solutions were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The final concentration of NPs was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Finally, when diluted in dulbecco’s modified eagle medium, melanocytes growth medium, or keratinocytes growth medium, TiO_2–NPs displayed a highly reproducible size distribution, within the desired size range and without significant differences among the media. Together, these results demonstrate the consistency achieved by this new methodology and its suitability for in vitro tests involving skin cell cultures.

  14. Safety assessment of a shallow foundation using the random finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaskórski, Łukasz; Puła, Wojciech

    2015-04-01

    A complex structure of soil and its random character are reasons why soil modeling is a cumbersome task. Heterogeneity of soil has to be considered even within a homogenous layer of soil. Therefore an estimation of shear strength parameters of soil for the purposes of a geotechnical analysis causes many problems. In applicable standards (Eurocode 7) there is not presented any explicit method of an evaluation of characteristic values of soil parameters. Only general guidelines can be found how these values should be estimated. Hence many approaches of an assessment of characteristic values of soil parameters are presented in literature and can be applied in practice. In this paper, the reliability assessment of a shallow strip footing was conducted using a reliability index β. Therefore some approaches of an estimation of characteristic values of soil properties were compared by evaluating values of reliability index β which can be achieved by applying each of them. Method of Orr and Breysse, Duncan's method, Schneider's method, Schneider's method concerning influence of fluctuation scales and method included in Eurocode 7 were examined. Design values of the bearing capacity based on these approaches were referred to the stochastic bearing capacity estimated by the random finite element method (RFEM). Design values of the bearing capacity were conducted for various widths and depths of a foundation in conjunction with design approaches DA defined in Eurocode. RFEM was presented by Griffiths and Fenton (1993). It combines deterministic finite element method, random field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Random field theory allows to consider a random character of soil parameters within a homogenous layer of soil. For this purpose a soil property is considered as a separate random variable in every element of a mesh in the finite element method with proper correlation structure between points of given area. RFEM was applied to estimate which theoretical

  15. Methods and Case Studies for Teaching and Learning about Failure and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Discusses methods for analyzing case studies of failures of technological systems. Describes two distance learning courses that compare standard models of failure and success with the actuality of given scenarios. Provides teaching and learning materials and information sources for application to aspects of design, manufacture, inspection, use,…

  16. Safety assessment of a steel frame using LRFD and SBRA methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavek, L.; Chen, I.H.; Marek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-72 ISSN 1084-0680 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/07/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : structural reliability * probabilistic reliability assessment, * Monte Carlo method Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  18. Coupling finite elements and reliability methods - application to safety evaluation of pressurized water reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, P.; Venturini, V.

    1995-02-01

    When reliability studies are extended form deterministic calculations in mechanics, it is necessary to take into account input parameters variabilities which are linked to the different sources of uncertainty. Integrals must then be calculated to evaluate the failure risk. This can be performed either by simulation methods, or by approximations ones (FORM/SORM). Model in mechanics often require to perform calculation codes. These ones must then be coupled with the reliability calculations. Theses codes can involve large calculation times when they are invoked numerous times during simulations sequences or in complex iterative procedures. Response surface method gives an approximation of the real response from a reduced number of points for which the finite element code is run. Thus, when it is combined with FORM/SORM methods, a coupling can be carried out which gives results in a reasonable calculation time. An application of response surface method to mechanics reliability coupling for a mechanical model which calls for a finite element code is presented. It corresponds to a probabilistic fracture mechanics study of a pressurized water reactor vessel. (authors). 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Study of the cost-benefit analysis method for safety. Meeting of the Permanent Group in charge of nuclear reactors on the 5 July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    After a recall of the history of the issue of third decennial visit of the 900 MW reactors, of the IRSN preliminary analysis, of elements given to the Permanent Group, of requests made by the ASN, and a presentation of the analysis performed by the IRSN, this large report presents the cost-benefit analysis method and its potential applications (principle, cost assessment, safety assessment, examples) and reports international experience gained in this area: the risk-informed approach (within the IAEA, in the USA, France and other European countries, the specific cost-benefit approach), existing cost-benefit type methods (comparison between methods used in the USA, in France and in Canada), and monetary assessment of accidents. It reports the application of the cost-benefit method for safety and its limitations, and then its application to modifications which have been implemented after safety re-examinations. It discusses the use of level 1 and 2 safety probabilistic studies, and reports the use of a cost-benefit method for safety within the frame of safety re-examinations

  20. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the

  1. A fluid-solid finite element method for the analysis of reactor safety problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Santanu; Kumar, Ashutosh; Sinhamahapatra, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    The work presented herein can broadly be categorized as a fluid-structure interaction problem. The response of a circular cylindrical structure subjected to cross flow is examined using the finite element method for both the liquid and the structure domains. The cylindrical tube is mounted elastically at the ends and is free to move under the action of the unsteady flow-induced forces. The fluid is considered to be acoustic compressible and viscous. A Galerkin finite element method implemented on a triangular mesh is used to solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The cylinder motion is modeled using a five-degrees of freedom generalized shell element structural dynamics model. The numerical simulations of the response of the calandria tubes/pressure tubes, adjustor rod and shut-off rod of a nuclear reactor are presented. A few typical results are presented to assess the accuracy and applicability of the developed modules

  2. The Pedestrian Detection Method Using an Extension Background Subtraction about the Driving Safety Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Noriaki; Date, Kei; Tokumaru, Masataka; Imanishi, Shigeru

    In recent years, the traffic accident occurs frequently with explosion of traffic density. Therefore, we think that the safe and comfortable transportation system to defend the pedestrian who is the traffic weak is necessary. First, we detect and recognize the pedestrian (the crossing person) by the image processing. Next, we inform all the drivers of the right or left turn that the pedestrian exists by the sound and the image and so on. By prompting a driver to do safe driving in this way, the accident to the pedestrian can decrease. In this paper, we are using a background subtraction method for the movement detection of the movement object. In the background subtraction method, the update method in the background was important, and as for the conventional way, the threshold values of the subtraction processing and background update were identical. That is, the mixing rate of the input image and the background image of the background update was a fixation value, and the fine tuning which corresponded to the environment change of the weather was difficult. Therefore, we propose the update method of the background image that the estimated mistake is difficult to be amplified. We experiment and examines in the comparison about five cases of sunshine, cloudy, evening, rain, sunlight change, except night. This technique can set separately the threshold values of the subtraction processing and background update processing which suited the environmental condition of the weather and so on. Therefore, the fine tuning becomes possible freely in the mixing rate of the input image and the background image of the background update. Because the setting of the parameter which suited an environmental condition becomes important to minimize mistaking percentage, we examine about the setting of a parameter.

  3. Effective and efficient software development method for real time safety systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoj, P.; Parimalam, P.; Shanmugam, A.; Murali, N.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the effective and efficient methods for developing application software for Distributed Real Time Systems for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. It discusses the effective ways to reduce the language and syntax errors while capturing the requirements. This paper suggests an efficient way of requirements capture and coding application software for I and C systems so that the quality factors of the software such as reliability, maintainability and testability are improved. (author)

  4. Safety and reliability of pressure components with special emphasis on advanced methods of NDT. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    24 papers discuss various methods for nondestructive testing of materials, e.g. eddy current measurement, EMAG analyser, tomography, ultrasound, holographic interferometry, and optical sound field camera. Special consideration is given to mathematical programmes and tests allowing to determine fracture-mechanical parameters and to assess cracks in various components, system parts and individual specimens both in pressurized systems and NPP systems. Studies focus on weld seams and adjacent areas. (DG) [de

  5. Quantitative assessment of probability of failing safely for the safety instrumented system using reliability block diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Pang, Lei; Zhao, Shoutang; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of PFS for SIS were established by using the reliability block diagram. • The more accurate calculation of PFS for SIS can be acquired by using SL. • Degraded operation of complex SIS does not affect the availability of SIS. • The safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS of SIS. - Abstract: The spurious trip of safety instrumented system (SIS) brings great economic losses to production. How to ensure the safety instrumented system is reliable and available has been put on the schedule. But the existing models on spurious trip rate (STR) or probability of failing safely (PFS) are too simplified and not accurate, in-depth studies of availability to obtain more accurate PFS for SIS are required. Based on the analysis of factors that influence the PFS for the SIS, using reliability block diagram method (RBD), the quantitative study of PFS for the SIS is carried out, and gives some application examples. The results show that, the common cause failure will increase the PFS; degraded operation does not affect the availability of the SIS; if the equipment was tested and repaired one by one, the unavailability of the SIS can be ignored; the corresponding occurrence time of independent safe undetected failure should be the system lifecycle (SL) rather than the proof test interval and the independent safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS for the SIS

  6. Simulated settings; powerful arenas for learning patient safety practices and facilitating transference to clinical practice. A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reime, Marit Hegg; Johnsgaard, Tone; Kvam, Fred Ivan; Aarflot, Morten; Breivik, Marit; Engeberg, Janecke Merethe; Brattebø, Guttorm

    2016-11-01

    Poor teamwork is an important factor in the occurrence of critical incidents because of a lack of non-technical skills. Team training can be a key to prevent these incidents. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of nursing and medical students after a simulation-based interprofessional team training (SBITT) course and its impact on professional and patient safety practices, using a concurrent mixed-method design. The participants (n = 262) were organized into 44 interprofessional teams. The results showed that two training sequences the same day improved overall team performance. Making mistakes during SBITT appeared to improve the quality of patient care once the students returned to clinical practice as it made the students more vigilant. Furthermore, the video-assisted oral debriefing provided an opportunity to strengthen interprofessional teamwork and share situational awareness. SBITT gave the students an opportunity to practice clinical reasoning skills and to share professional knowledge. The students conveyed the importance of learning to speak up to ensure safe patient practices. Simulated settings seem to be powerful arenas for learning patient safety practices and facilitating transference of this awareness to clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human-system interface for CAREM nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaurre, Norberto F.; Flury, Celso A.; Pierini, Juan P.; Etchepareborda, Andres; Breitembuecher, Alfredo J.; Lema, Fabian M.

    2009-01-01

    Associated with activities to be developed by our working group on the construction of the reactor training simulator for the CAREM, we have planned the design of human-system interface (HSI) of the main control room. The goal of this study is to describe the planning and methodology used for the HSI interface design. The products of this process are the layout specifications of the Control Room and the screens specifications for control software. (author)

  8. Human Systems Integration in Practice: Constellation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program provided a unique testbed for Human Systems Integration (HSI) as a fundamental element of the Systems Engineering process. Constellation was the first major program to have HSI mandated by NASA's Human Rating document. Proper HSI is critical to the success of any project that relies on humans to function as operators, maintainers, or controllers of a system. HSI improves mission, system and human performance, significantly reduces lifecycle costs, lowers risk and minimizes re-design. Successful HSI begins with sufficient project schedule dedicated to the generation of human systems requirements, but is by no means solely a requirements management process. A top-down systems engineering process that recognizes throughout the organization, human factors as a technical discipline equal to traditional engineering disciplines with authority for the overall system. This partners with a bottoms-up mechanism for human-centered design and technical issue resolution. The Constellation Human Systems Integration Group (HSIG) was a part of the Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) organization within the program office, and existed alongside similar groups such as Flight Performance, Environments & Constraints, and Integrated Loads, Structures and Mechanisms. While the HSIG successfully managed, via influence leadership, a down-and-in Community of Practice to facilitate technical integration and issue resolution, it lacked parallel top-down authority to drive integrated design. This presentation will discuss how HSI was applied to Constellation, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers. This presentation will discuss how Human Systems Integration (HSI) was applied to NASA's Constellation program, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers on how to accomplish this critical function.

  9. NASA UAS Integration into the NAS Project: Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work the Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project has done on detect and avoid (DAA) displays while working on the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) Integration into the NAS project. The most recent simulation on DAA interoperability with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is discussed in the most detail. The relationship of the work to the larger UAS community and next steps are also detailed.

  10. Health, safety and environment risk assessment in gas pipelines by indexing method:case of Kermanshah Sanandaj oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamidi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsUsing pipelines for oil products transportation involves ranges of safety, health and environmental risks, this option however, is dominant with numerous  advantages. The purpose of this study was; relative risk assessment of abovementioned risk in Kermanshah-Sanandaj Oil Pipeline.MethodsThe method used in this study was Kent Muhlbauer method in which relative risk was assessed using third-party damage, corrosion, design, incorrect operations and leak impact  factor.ResultsOnce applying this method, collection of required data and performing needed experiments, scoring results showed 96 risk segments along the pipeline length in which lengths 100+860, 101+384 and 103+670 had relative risk scores 9.74, 9.82 and 9.91 respectively and therefore these segments were identified as focal risk points and priority for improvement actions.ConclusionRegarding importance of pipeline failure, inspection and regular patrol along the pipeline route, precise control of cathodic protection of pipeline and using communication technologies such as SCADA or optical fibers along the pipeline route were amongst the mostimportant control action suggested by the study.

  11. Probabilistic methods applied to the safety of nuclear power plant: annual report - 1980. Part. 1: theoretical fundaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Hesles, J.B.S.; Milidiu, R.L.; Maciel, C.C.; Gibelli, S.M.O.; Oliveira, L.C.; Fleming, P.V.; Rivera, R.R.J.

    1981-02-01

    The probabilistic Safety Analysis Group from COPPE was founded in 1980. This first part of the report shows the theoretical fundaments used for reliability analysis of some safety systems for Angra-1 [pt

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Contraceptive Methods for Obese and Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotke, Pamela S; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity have become a major public health challenge. Given the added health risks that obese women have during pregnancy, preventing unwanted pregnancy is imperative. Clinicians who provide contraception must understand the efficacy, risks, and the weight changes associated with various contraceptive methods. Despite differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of hormonal contraceptives in overweight and obese women, efficacy does not appear to be severely impacted. Both estrogen-containing contraceptives and obesity increase the risk of venous thromboembolism, but the absolute risk remains acceptably low in reproductive age women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1993 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic constituents in Hanford waste tanks, with particular emphasis on those tanks that have been assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY, obtained during the window E core sampling, have been analyzed for organic constituents. Four of the samples were from the upper region, or convective layer, of the tank and two were from the lower, nonconvective layer. The samples were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitroso-iminodiacetic acid (NIDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), citric acid (CA), succinic acid (SA), and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A). The chelator of highest concentration was EDTA in all six samples analyzed. Liquid chromatography (LC) was used to quantitate low molecular weight acids (LMWA) including oxalic, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids, which are present in the waste as acid salts. From 23 to 61% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the samples analyzed was accounted for by these acids. Oxalate constituted approximately 40% of the TOC in the nonconvective layer samples. Oxalate was found to be approximately 3 to 4 times higher in concentration in the nonconvective layer than in the convective layer. During FY 1993, LC methods for analyzing LWMA, and two chelators N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid and EDTA, were transferred to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and the 222-S laboratory.

  14. Methods for estimating the labour force insured by the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board: 1990-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A; Payne, Jennifer I

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for estimating the size and composition of the Ontario labour force eligible for coverage under the Ontario Workplace Safety & Insurance Act (WSIA). Using customized tabulations from Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey (LFS), we made adjustments for self-employment, unemployment, part-time employment and employment in specific industrial sectors excluded from insurance coverage under the WSIA. Each adjustment to the LFS reduced the estimates of the insured labour force relative to the total Ontario labour force. These estimates were then developed for major occupational and industrial groups stratified by gender. Additional estimates created to test assumptions used in the methodology produced similar results. The methods described in this paper advance those previously used to estimate the insured labour force, providing researchers with a useful tool to describe trends in the rate of injury across differing occupational, industrial and gender groups in Ontario.

  15. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ksjeongl@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo [Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-ro, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  16. Development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seher, Holger; Beuth, Thomas; Bracke, Guido; Kock, Ingo; Mayer, Kim-Marisa; Moog, Helge C.; Uhlmann, Stephan; Weyand, Torben

    2016-09-01

    The project ''development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases'' covers the following key aspects: global aspects of the methodology for scenario assumption for the operational phase following closure, potential analysis of the derives safety cases for the project Gorleben, determination of the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes using geochemical modeling calculations, search for an adequate approach for the calculation of density and viscosity of saline solutions for the future use in GRS computer codes, international approaches for an integral analysis for the host rocks clay and granite in relation to the safety requirements of BMUB.

  17. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed [FUM Radiation Detection And Measurement Laboratory, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The {sup 252}Cf radioisotope and {sup 241}Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be sources.

  18. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Illobre, Luis Fernandez; Ortega Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user. (authors)

  19. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  20. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando [Tecnatom S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes (Spain). Simulation and Control Rooms Div.

    2015-07-15

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  1. BE-2004: International meeting on updates in best estimate methods in nuclear installation safety analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    BE-2004 is the second in a series of embedded conferences that focus on generating and sustaining the dialogue regarding the use of best estimate plus uncertainty tools to license operational and advanced nuclear systems. The first conference in the series was held during the 2000 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting in Washington. BE-2004 is international in scope, as evidenced by the multinational sources of the papers, and is intended to serve as an opportunity for information exchange between research scientists, practicing engineers, and regulators. However, as appropriate to a follow-on conference, the primary theme of BE-2004 is to provide updates reflecting the progress in best estimate methodologies in the last four years. Examples include research activities that evolved from the current Generation-IV initiative and other new designs [Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), etc.], core design and neutronic calculations that support best estimate analysis, use of advanced methodologies to produce plant licensing procedures competitive with best estimate methods, and of course current philosophical and technical issues that need to be considered in implementing best estimate codes as an established part of the international licensing framework

  2. Development of probabilistic methods for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.; Boehme, E.; Fuhrmann, C.; Musekamp, W.; Neumann, L.; Rumpf, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have worked out a comprehensive analytical concept for CCF event evaluation which is based on the international experience on the analysis of dependent failures and our own experiences from evaluating plant operation. The concept was discussed with utilities in Germany and from abroad. The CCF approach differs from other methods because it is strictly structured according to the CCF events and independent from any CCF model which is used in a PSA. Because of this attribute the concept is due to be used in the operational reviewing process by plant staff. We have an ongoing discussion with utilities on how to integrate this concept in practical plant site use. In addition we have recommended to adapt the main features of this concept in the PSA guideline. Plant management factors: Evaluations in different industries reveal a strong impact of organisational and management factors on the course of severe accidents. Because these factors cannot explicitly be measured they are not treated in a PSA today. Comprehensive development work is under way to gain an improved insight into the influence of these risk relevant factors. These activities are specifically aimed at root cause analyses of accidents, e.g. to uncover hidden organisational and management factors. NPP staff should be integrated in this analysis process. Living PSA application can play an important role in this development process. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Evaluation of methods and tools to develop safety concepts and to demonstrate safety for an HLW repository in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Buhmann, D.; Doerr, S.; and others

    2017-03-15

    Salt formations have been the preferred option as host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive waste in Germany for more than 40 years. During this period comprehensive geological investigations have been carried out together with a broad spectrum of concept and safety related R and D work. The behaviour of an HLW repository in salt formations, particularly in salt domes, has been analysed in terms of assessment of the total system performance. This was first carried out for concepts of generic waste repositories in salt and, since 1998, for a repository concept with specific boundary conditions, taking the geology of the Gorleben salt dome as an example. Suitable repository concepts and designs were developed, the technical feasibility has been proven and operational and long-term safety evaluated. Numerical modelling is an important input into the development of a comprehensive safety case for a waste repository. Significant progress in the development of numerical tools and their application for long-term safe ty assessment has been made in the last two decades. An integrated approach has been used in which the repository concept and relevant scientific and engineering data are combined with the results from iterative safety assessments to increase the clarity and the traceability of the evaluation. A safety concept that takes full credit of the favourable properties of salt formations was developed in the course of the R and D project ISIBEL, which started in 2005. This concept is based on the safe containment of radioactive waste in a specific part of the host rock formation, termed the containment providing rock zone, which comprises the geological barrier, the geotechnical barriers and the compacted backfill. The future evolution of the repository system will be analysed using a catalogue of Features, Events and Processes (FEP), scenario development and numerical analysis, all of which are adapted to suit the safety concept. Key elements of the

  4. Evaluation of methods and tools to develop safety concepts and to demonstrate safety for an HLW repository in salt. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Buhmann, D.; Doerr, S.

    2017-03-01

    Salt formations have been the preferred option as host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive waste in Germany for more than 40 years. During this period comprehensive geological investigations have been carried out together with a broad spectrum of concept and safety related R and D work. The behaviour of an HLW repository in salt formations, particularly in salt domes, has been analysed in terms of assessment of the total system performance. This was first carried out for concepts of generic waste repositories in salt and, since 1998, for a repository concept with specific boundary conditions, taking the geology of the Gorleben salt dome as an example. Suitable repository concepts and designs were developed, the technical feasibility has been proven and operational and long-term safety evaluated. Numerical modelling is an important input into the development of a comprehensive safety case for a waste repository. Significant progress in the development of numerical tools and their application for long-term safe ty assessment has been made in the last two decades. An integrated approach has been used in which the repository concept and relevant scientific and engineering data are combined with the results from iterative safety assessments to increase the clarity and the traceability of the evaluation. A safety concept that takes full credit of the favourable properties of salt formations was developed in the course of the R and D project ISIBEL, which started in 2005. This concept is based on the safe containment of radioactive waste in a specific part of the host rock formation, termed the containment providing rock zone, which comprises the geological barrier, the geotechnical barriers and the compacted backfill. The future evolution of the repository system will be analysed using a catalogue of Features, Events and Processes (FEP), scenario development and numerical analysis, all of which are adapted to suit the safety concept. Key elements of the

  5. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  6. A Methods and procedures to apply probabilistic safety Assessment (PSA) techniques to the cobalt-therapy process. Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaragut Llanes, J.J.; Ferro Fernandez, R.; Lozano Lima, B; De la Fuente Puch, A.; Dumenigo Gonzalez, C.; Troncoso Fleitas, M.; Perez Reyes, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) to the Cobalt Therapy Process, which was performed as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to Investigate Appropriate Methods and Procedures to Apply Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Techniques to Large Radiation Sources. The primary methodological tools used in the analysis were Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Event Trees and Fault Trees. These tools were used to evaluate occupational, public and medical exposures during cobalt therapy treatment. The emphasis of the study was on the radiological protection of patients. During the course of the PSA, several findings were analysed concerning the cobalt treatment process. In relation with the Undesired Events Probabilities, the lowest exposures probabilities correspond to the public exposures during the treatment process (Z21); around 10-10 per year, being the workers exposures (Z11); around 10-4 per year. Regarding to the patient, the Z33 probabilities prevail (not desired dose to normal tissue) and Z34 (not irradiated portion to target volume). Patient accidental exposures are also classified in terms of the extent to which the error is likely to affect individual treatments, individual patients, or all the patients treated on a specific unit. Sensitivity analyses were realised to determine the influence of certain tasks or critical stages on the results. As a conclusion the study establishes that the PSA techniques may effectively and reasonably determine the risk associated to the cobalt-therapy treatment process, though there are some weaknesses in its methodological application for this kind of study requiring further research. These weaknesses are due to the fact that the traditional PSA has been mainly applied to complex hardware systems designed to operate with a high automation level, whilst the cobalt therapy treatment is a relatively simple hardware system with a

  7. Advanced methods for a probabilistic safety analysis of fires. Development of advanced methods for performing as far as possible realistic plant specific fire risk analysis (fire PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, E.; Roewekamp, M.; Tuerschmann, M.

    2003-07-01

    In the frame of the research project RS 1112 'Development of Methods for a Recent Probabilistic Safety Analysis, Particularly Level 2' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), advanced methods, in particular for performing as far as possible realistic plant specific fire risk analyses (fire PSA), should be developed. The present Technical Report gives an overview on the methodologies developed in this context for assessing the fire hazard. In the context of developing advanced methodologies for fire PSA, a probabilistic dynamics analysis with a fire simulation code including an uncertainty and sensitivity study has been performed for an exemplary scenario of a cable fire induced by an electric cabinet inside the containment of a modern Konvoi type German nuclear power plant taking into consideration the effects of fire detection and fire extinguishing means. With the present study, it was possible for the first time to determine the probabilities of specified fire effects from a class of fire events by means of probabilistic dynamics supplemented by uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The analysis applies a deterministic dynamics model, consisting of a dynamic fire simulation code and a model of countermeasures, considering effects of the stochastics (so-called aleatory uncertainties) as well as uncertainties in the state of knowledge (so-called epistemic uncertainties). By this means, probability assessments including uncertainties are provided to be used within the PSA. (orig.) [de

  8. Application and problems of probability methods in technical safety assessment in the field of nuclear engineering and other technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiak, E.; Schuetz, B.

    1980-01-01

    The authors explain purpose, latest developments and application of probabilistic methods in safety assessments of nuclear facilities, and of non-nuclear installations. Their findings show that the methods of probabilistic systems analysis and of structural reliability analysis proved to be successful, above all with regard to systematics and reproducibility. Above all probabilistic systems analyses have been applied to a large extent in the Rasmussen study. Although this study has been intended to present objective information on the risks to be expected from nuclear power plant operation, the results of the study have not been accepted by the public as an unbiased presentation. It is worth mentioning that in the opinion of a number of social scientists, solutions accepted by the whole of society cannot be reached by defining and adhering to risk standards, but rather by entering into discussions with those groups directly affected, working out compromises meeting all interests. Risk analyses supply information that facilitates practical planning of emergency measures. A description of probable accidents allows conclusions to be drawn in terms of quality and quantity as to how and to what extent appropriate precautionary measures can be taken and planned. Risk analyses offer the possibility of preventing damage hitherto known only by experience (e.g. through accident analyses) by precalculating possible events, and then initiating the required improvements. It is these positive effects that make up the importance of such analyses. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Decision making under uncertainty: An investigation into the application of formal decision-making methods to safety issue decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.

    1992-12-01

    As part of the NRC-sponsored program to study the implications of Generic Issue 57, ''Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment,'' a subtask was performed to evaluate the applicability of formal decision analysis methods to generic issues cost/benefit-type decisions and to apply these methods to the GI-57 results. In this report, the numerical results obtained from the analysis of three plants (two PWRs and one BWR) as developed in the technical resolution program for GI-57 were studied. For each plant, these results included a calculation of the person-REM averted due to various accident scenarios and various proposed modifications to mitigate the accident scenarios identified. These results were recomputed to break out the benefit in terms of contributions due to random event scenarios, fire event scenarios, and seismic event scenarios. Furthermore, the benefits associated with risk (in terms of person-REM) averted from earthquakes at three different seismic ground motion levels were separately considered. Given this data, formal decision methodologies involving decision trees, value functions, and utility functions were applied to this basic data. It is shown that the formal decision methodology can be applied at several different levels. Examples are given in which the decision between several retrofits is changed from that resulting from a simple cost/benefit-ratio criterion by virtue of the decision-makinger's expressed (and assumed) preferences

  10. Risk evaluation method for faults by engineering approach. (1) Nuclear safety for accident scenario and measures for fault movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Chiba, Go; Okamoto, Koji; Kameda, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Yamazaki, Haruo; Konagai, Kazuo; Kamiya, Masanobu; Nagasawa, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Japan, as a frequent earthquake country, has a responsibility to resolve efficient measures to enhance nuclear safety, to continue utilizing the nuclear power, based on the risks and importance levels in the scientific and rational manner. In his paper describes how to evaluate the risk of faults movement by engineering approach. An open fruitful discussion by experts in the various area of earthquake, geology, geotechnical, civil, and a seismic design as well as other stakeholders such as academia professors, nuclear reactor engineers, regulators, and licensees. The Atomic Energy Society established an Investigation Committee on Development of Activity and Risk Evaluation Method for Faults by Engineering Approach (IC-DAREFEA) on October 1st, a 2014. The Investigation Committee utilizes the most advanced scientific and rational judgement, and continuous discussions and efforts in the global field, in order to collect and organize these knowledge and reflect the global standards and nuclear regulations, such as risk evaluation method for the faults movements and prevention of severe accidents, based on the accumulated database in the world, including Chuetsuoki Earthquake, North Nagano Earthquake and Kumamoto Earthquake. (author)

  11. Patient safety in palliative care: A mixed-methods study of reports to a national database of serious incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Iain; Yardley, Sarah; Williams, Huw; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Donaldson, Liam J

    2018-06-01

    Patients receiving palliative care are vulnerable to patient safety incidents but little is known about the extent of harm caused or the origins of unsafe care in this population. To quantify and qualitatively analyse serious incident reports in order to understand the causes and impact of unsafe care in a population receiving palliative care. A mixed-methods approach was used. Following quantification of type of incidents and their location, a qualitative analysis using a modified framework method was used to interpret themes in reports to examine the underlying causes and the nature of resultant harms. Reports to a national database of 'serious incidents requiring investigation' involving patients receiving palliative care in the National Health Service (NHS) in England during the 12-year period, April 2002 to March 2014. A total of 475 reports were identified: 266 related to pressure ulcers, 91 to medication errors, 46 to falls, 21 to healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), 18 were other instances of disturbed dying, 14 were allegations against health professions, 8 transfer incidents, 6 suicides and 5 other concerns. The frequency of report types differed according to the care setting. Underlying causes included lack of palliative care experience, under-resourcing and poor service coordination. Resultant harms included worsened symptoms, disrupted dying, serious injury and hastened death. Unsafe care presents a risk of significant harm to patients receiving palliative care. Improvements in the coordination of care delivery alongside wider availability of specialist palliative care support may reduce this risk.

  12. Safety balance: Analysis of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, M.; Giroux, C.

    1990-12-01

    Safety analysis, and particularly analysis of exploitation of NPPs is constantly affected by EDF and by the safety authorities and their methodologies. Periodic safety reports ensure that important issues are not missed on daily basis, that incidents are identified and that relevant actions are undertaken. French safety analysis method consists of three principal steps. First type of safety balance is analyzed at the normal start-up phase for each unit including the final safety report. This enables analysis of behaviour of units ten years after their licensing. Second type is periodic operational safety analysis performed during a few years. Finally, the third step consists of safety analysis of the oldest units with the aim to improve the safety standards. The three steps of safety analysis are described in this presentation in detail with the aim to present the objectives and principles. Examples of most recent exercises are included in order to illustrate the importance of such analyses

  13. Construction of knowledge base for geological disposal technologies of high-level radioactive waste Report in 2005. Separate volume 3: Development of safety assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The results of development of safety assessment methods by JNC after the second report are reported. JNC-Thermodynamic and JNC-Sorption Database of nuclides was prepared and used. The mass transfer process model in rock, the water quality model of underwater and pore water and approach to modeling radionuclide transport in biosphere were improved. The phenomenological nuclide transport model and the effect assessment model of colloid, natural organic compounds and microorganism were developed. On scenario of safety assessment method, the behaviors in the disposal system were expressed by FEP (Features, Events, and Processes). The effects of data uncertainty and model uncertainty were improved by the assessment technologies and the sensitivity analysis technology. JGIS (JNC Geological Disposal Information Integration System) was developed. The main performance of JGIS was shown. It consists of six chapters; the first chapter is introduction, the second chapter the nuclides transport database, the third the safety assessment model, the forth improvement of safety assessment methods, the fifth application of safety assessment methods and the sixth results and summary. (S.Y.)

  14. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  15. Playground Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Fall Prevention Playground Safety Poisoning Prevention Road Traffic Safety Sports Safety Get Email Updates To receive ... at the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s Playground Safety website . References U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Injuries and ...

  16. Increased component safety through improved methods for residual stress analysis. Subprojects. Consideration of real component geometries (phase 1). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, Andreas; Scholtes, B.

    2014-01-01

    Residual stresses can be result in both detrimental as well as beneficial consequences on the component's strength and lifetime. A most detailed knowledge of the residual stress state is a pre-requisite for the assessment of the component's performance. The mechanical methods for residual stress measurements are classified in non-destructive, destructive and semi-destructive methods. The two commonly used (semi-destructive) mechanical methods are the hole drilling and the ring core method. In the context of reactor safety research of the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), two fundamental and interacting weak points of the hole drilling as well as of the ring core method are investigated. On the one hand, there are effects concerning geometrical boundary conditions of the components and on the other hand, there are influences of plasticity due to notch effects. Both aspects affect the released strain field, when the material is removed and finally, the calculated residual stresses. The first issue mentioned above is under the responsibility of Institute of Materials Engineering - Metallic Materials (Kassel University) and the last one will be investigated by University of Stuttgart-Otto-Graf-Institut - materials testing institute. Within the framework of this project it could be demonstrated that updated calibration coefficients lead to more reliable residual stress calculation in contrast to existing ones. These findings are valid for points of measurements on components without geometrical boundary effects like edges or shoulders. Reasons are high developed Finite-Element software packages and the opportunity of modelling the point of measurement (hole geometry, layout of the strain gauges) and its vicinity more in detail. Special challenges are multi-axial residual stress depth distributions and the geometry of components composing edges and claddings. Unlike existing analyses considering uni-axial and homogeneous stress states, bi

  17. Multi-method laboratory user evaluation of an actionable clinical performance information system: Implications for usability and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin; Balatsoukas, Panos; Williams, Richard; Sperrin, Matthew; Buchan, Iain

    2018-01-01

    Electronic audit and feedback (e-A&F) systems are used worldwide for care quality improvement. They measure health professionals' performance against clinical guidelines, and some systems suggest improvement actions. However, little is known about optimal interface designs for e-A&F, in particular how to present suggested actions for improvement. We developed a novel theory-informed system for primary care (the Performance Improvement plaN GeneratoR; PINGR) that covers the four principal interface components: clinical performance summaries; patient lists; detailed patient-level information; and suggested actions. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of an e-A&F system with all four interface components. (1) Use a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the usability of PINGR with target end-users; (2) refine existing design recommendations for e-A&F systems; (3) determine the implications of these recommendations for patient safety. We recruited seven primary care physicians to perform seven tasks with PINGR, during which we measured on-screen behaviour and eye movements. Participants subsequently completed usability questionnaires, and were interviewed in-depth. Data were integrated to: gain a more complete understanding of usability issues; enhance and explain each other's findings; and triangulate results to increase validity. Participants committed a median of 10 errors (range 8-21) when using PINGR's interface, and completed a median of five out of seven tasks (range 4-7). Errors violated six usability heuristics: clear response options; perceptual grouping and data relationships; representational formats; unambiguous description; visually distinct screens for confusable items; and workflow integration. Eye movement analysis revealed the integration of components largely supported effective user workflow, although the modular design of clinical performance summaries unnecessarily increased cognitive load. Interviews and

  18. On personal safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen

    1996-01-01

    The paper mainly expounds the personal safety culture, including the following aspects: the attitude to exploration, strict methods and the habit of exchange etc. It points out that straightening the education of safety culture and heightening the level of personal safety culture can get not only high-level safety but also high-level quality

  19. Using a multi-method, user centred, prospective hazard analysis to assess care quality and patient safety in a care pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escoto Kamisha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care pathways can be complex, often involving multiple care providers and as such are recognised as containing multiple opportunities for error. Prospective hazard analysis methods may be useful for evaluating care provided across primary and secondary care pathway boundaries. These methods take into account the views of users (staff and patients when determining where potential hazards may lie. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of prospective hazard analysis methods when assessing quality and safety in care pathways that lie across primary and secondary care boundaries. Methods Development of a process map of the care pathway for patients entering into a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD supported discharge programme. Triangulation of information from: care process mapping, semi-structured interviews with COPD patients, semi-structured interviews with COPD staff, two round modified Delphi study and review of prioritised quality and safety challenges by health care staff. Results Interview themes emerged under the headings of quality of care and patient safety. Quality and safety concerns were mostly raised in relation to communication, for example, communication with other hospital teams. The three highest ranked safety concerns from the modified Delphi review were: difficulties in accessing hospital records, information transfer to primary care and failure to communicate medication changes to primary care. Conclusion This study has demonstrated the feasibility of using mixed methods to review the quality and safety of care in a care pathway. By using multiple research methods it was possible to get a clear picture of service quality variations and also to demonstrate which points in the care pathway had real potential for patient safety incidents or system failures to occur. By using these methods to analyse one condition specific care pathway it was possible to uncover a number of hospital

  20. Blood alcohol test results of motor vehicle deaths as an evaluation method for the Fairfax Alcohol Safety Action Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Fairfax Alcohol Safety Action Project (ASAP) was started following the June 1971 approval of the proposal and working plan submitted to the Department of Transportation by the Highway Safety Division of Virginia. A total of $2,123,000 was allocat...