WorldWideScience

Sample records for human-derived fecal pollution

  1. Assessment of non-point sources of fecal pollution in coastal waters of Puerto Rico and Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachoon, Dave S; Markand, Shanu; Otero, Ernesto; Perry, Garvin; Ramsubhag, Adesh; Ramsubaugh, Adash

    2010-07-01

    Traditional and molecular methods (PCR) were used to detect, quantify and identify the source of fecal pollution in coastal sites of Puerto Rico and Trinidad. Enterococci and Escherichia coli standard plate counts were used as a general indicator of fecal contamination while the PCR detection of Bifidobacteria adolescentis and human or bovine specific Bacteroidales were used to examine potential sources. Seven of 14 sites in Trinidad including Maracas Bay which is a major public beach contained significant fecal contamination based on enterococci numbers counts exceeding established thresholds for areas of direct contact. Forty six percent of the 27 stations in Puerto Rico were over the established thresholds for enterococci and 49% according to E. coli counts. About 31% of the stations examined in Puerto Rico had evidence of human derived fecal contamination. Human fecal pollution was detected in only one station from Trinidad. Bovine derived contamination was detected only once. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal Pollution Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, cr...

  3. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  4. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. QMRAcatch : Human-Associated Fecal Pollution and Infection Risk Modeling for a River/Floodplain Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Zoufal-Hruza, Christa M; van Driezum, Inge H; Reischer, Georg; Ixenmaier, Simone; Kirschner, Alexander; Frick, Christina; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    Protection of drinking water resources requires addressing all relevant fecal pollution sources in the considered catchment. A freely available simulation tool, QMRAcatch, was recently developed to simulate concentrations of fecal indicators, a genetic microbial source tracking (MST) marker, and

  6. Next generation sequencing reveals distinct fecal pollution signatures in aquatic sediments across gradients of anthropogenic influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Luna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sediments are the repository of a variety of anthropogenic pollutants, including bacteria of fecal origin, that reach the aquatic environment from a variety of sources. Although fecal bacteria can survive for long periods of time in aquatic sediments, the microbiological quality of sediments is almost entirely neglected when performing quality assessments of aquatic ecosystems. Here we investigated the relative abundance, patterns and diversity of fecal bacterial populations in two coastal areas in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy: the Po river prodelta (PRP, an estuarine area receiving significant contaminant discharge from one of the largest European rivers and the Lagoon of Venice (LV, a transitional environment impacted by a multitude of anthropogenic stressors. From both areas, several indicators of fecal and sewage contamination were determined in the sediments using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS of 16S rDNA amplicons. At both areas, fecal contamination was high, with fecal bacteria accounting for up to 3.96% and 1.12% of the sediment bacterial assemblages in PRP and LV, respectively. The magnitude of the fecal signature was highest in the PRP site, highlighting the major role of the Po river in spreading microbial contaminants into the adjacent coastal area. In the LV site, fecal pollution was highest in the urban area, and almost disappeared when moving to the open sea. Our analysis revealed a large number of fecal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU, 960 and 181 in PRP and LV, respectively and showed a different fecal signature in the two areas, suggesting a diverse contribution of human and non-human sources of contamination. These results highlight the potential of NGS techniques to gain insights into the origin and fate of different fecal bacteria populations in aquatic sediments.

  7. Hypothesis-driven approach for the identification of fecal pollution sources in water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischer, G H; Kollanur, D; Vierheilig, J; Wehrspaun, C; Mach, R L; Sommer, R; Stadler, H; Farnleitner, A H

    2011-05-01

    Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo-physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations.

  8. Hypothesis-Driven Approach for the Identification of Fecal Pollution Sources in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo−physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations. PMID:21466151

  9. Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

    2014-12-01

    Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  11. Differential decomposition of bacterial and viral fecal indicators in common human pollution types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjugi, Pauline; Sivaganesan, Mano; Korajkic, Asja; Kelty, Catherine A; McMinn, Brian; Ulrich, Robert; Harwood, Valerie J; Shanks, Orin C

    2016-11-15

    Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decomposition of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fecal pollution originating from fresh human feces, septage, and primary effluent sewage in a subtropical marine environment was assessed over a six day period with an emphasis on the influence of ambient sunlight and indigenous microbiota. Ambient water mixed with each fecal pollution type was placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ in a submersible aquatic mesocosm. Genetic and cultivated fecal indicators including fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci, E. coli, and Bacteroidales), coliphage (somatic and F+), Bacteroides fragilis phage (GB-124), and human-associated genetic indicators (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2) were measured in each sample. Simple linear regression assessing treatment trends in each pollution type over time showed significant decay (p ≤ 0.05) in most treatments for feces and sewage (27/28 and 32/40, respectively), compared to septage (6/26). A two-way analysis of variance of log10 reduction values for sewage and feces experiments indicated that treatments differentially impact survival of cultivated bacteria, cultivated phage, and genetic indicators. Findings suggest that sunlight is critical for phage decay, and indigenous microbiota play a lesser role. For bacterial cultivated and genetic indicators, the influence of indigenous microbiota varied by pollution type. This study offers new insights on the decomposition of common human fecal pollution types in a subtropical marine environment with important implications for water quality management applications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL-1, human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. A microbial signature approach to identify fecal pollution in the waters off an urbanized coast of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J; Bootsma, Melinda J; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-05-01

    Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (≥ 97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to > 2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint

  14. Identification of hotspots and trends of fecal surface water pollution in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Water is the essential resource ensuring human life on earth, which can only prosper when water is available and accessible. But of importance is not only the quantity of accessible water but also its quality, which in case of pollution may pose a risk to human health. The pollutants which pose a risk to human health are manifold, covering several groups such as pathogens, nutrients, human pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and others. With regards to human health, pathogen contamination is of major interest as 4% of all death and 5.7% of disability or ill health in the world can be attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. In developing countries, 2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation in 2011. The lack of sanitation poses a risk to surface water pollution which is a threat to human health. A typical indicator for pathogen pollution is fecal coliform bacteria. The objective our study is to assess fecal pollution in the developing regions Africa, Asia and Latin America using the large-scale water quality model WorldQual. Model runs were carried-out to calculate in-stream concentrations and the respective loadings reaching rivers for the time period 1990 to 2010. We identified hotspots of fecal coliform loadings and in-stream concentrations which were further analyzed and ranked in terms of fecal surface water pollution. Main findings are that loadings mainly originate from the domestic sector, thus loadings are high in highly populated areas. In general, domestic loadings can be attributed to the two subsectors domestic sewered and domestic non sewered. The spatial distribution of both sectors varies across catchments. Hotspot pattern of in-stream concentrations are similar to the loadings pattern although they are different in seasonality. As the dilution varies with climate its dilution capacity is high during seasons with high precipitation, which in turn decreases the in-stream concentrations. The fecal

  15. Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

  16. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  17. Tracing fecal pollution sources in karst groundwater by Bacteroidales genetic biomarkers, bacterial indicators, and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Kelly, Walton R; Panno, Samuel V; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-08-15

    Fecal contamination in Midwestern karst regions was evaluated by simultaneously measuring traditional bacterial indicators (coliforms and Escherichia coli), Bacteroidales-based biomarkers, and environmental variables. Water samples from springs and wells were collected from karst regions in Illinois (IL), Wisconsin (WI), Kentucky (KY), and Missouri (MO). Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with seven primer sets targeting different members of Bacteroidales was used to determine the origin of fecal contamination (i.e., from human waste, livestock waste, or both). Most samples were contaminated by both human and animal waste, with a few samples showing pollution solely by one or the other. Spring water tended to have higher levels of contamination than well water, and higher concentrations of fecal biomarkers were detected in urban springs compared to rural spring systems. However, there were discrepancies on contamination profile determined by Bacteroidales-based biomarkers and by traditional bacterial indicators. Among all the environmental parameters examined, E. coli, sulfate, total dissolved solids (TDS), and silicon were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with the level of Bacteroidales-based fecal indicators. A rapid screening method using total nitrogen (TN) and chloride (Cl(-)) concentrations to determine fecal contamination was shown to be effective and correlated well with Bacteroidales-based MST. The results suggest that human and livestock feces co-contaminated a large portion of karst groundwater systems in Midwestern regions, and the inclusion of traditional bacterial indicators, environmental variables, and Bacteroidales-based MST is an effective approach for identifying fecal contamination in karst regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and evaluation of Bacteroides DNA probes for the specific detection of human fecal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreader, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Because Bacteroides spp. are obligate anaerobes that dominate the human fecal flora, and because some species may live only in the human intestine, these bacteria might be useful to distinguish human from nonhuman sources of fecal pollution. To test this hypothesis, PCR primers specific for 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacteroides distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. vulgatus were designed. Hybridization with species-specific internal probes was used to detect the intended PCR products. Extracts from 66 known Bacteroides strains, representing 10 related species, were used to confirm the specificity of these PCR-hybridization assays. To test for specificity in feces, procedures were developed to prepare DNA of sufficient purity for PCR. Extracts of feces from 9 humans and 70 nonhumans (cats, dogs, cattle, hogs, horses, sheep, goats, and chickens) were each analyzed with and without an internal positive control to verify that PCR amplification was not inhibited by substances in the extract. In addition, serial dilutions from each extract that tested positive were assayed to estimate the relative abundance of target Bacteroides spp. in the sample. Depending on the primer-probe set used, either 78 or 67% of the human fecal extracts tested had high levels of target DNA. On the other hand, only 7 to 11% of the nonhuman extracts tested had similarly high levels of target DNA. An additional 12 to 20% of the nonhuman extracts had levels of target DNA that were 100- to 1,000-fold lower than those found in humans. Although the B. vulgatus probes detected high levels of their target DNA in most of the house pets, similarly high levels of target DNA were found only in a few individuals from other groups of nonhumans. Therefore, the results indicate that these probes can distinguish human from non human feces in many cases. 50 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Improved HF183 quantitative real-time PCR assay for characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time quantitative PCR assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster are considered to be some of the top performing methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. In response, the United States Environmental Protectio...

  20. Use of selected chemical markers in combination with a multiple regression model to assess the contribution of domesticated animal sources of fecal pollution in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Punam; Edwards, Dwayne R; Coyne, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Human and animal wastes are major sources of environmental pollution. Reliable methods of identifying waste sources are necessary to specify the types and locations of measures that best prevent and mitigate pollution. This investigation demonstrates the use of chemical markers (fecal sterols and bile acids) to identify selected sources of fecal pollution in the environment. Fecal sterols and bile acids were determined for pig, horse, cow, and chicken feces (10-26 feces samples for each animal). Concentrations of major fecal sterols (coprostanol, epicoprostanol, cholesterol, cholestanol, stigmastanol, and stigmasterol) and bile acids (lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid, cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and hyodeoxycholic acid) were determined using a gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC-MS) technique. The fecal sterol and bile acid concentration data were used to estimate parameters of a multiple linear regression model for fecal source identification. The regression model was calibrated using 75% of the available data validated against the remaining 25% of the data points in a jackknife process that was repeated 15 times. The regression results were very favorable in the validation data set, with an overall coefficient of determination between predicted and actual fecal source of 0.971. To check the potential of the proposed model, it was applied on a set of simulated runoff data in predicting the specific animal sources. Almost 100% accuracy was obtained between the actual and predicted fecal sources. While additional work using polluted water (as opposed to fresh fecal samples) as well as multiple pollution sources are needed, results of this study clearly indicate the potential of this model to be useful in identifying the individual sources of fecal pollution.

  1. Differential Decay of Enterococci and Escherichia coli Originating from Two Fecal Pollution Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Korajkic, Asja; McMinn, Brian R.; Harwood, Valerie J.; Shanks, Orin C.; Fout, G. Shay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habitats. In this study, sunlight exposure and indigenous aquatic microbiota were also important contributors, whose effects on FIB also differed between water types.

  2. Detection of spatial fluctuations of non-point source fecal pollution in coral reef surrounding waters in southwestern Puerto Rico using PCR-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkosky, M; Hernández-Delgado, E A; Sandoz, B; Robledo, I E; Norat-Ramírez, J; Mattei, H

    2009-01-01

    Human fecal contamination of coral reefs is a major cause of concern. Conventional methods used to monitor microbial water quality cannot be used to discriminate between different fecal pollution sources. Fecal coliforms, enterococci, and human-specific Bacteroides (HF183, HF134), general Bacteroides-Prevotella (GB32), and Clostridium coccoides group (CP) 16S rDNA PCR assays were used to test for the presence of non-point source fecal contamination across the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf. Inshore waters were highly turbid, consistently receiving fecal pollution from variable sources, and showing the highest frequency of positive molecular marker signals. Signals were also detected at offshore waters in compliance with existing microbiological quality regulations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most isolates were of human fecal origin. The geographic extent of non-point source fecal pollution was large and impacted extensive coral reef systems. This could have deleterious long-term impacts on public health, local fisheries and in tourism potential if not adequately addressed.

  3. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis-infecting phages (enterophages) as markers of human fecal pollution in recreational waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodríguez, Tasha M; Dávila, Catalina; González, Joel; Bonilla, Natasha; Marcos, Patricia; Urdaneta, Miguel; Cadete, Manuela; Monteiro, Sílvia; Santos, Ricardo; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Toranzos, Gary A

    2010-09-01

    Enterophages are a novel group of phages that specifically infect Enterococcus faecalis and have been recently isolated from environmental water samples. Although enterophages have not been conclusively linked to human fecal pollution, we are currently characterizing enterophages to propose them as viral indicators and possible surrogates of enteric viruses in recreational waters. Little is known about the morphological or genetic diversity which will have an impact on their potential as markers of human fecal contamination. In the present study we are determining if enterophages can be grouped by their ability to replicate at different temperatures, and if different groups are present in the feces of different animals. As one of the main objectives is to determine if these phages can be used as indicators of the presence of enteric viruses, the survival rate under different conditions was also determined as was their prevalence in sewage and a large watershed. Coliphages were used as a means of comparison in the prevalence and survival studies. Results indicated that the isolates are mainly DNA viruses. Their morphology as well as their ability to form viral plaques at different temperatures indicates that several groups of enterophages are present in the environment. Coliphage and enterophage concentrations throughout the watershed were lower than those of thermotolerant coliforms and enterococci. Enterophage concentrations were lower than coliphages at all sampling points. Enterophages showed diverse inactivation rates and T(90) values across different incubation temperatures in both fresh and marine waters and sand. Further molecular characterization of enterophages may allow us to develop probes for the real-time detection of these alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Quantitative PCR Assay Targeting Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) Fecal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the microbial water quality in the Platte River is seasonally impacted by excreta from migrating cranes, there are no methods available to study crane fecal contamination. Here we characterized microbial populations in crane feces using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gen...

  5. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  6. Identifying fecal pollution sources using 3M(™) Petrifilm (™) count plates and antibiotic resistance analysis in the Horse Creek Watershed in Aiken County, SC (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, S Michele; West, Ryan T; Yates, James R

    2014-12-01

    Sources of fecal coliform pollution in a small South Carolina (USA) watershed were identified using inexpensive methods and commonly available equipment. Samples from the upper reaches of the watershed were analyzed with 3M(™) Petrifilm(™) count plates. We were able to narrow down the study's focus to one particular tributary, Sand River, that was the major contributor of the coliform pollution (both fecal and total) to a downstream reservoir that is heavily used for recreation purposes. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 2,400 to 120,333 cfu/100 mL, with sharp increases in coliform counts observed in samples taken after rain events. Positive correlations between turbidity and fecal coliform counts suggested a relationship between fecal pollution and stormwater runoff. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) compared antibiotic resistance profiles of fecal coliform isolates from the stream to those of a watershed-specific fecal source library (equine, waterfowl, canines, and untreated sewage). Known fecal source isolates and unknown isolates from the stream were exposed to six antibiotics at three concentrations each. Discriminant analysis grouped known isolates with an overall average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 84.3 %. A total of 401 isolates from the first stream location were classified as equine (45.9 %), sewage (39.4 %), waterfowl (6.2 %), and feline (8.5 %). A similar pattern was observed at the second sampling location, with 42.6 % equine, 45.2 % sewage, 2.8 % waterfowl, 0.6 % canine, and 8.8 % feline. While there were slight weather-dependent differences, the vast majority of the coliform pollution in this stream appeared to be from two sources, equine and sewage. This information will contribute to better land use decisions and further justify implementation of low-impact development practices within this urban watershed.

  7. Implications of Fecal Bacteria Input from Latrine-Polluted Ponds for Wells in Sandy Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Huq, Md. R.; Mey, Jacob; Feighery, John E.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Zhuang, Jie; Escamilla, Veronica; Emch, Michael; Perfect, Edmund; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Ponds receiving latrine effluents may serve as sources of fecal contamination to shallow aquifers tapped by millions of tube-wells in Bangladesh. To test this hypothesis, transects of monitoring wells radiating away from four ponds were installed in a shallow sandy aquifer underlying a densely populated village and monitored for 14 months. Two of the ponds extended to medium sand. Another pond was sited within silty sand and the last in silt. The fecal indicator bacterium E. coli was rarely detected along the transects during the dry season and was only detected near the ponds extending to medium sand up to 7 m away during the monsoon. A log-linear decline in E. coli and Bacteroidales concentrations with distance along the transects in the early monsoon indicates that ponds excavated in medium sand were the likely source of contamination. Spatial removal rates ranged from 0.5-1.3 log10/m. After the ponds were artificially filled with groundwater to simulate the impact of a rain storm, E. coli levels increased near a pond recently excavated in medium sand, but no others. These observations show that adjacent sediment grain-size and how recently a pond was excavated influence how much fecal contamination ponds receiving latrine effluents contribute to neighboring groundwater. PMID:22191430

  8. Portable platform for rapid in-field identification of human fecal pollution in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu Sherry; Riedel, Timothy E; Popoola, Jessica A; Morrow, Barrett R; Cai, Sheng; Ellington, Andrew D; Bhadra, Sanchita

    2017-12-13

    Human fecal contamination of water is a public health risk. However, inadequate testing solutions frustrate timely, actionable monitoring. Bacterial culture-based methods are simple but typically cannot distinguish fecal host source. PCR assays can identify host sources but require expertise and infrastructure. To bridge this gap we have developed a field-ready nucleic acid diagnostic platform and rapid sample preparation methods that enable on-site identification of human fecal contamination within 80 min of sampling. Our platform relies on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of human-associated Bacteroides HF183 genetic markers from crude samples. Oligonucleotide strand exchange (OSD) probes reduce false positives by sequence specifically transducing LAMP amplicons into visible fluorescence that can be photographed by unmodified smartphones. Our assay can detect as few as 17 copies/ml of human-associated HF183 targets in sewage-contaminated water without cross-reaction with canine or feline feces. It performs robustly with a variety of environmental water sources and with raw sewage. We have also developed lyophilized assays and inexpensive 3D-printed devices to minimize cost and facilitate field application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of five microbial and four mitochondrial DNA markers for tracking human and pig fecal pollution in freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiwei; Liu, Peng; Zheng, Guolu; Chen, Huimei; Shi, Wei; Cui, Yibin; Ren, Hongqiang; Zhang, Xu-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    This study systematically evaluated five microbial and four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers, including sensitivities and specificities under PCR method, and fecal concentrations and decay rates in water under qPCR method. The microbial DNA markers were the three human-associated (BacH, HF183 and B.adolescentis) and two pig-associated (Pig-2-Bac and L.amylovorus), while the mtDNA ones were two human- (H-ND6 and H-ND5) and two pig-associated (P-CytB and P-ND5). All the mtDNA markers showed higher sensitivity (100%) than the microbial ones (84.0-88.8%) except Pig-2-Bac (100%). Specificities of the human mtDNA markers (99.1 and 98.1%) were higher than those of the human-associated microbial ones (57.0-88.8%). But this pattern was not observed in the pig-associated markers where Pig-2-Bac had 100% specificity. The reliability of H-ND6 and H-ND5 was further evidenced to identify locations of the most polluted within the Taihu Lake watershed of China. In general, the microbial DNA markers demonstrated a higher fecal concentration than the mtDNA ones; increasing temperature and sunlight exposure accelerated significantly the decay of all the DNA markers. Results of this study suggest that DNA markers H-ND6, H-ND5, and Pig-2-Bac may be among the best for fecal source tracking in water.

  10. Analysis of human mitochondrial DNA sequences from fecally polluted environmental waters as a tool to study population diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Kapoor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial signature sequences have frequently been used to study human population diversity around the world. Traditionally, this requires obtaining samples directly from individuals which is cumbersome, time consuming and limited to the number of individuals that participated in these types of surveys. Here, we used environmental DNA extracts to determine the presence and sequence variability of human mitochondrial sequences as a means to study the diversity of populations inhabiting in areas nearby a tropical watershed impacted with human fecal pollution. We used high-throughput sequencing (Illumina and barcoding to obtain thousands of sequences from the mitochondrial hypervariable region 2 (HVR2 and determined the different haplotypes present in 10 different water samples. Sequence analyses indicated a total of 19 distinct variants with frequency greater than 5%. The HVR2 sequences were associated with haplogroups of West Eurasian (57.6%, Sub-Saharan African (23.9%, and American Indian (11% ancestry. This was in relative accordance with population census data from the watershed sites. The results from this study demonstrates the potential value of mitochondrial sequence data retrieved from fecally impacted environmental waters to study the population diversity of local municipalities. This environmental DNA approach may also have other public health implications such as tracking background levels of human mitochondrial genes associated with diseases. It may be possible to expand this approach to other animal species inhabiting or using natural water systems.

  11. Fecal pollution in coastal marine sediments from a semi-enclosed deep embayment subjected to anthropogenic activities: an issue to be considered in environmental quality management frameworks development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, D; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D

    2010-12-01

    Sewage discharge is a major source of pollution in marine environments. Urban wastewaters can directly enter marine environments carrying pathogen organisms, organic loads, and nutrients. Because marine sediments can act as the ultimate fate of a wide range of pollutants, environmental quality assessment in this compartment can help to identify pollution problems in coastal areas. In the present study, characterization of surficial marine sediments allowed assessment of fecal pollution in a semi-enclosed deep embayment that is subjected to anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters and fecal indicators presented a great spatial heterogeneity. Fecal coliform and Clostridium perfringens showed accumulation in an extensive area, not only in proximity to sewage discharge points, but also in sediments at 100 meters depth. Results included herein demonstrated that, in coastal areas, urban wastewater discharge can affect the whole ecosystem through accumulation of fecal matter in bottom sediments. Application of multivariate techniques provided useful information with applicability for management of coastal areas in such complex systems. Environmental implications of wastewater discharge in coastal areas indicate the need to implement and include sediment quality control strategies in legislative frameworks.

  12. Predicting fecal sources in waters with diverse pollution loads using general and molecular host-specific indicators and applying machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Gómez-Doñate, Marta; Sánchez, David; Belanche-Muñoz, Lluís A; Muniesa, Maite; Blanch, Anicet R

    2015-03-15

    In this study we use a machine learning software (Ichnaea) to generate predictive models for water samples with different concentrations of fecal contamination (point source, moderate and low). We applied several MST methods (host-specific Bacteroides phages, mitochondrial DNA genetic markers, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium dentium markers, and bifidobacterial host-specific qPCR), and general indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci and somatic coliphages) to evaluate the source of contamination in the samples. The results provided data to the Ichnaea software, that evaluated the performance of each method in the different scenarios and determined the source of the contamination. Almost all MST methods in this study determined correctly the origin of fecal contamination at point source and in moderate concentration samples. When the dilution of the fecal pollution increased (below 3 log10 CFU E. coli/100 ml) some of these indicators (bifidobacterial host-specific qPCR, some mitochondrial markers or B. dentium marker) were not suitable because their concentrations decreased below the detection limit. Using the data from source point samples, the software Ichnaea produced models for waters with low levels of fecal pollution. These models included some MST methods, on the basis of their best performance, that were used to determine the source of pollution in this area. Regardless the methods selected, that could vary depending on the scenario, inductive machine learning methods are a promising tool in MST studies and may represent a leap forward in solving MST cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the host-specificity and prevalence of enterococci surface protein (esp) marker in sewage and its application for sourcing human fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Stewart, J; Powell, D; Gardner, T

    2008-01-01

    The suitability of the enterococci surface protein (esp) marker to detect human fecal pollution was evaluated by testing 197 fecal samples from 13 host groups in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Overall, this marker was detected in 90.5% of sewage and septic system samples and could not be detected in any fecal samples from 12 animal host groups. The sensitivity of the esp primer to detect the human-specific esp marker in sewage and septic samples was 100 and 67%, respectively. The overall specificity of this marker to distinguish between human and animal fecal pollution was 100%. Its prevalence in sewage was also determined by testing samples from the raw sewage, secondary effluent, and treated effluent of a sewage treatment plant (STP) over five consecutive days. Of the 15 samples tested, 12 (80%) were found to be positive for this marker. In contrast, it was not found in three samples from the treated effluent and these samples did not contain any culturable enterococci. The PCR limit of detection of this marker in freshwater samples was up to dilution 1 x 10(-4) and the number of culturable enterococci at this dilution was 4.8 x 10(1) +/- 7.0 x 10 degrees colony forming unit (CFU). The utility of this marker was evaluated by testing water samples from three non-sewered catchments in Pine Rivers in Southeast Queensland. Of the 13 samples tested, eight were positive for this marker with the number of enterococci ranging between 1.8 x 10(3) to 8.5 x 10(3) CFU per 100 mL of water. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the esp marker appears to be sewage specific and could be used as a reliable marker to detect human fecal pollution in surface waters in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

  14. Probabilistic analysis showing that a combination of bacteroides and methanobrevibacter source tracking markers is effective for identifying waters contaminated by human fecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Stewart, Jill R.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial source tracking assays to identify sources of waterborne contamination typically target genetic markers of host-specific microorganisms. However, no bacterial marker has been shown to be 100% host-specific, and cross-reactivity has been noted in studies evaluating known source samples. Using 485 challenge samples from 20 different human and animal fecal sources, this study evaluated microbial source tracking markers including the Bacteroides HF183 16S rRNA, M. smithii nifH, and Enterococcus esp gene targets that have been proposed as potential indicators of human fecal contamination. Bayes' Theorem was used to calculate the conditional probability that these markers or a combination of markers can correctly identify human sources of fecal pollution. All three human-associated markers were detected in 100% of the sewage samples analyzed. Bacteroides HF183 was the most effective marker for determining whether contamination was specifically from a human source, and greater than 98% certainty that contamination was from a human source was shown when both Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH markers were present. A high degree of certainty was attained even in cases where the prior probability of human fecal contamination was as low as 8.5%. The combination of Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH source tracking markers can help identify surface waters impacted by human fecal contamination, information useful for prioritizing restoration activities or assessing health risks from exposure to contaminated waters.

  15. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Linglin, E-mail: full1103@yahoo.com.cn [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Shuai Jiangbing [Zhejiang Entry and Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Wang Yanbo; Ma Hongjia [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Li Jianrong, E-mail: lijianrong@mail.zjgsu.edu.cn [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China)

    2011-10-15

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG){sub 5} primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG){sub 5}-PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: > The host-origin library developed by (GTG){sub 5}-PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. > Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. > High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. > Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  16. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    . ENSO events thus influenced the extent and timing of the peak levels of fecal coliforms in Mississippi Sound. Models consisting of one or more of the variables: Pearl River stage, water temperature, and salinity were developed to predict FC concentrations in the Sound. The model parameter(s explained 56 to 91% of the variations in FC counts. Management of shellfish in Mississippi Sound can be improved by utilizing information on the forecasted three to seven years occurrence of ENSO events. In addition, since Pearl River stage was the most important variable predicting FC concentration in the Sound, a study of the levels and sources of FC bacteria in the river, especially the middle and lower sections, is needed for developing a management plan for reducing FC bacteria pollution in the Sound.

  17. Fecal pollution in water from storm sewers and adjacent seashores in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardonha, Angela M S; Vieira, Regine H S F; Rodrigues, Dália P; Macrae, Andrew; Peirano, Gizele; Teophilo, Grace N D

    2004-09-01

    A study on the distribution patterns of enteropathogenic bacteria polluting the shoreline in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, was carried out based on 72 samples obtained from three storm sewers and adjoining beach locations, Praia do Meio (PM), Areia Preta (AP) and Ponta Negra (PN). From each location, 12 water samples were taken and analyzed for fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli. In AP, two (16.7%) of the seawater samples and five (41.7%) of the storm sewer samples yielded values above 1.1 x 107 FC/100 ml, whereas only one (8.3%) of the samples from PM reached this level. There was no correlation (p > 0.05) between rainfall indices and FC values. A total of 64 E. coli isolates were obtained: 37 from the storm sewer samples and 27 from the seawater samples. Of these isolates, four (O143, two O112ac, and O124) were enteroinvasive and two (O111 and O125) were enteropathogenic. Resistance to antibiotics and to heavy metals was also analyzed. Almost 36% of the E. coli strains isolated were resistant to more than one antibiotic. All strains were resistant to zinc and copper at the highest concentration tested (250 microg/ml), and several (23.4%) were resistant to mercury at 50 microg/ml. Our results agreed with previous reports that antibiotic resistance is commonly associated with heavy-metal resistance in pathogens.

  18. Discrimination efficacy of fecal pollution detection in different aquatic habitats of a high-altitude tropical country, using presumptive coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central and eastern parts of Uganda. Unlike the chemophysical water quality, which was water source type dependent (i.e., spring, lake, or stream), fecal indicators were associated with the anthropogenic influence status of the respective sites. A total of 79% of the total variability, including all the determined four bacteriological and five chemophysical parameters, could be assigned to either a pollution, a habitat, or a metabolic activity component by principal-component analysis. Bacteriological indicators revealed significant correlations to the pollution component, reflecting that anthropogenic contamination gradients were followed. Discrimination sensitivity analysis revealed high ability of E. coli to differentiate between high and low levels of anthropogenic influence. CP also showed a reasonable level of discrimination, although FC and TC were found to have worse discrimination efficacy. Nonpoint influence by soil erosion could not be detected during the study period by correlation analysis, although a theoretical contamination potential existed, as investigated soils in the immediate surroundings often contained relevant concentrations of fecal indicators. The outcome of this study indicates that rapid techniques for presumptive E. coli and CP determination may be reliable for fecal pollution monitoring in high-altitude tropical developing countries such as those of Eastern Africa.

  19. Host-specific 16S rRNA gene markers of Bacteroidales for source tracking of fecal pollution in the subtropical coastal seawater of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rulong; Chiang, Miranda H Y; Lun, Clare H I; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Lau, Stanley C K

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the diversity of Bacteroidales communities in the feces of eight host species in Hong Kong (subtropical Asia), including human (in the form of sewage), cow, pig, horse, cat, dog, rabbit and rat. The analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) in the 16S rRNA genes revealed significant differences in Bacteroidales communities among all host species, with the exception of dog and cat. Manual examination of TRFLP profiles resulted in six terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) that were potentially specific to the sewage (one TRF), cow (three TRFs) or pig (two TRFs) samples. All six TRFs were (1) present in 100% of the samples of the respective target host, (2) absent in other hosts or present only in low frequency and low intensity, and (3) verified for sizes using in silico digestion of DNA sequences in clone libraries. The six TRFs could reliably indicate the source of fecal contaminations in natural seawater amended with sewage, cow or pig fecal samples. In field tests conducted for two polluted and one unpolluted coastal site, the sewage-specific TRF was detected in all seawater samples of the sites known to be impacted by raw and treated sewage. However, only two of three cow-specific TRFs were detected for the two polluted sites, which also received fecal input from feral cows. No pig-specific TRF was detected, although one of the coastal sites was chronically polluted by pig farm run-offs. Nevertheless, the total absence of the six potentially host-specific TRFs in the seawater of an unpolluted site demonstrated the specificity of the TRFs as gene markers in indicating actual pollution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of PCR and quantitative real-time PCR methods for the characterization of ruminant and cattle fecal pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The state of California has mandated the preparation of a guidance document on the application of fecal source identification methods for recreational water quality management. California contains the fifth highest population of cattle in the United States, making the inclusio...

  1. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Hayley A; Dila, Deborah K; Bootsma, Melinda J; Corsi, Steven R; McLellan, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson's r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200-1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Hayley A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Corsi, Steven; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and humanLachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson’s r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200–1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  3. Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control than formed stool, it is an added stress that can lead to fecal incontinence. DiagnosisHow will my doctor diagnose the cause of fecal incontinence?Along with a physical exam, your doctor may want to do other tests ...

  4. Determining sources of fecal bacteria in waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    The microbiological contamination of waterways by pathogenic microbes has been, and is still, a persistent public safety concern in the United States and in most countries of the world. As most enteric pathogens are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal pollution is generally regarded as the major contributor of pathogens to waterways. Fecal pollution of waterways can originate from wastewater treatment facilities, septic tanks, domestic- and wild-animal feces, and pets. Because enteric pathogens are derived from human or animal sources, techniques capable of identifying and apportioning fecal sources have been intensively investigated for use in remediation efforts and to satisfy regulatory concerns. Pollution of human origin is of the most concern, since human feces is more likely to contain human-specific enteric pathogens. Fecal indicator bacteria have been used successfully as the primary tool for microbiologically based risk assessment. However measurement of fecal indicator bacteria does not define what pathogens are present, or define the sources of these bacteria. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods that have the ability to differentiate among sources of fecal pollution are currently under development. These methods will ultimately be useful for risk assessment purposes and to aid regulatory agencies in developing strategies to remediate microbiologically impaired waterways.

  5. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  6. Fecal microbiota transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficile colitis - fecal transplant; Clostridium difficile - fecal transplant; Pseudomembranous colitis - fecal transplant ... Ferri FF. Clostridium difficile infection. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical ... PA: Elsevier; 2017:299-300. Mahmoud NN, Bleier JIS, ...

  7. Diversity and Population Structure of Bovine Fecal-Derived Microorganisms from Different Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but in odor emissions, agricultural land nutrient loading, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, our understanding of the specif...

  8. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  9. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from an Urban Lake Receiving Water from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Mexico City: Fecal Pollution and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Espinosa, Norma; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    The presence of enteric bacteria in water bodies is a cause of public health concerns, either by directly causing water- and food-borne diseases, or acting as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance determinants. Water is used for crop irrigation; and sediments and aquatic plants are used as fertilizing supplements and soil conditioners. In this work, the bacterial load of several micro-environments of the urban lake of Xochimilco, in Mexico City, was characterized. We found a differential distribution of enteric bacteria between the water column, sediment, and the rhizoplane of aquatic plants, with human fecal bacteria concentrating in the sediment, pointing to the need to assess such bacterial load for each micro-environment, for regulatory agricultural purposes, instead of only the one of the water, as is currently done. Resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was common among Escherichia coli isolates, but was also differentially distributed, being again higher in sediment isolates. A distinct distribution of chloramphenicol minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) among these isolates suggests the presence of a local selective pressure favoring lower MICs than those of isolates from treated water. Fecal bacteria of human origin, living in water bodies along with their antibiotic resistance genes, could be much more common than typically considered, and pose a higher health risk, if assessments are only made on the water column of such bodies.

  10. Differential Decomposition of Bacterial and Viral Fecal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water qualitymanagement practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, thedecomposition of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fecal pollution originating from fresh human feces, septage, and primary effluent sewage in a subtropical marine environment was assessed over a six day period with an emphasis on the influence of ambient sunlight and indigenous microbiota. Ambient water mixed with each fecal pollution type was placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ in a submersible aquatic mesocosm. Genetic and cultivated fecal indicators including fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci, E. coli, and Bacteroidales), coliphage (somatic and F+), Bacteroides fragilis phage (GB-124), and human-associated geneticindicators (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2) were measured in each sample. Simple linearregression assessing treatment trends in each pollution type over time showed significant decay (p ≤ 0.05) in most treatments for feces and sewage (27/28 and 32/40, respectively), compared to septage (6/26). A two-way analysis of variance of log10 reduction values for sewage and feces experiments indicated that treatments differentially impact survival of cultivated bacteria, cultivated phage, and genetic indicators. Findings suggest that sunlight is critical for phage decay, and indigenous microbio

  11. Association of Fecal Indicator Bacteria with Human Viruses and Microbial Source Tracking Markers at Coastal Beaches Impacted by Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaig, Shannon; Griffith, John

    2012-01-01

    Water quality was assessed at two marine beaches in California by measuring the concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and by library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods targeting markers of human-associated microbes (human polyomavirus [HPyV] PCR and quantitative PCR, Methanobrevibacter smithii PCR, and Bacteroides sp. strain HF183 PCR) and a human pathogen (adenovirus by nested PCR). FIB levels periodically exceeded regulatory thresholds at Doheny and Avalon Beaches for enterococci (28.5% and 31.7% of samples, respectively) and fecal coliforms (20% and 5.8%, respectively). Adenoviruses were detected at four of five sites at Doheny Beach and were correlated with detection of HPyVs and human Bacteroides HF183; however, adenoviruses were not detected at Avalon Beach. The most frequently detected human source marker at both beaches was Bacteroides HF183, which was detected in 27% of samples. Correlations between FIBs and human markers were much more frequent at Doheny Beach than at Avalon Beach; e.g., adenovirus was correlated with HPyVs and HF183. Human sewage markers and adenoviruses were routinely detected in samples meeting FIB regulatory standards. The toolbox approach of FIB measurement coupled with analysis of several MST markers targeting human pathogens used here demonstrated that human sewage is at least partly responsible for the degradation of water quality, particularly at Doheny Beach, and resulted in a more definitive assessment of recreational water quality and human health risk than reliance on FIB concentrations alone could have provided. PMID:22773625

  12. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fecaloccultbloodtestfobt.html Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a Fecal Occult Blood Test? A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) looks at ...

  13. Diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haohao; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-03-01

    The fecal bacteria in natural waters may pose serious risks on human health. Although many source tracking methods have been developed and used to determine the possible sources of the fecal pollution, little is known about the overall diversity and abundance of fecal bacterial community in natural waters. In this study, a method based on fecal bacterial sequence library was introduced to evaluate the fecal bacterial profile in the Yangtze River (Nanjing section). Our results suggested that the Yangtze River water harbors diverse fecal bacteria. Fifty-eight fecal operational taxonomic units (97% identity level) were detected in the Yangtze River water samples and the relative abundance of fecal bacteria in these samples ranged from 0.1 to 8%. It was also found that the relative abundances of the fecal bacteria in locations near to the downstream of wastewater treatment plants were obviously higher than those in other locations. However, the high abundance of fecal bacteria could decrease to the normal level in 2~4 km in the river due to degradation or dilution, and the overall fecal bacteria level changed little when the Yangtze River flew through the Nanjing City. Moreover, the fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River water were found to be highly associated (Spearman rho = 0.804, P bacteria. Collectively, the findings in this study reveal the diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River and advance our understandings of the fecal bacteria community in the natural waters.

  14. Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R

    2013-05-01

    Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use.

  15. Constipation and Fecal Soiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... planned, consistent system of rewards for appropriate behaviors. Parents can develop behavior modifications or reward systems that encourage the child’s proper toilet habits. Success! Constipation and fecal soiling ...

  16. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, crAssphage, was discovered by metagenomic data mining and reported to be abundant in and closely associated with human fecal waste. To confirm bioinformatic predictions, 384 primer sets were designed along the length of the crAssphage genome. Based upon initial screening, two novel crAssphage qPCR assays (CPQ_056 and CPQ_064) were designed and evaluated in reference fecal samples and water matrices. The assays exhibited high specificities (98.6%) when tested against a large animal fecal reference library and were highly abundant in raw sewage and sewage impacted water samples. In addition, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064 assay performance was compared to HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 methods in paired experiments. Findings confirm viral crAssphage qPCR assays perform at a similar level to well established bacterial human-associated fecal source identification technologies. These new viral based assays could become important water quality management and research tools. To inform the public.

  17. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  18. Correlative Assessment of Fecal Indicators Using Human Mitochondrial DNA as a Direct Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying the source of surface water fecal contamination is paramount to mitigating pollution and risk to human health. Fecal bacteria such as E. coli have been staple indicator organisms for over a century, however there remains uncertainty with E. coli-based metrics since t...

  19. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  20. Imaging fecal incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsjaeger, Michael H. E-mail: michael.fuchsjaeger@univie.ac.at; Maier, Andrea G

    2003-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is the inability to defer release of gas or stool from the anus and rectum by mechanisms of voluntary control. It is an important medical disorder affecting the quality of life of up to 20% of the population above 65 years. The most common contributing factors include previous vaginal deliveries, pelvic or perineal trauma, previous anorectal surgery, and rectal prolapse. Many physicians lack experience and knowledge related to pelvic floor incontinence disorders, but advancing technology has improved this knowledge. Increased experience with endoanal ultrasound and endoanal magnetic resonance imaging have given us a better understanding not only of the anatomy of the anal canal but also of the underlying morphological defects in fecal incontinence. Current imaging methods are emphasized and recent literature is reviewed.

  1. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  2. [Fecal microbiota transplantation: review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, F; Collignon, A; Butel, M-J; Bourlioux, P

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained an increasing medical interest, since the recognition of the role of disturbed microbiota in the development of various diseases. To date, FMT is an established treatment modality for multiple recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI), despite lack of standardization of the procedure. Persisting normalization of the disturbed colonic microbiota associated with RCDI seems to be responsible for the therapeutic effect of FMT. For other diseases, FMT should be considered strictly experimental, only offered to patients in an investigational clinical setting. Although the concept of FMT is appealing, current expectations should be damped until future evidence arises. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Fecal microbiota composition and frailty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, SP; Slaets, JPJ; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between fecal microbiota composition and frailty in the elderly was studied. Fecal samples from volunteers with high frailty scores showed a significant reduction in the number of lactobacilli (26-fold). At much higher population levels, both the Bacteroides/Prevotella (threefold)

  4. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  5. Economic cost of fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Menees, Stacy B; Zochowski, Melissa K; Fenner, Dee E

    2012-05-01

    Despite its prevalence and deleterious impact on patients and families, fecal incontinence remains an understudied condition. Few data are available on its economic burden in the United States. The aim of this study was to quantify per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. A mail survey of patients with fecal incontinence was conducted in 2010 to collect information on their sociodemographic characteristics, fecal incontinence symptoms, and utilization of medical and nonmedical resources for fecal incontinence. The analysis was conducted from a societal perspective and included both direct and indirect (ie, productivity loss) costs. Unit costs were determined based on standard Medicare reimbursement rates, national average wholesale prices of medications, and estimates from other relevant sources. All cost estimates were reported in 2010 US dollars. This study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution. The analysis included 332 adult patients who had fecal incontinence for more than a year with at least monthly leakage of solid, liquid, or mucous stool. The primary outcome measured was the per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. The average annual total cost for fecal incontinence was $4110 per person (median = $1594; interquartile range, $517-$5164). Of these costs, direct medical and nonmedical costs averaged $2353 (median, $1176; interquartile range, $294-$2438) and $209 (median, $75; interquartile range, $17-$262), whereas the indirect cost associated with productivity loss averaged $1549 per patient annually (median, $0; interquartile range, $0-$813). Multivariate regression analyses suggested that greater fecal incontinence symptom severity was significantly associated with higher annual direct costs. This study was based on patient self-reported data, and the sample was derived from a single institution. Fecal incontinence is associated with substantial economic cost, calling for more

  6. [Fecal microbiota transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García-de-Paredes, Ana; Rodríguez-de-Santiago, Enrique; Aguilera-Castro, Lara; Ferre-Aracil, Carlos; López-Sanromán, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria can no longer be seen as an enemy. Nowadays, there is enough evidence to place the microbiota as a key element in human homeostasis. Despite initial skepticism, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a real therapeutic alternative for patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Moreover, this procedure has shown promising results in ulcerative colitis and other non-gastrointestinal disorders. There is still a lack of knowledge and clinical trials with long- term follow-up. Therefore, the available data should be interpreted with caution. In this document we provide a detailed review of the literature on the intestinal microbiota and FMT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. A human fecal contamination index for ranking impaired recreational watersusing the HF183 quantitative real-time PCR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human fecal pollution of surface water remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for recreational water quality risk managem...

  8. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  9. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  10. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

  11. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Green, Hyatt C; Shanks, Orin C; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-10-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. USE OF COMPETITIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION TO ENRICH FOR GENOME-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO CLOSELY RELATED HUMAN FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococci are frequently used as indicators of fecal pollution in surface waters. To accelerate the identification of Enterococcus faecalis-specific DNA sequences, we employed a comparative genomic strategy utilizing a positive selection process to compare E. faec...

  13. Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) View or Print All Sections ... NIDDK would like to thank: William E. Whitehead, Ph.D., University of North Carolina School of Medicine ...

  14. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  15. Human-Derived Neurons and Neural Progenitor Cells in High Content Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrill, Joshua A

    2018-01-01

    Due to advances in the fields of stem cell biology and cellular engineering, a variety of commercially available human-derived neurons and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are now available for use in research applications, including small molecule efficacy or toxicity screening. The use of human-derived neural cells is anticipated to address some of the uncertainties associated with the use of nonhuman culture models or transformed cell lines derived from human tissues. Many of the human-derived neurons and NPCs currently available from commercial sources recapitulate critical process of nervous system development including NPC proliferation, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and calcium signaling, each of which can be evaluated using high content image analysis (HCA). Human-derived neurons and NPCs are also amenable to culture in multiwell plate formats and thus may be adapted for use in HCA-based screening applications. This article reviews various types of HCA-based assays that have been used in conjunction with human-derived neurons and NPC cultures. This article also highlights instances where lower throughput analysis of neurodevelopmental processes has been performed and which demonstrate a potential for adaptation to higher-throughout imaging methods. Finally, a generic protocol for evaluating neurite outgrowth in human-derived neurons using a combination of immunocytochemistry and HCA is presented. The information provided in this article is intended to serve as a resource for cell model and assay selection for those interested in evaluating neurodevelopmental processes in human-derived cells.

  16. Pathophysiology of adult fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S C

    2004-01-01

    Fecal incontinence occurs when the normal anatomy or physiology that maintains the structure and function of the anorectal unit is disrupted. Incontinence usually results from the interplay of multiple pathogenic mechanisms and is rarely attributable to a single factor. The internal anal sphincter (IAS) provides most of the resting anal pressure and is reinforced during voluntary squeeze by the external anal sphincter (EAS), the anal mucosal folds, and the anal endovascular cushions. Disruption or weakness of the EAS can cause urge-related or diarrhea-associated fecal incontinence. Damage to the endovascular cushions may produce a poor anal "seal" and an impaired anorectal sampling reflex. The ability of the rectum to perceive the presence of stool leads to the rectoanal contractile reflex response, an essential mechanism for maintaining continence. Pudendal neuropathy can diminish rectal sensation and lead to excessive accumulation of stool, causing fecal impaction, mega-rectum, and fecal overflow. The puborectalis muscle plays an integral role in maintaining the anorectal angle. Its nerve supply is independent of the sphincter, and its precise role in maintaining continence needs to be defined. Obstetric trauma, the most common cause of anal sphincter disruption, may involve the EAS, the IAS, and the pudendal nerves, singly or in combination. It remains unclear why most women who sustain obstetric injury in their 20s or 30s typically do not present with fecal incontinence until their 50s. There is a strong need for prospective, long-term studies of sphincter function in nulliparous and multiparous women.

  17. Fecal incontinence - Challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana Ruiz, Nallely; Kaiser, Andreas M

    2017-01-07

    Fecal incontinence is not a diagnosis but a frequent and debilitating common final pathway symptom resulting from numerous different causes. Incontinence not only impacts the patient's self-esteem and quality of life but may result in significant secondary morbidity, disability, and cost. Treatment is difficult without any panacea and an individualized approach should be chosen that frequently combines different modalities. Several new technologies have been developed and their specific roles will have to be defined. The scope of this review is outline the evaluation and treatment of patients with fecal incontinence.

  18. Fecal incontinence - Challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana Ruiz, Nallely; Kaiser, Andreas M

    2017-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is not a diagnosis but a frequent and debilitating common final pathway symptom resulting from numerous different causes. Incontinence not only impacts the patient’s self-esteem and quality of life but may result in significant secondary morbidity, disability, and cost. Treatment is difficult without any panacea and an individualized approach should be chosen that frequently combines different modalities. Several new technologies have been developed and their specific roles will have to be defined. The scope of this review is outline the evaluation and treatment of patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:28104977

  19. Daily relative dog abundance, fecal density, and loading rates on intensively and minimally managed dog-friendly beaches in central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Jessup, David; Smith, Woutrina A

    2017-12-15

    Due to increased concerns regarding fecal pollution at marine recreational beaches, daily relative dog abundance and fecal density were estimated on an intensively managed (Beach 1) and a minimally managed (Beach 2) dog beach in Monterey County, California. Fecal loading and factors predictive of fecal deposition also were assessed. After standardizing for beach area, daily beach use and fecal densities did not differ between beaches and yearly fecal loading estimates revealed that unrecovered dog feces likely contributes significantly to fecal contamination (1.4 and 0.2metrictonnes/beach). Detection of feces was significantly associated with beach management type, transect position relative to mean low tideline, presence of beach wrack, distance to the nearest beach entrance, and season. Methodologies outlined in this study can augment monitoring programs at coastal beaches to optimize management, assess visitor compliance, and improve coastal water quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Fate and Removal in Urban Stormwater at the Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfand, J.; Hogue, T. S.; Luthy, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Urban stormwater is a major cause of water quality impairment, resulting in surface waters that fail to meet water quality standards and support their designated uses. Of the many stormwater pollutants, fecal indicator bacteria are particularly important to track because they are directly linked to pathogens which jeopardize public health; yet, their fate and transport in urban stormwater is poorly understood. Monitoring fecal bacteria in stormwater is possible, but due to the high variability of fecal indicators both spatially and temporally, single grab or composite samples do not fully capture fecal indicator loading. Models have been developed to predict fecal indicator bacteria at the watershed scale, but they are often limited to agricultural areas, or areas that receive frequent rainfall. Further, it is unclear whether best management practices (BMPs), such as bioretention or engineered wetlands, are able to reduce bacteria to meet water quality standards at watershed outlets. This research seeks to develop a model to predict fecal indicator bacteria in urban stormwater in a semi-arid climate at the watershed scale. Using the highly developed Ballona Creek watershed (89 mi2) located in Los Angeles County as a case study, several existing mechanistic models are coupled with a hydrologic model to predict fecal indicator concentrations (E. coli, enterococci, fecal coliform, and total coliform) at the outfall of Ballona Creek watershed, Santa Monica Bay. The hydrologic model was developed using InfoSWMM Sustain, calibrated for flow from WY 1998-2006 (NSE = 0.94; R2 = 0.95), and validated from WY 2007-2015 (NSE = 0.93; R2 = 0.95). The developed coupled model is being used to predict fecal indicator fate and transport and evaluate how BMPs can be optimized to reduce fecal indicator loading to surface waters and recreational beaches.

  1. 328 Étude de la pollution organique totale et fécale dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    notre

    Study of total organic pollution and fecal in aquatic ecosystem of Eatern democratic of Congo. Preliminary analysis of organic and fecal pollution of water in two river and three pond of Eastern of. DRCongo ... meurent chaque année de maladies diarrhéiques dues à la contamination des aliments ou de l'eau de boisson et ...

  2. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  3. Fecal incontinence in older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Abbasi J; Padda, Manmeet

    2005-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI), the involuntary passage of fecal material through the anus, is a common medical problem in older people, especially in frail older nursing home residents. FI is often associated with urinary incontinence. Severe constipation leading to fecal impaction, laxative abuse, diarrhea, cognitive impairment, senescence, and neuromuscular disorders including autonomic neuropathy, are among the leading causes of FI in older patients. FI affects patients' physical and psychological well-being, and is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in older patients. This results in significant healthcare costs. Comprehensive management of this disorder requires a systematic approach including thorough history, physical examination, and step-wise evaluation. This review in contrast to others published in last decade, focuses on management of FI in frail older nursing home patients, who require an individualized approach, which should be minimally invasive and cost-effective. In many cases of FI, treatment of the underlying condition; adequate control of diarrhea, constipation, or fecal impaction; adjustment of medications; and proper feeding may control or reduce FI. Advanced tests are often not necessary in this population.

  4. A Human Fecal Contamination Score for Ranking Recreational Sites using the HF183/BacR287 Quantitative Real-Time PCR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human fecal pollution of recreational waters remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality research and manag...

  5. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  6. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the ambient waters. Microbial source tracking (MST) field has evolved in response to a need to identify pollution source(s), but majority of MST markers suffer from the same caveat as FIB, as our understanding of the factors influencing their fate in the environment is limited. Materials: We assessed the effect of water type (freshwater vs marine) and select environmental parameters (indigenous microbiota, ambient sunlight) on decay of FIB and MST markers from cattle manure. Experiments were conducted in situ using a submersible aquatic mesocosm containing dialysis bags filled with mixture of cattle manure and ambient water. Culturable FIB were enumerated by membrane filtration and via qPCR (Entero1a, EC23S) and MST markers were enumerated via qPCR and included general marker of fecal pollution (GenBac3) and cattle-associated subset (Rum2Bac, CowM2, CowM3). Results: Decay of culturable FIB was significantly faster (P > 0.001) than any of the molecular markers irrespective of the water type or experimental conditions. The water type was a significant factor affecting decay (P: 0.008 to < 0.001), although the magnitude of the effect differed among the microbial targets and over time. Presence o

  7. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from animal waste applied fields: model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial quality of surface waters warrants attention because of associated food- and waterborne-disease outbreaks, and fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used to evaluate levels of microbial pollution. Models that predict the fate and transport of FIOs are required for designing and...

  8. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreña-Barroso, E

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings

  9. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  10. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  11. Influence of Seasonal Environmental Variables on the Distribution of Presumptive Fecal Coliforms around an Antarctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A.

    2003-01-01

    Factors affecting fecal microorganism survival and distribution in the Antarctic marine environment include solar radiation, water salinity, temperature, sea ice conditions, and fecal input by humans and local wildlife populations. This study assessed the influence of these factors on the distribution of presumptive fecal coliforms around Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer and winter of February 1999 to September 1999. Each factor had a different degree of influence depending on the time of year. In summer (February), although the station population was high, presumptive fecal coliform concentrations were low, probably due to the biologically damaging effects of solar radiation. However, summer algal blooms reduced penetration of solar radiation into the water column. By early winter (April), fecal coliform concentrations were high, due to increased fecal input by migrant wildlife, while solar radiation doses were low. By late winter (September), fecal coliform concentrations were high near the station sewage outfall, as sea ice formation limited solar radiation penetration into the sea and prevented wind-driven water circulation near the outfall. During this study, environmental factors masked the effect of station population numbers on sewage plume size. If sewage production increases throughout the Antarctic, environmental factors may become less significant and effective sewage waste management will become increasingly important. These findings highlight the need for year-round monitoring of fecal coliform distribution in Antarctic waters near research stations to produce realistic evaluations of sewage pollution persistence and dispersal. PMID:12902283

  12. Prevalence of bacterial contamination with antibiotic-resistant and enterotoxigenic fecal coliforms in treated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S P; Gopal, K

    2008-01-01

    Pollution indicator bacteria such as coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were enumerated using a multiple-tube fermentation method in 100 treated drinking-water samples from 20 locations in residential, commercial, and industrial areas of a tropical city during summer. Thirty-four percent of the samples were bacteriologically nonpotable. Maximum coliform-contaminated (27%) samples were derived from industrial areas, while samples contaminated with fecal coliform (23%) and fecal streptococci (20%) originated from commercial areas. Coliforms identified as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., and Citrobacter sp. were present in 29%, 26%, 24%, and 15% of samples, respectively. Fecal coliforms were examined for antibiotic susceptibility with disc diffusion method. All test isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) for kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. Escherichia coli isolates were examined for enterotoxigenicity using the suckling mice bioassay and 60% of the isolates displayed enterotoxigenicity. Data indicate that drinking water contaminated with antibiotic-resistant enterotoxigenic fecal bacteria may be responsible for presence of waterborne diarrheal diseases attributed to therapeutic agents used by urban populations in the tropics.

  13. Indicateurs De Pollution Fecale Dans Une Lagune Tropicale A Forte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les charges moyennes des coliformes et des streptocoques fécaux des eaux des différentes stations étudiées varient respectivement de 1,73 à 3,07 log UFC.100 mL-1 et de 1,18 à 2,63 log UFC.100 mL-1 ; celles des sédiments varient de 3,16 à 4,1 log UFC.100 g-1 pour les coliformes fécaux et de 2,79 à 3,93 log UFC.100 ...

  14. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  15. Exploring fecal indicator bacteria in a constructed stormwater wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, J M; Hunt, W F; Graves, A K; Bass, K L; Caldwell, A

    2011-01-01

    Microbial pollution in surface waters is a concern throughout the world, with both public health and economic implications. One contributing source to such pollution is stormwater runoff, often treated using various types of stormwater control measures. However, relatively little is known regarding microbe sequestration in constructed stormwater wetlands (CSWs), one type of commonly installed stormwater control measure. In this study, indicator bacteria concentrations in both the water and sediment of a CSW were evaluated at multiple locations. Results suggested that fecal coliform concentrations in stormwater runoff decrease through the system, with relatively consistent concentrations noted throughout the second half of the wetland. This potentially indicates a baseline concentration of fecal coliform is present due to internal processes such as animal activity and microbial persistence. However, wetland sediments showed little E. coli present during most sampling events, with minimal patterns existing with respect to sediment sampling location. CSW designs should promote optimization of hydraulic retention time and minimization of stormwater velocities to promote sedimentation and degradation of microbes by way of wetland treatment functions.

  16. Fecal Continence Revisited : The Anal External Sphincter Continence Reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, Paul M. A.; Penninckx, Freddy M.; Boix Ochoa, Jose

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: None of the current theories on fecal incontinence can explain fecal continence adequately. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the mechanism controlling fecal continence. DESIGN: Anal electrosensitivity, anorectal pressures, and rectal pressure volumetry tests were performed in 17

  17. Transanal irrigation is effective in functional fecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Cecilie Siggaard; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Modin, Line

    2017-01-01

    Functional fecal incontinence (FFI) is divided into cases related to functional constipation (FC) and cases without concomitant constipation termed functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). Transanal irrigation (TAI) is widely used in children with neurogenic fecal incontinence...

  18. Endoluminal magnetic resonance imaging in fecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rociu (Elena)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFecal incontinence is a chronic disability, has serious emotional impact and increased risk for social isolation. Imaging has become important in the diagnostic work-up of fecal incontinence. The research described in this thesis continues the line of efforts to improve the quality and

  19. Pharmacotherapy for fecal incontinence: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D; Chang, David; Eichenwald, Elad

    2007-05-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common clinical problem that often is frustrating to the patient and treating physician. Nonsurgical management for fecal incontinence includes dietary manipulation, Kegel exercises, perianal skin care, and biofeedback therapy. Pharmacotherapies often are used to assist in management of fecal incontinence. A variety of pharmacotherapies have been utilized for the management of fecal incontinence; limited data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials are available. This is a review of the existing literature on clinical trials of several classes of drugs and other medical therapies that may be beneficial for patients with fecal incontinence. The information in this article was obtained by a MEDLINE search for all clinical trials of drug therapy for fecal incontinence. These treatments and the existing data on their use are summarized. Treatments reviewed include stool bulking agents, with an emphasis on the most promising effect obtained with calcium polycarbophil, constipating agents, including loperamide, codeine, amitriptyline, atropine, and diphenoxylate agents injected into the anal sphincter, drugs to enhance anal sphincter function, including topical phenylepherine and oral sodium valproate, and trials of fecal disimpaction. A new classification to easily remember the treatment categories for this condition, based on the "ABCs of treatment for fecal incontinence," has been introduced into the structure of this review.

  20. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of fecal streptococci for rapid assessment of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, M.T.; Beauvais, E.; Brezenski, F.T.; Litsky, W.

    1975-01-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF) techniques were employed in an attempt to develop a rapid test for the identification of fecal streptococci. Fresh isolates were obtained from river waters and raw sewage. Identification to species were made by the conventional physiological, biochemical, and serological tests. Both whole and disrupted cells of representative strains of each species were used for the preparation of the fecal streptococcal vaccine. Globulin fractions of individual and pooled antisera were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and the resulting conjugates were tested with homologous and heterologous antigens. The present findings suggest that the immunofluorescence techniques can be employed in the determination of the presence and source of fecal pollution in water employing the fecal streptococci as indicator organisms. By using this method it was determined that fecal streptococci can be identified from water and sewage samples within 20 hours. Parenthetically it should be noted that the identification procedures using the routine biochemical and serological tests may take as long as 7 to 14 days. The procedure may be automated for continual monitoring.

  2. EVALUATION OF SELECTED DNA-BASED TECHNOLOGY IN IMPAIRED WATERSHEDS IMPACTED BY FECAL CONTAMINATION FROM DIVERSE SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution of surface waters is a top reason for impairment, as listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s report on the quality of the Nation's waters. To be able to develop and implement TMDLs in impaired aquatic resources, it is imperative to determine the sourc...

  3. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Loek P.; Bouter, Kristien E. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Borody, Thomas J.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal

  4. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, several aspects of donor feces infusion, also called Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), are investigated. Historically, FMTs are given mainly for antibiotic associated diarrhea, caused by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are

  5. Fecal microbiota transplantation: facts and controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, Els; Speelman, Peter; Nieuwdorp, Max; Keller, Josbert

    2014-01-01

    To review the current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), metabolic syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, a randomized trial confirmed the efficacy of this treatment strategy in patients with recurrent CDI. For

  6. Torrefaction Processing of Human Fecal Waste Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed to collect, stabilize, safen, recover useful materials, and store human fecal waste for long duration missions. The current SBIR Phase I...

  7. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  8. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  9. Fecal bacteria in the rivers of the Seine drainage network (France): sources, fate and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, Pierre; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; George, Isabelle; Billen, Gilles

    2007-04-01

    The Seine river watershed (France) is a deeply anthropogenically impacted area, due to the high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture. The water quality and ecological functioning of the different rivers of the Seine drainage network have been extensively studied during the last fifteen years within the framework of a large French multidisciplinary scientific program (PIREN Seine program). This paper presents a synthesis of the main data gained in the scope of this program concerning the microbiological water contamination of the rivers of the Seine drainage network. The more common indicator of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms) was mainly used; some complementary works used E. coli and intestinal enterococci as alternative fecal indicators. Point sources (outfall of wastewater treatment plants) and non point sources (surface runoff and soil leaching) of fecal pollution to the rivers of the watershed were quantified. Results showed that, at the scale of a large urbanised watershed as the Seine basin, the input of fecal micro-organisms by non-point sources is much lower than the inputs by point sources. However, the local impact of diffuse non-human sources (especially surface runoff of pastured fields) can be of major importance on the microbiological quality of small headwater rivers. Fecal contamination of the main rivers of the Seine watershed (Seine, Marne, Oise rivers) was studied showing high level of microbiological pollution when compared to European guidelines for bathing waters. The strong negative impact of treated wastewater effluents outfall on the microbiological quality of receiving rivers was observed in different areas of the watershed. Once released in rivers, culturable fecal bacteria disappeared relatively rapidly due to mortality (protozoan grazing, lysis) or loss of culturability induced by stress conditions (sunlight effect, nutrient concentration, temperature). Mortality rates of E. coli were studied

  10. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  11. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  12. Secretion of interleukin-8 by human-derived cell lines infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Méndez-Samperio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variable efficacy of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (Mycobacterium bovis BCG in protecting humans against tuberculosis has prompted a search for the mechanisms through which BCG induces chemokines. In this study, our experiments were designed to determine the role of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and intracellular calcium in the production of interleukin (IL-8, a main chemotactic factor, by human-derived monocytic cell line U937 and by a human epithelial HEp-2 cell line infected with M. bovis BCG.

  13. Fecal calprotectin in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Pietro; Rispo, Antonio; Imperatore, Nicola; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2014-01-14

    We would like to share with the readers the results of our experience in 50 celiac disease (CD) patients, enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013, who were referred to our third-level CD Unit. The fecal calprotectin (FC) concentration of 50 adults with newly diagnosed CD was compared to that of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. FC level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with diagnostic cut-off of 75 μg/g. In addition, we tried to correlate the FC level with symptoms, histological severity of CD (Marsh grade) and level of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (aTg) in CD patients. Finally, FC level was increased in five CD patients and in four controls (10% vs 8%, P = NS); mean FC concentration of patients and controls were 57.7 (SD ± 29.1) and 45.1 (SD ± 38.4) respectively. Furthermore, no significant correlation was seen between FC levels and symptoms/Marsh grade/aTg. The five CD patients did not show inflammatory lesions (e.g., ulcers, erosions) at upper endoscopy. The four healthy controls with positive FC were followed-up for further six months; in this observational period they did not show clinical signs of any underlying disease. On these bases, we think that FC is not able to investigate the subclinical inflammatory changes of active CD and FC should be considered a useless tool in the diagnostic work-up of uncomplicated CD but it should be accompanied by aTg when ruling out organic disease in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  14. Decay of Bacteroidales genetic markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators for water quality modeling of drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Ekaterina; Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Bergstedt, Olof; Hermansson, Malte

    2012-01-17

    The implementation of microbial fecal source tracking (MST) methods in drinking water management is limited by the lack of knowledge on the transport and decay of host-specific genetic markers in water sources. To address these limitations, the decay and transport of human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) fecal Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers in a drinking water source (Lake Rådasjön in Sweden) were simulated using a microbiological model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The microbiological model was calibrated using data from outdoor microcosm trials performed in March, August, and November 2010 to determine the decay of BacH and BacR markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators. The microcosm trials indicated that the persistence of BacH and BacR in the microcosms was not significantly different from the persistence of traditional fecal indicators. The modeling of BacH and BacR transport within the lake illustrated that the highest levels of genetic markers at the raw water intakes were associated with human fecal sources (on-site sewers and emergency sewer overflow). This novel modeling approach improves the interpretation of MST data, especially when fecal pollution from the same host group is released into the water source from different sites in the catchment.

  15. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  16. Clostridium difficile Infection and Fecal Microbiota Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubakka, Alyssa; Vaughn, Byron P.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major source of morbidity and mortality for hospitalized patients. Although most patients have a clinical response to existing antimicrobial therapies, recurrent infection develops in up to 30% of patients. Fecal microbiota transplant is a novel approach to this complex problem, with an efficacy rate of nearly 90% in the setting of multiple recurrent CDI. This review covers the current epidemiology of CDI (including toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains, risk factors for infection, and recurrent infection), methods of diagnosis, existing first-line therapies in CDI, the role of fecal microbiota transplant for multiple recurrent CDIs, and the potential use of fecal microbial transplant for patients with severe or refractory infection. PMID:27959316

  17. Fecal incontinence in pregnancy and post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincat, Cynthia; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Patel, Divya; Sampselle, Carolyn; Miller, Janis; Delancey, John O L; Fenner, Dee E

    2009-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) during pregnancy and post partum, and to determine any associations with demographic and birth variables. Secondary analysis of 240 primiparous women conducted during pregnancy and post partum. Women were asked at various time points if they had lost control over their stool or bowel movements, and if they were practicing Kegel exercises. Associations of bowel symptoms with demographic and birth data were evaluated. Most participants were white (87%), with a median age of 30 years (range, 18-42 years). Women who reported fecal incontinence at 1 year were more educated than those who did not report it. No other demographic or birth data were associated with fecal incontinence at 1 year. Prevalence of FI during pregnancy and post partum is low and not linked to low-risk birth. Furthermore, when FI occurs it is often sporadic. This should be reassuring to patients and providers alike.

  18. Enterococci vs coliforms as a possible fecal contamination indicator: baseline data for Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mushtaq; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz; Khan, Muhammad Tanweer; Wajid, Abdul

    2007-04-01

    Fecal contamination of drinking water is the major cause of water borne illnesses. For long time coliforms are exploited as fecal contamination indicator. However, recent studies indicate low survival rate of coliforms in stress conditions, hence it's use as indicator of fecal pollution is being abandoned in many parts of the developed world. Implementation of such strategy demands availability of local data in the cities like Karachi. The present study provides a comparison between coliforms and enterococcal load and its variation in sewage samples collected (June, August and November, 2006) from eighteen towns of Karachi. All the diluted samples were selective media to obtain colony-forming units (CFU) mainly for coliforms and enterococci. The bacteria isolated were identified on the basis of conventional microbiological methods. Observations thus obtained were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. The total load of enterococci was found in range of 1.27-8.47 X 10(7) as compared to coliforms (3.03-13.9 X 10(7)). However, segregation of data reveals greater inter town variability in CFU/ml both in coliforms and enterococci as suggested by their cumulative standard deviation +/-1.5 X 107. Furthermore, CFU/ml of both coliforms and enterococci also varies to variable scale when collected at different time intervals and at intra town level. Conclusively, the studies suggest high survival rate and lower variability of Enterococci compared to escherichia hence indicating its potential advantage to be used as fecal contamination indicator.

  19. Caffeine as an indicator of human fecal contamination in the Sinos River: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Linden

    Full Text Available The preservation of hydric resources is directly related to fecal contamination monitoring, in order to allow the development of strategies for the management of polluting sources. In the present study, twenty-five water samples from six water public supply collection sites were used for the evaluation of the presence of caffeine, total and fecal coliforms. Caffeine was detected in all samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.15 ng mL–1 to 16.72 ng mL–1. Total coliforms were detected in all samples, with concentrations in the range of 52 NMP/100 mL to higher than 24196 NMP/100 mL, whether the concentration range for fecal coliforms was in the range of below 1 NMP/100 mL to 7800 NMP/100 mL. No significant correlation was found between total coliforms and caffeine concentrations (rs = 0.35, p = 0.09. However, a moderate correlation between fecal coliforms and caffeine concentrations was found (rs = 0.412, p

  20. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals or other foreign substances that are detrimental to human, plant, or animal health. These pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural ...

  1. Microplastic pollutants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crawford, Christopher B; Quinn, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic Pollutants introduces the reader to the growing problem of microplastic pollution in the aquatic environment and is the first ever book dedicated exclusively to the subject of microplastics...

  2. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  3. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana P Bojanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool. Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool, archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool, viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool, fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool, protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component.

  4. Fecal indicator sources in small creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicator organisms (FIO) in surface water have been widely adopted as surrogates for human gastro-intestinal pathogens, despite available data indicating that the correlations are quite low. Nonetheless, high levels of FIO are a source of concern for agricultural, recreational and industrial ...

  5. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  6. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    OpenAIRE

    AMANIDAZ, Nazak; Ali ZAFARZADEH; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks.Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal stre...

  7. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanidaz, Nazak; Zafarzadeh, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (Pcoliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms.

  8. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of north Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiello, M; Mikell, A T; Moore, M T; Cooper, C M

    2014-08-01

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree of fecal contamination, it is important that standard methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency are designed to determine the presence of E. coli in a water supply, and distinguish E. coli from other coliform bacteria (e.g. Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter). These genera of bacteria are present not only in fecal matter, but also in soil and runoff water and are not good indicators of fecal contamination. There is also ambiguity in determining a positive result for fecal coliforms on M-FC filters by a blue colony. When all variations of blue, including light blue or glossy blue, were examined, confirmation methods agreed with the positive M-FC result less often than when colonies that the technician would merely call "blue", with no descriptors, were examined. Approximately 48 % of M-FC positive colonies were found to be E. coli with 4 methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (MUG), and only 23 % of samples producing a positive result on M-FC media were found to be E. coli using API-20E test strips and current API-20E profiles. The majority of other M-FC blue colonies were found to be Klebsiella or were unidentifiable with current API-20E profiles. Two positive M-FC colonies were found to be Kluyvera with API-20E, both of which cleaved MUG and produced fluorescence under UV light, a characteristic used to differentiate E. coli from other fecal coliforms.

  9. Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Bofill-Mas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking. In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples.

  10. Characterization of genetic determinants involved in antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms isolated from different aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, Alessandro; Mauri, Federica; Demarta, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms, two abundant and cultivable bacterial populations that can be found in water ecosystems, might substantially contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. We investigated the presence and spread of transposons (elements that can move from one location to another in the genome), integrons (structures able to capture and incorporate gene cassettes) and resistance plasmids in strains isolated from polluted and unpolluted water. We recovered 231 Aeromonas and 250 fecal coliforms from water samplings with different degrees of pollution (hospital sewage, activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant, river water before and after treatment and water from an alpine lake). Sixteen Aeromonas spp. and 22 fecal coliforms carried intI, coding for the site-specific integrase of class 1 integrons, while 22 Aeromonas spp. and 14 fecal coliforms carried tnpA, the transposase gene of the Tn3-family of replicative transposons. The majority of intI and tnpA-positive strains were phenotypically resistant to at least four antibiotics. Integrons and transposons were mainly located on mobilizable plasmids. Our results did not detect common mobile structures in the two populations and therefore relativize the role played by Aeromonas spp. as vectors of antimicrobial resistance determinants between water and commensal gut bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Occurrence of Enteric Bacteria in Marine Environment and Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kılınç, Berna; Besler, Aysu

    2014-01-01

    The microbiological quality of the marine environment affects the microbiological quality of all fishery products. This study is a review of the occurence of enteric bacteria in freshly harvested fishery products dependent on the quality of marine environment from which these products are harvested. The control of marine environment from pollution as measured by the index of fecal coliform bacteria is necessary. Otherwise, our fishery products can be contaminated from the polluted marine envi...

  12. Faecal Pollution of Well Water in Enugu Metropolis | Onyemelukwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose of Study: We analyzed well water samples from 4 zones, Abakpa, Obiagu, Ogui and Trans-Ekulu, in Enugu Metropolis for evidence of fecal pollution. Basic Procedure: Five wells were located in each zone by the multistage sampling procedure and water samples were taken aseptically using Gallenkamp apparatus, ...

  13. Mosquito attraction: crucial role of carbon dioxide in formulation of a five-component blend of human-derived volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Jacobs, F.; Rijk, de M.; Mukabana, W.R.; Verhulst, N.O.; Menger, D.J.; Takken, W.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral responses of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii (An. gambiae sensu stricto molecular 'M form') to an expanded blend of human-derived volatiles were assessed in a dual-port olfactometer. A previously documented attractive three-component blend consisting of NH3, (S)-lactic acid, and

  14. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Fresh and Marine Water (ASM 2017 Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the amb...

  15. Ethical aspects of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daloiso, V; Minacori, R; Refolo, P; Sacchini, D; Craxì, L; Gasbarrini, A; Spagnolo, A G

    2015-09-01

    The importance of human microbiota in preserving human organism healthy is nowadays well acknowledged. The alteration of the microbiota can be the consequence of a persistent use of antibiotics or immunosuppressive medications or abdominal irradiation or surgery, wrong diet, or can be caused by surgery or anatomical condition. These alterations can cause many infections and diseases that today can be treated with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), also called Bacteriotherapy, that is the administration of a fecal solution from a donor into the intestinal tract of a recipient. Although to date, FMT appears to be safe and without serious adverse effects, there are some ethical issues that are worthy to be investigated. The aim of this article is to highlight these issues in order to give some notes for a better implementation of this particular clinical practice.

  16. Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Ho Bak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of patients with Crohn's disease do not respond to conventional treatments, and some experience significant adverse effects, such as serious infections and lymphoma, and many patients require surgery due to complications. Increasing evidence suggests that specific changes in the composition of gut microbiota, termed as dysbiosis, are a common feature in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Dysbiosis can lead to activation of the mucosal immune system, resulting in chronic inflammation and the development of mucosal lesions. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation, aimed at modifying the composition of gut microbiota to overcome dysbiosis, has become a potential alternative therapeutic option for IBD. Herein, we present a patient with Crohn's colitis in whom biologic therapy failed previously, but clinical remission and endoscopic improvement was achieved after a single fecal microbiota transplantation infusion.

  17. Analisis Penentuan Kualitas Air Dan Beban Pencemaran Untuk Parameter Fecal Coliform Di Hulu Sungai Progo Kabupaten Temanggung

    OpenAIRE

    Winih Isti N, Monalisatika Winih Isti N; Sudarno, Sudarno; Istirokhatun, Titik

    2014-01-01

    Progo Hulu River has function for the well-being of humans and wildlife that live in the river. Human activities who utilizing the river water and dispose waste to Progo Hulu River degrade the water quality. This study aims to analyze the water quality of the Progo Hulu River and calculate pollution load capacity for fecal coliform parameters. The study was conducted in 8 (eight) points along the main river in June 2014. Load capacity calculation methods Progo Hulu Rivercontamination calcula...

  18. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  19. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  20. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  1. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  2. Atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R B

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  3. Effect of probiotics on constipation, fecal azoreductase activity and fecal mucin content in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Lagström, Hanna; Suomalainen, Tarja; Salminen, Seppo

    2002-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem in elderly subjects, probiotics have been suggested to improve intestinal motility and reduce fecal enzyme activity. Elderly subjects (n = 28) were enrolled in an open parallel study. The subjects were divided into 3 groups: 1 control group receiving juice; 1 group receiving juice supplemented with Lactobacillus reuteri, and 1 group receiving juice supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. During the first 3 weeks all subjects consumed unsupplemented juice. In the subsequent 4 weeks, the subjects received their designated juice. During the last 3 weeks, all subjects again received unsupplemented juice. From the subjects, defecation frequency, laxative use, fecal pH, mucin content and azoreductase activity were assessed during the last week of each period. The subjects receiving the L. rhamnosus/P. freudenreichii-supplemented juice exhibited a 24% increase in defecation frequency. However, no reduction in laxative use was observed. The fecal azoreductase activity was also significantly reduced in this group. No changes in fecal pH or mucin excretion were observed. Some relief from constipation may be observed with the combination of L. rhamnosus/P. freudenreichii. This probiotic combination also reduced fecal enzyme activity. The tested probiotics did not affect the mucosal barrier. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    Full Text Available On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10 in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.

  5. Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding) sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10) in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous) areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.

  6. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in adult dogs with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, Aurélien; Heilmann, Romy M; Lecoindre, Patrick; Feugier, Alexandre; Day, Michael J; Peeters, Dominique; Freiche, Valérie; Hernandez, Juan; Grandjean, Dominique; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jorg M

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic diarrhea, to identify cutoff values for fecal calprotectin concentrations for use in differentiating dogs with chronic diarrhea and a canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) chronic diarrhea and a CCECAI ≥ 12, and to evaluate the association between histologic evidence of intestinal mucosal changes and fecal calprotectin concentrations in dogs with chronic diarrhea. Fecal samples from 96 adult dogs (27 dogs with chronic diarrhea and 69 healthy control dogs). Severity of clinical signs was evaluated on the basis of the CCECAI scoring system. Endoscopy was performed in all dogs with chronic diarrhea, and mucosal biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically. Fecal calprotectin concentration was quantified via radioimmunoassay. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea than in healthy control dogs. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were also significantly higher in dogs with a CCECAI ≥ 12, compared with concentrations for dogs with a CCECAI between 4 and 11. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea associated with histologic lesions, compared with concentrations in control dogs, and were significantly correlated with the severity of histologic intestinal lesions. Among dogs with chronic diarrhea, the best cutoff fecal calprotectin concentration for predicting a CCECAI ≥ 12 was 48.9 μg/g (sensitivity, 53.3%; specificity, 91.7%). Fecal calprotectin may be a useful biomarker in dogs with chronic diarrhea, especially dogs with histologic lesions.

  7. Fecal total iron concentration is inversely associated with fecal Lactobacillus in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalipatnapu, Sasank; Kuppuswamy, Sivaraman; Venugopal, Giriprasad; Kaliaperumal, Venkatesh; Ramadass, Balamurugan

    2017-08-01

    Iron deficiency is associated with stunting and poor performance in children. Oral iron supplementation is widely promoted to correct iron deficiency. However, excess iron may be toxic to beneficial luminal gut bacteria and could support growth of pathobionts. The aim of this study is to analyze the fecal total iron concentration and fecal Lactobacillus levels in a cohort of stunted and normal children. The study was undertaken in two different locations. One of them is a rural area, and the other is a semi-urban-slum area; both areas are located in the Vellore district of Tamilnadu state. Twenty children (10 stunted and 10 normal growth) aged 2 to 5 years from each area were recruited. Both groups were nearly identical demographically. Fecal samples were collected. Fecal total iron was estimated, and fecal DNA was extracted and subjected to 16S rDNA-targeted real-time PCR to determine the relative predominance of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The fecal total iron concentration in rural children (3656 μg/g wet wt. of feces) was significantly higher when compared with semi-urban-slum children (114.9 μg/g wet wt. of feces, P Lactobacillus in rural children (median 3.18 × 10-3 relative difference compared with total bacteria) was significantly lower when compared with semi-urban-slum children (median 59.33 × 10-3 , p Lactobacillus concentration in children belonging to two different localities independent of their nutritional status. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it has very local impacts that can profoundly affect communities, not the least of which is air pollution. Increasing temperatures are directly linked to poor air quality which, in turn, can affect the ...

  9. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primarily to one’s overall health. Top of Page Health Effects Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. ... its effect, disseminate information to the public regarding noise pollution and its adverse health effects, respond to inquiries on matters related to noise, ...

  10. Targeting the Sources of Fecal Contamination using Dog-, Human-, and Ruminant- Specific Markers in the Lake Herrick Watershed, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Habteselassie, M.; Sowah, R.; Kannan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Lake Herrick Watershed is about 1.5 km2 and covers portions of the University of Georgia's East campus, the Oconee Forest, residential and commercial landuse. Lake Herrick, a recreational site on the University of Georgia campus, was closed in 2002 due to fecal contamination. Subsequent monitoring confirmed persistent contamination, which led to a permanent closure to swimming, boating, and fishing. While fecal coliform abundance is a standard metric for determining human health risks, Geldreich (1970) showed that fecal abundance does not necessarily correlate with the presence of pathogens. Nor does it identify pollution sources, which are needed to mitigate health risks. Two inflow tributaries and the outlet stream were monitored for discharge, fecal coliform, forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and other water-quality data to quantify lake influent and effluent bacteria loads. Fecal sources were identified using the human HF183 genetic marker (Seurinck et al., 2005), the ruminant BacR marker (Reischer et al., 2006), and the dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker (Tambalo et al., 2012). Preliminary results confirm high concentrations of E. coli and Enterococci, above the State's limit of 124 MPN/100 mL, in both baseflows and stormflows. The findings also suggest that the E. coli and Enterococci loads from the inlet tributaries are on average higher compared to the bacteria loads coming out of the outlet stream. The human markers were detectable at all three sites but most of the samples were not quantifiable. The ruminant markers were quantifiable at both inlets but no ruminant markers were found at the outlet. The dog markers were detectable but not quantifiable at both inlets and no dog markers were detected at the outlet. Statistical analyses will be used to establish relationships between the nutrients data, the fecal concentrations, and the gene-specific markers.

  11. Complete Pelvic Floor Repair in Treating Fecal Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Patrick Y. H.; Steele, Scott R

    2005-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is associated with 20 to 40% of the patients with pelvic floor prolapse. Successful management of fecal incontinence requires not only an understanding of anorectal function but also a thorough understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and how pelvic floor prolapse affects fecal continence. Imaging techniques have been instrumental in visualizing pelvic floor prolapse and have helped correlate surgical findings. Stabilization of the perineal body appears to be a key component t...

  12. Profiling Living Bacteria Informs Preparation of Fecal Microbiota Transplantations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Nathaniel D.; Smith, Mark B.; Perrotta, Allison R.; Kassam, Zain; Alm, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities—believed to be the therapeutic agent—can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium ...

  13. Survival of free and microencapsulated human-derived oral probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 in orange and aloe vera juices

    OpenAIRE

    Rawee Teanpaisan; Aksorntong Chooruk; Thanyanan Kampoo

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a human-derived strain with probiotic potential, in orange and aloe vera juices. The microencapsulation parameters included alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration and hardening-time, and the efficacy of microencapsulation to preserve the survival of microencapsulated bacteria compared to free cells during exposure in fruit juices were determined. The results revealed that the via...

  14. Evaluating slurry broadcasting and injection to ley for phosphorus losses and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth in the size of dairy cattle farms and the concentration of farms into smaller areas in Finland may increase local water pollution due to increased manure production and slurry application to grass. Therefore, a field study was conducted to monitor losses of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff from a perennial ley. Cattle slurry was added once a year in June 1996-1997 (Study I) and biannually in June and October 1998-2000 (Study II). The slurry was surface broadcast or injected into the clay soil. The field had a slope of 0.9 to 1.7%. Mineral fertilizer was applied on control plots. Biannual slurry broadcasting increased DRP (p microorganisms in surface runoff waters. The highest losses of TP (2.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and DRP (2.2 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and the highest numbers of fecal coliforms (880 colony-forming units [CFU] per 100 mL) and somatic coliphages (2700 plaque-forming units [PFU] per 100 mL) were measured after broadcasting slurry to wet soil followed by rainfall in fall 1998. Injection reduced the TP and DRP losses in surface runoff by 79 and 86%, respectively, compared with broadcasting (17 Oct. 1998-27 Oct. 1999). Corresponding numbers for fecal coliforms were 350 CFU (100 mL)(-1) and for somatic coliphages were 110 PFU (100 mL)(-1) in surface runoff after injection in October 1998. Slurry injection should be favored when spreading slurry amendments to grassland to avoid losses of P and fecal microorganisms in runoff to surface waters.

  15. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beachgoers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Sams, Elizabeth; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. Methods In 2007, visitors at two recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days later, participants answered questions about health symptoms since the visit. F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in wet sand were measured using culture and molecular methods. Results We analyzed 144 wet sand samples and completed 4,999 interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed, comparing those in the highest tertile of fecal indicator exposure with those who reported no sand contact. Among those digging in sand compared with those not digging in sand, a molecular measure of Enterococcus spp. (calibrator cell equivalents/g) in sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness (aOR = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–3.2]) and diarrhea (2.4 [1.4–4.2]). Among those buried in sand, point estimates were greater for GI illness (3.3 [1.3–7.9]) and diarrhea (4.9 [1.8–13]). Positive associations were also observed for culture-based Enterococcus (colony-forming units/g) with GI illness (aOR digging = 1.7 [1.1–2.7]) and diarrhea (2.1 [1.3–3.4]). Associations were not found among non-swimmers with sand exposure. Conclusions We observed a positive relationship between sand contact activities and enteric illness as a function of concentrations of fecal microbial pollution in beach sand. PMID:22157306

  16. Evaluation of fecal contamination indicators (fecal coliforms, somatic phages, and helminth eggs) in ryegrass sward farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martha; Moreno, Gerardo; Campos, Claudia

    2009-02-15

    The effect of soil supplementation with biosolids at various ratios on fecal-origin microorganism activity was evaluated in a ryegrass sward farm. Fifteen plots with 3 different soil and biosolid mixture ratios were assessed. Soil and grass were sampled over a period of 4 months (days 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 120) for soil and on days 75 and 120 for grass, corresponding to first and second grass harvest periods. We analyzed fecal coliforms, somatic phages, helminth eggs, and environmental factors, such as rainfall, temperature, and moisture. The fecal coliforms decreased by 2 logarithmic units (LU) in all soils containing biosolids and by 1 LU in the soil alone and in biosolid control plots alone. The concentration of somatic phages decreased to 2 to 3 LU in the soil containing biosolids and to 1 to 2 LU in the control plots. In contrast, however, there was a noticeable increase in helminth eggs on days 75 ad 120, but not in the soil control alone. Maximum concentrations (10(2) CFU/g TS; colony forming units per gram total solids) of fecal coliforms were found on the grass and in other samples, but the concentrations of phages and helminth eggs were below detection limits. Environmental factors did not significantly influence the results, and grass production increased from 35 to 50 Ton/Ha (tons per hectare) with biosolid supplementation, as compared with controls (14 Ton/Ha).

  17. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  18. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  19. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  20. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method of separating strontium, and, more particularly, to a method of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. Radioactive strontium is a radionuclide which represents a hazard to man because of its long half-life and, if ingested, its tendency to be retained in the human body. In the event that radionuclides such as strontium or various actinides are ingested, it is desirable to monitor the discharge or release of these radionuclides from the human body through analysis of fecal matter. In laboratories and other facilities where potential for radionuclide contamination exists, fecal analysis for strontium is routinely conducted for individuals who are terminating from their position or are suspected of having been contaminated with radionuclides. Methods for separating and analyzing radioactive actinides from a biomass sample are well known and have been extensively developed for the US Department of Energy. These methods, described in the Department`s internal procedure, USDOE, RESL/ID, A-16, 1981, as well as in US Patent 5,190,881, involve the use of an iron phosphate precipitation step to separate actinides from a solution, or supernate. However, there are no established procedures for the separation of strontium from a biomass sample wherein an iron phosphate precipitation step is involved.

  1. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2017-10-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  3. Distinguishing bovine fecal matter on spinach leaves using field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodbourne illnesses. In this study passive field spectroscopy, mea...

  4. Assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni Kijichi) and non-sewage impacted (Rasi Dege) mangrove forest sites along the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The Most Probable Number method was used for estimating the total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC) and fecal ...

  5. CULTURE-INDEPENDENT MOLECULAR METHODS FOR FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination is widespread in the waterways of the United States. Both to correct the problem, and to estimate public health risk, it is necessary to identify the source of the contamination. Several culture-independent molecular methods for fecal source identification hav...

  6. Release of Sediment-Bound Fecal Coliforms by Dredging1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Fecal coliform concentrations increased significantly (F test) in the immediate vicinity of a maintenance dredging operation in the Mississippi River navigation channel. Increased counts were attributed to the disturbance and relocation of bottom sediments by dredging and a concomitant release of sediment-bound fecal coliforms. PMID:1089160

  7. Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in freshwater and estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been known for some time that substantial populations of fecal coliforms and E. coli are harbored in freshwater bottom sediments, bank soils, and beach sands. However, the relative importance of sediments as bacterial habitats and as a source of water-borne fecal coliforms and E. coli has not...

  8. Investigating and Treating Fecal Incontinence: When and How

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lazarescu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecal incontinence is a common disorder in our aging population and can have profound effects on patient’s well-being. The present review examines the current understanding of fecal incontinence and provides a practical approach to the investigation and management of this condition. A special emphasis is placed on specialized testing, focusing on indications and impact on guiding management.

  9. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G. (Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium))

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which ({sup 3}H)thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate.

  10. Effects of fecal sampling on preanalytical and analytical phases in quantitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Stefano; Berardi, Margherita; Cellai, Filippo; Ciattini, Samuele; Chelazzi, Laura; Ognibene, Agostino; Rubeca, Tiziana

    2017-07-24

    Information on preanalytical variability is mandatory to bring laboratories up to ISO 15189 requirements. Fecal sampling is greatly affected by lack of harmonization in laboratory medicine. The aims of this study were to obtain information on the devices used for fecal sampling and to explore the effect of different amounts of feces on the results from the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT-Hb). Four commercial sample collection devices for quantitative FIT-Hb measurements were investigated. The volume of interest (VOI) of the probes was measured from diameter and geometry. Quantitative measurements of the mass of feces were carried out by gravimetry. The effects of an increased amount of feces on the analytical environment were investigated measuring the Hb values with a single analytical method. VOI was 8.22, 7.1 and 9.44 mm3 for probes that collected a target of 10 mg of feces, and 3.08 mm3 for one probe that targeted 2 mg of feces. The ratio between recovered and target amounts of devices ranged from 56% to 121%. Different changes in the measured Hb values were observed, in adding increasing amounts of feces in commercial buffers. The amounts of collected materials are related to the design of probes. Three out 4 manufacturers declare the same target amount using different sampling volumes and obtaining different amounts of collected materials. The introduction of a standard probes to reduce preanalytical variability could be an useful step for fecal test harmonization and to fulfill the ISO 15189 requirements.

  11. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  12. Profiling Living Bacteria Informs Preparation of Fecal Microbiota Transplantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel D Chu

    Full Text Available Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq that uses propidium monoazide (PMA to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples. We found that oxygen exposure degraded fecal bacterial communities, whereas freeze-thaw cycles and lag time between donor defecation and transplant preparation had much smaller effects. Notably, the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii-an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium whose absence is linked to inflammatory bowel disease-decreased with oxygen exposure. Our results indicate that some current practices for preparing microbiota transplant material adversely affect living fecal microbial content and highlight PMA-seq as a valuable tool to inform best practices and evaluate the suitability of clinical fecal material.

  13. Microbial source tracking in a small southern California urban watershed indicates wild animals and growth as the source of fecal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sunny C; Chu, Weiping; Olson, Betty H; He, Jian-Wen; Choi, Samuel; Zhang, Jenny; Le, Joanne Y; Gedalanga, Phillip B

    2007-09-01

    Three independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods were applied to a small urban subwatershed in Orange County, California. Fifty-seven water samples collected over summer 2002 were analyzed for human adenovirus and enterovirus. Enterococci and E. coli were isolated for antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) and for PCR identification of human- and animal-specific toxin genes, respectively. All water samples were PCR negative for human enteroviruses and E. coli human-specific toxin gene. E. coli toxin markers revealed the presence of toxin genes specific to bird, rabbit, and cow. Enterococci ARA results supported this conclusion and indicated that fecal bacteria from bird and wild animal feces as well as soil were the predominant source found in the watershed. An E. coli, isolated from the watershed and inoculated back into the heat-sterilized storm drain water, increased 4 log units within 6 days. Collectively, these results suggest that bird and wild animal feces, soil amendments, and/or fecal coliform growth in the storm drain are the major contributors to the fecal bacterial pollution in downstream areas. However, human adenoviruses were detected on two occasions. Fecal bacterial concentrations were not elevated on these two occasions, suggesting that the elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria in this small watershed could be unrelated to the source of human adenovirus.

  14. Base-metal dental casting alloy biocompatibility assessment using a human-derived three-dimensional oral mucosal model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, E L

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys used in fixed prosthodontics have been associated with type IV Ni-induced hypersensitivity. We hypothesised that the full-thickness human-derived oral mucosa model employed for biocompatibility testing of base-metal dental alloys would provide insights into the mechanisms of Ni-induced toxicity. Primary oral keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts were seeded onto Alloderm™ and maintained until full thickness was achieved prior to Ni-Cr and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy disc exposure (2-72 h). Biocompatibility assessment involved histological analyses with cell viability measurements, oxidative stress responses, inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular toxicity analyses. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis determined elemental ion release levels. We detected adverse morphology with significant reductions in cell viability, significant increases in oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular toxicity for the Ni-Cr alloy-treated oral mucosal models compared with untreated oral mucosal models, and adverse effects were increased for the Ni-Cr alloy that leached the most Ni. Co-Cr demonstrated significantly enhanced biocompatibility compared with Ni-Cr alloy-treated oral mucosal models. The human-derived full-thickness oral mucosal model discriminated between dental alloys and provided insights into the mechanisms of Ni-induced toxicity, highlighting potential clinical relevance.

  15. Current and future trends in fecal source tracking and deployment in the Lake Taihu Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Charles; Liang, Xinqiang

    The emerging discipline of microbial and/or chemical source tracking (collectively termed fecal source tracking (FST)) is being used to identify origins of fecal contamination in polluted waters in many countries around the world. FST has developed rapidly because standard methods of measuring contamination in water by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as fecal coliforms and enterococci do not identify the sources of the contamination. FST is an active area of research and development in both the academic and private sectors and includes: Developing and testing new microbial and chemical FST methods. Determining the geographic application and animal host ranges of existing and emerging FST techniques. Conducting experimental comparisons of FST techniques. Combining direct monitoring of human pathogens associated with waterborne outbreaks and zoonotic pathogens responsible for infections among people, wildlife, or domesticated animals with the use of FST techniques. Applying FST to watershed analysis and coastal environments. Designing appropriate statistical and probability analysis of FST data and developing models for mass loadings of host-specific fecal contamination. This paper includes a critical review of FST with emphasis on the extent to which methods have been tested (especially in comparison with other methods and/or with blind samples), which methods are applicable to different situations, their shortcomings, and their usefulness in predicting public health risk or pathogen occurrence. In addition, the paper addresses the broader question of whether FST and fecal indicator monitoring is the best approach to regulate water quality and protect human health. Many FST methods have only been tested against sewage or fecal samples or isolates in laboratory studies (proof of concept testing) and/or applied in field studies where the “real” answer is not known, so their comparative performance and accuracy cannot be assessed. For FST to be

  16. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF CHICKEN-SPECIFIC FECAL MICROBIAL SEQUENCES USING A METAGENOMIC APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we applied a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to select for genomic regions that differ between different fecal metagenomes. Competitive DNA hybridizations were performed between chicken fecal DNA and pig fecal DNA (C-P) and between chicken fecal DNA and an ...

  18. Psychosocial co-morbidity affects treatment outcome in children with fecal incontinence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen-Faasen, E.Q. van; Gerritsen, B.J.; Mulder, P.G.; Fliers, E.A.; Groeneweg, M.

    2008-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common disorder in children. Many children with fecal incontinence have psychosocial co-morbidity. In this study, the effect of psychosocial co-morbidity on the treatment outcome of children with fecal incontinence was evaluated. One hundred and fifty children with fecal

  19. Sanitation in constructed wetlands: A review on the removal of human pathogens and fecal indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Müller, Jochen A; Manoj, Valsa Remony; Dong, Renjie

    2016-01-15

    Removal of human pathogens from wastewater is a critical factor with linkage to human health. Constructed Wetlands (CWs) are environmental friendly ecosystems that are applicable not only for chemical pollution control, but also for the reduction of pathogens from wastewater. Yet the knowledge on the fate and removal of such indicator bacteria in CWs is still not sufficient due to the complexity of removal mechanisms and influencing factors. This review serves to provide a better understanding of this state-of-the-art technology, which is necessary for further investigations and design development. The fecal indicator bacteria in CWs mainly come from three sources, namely, influent wastewaters, regrowth within the CWs, and animal activities. The properties of microbial contamination vary depending on the different sources. The removal of pathogens is a complex process that is influenced by operational parameters such as hydraulic regime and retention time, vegetation, seasonal fluctuation, and water composition. The most frequent and well-validated removal mechanisms include natural die-off due to starvation or predation, sedimentation and filtration, and adsorption. The concentration of the main fecal indicator bacteria in the effluent was found to be exponentially related to the loading rate. Generally, horizontal subsurface flow CWs have better reduction capacity than free water surface flow CWs, and hybrid wetland systems were found to be the most efficient due to a longer retention time. Further improvement of fecal indicator bacteria removal in CWs is needed, however, levels in CW effluents are still higher than most of the regulation standards for reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes of Cattle Fecal Microbiome Under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to study the microbiome in wastewater, sewage sludge, and feces. Previous microbial survival studies have shown different fecal-associated microbes have different decay rates and regrowth behaviors.

  1. Fecal incontinence: endoanal US versus endoanal MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rociu (Elena); J. Stoker (Jacob); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); W.R. Schouten (Ruud); J.S. Lameris

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To assess endoanal ultrasonography (US) and endoanal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for mapping of anal sphincter defects that have been validated at surgery in patients with fecal incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: US, MR imaging, and surgical

  2. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... standard methods, which are available for detection of fecal contamination in ... and deep wells, rainwater, pond water) in Thailand by the ... AND METHODS. A total of 1050 water samples collected from tube well (355 water.

  3. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Nathaniel A; Ben Ami, Ronen; Guzner-Gur, Hanan; Santo, Moshe E; Halpern, Zamir; Maharshak, Nitsan

    2015-01-01

    .... This review aims to refresh current knowledge with regard to Clostridium difficile infection and bring physicians up to date with the latest developments in the growing field of fecal microbiota...

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonization associated with fecal microbiota treatment failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal microbiota therapy (FMT) has emerged as the gold standard for treatment of persistent, symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that does not respond to conventional antimicrobial treatment. Probiotics are commonly recommended in addition to antimicrobial treatment for CD...

  5. Cytotoxicity of nano-hydroxyapatite on human-derived oral epithelium cell line: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Abassi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a more surface contact and solubility than conventional hydroxyapatite. Hydroxynanoparticles enhances the biological and mechanical properties of new regenerated tissues. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have received attention as a new and effective osseous graft for using as scaffolds in bone regeneration. The reports on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles biocompatibility are controversial. It has been shown that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles induces inflammatory reaction and apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of nano-hydroxyapatite on the human epithelial cells. Methods: The study was experimental and completed in vitro. The study was carried out in department of Immonulogy, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in November 2014. The human-derived oral epithelium cell line (KB obtained from Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran were exposed to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/ml concentrations in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Rod-shaped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with 99% purity and maximum 100 nm sized particles were used. Methylthiazol tetrazolium bromide (MTT method was employed for cell vitality evaluation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for assessing the viability of cells. Distilled water and fetal bovine serum (FBS were positive and negative controls. ANOVA and Duncan tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cytotoxicity of different concentrations of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on human-derived oral epithelium cell line in 24 (P< 0.001, 48 (P< 0.001 and 72 hours (P< 0.001 was significantly different. The nano-hydroxyapatite particles at 0.5 to 1 mg/ml had the highest cytotoxicity effect on human-derived oral epithelium cells in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Lower concentrations than 0.05 mg/ml had the best biocompatibility properties in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Conclusion

  6. Fecal selenium excretion is regulated by dietary selenium intake1

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa,Lucia Fatima Campos; Motley, Amy K.; Stevenson, Teri D.; Hill, Kristina E.; Burk, Raymond F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body selenium is regulated by excretion of the element. Reports of studies carried out using isotopic tracers have led to the conclusion that urinary selenium excretion is regulated by selenium intake but that fecal excretion is not. Because of the limitations of tracer studies, we measured urinary and fecal selenium excretion by mice with selenium intakes ranging from deficient to almost toxic. Tissue and whole-body selenium concentrations increased sharply between deficient and adequa...

  7. Surgical treatment options for fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    Although surgical therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment of anal incontinence, few properly controlled randomized studies have confirmed its efficacy or compared it with biofeedback or other less invasive forms of treatment. Overlapping sphincteroplasty, the most common procedure, seems to confer substantial benefits on patients with sphincter disruptions. However, recent data suggest that results following sphincteroplasty deteriorate with time. There is also disagreement about whether pudendal nerve conduction studies can be used to predict outcome after surgical repair. Salvage options for patients with refractory fecal incontinence include passive or electrically stimulated muscle transfer procedures, implantation of an inflatable artificial anal sphincter, and sacral nerve stimulation. Stimulated graciloplasty is the most commonly used muscle transfer procedure; good to excellent results are reported from a small number of high-volume centers, but multicenter trials with less experienced surgeons have shown a high morbidity rate associated with the procedure. The artificial anal sphincter provides good restoration of continence for most patients who retain the device, but a significant explantation rate due to infection or local complications remains problematic. Sacral nerve stimulation has shown promising early results with minimal associated morbidity. There is a critical need for controlled long-term studies that use objective data collection methods, standardized outcome measures, and validated quality-of-life assessment instruments.

  8. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  9. The role of fecal calprotectin in investigating inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Erbayrak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Invasive and non-invasive tests can be used to evaluate the activity of inflammatory bowel diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease activity and the correlation of fecal calprotectin with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein values in inflammatory bowel disease. METHOD: Sixty-five patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Twenty outpatients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease comprised the control group. RESULTS: In the present study, all patients in the control group had an fecal calprotectin value lower than the cut-off point (50 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, fecal calprotectin was found to be strongly associated with colorectal inflammation indicating organic disease. Fecal calprotectin is a simple and non-invasive method for assessing excretion of macrophages into the gut lumen. Fecal calprotectin values can be used to evaluate the response to treatment, to screen asymptomatic patients, and to predict inflammatory bowel disease relapses.

  10. Cross-Comparison of Human Wastewater-Associated Molecular Markers in Relation to Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Enteric Viruses in Recreational Beach Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B; Beale, D J; Dennis, P G; Cook, S; Ahmed, W

    2017-04-15

    Detection of human wastewater contamination in recreational waters is of critical importance to regulators due to the risks posed to public health. To identify such risks, human wastewater-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers have been developed. At present, however, a greater understanding of the suitability of these markers for the detection of diluted human wastewater in environmental waters is necessary to predict risk. Here, we compared the process limit of detection (PLOD) and process limit of quantification (PLOQ) of six human wastewater-associated MST markers (Bacteroides HF183 [HF183], Escherichia coli H8 [EC H8], Methanobrevibacter smithiinifH, human adenovirus [HAdV], human polyomavirus [HPyV], and pepper mild mottle virus [PMMoV]) in relation to a fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), Enterococcus sp. 23S rRNA (ENT 23S), and three enteric viruses (human adenovirus serotypes 40/41 [HAdV 40/41], human norovirus [HNoV], and human enterovirus [EV]) in beach water samples seeded with raw and secondary-treated wastewater. Among the six MST markers tested, HF183 was the most sensitive measure of human fecal pollution and was quantifiable up to dilutions of 10-6 and 10-4 for beach water samples seeded with raw and secondary-treated wastewater, respectively. Other markers and enteric viruses were detected at various dilutions (10-1 to 10-5). These MST markers, FIB, and enteric viruses were then quantified in beach water (n = 12) and sand samples (n = 12) from South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia, to estimate the levels of human fecal pollution. Of the 12 sites examined, beach water and sand samples from several sites had quantifiable concentrations of HF183 and PMMoV markers. Overall, our results indicate that while HF183 is the most sensitive measure of human fecal pollution, it should be used in conjunction with a conferring viral marker to avoid overestimating the risk of gastrointestinal illness.IMPORTANCE MST is an effective tool to help

  11. Human-Derived Disturbance Estimation and Compensation (DEC Method Lends Itself to a Modular Sensorimotor Control in a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Lippi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high complexity of the human posture and movement control system represents challenges for diagnosis, therapy, and rehabilitation of neurological patients. We envisage that engineering-inspired, model-based approaches will help to deal with the high complexity of the human posture control system. Since the methods of system identification and parameter estimation are limited to systems with only a few DoF, our laboratory proposes a heuristic approach that step-by-step increases complexity when creating a hypothetical human-derived control systems in humanoid robots. This system is then compared with the human control in the same test bed, a posture control laboratory. The human-derived control builds upon the identified disturbance estimation and compensation (DEC mechanism, whose main principle is to support execution of commanded poses or movements by compensating for external or self-produced disturbances such as gravity effects. In previous robotic implementation, up to 3 interconnected DEC control modules were used in modular control architectures separately for the sagittal plane or the frontal body plane and successfully passed balancing and movement tests. In this study we hypothesized that conflict-free movement coordination between the robot's sagittal and frontal body planes emerges simply from the physical embodiment, not necessarily requiring a full body control. Experiments were performed in the 14 DoF robot Lucy Posturob (i demonstrating that the mechanical coupling from the robot's body suffices to coordinate the controls in the two planes when the robot produces movements and balancing responses in the intermediate plane, (ii providing quantitative characterization of the interaction dynamics between body planes including frequency response functions (FRFs, as they are used in human postural control analysis, and (iii witnessing postural and control stability when all DoFs are challenged together with the emergence of inter

  12. A New Human-Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix for Breast Reconstruction Available for the European Market: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folli, Secondo; Curcio, Annalisa; Melandri, Davide; Bondioli, Elena; Rocco, Nicola; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Falcini, Fabio; Purpura, Valeria; Mingozzi, Matteo; Buggi, Federico; Marongiu, Francesco

    2018-01-04

    The introduction of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) contributed to the growing diffusion of direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI-BR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. According to specific legislations, European specialists could not benefit from the use of human-derived ADMs, even though most evidence in the literature are available for this kind of device, showed optimal outcomes in breast reconstruction. The Skin Bank of the Bufalini Hospital (Cesena, Italy) obtained in 2009 the approval for the production and distribution of a new human cadaver-donor-derived ADM (named with the Italian acronym, MODA, for matrice omologa dermica acellulata) from the Italian National Transplant Center and National Health Institute. We report preliminary results of MODA application in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following nipple-areola complex (NAC)-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. We prospectively enrolled all women undergoing NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer and DTI-BR in our breast surgical unit from June 2015 to January 2017. We enrolled a selected population without previous chest wall irradiation, not being heavy tobacco smokers or diabetic, with a BMI MODA in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. This is particularly relevant for the European market, where no other human-derived devices are available for breast reconstruction due to regulatory restrictions. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Human-Derived Disturbance Estimation and Compensation (DEC) Method Lends Itself to a Modular Sensorimotor Control in a Humanoid Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Vittorio; Mergner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The high complexity of the human posture and movement control system represents challenges for diagnosis, therapy, and rehabilitation of neurological patients. We envisage that engineering-inspired, model-based approaches will help to deal with the high complexity of the human posture control system. Since the methods of system identification and parameter estimation are limited to systems with only a few DoF, our laboratory proposes a heuristic approach that step-by-step increases complexity when creating a hypothetical human-derived control systems in humanoid robots. This system is then compared with the human control in the same test bed, a posture control laboratory. The human-derived control builds upon the identified disturbance estimation and compensation (DEC) mechanism, whose main principle is to support execution of commanded poses or movements by compensating for external or self-produced disturbances such as gravity effects. In previous robotic implementation, up to 3 interconnected DEC control modules were used in modular control architectures separately for the sagittal plane or the frontal body plane and successfully passed balancing and movement tests. In this study we hypothesized that conflict-free movement coordination between the robot's sagittal and frontal body planes emerges simply from the physical embodiment, not necessarily requiring a full body control. Experiments were performed in the 14 DoF robot Lucy Posturob (i) demonstrating that the mechanical coupling from the robot's body suffices to coordinate the controls in the two planes when the robot produces movements and balancing responses in the intermediate plane, (ii) providing quantitative characterization of the interaction dynamics between body planes including frequency response functions (FRFs), as they are used in human postural control analysis, and (iii) witnessing postural and control stability when all DoFs are challenged together with the emergence of inter

  14. Detection of human and animal sources of pollution by microbial and chemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-indicator approach comprising Enterococcus, bacterial source tracking (BST), and sterol analysis was tested for pollution source identification. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water sites tested. Enterococcus faecium was the dominant species in aged litter samples from p...

  15. Loperamide Versus Psyllium Fiber for Treatment of Fecal Incontinence: The Fecal Incontinence Prescription (Rx) Management (FIRM) Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, Alayne D; Burgio, Kathryn L; Whitehead, William E; Richter, Holly E; Wilcox, C Mel; Redden, David T; Beasley, Timothy M; Goode, Patricia S

    2015-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition with few US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacologic treatment options. Loperamide and psyllium, both first-line treatments, have different mechanisms of action without any comparative data. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of loperamide compared with psyllium for reducing fecal incontinence. We hypothesized that psyllium fiber supplementation would be more effective than loperamide for reducing fecal incontinence episodes and have fewer adverse effects. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial comparing loperamide (followed by psyllium) with psyllium (followed by loperamide). Our sites included outpatient clinics within a Veterans Affairs medical center and university affiliate. Participants included community-dwelling adults (n = 80) with at least 1 fecal incontinent episode on a 7-day bowel diary. Participants received either daily loperamide (plus placebo psyllium powder) or psyllium powder (plus loperamide placebo) for 4 weeks. After a 2-week washout, participants crossed over to 4 weeks of alternate treatment. The primary outcome was the number of fecal incontinence episodes from 7-day bowel diaries. Secondary outcomes included symptom severity, quality of life, and tolerability. Mean age was 60.7 ± 10.1 years; 68% were men. After determining nonsignificant carryover effects, combined analyses showed no differences between the loperamide and psyllium groups for reducing fecal incontinent episodes, symptom severity, or quality of life. Within each group, both loperamide and psyllium reduced fecal incontinent episodes and improved symptom severity and quality of life. Constipation occurred in 29% of participants for loperamide vs 10% for psyllium. Limitations include the washout period length and dropout rate after crossing over to the second intervention. Both loperamide and psyllium improve fecal incontinence. Loperamide was

  16. Longitudinal Poisson regression to evaluate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and fecal indicator bacteria in coastal California wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Conrad, Patricia A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2012-05-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters.

  17. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it is thought to arise from an aberrant immune response to a change in colonic environment in a genetically susceptible individual. The intestinal microbiota are located at the complex interface of the epithelial barrier and are sensitive to changes in environmental factors, such as diets, drugs or smoking and signals derived from the intestinal immune system and the gut-brain axis. In patients with IBD, an imbalance in the structural and/or functional configuration of the intestinal microbiota leading to the disruption of the host-microorganism homeostasis (dysbiosis) has been reproducibly reported. As animal models of IBD require gut bacteria to induce inflammation, it is hypothesized that the dysbiosis observed in patients is not only a surrogate of changes at the intestinal barrier but also a potential cause or at least enhancer of the mucosal inflammatory process. That burgeoning notion has stimulated thoughts to modify the intestinal microbiota and rekindled interest in previous work on the efficacy of antibiotics in patients with IBD. The feasibility and tremendous success of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to treat antibiotic resistant Clostridium difficile has finally paved the way to embark into the unchartered territory of IBD using FMT. Different routes and number of administrations, choices of donors, disease status and permitted therapies might have contributed to mixed results, particularly from the so far published randomized controlled trials. However, microbiome analysis suggests that a durable transplantation of donor bacteria to the host appears feasible and might be associated with a higher likelihood of response. On the other hand, this raises the concern of transplanting not only anti-inflammatory active bacteria and their products, but also not-yet-known dispositions for other diseases including cancer. Attempts are being made to better characterize those components of

  18. The fecal viral flora of wild rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung G Phan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in

  19. Decay of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers in Manure-Amended Soils ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Shane W.; Donnelly, Matthew; Peed, Lindsay; Kelty, Catherine A.; Mondal, Sumona; Zhong, Zirong; Shanks, Orin C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7/pZs and red fluorescent protein-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs were added to laboratory-scale manure-amended soil microcosms with moisture contents of 60% or 80% field capacity and incubated at temperatures of −20°C, 10°C, or 25°C for 120 days. A two-stage first-order decay model was used to determine stage 1 and stage 2 first-order decay rate coefficients and transition times for each organism and qPCR genetic marker in each treatment. Genetic markers for FIB (Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Bacteroidales) exhibited decay rate coefficients similar to that of E. coli O157:H7/pZs but not of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs and persisted at detectable levels longer than both pathogens. Concentrations of these two bacterial pathogens, their counterpart qPCR genetic markers (stx1 and ttrRSBCA, respectively), and FIB genetic markers were also correlated (r = 0.528 to 0.745). This suggests that these qPCR genetic markers may be reliable conservative surrogates for monitoring fecal pollution from manure-amended land. Host-associated qPCR genetic markers for microbial source tracking decayed rapidly to nondetectable concentrations, long before FIB, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs, and E. coli O157:H7/pZs. Although good indicators of point source or recent nonpoint source fecal contamination events, these host-associated qPCR genetic markers may not be reliable indicators of nonpoint source fecal contamination events that occur weeks following manure application on land. PMID:21642395

  20. Use of an absorbent dressing specifically for fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Use of an absorbent product is a self-care strategy for managing fecal incontinence that protects against visible soiling. The purpose of this study was to examine use of a small surgical dressing that can be placed between the buttocks to absorb leaked feces. Cross-sectional survey. A survey was mailed to 75 randomly selected community-living people in 25 states and the District of Columbia, who ordered the dressing more than once within the past year. Thirty-six people (age = 55 +/- 16 years mean +/- SD), 57% men and 94% white responded. A 48-question survey that included questions asked about demographics and general health, emotional states (eg, anxiety and depression), bowel pattern and incontinence, quality of life, and use of an anorectal dressing was developed for this study. The survey also contained 2 tools, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life instrument. The Fecal Incontinence Severity Index is a tool that enables valid assessment of fecal incontinence severity using patient recall of symptoms of frequency and type of bowel leakage. The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life instrument results in a valid and reliable evaluation of fecal incontinence-specific quality of life using 4 domains of lifestyle, coping/behavior, depression/self-perception, and embarrassment. The fecal incontinence severity score was 28 +/- 14 (mean +/- SD); 79% leaked loose/liquid feces, 50% leaked daily, and leaked feces remained between the buttocks in 64%; 21% also leaked urine. Eighty-five percent experienced incontinence-associated dermatitis. Of those who used the dressing, 50% were men. The anorectal dressing was preferred to a pad by 92%, prevented soiling in 88%, and its ability to stay in place was rated very good or good by 76%. Eighty percent of respondents rated the dressing's comfort very good or good; 85% rated its overall effectiveness very good or good. Use of the dressing lessened anxiety about fecal soiling in 81% and

  1. Prevalence correlates and impact of fecal incontinence among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, Magnus; Koloski, Natasha A; Jones, Michael; Byles, Julie; Chiarelli, Pauline; Forder, Peta; Talley, Nicholas J

    2013-09-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common problem that has been associated with anatomic, physiological, and medical conditions. There are very few data on the factors associated with fecal incontinence in elderly women. We aimed to determine the factors associated with fecal incontinence via a population-based survey in a large cohort of elderly Australian women. Data from a large longitudinal population-based study of elderly Australian women aged 82 to 87 years were analyzed. Participants were 5560 women (aged 82-87 years) who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health; 4815 women responded to questions relating to fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence was defined as leakage of liquid and/or solid stool at least once per month over the past 12 months. Self-reported medical conditions and lifestyle factors as well as demographic factors were recorded. The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 10.4% (95% CI, 9.6-11.3) (n = 510). The prevalence was significantly higher among institutional- versus community-dwelling women (14.1% vs 9.7%; p = 0.0002). Univariately, lifestyle factors including fruit intake and fluid intake, along with a range of comorbidities, were associated. However, independent factors for fecal incontinence among community-dwelling women included diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14-2.01; p = 0.004), depression (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.30-2.62; p = 0.001), urinary incontinence (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.83-2.86; p < 0.0001), and osteoarthritis (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94; p = 0.013). Among institutional-dwelling women, however, we found urinary incontinence (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 2.83-6.93; p < 0.0001) and poorer general health (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99; p = 0.003) to be independently associated. This is a cross-sectional study, which prevents making conclusions about the cause and effect of observed correlations. The independent factors associated with fecal incontinence in this population do not appear readily modifiable, and many

  2. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Li, Yu-Dong; Zhang, He-Min

    2017-01-01

    Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH), EtOH -20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs) and frozen at -20 °C), storage time (one, three and six months), fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci) on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO) and false allele (FA) rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates (P panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  3. Gut microbiota composition modifies fecal metabolic profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Wu, Junfang; Li, Jia V; Zhou, Ning-Yi; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2013-06-07

    The gut microbiome is known to be extensively involved in human health and disease. In order to reveal the metabolic relationship between host and microbiome, we monitored recovery of the gut microbiota composition and fecal profiles of mice after gentamicin and/or ceftriaxone treatments. This was performed by employing (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint of gut microbiota. The common features of fecal metabolites postantibiotic treatment include decreased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), amino acids and primary bile acids and increased oligosaccharides, d-pinitol, choline and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic acid). This suggests suppressed bacterial fermentation, protein degradation and enhanced gut microbial modification of bile acids. Barnesiella, Prevotella, and Alistipes levels were shown to decrease as a result of the antibiotic treatment, whereas levels of Bacteroides, Enterococcus and Erysipelotrichaceae incertae sedis, and Mycoplasma increased after gentamicin and ceftriaxone treatment. In addition, there was a strong correlation between fecal profiles and levels of Bacteroides, Barnesiella, Alistipes and Prevotella. The integration of metabonomics and gut microbiota profiling provides important information on the changes of gut microbiota and their impact on fecal profiles during the recovery after antibiotic treatment. The correlation between gut microbiota and fecal metabolites provides important information on the function of bacteria, which in turn could be important in optimizing therapeutic strategies, and developing potential microbiota-based disease preventions and therapeutic interventions.

  4. Factors Affecting Effectiveness of Fecal Microbiota Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Danielle; Mcgraw, Patty; Duffalo, Chad; Drees, Marci; Depalma, Fedele; Herdman, Christine; Myerson, Scott; Bacon, Alfred E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective treatment for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). With more widespread use of this intervention, variable cure rates (70–95%) have been observed. We conducted this study to identify specific patient- and procedure-level factors affecting FMT effectiveness, hypothesizing that those patients with higher comorbidity, inadequate bowel preparation, and shorter retention of transplant would fail more frequently. Methods At our 2-hospital, >1100-bed community-based academic center, we prospectively followed patients pre/post-FMT between June 2014-April 2017. To undergo FMT, patients must have ≥2 CDI relapses and failed vancomycin taper. We entered all FMT patients into a registry and followed them regularly for up to 1 year, collecting age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, number of CDI relapses, Boston bowel prep score, and stool retention time. FMT donor stool was obtained from OpenBiome (Boston, MA). We defined failure as recurrent CDI requiring treatment ≤8 weeks after FMT. We used 1-sided t-tests to test our hypotheses. Results During the study period, 41 patients (mean age 65 years, SD 17.6) underwent FMT. Most (37, 90%) were performed via colonoscopy, 1 via upper endoscopy, and 3 via oral preparation (capsules). FMT failure occurred in 10 patients (24.4%). Nearly half (n = 20) reported adverse events, including constipation, gas, abdominal pain, blood in stool, and fatigue. Three patients expired from comorbid disease, and 3 were lost to follow-up. Patients with higher Charlson scores failed more frequently (P = 0.04), and history of tumor (P = 0.03) and pulmonary disease (P = 0.04) were both associated with failure. No other factors, including age, retention time, and Boston bowel prep score, were associated with failure. Conclusion This study found that patients with multiple comorbid conditions, as defined by the Charlson index, are at risk for FMT failure. However, quality of

  5. The Ecological Dynamics of Fecal Contamination and Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A in Municipal Kathmandu Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alan W.; Thompson, Corinne N.; Torres, Andres; Dongol, Sabina; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Pham Thanh, Duy; Tran Thi Ngoc, Dung; Voong Vinh, Phat; Singer, Andrew C.; Parkhill, Julian; Thwaites, Guy; Basnyat, Buddha; Ferguson, Neil; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One of the UN sustainable development goals is to achieve universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030. It is locations like Kathmandu, Nepal, a densely populated city in South Asia with endemic typhoid fever, where this goal is most pertinent. Aiming to understand the public health implications of water quality in Kathmandu we subjected weekly water samples from 10 sources for one year to a range of chemical and bacteriological analyses. We additionally aimed to detect the etiological agents of typhoid fever and longitudinally assess microbial diversity by 16S rRNA gene surveying. We found that the majority of water sources exhibited chemical and bacterial contamination exceeding WHO guidelines. Further analysis of the chemical and bacterial data indicated site-specific pollution, symptomatic of highly localized fecal contamination. Rainfall was found to be a key driver of this fecal contamination, correlating with nitrates and evidence of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, for which DNA was detectable in 333 (77%) and 303 (70%) of 432 water samples, respectively. 16S rRNA gene surveying outlined a spectrum of fecal bacteria in the contaminated water, forming complex communities again displaying location-specific temporal signatures. Our data signify that the municipal water in Kathmandu is a predominant vehicle for the transmission of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. This study represents the first extensive spatiotemporal investigation of water pollution in an endemic typhoid fever setting and implicates highly localized human waste as the major contributor to poor water quality in the Kathmandu Valley. PMID:26735696

  6. Fecal impaction causing pelvic venous compression and edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Naramore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema.

  7. [The usefulness of fecal tests in colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is a paradigm of neoplasms that are amenable to preventative measures, especially screening. Currently, to carry this out, there are various strategies that have proven effective and efficient. In countries that have organized population-level screening programs, the most common strategy is fecal occult blood testing. In recent years, new methods have appeared that could constitute viable alternatives in the near future, among which the detection of changes in fecal DNA is emphasized. In this article, we review the most relevant papers on colorectal cancer screening presented at the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Chicago in May 2014, with special emphasis on the medium and long-term performance of strategies to detect occult blood in feces and the first results obtained with fecal DNA testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  9. On the use of coprostanol to identify source of nitrate pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Amano, Hiroki; Takao, Yuji; Hosono, Takahiro; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2017-07-01

    Investigation of contaminant sources is indispensable for developing effective countermeasures against nitrate (NO3-) pollution in groundwater. Known major nitrogen (N) sources are chemical fertilizers, livestock waste, and domestic wastewater. In general, scatter diagrams of δ18O and δ15N from NO3- can be used to identify these pollution sources. However, this method can be difficult to use for chemical fertilizers and livestock waste sources due to the overlap of δ18O and δ15N ranges. In this study, we propose to use coprostanol as an indicator for the source of pollution. Coprostanol can be used as a fecal contamination indicator because it is a major fecal sterol formed by the conversion of cholesterol by intestinal bacteria in the gut of higher animals. The proposed method was applied to investigate NO3- pollution sources for groundwater in Shimabara, Nagasaki, Japan. Groundwater samples were collected at 33 locations from March 2013 to November 2015. These data were used to quantify relationships between NO3-N, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-, and coprostanol. The results show that coprostanol has a potential for source identification of nitrate pollution. For lower coprostanol concentrations (source of NO3-. However, higher concentration coprostanol samples in the nitrate-polluted group can be related to pollution from livestock waste. Thus, when conventional diagrams of isotopic ratios cannot distinguish pollution sources, coprostanol may be a useful tool.

  10. Feasibility study on the use of Coprostanol to identify the source of nitrate groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Takao, Y.; Hosono, T.

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of contaminant sources is indispensable to develop effective countermeasures against nitrate (NO3-) pollution in groundwater. Major nitrogen (N) sources are chemical fertilizer, livestock waste, and domestic wastewater. The scatter diagram of δ18O and δ15N of NO3- (Kendall, 1998) has been used to identify pollution sources. However, it can be difficult to distinguish sources because of the overlapping δ18O and δ15N ranges of chemical fertilizer and livestock waste sources. In this study, we propose the use of Coprostanol as a method to identify source of the pollution. Coprostanol has been used as a fecal contamination indicator because it is one of the major fecal sterols formed by the conversion of cholesterol by intestinal bacteria in the gut of higher animals. The proposed method was applied to the case of NO3-pollution in Shimabara, Nagasaki, Japan. Water samples were collected at 33 locations from March 2011 to November 2014, then the relationships among NO3-N, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3- and Coprostanol were evaluated. We found no relationship between polluted NO3- (> 10 mg L-1) and Coprostanol concentrations. This polluted group includes samples containing lower levels of Coprostanol ( 300 ng L-1) samples corresponded to the polluted sample group obtained from cluster analysis (Nakagawa et al., 2016). Therefore, Coprostanol has some potential for source identification of NO3-pollution.

  11. A Comparitive Assessement of Cytokine Expression in Human-Derived Cell Lines Exposed to Alpha Particles and X-Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha- (α- particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific.

  12. Genotoxic and chemopreventive assessment of Cynara scolymus L. aqueous extract in a human-derived liver cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Regiane Pereira; Jacociunas, Laura Vicedo; de Carli, Raíne Fogliati; de Abreu, Bianca Regina Ribas; Lehmann, Mauricio; da Silva, Juliana; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Cynara scolymus L., popularly known as artichoke, is consumed as food and used as tea infusions for pharmacological purposes to treat liver dysfunctions and other conditions. Scientific data on the safety and protective effect of artichoke in human-derived liver cells is missing. This study investigated the genotoxic and modulatory effect of a liophilized extract suspended in water of C. scolymus L. leaves. Four extract concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL) were evaluated using the comet assay on human hepatocyte cultures, HepG2 cells. Genotoxicity was assessed after two treatment periods, 1 and 24 h. Antigenotoxicity was evaluated against oxidative lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide in pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols. Artichoke leaves aqueous extract induced genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells after 1- and 24-h treatments. In turn, extract concentrations of 0.62, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL, exhibited a protective effect in pretreatment, compared to hydrogen peroxide alone. However, in simultaneous and post-treatment protocols, only the lowest concentration reduced the frequency of DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, in the simultaneous treatment protocol, the highest artichoke extract concentration increased hydrogen peroxide genotoxicity. It can be concluded that artichoke is genotoxic, in vitro, to HepG2 cells, but can also modulate hydrogen peroxide DNA damage.

  13. Survival of free and microencapsulated human-derived oral probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 in orange and aloe vera juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Teanpaisan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a human-derived strain with probiotic potential, in orange and aloe vera juices. The microencapsulation parameters included alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration and hardening-time, and the efficacy of microencapsulation to preserve the survival of microencapsulated bacteria compared to free cells during exposure in fruit juices were determined. The results revealed that the viable count of free-cell form markedly decreased compared to microencapsulated form. The microencapsulation of 2% alginate (w/v and 0.05 M CaCl2 gave the best result to preserve the probiotic. It was found that viability of microencapsulated probiotic bacteria was significantly higher than free-cell in fruit juices during 8 weeks of storage time in the refrigerator. The potential probiotic trait related to inhibitory effect was not affected after microencapsulation process. In summary, the microencapsulation method may be an alternative way of preserving the viability of probiotic L. paracasei SD1.

  14. Classification of fecal contamination on leafy greens by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin; Kang, Sukwon; Chan, Diane E.; Lefcourt, Alan

    2010-04-01

    This paper reported the development of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system using ultraviolet-A excitation (320-400 nm) for detection of bovine fecal contaminants on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. Six spots of fecal contamination were applied to each of 40 lettuce and 40 spinach leaves. In this study, the wavebands at 666 nm and 680 nm were selected by the correlation analysis. The two-band ratio, 666 nm / 680 nm, of fluorescence intensity was used to differentiate the contaminated spots from uncontaminated leaf area. The proposed method could accurately detect all of the contaminated spots.

  15. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The Me......SH terms used were IBS and fecal microbiota transplantation and the abbreviations IBS and FMT. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. RESULTS: A total of six conference abstracts, one case report, one letter to the editor, and one clinical review were...

  16. Fecal specimens preparation methods for PCR diagnosis of human taeniosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Cáris Maroni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation and DNA extraction protocols for DNA amplification by PCR, which can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis, are described. DNA extracted from fecal specimens with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol and DNAzol® reagent had to be first purified to generate fragments of 170 pb and 600 pb by HDP2-PCR. This purification step was not necessary with the use of QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®. Best DNA extraction results were achieved after eggs disruption with glass beads, either with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol, DNAzol® reagent or QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®.

  17. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify.......83, 0.10, 7.24, and 5.61, respectively. The apparent lack of additional variability between the four different time points suggests that time of the day chosen for collecting fecal samples does not constitute a source of error in field studies. The majority of variability exists between different...

  18. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  19. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  20. Coliphages as fecal pollution and removal bacterial indicators in the drinking water process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paz-y-Miño

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work compare the efficiency of water treatment from Rimac river. Samples from different phases of water treatment (decanted, filtered and chlorinated were compared with not treated samples. Coliphages quantification was made by Simple Layer and Membrane Filter methods. Most Probable Number (NMP and Membrane Filter methods were used to assessment of Total Coliforms, Coliforms Thermotolerants and Heterotrophic Bacteria. The standard strain of E. coli C ATCC 13706 was used as coliphages host. The averages of quantified coliphages were of 2267,25 UFP/100 mL in samples with out treatment; 2,11, 2,04 and 1,07 UFP/100 mL in the water samples from decanted, filtered and chlorinated treatment respectively. Total Coliforms and Coliforms Thermotolerants were not detected in samples of chlorinated water. The correlation between coliphages and Total Coliforms in samples of decanted and filtered water (r = 0,3793 and r = 0,3629 respectively were significant (p <0,05 Samples with out treatment don’t were significant (r = 0,3048, p>0,05. Correlations between coliphages and the Coliforms Thermotolerants were significant with water samples from treatment decanted, filtered and chlorinated (r = 0,7129; 0,5326 and 0,4612, p <0,05. The microbial removal percentages were 99,95 % for the coliphages, 99,99 % for the BH and >99,99 % for the CT and CTT.

  1. Adaptive mutations in the nuclear export protein of human-derived H5N1 strains facilitate a polymerase activity-enhancing conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Reuther (Peter); S. Giese (Sebastian); H.M. Götz (Hannelore); N. Kilb (Normann); B. Mänz (Benjamin); L. Brunotte (Linda); M. Schwemmle (Martin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe nuclear export protein (NEP) (NS2) of the highly pathogenic human-derived H5N1 strain A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 with the adaptive mutation M16I greatly enhances the polymerase activity in human cells in a concentration-dependent manner. While low NEP levels enhance the polymerase

  2. Community dynamics drive punctuated engraftment of the fecal microbiome following transplantation using freeze-dried, encapsulated fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Christopher; Vaughn, Byron P; Graiziger, Carolyn T; Singroy, Stephanie; Hamilton, Matthew J; Yao, Dan; Chen, Chi; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2017-05-04

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment of recurrent and recalcitrant Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). In a recent study oral-delivery of encapsulated, freeze-dried donor material, resulted in comparable rates of cure to colonoscopic approaches. Here we characterize shifts in the fecal bacterial community structure of patients treated for rCDI using encapsulated donor material. Prior to FMT, patient fecal samples showed declines in diversity and abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with concurrent increases in members of the Proteobacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, patients who experienced recurrence of CDI within the 2-month clinical follow-up had greater abundances of Enterobacteriaceae and did not show resolution of dysbioses. Despite resolution of rCDI following oral-administration of encapsulated fecal microbiota, community composition was slow to return to a normal donor-like assemblage. Post-FMT taxa within the Firmicutes showed rapid increases in relative abundance and did not vary significantly over time. Conversely, Bacteroidetes taxa only showed significant increases in abundance after one month post-FMT, corresponding to significant increases in the community attributable to the donors. Changes in the associations among dominant OTUs were observed at days, weeks, and months post-FMT, suggesting shifts in community dynamics may be related to the timing of increases in abundance of specific taxa. Administration of encapsulated, freeze-dried, fecal microbiota to rCDI patients resulted in restoration of bacterial diversity and resolution of dysbiosis. However, shifts in the fecal microbiome were incremental rather than immediate, and may be driven by changes in community dynamics reflecting changes in the host environment.

  3. Pudendal Neuropathy Alone Results in Urge Incontinence Rather Than in Complete Fecal Incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meegdenburg, Maxime M.; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M. A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conscious external anal sphincter contraction is mediated by the pudendal nerve. Pudendal neuropathy is, therefore, believed to result in fecal incontinence. Until urge sensation is experienced, fecal continence is maintained by unconscious external anal sphincter contraction, which is

  4. Human Fecal Source Identification: Real-Time Quantitative PCR Method Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method standardization or the formal development of a protocol that establishes uniform performance benchmarks and practices is necessary for widespread adoption of a fecal source identification approach. Standardization of a human-associated fecal identification method has been...

  5. HUMAN FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION: REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR METHOD STANDARDIZATION - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method standardization or the formal development of a protocol that establishes uniform performance benchmarks and practices is necessary for widespread adoption of a fecal source identification approach. Standardization of a human-associated fecal identification method has been...

  6. Fecal coliform contamination: a literature review and case history analysis in B.C.

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levitan, C.W

    1991-01-01

    .... Since the early 1900s, fecal coliforms, normal bacterial inhabitants of the gastro- intestinal tract of warm blooded animals, have been used to indicate the presence of fecal contamination in water...

  7. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal isolates of salmonella and shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonellosis and Shigellosis coupled with increased levels of multidrug resistances are public health problems, especially in developing countries. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of fecal Salmonella and Shigella spp and its antimicrobial resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted on ...

  9. What do fecal coliforms indicate in tropical waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    High densities of total and fecal coliform bacteria have been detected in pristine streams and in ground water samples collected from many tropical parts of the world, even in epiphytic vegetation 10 m above ground in the rain forest of Puerto Rico. Nucleic acid (DNA) analyses of Escherichia coli from pristine tropical environs has indicated that they are identical to clinical isolates of E. coli. Many tropical source waters have been shown to have enteric pathogens in the complete absence of coliforms. Diffusion chamber studies with E. coli at several tropical sites reveal that this bacterium can survive indefinitely in most freshwaters in Puerto Rico. An evaluation of methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms showed that currently used media have poor reliability as a result of large numbers of false positive and false negative results when applied to tropical water samples. Total and fecal coliform bacteria are not reliable indicators of recent biological contamination of waters in tropical areas. Fecal streptococci and coliphages in tropical waters, violate the same under lying assumptions of indicator assays as the coliforms. Anaerobic bacteria like Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium perfringens show some promise in terms of survival but not in ease of enumeration and media specificity. The best course at present lies in using current techniques for direct enumeration of pathogens by fluorescent staining and nucleic acid analysis and developing tropical maximum containmant levels for certain resistant pathogens in tropical waters. 66 refs.

  10. Fecal microbiome analysis as a diagnostic test for diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, L.; Budding, A. E.; de Korte, N.; Eck, A.; Bogaards, J. A.; Stockmann, H. B.; Consten, E. C.; Savelkoul, P. H.; Boermeester, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Disease-specific variations in intestinal microbiome composition have been found for a number of intestinal disorders, but little is known about diverticulitis. The purpose of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of diverticulitis patients with control subjects from a general

  11. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jiménez-Girón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33. It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1 UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis; and (2 UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis. Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota.

  12. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  13. 78 FR 12763 - Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration..., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), are announcing a public workshop entitled...

  14. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study w...

  15. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. F.; Frissen, M. N.; de Clercq, N. C.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2017-01-01

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial

  16. Fecal indicator and Ascaris removal from double pit latrine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Digbijoy; Ridwanul Haque, A T M; Kabir, Babar; Ubaid, Sharmin Farhat

    2016-12-01

    Since May 2006, the BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programme in Bangladesh has enabled more than 30 million people to achieve hygienic sanitation, contributing to an increase in sanitation coverage from 33 to 83% in programme areas and rapid progress towards universal access. In rural areas, most families have single pit latrines that need to be emptied when full. Since 2007, BRAC has promoted the use of hygienic double-pit latrines. Use of double-pit latrines, where appropriate, is also recommended in the Bangladeshi Draft National Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy. More than 800,000 double-pit latrines are in use in BRAC WASH areas, delaying the need for emptying and allowing time for the fecal matter to decompose while the resting pit is sealed. This paper focuses on a study undertaken by BRAC WASH to treat and safely use fecal material from double pit latrines as an organic fertilizer for rice and other crops. The study investigated the removal of pathogens from pit waste through simple solar drying and conducted analysis on nutrient properties of fecal sludge. The study showed a significant positive impact on developing organic fertilizer from fecal sludge.

  17. Retention test in sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Hanne B; Maeda, Yasuko; Lundby, Lilli

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sacral nerve stimulation has become an established treatment for patients with fecal incontinence. However, the mechanism of its action remains obscure. We aim to assess whether sacral nerve stimulation improves patients' ability to retain rectal content. METHODS: Patients who had b...

  18. Schelpdierwaterkwaliteit in Nederlandse kustwatergebieden in maart 2004 (fecale coliformen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van A.C.M.; Poelman, M.

    2004-01-01

    In maart van 2004 is onderzoek gedaan naar de (schelpdier)waterkwaliteit in de Kustwatergebieden. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van indicatormicro-organismen: de fecale coliformen. Er wordt gekeken naar de aanwezigheid in gebieden waar schelpdieren worden gekweekt, waar schelpdieren in het wild voorkomen

  19. Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  20. Concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites in dominant versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of fecal metabolites of corticosterone and to verify if there are differences between dominant and subordinate heifers. The feces of 18 buffalo heifers were collected in the estrous period, to quantify the corticosterone concentrations. The heifers were separated into ...

  1. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Email: lyimo@amu.udsm.ac.tz. ABSTRACT. Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni ... Fecal bacteria contamination was significantly higher at Mtoni. Kijichi than at Rasi Dege mangroves .... Mbweni, Kunduchi, Salander Bridge, Mtoni. Kijichi, Mji mwema and Rasi Dege.

  2. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  3. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  4. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The MeSH...

  5. Fecal estrone sulfate profile of a sow showing abnormal pregnancy with fetal mummification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaki, T; Moriyoshi, M; Nakada, K; Nakao, T

    2000-03-01

    Fecal and plasma E1S of a sow with mummified fetuses, was compared with normal delivery cases. Fecal and plasma fluctuation patterns in E1S were similar. In the sow with fetal mummification both fecal and plasma E1S concentration rapidly decreased after day 80-90 compared to normal farrowing sows. This coincided with the estimated time of fetal death.

  6. Study of fecal bacterial diversity in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the fecal bacteria of R. bieti distributed mainly in 6 ... unidentified bacteria. These results illustrate the fecal bacteria diversity of R. bieti. Key Words: Rhinopithecus bieti, fecal bacterial diversity, 16S rRNA gene, phylogenetic .... identified almost the whole dominant biodiversity in the.

  7. Clinical Significance of Fecal Lactoferrin and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction in Patients with Acute Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Mi; Lee, Seungok; Lee, Bo-In; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Song, Joo-Yong; Choi, Hye-Jung; Kang, Bong Koo; Im, Eun Joo; Kim, Joon Sung; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Byung-Wook; Choi, Hwang

    2015-09-23

    The diagnostic yield of fecal leukocyte and stool cultures is unsatisfactory in patients with acute diarrhea. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical significance of the fecal lactoferrin test and fecal multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients with acute diarrhea. Clinical parameters and laboratory findings, including fecal leukocytes, fecal lactoferrin, stool cultures and stool multiplex PCR for bacteria and viruses, were evaluated prospectively for patients who were hospitalized due to acute diarrhea. A total of 54 patients were included (male, 23; median age, 42.5 years). Fecal leukocytes and fecal lactoferrin were positive in 33 (61.1%) and 14 (25.4%) patients, respectively. Among the 31 patients who were available for fecal pathogen evaluation, fecal multiplex PCR detected bacterial pathogens in 21 patients, whereas conventional stool cultures were positive in only one patient (67.7% vs 3.2%, p=0.000). Positive fecal lactoferrin was associated with presence of moderate to severe dehydration and detection of bacterial pathogens by multiplex PCR (21.4% vs 2.5%, p=0.049; 100% vs 56.5%, p=0.032, respectively). Fecal lactoferrin is a useful marker for more severe dehydration and bacterial etiology in patients with acute diarrhea. Fecal multiplex PCR can detect more causative organisms than conventional stool cultures in patients with acute diarrhea.

  8. Within-House Spatial Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Poultry Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Scott; Coufal, Craig; Harmel, Daren; Martin, Emily; Brooks, John P; Popham, Sheena; Gentry, Terry J

    2017-09-01

    Land application of poultry litter is often considered to be a major source of water pollutants in poultry-producing regions. However, reported levels of fecal indicator microorganisms in litter vary widely, with considerable variation possible within houses and across farms, depending on management practices. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the levels and distribution of indicator microorganisms within 12 broiler farms representing three companies. Within each house, litter samples were collected from around the feed line, water line, north wall, cool pad end, middle, and fan end. Litter moisture content was significantly different within the houses, with the litter being driest around the feed line (19.8%) and wettest around the water line (40.7%). Mean levels of total coliforms, , enterococci, and were 3.7, 3.3, 6.4, and 4.0 log colony-forming units g dry litter, respectively. Levels of total coliforms, , and were positively correlated with litter moisture content, but enterococci levels were not. Consequently, levels of total coliforms, , and , as well as enterococci, were highest around the water line and lowest around the feed line. These results indicate that areas with higher litter water content are more likely to contain higher levels of most fecal indicator microorganisms. Approaches to reduce litter water content in these areas would not only benefit the microbial quality of litter for land application but would also likely improve in-house disease control. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Movement of traditional fecal indicator bacteria and source-tracking targets through septic drainfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billian, Hannah; Krometis, Leigh-Anne; Thompson, Theresa; Hagedorn, Charles

    2018-01-01

    The past three decades' data on outbreaks in the United States indicate that homes dependent on untreated groundwater (e.g. wells) for household drinking water that are also reliant on onsite treatment of household wastewater (e.g. septic systems) may be at greater risk for waterborne disease. While groundwater quality monitoring to protect public health has traditionally focused on the detection of fecal indicator bacteria, the application of emerging source tracking strategies may offer a more efficient means to identify pollution sources and effective means of remediation. This study compares the movement of common fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) with a chemical (optical brighteners, OB) and a molecular (Bacteroides HF183) source tracking (ST) target in small scale septic drainfield models in order to evaluate their potential utility in groundwater monitoring. Nine PVC column drainfield models received synchronized doses of primary-treated wastewater twice daily, with influent and effluent monitored bi-weekly over a 7-month period for all targets. Results indicate that E. coli and enterococci concentrations were strongly associated (Spearman's rank, p<0.05), and correlations between enterococci and optical brighteners were moderately strong. Bacteroides HF183 was significantly, but not strongly, associated with optical brighteners and both indicator bacteria (Point-biserial correlation, p<0.05), most likely due to its sporadic detection. Application of human ST marker monitoring in groundwaters at risk of contamination by human sewage is recommended, although consistent interpretation of results will rely on more detailed evaluation of HF183 incidence in source contamination waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  11. Evaluation of fecal culture and fecal RT-PCR to detect Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding in dairy goats and dairy sheep using latent class Bayesian modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David; Menzies, Paula

    2016-09-20

    The study's objective was to evaluate the ability of fecal culture (FCUL) and fecal PCR (FPCR) to identify dairy goat and dairy sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. A cross-sectional study of the small ruminant populations was performed in Ontario, Canada between October 2010 and August 2011. Twenty-nine dairy goat herds and 21 dairy sheep flocks were visited, and 20 lactating females > two years of age were randomly selected from each farm resulting in 580 goats and 397 sheep participating in the study. Feces were collected per rectum and cultured using the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system using a standard (49 days) and an extended (240 days) incubation time, and underwent RT-PCR based on the hsp-X gene (Tetracore®). Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-test latent class Bayesian hierarchical model for each species fitted in WinBUGS. Extending the fecal culture incubation time statistically improved FCUL sensitivity from 23.1 % (95 % PI: 15.9-34.1) to 42.7 % (95 % PI: 33.0-54.5) in dairy goats and from 5.8 % (95 % PI: 2.3-12.4) to 19.0 % (95 % PI: 11.9-28.9) in dairy sheep. FPCR demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity than FCUL (49 day incubation) with a sensitivity of 31.9 % (95 % PI: 22.4-43.1) in goats and 42.6 % (95 % PI: 28.8-63.3) in sheep. Fecal culture demonstrates such low sensitivity at the standard incubation time it cannot be recommended as a screening test to detect shedding of MAP in either goats or sheep. Extending the incubation time resulted in improved sensitivity; however, it is still disappointingly low for screening purposes. Fecal PCR should be the screening test of choice in both species; however, it is important to recognize that control programs should not be based on testing alone when they demonstrate such low sensitivity.

  12. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  13. Characterization of fecal indicator bacteria in sediments cores from the largest freshwater lake of Western Europe (Lake Geneva, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Florian; Regier, Nicole; Benagli, Cinzia; Tonolla, Mauro; Adatte, Thierry; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2012-04-01

    This study characterized the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enteroccocus (ENT), disseminated over time in the Bay of Vidy, which is the most contaminated area of Lake Geneva. Sediments were collected from a site located at ∼500 m from the present waste water treatment plant (WWTP) outlet pipe, in front of the former WWTP outlet pipe, which was located at only 300 m from the coastal recreational area (before 2001). E. coli and ENT were enumerated in sediment suspension using the membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for human Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and human specific bacteroides by PCR using specific primers and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Bacterial cultures revealed that maximum values of 35.2 × 10(8) and 6.6 × 10(6)CFU g(-1) dry sediment for E. coli and ENT, respectively, were found in the sediments deposited following eutrophication of Lake Geneva in the 1970s, whereas the WWTP started operating in 1964. The same tendency was observed for the presence of human fecal pollution: the percentage of PCR amplification with primers ESP-1/ESP-2 for E. faecalis and E. faecium indicated that more than 90% of these bacteria were from human origin. Interestingly, the PCR assays for specific-human bacteroides HF183/HF134 were positive for DNA extracted from all isolated strains of sediment surrounding WWPT outlet pipe discharge. The MALDI-TOF MS confirmed the presence of general E. coli and predominance E. faecium in isolated strains. Our results demonstrated that human fecal bacteria highly increased in the sediments contaminated with WWTP effluent following the eutrophication of Lake Geneva. Additionally, other FIB cultivable strains from animals or adapted environmental strains were detected in the sediment of the bay. The approaches used in this research are valuable to assess the

  14. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  15. Transanal irrigation is effective in functional fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Cecilie Siggaard; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Modin, Line; Rittig, Charlotte Siggaard; Rittig, Søren

    2017-06-01

    Functional fecal incontinence (FFI) is divided into cases related to functional constipation (FC) and cases without concomitant constipation termed functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). Transanal irrigation (TAI) is widely used in children with neurogenic fecal incontinence but is less studied in children with functional defecation disorders. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of TAI in the treatment of FFI. A retrospective study in 72 children (mean age 9.2 ± 2.2 years, 47 males) with treatment-resistant FFI was performed. All children accepted treatment and 35% (n = 25) were titrated to daily sessions. Of the 63 children who fulfilled the Rome III criteria of constipation, 46 (73%) showed full response with complete remission of incontinence episodes. Eleven (17%) showed partial response (≥50% reduction). Of nine children with FNRFI, four (44%) showed full response whereas two (22%) showed partial response. We found no significant difference in the reduction of incontinence episodes between the children with FC (87%) and children with FNRFI (68%) (p = 0.11). TAI is an effective, well-tolerated, and safe choice in children with FC. No clinical parameters seemed to predict response to treatment. The number of children with FNRFI was low, but TAI seemed effective in this group of children. What is Known: • Functional fecal incontinence (FFI) is a frequent, chronic condition with significant impact on children's quality of life. • Transanal irrigation (TAI) is used in children with neurogenic bowel dysfunction but less studied in children with functional defecation disorders. What is New: • TAI seems an effective, well-tolerated, and safe choice in children with FFI due to functional constipation. • Albeit the number of children with functional non-retentive fecal incontinence was low in our study, TAI seems effective also in this group of children.

  16. Influence of Bizerte city wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on abundance and antibioresistance of culturable heterotrophic and fecal indicator bacteria of Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souissi, Mariem; Laabidi, Rached; Aissa, Patricia; Pringault, Olivier; Said, Olfa Ben

    2018-02-01

    The waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of the city of Bizerte concentrates different types of chemical and biological pollutants in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia). Considering four upstream and downstream WWTP discharge stations, seventy nine, culturable bacterial strains were isolated and identified from water and sediment as fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, pathogenic staphylococci and non-enterobacteriacea. Fecal coliforms were most abundant (2.5 105 bacteria/mg) in sediment of WWTP discharge. Leuconostoc spp (23.1%) and Chryseomonasluteola (23.1%) were the most prevalent culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) isolated at the upstream discharge stations. However, Staphylococcus xylosus (13.9%) was the most prevalent culturable FIB isolated at the WWTP discharge stations. Moreover, high antibioticresistance phenotypes were present in all sampling stations, but especially in WWTP discharge station in both water and sediment. Resistance levels in water and sediment, respectively were amoxicillin (58.8%; 34.8%), penicillin (50%; 31.6%), oxacillin (60%; 33.3%), cefotaxim (55.2%; 39.1%), ceftazidim (66.7%; 50%), gentamycin (42.9%; 38.9%), tobramycin (50%; 25%), vancomycin (33.3; 71.4%), amikacin (66.7%; 0%) and ciprofloxacin (100%; 100%). Interestingly, ß-lactam antibiotic resistant FIB were mostly isolated from water as well as from sediments of upstream and WWTP discharge station. Canonical correspondence analysis CCA correlating antibiotic resistance profile with the abiotic data showed that, in water column, culturable bacterial strains isolated in upstream WWTP discharge stations were interestingly correlated with the resistance to amikacin, oxacillin, cefotaxim, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin, however, in sediment, they were correlated with the resistance to amoxicillin, oxacillin, céfotaxim and vancomycin. Serious ß-lactams and aminoglycosides acquired resistance appeared mainly in fecal streptococci and pathogen staphylococci groups. Copyright © 2017

  17. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can potentially

  18. A predictive model combining fecal calgranulin B and fecal occult blood tests can improve the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chang Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Current fecal screening tools for colorectal cancer (CRC, such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT, are limited by their low sensitivity. Calgranulin B (CALB was previously reported as a candidate fecal marker for CRC. This study investigated whether a combination of the FOBT and fecal CALB has increased sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with CRC (n = 175, and healthy individuals (controls; n = 151 were enrolled into the development (81 cases and 51 controls and validation (94 cases and 100 controls sets. Stool samples were collected before bowel preparation. CALB levels were determined by western blotting. FOBT and fecal CALB results were used to develop a predictive model based on logistic regression analysis. The benefit of adding CALB to a model with only FOBT was evaluated as an increased area under the receiver operating curve (AUC, partial AUC, and reclassification improvement (RI in cases and controls, and net reclassification improvement (NRI. RESULTS: Mean CALB level was significantly higher in CRC patients than in controls (P<0.001. CALB was not associated with tumor stage or cancer site, but positivity on the FOBT was significantly higher in advanced than in earlier tumor stages. At a specificity of 90%, the cross-validated AUC and sensitivity were 89.81% and 82.72%, respectively, in the development set, and 92.74% and 79.79%, respectively, in the validation set. The incremental benefit of adding CALB to the model, as shown by the increase in AUC, had a p-value of 0.0499. RI in cases and controls and NRI all revealed that adding CALB significantly improved the prediction model. CONCLUSION: A predictive model using a combination of FOBT and CALB may have greater sensitivity and specificity and AUC for predicting CRC than models using a single marker.

  19. Human-derived gut microbiota modulates colonic secretion in mice by regulating 5-HT3receptor expression via acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Yogesh; Schmidt, Bradley A; Linden, David R; Larson, Eric D; Grover, Madhusudan; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico; Kashyap, Purna C

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT 3 and 5-HT 4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study, we determine whether human-derived gut microbiota affects host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age-matched Swiss Webster germ-free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice. 5-HT evoked a significantly greater increase in short-circuit current (Δ I sc ) in GF compared with HM mice. Additionally, 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in GF compared with HM mice. Ondansetron, a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, inhibited 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc in GF mice but not in HM mice. Furthermore, a 5-HT 3 receptor-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine hydrochloride, evoked a significantly higher Δ I sc in GF compared with HM mice. Immunohistochemistry in 5-HT 3A -green fluorescent protein mice localized 5-HT 3 receptor expression to enterochromaffin cells in addition to nerve fibers. The significant difference in 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc between GF and HM mice persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) but was lost after ondansetron application in the presence of TTX. Application of acetate (10 mM) significantly lowered 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA in GF mouse colonoids. We conclude that host secretory response to 5-HT may be modulated by gut microbiota regulation of 5-HT 3 receptor expression via acetate production. Epithelial 5-HT 3 receptor may function as a mediator of gut microbiota-driven change in intestinal secretion. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that gut microbiota alters serotonin (5-HT)-evoked intestinal secretion in a 5-HT 3 receptor-dependent mechanism and gut microbiota metabolite acetate alters 5-HT 3 receptor expression in

  20. Pollution handbook 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The NSCA's latest Pollution Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of United Kingdom legislation on pollution control, air, noise, waste (including radioactive waste) and water pollution control. Legislation covering pesticides, marine and agricultural pollution is also summarised. It includes full details of all new pollution control legislation brought into force during 1999. Details of draft legislation implementing the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive and the contaminated land regime are included. Appendices list prescribed substances, part A and B processes and guidance notes, smoke control area authorised fuels, EC Directives and water quality regulations.

  1. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  2. Effects of Sacral Neuromodulation on Urinary and Fecal Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Ada; Taragano, Lee; Condrea, Alexander; Sidi, Ami; Ron, Yshai; Ginath, Shimon

    2015-06-01

    Fecal incontinence is defined as involuntary passage of stool through the anus. It may vary from soiling to complete evacuation. This involuntary loss of feces, flatus or urge incontinence adversely affects quality of life. Urinary urge incontinence is characterized by symptoms of frequency, urgency and urge incontinence (either alone or in combination). Urgency frequency syndrome is defined as symptoms of frequency and urgency without incontinence episodes. To evaluate the efficacy of sacral neuromodulation on these pathologies. Following a detailed investigation, 51 patients with either urinary or fecal incontinence, or both, who did not respond to medical and behavioral treatment were offered the temporary implant. Of the 51 patients 40 showed improvement and advanced for a permanent device. After a mean follow-up of 5 years (range 1-8), there was a significant reduction in the number of incontinence episodes (P pads used also declined significantly (P incontinence and can dramatically improve patients' quality of life.

  3. Fecal microbiota transplantation: current clinical efficacy and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman KA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn A Bowman,1 Elizabeth K Broussard,2 Christina M Surawicz2 1Department of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT has gained mainstream attention with its remarkable efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI when there are no other effective therapies. Methods of selecting donors and routes of administration vary among studies, but there are now randomized controlled trials showing efficacy of FMT in treating RCDI. Ongoing trials of FMT for other disease such as inflammatory bowel disease are underway; this therapy should not be used for these conditions unless there is strong evidence for efficacy. Long-term safety data are sorely needed, as well as clarification of regulatory concerns. Keywords: fecal microbiota transplant, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, Clostridium difficile infection, microbiome, inflammatory bowel disease

  4. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  5. Fecal Corticosterone Levels in RCAN1 Mutant Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rakowski-Anderson, Tammy; Wong, Helen; Rothermel, Beverly; Cain, Peter; Lavilla, Carmencita; Pullium, Jennifer K; Hoeffer, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is related to the expression of human neurologic disorders such as Down syndrome, Alzheimer disease, and chromosome 21q deletion syndrome. We showed here that RCAN1-knockout mice exhibit reduced innate anxiety as indicated by the elevated-plus maze. To examine whether glucocorticoids contribute to this phenotype, we measured fecal corticosterone in male wildtype and RCAN1-knockout mice and in male and female transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of RC...

  6. The Fecal Microbiota Profile and Bronchiolitis in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Linnemann, Rachel W; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Ajami, Nadim J; Espinola, Janice A; Petrosino, Joseph F; Piedra, Pedro A; Stevenson, Michelle D; Sullivan, Ashley F; Thompson, Amy D; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the association of gut microbiota, a potentially modifiable factor, with bronchiolitis in infants. We aimed to determine the association of fecal microbiota with bronchiolitis in infants. We conducted a case-control study. As a part of multicenter prospective study, we collected stool samples from 40 infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis. We concurrently enrolled 115 age-matched healthy controls. By applying 16S rRNA gene sequencing and an unbiased clustering approach to these 155 fecal samples, we identified microbiota profiles and determined the association of microbiota profiles with likelihood of bronchiolitis. Overall, the median age was 3 months, 55% were male, and 54% were non-Hispanic white. Unbiased clustering of fecal microbiota identified 4 distinct profiles: Escherichia-dominant profile (30%), Bifidobacterium-dominant profile (21%), Enterobacter/Veillonella-dominant profile (22%), and Bacteroides-dominant profile (28%). The proportion of bronchiolitis was lowest in infants with the Enterobacter/Veillonella-dominant profile (15%) and highest in the Bacteroides-dominant profile (44%), corresponding to an odds ratio of 4.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.58-15.5; P = .008). In the multivariable model, the significant association between the Bacteroides-dominant profile and a greater likelihood of bronchiolitis persisted (odds ratio for comparison with the Enterobacter/Veillonella-dominant profile, 4.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-12.0; P = .005). In contrast, the likelihood of bronchiolitis in infants with the Escherichia-dominant or Bifidobacterium-dominant profile was not significantly different compared with those with the Enterobacter/Veillonella-dominant profile. In this case-control study, we identified 4 distinct fecal microbiota profiles in infants. The Bacteroides-dominant profile was associated with a higher likelihood of bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Recovery of the gut microbiome following fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekatz, Anna M; Aas, Johannes; Gessert, Charles E; Rubin, Timothy A; Saman, Daniel M; Bakken, Johan S; Young, Vincent B

    2014-06-17

    Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. It is hypothesized that FMT aids in recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, it is not fully understood how this occurs. Here we investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile using a predictive metagenomic tool. Increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria were observed following FMT. The fecal microbiota of recipients following transplantation was more diverse and more similar to the donor profile than the microbiota prior to transplantation. Additionally, we observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were overrepresented in samples collected prior to transplantation. These results suggest that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific community members and functions that promote colonization resistance may aid in the development of improved treatment methods for C. difficile infection. Within the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection has surpassed other bacterial infections to become the leading cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota and its capability in providing colonization resistance against C. difficile, is a known risk factor in C. difficile infection. In particular, recurrent C. difficile remains difficult to treat with standard antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has provided a successful treatment method for

  8. Factors influencing the persistence of fecal Bacteroides in stream water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alyssa; Layton, Alice C; McKay, Larry; Williams, Dan; Gentry, Randy; Sayler, Gary S

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm experiments were used to assess the effects of environmental parameters on the persistence of the Bacteroides 16S rRNA genes derived from equine fecal samples in stream water to investigate the utility of Bacteroides spp. as fecal indicator organisms. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to measure gene concentrations over time with treatments designed to compare filtered vs. unfiltered stream water, fecal aggregate size, initial fecal concentrations, and water temperatures. Comparison of Bacteroides16S rRNA genes/mL in microcosms constructed with unfiltered stream water and filtered stream water indicated that stream water filtration to remove indigenous microorganisms followed by temperature had the largest effects on gene persistence. First-order exponential decay functions were fitted to the data from each microcosm constructed using unfiltered stream water, and the decay constants (k) ranged from 0.0071 h(-1) in the microcosms incubated at 5 degrees C to 0.0336 h(-1) in a set of microcosms incubated at 25 degrees C. Analysis of k calculated from the 10 experimental treatments indicated that k is more highly correlated to temperature than initial Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene starting concentrations. The equation resulting from graphing k (as the dependent variable) vs. temperature (as the independent variable) best fit a peak, Gaussian, 3 parameter function with a maximum decay at 30 degrees C, a r(2) of 0.83 and all parameters were significant (P < 0.0015). Thus this data suggest that factors that reduce biological activity, such as physical removal of stream microorganisms by filtration and low temperature, result in slower Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene decay.

  9. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  10. Correlation between the human fecal microbiota and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseribafrouei, A; Hestad, K; Avershina, E; Sekelja, M; Linløkken, A; Wilson, R; Rudi, K

    2014-08-01

    Depression is a chronic syndrome with a pathogenesis linked to various genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Several links between gut microbiota and depression have been established in animal models. In humans, however, few correlations have yet been demonstrated. The aim of our work was therefore to identify potential correlations between human fecal microbiota (as a proxy for gut microbiota) and depression. We analyzed fecal samples from 55 people, 37 patients, and 18 non-depressed controls. Our analyses were based on data generated by Illumina deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. We found several correlations between depression and fecal microbiota. The correlations, however, showed opposite directions even for closely related Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU's), but were still associated with certain higher order phylogroups. The order Bacteroidales showed an overrepresentation (p = 0.05), while the family Lachnospiraceae showed an underrepresentation (p = 0.02) of OTU's associated with depression. At low taxonomic levels, there was one clade consisting of five OTU's within the genus Oscillibacter, and one clade within Alistipes (consisting of four OTU's) that showed a significant association with depression (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). The Oscillibacter type strain has valeric acid as its main metabolic end product, a homolog of neurotransmitter GABA, while Alistipes has previously been shown to be associated with induced stress in mice. In conclusion, the taxonomic correlations detected here may therefore correspond to mechanistic models. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fecal corticosterone levels in RCAN1 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski-Anderson, Tammy; Wong, Helen; Rothermel, Beverly; Cain, Peter; Lavilla, Carmencita; Pullium, Jennifer K; Hoeffer, Charles

    2012-04-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is related to the expression of human neurologic disorders such as Down syndrome, Alzheimer disease, and chromosome 21q deletion syndrome. We showed here that RCAN1-knockout mice exhibit reduced innate anxiety as indicated by the elevated-plus maze. To examine whether glucocorticoids contribute to this phenotype, we measured fecal corticosterone in male wildtype and RCAN1-knockout mice and in male and female transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of RCAN1 (Tg-RCAN1(TG)). We found no difference in fecal corticosterone levels of RCAN1-knockout mice and their wildtype littermates. As expected, we found differences between sexes in fecal corticosterone levels. In addition, we found higher levels of excreted corticosterone in Tg-RCAN1(TG) female mice as compared with female wildtype mice. Our data indicate normal diurnal corticosterone production in RCAN1 mutant mice and do not suggest a causal role in either the cognitive or anxiety phenotypes exhibited by RCAN1-knockout mice.

  12. Physicians' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossavi, Shirin; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Mojarrad, Asal; Merat, Dorsa; Ansari, Reza; Vahedi, Homayoon; Merat, Shahin; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-07-01

    BACKGROUND Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is employed to replace the 'unhealthy' microbiota of the patient with the 'healthy' microbiota of a pre-screened healthy donor. Given the growing importance of gut microbiota dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of intestinal or extraintestinal diseases; it is conceivable that FMT becomes integrated in the routine clinical practice. Our objective was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the Iranian physicians towards FMT. METHODS We surveyed the participants of Iranian gastroenterology and hepatology 2014 conference. RESULTS Overall, 146 (68.5%) were familiar with FMT; of whom 132 (94.28%) were willing to accept FMT if scientifically and ethically approved and 115 (88.46%) were willing to refer their patients for FMT if indicated. In total, 42 (30.7%) had identified stool preparation as the most unappealing aspect of FMT, while 17 (11.6%) reported the therapeutic use of fecal material as the most unappealing and 39 (28.5%) indicated that both are equally unappealing. The doctors who had an overall positive opinion toward FMT reported less negative feelings towards FMT. CONCLUSION Iranian physicians are willing to accept FMT as a therapeutic option if it is scientifically justified and ethically approved. Nevertheless, physicians prefer to skip the stool preparation phase; as they are more in favour of synthetic microbiota as opposed to fecal microbiota.

  13. Household siblings and nasal and fecal microbiota in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Linnemann, Rachel W; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Ajami, Nadim J; Espinola, Janice A; Fiechtner, Lauren G; Petrosino, Joseph F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-04-01

    Early-life exposure to older siblings is associated with a lower risk of asthma. To date, no study has addressed the impact of having siblings on both the airway and fecal microbiota during infancy. The aim of this study was therefore to profile the nasal airway and fecal microbiota in infants, and to examine the association between having siblings and microbiota profile. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 105 healthy infants (aged siblings and microbiome profile. Overall, the median age was 3.4 months (IQR, 2.0-4.7 months); 43% had siblings in the household. Unbiased clustering of nasal airway microbiota identified three profiles: Moraxella dominant (43%), Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum dominant (36%), and mixed (21%). Infants with siblings were more likely to have a Moraxella-dominant profile than Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant profile (76% vs 18%), while those without siblings had the opposite pattern (18% vs 50%; P siblings were more likely to have a Bifidobacterium-dominant profile than Escherichia-dominant profile (49% vs 24%) while those without siblings had the opposite pattern (32% vs 37%; P = 0.04, multivariable-adjusted). In this cross-sectional study, infants with siblings were more likely to have a Moraxella-dominant nasal microbiota profile and Bifidobacterium-dominant fecal microbiota profile. These findings should facilitate further investigation of the interplay between early-life environmental exposure, the microbiome, and childhood asthma. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Fecal microbiome analysis as a diagnostic test for diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, L; Budding, A E; de Korte, N; Eck, A; Bogaards, J A; Stockmann, H B; Consten, E C; Savelkoul, P H; Boermeester, M A

    2014-11-01

    Disease-specific variations in intestinal microbiome composition have been found for a number of intestinal disorders, but little is known about diverticulitis. The purpose of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of diverticulitis patients with control subjects from a general gastroenterological practice and to investigate the feasibility of predictive diagnostics based on complex microbiota data. Thirty-one patients with computed tomography (CT)-proven left-sided uncomplicated acute diverticulitis were included and compared with 25 control subjects evaluated for a range of gastrointestinal indications. A high-throughput polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based profiling technique (IS-pro) was performed on DNA isolates from baseline fecal samples. Differences in bacterial phylum abundance and diversity (Shannon index) of the resulting profiles were assessed by conventional statistics. Dissimilarity in microbiome composition was analyzed with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on cosine distance measures. To develop a prediction model for the diagnosis of diverticulitis, we used cross-validated partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios and Proteobacteria load were comparable among patients and controls (p = 0.20). The Shannon index indicated a higher diversity in diverticulitis for Proteobacteria (p Diverticulitis patients have a higher diversity of fecal microbiota than controls from a mixed population, with the phylum Proteobacteria defining the difference. The analysis of intestinal microbiota offers a novel way to diagnose diverticulitis.

  15. Artificial Muscle Devices: Innovations and Prospects for Fecal Incontinence Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Elisa; Brusa, Tobia; Gingert, Christian; Hieber, Simone E; Leung, Vanessa; Osmani, Bekim; Dominietto, Marco D; Büchler, Philippe; Hetzer, Franc; Müller, Bert

    2016-05-01

    Fecal incontinence describes the involuntary loss of bowel content, which is responsible for stigmatization and social exclusion. It affects about 45% of retirement home residents and overall more than 12% of the adult population. Severe fecal incontinence can be treated by the implantation of an artificial sphincter. Currently available implants, however, are not part of everyday surgery due to long-term re-operation rates of 95% and definitive explantation rates of 40%. Such figures suggest that the implants fail to reproduce the capabilities of the natural sphincter. This article reviews the artificial sphincters on the market and under development, presents their physical principles of operation and critically analyzes their performance. We highlight the geometrical and mechanical parameters crucial for the design of an artificial fecal sphincter and propose more advanced mechanisms of action for a biomimetic device with sensory feedback. Dielectric electro-active polymer actuators are especially attractive because of their versatility, response time, reaction forces, and energy consumption. The availability of such technology will enable fast pressure adaption comparable to the natural feedback mechanism, so that tissue atrophy and erosion can be avoided while maintaining continence during daily activities.

  16. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  17. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  18. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available regions. Ambient air pollution relates to the quality of outdoor air and will be discussed in this chapter, with a focus on the air pollutants which are typically regulated in this context internationally....

  19. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  20. Delineating Fecal Contaminant Sources and Travel Times in a Karst Groundwater Basin, Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J. W.; Reed, T. M.; Fryar, A. E.; Brion, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    Because of preferential flowpaths via features such as sinkholes and conduits, karst aquifers are susceptible to non-point-source pollution from agricultural and urban drainage. With many karst aquifers being drinking- water sources, pathogens are contaminants of public health concern. Monitoring of microbial parameters (total coliforms [TC], atypical colonies [AC] and fecal coliform bacteria [FC]) transpired biweekly from December 2002 March 2004 and weekly from February October 2005 at Blue Hole Spring, which drains outlying farm lands and the town of Versailles in the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky. Physicochemical parameters (discharge, temperature, specific conductance, and pH) were measured continuously during the entire period. The AC/TC ratio, which had been employed only in surface water-quality studies, was used with FC counts, precipitation and discharge data to determine sources of fecal loading to ground water as result of land-use practices. An AC/TC ratio fresh input of fecal matter, while a larger ratio can represent a variety of occurrences, including aged fecal material input and/or lack of nutrient input into the system. AC/TC ratio data in the 2002 04 dataset behaved similarly to surface waters, with ratios > 10 during dry periods and < 10 during wet periods, while the 2005 data demonstrated a very irregular pattern. The difference in these two data sets indicated a compositional change within the groundwater basin between the two sampling periods, perhaps as a result of construction at a sewage treatment plant adjoining the spring. Solute (rhodamine WT fluorescent dye and bromide) and particle (1-μm diameter fluorescent latex microspheres) tracer tests were conducted during summer 2006 to examine contaminant mobility within the system under base-flow and storm-flow conditions. Rainfall was limited prior to the base-flow trace, totaling 0.025 cm within 2 weeks prior to the slug injection. Base-flow discharge averaged 400 m3/s and solute

  1. Fecal coliform population dynamics associated with the thermophilic stabilization of treated sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Chris; Peccia, Jordan

    2012-10-26

    The inactivation of fecal coliforms in anaerobic batch reactors has been investigated at the thermophilic temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C. Throughout inactivation experiments at each temperature, individual colonies were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing to illustrate how the diversity of fecal coliforms is affected by thermophilic treatment. Results indicate that even though fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge are comprised of several different bacterial species, each with variable temperature induced decay rates, the overall inactivation of fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge was found to follow a first-order relationship. No tailing was observed across the range of fecal coliform concentrations measured. Fecal coliforms in raw sludge contained six different genera of bacteria and were 62% enriched in E. coli. Within 1.5 log removal of fecal coliform concentration by thermophilic treatment, the populations had shifted to, and remained at 100% E. coli. Subsequent inactivation rates measured in isolated fecal coliform strains confirmed that E. coli cells isolated post-treatment were more thermotolerant than E. coli and non-E coli bacteria isolated prior to thermal treatment. Overall, this study describes the potential enrichment of thermotolerant E. coli in biosolids fecal coliforms and demonstrates that while thermotolerant species are present at the end of treatment, pure first-order approximations are appropriate for estimating residence times to reduce fecal coliforms to levels promulgated in U.S. Class A biosolids standards.

  2. Fecal coliforms, caffeine and carbamazepine in stormwater collection systems in a large urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Dorner, Sarah; Payment, Pierre; Deschamps, Guy; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Water samples from streams, brooks and storm sewer outfall pipes that collect storm waters across the Island of Montréal were analyzed for caffeine, carbamazepine and fecal coliforms. All samples contained various concentrations of these tracers, indicating a widespread sanitary contamination in urban environments. Fecal coliforms and caffeine levels ranged over several orders of magnitude with a modest correlation between caffeine and fecal coliforms (R(2) value of 0.558). An arbitrary threshold of 400 ng caffeine L(-1) allows us to identify samples with an elevated fecal contamination, as defined by more than 200 colony-forming units per 100 mL (cfu 100 mL(-1)) of fecal coliforms. Low caffeine levels were sporadically related to high fecal coliform counts. Lower levels of caffeine and fecal coliforms were observed in the brooks while the larger streams and storm water discharge points contained over ten times more. The carbamazepine data showed little or no apparent correlation to caffeine. These data suggest that this storm water collection system, located in a highly urbanized urban environment, is widely contaminated by domestic sewers as indicated by the ubiquitous presence of fecal contaminants as well as caffeine and carbamazepine. Caffeine concentrations were relatively well correlated to fecal coliforms, and could potentially be used as a chemical indicator of the level of contamination by sanitary sources. The carbamazepine data was not significantly correlated to fecal coliforms and of little use in this dataset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  4. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  5. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    251, 1975. [2] L A Bame, Arctic air pollution: An overview of current knowledge,. Atmos Environ., 20, 643-663, 1986. [3] LA Bame and R S Schemenauer, Pollutant wet deposition mechanisms in precipitation and fog water, Water Air Soil Pollut., ...

  6. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  7. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  8. Clostridium Difficile and Fecal Microbial Transplant in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Critically-ill patients constitute majority of the patients hospitalized in ICU wards (1, 2. This group of patients demands special considerations and measures of care (3-6. Clostridium difficile infection causes dangerous, painful and persistent diarrhea in critically ill patients. Its treatment consists of enteral metronidazol or vancomycin in combination with IV antibiotics cessation. Recently, probiotics have been considered as an alternative treatment for pseudomembranous colitis. In 1958, fecal microbial transplant was first described from healthy individuals to sick patients to displace pathogenic microbes from the intestine by re-establishing a healthy microbial community. Since then, it has gained value as “express stool treatment” or currently known as “fecal transplant”. Last year, FDA classified stool as drug, which typically requires an Investigational New Drug application (IND. However, in July 2013, the FDA issued guidance stating that it would exercise enforcement discretion for physicians administering FMT to treat patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Accordingly, considering stool as a tissue product or giving it its own classification, as FDA approved for blood, would keep patients safe, ensure broad access and facilitate research (7. It should be taken into consideration that some complications might accompany fecal microbial transplant such as making patients susceptible for conditions like obesity or autoimmune disorders. Safety and quality assurance starts from pre-enrollment donor screening, donor testing (17 serological and stool-based assays, donor monitoring and process control. The composition of the bacterial community has been shown to change when stored at -80oC compared to the samples stored at -20oC and it has been recommended to store the samples of intestinal content at -20oC before use for bacterial community analysis, instead of the current practice at -80oC (7, 8. However, if

  9. The impact of long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor on in vitro fecal fermentation properties of inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2016-04-01

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota is of interest, the functionality, or metabolic activity, of the gut microbiota is of equal importance: the gut microbiota can produce either harmful metabolites associated with human disease or beneficial metabolites that protect against disease. The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr. Res., 2014, 34, 749-759). Stool samples from eighteen individuals that had completed one-year dietary records were used in an in vitro fecal fermentation system with long-chain inulin as substrate. Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation. In contrast, intake of dairy and processed meats that provided cholesterol and little fiber, were associated with ammonia and BCFA production. Comparing results between inulin and whole wheat fermentations, significant correlations were only found for butyrate and BCFA, suggesting that regardless of the type of carbohydrate provided to the microbiota, long-term diet may have a pronounced effect on the propensity of the gut microbiota toward either beneficial metabolism (butyrate production) or detrimental metabolism (BCFA production). These results may help in

  10. Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Li, Tianshui; Kim, Inho

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P digestibility, and fecal Lactobacilli counts, and linearly decreased (P growth performance, nutrient digestibility, shifted microbiota by increasing fecal Lactobacillus counts, decreased BUN concentration, fecal score, and fecal NH3 and H2 S emission in weaning pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from manured fields: model sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gonzalo; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Whelan, Gene; Yakirevich, Alexander M; Guber, Andrey; Gish, Timothy J

    2014-02-01

    Microbial quality of surface waters attracts attention due to food- and waterborne disease outbreaks. Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used for the microbial pollution level evaluation. Models predicting the fate and transport of FIOs are required to design and evaluate best management practices that reduce the microbial pollution in ecosystems and water sources and thus help to predict the risk of food and waterborne diseases. In this study we performed a sensitivity analysis for the KINEROS/STWIR model developed to predict the FIOs transport out of manured fields to other fields and water bodies in order to identify input variables that control the transport uncertainty. The distributions of model input parameters were set to encompass values found from three-year experiments at the USDA-ARS OPE3 experimental site in Beltsville and publicly available information. Sobol' indices and complementary regression trees were used to perform the global sensitivity analysis of the model and to explore the interactions between model input parameters on the proportion of FIO removed from fields. Regression trees provided a useful visualization of the differences in sensitivity of the model output in different parts of the input variable domain. Environmental controls such as soil saturation, rainfall duration and rainfall intensity had the largest influence in the model behavior, whereas soil and manure properties ranked lower. The field length had only moderate effect on the model output sensitivity to the model inputs. Among the manure-related properties the parameter determining the shape of the FIO release kinetic curve had the largest influence on the removal of FIOs from the fields. That underscored the need to better characterize the FIO release kinetics. Since the most sensitive model inputs are available in soil and weather databases or can be obtained using soil water models, results indicate the opportunity of obtaining large-scale estimates of FIO

  12. A mechanistic model of runoff-associated fecal coliform fate and transport through a coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steets, B M; Holden, P A

    2003-02-01

    Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coastal lagoons or marshes can also be a source of high indicator organism concentrations in coastal waters. We asked for a Mediterranean-type climate, what is the fate of runoff-associated FC through a coastal lagoon? To address this question, we developed a mass balance-based, mechanistic model of FC concentration through a coastal lagoon and simulated, for summer and winter conditions, FC within the lagoon water column, lagoon sediments, and in the ocean water just downstream of the lagoon mouth. Our model accounts for advective flow and dispersion, decay and sedimentation and resuspension of FC-laden sediments during high flow, erosional conditions. Under low flow conditions that occur in the summer, net FC decay and FC storage in lagoon sediments are predicted. Under high flow conditions that occur in the winter, FC-laden sediments are predicted to erode, resuspend and flow out of the lagoon where they elevate FC concentrations in the coastal ocean. For both seasonal conditions, the predicted water column FC concentrations were within an order of magnitude of field measurements for a reference site in southern California. Our results suggest that there are seasonally varying roles for coastal lagoons in mediating FC contamination to coastal waters.

  13. Molecular detection and characterization of Aichi viruses in sewage-polluted waters of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Ana; Vizzi, Esmeralda; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Zambrano, José L; Betancourt, Walter; Liprandi, Ferdinando

    2010-06-01

    The circulation of Aichi virus in a major urban area was demonstrated using molecular detection with samples recovered from a major river polluted with sewage discharges in Caracas, Venezuela. Five out of 11 water samples studied were positive, being classified by phylogenetic analysis as genotype B. Analysis of sewage waters appears to be a useful methodology to uncover the presence of a hitherto undetected fecal pathogen in a given geographical area.

  14. Evaluation of molecular- and culture-dependent MST markers to detect fecal contamination and indicate viral presence in good quality groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diston, D; Sinreich, M; Zimmermann, S; Baumgartner, A; Felleisen, R

    2015-06-16

    Microbial contamination of groundwater represents a significant health risk to resource users. Culture-dependent Bacteroides phage and molecular-dependent Bacteroidales 16S rRNA assays are employed in microbial source tracking (MST) studies globally, however little is known regarding how these important groups relate to each other in the environment and which is more suitable to indicate the presence of waterborne fecal pollution and human enteric viruses. This study addresses this knowledge gap by examining 64 groundwater samples from sites with varying hydrogeological properties using a MST toolbox containing two bacteriophage groups (phage infecting GB-124 and ARABA-84), and two Bacteroidales 16S rRNA markers (Hf183 and BacR); those were compared to fecal indicator bacteria, somatic coliphage, Bacteroidales 16S rRNA marker AllBac, four human enteric viruses (norovirus GI and II, enterovirus and group A rotavirus) and supplementary hydrogeological/chemical data. Bacteroidales 16S rRNA indicators offered a more sensitive assessment of both human-specific and general fecal contamination than phage indicators, but may overestimate the risk from enteric viral pathogens. Comparison with hydrogeological and land use site characteristics as well as auxiliary microbiological and chemical data proved the plausibility of the MST findings. Sites representing karst aquifers were of significantly worse microbial quality than those with unconsolidated or fissured aquifers, highlighting the vulnerability of these hydrogeological settings.

  15. 1999 pollution handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murley, L. [ed.

    1999-05-01

    The NSCA`s latest Pollution Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of United Kingdom legislation on pollution control, air, noise, waste (including radioactive waste) and water pollution control. Legislation covering pesticides, marine and agricultural pollution is also summarised. Details of the Northern Ireland Industrial Pollution Control Order and the Waste and Contaminated Land Order are included. Each chapter summarises relevant European Community Directives and Regulations and International Conventions and shows how these have been implemented in the UK. Detailed appendices list processes prescribed for integrated pollution control (IPC) and local air pollution control, process guidance notes, smoke control area authorised fuels, EC Directives and water quality directives. A bibliography of reference books and other publications covering more detail of legislation and control methods is included. 131 refs.

  16. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  17. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  18. A proposal to standardize reporting units for fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G; Allison, James E; Halloran, Stephen P; Young, Graeme P

    2012-06-06

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin are replacing traditional guaiac fecal occult blood tests in population screening programs for many reasons. However, the many available fecal immunochemical test devices use a range of sampling methods, differ with regard to hemoglobin stability, and report hemoglobin concentrations in different ways. The methods for sampling, the mass of feces collected, and the volume and characteristics of the buffer used in the sampling device also vary among fecal immunochemical tests, making comparisons of test performance characteristics difficult. Fecal immunochemical test results may be expressed as the hemoglobin concentration in the sampling device buffer and, sometimes, albeit rarely, as the hemoglobin concentration per mass of feces. The current lack of consistency in units for reporting hemoglobin concentration is particularly problematic because apparently similar hemoglobin concentrations obtained with different devices can lead to very different clinical interpretations. Consistent adoption of an internationally accepted method for reporting results would facilitate comparisons of outcomes from these tests. We propose a simple strategy for reporting fecal hemoglobin concentration that will facilitate the comparison of results between fecal immunochemical test devices and across clinical studies. Such reporting is readily achieved by defining the mass of feces sampled and the volume of sample buffer (with confidence intervals) and expressing results as micrograms of hemoglobin per gram of feces. We propose that manufacturers of fecal immunochemical tests provide this information and that the authors of research articles, guidelines, and policy articles, as well as pathology services and regulatory bodies, adopt this metric when reporting fecal immunochemical test results.

  19. Recurrence of fecal coliforms and Salmonella species in biosolids following thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Reza; Cox, Huub H J

    2006-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Part 503 Biosolids Rule requires the fecal coliform (indicator) or Salmonella species (pathogen) density requirements for Class A biosolids to be met at the last point of plant control (truck-loading facility and/or farm for land application). The three Southern Californian wastewater treatment plants in this study produced biosolids by thermophilic anaerobic digestion and all met the Class A limits for both fecal coliforms and Salmonella sp. in the digester outflow biosolids. At two plants, however, a recurrence of fecal coliforms was observed in postdigestion biosolids, which caused exceedance of the Class A limit for fecal coliforms at the truck-loading facility and farm for land application. Comparison of observations at the three plants and further laboratory tests indicated that the recurrence of fecal coliforms can possibly be related to the following combination of factors: (1) incomplete destruction of fecal coliforms during thermophilic anaerobic digestion, (2) contamination of Class A biosolids with fecal coliforms from external sources during postdigestion, (3) a large drop of the postdigestion biosolids temperature to below the maximum for fecal coliform growth, (4) an unknown effect of biosolids dewatering in centrifuges. At Hyperion Treatment Plant (City of Los Angeles, California), fecal coliform recurrence could be prevented by the following: (1) complete conversion to thermophilic operation to exclude contamination by mesophilically digested biosolids and (2) insulation and electrical heat-tracing of postdigestion train for maintaining a high biosolids temperature in postdigestion.

  20. Low Awareness but Positive Attitudes Toward Fecal Transplantation in Ontario Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite mounting evidence supporting fecal transplantation (FT as a treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI, adoption into clinical practice has been slow.

  1. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohamed A; Abed, Raeid M M

    2017-07-10

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4±77.1ml CH4/g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6±0.25g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9±0.08wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between symptoms and quality of life in fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, K; Heymen, S; Palsson, O S; Bharucha, A E; Whitehead, W E

    2017-11-02

    Most measures of fecal incontinence (FI) severity assess the frequency of solid and liquid FI, but may incorporate other features. We compared two scales-the Fecal Incontinence Severity Score (FISS) and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI)-to determine which questionnaire and which individual questions predict FI Quality of Life (FIQOL). A national sample of American adults completed a health questionnaire, and 234 with monthly FI were selected. Participants completed assessments of FI severity, FIQOL, and somatization. Stepwise linear regression models evaluated whether FISS and FISI total scores, or individual items on the FISS and FISI predicted FIQOL after adjusting for gender, age, income, and somatization (Brief Symptom Inventory-18). Reliable responses were provided by 186. Age was 49 years, and 52% were women. The mean FISS score was 8.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.0-8.9, 13 questions) and mean FISI was 29.9 (95% CI 27.4-32.4, 62 questions), indicating moderate FI severity. The mean FIQOL was 2.6 (95% CI 2.4-2.7, 5 questions). Lower income, greater somatization, and total FISS and FISI scores explained 69% of FIQOL; and total FISS and FISI scores were independent predictors. On the FISS, frequency, amount, and urgency to defecate were independently associated with FIQOL. After adding somatization, all but amount remained significant. For the FISI scale, solid and liquid FI and gas were significant predictors, but adjusting for somatization excluded solid FI. Five variables independently explained FIQOL: overall frequency of FI, frequency of liquid and gas leakage, urgency, and somatization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Identifying Helminth Infections via Routine Fecal Parasitological Examinations in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Lee, Changhyun; Yang, Jong In; Kwak, Min-Sun; Chung, Goh Eun; Kang, Hae Yeon; Chung, Su Jin; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Joo Sung

    2017-09-01

    We conducted this study to explore the extent of occult helminth infection identified by fecal parasitological examinations or organ-specific examinations such as colonoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography (US) during health checkups. We analyzed 197,422 fecal samples from 99,451 subjects who received health checkups at a single center over 10 years. We found that 3,472 (1.8%) samples from 3,342 (3.4%) subjects tested positive for parasitic ova, including clonorchiasis, metagonimiasis, trichuriasis, ascariasis, trichostrongylosis, taeniasis, and enterobiasis. The detection rate for clonorchiasis was higher in those who were taking their first examination than in those who had been examined previously. The detection rate for clonorchiasis decreased gradually over the 10 years. Only 2.5% of the patients with clonorchiasis showed US or computed tomography (CT) images that were compatible with the disease. Clonorchiasis patients who had abdominal US or CT images that suggested clonorchiasis were older and had lower body mass indices and higher eosinophil counts than did those whose US or CT images did not suggest the disease. We observed worms in 9% of the patients with trichuriasis who had received a colonoscopy. Colonoscopy also uncovered adult worms in 0.03% of subjects who were not identified as having Trichuris trichiura ova in their fecal helminth examinations. In summary, our study shows that occult helminth infection is fairly frequently identified by a variety of methods during health checkups, which suggests that doctors need to make greater effort to identify and treat occult helminth infections in Korea.

  4. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Persson, Søren; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2017-06-08

    The development of diagnostic metagenomics is driven by the need for universal, culture-independent methods for detection and characterization of pathogens to substitute the time-consuming, organism-specific, and often culture-based laboratory procedures for epidemiological source-tracing. Some of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni was sequenced and data analysis was done by the metagenomic tools Kraken and CLARK. More hits were obtained at higher spiking levels, however with no significant linear correlations (human samples p = 0.12, chicken samples p = 0.10). Therefore, no definite detection limit could be determined, but the lowest spiking levels found positive were 7.75 × 104 CFU/ml in human feces and 103 CFU/g in chicken feces. Eight human clinical fecal samples with estimated Campylobacter infection loads from 9.2 × 104-1.0 × 109 CFU/ml were analyzed using the same methods. It was possible to detect Campylobacter in all the clinical samples. Sensitivity in diagnostic metagenomics is improving and has reached a clinically relevant level. There are still challenges to overcome before real-time diagnostic metagenomics can replace quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or culture-based surveillance and diagnostics, but it is a promising new technology.

  5. The role of sinking fecal pellets in stratified euphotic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Lawrence F.; Knauer, George A.; Tuel, Merritt D.

    1987-10-01

    The euphotic zone at the VERTEX II oligotrophic sediment trap station (18°N, 108°W) can be viewed for simplicity a as two-layered system with (1) an upper mixed layer (0-40 m) of relatively high primary production, low chlorophyll concentration, and low zooplankton biomass, and (2) a lower layer (40-100 m) containing the chlorophyll and particulate organic carbon maxima, higher zooplankton biomass, and relatively low primary production. Particle traps at 30 m yielded no particulate carbon flux, while traps at 120 m registered 38 mg C m -2 d -1, with many visible fecal pellets. Zooplankton in the upper layer apparently produced small pellets which were recycled in situ. Fecal pellet carbon production by 200-2000 μm zooplankton in the lower layer, however, was 30% of trap-measured C flux. Tiny pellets produced by 53-200 μm zooplankton were mostly recycled within the euphotic zone, regardless of which euphotic layer the animals were inhabiting when collected. Comparisons are made between the relative contributions of sinking fecal pellets when the VERTEX II euphotic zone is considered as a single uniform layer rather than as a two-layered system. In addition, comparison of the VERTEX II data with data from the eutrophi VERTEX Vc site (35°50'N, 122°30'W) suggests that zooplankton can be more significantly coupled to carbon flux out of the bottom layers of oligotrophic euphotic zones than to carbon flux out of unlayered eutrophic euphotic zones.

  6. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mínguez

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG, with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Methodology: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish, sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis. Results: Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two, psyllium (one, tegaserod (one, prucalopride (one, paraffin oil (one, fiber combinations (one and Descurainia sophia (one. Conclusions: Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long

  7. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, Miguel; López Higueras, Antonio; Júdez, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish), sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age) and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis). Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two), psyllium (one), tegaserod (one), prucalopride (one), paraffin oil (one), fiber combinations (one) and Descurainia sophia (one). Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose) and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long-term. They are as efficacious as enemas in fecal

  8. Step-up fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bota; Li, Pan; Xu, Lijuan; Peng, Zhaoyuan; Xiang, Jie; He, Zhi; Zhang, Ting; Ji, Guozhong; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Faming

    2016-07-03

    Gut dysbiosis is a characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective strategy to restore intestinal microbial diversity and has been reported to have a potential therapeutic value in IBD. Our recent study reported a holistic integrative therapy called "step-up FMT strategy," which was beneficial in treating steroid-dependent IBD patients. This strategy consists of scheduled FMTs combined with steroids, anti-TNF-α antibody treatment or enteral nutrition. Herein, we will elaborate the strategy thoroughly, introducing the concept, potential indication, methodology, and safety of "step-up FMT strategy" in detail.

  9. Fecal impaction: a systematic review of its medical complications

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Falc?n, Blanca; Barcel? L?pez, Marta; Mateos Mu?oz, Beatriz; ?lvarez S?nchez, Angel; Rey, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Background Fecal impaction (FI) is a common problem in the elderly and other at-risk groups, such as patients with a neuro-psychiatric disease. It has been associated with medical problems and high morbi-mortality. A systematic review of this topic might be useful to improve the knowledge in this area and helpful to make an appropriate and early diagnosis. Methods A PubMed systematic search was performed using relevant keywords. Case reports published in English, Spanish or French till June 2...

  10. Electrophysiological Basis of Fecal Incontinence and Its Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The majority of patients with neuropathic incontinence and other pelvic floor conditions associated with straining at stool have damage to the pudendal nerves distal to the ischial spine. Sacral nerve stimulation appears to be a promising innovation and has been widely adopted and currently considered the standard of care for adults with moderate to severe fecal incontinence and following failed sphincter repair. From a decision-to-treat perspective, the short-term efficacy is good (70%–80%), but the long-term efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation is around 50%. Newer electrophysiological tests and improved anal endosonography would more effectively guide clinical decision making. PMID:29159162

  11. Evaluation of highly sensitive indigenous milk ELISA kit with fecal culture, milk culture and fecal-PCR for the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease (BJD) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, R; Sandhu, K S; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S; Gupta, V K; Vihan, V S

    2007-05-01

    Country lacks indigenous diagnostic kits against Johne's disease in animals. Indigenous ELISA and IS 900 PCR kits, originally developed for goats and sheep, have been adapted for screening of lactating cows. Multiple diagnostic tests were used to screen 26 lactating dairy cows against Johne's disease. Milk ELISA was evaluated with fecal culture, milk culture and fecal PCR. Of the 26 samples from lactating cows, 84.6, 96.1, 88.4 and 23.0% were positive in fecal culture, milk culture, m-ELISA and m-PCR, respectively. Comparatively milk sediment and milk fat culture detected 84.6 and 76.9% cows positive, respectively. Comparatively fecal culture and milk culture detected 84.6 and 96.1% cows positive, respectively. M-ELISA detected 11.5, 0.0, 11.5, 61.0 and 15.3%, cows as negative, suspected, low positive, positive and strong positive, respectively. There was good correlation between milk and fecal culture with m-ELISA. Three negative cows in m-ELISA were also detected in milk and fecal culture. Of the 26 decontaminated fecal samples, 23.0% cows were positive using specific IS 900 f-PCR. Comparative evaluation of m-ELISA with fecal and milk culture showed agreement in 80.7 and 84.6% cows, respectively. Sensitivity of m-ELISA with respect to fecal and culture was 90.9 and 95.6%, respectively. Comparative evaluation of four tests (milk culture, fecal culture, m-ELISA and f-PCR) showed that only 15.3% cows were detected in all the four tests. In three tests (fecal and milk culture and m-ELISA), 57.6% cows were detected positive. None of the cow was exclusively detected in f-PCR. Of the four diagnostic tests used milk culture was most sensitive (96.15%), followed by fecal culture (86.6%), m-ELISA (76.9%) and IS 900 PCR (23.0%) for the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease (BJD). Milk ELISA detected only one cow extra, which was negative in milk culture. In view of the simplicity, rapidity and efficacy present milk ELISA kit employing soluble protoplasmic antigen from native

  12. A geospatial analysis of land use and stormwater management on fecal coliform contamination in North Carolina streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitro, Kristen A; BenDor, Todd K; Jordanova, Tania V; Miles, Brian

    2017-12-15

    Although non-point source (NPS) pathogen pollution is a leading cause of stream impairment in the United States, the sources of NPS pollution are often difficult to ascertain. While previous studies have employed land use regression methods to develop a greater understanding of the sources and dynamics of microbial NPS pollution, little work has explicitly considered the effects of local, state, and federal stormwater management policies on water quality across multiple watersheds or at larger spatial scales. How do land use and stormwater management efforts collectively influence fecal coliform (FC) levels at a regional or multiple-watershed scale? We construct a unique spatial regression model of stream FC pollution (n=327 monitoring stations) throughout the state of North Carolina (USA), incorporating both land cover and urban development variables. We then use a subset of our data (n bmp =80 monitoring stations) to incorporate local stormwater control measures and stormwater management policies. Results demonstrate that the inclusion of policy and management variables improves the explanatory capacity for FC levels (R 2 =0.4412 versus R 2 =0.5323). Locally, this model can be used to better target stream restoration and water quality mitigation actions and investments, as well as help to predict FC levels at unmonitored locations throughout North Carolina's stream network. More generally, the novel structure of this model can also help examine the large-scale effects of stormwater regulations on surface water pathogen levels, helping researchers and planners better predict water quality in the absence of extensive monitoring station data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Temperature and Time on Fecal Hemoglobin Stability in 5 Fecal Immunochemical Test Methods and One Guaiac Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catomeris, Peter; Baxter, Nancy N; Boss, Sheila C; Paszat, Lawrence F; Rabeneck, Linda; Randell, Edward; Serenity, Mardie L; Sutradhar, Rinku; Tinmouth, Jill

    2018-01-01

    - Although promising for colorectal cancer screening, hemoglobin (Hb) stability remains a concern with fecal immunochemical tests. This study implemented a novel, standardized method to compare Hb stability across various fecal immunochemical tests. The method can be used to inform decisions when selecting a kit for use in colorectal cancer screening. In so doing, this work addressed a critical need for standardization in this field. - To compare the stability of Hb across 5 different immunochemical kits and one guaiac kit. - The stability of Hb was analyzed in collection devices inoculated with Hb-spiked feces and (1) stored at various temperatures (frozen, refrigerated, ambient, and elevated) for more than 60 days; (2) after undergoing 3 controlled, freeze-thaw cycles; and (3) after being transported by courier or postal services in uncontrolled temperature conditions from 3 locations in Ontario, Canada, to a central testing center. - The stability of Hb varied with time and temperature and by kit. Lower Hb recoveries occurred with increasing temperature and increasing time from sample collection to testing. Refrigeration provided the best stability, although results varied across kits (eg, from 4.2 days to >60 days before a prespecified threshold [<70% probability of the test results remaining positive] was reached). Freeze-thaw stability varied across kits and cycles (Hb recoveries: NS Plus [Alfresa Pharma, Chuo-ku, Osaka, Japan], 91.7% to 95.4%; OC Diana [Eiken Chemical, Taito-ku, Tokyo, Japan], 57.6% to 74.9%). Agreement regarding Hb levels before and after transportation varied across kits (from 57% to 100%). - Important differences in Hb stability were found across the included fecal immunochemical tests. These findings should inform practice-based and population-based colorectal cancer screening.

  14. Clustering of water bodies in unpolluted and polluted environments based on Escherichia coli phylogroup abundance using a simple interaction database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy de Castro Stoppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different types of water bodies, including lakes, streams, and coastal marine waters, are often susceptible to fecal contamination from a range of point and nonpoint sources, and have been evaluated using fecal indicator microorganisms. The most commonly used fecal indicator is Escherichia coli, but traditional cultivation methods do not allow discrimination of the source of pollution. The use of triplex PCR offers an approach that is fast and inexpensive, and here enabled the identification of phylogroups. The phylogenetic distribution of E. coli subgroups isolated from water samples revealed higher frequencies of subgroups A1 and B2(3 in rivers impacted by human pollution sources, while subgroups D1 and D2 were associated with pristine sites, and subgroup B1 with domesticated animal sources, suggesting their use as a first screening for pollution source identification. A simple classification is also proposed based on phylogenetic subgroup distribution using the w-clique metric, enabling differentiation of polluted and unpolluted sites.

  15. Gut microbiota modulation: probiotics, antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Bibbò, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Gut microbiota is known to have a relevant role in our health, and is also related to both gastrointestinal and extradigestive diseases. Therefore, restoring the alteration of gut microbiota represents an outstanding clinical target for the treatment of gut microbiota-related diseases. The modulation of gut microbiota is perhaps an ancestral, innate concept for human beings. At this time, the restoration of gut microbiota impairment is a well-established concept in mainstream medicine, and several therapeutic approaches have been developed in this regard. Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are the best known and commercially available options to overcome gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation is an old procedure that has recently become popular again. It has shown a clear effectiveness in the treatment of C. difficile infection, and now represents a cutting-edge option for the restoration of gut microbiota. Nevertheless, such weapons should be used with caution. Antibiotics can indeed harm and alter gut microbiota composition. Probiotics, instead, are not at all the same thing, and thinking in terms of different strains is probably the only way to improve clinical outcomes. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation has shown promising results, but stronger proofs are needed. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of gut microbiota, especially with regard to the future use in its modulation for therapeutic purposes.

  16. Solid-Phase Microextraction and the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Emma; Clubb, Cynthia; Pittman, Sara; Ammann, Larry; Rasheed, Zeehasham; Kazmi, Nazia; Keshavarzian, Ali; Gillevet, Pat; Rangwala, Huzefa; Couch, Robin D.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein. PMID:21494609

  17. Fecal Microbiota and Diet of Children with Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Gomes de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors explain dysbiosis in chronic constipation (CC, such as a low-fiber diet. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of constipated and nonconstipated children and their intake frequencies of food. Methods. This observational study included 79 children (M/F 43/36 aged six to 36 months divided into two groups: cases (39 constipated children and controls (40 nonconstipated children. We used a structured form to collect demographic variables, conducted anthropometric assessment, and collected food intake frequency data. The fecal microbiota of the stool samples was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the fluorophore SYBR® Green. Results. Constipated children had a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus per milligram of stool (p=0.015 than nonconstipated children, but the concentration of Bifidobacterium per milligram of stool (p=0.323 and the intake of fruits, vegetables (p=0.563, and junk food (p=0.093 of the two groups did not differ. Constipated children consumed more dairy products (0.45±0.8; p>0.001, were more frequently delivered via caesarean section (69.2%, were weaned earlier (median: 120; 60Q1–240Q3, and had a family history of constipation (71.8%. Conclusions. Children with CC have a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus in their stools and consume more dairy products.

  18. Control of the gut microbiome by fecal microRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the early 90s, microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, have mainly been associated with posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression on a cell-autonomous level. Recent evidence has extended this role by adding inter-species communication to the manifold functional range. In our latest study [Liu S, et al., 2016, Cell Host & Microbe], we identified miRNAs in gut lumen and feces of both mice and humans. We found that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and Hopx+ cells were the two main sources of fecal miRNA. Deficiency of IEC-miRNA resulted in gut dysbiosis and WT fecal miRNA transplantation restored the gut microbiota. We investigated potential mechanisms for this effect and found that miRNAs were able to regulate the gut microbiome. By culturing bacteria with miRNAs, we found that host miRNAs were able to enter bacteria, specifically regulate bacterial gene transcripts and affect bacterial growth. Oral administration of synthetic miRNA mimics affected specific bacteria in the gut. Our findings describe a previously unknown pathway by which the gut microbiome is regulated by the host and raises the possibility that miRNAs may be used therapeutically to manipulate the microbiome for the treatment of disease.

  19. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: From Clostridium difficile to Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Robert J; Moss, Alan C

    2017-04-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved from a case report in the medical literature to the basis of major innovations in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and, potentially, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the clinical setting, FMT was noted to significantly lower the risk of recurrent CDI, likely by increasing microbial diversity and altering the metabolic environment in the intestinal tract of recipients. In parallel, advances in the ability to quantify and characterize microbial communities in fecal samples led to the association of IBD with a state of intestinal dysbiosis. Consequently, a number of case series and randomized, controlled trials have evaluated FMT in treating active ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Unlike in CDI, the efficacy of FMT in the treatment of IBD appears to be influenced by a number of factors, including donor microbial profiles, inflammatory burden, and the microbial diversity of the recipient. The therapeutic potential of the microbiome has led to a number of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies isolating specific strains from healthy stool for use as targeted therapies for IBD in clinical trials. Ongoing studies are likely to determine the missing link between the efficacy of FMT and its impact on microbial communities and mucosal inflammation.

  20. Unsealed Tubewells Lead to Increased Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Serre, Marc L.; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Sayler, Gary S.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, 6 unsealed) were monitored for cultured E. coli over 18 months. Additionally, two “snap shot” sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (ETEC E. coli), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using qPCR. No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained cultured E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p<0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

  1. Solid-phase microextraction and the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Dixon

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein.

  2. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  3. Health literacy and emotional responses related to fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kristina; Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine continence literacy of individuals with fecal incontinence (FI) by identifying terms they used to refer to FI and to explore their emotional responses to FI. A secondary aim was to compare differences based on gender and age in younger (65 years) with FI. Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively in a clinical trial of fiber supplementation for FI. Content analysis of participants' statements reported in field notes of data collectors and their responses to data forms and questions. Only one participant used the term fecal incontinence to describe FI. Alternate terms described stool characteristics, named other gastrointestinal problems, or respondents referred to FI, using a term that seemed to depersonalize the problem. Emotional responses to FI focused on the influence of bothersome symptoms, interference with social activities, and need for control. Some participants used humor to cope with FI and reported emotional benefits gained through participation in a study. Women were impacted by the social limitations of having FI more than men. Younger people were more likely to express feelings of emotional upset than were older respondents. There is a need to increase health literacy about FI. WOC nurses are well qualified to educate patients about FI and to evaluate if higher continence literacy increases reporting of FI. Understanding the various emotional responses to FI may guide the optimal support that WOC nurses can provide and facilitate better management of FI.

  4. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge

    2017-01-01

    The development of diagnostic metagenomics is driven by the need for universal, culture-independent methods for detection and characterization of pathogens to substitute the time-consuming, organism-specific, and often culture-based laboratory procedures for epidemiological source-tracing. Some...... of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU....../g Campylobacter jejuni was sequenced and data analysis was done by the metagenomic tools Kraken and CLARK. More hits were obtained at higher spiking levels, however with no significant linear correlations (human samples p = 0.12, chicken samples p = 0.10). Therefore, no definite detection limit could...

  5. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE APPLICATION OF MST METHODOLOGIES TO DIFFERENTIATE SOURCES OF FECAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal variability in the gastrointestinal flora of animals impacting water resources with fecal material can be one of the factors producing low source identification rates when applying microbial source tracking (MST) methods. Understanding how bacterial species and genotype...

  6. Automated electrical impedance technique for rapid enumeration of fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M P; Munoz, E F

    1979-01-01

    Fecal coliforms growing in a selective lactose-based broth medium at 44.5 degrees C generate a change in the electrical impedance of the culture relative to a sterile control when populations reach 10(6) to 10(7) per ml. The ratio of these changes was measured automatically, and the data were processed by computer. A linear relation was found between the log10 of the number of fecal coliforms in an inoculum and the time required for an electrical impedance ratio signal to be detected. Pure culture inocula consisting of 100 fecal coliforms in log phase or stationary phase were detected in 6.5 and 7.7 h, respectively. Standard curves of log10 fecal coliforms in wastewater inocula versus detection time, based on samples collected at a sewage treatment plant over a 4-month period, were found to vary from one another with time. Nevertheless, detection times were rapid and ranged from 5.8 to 7.9 h for 200 fecal coliforms to 8.7 to 11.4 h for 1 fecal coliform. Variations in detection times for a given number of fecal coliforms were also found among sewage treatment plants. A strategy is proposed which takes these variations into account and allows for rapid, automated enumeration of fecal coliforms in wastewater by the electrical impedance ratio technique. PMID:378128

  7. Distinct fecal and oral microbiota composition in human type 1 diabetes, an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Pieter F; Belzer, Clara; Aydin, Ömrüm; Levin, Evgeni; Levels, Johannes H; Aalvink, Steven; Boot, Fransje; Holleman, Frits; van Raalte, Daniël H; Scheithauer, Torsten P; Simsek, Suat; Schaap, Frank G; Olde Damink, Steven W M; Roep, Bart O; Hoekstra, Joost B; de Vos, Willem M; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors driving the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are still largely unknown. Both animal and human studies have shown an association between altered fecal microbiota composition, impaired production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and T1D onset. However, observational evidence on SCFA and fecal and oral microbiota in adults with longstanding T1D vs healthy controls (HC) is lacking. We included 53 T1D patients without complications or medication and 50 HC matched for age, sex and BMI. Oral and fecal microbiota, fecal and plasma SCFA levels, markers of intestinal inflammation (fecal IgA and calprotectin) and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation were measured. Oral microbiota were markedly different in T1D (eg abundance of Streptococci) compared to HC. Fecal analysis showed decreased butyrate producing species in T1D and less butyryl-CoA transferase genes. Also, plasma levels of acetate and propionate were lower in T1D, with similar fecal SCFA. Finally, fecal strains Christensenella and Subdoligranulum correlated with glycemic control, inflammatory parameters and SCFA. We conclude that T1D patients harbor a different amount of intestinal SCFA (butyrate) producers and different plasma acetate and propionate levels. Future research should disentangle cause and effect and whether supplementation of SCFA-producing bacteria or SCFA alone can have disease-modifying effects in T1D.

  8. Relief of fecal incontinence by sacral nerve stimulation linked to focal brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Lilli; Møller, Arne; Buntzen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence.......This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence....

  9. Early Detection of Necrotizing Enterocolitis by Fecal Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meij, Tim G. J.; van der Schee, Marc P. C.; Berkhout, Daan J. C.; van de Velde, Mirjam E.; Jansen, Anna E.; Kramer, Boris W.; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Andriessen, Peter; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Niemarkt, Hendrik J.; de Boer, Nanne K. H.

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis by electronic nose (eNose) allows for early detection of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In 3 neonatal intensive care units, fecal samples of infants born at gestational age ≤ 30 weeks were collected daily, up to the 28th

  10. Can the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence be predicted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Terra (Maaike); M. Deutekom (Marije); A.C. Dobben (Annette); C.G.M.I. Baeten; L.W.M. Janssen (Lucas); G.E. Boeckxstaens (Guy); A.F. Engel (Alexander); R.J.F. Felt-Bersma; J.F.W. Slors; M.F. Gerhards (Michael); A.B. Bijnen (Bart); E. Everhardt; W.R. Schouten (Ruud); B. Berghmans; P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); J. Stoker (Jacob)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Pelvic-floor rehabilitation does not provide the same degree of relief in all fecal incontinent patients. We aimed at studying prospectively the ability of tests to predict the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence. Materials and methods: Two

  11. Point of care testing of fecal calprotectin as a substitute for routine laboratory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejl, Julie; Theede, Klaus; Møllgren, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Fecal calprotectin (FC) is widely used to monitor the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to tailor medical treatment to disease activity. Laboratory testing of fecal samples may have a turnaround time of 1-2 weeks, whereas FC home testing allows results within hours and ...

  12. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N A

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  13. Prevalence of fecal incontinence in a cohort of systemic sclerosis patients within a regional referral network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garros, A; Marjoux, S; Khouatra, C; Coppere, B; Grange, C; Hot, A; Roman, S; Damon, H; Mion, F

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal involvement in systemic sclerosis is higher than 75%. The estimated prevalence of fecal incontinence varies from 22% to 77%, but suffers from recruitment bias and patient reluctance. Our goal was to evaluate the prevalence of fecal incontinence in systemic sclerosis, and to identify associated risk factors. Patients were recruited in the referral systemic sclerosis network of the Lyon University Hospitals, using self-administered questionnaires including constipation, fecal incontinence and Bristol Stool scales, quality of life, anxiety and depression. The cohort was compared with the historical ORALIA cohort that established the prevalence of fecal incontinence in the general population of the Rhône-Alpes region (France). Seventy-seven patients were included (mean age: 60 years, range: 32-84), and 86% were female. These were compared to 153 ORALIA individuals matched for age and sex. Fecal incontinence was present in 38% of patients and 6% of the general population. A longer duration of systemic sclerosis was the only characteristic associated with fecal incontinence. Abnormal stool consistency was more frequent in patients with fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence and abnormal stool consistency are common in systemic sclerosis and should be systematically addressed.

  14. Waveband selection and algorithm development to distinguish fecal contamination using multispectral imaging with solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination in fresh produce fields caused by animals or livestock entering the fields can lead to outbreaks of foodbourne illnesses. E.coli O157:H7 originating in the intestines of animals can transfer onto leafy greens via fecal matter. Leafy greens are often eaten fresh without thermal tr...

  15. A longitudinal study of fecal calprotectin and the development of inflammatory bowel disease in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Eva; Strid, Hans; Ståhl, Arne; Deminger, Anna; Carlsten, Hans; Öhman, Lena; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena

    2017-02-02

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are at increased risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to determine the variation in fecal calprotectin in AS over 5 years in relation to disease activity and medication and also to study the incidence of and predictors for development of IBD. Fecal calprotectin was assessed at baseline (n = 204) and at 5-year follow-up (n = 164). The patients answered questionnaires and underwent clinical evaluations. At baseline and at 5-year follow-up, ileocolonoscopy was performed in patients with fecal calprotectin ≥500 mg/kg and ≥200 mg/kg, respectively. The medical records were checked for diagnoses of IBD during the follow-up period. Fecal calprotectin >50 mg/kg was found in two-thirds of the patients at both study visits. In 80% of the patients, fecal calprotectin changed by Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and fecal calprotectin at 5-year follow-up. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was associated with higher fecal calprotectin, and 3-week cessation of NSAIDs resulted in a drop of a median 116 mg/kg in fecal calprotectin. The use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers was associated with lower fecal calprotectin at both visits, but the users of TNF receptor fusion proteins had significantly higher fecal calprotectin than users of anti-TNF antibodies at 5-year follow-up. The 5-year incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) was 1.5% and was predicted by high fecal calprotectin. Fecal calprotectin was elevated in a majority of the patients and was associated with disease activity and medication at both visits. CD developed in 1.5% of the patients with AS, and a high fecal calprotectin was the main predictor thereof. The results support a link between inflammation in the gut and the

  16. Pollution, An Environmental Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    This document, written for teachers, outlines the causes and extent of environmental problems relating to air pollution, water pollution, the use of fertilizers and pesticides, land use, and population density. A short bibliography includes references to periodicals and books dealing with teaching methods as well as references for background…

  17. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  18. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  19. River Pollution: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  20. LightPollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    Light pollution is a relatively new topic, both for scientists and for the general public. Light pollution is usually defined as any of the many adverse effects of poor night-time lighting. These include artificial sky glow, light trespass (obtrusive light), glare, energy waste and impacts on human health and the ecosystem. Almost everyone is affected in some way by these problems....

  1. Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  2. Detection and persistence of fecal Bacteroidales as water quality indicators in unchlorinated drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Aaron Marc; Kristiansen, Anja; Lund, Marie Braad

    2009-01-01

    doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2008.11.004 The results of this study support the use of fecal Bacteroidales qPCR as a rapid method to complement traditional, culture dependent, water quality indicators in systems where drinking water is supplied without chlorination or other forms of disinfection. A SYBR...... green based, quantitative PCR assay was developed to determine the concentration of fecal Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene copies. The persistence of a Bacteroides vulgatus pure culture and fecal Bacteroidales from a wastewater inoculum was determined in unchlorinated drinking water at10°C. B. vulgatus 16S r......RNA gene copies persisted throughout the experimental period (200 days) in sterile drinking water but decayed faster in natural drinking water, indicating that the natural microbiota accelerated decay. In a simulated fecal contamination of unchlorinated drinking water, the decay of fecal Bacteroidales 16S...

  3. Physical Therapy for Fecal Incontinence in Children with Pelvic Floor Dyssynergia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddasani, Swathi; Moe, Amanda; Semmelrock, Caitlin; Gilbert, Caroyl Luan; Enemuo, Valentine; Chiou, Eric Howard; Chumpitazi, Bruno Pedro

    2017-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of physical therapy (PT) for fecal incontinence in children with pelvic floor dyssynergia (PFD). Retrospective chart review of children with PFD completing >1 PT session for fecal incontinence at a quaternary children's hospital. The frequency of fecal incontinence (primary outcome), constipation-related medication use, number of bowel movements (in those with pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function were captured at baseline and at the final PT visit. Outcomes were categorized as excellent (complete continence), good (>50% decrease in fecal incontinence frequency), fair (not worsening but Pelvic floor PT is effective in the majority of children with fecal incontinence related to PFD. Factors associated with PT efficacy include improved PFM functioning, good compliance with PT, and history of tethered cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pollutant concentrations in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, O.; Kiviranta, H.; Karjalainen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    congeners of persistent organic pollutants, seven organotin compounds, five heavy metals, and methylmercury in 130 randomly selected placentas. Additionally, we examined similarities between pollutant concentrations by analyzing correlations between their placental concentrations. Our results yield new...... information for conducting contaminant risk assessments for the prenatal period. Out of the 117 individual persistent organic pollutants or metals assayed, 46 could be detected in more than half of the placentas. Moreover, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was found in all placentas. The data......Unborn children are exposed to environmental pollutants via the placenta, and there is a causal relationship between maternal intake of pollutants and fetal exposure. Placental examination is an effective way for acquiring data for estimating fetal exposure. We analyzed the concentrations of 104...

  5. [Indoor pollution and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, J

    1998-09-01

    The indoor pollution, where the patients pass in general close to 90% of their time, is an important factor to take in consideration if one wants to evaluate suitably the effects of the air pollution on the health. Causes of this kind of pollution are partially linked to the external pollution and the outdoor environment and also are function of human activities and introduced products in the habitat (heating, tabagisme, handywork, products of maintenance, coatings, materials of construction, etc.). The effects on health are as various as the pollutants, going from sharp intoxication to irritations or simply desagreements. In this problem of public health we may not underestimated sensitive persons and risky group as well as long terme effects, and chronic exposition effects. The search of solutions needs multiple competences from the physician, who has to play an essential role.

  6. Pooling of porcine fecal samples for quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Johansen, Markku; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2014-01-01

    obtained by averaging test results from individual fecal samples in relation to a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test for Lawsonia intracellularis. Ten diarrheic and 10 normal fecal samples were submitted from each of 43 Danish swine herds (n = 860 fecal samples). Pools (n = 43), each...

  7. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal purification and sensitive quantification of DNA from fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Application of reliable, rapid and sensitive methods to laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic infections continues to challenge microbiological laboratories. The recovery of DNA from a swine fecal sample and a bacterial culture extracted by a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compared...... to a rapid silica-membrane spin-column method (DNeasy Tissue or QIAamp Stool Kit, QIAGEN GmbH). Me two spin column methods yielded 3.5 and 2.7 mug of DNA, respectively, when the elution volume was 200 muL, compared to 1.3 and 1.5 mug of DNA, respectively, with the phenol-chloroform method. In addition......, the detection range of X-DNA of a spectrophotometric and a fluorometric (PicoGreen) method was compared. The PicoGreen showed a quantification limit of 1 ng/mL, consistent triplicate measurements, and finally a linear relationship between the concentrations of DNA standards and the fluorescence readings (R-2...

  9. Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Angela; Rose, Devin J; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-06-14

    Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.

  10. Incontinencia fecal en el adulto: Un desafio permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Claudio Wainstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia fecal (IF es un problema complejo que afecta desde 2% de la población general, hasta un 45% de los pacientes de casas de reposo. Entre los factores etiológicos destacan causas traumáticas, neurológicas, congénitas e iatrogénicas, siendo uno de las principales, el trauma obstétrico. Resulta fundamental en el manejo de estos pacientes un enfoque multidisciplinario, no solo por la etiología multifactorial, sino porque suele asociarse a otras alteraciones del piso pelviano como prolapso ginecológico e incontinencia urinaria entre otros. Por estas razones puede resultar en una patología devastadora por sus consecuencias tanto sociales, psicológicas, de calidad de vida y económicas. La evaluación clínica resulta fundamental para orientar tanto el estudio como su manejo en forma integral. Existen múltiples opciones de tratamiento médico y quirúrgicas para el tratamiento de la incontinencia fecal. La rehabilitación pelviperineal es una de las estrategias más exitosas ya sea como tratamiento exclusivo o coadyuvante a la terapia quirúrgica. Dependiendo de la causa, la cirugía tiene indicaciones precisas, con resultados variables. La IF es un problema de difícil manejo; no hay un algoritmo único de estudio ni tratamiento, razón por la cual resulta fundamental el enfoque multidisciplinario en su tratamiento. El objetivo de este artículo es resumir los avances en el conocimiento de los mecanismos que conducen a la IF, como también la nuevas estrategias en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta patología.

  11. Specificity of a Polyclonal Fecal Elastase ELISA for CELA3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ulrich Weiss

    Full Text Available Elastase is a proteolytic pancreatic enzyme that passes through the gastrointestinal tract undergoing only limited degradation. ELISA tests to determine stool elastase concentrations have therefore been developed for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Five different isoforms of pancreatic elastase (CELA1, CELA2A, CELA2B, CELA3A, CELA3B are encoded in the human genome. We have investigated three different polyclonal antisera that are used in a commercial fecal elastase ELISA to determine their specificity for different pancreatic elastase isoforms.Different polyclonal rabbit antisera against human elastase peptides (BIOSERV Diagnostics GmbH, Germany were tested by Western blot analysis of human pancreatic juice, in HEK-293 cells expressing Elastase constructs, and in the protein content of porcine pancreatin, used for treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.In human pancreatic juice the polyclonal antisera detected proteins at the corresponding size of human pancreatic elastase isoforms (~29kDa. Transiently expressed GFP fusion protein of elastase isoform CELA3A (CELA3A-GFP, but not CELA2A (CELA2A-GFP could be precipitated from HEK-293 cell lysates with the elastase antisera. We detected no cross-reactivity with elastases in the porcine pancreatic extracts (pancreatin used for enzyme replacement therapy.The polyclonal antisera used in a commercial fecal elastase ELISA are specific for the human pancreatic elastase isoform CELA3 and do not cross-react with elastase contained in pig pancreatin. While pancreatic elastase 1 (CELA1 is not expressed in the adult human pancreas, possible differences between the other isoforms regarding their cellular expression, pathophysiological role and relevance in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency deserve further investigation.

  12. Influence of Land Use, Nutrients, and Geography on Microbial Communities and Fecal Indicator Abundance at Lake Michigan Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Danielle D; Alm, Elizabeth W; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-08-01

    Microbial communities within beach sand play a key role in nutrient cycling and are important to the nearshore ecosystem function. Escherichia coli and enterococci, two common indicators of fecal pollution, have been shown to persist in the beach sand, but little is known about how microbial community assemblages are related to these fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) reservoirs. We examined eight beaches across a geographic gradient and range of land use types and characterized the indigenous community structure in the water and the backshore, berm, and submerged sands. FIB were found at similar levels in sand at beaches adjacent to urban, forested, and agricultural land and in both the berm and backshore. However, there were striking differences in the berm and backshore microbial communities, even within the same beach, reflecting the very different environmental conditions in these beach zones in which FIB can survive. In contrast, the microbial communities in a particular beach zone were similar among beaches, including at beaches on opposite shores of Lake Michigan. The differences in the microbial communities that did exist within a beach zone correlated to nutrient levels, which varied among geographic locations. Total organic carbon and total phosphorus were higher in Wisconsin beach sand than in beach sand from Michigan. Within predominate genera, fine-scale sequence differences could be found that distinguished the populations from the two states, suggesting a biogeographic effect. This work demonstrates that microbial communities are reflective of environmental conditions at freshwater beaches and are able to provide useful information regarding long-term anthropogenic stress. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  14. Occurrence of pollution indicators in tropical perennial river of Periyar, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Periyar river water samples were collected from nine different places during summer 2015 for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis. The mean concentrations of DO (mg/L and BOD (mg/L in S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8 and S9 were 6.7 and 7.8, 5.8 and 8.1, 4.9 and 5.8, 5.6 and 6.3, 4.3 and 7.4, 8.0 and 9.1, 4.4 and 5.1, 3.4 and 6.8, and 5.1 and 3.8, respectively. The level of Pollution Index (PI (Fecal coliforms / Fecal Streptococci in S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8 and S9 was 1.8, 1.3, 2.1, 1.75, 2.4, 1.8, 2.3, 1.4 and 1.5, respectively. The higher PI ratio (>1 indicated that the sampling sites were contaminated by human fecal matters which is major contribution for river pollution and which require immediate attention. The study further raises points for the need of action for a sustainable utilization of precious resources. The study also recommends the necessity of proper sanitation and waste disposal to sustain the surface water quality.

  15. Human-derived IgG level as an indicator for EBV-associated lymphoma model in Hu-PBL/SCID chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunlian; He, Rongfang; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Fang; Cheng, Ailan; Wu, Yimou; Gan, Runliang

    2011-05-09

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has a close association with various types of human lymphomas. Animal models are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of human EBV-associated lymphomas. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between human IgG concentration and EBV-associated lymphoma development in huPBL/SCID mice. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL) from EBV-seropositive donors were inoculated intraperitoneally into SCID mouse. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine differentiated antigens of tumor cells. EBV infection of the induced tumors was detected by in situ hybridization. IgG concentrations in the serums of 12 SCID mice were measured by unidirectional immunodiffusion assay. 21 out of 29 mice developed tumors in their body. Immunohistochemical staining showed that all induced tumors were LCA (leukocyte common antigen) positive, B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a) positive, and T-cell markers (both CD3 and CD45RO) negative. The tumors can be diagnosed as human B-cell lymphomas by these morphological and immunohistochemical features. In situ hybridization exhibited resultant tumor cells had EBV encoded small RNA-1 (EBER-1). Human-derived IgG could be found in the serum from SCID mice on the 15th day following hu-PBL transplantation, and IgG levels increased with the tumor development in 6 hu-PBL/SCID chimeras. Intraperitoneal transfer of hu-PBLs from EBV+ donors to SCID mice leads to high human IgG levels in mouse serum and B cell lymphomas. Our findings suggest that increasing levels of human-derived IgG in peripheral blood from hu-PBL/SCID mice could be used to monitor EBV-related human B-cell lymphoma development in experimental animals.

  16. Human-derived IgG level as an indicator for EBV-associated lymphoma model in Hu-PBL/SCID chimeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ailan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has a close association with various types of human lymphomas. Animal models are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of human EBV-associated lymphomas. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between human IgG concentration and EBV-associated lymphoma development in huPBL/SCID mice. Methods Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL from EBV-seropositive donors were inoculated intraperitoneally into SCID mouse. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine differentiated antigens of tumor cells. EBV infection of the induced tumors was detected by in situ hybridization. IgG concentrations in the serums of 12 SCID mice were measured by unidirectional immunodiffusion assay. Results 21 out of 29 mice developed tumors in their body. Immunohistochemical staining showed that all induced tumors were LCA (leukocyte common antigen positive, B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a positive, and T-cell markers (both CD3 and CD45RO negative. The tumors can be diagnosed as human B-cell lymphomas by these morphological and immunohistochemical features. In situ hybridization exhibited resultant tumor cells had EBV encoded small RNA-1 (EBER-1. Human-derived IgG could be found in the serum from SCID mice on the 15th day following hu-PBL transplantation, and IgG levels increased with the tumor development in 6 hu-PBL/SCID chimeras. Conclusions Intraperitoneal transfer of hu-PBLs from EBV+ donors to SCID mice leads to high human IgG levels in mouse serum and B cell lymphomas. Our findings suggest that increasing levels of human-derived IgG in peripheral blood from hu-PBL/SCID mice could be used to monitor EBV-related human B-cell lymphoma development in experimental animals.

  17. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  18. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  19. Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Meydani, Mohsen; Barnett, Junaidah B; Vanegas, Sally M; Barger, Kathryn; Fu, Xueyan; Goldin, Barry; Kane, Anne; Rasmussen, Helen; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B; Meydani, Simin N; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined. Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation. Design: Fecal and serum menaquinone concentrations, fecal microbiota composition, and plasma and fecal cytokine concentrations were measured in 80 men and postmenopausal women (48 men, 32 women, age 40-65 y) enrolled in a randomized, parallel-arm, provided-food trial. After consuming a run-in diet for 2 wk, participants were randomly assigned to consume a whole grain-rich (WG) or a refined grain-based (RG) diet for 6 wk. Outcomes were measured at weeks 2 and 8. Results: The median total daily excretion of menaquinones in feces was 850 nmol/d but was highly variable (range: 64-5358 nmol/d). The total median (IQR) fecal concentrations of menaquinones decreased in the WG diet compared with the RG diet [-6.8 nmol/g (13.0 nmol/g) dry weight for WG compared with 1.8 nmol/g (12.3 nmol/g) dry weight for RG; P gut bacteria taxa, Bacteroides and Prevotella in particular, differed between these groups, and 42% of identified genera were associated with ≥1 menaquinone form. Menaquinones were not detected in serum, and neither fecal concentrations of individual menaquinones nor the menaquinone group was associated with any marker of inflammation. Conclusion: Menaquinone concentrations in the human gut appear highly variable and are associated with gut microbiota composition. However, the health implications remain unclear. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01902394. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence Neuromodulación de raíces sacras en incontinencia fecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pascual

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze short-term outcomes and complications for our first fifty patients with fecal incontinence undergoing sacral root stimulation. Patients: fifty patients with fecal incontinence receiving sacral neuromodulation in 4 hospitals are reviewed. Discussed variables include: age, sex, incontinence duration, incontinence cause, prior surgery for incontinence, Wexner scale score, anorectal manometry parameters, and endoanal ultrasonographic findings. Following the procedure Wexner scale score, anorectal manometry parameters, and associated complications are reviewed. Results: mean age of patients is 59.9 years, with females predominating. Most common causes of incontinence include obstetric procedures, idiopathic origin, and prior anal surgery. Mean follow-up is 17.02 months. Follow-up revealed a statistically significant reduction in Wexner scale score and increase in voluntary anal pressure. Technique-derived minor complications included: 2 surgical wound infections that led to stimulator withdrawal; 2 patients with pain who were managed conservatively; 1 case of externalization in a gluteal stimulator; and 1 broken tetrapolar electrode. Conclusions: sacral nerve stimulation is a simple technique that improves Wexner scores in a statistically significant manner with a low complications rate.Objetivo: analizar los resultados y complicaciones a corto plazo de nuestros primeros cincuenta pacientes con incontinencia fecal tratados mediante estimulación de raíces sacras. Pacientes: se revisan cincuenta pacientes con incontinencia fecal tratados mediante neuromodulación de raíces sacras en 4 centros hospitalarios. Las variables analizadas son: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la incontinencia, causa de la incontinencia, cirugías previas para tratar la incontinencia, puntuación en la escala de Wexner, parámetros de la manometría anorrectal y los hallazgos en la ecografía endoanal. Tras la intervención se revisa la puntuaci

  1. Effect of sterilized human fecal extract on the sensitivity of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 to enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngbeom; Sung, Kidon; Rafii, Fatemeh; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2012-04-01

    The ingestion of antimicrobial residues in foods of animal origin has the potential risk of exposing colonic bacteria to small concentrations of antibiotics and inducing resistance in the colonic bacteria. To investigate whether human intestinal contents would influence resistance development in bacteria, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC of enrofloxacin sterilized human fecal extract. In the first passage, only the medium containing sterilized fecal extract supported the growth of E. coli at an enrofloxacin concentration equal to the MIC. In the second and third passages following exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of the drug, the bacteria in media containing sterilized fecal extract grew at 0.1 μg ml(-1) of enrofloxacin. The efflux pump inhibitors, reserpine and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), increased the sensitivity of bacteria to 0.1 μg ml(-1) of enrofloxacin in the medium containing sucrose, but their effect was not observed in the medium supplemented with 2.5% sterilized fecal extract. The proportions of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in E. coli grown in the medium with 2.5% sterilized fecal extract differed from those grown in the medium alone. Fecal extract may contain unknown factors that augment the ability of E. coli to grow in concentrations of enrofloxacin higher than MIC, both in the presence and absence of efflux pump inhibitors. This is the first study showing that fecal extract affects the level of sensitivity of E. coli to antimicrobial agents.

  2. Reproductive effects on fecal nitrogen as an index of diet quality: an experimental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kyle B.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Leslie,, David M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of fecal nitrogen has been used widely as an indicator of dietary quality for free-ranging ruminants. Differences in digestive function between species of dimorphic ungulates render interspecific comparisons of fecal nitrogen unreliable; however, whether intraspecific sexual differences in digestive function also bias this nutritional index is unknown. Our objective was to compare sex-specific variation in concentration of fecal nitrogen using male, nonlactating female, and lactating female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on high- and low-quality diets. During weekly trials over spring and summer (2008-2009), we monitored intake rates, collected feces twice daily, and used micro-Kjeldahl procedures to determine percent fecal nitrogen. We also determined nitrogen content of feces following a neutral detergent fiber (NDF) rinse during pre-, peak, and postlactation. Fecal nitrogen reflected general differences in dietary quality between diets; however, fecal nitrogen of lactating females in both dietary groups was lower than for males or nonlactating females throughout lactation. Nitrogen concentration following an NDF rinse also was lower for lactating females during peak lactation. We hypothesize that the remodeling of the digestive tract and increased rumination by lactating females may enhance their ability to extract nitrogen from their forage. These adjustments may expand the foraging options of lactating females by increasing their ability to process low-quality foods, but also affects the interpretation of fecal nitrogen during the season of lactation.

  3. Psychosocial co-morbidity affects treatment outcome in children with fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Everdingen-Faasen, Els Q; Gerritsen, Bert J; Mulder, Paul G H; Fliers, Ellen A; Groeneweg, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common disorder in children. Many children with fecal incontinence have psychosocial co-morbidity. In this study, the effect of psychosocial co-morbidity on the treatment outcome of children with fecal incontinence was evaluated. One hundred and fifty children with fecal incontinence were treated in a multidisciplinary program. All children had been treated unsuccessfully for at least one year before entering the program. The treatment consisted of laxative treatment, psychosocial interventions, and biofeedback training. Psychosocial co-morbidity was classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV). One hundred and forty-one children were completely analyzed (102 boys, mean age 9.6 (range 6.5-16.5) years). Of these, 31 (22%) children had fecal incontinence without constipation and 110 (78%) children had fecal incontinence associated with constipation. In 95% of children, at least one psychosocial co-morbidity was present. Treatment was successful at 12 months in 69% of patients. Treatment was less successful in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in children with parent-child relational problems, and in mentally retarded children. The results indicate that the early assessment and treatment of psychosocial co-morbidity might improve treatment response in children with fecal incontinence. Children with fecal incontinence are treated less successfully in the first year if they have ADHD, parent-child relational problems, or mental retardation. Psychosocial evaluation and the early assessment and treatment of psychosocial co-morbidity is indicated in order to improve response rate. Family counseling--aimed at improving parent-child relations--should be an integral part of a multidisciplinary treatment program for fecal incontinence.

  4. Informatics in radiology: dual-energy electronic cleansing for fecal-tagging CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, June-Goo; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-05-01

    Electronic cleansing (EC) is an emerging technique for the removal of tagged fecal materials at fecal-tagging computed tomographic (CT) colonography. However, existing EC methods may generate various types of artifacts that severely impair the quality of the cleansed CT colonographic images. Dual-energy fecal-tagging CT colonography is regarded as a next-generation imaging modality. EC that makes use of dual-energy fecal-tagging CT colonographic images promises to be effective in reducing cleansing artifacts by means of applying the material decomposition capability of dual-energy CT. The dual-energy index (DEI), which is calculated from the relative change in the attenuation values of a material at two different photon energies, is a reliable and effective indicator for differentiating tagged fecal materials from various types of tissues on fecal-tagging CT colonographic images. A DEI-based dual-energy EC scheme uses the DEI to help differentiate the colonic lumen-including the luminal air, tagged fecal materials, and air-tagging mixture-from the colonic soft-tissue structures, and then segments the entire colonic lumen for cleansing of the tagged fecal materials. As a result, dual-energy EC can help identify partial-volume effects in the air-tagging mixture and inhomogeneous tagging in residual fecal materials, the major causes of EC artifacts. This technique has the potential to significantly improve the quality of EC and promises to provide images of a cleansed colon that are free of the artifacts commonly observed with conventional single-energy EC methods. © RSNA, 2013.

  5. Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Mercado, J; Hazen, T C

    1987-12-01

    Four membrane filter methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms were compared for accuracy, specificity, and recovery. Water samples were taken several times from 13 marine, 1 estuarine, and 4 freshwater sites around Puerto Rico, from pristine waters and waters receiving treated and untreated sewage and effluent from a tuna cannery and a rum distillery. Differences of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in the levels of fecal coliforms were observed in some samples by different recovery techniques. Marine water samples gave poorer results, in terms of specificity, selectivity, and comparability, than freshwater samples for all four fecal coliform methods used. The method using Difco m-FC agar with a resuscitation step gave the best overall results; however, even this method gave higher false-positive error, higher undetected-target error, lower selectivity, and higher recovery of nontarget organisms than the method using MacConkey membrane broth, the worst method for temperate waters. All methods tested were unacceptable for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in tropical fresh and marine waters. Thus, considering the high densities of fecal coliforms observed at most sites in Puerto Rico by all these methods, it would seem that these density estimates are, in many cases, grossly overestimating the degree of recent fecal contamination. Since Escherichia coli appears to be a normal inhabitant of tropical waters, fecal contamination may be indicated when none is present. Using fecal coliforms as an indicator is grossly inadequate for the detection of recent human fecal contamination and associated pathogens in both marine and fresh tropical waters.

  6. Systematic Review of Animal Models Used in Research of Origins and Treatments of Fecal Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Judith; Jones, James F X; O'Connell, P Ronan

    2017-06-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common disorder, but its pathophysiology is not completely understood. The aim of this review is to present animal models that have a place in the study of fecal incontinence. A literature review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines performed in August 2016 revealed 50 articles of interest. Search terms included fecal/faecal incontinence and animal model or specific species. Articles not describing an animal model, in vitro studies, veterinary literature, reviews, and non-English articles were excluded. The articles described models in rats (n = 31), dogs (n = 8), rabbits (n = 7), and pigs (n = 4). Different fecal incontinence etiologies were modeled, including anal sphincter lesions (33 articles) ranging from a single anal sphincter cut to destruction of 50% of the anal sphincter by sharp dissection, electrocautery, or diathermy. Neuropathic fecal incontinence (12 articles) was achieved by complete or incomplete pudendal, pelvic, or inferior rectal nerve damage. Mixed fecal incontinence (5 articles) was modeled either by the inflation of pelvic balloons or an array of several lesions including nervous and muscular damage. Anal fistulas (2 articles), anal sphincter resection (3 articles), and diabetic neuropathy (2 articles) were studied to a lesser extent. Bias may have arisen from the authors' own work on fecal incontinence and the absence of blinding to the origins of articles. Validated animal models representing the main etiologies of fecal incontinence exist, but no animal model to date represents the whole pathophysiology of fecal incontinence. Therefore, the individual research questions still dictate the choice of model and species.

  7. Informatics in Radiology: Dual-Energy Electronic Cleansing for Fecal-Tagging CT Colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, June-Goo; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cleansing (EC) is an emerging technique for the removal of tagged fecal materials at fecal-tagging computed tomographic (CT) colonography. However, existing EC methods may generate various types of artifacts that severely impair the quality of the cleansed CT colonographic images. Dual-energy fecal-tagging CT colonography is regarded as a next-generation imaging modality. EC that makes use of dual-energy fecal-tagging CT colonographic images promises to be effective in reducing cleansing artifacts by means of applying the material decomposition capability of dual-energy CT. The dual-energy index (DEI), which is calculated from the relative change in the attenuation values of a material at two different photon energies, is a reliable and effective indicator for differentiating tagged fecal materials from various types of tissues on fecal-tagging CT colonographic images. A DEI-based dual-energy EC scheme uses the DEI to help differentiate the colonic lumen—including the luminal air, tagged fecal materials, and air-tagging mixture—from the colonic soft-tissue structures, and then segments the entire colonic lumen for cleansing of the tagged fecal materials. As a result, dual-energy EC can help identify partial-volume effects in the air-tagging mixture and inhomogeneous tagging in residual fecal materials, the major causes of EC artifacts. This technique has the potential to significantly improve the quality of EC and promises to provide images of a cleansed colon that are free of the artifacts commonly observed with conventional single-energy EC methods. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:23479680

  8. Particle Pollution Designations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This area provides information on the process EPA, the states, and the tribes follow to designate areas as attainment (meeting) or nonattainment (not meeting) the particle pollution air quality standards.

  9. Landsat and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  10. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  11. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  12. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  13. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  14. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  15. POLLUTION AND HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Pratibha Pathak

    2017-01-01

    Over the last three decades there has been increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed to environmental pollution, in particular, the global burden of disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occur due to prolonged exposure to environmental pollution. Most of these environment-related diseases are however not easily detected and may be acquired during childhood and manifested later in adulthood. Im...

  16. Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Lluch-Cota, Daniel B.; Davis, Kristen A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2004-03-01

    Water temperature and fecal indicator bacteria levels covary along the shoreline of Huntington and Newport Beach, California at interannual to tidal periods. During summer, cooler than average waters caused by interannual variability in sea surface temperature (SST), synoptic upwelling, and tidal-period cooling are coincident with elevated levels of microbial pollution in the surf zone. This relationship can be explained by the effects of weakening in stratification on the fate of a waste water plume and the prolonged persistence of fecal indicator bacteria in colder waters. During winter, warmer than average water caused by basin scale oscillations and atmospheric and oceanographic processes that contribute to the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index are indicative of elevated total coliform levels in the surf zone. The elevated coliform levels can be ascribed to increased rainfall, and the resultant storm water inflow to the surf zone.

  17. Heavy metal and associated antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The pollution of the environment with toxic heavy metals is increasing globally with industrial progress. Microorganisms can be good bio-accumulators of particulate and soluble forms of heavy metals and subsequently resist antibiotics. The present study aimed at assessing the resistance pattern to multiple heavy ...

  18. Pediatric fecal microbiota harbor diverse and novel antibiotic resistance genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée M Moore

    Full Text Available Emerging antibiotic resistance threatens human health. Gut microbes are an epidemiologically important reservoir of resistance genes (resistome, yet prior studies indicate that the true diversity of gut-associated resistomes has been underestimated. To deeply characterize the pediatric gut-associated resistome, we created metagenomic recombinant libraries in an Escherichia coli host using fecal DNA from 22 healthy infants and children (most without recent antibiotic exposure, and performed functional selections for resistance to 18 antibiotics from eight drug classes. Resistance-conferring DNA fragments were sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000, and reads assembled and annotated with the PARFuMS computational pipeline. Resistance to 14 of the 18 antibiotics was found in stools of infants and children. Recovered genes included chloramphenicol acetyltransferases, drug-resistant dihydrofolate reductases, rRNA methyltransferases, transcriptional regulators, multidrug efflux pumps, and every major class of beta-lactamase, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme, and tetracycline resistance protein. Many resistance-conferring sequences were mobilizable; some had low identity to any known organism, emphasizing cryptic organisms as potentially important resistance reservoirs. We functionally confirmed three novel resistance genes, including a 16S rRNA methylase conferring aminoglycoside resistance, and two tetracycline-resistance proteins nearly identical to a bifidobacterial MFS transporter (B. longum s. longum JDM301. We provide the first report to our knowledge of resistance to folate-synthesis inhibitors conferred by a predicted Nudix hydrolase (part of the folate synthesis pathway. This functional metagenomic survey of gut-associated resistomes, the largest of its kind to date, demonstrates that fecal resistomes of healthy children are far more diverse than previously suspected, that clinically relevant resistance genes are present even without recent selective

  19. Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using fecal microbiota transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rahul Pathak,1 Hill Ambrose Enuh,1 Anish Patel,1 Prasanna Wickremesinghe21Department of Internal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USABackground: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has become a global concern over the last decade. In the United States, CDI escalated in incidence from 1996 to 2005 from 31 to 64/100,000. In 2010, there were 500,000 cases of CDI with an estimated mortality up to 20,000 cases a year. The significance of this problem is evident from the hospital costs of over 3 billion dollars annually. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT was first described in 1958 and since then about 500 cases have been published in literature in various small series and case reports. This procedure has been reported mainly from centers outside of the United States and acceptance of the practice has been difficult. Recently the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA labeled FMT as a biological drug; as a result, guidelines will soon be required to help establish it as a mainstream treatment. More US experience needs to be reported to popularize this procedure here and form guidelines.Method: We did a retrospective review of our series of patients with relapsing CDI who were treated with FMT over a 3-year period. We present our experience with FMT at a community hospital as a retrospective review and describe our procedure.Results: There were a total of 12 patients who underwent FMT for relapsing C. difficile. Only one patient failed to respond and required a second FMT. There were no complications associated with the transplant and all patients had resolution of symptoms within 48 hours of FMT.Conclusion: FMT is a cheap, easily available, effective therapy for recurrent CDI; it can be safely performed in a

  20. The Influence of Household- and Community-Level Sanitation and Fecal Sludge Management on Urban Fecal Contamination in Households and Drains and Enteric Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David; Kirby, Amy; Clennon, Julie A; Raj, Suraja; Yakubu, Habib; Leon, Juan; Robb, Katharine; Kartikeyan, Arun; Hemavathy, Priya; Gunasekaran, Annai; Ghale, Ben; Kumar, J Senthil; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Moe, Christine

    2017-06-01

    AbstractUrban sanitation necessitates management of fecal sludge inside and outside the household. This study examined associations between household sanitation, fecal contamination, and enteric infection in two low-income neighborhoods in Vellore, India. Surveys and spatial analysis assessed the presence and clustering of toilets and fecal sludge management (FSM) practices in 200 households. Fecal contamination was measured in environmental samples from 50 households and household drains. Enteric infection was assessed from stool specimens from children under 5 years of age in these households. The two neighborhoods differed significantly in toilet coverage (78% versus 33%) and spatial clustering. Overall, 49% of toilets discharged directly into open drains ("poor FSM"). Children in households with poor FSM had 3.78 times higher prevalence of enteric infection when compared with children in other households, even those without toilets. In the neighborhood with high coverage of household toilets, children in households with poor FSM had 10 times higher prevalence of enteric infection than other children in the neighborhood and drains in poor FSM clusters who had significantly higher concentrations of genogroup II norovirus. Conversely, children in households with a toilet that contained excreta in a tank onsite had 55% lower prevalence of enteric infection compared with the rest of the study area. Notably, households with a toilet in the neighborhood with low toilet coverage had more fecal contamination on floors where children played compared with those without a toilet. Overall, both toilet coverage levels and FSM were associated with environmental fecal contamination and, subsequently, enteric infection prevalence in this urban setting.

  1. In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides and partially methyl-esterified/acetylated

  2. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated

  3. Durable coexistence of donor and recipient strains after fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Simone S.; Zhu, Ana; Benes, Vladimir; Costea, Paul I.; Hercog, Rajna; Hildebrand, Falk; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Nieuwdorp, Max; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Voigt, Anita Y.; Zeller, Georg; Sunagawa, Shinichi; de Vos, Willem M.; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is increasingly being applied to other gastrointestinal disorders, yet the fate of native and introduced microbial strains remains largely unknown. To quantify the extent of donor

  4. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota composition in healthy adults have not been well established. We aimed to provide a systematic review of the potential evidence for an effect of probiotic supplementation on the composition of human fecal microbiota...... in composition of overall fecal microbiota structure assessed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, or phylogenetic microarray methods were included. Independent collection and quality assessment of studies were performed by two authors using predefined criteria including....... The quality of the studies was assessed as medium to high. Still, no effects were observed on the fecal microbiota composition in terms of α-diversity, richness, or evenness in any of the included studies when compared to placebo. Only one study found that probiotic supplementation significantly modified...

  5. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  6. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for Clostridium difficile infection: focus on immunocompromised patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Di Bella, Stefano; Gouliouris, Theodore; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    .... Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has proven to be an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of recurrent or refractory CDI in immunocompetent patients by restoring the gut microbiota and resistance to further recurrences...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Philip A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, DeAnna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; TenCate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De’andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  8. Interactions of Insolation and Shading on Ability to Use Fluorescence Imaging to Detect Fecal Contaminated Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Lefcourt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fecal contamination of produce in fields is a recognized food safety risk, and it is a requirement that fields be surveyed for evidence of fecal contamination. It may be possible to increase the efficacy of such surveys using imaging techniques that rely on detection of fluorescence responses of fecal material to UV excitation. However, fluorescence responses are easily masked by ambient illumination. This study investigated the potential of using a shroud to reduce the impact of ambient illumination on responses measured using relatively inexpensive optical components. During periods of near peak insolation, even with full shrouding, results indicate that reliable detection would be problematic. Towards dusk, effective imaging could be accomplished even with a gap of 250 cm at the bottom of the shroud. Results suggest that imaging using relatively inexpensive components could provide the basis for detection of fecal contamination in produce fields if surveys were conducted during dawn or dusk, or at night.

  9. Fecal transplant: A safe and sustainable clinical therapy for restoring intestinal microbial balance in human disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, A.; de Groot, P. F.; Kootte, R. S.; Knaapen, M.; van Nood, E.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested an association between intestinal microbiota composition and human disease, however causality remains to be proven. With hindsight, the application of fecal transplantation (FMT) does indeed suggest a causal relation between interfering with gut microbiota composition

  10. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (pwater quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The dual influences of age and obstetric history on fecal continence in parous women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether women who underwent forceps delivery were more likely than those who delivered either normally (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD]) or by cesarean to experience deterioration in fecal continence as they aged.

  12. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Helminths of some laboratory animals detected by necropsy and fecal examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed in order to determine helminths of laboratory animals. Fecal specimens obtained from 110 mice, 263 rats and 65 rabbits were investigated and 37 rats and 7 rabbits were necropsied. In general, 83.8% rats were found to be infected by necropsy, while 100% of mice,and 81.8% of rats were found to be infected with one or more helminths species by fecal examination. No rabbits were found to be infected by necropsy or fecal examination. In fecal examination of mice and rats, the prevalence of helminths was detected as follows: Syphacia muris, 100%; Aspicularis tetraptera, 53.6%; Syphacia obvelata, 46.4%; and Hymenolepis diminuta 17.9% in mice. The prevalence in rats was H. Diminuta, 62.5%; S. muris, 25%; Hymenolepis nana, 6.8%; and Trichosomoides crassicauda, 6.8%. In necropsy, S. muris was identified in all of infected rats, but only one was infected with A. tetraptera.

  14. Physicians Must Discuss Potential Long-Term Risks of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation to Ensure Informed Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunnik (Eline); N. Aarts (Nikkie); L.A. Chen (Lea Ann)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for patients with multiply recurrent Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections despite standard medical treatment is considered both effective, with approximately 90% cured (Aroniadis et al. 2016), and acceptable regarding short-term

  15. Effects of dietary cooked navy bean on the fecal microbiome of healthy companion dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Katherine R; Forster, Genevieve; Dowd, Scot E; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-01-01

    .... Fecal samples from healthy dogs prior to dietary control and after 4 wk of dietary treatment with macro- and micronutrient matched diets containing either 0 or 25% cooked navy beans (n = 11 and n = 10, respectively...

  16. Fecal Microbiota Transplant from Highly Feed-Efficient Donors Shows Little Effect on Age-Related Changes in Feed-Efficiency-Associated Fecal Microbiota from Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegerstetter, Sina-Catherine; Petri, Renée M; Magowan, Elizabeth; Lawlor, Peadar G; Zebeli, Qendrim; O'Connell, Niamh E; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U

    2018-01-15

    Chickens with good or poor feed efficiency (FE) have been shown to differ in their intestinal microbiota composition. This study investigated differences in the fecal bacterial community of highly and poorly feed-efficient chickens at 16 and 29 days posthatch (dph) and evaluated whether a fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from feed-efficient donors early in life can affect the fecal microbiota in chickens at 16 and 29 dph and chicken FE and nutrient retention at 4 weeks of age. A total of 110 chickens were inoculated with a FMT or a control transplant (CT) on dph 1, 6, and 9 and ranked according to residual feed intake (RFI; the metric for FE) on 30 dph. Fifty-six chickens across both inoculation groups were selected as the extremes in RFI (29 low, 27 high). RFI-related fecal bacterial profiles were discernible at 16 and 29 dph. In particular, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus crispatus, and Anaerobacterium operational taxonomic units were associated with low RFI (good FE). Multiple administrations of the FMT only slightly changed the fecal bacterial composition, which was supported by weighted UniFrac analysis, showing similar bacterial communities in the feces of both inoculation groups at 16 and 29 dph. Moreover, the FMT did not change the RFI and nutrient retention of highly and poorly feed-efficient recipients, whereas it tended to increase feed intake and body weight gain in female chickens. This finding suggests that host- and environment-related factors may more strongly affect chicken fecal microbiota and FE than the FMT.IMPORTANCE Modulating the chicken's early microbial colonization using a FMT from highly feed-efficient donor chickens may be a promising tool to establish a more desirable bacterial profile in recipient chickens, thereby improving host FE. Although FE-associated fecal bacterial profiles at 16 and 29 dph could be established, the microbiota composition of a FMT, when administered early in life, may not be a strong factor modulating

  17. Microbiota transplantation restores normal fecal bile acid composition in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Alexa R; Chen, Chi; Bobr, Aleh; Yao, Dan; Lu, Yuwei; Nelson, Valerie M; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander

    2014-02-15

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapy for refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which develops following antibiotic treatments. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the metabolism of bile acids in the colon, which in turn have major effects on the lifecycle of C. difficile bacteria. We hypothesized that fecal bile acid composition is altered in patients with recurrent CDI and that FMT results in its normalization. General metabolomics and targeted bile acid analyses were performed on fecal extracts from patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT and their donors. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to determine the bacterial composition of pre- and post-FMT fecal samples. Taxonomic bacterial composition of fecal samples from FMT recipients showed rapid change and became similar to the donor after the procedure. Pre-FMT fecal samples contained high concentrations of primary bile acids and bile salts, while secondary bile acids were nearly undetectable. In contrast, post-FMT fecal samples contained mostly secondary bile acids, as did non-CDI donor samples. Therefore, our analysis showed that FMT resulted in normalization of fecal bacterial community structure and metabolic composition. Importantly, metabolism of bile salts and primary bile acids to secondary bile acids is disrupted in patients with recurrent CDI, and FMT corrects this abnormality. Since individual bile salts and bile acids have pro-germinant and inhibitory activities, the changes suggest that correction of bile acid metabolism is likely a major mechanism by which FMT results in a cure and prevents recurrence of CDI.

  18. Impact of Different Fecal Processing Methods on Assessments of Bacterial Diversity in the Human Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hsin Hsieh; Peterson, Courtney M.; Anne Raggio; Michael Keenan; Martin, Roy J.; Eric Ravussin; Maria Louise Marco

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota are integral to understanding the relationships between nutrition and health. Therefore, fecal sampling and processing protocols for metagenomic surveys should be sufficiently robust, accurate, and reliable to identify the microorganisms present. We investigated the use of different fecal preparation methods on the bacterial community structures identified in human stools. Complete stools were collected from six healthy individuals and processed according to the foll...

  19. Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations.

  20. The effect of sampling and storage on the fecal microbiota composition in healthy and diseased subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyta I Tedjo

    Full Text Available Large-scale cohort studies are currently being designed to investigate the human microbiome in health and disease. Adequate sampling strategies are required to limit bias due to shifts in microbial communities during sampling and storage. Therefore, we examined the impact of different sampling and storage conditions on the stability of fecal microbial communities in healthy and diseased subjects. Fecal samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 irritable bowel syndrome and 8 inflammatory bowel disease patients were collected on site, aliquoted immediately after defecation and stored at -80 °C, -20 °C for 1 week, at +4°C or room temperature for 24 hours. Fecal transport swabs (FecalSwab, Copan were collected and stored for 48-72 hours at room temperature. We used pyrosequencing of the 16S gene to investigate the stability of microbial communities. Alpha diversity did not differ between all storage methods and -80 °C, except for the fecal swabs. UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis showed significant clustering by test subject (p < 0.001 but not by storage method. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and (unweighted UniFrac showed a significant higher distance between fecal swabs and -80 °C versus the other methods and -80 °C samples (p < 0.009. The relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Enterobacteriaceae did not differ between the storage methods versus -80 °C, but was higher in fecal swabs (p < 0.05. Storage up to 24 hours (at +4 °C or room temperature or freezing at -20 °C did not significantly alter the fecal microbial community structure compared to direct freezing of samples from healthy subjects and patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  1. Increasing Efficiency of Fecal Coliform Testing Through EPA-Approved Alternate Method Colilert*-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The 21 SM 9221 E multiple-tube fermentation method for fecal coliform analysis requires a large time and reagent investment for the performing laboratory. In late 2010, the EPA approved an alternative procedure for the determination of fecal coliforms designated as Colilert*-18. However, as of late 2016, only two VELAP-certified laboratories in the Commonwealth of Virginia have been certified in this method.

  2. Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration in tropical waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago-Mercado, J; Hazen, T C

    1987-01-01

    Four membrane filter methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms were compared for accuracy, specificity, and recovery. Water samples were taken several times from 13 marine, 1 estuarine, and 4 freshwater sites around Puerto Rico, from pristine waters and waters receiving treated and untreated sewage and effluent from a tuna cannery and a rum distillery. Differences of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in the levels of fecal coliforms were observed in some samples by different recovery techniques...

  3. A Nation-Wide Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Fecal Impaction in Nursing Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Rey; Marta Barcelo; Maria Jose Jiménez Cebrián; Angel Alvarez-Sanchez; Manuel Diaz-Rubio; Alberto Lopez Rocha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. DESIGN: Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: natio...

  4. Fecal microbiota transplantation broadening its application beyond intestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng-Que; Cao, Hai-Long; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiao-Cang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2015-01-07

    Intestinal dysbiosis is now known to be a complication in a myriad of diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on FMT in metabolic syndrome by infusing microbiota from lean donors or from self-collected feces, with the resultant findings showing that the lean donor feces group displayed increased insulin sensitivity, along with increased levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota. Case reports of FMT have also shown favorable outcomes in Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, myoclonus dystonia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. FMT is a promising approach in the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota and has potential applications in a variety of extra-intestinal conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis.

  5. Sensitivity of fecal occult blood testing in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinsky, Adam J; Guillaumin, Julien; Gilor, Chen

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The impact of dietary factors on fecal occult blood (FOB) testing has been previously evaluated in cats, but the analytical sensitivity of this point-of-care test remains unexamined. The primary goal of this study was to assess the analytical sensitivity of the FOB test in cats. Methods Five cats were used in a repeated measures study. Following oral administration of blood, feces were collected and tested every 12 h for FOB and melena. All cats were fed an animal protein-free diet starting the week before entry into the study. Blood was administered on a milligram of hemoglobin per kilogram of body weight basis, and dosed at 1.5, 3, 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin in series with a wash-out period between each trial. Results FOB was detected in one cat at 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin, three cats at 3 mg/kg hemoglobin and in all five cats at 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin. Melena was noted in one cat at 30 mg/kg and four cats at 45 mg/kg, but not at lower doses. Conclusions and relevance Administration of 15 mg/kg hemoglobin (equivalent to about 1.5 ml blood) was sufficient for positive results in all cats. However, detection occurred with as little as 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin. Thus, FOB has good analytical sensitivity in cats under appropriate clinical situations.

  6. Fecal transplantation: passing fashion or here to stay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone L. Pitt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several trillions of bacteria, distributed among more than 1,000 species, are natural inhabitants of the human intestinal tract and constitute what is now known as the gut microbiota. Although its composition varies within and between individuals with age, diet, and health status, it is becoming increasingly recognized that imbalances in the bacterial microbiota (dysbiosis are linked to a number of conditions such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity, among others. Fecal transplantation where a preparation of stool from a microbiologically screened- donor is administered into the colon of an affected recipient has been shown to be highly effective for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Several trials of this therapy are now underway for gut dysbiosis in a number of patient disease groups raising concerns on the risk of transmission of infectious agents from donor to recipient, possible long-term adverse consequences of treatment, and effective regulation of the stool material used for the procedure. A worrying aspect is the emergence of private stool banks providing samples to the general public for self-administration.

  7. Weight Changes in Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussam, Dina; Drees, Marci; Myerson, Scott; Duffalo, Chad; Mosby, Danielle; Herdman, Christine; Depalma, Fedele; Mcgraw, Patty; Bacon, Alfred E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for relapsing Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) allows for rapid repopulation of the colonic microbiome and may prevent future relapses. FMT is considered safe, however subsequent impact on weight and metabolism are incompletely understood. Animal studies have shown that alterations in microbiota lead to changes in weight; this is also suggested in humans, based on limited anecdotal evidence. This study explores changes in weight associated with FMT. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent FMT at our 1100-bed community-based academic healthcare system. FMT protocol requires 2 documented CDI relapses and failed vancomycin taper. FMT methods include colonoscopy, EGD and oral capsules. Of note, donor stool (OpenBiome, Boston, Massachusetts) criteria include BMI 5% gain 11 (65) >10% gain 6 (35) >5% loss 6 (50) >10% loss 2 (17) Average % of body weight change (among those with changes) - Gain 7.7 Loss 5.5 Conclusion In this limited population, it appears FMT may predispose to weight gain, which may reflect improved health with CDI cure. However, effects of FMT on patient’s microbiomes must also be considered. As this intervention becomes more widely used we must be increasingly aware of possible metabolic side effects and ensure documentation of weight changes as part of FMT protocols. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

  8. Atmospheric pollution and atopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, D. [Hopital Nord, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-04-01

    One possible explanation to account for the current increase in prevalence of respiratory allergic diseases lies in the facilitating influence of air pollutants. Pollen grains collected in polluted areas could enclose a higher allergenic content. In vitro exposure of pollen grains to current levels of air pollutants can induce a change in protein and allergenic content. Animal experiments demonstrate that pre-exposure to high levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and diesel-exhaust particulates enhances specific responses to inhaled or intra-peritoneally administered pollutants. In humans, few studies have been performed. They also suggest an increased response to allergenic challenge after pre-exposure to a moderate concentration of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and Ozone. Epidemiological surveys comparing prevalence of atopy in urban vs settings usually demonstrate a higher prevalence in the former. However no survey can attribute this difference to urban pollutants. It is rather due the overall difference in daily living conditions. Comparative studies performed in groups of school children living in former East and West Germany show a two-fold higher prevalence of atopy and atopic diseases such as hay fever and asthma in former West Germany. It is hypothesized that the western way of life, including a lower rate of recurrent early childhood infections and a higher allergenic exposure could explain those differences. (author). 44 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. A metagenomic assessment of viral contamination on fresh parsley plants irrigated with fecally tainted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cassi, X; Timoneda, N; Gonzales-Gustavson, E; Abril, J F; Bofill-Mas, S; Girones, R

    2017-09-18

    Microbial food-borne diseases are still frequently reported despite the implementation of microbial quality legislation to improve food safety. Among all the microbial agents, viruses are the most important causative agents of food-borne outbreaks. The development and application of a new generation of sequencing techniques to test for viral contaminants in fresh produce is an unexplored field that allows for the study of the viral populations that might be transmitted by the fecal-oral route through the consumption of contaminated food. To advance this promising field, parsley was planted and grown under controlled conditions and irrigated using contaminated river water. Viruses polluting the irrigation water and the parsley leaves were studied by using metagenomics. To address possible contamination due to sample manipulation, library preparation, and other sources, parsley plants irrigated with nutritive solution were used as a negative control. In parallel, viruses present in the river water used for plant irrigation were analyzed using the same methodology. It was possible to assign viral taxons from 2.4 to 74.88% of the total reads sequenced depending on the sample. Most of the viral reads detected in the river water were related to the plant viral families Tymoviridae (66.13%) and Virgaviridae (14.45%) and the phage viral families Myoviridae (5.70%), Siphoviridae (5.06%), and Microviridae (2.89%). Less than 1% of the viral reads were related to viral families that infect humans, including members of the Adenoviridae, Reoviridae, Picornaviridae and Astroviridae families. On the surface of the parsley plants, most of the viral reads that were detected were assigned to the Dicistroviridae family (41.52%). Sequences related to important viral pathogens, such as the hepatitis E virus, several picornaviruses from species A and B as well as human sapoviruses and GIV noroviruses were detected. The high diversity of viral sequences found in the parsley plants

  10. Standard compared with mnemonic counseling for fecal incontinence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowski, Sara B; Dunivan, Gena C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Murrietta, Ambroshia M; Komesu, Yuko M

    2015-05-01

    To estimate whether women who underwent mnemonic counseling had better recall of fecal incontinence therapies at 2 months and if mnemonic counseling resulted in greater satisfaction with physician counseling and improvement in quality of life when compared with a group who underwent standard counseling. Counseling-naive women with fecal incontinence were recruited from an academic urogynecology clinic. Women underwent physical examinations, completed the Quality of the Physician-Patient Interaction, recorded fecal incontinence treatment options they recalled, and completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Manchester Health Questionnaire immediately after counseling and again at 2 months. Ninety women consented to participate, were randomized, and completed baseline questionnaires. At baseline, women did not differ in age, ethnicity, education, Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, or Manchester Health Questionnaire scores. After counseling, the mnemonic group reported higher satisfaction on Quality of the Physician-Patient Interaction (66.4±6.5 compared with 62.2±10.7, P=.03). Ninety percent (81/90) of women followed up at 2 months. Our primary endpoint, 2-month recall of fecal incontinence treatments, was not different between groups (2.3±1.6 mnemonic counseling compared with 1.8±1.0 standard counseling; P=.08). Secondary endpoints for the mnemonic group reported greater improvement on total Manchester Health Questionnaire (P=.02), emotional (P=.03), sleep (0.045), role limitations (Pmnemonic aid did not improve recall at 2 months but improved patient satisfaction and quality of life at 2 months.

  11. Evaluation of DNA extraction kits for molecular diagnosis of human Blastocystis subtypes from fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Dogruman-Al, Funda; Dogruman-Ai, Funda; Turk, Songul; Kustimur, Semra; Balaban, Neriman; Sultan, Nedim

    2011-10-01

    Blastocystis sp. is now recognized as one of the most common intestinal parasite in human fecal examinations. Recently, PCR-based diagnostic methods of Blastocystis infection using direct DNA extraction from fresh fecal samples with commercially available kits are reported. Several kits have been developed, but little has been done in comparing the detective sensitivity between PCR methods using the commercial kits. In this study, we compared the detective sensitivity among five commercially available kits (MagNA Pure LC DNA Isolation Kit I, Roche; QuickGene SP Kit DNA, FujiFilm; NucleoSpin Plant II, Macherey-Nagel; QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, Qiagen; ZR Fecal DNA Kit, Zymo Research) and fecal culture method. In a preliminary test, the DNA isolated with two kits (FujiFilm and Macherey-Nagel) showed negative PCR, while the other three kits showed positive PCR. Then, DNA from 50 clinical samples that was Blastocystis-positive in the examination of fecal culture method were isolated with the three kits and 1.1 kbp SSU rRNA gene was detected with PCR. The positive rates of the three kits (Roche, Qiagen, and Zymo Research) were 10, 48 and 94%, respectively. The present study indicated that there is different detective sensitivity among the commercial kits, and fecal culture method is superior in detection rate and cost performance than DNA-elution kits for diagnosis of Blastocystis sp. subtypes.

  12. Virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli canine isolates from pyometra, cystitis and fecal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Luisa; Henriques, Sofia; Merino, Carolina; Pomba, Constança; Lopes da Costa, Luís; Silva, Elisabete

    2013-10-25

    Pyometra is the most common diestrual uterine disease of bitches. Escherichia coli is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the uterine content of pyometra uteri and it is associated with the most severe clinical signs, leading to endotoxemia and sepsis. In this study, canine E. coli isolates from pyometra (n=31), cystitis (n=23) and fecal (n=26) origin were compared regarding the prevalence of 23 potential virulence traits (15 virulence factor (VF) genes and 8 pathogenicity associated islands-PAIs), detected by PCR assays. Overall, there was a considerable overlap between pyometra, cystitis and fecal isolates regarding the phylogenetic grouping and virulence traits. Virulence traits more prevalent in pyometra than in cystitis and fecal isolates included two PAIs (PAI IV536 and PAI ICFT073) and three VF genes (sfa/focDE, fyuA and chuA). Regardless the isolates' origin, the average number of virulence traits per strain was higher in B2 than in the other phylogenetic groups (A, B1 and D). The prevalence of phylogenetic group B2 was significantly higher in pyometra (94%) than in cystitis (48%) and fecal (39%) isolates. In conclusion, pyometra isolates have a high potential of virulence and a broad virulence genotype, although being similar to a subset of cystitis and fecal isolates. This leads to the suggestion that cystitis and fecal isolates may be able to induce pyometra in receptive hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fecal calprotectin as a biomarker of inflammatory lesions of the small bowel seen by videocapsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Egea-Valenzuela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The levels of calprotectin in the stools are proportional to neutrophil activity in the enteric lumen, so fecal calprotectin is a useful intestinal inflammatory biomarker. It is an extended tool as predictor of colonic pathology but there is scare evidence about its utility in the small bowel. Objective: To test the yield of fecal calprotectin to detect lesions in the small bowel. Material and methods: We have retrospectively included 71 patients sent for small bowel capsule endoscopy in study for suspected inflammatory bowel disease. All of them had a determination of fecal calprotectin and had been sent to colonoscopy with no findings. Patients have been divided in groups: A, fecal calprotectin 100 µg/g, and we have analyzed which of them presented inflammatory lesions in capsule endoscopy studies. Results: The rate of patients with signi ficative lesions was 1 out of 10 (10% in group A, 6 out of 24 (25% in group B, and 21 out of 34 (62% in group C. If we consider levels over 50 µg/g pathologic, fecal calprotectin presents sensitivity: 96%, specificity: 23%, NPV: 90% and PPV: 56%. If we consider levels over 100 µg/g pathologic these values are sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 67%, NPV: 79% and PPV: 62%. Conclusions: Fecal calprotectin has high sensitivity but not so good specificity for predicting small bowel lesions after a normal colonoscopy. In daily practice it will be more useful to establish in 100 µg/g the limit to indicate capsule endoscopy studies.

  14. Temporary Fecal Diversion in the Management of Colorectal and Perianal Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mennigen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the results of temporary fecal diversion in colorectal and perianal Crohn’s disease. Method. We retrospectively identified 29 consecutive patients (14 females, 15 males; median age: 30.0 years, range: 18–76 undergoing temporary fecal diversion for colorectal (n=14, ileal (n=4, and/or perianal Crohn’s disease (n=22. Follow-up was in median 33.0 (3–103 months. Response to fecal diversion, rate of stoma reversal, and relapse rate after stoma reversal were recorded. Results. The response to temporary fecal diversion was complete remission in 4/29 (13.8%, partial remission in 12/29 (41.4%, no change in 7/29 (24.1%, and progress in 6/29 (20.7%. Stoma reversal was performed in 19 out of 25 patients (76% available for follow-up. Of these, the majority (15/19, 78.9% needed further surgical therapies for a relapse of the same pathology previously leading to temporary fecal diversion, including colorectal resections (10/19, 52.6% and creation of a definitive stoma (7/19, 36.8%. At the end of follow-up, only 4/25 patients (16% had a stable course without the need for further definitive surgery. Conclusion. Temporary fecal diversion can induce remission in otherwise refractory colorectal or perianal Crohn’s disease, but the chance of enduring remission after stoma reversal is low.

  15. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  16. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  17. Marine pollution: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  18. Biocompatibility effects of indirect exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to a human-derived three-dimensional oral mucosal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Emma Louise; Moran, Gary P; Fleming, Garry J P

    2013-11-01

    The study employed a three-dimensional (3D) human-derived oral mucosal model to assess the biocompatibility of base-metal dental casting alloys ubiquitous in fixed prosthodontic and orthodontic dentistry. Oral mucosal models were generated using primary human oral keratinocyte and gingival fibroblast cells seeded onto human de-epidermidised dermal scaffolds. Nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) base-metal alloy immersion solutions were exposed to oral mucosal models for increasing time periods (2-72h). Analysis methodologies (histology, viable cell counts, oxidative stress, cytokine expression and toxicity) were performed following exposure. Ni-based alloy immersion solutions elicited significantly decreased cell viability (P0.4755) or cellular toxicity (Pcasting alloys through discriminatory experimental parameters. Increasing incidences of Ni hypersensitivity in the general population warrants serious consideration from dental practitioners and patients alike where fixed prosthodontic/orthodontic dental treatments are the treatment modality involved. The novel and analytical oral mucosal model has the potential to significantly contribute to the advancement of reproducible dental medical device and dental material appraisals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of implantation site and injury condition on host response to human-derived fascia lata ECM in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Diane R; Baker, Andrew R; Mesiha, Mena; Rodriguez, E Rene; Tan, Carmela D; Walker, Esteban; Derwin, Kathleen A

    2012-03-01

    The host response and remodeling of ECM scaffolds are believed to be critical determinants of success or failure in repair or reconstructive procedures. Host response has been investigated in subcutaneous or abdominal wall implantation models. The extent to which evaluation of the host response to ECM intended for tendon or ligament repair should be performed in an orthotopic site is not known. This study compared the host response to human-derived fascia lata ECM among various implantation sites in the rat model. Results showed that a xenograft in the rat shoulder does not exhibit a different host response at 7 days from xenograft in the body wall, suggesting that either site may be appropriate to study the early host response to biologic grafts as well as the effect of various treatments aimed to modify the early host response. By 28 days, a xenograft in the rat shoulder does elicit a unique host response from that seen in the body wall. Therefore, it may be more appropriate to use an orthotopic shoulder model for investigating the long-term host response and remodeling of biologic grafts to be used for rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. An Analysis of Microbial Pollution in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2005-09-21

    This assessment of fecal coliform sources and pathways in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets is part of the Project ENVironmental InVESTment (ENVVEST) being conducted by the Navy's Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, the Suquamish Tribe, Kitsap County, the City of Bremerton, the City of Port Orchard, and other local stakeholders. The goal of this study was to identify microbial pollution problems within the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and to provide a comprehensive assessment of fecal coliform (FC) contamination from all identifiable sources in the watershed. This study quantifies levels of contamination and estimated loadings from known sources within the watersheds and describes pollutant transport mechanisms found in the study area. In addition, the effectiveness of pollution prevention and mitigation measures currently in place within the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed are discussed. This comprehensive study relies on historical data collected by several cooperating agencies, in addition to data collected during the study period from spring 2001 through summer 2005. This report is intended to provide the technical information needed to continue current water quality cleanup efforts and to help implement future efforts.

  1. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  2. Analysis of human mitochondrial DNA sequences from fecally polluted environmental waters as a tool to study population diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondrial signature sequences have frequently been used to study the demographics of many different populations around the world. Traditionally, this requires obtaining samples directly from individuals which is cumbersome, time consuming and limited to the number of individu...

  3. Economic total maximum daily load for watershed-based pollutant trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A Z; deMonsabert, S M

    2015-04-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the framework of its total maximum daily load (TMDL) program. An innovative approach is presented in this paper that proposes post-TMDL trade by calculating pollutant rights for each pollutant source within a watershed. Several water quality trading programs are currently operating in the USA with an objective to achieve overall pollutant reduction impacts that are equivalent or better than TMDL scenarios. These programs use trading ratios for establishing water quality equivalence among pollutant reductions. The inbuilt uncertainty in modeling the effects of pollutants in a watershed from both the point and nonpoint sources on receiving waterbodies makes WQT very difficult. A higher trading ratio carries with it increased mitigation costs, but cannot ensure the attainment of the required water quality with certainty. The selection of an applicable trading ratio, therefore, is not a simple process. The proposed approach uses an Economic TMDL optimization model that determines an economic pollutant reduction scenario that can be compared with actual TMDL allocations to calculate selling/purchasing rights for each contributing source. The methodology is presented using the established TMDLs for the bacteria (fecal coliform) impaired Muddy Creek subwatershed WAR1 in Rockingham County, Virginia, USA. Case study results show that an environmentally and economically superior trading scenario can be realized by using Economic TMDL model or any similar model that considers the cost of TMDL allocations.

  4. Long-term durability of sacral nerve stimulation therapy for chronic fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Tracy; Giese, Chad; Wexner, Steven D; Mellgren, Anders; Devroede, Ghislain; Madoff, Robert D; Stromberg, Katherine; Coller, John A

    2013-02-01

    Limited data have been published regarding the long-term results of sacral nerve stimulation, or sacral neuromodulation, for severe fecal incontinence. The aim was to assess the outcome of sacral nerve stimulation with the use of precise tools and data collection, focusing on the long-term durability of the therapy. Five-year data were analyzed. Patients entered in a multicenter, prospective study for fecal incontinence were followed at 3, 6, and 12 months and annually after device implantation. Patients with chronic fecal incontinence in whom conservative treatments had failed or who were not candidates for more conservative treatments were selected. Patients with ≥ 50% improvement over baseline in fecal incontinence episodes per week during a 14-day test stimulation period received sacral nerve stimulation therapy. Patients were assessed with a 14-day bowel diary and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaires. Therapeutic success was defined as ≥ 50% improvement over baseline in fecal incontinence episodes per week. All adverse events were collected. A total of 120 patients (110 women; mean age, 60.5 years) underwent implantation. Seventy-six of these patients (63%) were followed a minimum of 5 years (maximum, longer than 8 years) and are the basis for this report. Fecal incontinence episodes per week decreased from a mean of 9.1 at baseline to 1.7 at 5 years, with 89% (n = 64/72) having ≥ 50% improvement (p < 0.0001) and 36% (n = 26/72) having complete continence. Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scores also significantly improved for all 4 scales between baseline and 5 years (n = 70; p < 0.0001). Twenty-seven of the 76 (35.5%) patients required a device revision, replacement, or explant. The therapeutic effect and improved quality of life for fecal incontinence is maintained 5 years after sacral nerve stimulation implantation and beyond. Device revision, replacement, or explant rate was acceptable, but future

  5. Environmental monitoring of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance patterns of the fecal coliforms isolated from Cauvery River, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Mahajanakatti, Arpitha Badarinath; Grandhi, Nisha Jayaprakash; Prasanna, Akshatha; Sen, Ballari; Sharma, Narasimha; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses prudent elucidation of microbial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of the fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India. Water samples were collected from ten hotspots during the year 2011-2012. The physiochemical characteristics and microbial count of water samples collected from most of the hotspots exhibited greater biological oxygen demand and bacterial count especially coliforms in comparison with control samples (p ≤ 0.01). The antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed using 48 antibiotics against the bacterial isolates by disk-diffusion assay. The current study showed that out of 848 bacterial isolates, 93.51% (n = 793) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to most of the current generation antibiotics. Among the major isolates, 96.46% (n = 273) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to 30 antibiotics and they were identified to be Escherichia coli by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Similarly, 93.85% (n = 107), 94.49% (n = 103), and 90.22% (n = 157) of the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance to 32, 40, and 37 antibiotics, and they were identified to be Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas trivialis, and Shigella sonnei, respectively. The molecular studies suggested the prevalence of bla TEM genes in all the four isolates and dhfr gene in Escherichia coli and Sh. sonnei. Analogously, most of the other Gram-negative bacteria were found to be multidrug-resistant and the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the water samples were found to be methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first study elucidating the bacterial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, Karnataka, India.

  6. Experimental chronic noise is related to elevated fecal corticosteroid metabolites in lekking male greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickley, Jessica L; Word, Karen R; Krakauer, Alan H; Phillips, Jennifer L; Sells, Sarah N; Taff, Conor C; Wingfield, John C; Patricelli, Gail L

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that individuals in many species avoid areas exposed to chronic anthropogenic noise, but the impact of noise on those who remain in these habitats is unclear. One potential impact is chronic physiological stress, which can affect disease resistance, survival and reproductive success. Previous studies have found evidence of elevated stress-related hormones (glucocorticoids) in wildlife exposed to human activities, but the impacts of noise alone are difficult to separate from confounding factors. Here we used an experimental playback study to isolate the impacts of noise from industrial activity (natural gas drilling and road noise) on glucocorticoid levels in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species of conservation concern. We non-invasively measured immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites from fecal samples (FCMs) of males on both noise-treated and control leks (display grounds) in two breeding seasons. We found strong support for an impact of noise playback on stress levels, with 16.7% higher mean FCM levels in samples from noise leks compared with samples from paired control leks. Taken together with results from a previous study finding declines in male lek attendance in response to noise playbacks, these results suggest that chronic noise pollution can cause greater sage-grouse to avoid otherwise suitable habitat, and can cause elevated stress levels in the birds who remain in noisy areas.

  7. Dietary Fiber Supplementation for Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xioayan

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appear related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. PMID:25155992

  8. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Systematic Review: Adverse Events of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Wang

    Full Text Available Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is a microbiota-based therapy that shows therapeutic potential in recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infections and other intestinal or extra-intestinal disorders. Nonetheless, adverse events (AEs remain a major challenge in the application of FMT.To review the AEs of FMT and to address the concerns of safety during the procedure.Publications were retrieved in the databases of Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. AEs were classified according to their causality with FMT or their severity.A total of 7562 original articles about FMT were identified in this study, 50 of them fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Totally 78 kinds of AEs were revealed enrolled in these 50 selected publications. The total incidence rate of AEs was 28.5%. Among the 42 publications, 5 kinds were definitely and 38 kinds were probably related to FMT. The commonest FMT-attributable AE was abdominal discomfort, which was reported in 19 publications. For upper gastrointestinal routes of FMT, 43.6% (89/204 patients were compromised by FMT-attributable AE, while the incidence dropped to 17.7% (76/430 for lower gastrointestinal routes. In contrast, the incidences of serious adverse events (SAEs were 2.0% (4/196 and 6.1% (40/659 for upper and lower gastrointestinal routes, respectively. A total of 44 kinds of SAEs occurred in 9.2% patients, including death (3.5%, 38/1089, infection (2.5%, 27/1089, relapse of inflammatory bowel diseases (0.6%, 7/1089 and Clostridium difficile infection (0.9%, 10/1089.Consequently, both AEs and SAEs are not rare and should be carefully monitored throughout FMT. However, high quality randomized controlled trials are still needed for the more definite incidence of AEs of FMT.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  11. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  12. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  13. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  14. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  15. Measuring River Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  16. Fecal and molecular survey of Neospora caninum in farm and household dogs in Mashhad area, Khorasan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Gholamreza

    2009-12-01

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dog is the definitive host for N. caninum and can infect dairy cattle. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Neospora oocysts in feces of dogs from dairy farms. A total of 174 fecal samples was collected from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs during 2006 and 2008. Fecal samples of dogs were microscopically examined for detecting Hammondia Neospora-like oocysts (HNLO) by Mini Parasep SF fecal parasite concentrator. HNLO were microscopically detected in 4 fecal samples (2.2%). The fecal samples with HNLO were examined by N. caninum-specific PCR. Two of the samples were positive for N. caninum. The 2 positive fecal samples were selected for inoculation to calves. Two inoculated calves were seronegative by ELISA for 4 months post-infection. This is the first report of finding N. caninum DNA in feces of farm dogs in Mashhad area, Iran.

  17. Influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2013-05-01

    Little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. In particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. Four animals of each captive exotic species (jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyz jubatus), Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), and Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) were randomized in four 4 × 4 Latin square designs (1 Latin square per species) to 1 of the 4 raw beef-based dietary treatments (94.7 to 96.7% beef trimmings): 2 or 4% cellulose or 2 or 4% beet pulp. Felid species, fiber type, and fiber concentration all impacted digestibility and fecal fermentative end-products. Inclusion of beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal short-chain fatty acids and fecal output in all cats. Inclusion of 2 and 4% cellulose, and 4% beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal bulk and diluted fecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations compared with 2% beet pulp. Apparent total tract DM, OM, fat, and GE digestibility coefficients decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with BW of cats. Additionally, fecal moisture, fecal score, and concentrations of fermentative end-products increased (P ≤ 0.05) with BW. Although the response of many outcomes was dependent on cat size, in general, beet pulp increased wet fecal weight, fecal scores, and fecal metabolites, and reduced fecal pH. Cellulose generally reduced DM and OM digestibility, but increased dry fecal weight and fecal percent DM. Although beet pulp and cellulose fibers were tested individually in this study, these data indicate that the optimum fiber type and concentration for inclusion in captive exotic felid diets is likely a combination of fermentable and

  18. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  19. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  20. Low dose inflammatory potential of silica particles in human-derived THP-1 macrophage cell culture studies - Mechanism and effects of particle size and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premshekharan, Gayatri; Nguyen, Kennedy; Zhang, Hongqiao; Forman, Henry Jay; Leppert, Valerie Jean

    2017-06-25

    Silica and iron are major constituents in ambient particulate matter, and iron is a common impurity in many engineered nanomaterials. The purpose of this work was to determine the pro-inflammatory and other biological effects and mechanism of particle size and iron presence under low dose, non-cytotoxic conditions that are likely to approximate actual exposure levels, in contrast with higher dose studies in which cytotoxicity occurs. Specifically, human-derived THP-1 macrophages were exposed to 1 μg/ml of pristine and iron-coated 50 nm and 2 μm engineered silica nanoparticles. Particles were first characterized for size, size distribution, surface area, iron concentration, phase and aggregation in cell culture media. Then, biological assays were conducted to determine a non-lethal dose used in subsequent experiments. Superoxide production, lipid peroxidation, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) mRNA expression were measured as a function of particle size and iron presence. Smaller particle size and the presence of iron increased superoxide production, lipid peroxidation, and the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression. Separate addition of an iron-chelator, a scavenger of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), suppressed the increase in cytokine mRNA expression. Furthermore, free iron itself showed none of the aforementioned effects. The results highlight the importance of particle size and iron in lung inflammation for both natural and engineered nanomaterials, under low dose, non-toxic conditions, and support the role of an oxidant, lipid peroxidation and PC-PLC dependent inflammatory mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioremediation of bacteria pollution using the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis in the intensive mariculture water system of turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xichang; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Lingyun; Zhang, Bi; Jin, Meifang; Fu, Wantao

    2010-01-01

    Sessile filter-feeding marine sponges (Porifera) have been reported to possess high efficiency in removing bacteria pollution from natural or aquaculture seawater. However, no investigation has been carried out thus far in a true mariculture farm water system. Therefore this study sought to investigate the ability of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis to bioremediate the bacteria pollution in the intensive aquaculture water system of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Sponge specimens were hung in fish culture effluent at different temperature to investigate the optimal temperature condition for bacteria removal by H. perlevis. Turbots S. maximus were co-cultured with sponge H. perlevis in 1.5 m(3) of water system at 15-18 degrees C for 6 weeks to control the growth of bacteria. It was found that H. perlevis was able to remove pathogenic bacteria efficiently at 10-20 degrees C, with a maximal removal of 71.4-78.8% of fecal coliform, 73.9-98.7% of pathogenic vibrio, and 75.0-83.7% of total culturable bacteria from fish-culture effluent at 15 degrees C; H. perlevis continuously showed good bioremediation of bacteria pollution in the S. maximus culture water system, achieving removal of 60.0-90.2% of fecal coliform, 37.6-81.6% of pathogenic vibrio, and 45.1-83.9% of total culturable bacteria. The results demonstrate that H. perlevis is an effective bioremediator of bacteria pollution in the turbot S. maximus culture farm water system.

  2. Quantifying patient improvement following sacral neuromodulation: is it time for a new scoring system for fecal incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Ian M; Abodeely, Adam; Johnson, Bobby L; Rafferty, Janice F

    2014-10-01

    The Cleveland Clinic Florida Fecal Incontinence score is widely used to assess the severity of fecal incontinence. We hypothesized that the Cleveland Clinic Fecal Florida Incontinence score is useful at establishing baseline disease severity, but it may underestimate the response to treatment following sacral neuromodulation because of the large number of patients who still wear a pad despite improved continence, as well as the inability to track improvements in urgency. Data were obtained from prospectively maintained database of patients treated with sacral neuromodulation for fecal incontinence at 2 institutions beginning in 2011. A retrospective review of the individual components of Cleveland Clinic Fecal Florida Incontinence scores in response to treatment with sacral neuromodulation was performed. The study was conducted at 1 academic medical center and 1 community medical center. One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients were treated with sacral neuromodulation for fecal incontinence. No interventions occurred. Individual components of posttreatment Cleveland Clinic Florida Fecal Incontinence scores and subjective improvement in fecal urgency were the primary outcomes measured. The median preoperative Cleveland Clinic Fecal Florida Incontinence score of 14 decreased to 3 (interquartile range, 2-4) at 12 months. Of the patients, 66.1% reported still wearing a pad after the procedure. The reason for wearing a pad was residual fecal incontinence (41%), habit despite normal continence (35.3%), and urinary incontinence with complete fecal continence (23.5%). Of patients who report wearing a pad, 59% have falsely elevated Cleveland Clinic Fecal Florida Incontinence scores owing to wearing a pad despite complete fecal continence. Additionally, 96.3% of patients reported improvement in fecal urgency. This retrospective study did not include a comparison with an alternative scoring system. Although the Cleveland Clinic Fecal Florida Incontinence score is a

  3. A High-Throughput DNA-Sequencing Approach for Determining Sources of Fecal Bacteria in a Lake Superior Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clairessa M; Staley, Christopher; Wang, Ping; Dalzell, Brent; Chun, Chan Lan; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Current microbial source-tracking (MST) methods, employed to determine sources of fecal contamination in waterways, use molecular markers targeting host-associated bacteria in animal or human feces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about fecal microbiome composition in several animals and imperfect marker specificity and sensitivity. To overcome these issues, a community-based MST method has been developed. Here, we describe a study done in the Lake Superior-Saint Louis River estuary using SourceTracker, a program that calculates the source contribution to an environment. High-throughput DNA sequencing of microbiota from a diverse collection of fecal samples obtained from 11 types of animals (wild, agricultural, and domesticated) and treated effluent (n = 233) was used to generate a fecal library to perform community-based MST. Analysis of 319 fecal and environmental samples revealed that the community compositions in water and fecal samples were significantly different, allowing for the determination of the presence of fecal inputs and identification of specific sources. SourceTracker results indicated that fecal bacterial inputs into the Lake Superior estuary were primarily attributed to wastewater effluent and, to a lesser extent, geese and gull wastes. These results suggest that a community-based MST method may be another useful tool for determining sources of aquatic fecal bacteria.

  4. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  5. Country report on pollution: India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, R.; Purvaja, R; Lakshmi, Ahana

    2011-01-01

    Biogeographical features, coastal ecosystems and coastal activities of the Bay of Bengal Coast of India. Overview of sources of pollution, water and sediment quality. Present status of pollution and trans-boundary issues. International instruments adopted, policy and mechanisms for pollution control and enforcement of existing policies and legislations.

  6. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  7. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria

  8. Diet and environment shape fecal bacterial microbiota composition and enteric pathogen load of grizzly bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic clostridia in wild and captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos and relates these to food resources consumed by bears. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces were obtained from animals of two wild populations and from two captive animals during an active bear season. Wild animals consumed a diverse diet composed of plant material, animal prey and insects. Captive animals were fed a regular granulated diet with a supplement of fruits and vegetables. Bacterial populations were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Fecal microbiota composition fluctuated in wild and in captive animals. The abundance of Clostridium clusters I and XI, and of C. perfringens correlated to regular diet protein intake. Enteroaggregative E. coli were consistently present in all populations. The C. sordellii phospholipase C was identified in three samples of wild animals and for the first time in Ursids. CONCLUSION: This is the first longitudinal study monitoring the fecal microbiota of wild carnivores and comparing it to that of captive individuals of the same species. Location and diet affected fecal bacterial populations as well as the presence of enteric pathogens.

  9. Diet and environment shape fecal bacterial microbiota composition and enteric pathogen load of grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Northrup, Joseph M; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic clostridia in wild and captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and relates these to food resources consumed by bears. Feces were obtained from animals of two wild populations and from two captive animals during an active bear season. Wild animals consumed a diverse diet composed of plant material, animal prey and insects. Captive animals were fed a regular granulated diet with a supplement of fruits and vegetables. Bacterial populations were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Fecal microbiota composition fluctuated in wild and in captive animals. The abundance of Clostridium clusters I and XI, and of C. perfringens correlated to regular diet protein intake. Enteroaggregative E. coli were consistently present in all populations. The C. sordellii phospholipase C was identified in three samples of wild animals and for the first time in Ursids. This is the first longitudinal study monitoring the fecal microbiota of wild carnivores and comparing it to that of captive individuals of the same species. Location and diet affected fecal bacterial populations as well as the presence of enteric pathogens.

  10. Improved multi-element measurement of absorption via the fecal monitoring technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, R.S.; Gibson, I.L.; Weber, C.E.; Atkinson, S.A.

    1986-03-01

    The fecal monitoring technique for measuring the absorption of Mn, Se and Fe was studied in eight piglets using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Four day old piglets were fed a complete liquid diet for five days prior to the administration of an isotope dose (/sup 75/Se, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe) equilibrated with the milk feeding. /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ was used as a fecal marker. Subsequently stool and urine samples were collected daily for 15-21 days. Following counting, the % fecal excretion of the administered dose was calculated. As 0 to 33% of the administered /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ was absorbed this fecal marker is inappropriate for piglets. Results indicate that endogenous excretion for each of the isotopes was not constant but decreased exponentially with time. An improved method for calculating the endogenous excretion was therefore developed. This method is based on the pattern of endogenous excretion in comparable piglets injected intravenously with the same isotopes, and on the level of endogenous excretion in the orally fed animals in the post-absorptive phase of excretion. These findings have important implications for the estimation of endogenous excretion in future fecal monitoring absorption studies. Previous results using the latter technique have frequently underestimated true absorption.

  11. Evaluating adrenal activity in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) by fecal corticosteroid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, S L; Mashburn, K L; Brewer, B A; Creel, S R

    1998-06-01

    A noninvasive corticosteroid hormone monitoring technique was validated for use in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). The double-antibody 125I radioimmunoassay for corticosterone was validated by demonstrating parallelism between serial dilutions of wild dog fecal extracts and the standard curve, recovery of corticosterone added to fecal extracts, and the time course of fecal corticoid excretion after an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge. All feces were collected from three female and two male African wild dogs for 72 hr before and 144 hr after i.m. injection of long-acting ACTH (Acthar Gel, 400 IU). Fecal corticosterone immunoreactivity increased 10-30-fold within 24 hr of ACTH administration in all individuals, with peak concentrations from 1,200-8,000 ng/g. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed that >90% of all corticosterone immunoreactivity was associated with a single peak that exhibited intermediate polarity relative to cortisol and corticosterone reference tracers. Fecal corticosterone immunoreactivity appears to reflect adrenal activity in the African wild dog and, therefore, may be useful for evaluating stress. From a conservation perspective, these techniques can complement in situ and ex situ research studies designed to evaluate how environmental conditions and management strategies affect overall animal health.

  12. Effect of apple intake on fecal microbiota and metabolites in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Kenji; Ohashi, Yuji; Kawasumi, Koh; Terada, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Tomohiko

    2010-10-01

    The effects of apple intake on the fecal flora, water content, pH, and metabolic activities in eight healthy volunteers and the utilization of apple pectin in vitro were investigated. Although several isolates of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and the Bacteroides fragilis group utilized apple pectin, most isolates of Escherichia coli, Collinsela aerofaciense, Eubacterium limosum, and Clostridium perfringens could not. When fecal samples from healthy adults were incubated in liquid broth with apple pectin present or absent, the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the former were higher than those in the later. After the intake of apples (2 apples a day for 2 weeks) by eight healthy adult humans, the number of bifidobacteria in feces increased (p day 7 and p day 14 of the intake period), and the numbers of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus including Enterococcus tended to increase. However, lecithinase-positive clostridia, including C. perfringens, decreased (p apple intake. The fecal ammonia concentration showed a tendency to reduce and fecal sulfide decreased (p apple intake. These findings indicate that apple consumption is related to an improved intestinal environment, and apple pectin is one of the effective apple components improving the fecal environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  15. Fecal Fat Analyses in Chronic Pancreatitis Importance of Fat Ingestion before Stool Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engjom, Trond; Jurmy, Palwasha; Tjora, Erling; Gilja, Odd Helge; Dimcevski, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Objective Quantitative determination of fecal fat still is the gold standard for measuring malabsorption. We evaluated the importance of standardized food intake before and under the collection of feces. Material and Methods In a project, evaluating patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis (CP) and healthy volunteers (HC), stools were collected for 72 hours coupled to registration of nutritional intake over five consecutive days. Patient groups were created by a modified Layer score, which includes imaging findings, clinical parameters and pancreas function testing. Results We found 12 patients with CP, 11 patients without CP and 13 healthy individuals in our database. Median fecal fat in CP patients was 12 g/day, in non-CP patients 5 g/day and in healthy controls 5 g/day. Median fat absorption coefficient was 81% in those with chronic pancreatitis, 92% in those without CP and 92% in healthy controls. Corresponding median fat intake was 65 g/day, 68 g/day and 81 g/day in the respective groups. Spearman Rank Order Correlation between fecal fat (g/d) and fat absorption coefficient in all study subjects (n = 36) was good (-0.88 (pfat intake, correlation between fecal fat and fat absorption was also good (-0.86 to -0.95). Conclusion In the diagnoses of fat malabsorption, calculating the ratio of fat absorption did not give additional information compared to fecal fat. PMID:28095460

  16. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-08

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a (13)C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity.

  17. Enteric Viruses and Fecal Bacteria Indicators to Assess Groundwater Quality and Suitability for Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, Osvalda; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Bagordo, Francesco; Barbuti, Giovanna; Brigida, Silvia; Lugoli, Federica; Grassi, Tiziana; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Lucentini, Luca; Uricchio, Vito Felice; De Donno, Antonella; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2017-05-24

    According to Italian Ministerial Decree No. 185 of 12 June 2003, water is considered suitable for irrigation if levels of fecal bacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli and Salmonella) are within certain parameters. The detection of other microorganisms is not required. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological quality of groundwater used for irrigation and the occurrence of enteric viruses (Norovirus, Enterovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatovirus A), and to compare the presence of viruses with the fecal bacteria indicators. A total of 182 wells was analyzed. Widespread fecal contamination of Apulian aquifers was detected (141 wells; 77.5%) by the presence of fecal bacteria (i.e., E. coli, Salmonella, total coliforms, and enterococci). Considering bacteria included in Ministerial Decree No. 185, the water from 35 (19.2%) wells was unsuitable for irrigation purposes. Among 147 wells with water considered suitable, Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Enterovirus were detected in 23 (15.6%) wells. No Hepatovirus A was isolated. Consequently, 58 wells (31.9%) posed a potential infectious risk for irrigation use. This study revealed the inadequacy of fecal bacteria indicators to predict the occurrence of viruses in groundwater and it is the first in Italy to describe the presence of human rotaviruses in well water used for irrigation.

  18. [The role of fecal elastase-1 in pancreatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-ou; Li, Jing-nan; Qian, Jia-ming

    2006-04-01

    To determine the average concentration and its ranges of fecal elastase-1 (FE1) in healthy controls; to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of FE1 in the assay of pancreatic insufficiency; and to evaluate the diagnosing and differentiating value of FE1 in pancreatic diseases. Used the FE1 ELISA kit to quantitate the concentrations of FE1 in 73 healthy controls with different age groups, and 30 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 17 patients with pancreatic cancer and 24 patients with non-pancreatic digestive diseases. Urine N-benzoyl-tyrosyl-para-aminobenzoic acid (BT-PABA) was measured in those patients as a comparison simultaneously. (1) FE1 concentration in healthy controls ranged from 136 to 1380 (966.93 +/- 256.17) microg/g. There were no statistical significances between the different age groups (P > 0.05). (2) The FE1 of both groups of chronic pancreatitis [(208.80 +/- 197.72) microg/g, ranged from 15 to 900 microg/g] and pancreatic cancer [(175.00 +/- 172.25) microg/g, ranged from 15 to 460 microg/g] compare to that in non-pancreatic digestive diseases [(502.63 +/- 210.28) microg/g] were significantly low (P specificity of FE1 for diagnosing pancreatic diarrhea were 77.8% and 89.5% as well as 50.0% and 42.9% of urine BT-PABA. (4) The sensitivity and specificity of FE1 for diagnosing chronic pancreatitis were 63.3% and 97.3% respectively, the sensitivity of urine BT-PABA was 83.3%. FE1 concentration is (966.93 +/- 256.17) microg/g in healthy controls. Our study clearly showed that there are no changes of FE1 concentration in different age groups. FE1 showed the higher specificity for chronic pancreatitis than urine BT-PABA. The test is noninvasive and can assist in diagnosing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and is better than the BT-PABA in differentiating pancreatic and non-pancreatic diarrhea.

  19. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that the ...

  20. Managing Air Quality - Air Pollutant Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  1. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  2. Water pollution by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Brian

    2008-02-12

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification of the catchment as well as nutrient, particulate and biocide pollution. The European Water Framework Directive implicitly recognizes this in requiring restoration of water bodies to 'good ecological quality', which is defined as only slightly different from pristine state. The implications for the management of agriculture are far more profound than is currently widely realized.

  3. Environmental pollution and reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B.

    1987-05-01

    In the human a high percentage of conceptus dies during early pregnancy. Cytogenetical analyses of first trimester abortions found in 50-60% chromosomal anomalies. Epidemiological studies revealed occupational effects on reproduction. In view of these informations environmental pollution has to be considered as a potential reason for reproductive disorders. In animal experiments several substances like chemicals, metals, caffeine, nicotine, and drugs revealed to be embryotoxic during early pregnancy (preimplantation period), in combination even in a supra-additive fashion. The embryo, however, is not only a target of environmental hazards during early pregnancy but in all stages of gestation. This was taken into consideration by the 'MAK'-commission in publishing riskgroups for industrial chemicals which may damage embryonic or fetal development. Subdivision into pregnancy riskgroups is desirable for as many occupational chemicals and environmental pollutions as possible. Valid techniques for investigating embryo development are available, esp. during very early pregnancy.

  4. Physicochemical Factors Influence the Abundance and Culturability of Human Enteric Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Organisms in Estuarine Water and Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Hassard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess fecal pollution in coastal waters, current monitoring is reliant on culture-based enumeration of bacterial indicators, which does not account for the presence of viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated micro-organisms, preventing effective quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA. Seasonal variability in viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated bacteria challenge the use of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs for water monitoring. We evaluated seasonal changes in FIOs and human enteric pathogen abundance in water and sediments from the Ribble and Conwy estuaries in the UK. Sediments possessed greater bacterial abundance than the overlying water column, however, key pathogenic species (Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus and norovirus GI and GII were not detected in sediments. Salmonella was detected in low levels in the Conwy water in spring/summer and norovirus GII was detected in the Ribble water in winter. The abundance of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. quantified by culture-based methods, rarely matched the abundance of these species when measured by qPCR. The discrepancy between these methods was greatest in winter at both estuaries, due to low CFU's, coupled with higher gene copies (GC. Temperature accounted for 60% the variability in bacterial abundance in water in autumn, whilst in winter salinity explained 15% of the variance. Relationships between bacterial indicators/pathogens and physicochemical variables were inconsistent in sediments, no single indicator adequately described occurrence of all bacterial indicators/pathogens. However, important variables included grain size, porosity, clay content and concentrations of Zn, K, and Al. Sediments with greater organic matter content and lower porosity harbored a greater proportion of non-culturable bacteria (including dead cells and extracellular DNA in winter. Here, we show the link between physicochemical

  5. Physicochemical Factors Influence the Abundance and Culturability of Human Enteric Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Organisms in Estuarine Water and Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassard, Francis; Andrews, Anthony; Jones, Davey L; Parsons, Louise; Jones, Vera; Cox, Brian A; Daldorph, Peter; Brett, Howard; McDonald, James E; Malham, Shelagh K

    2017-01-01

    To assess fecal pollution in coastal waters, current monitoring is reliant on culture-based enumeration of bacterial indicators, which does not account for the presence of viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated micro-organisms, preventing effective quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). Seasonal variability in viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated bacteria challenge the use of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) for water monitoring. We evaluated seasonal changes in FIOs and human enteric pathogen abundance in water and sediments from the Ribble and Conwy estuaries in the UK. Sediments possessed greater bacterial abundance than the overlying water column, however, key pathogenic species (Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus and norovirus GI and GII) were not detected in sediments. Salmonella was detected in low levels in the Conwy water in spring/summer and norovirus GII was detected in the Ribble water in winter. The abundance of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. quantified by culture-based methods, rarely matched the abundance of these species when measured by qPCR. The discrepancy between these methods was greatest in winter at both estuaries, due to low CFU's, coupled with higher gene copies (GC). Temperature accounted for 60% the variability in bacterial abundance in water in autumn, whilst in winter salinity explained 15% of the variance. Relationships between bacterial indicators/pathogens and physicochemical variables were inconsistent in sediments, no single indicator adequately described occurrence of all bacterial indicators/pathogens. However, important variables included grain size, porosity, clay content and concentrations of Zn, K, and Al. Sediments with greater organic matter content and lower porosity harbored a greater proportion of non-culturable bacteria (including dead cells and extracellular DNA) in winter. Here, we show the link between physicochemical variables and

  6. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  7. Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Cojocaru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the applied methods for environmental impact assessment is the index of global pollution (IGP proposed by Rojanschi in 1991. This methodology enables the global estimation for the ecosystem state affected more or less by human activities. Unfortunately, Rojanschi’s method has a limitation; it can be applied only if at least three environmental components are considered. Frequently, many environmental impact assessment applications rely on analysis of only two environmental components. Therefore, this work aimed to develop a new graphical method to extend Rojanschi’s approach for the case of two environmental components. The proposed method avoids the average value of evaluation grades and uses only the graphical correspondence for calculation of the index of global pollution. A right-angle triangle graph methodology was proposed, where bases represented the values of evaluation grades. Thus, for the case of two environmental components, the index of global pollution was calculated as the relation between the ideal and real ecosystem states represented by the ratio between areas of external and enclosed right triangles. The developed graphical method was tested and validated for real case studies: the environmental impact assessment from a refinery located on the Romanian Black Sea Coast considering Air and Water environmental components and from a coal-fired thermoelectric power plant from Eastern Romania regarding Air and Soil environmental components. In this way, it was provided a reliable and faster tool to be used for the pollution characterization of human-derived chemicals for better decisions in risk management.

  8. Using host-associated genetic markers to investigate sources of fecal contamination in two Vermont streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Matthews, Leslie J.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of host-associated Bacteroidales-based 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genetic markers was investigated as a tool for providing information to managers on sources of bacterial impairment in Vermont streams. The study was conducted during 2009 in two watersheds on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 303(d) List of Impaired Waters, the Huntington and the Mettawee Rivers. Streamwater samples collected during high-flow and base-flow conditions were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacteroidales genetic markers (General AllBac, Human qHF183 and BacHum, Ruminant BoBac, and Canid BacCan) to identify humans, ruminants, and canids as likely or unlikely major sources of fecal contamination. Fecal reference samples from each of the potential source groups, as well as from common species of wildlife, were collected during the same season and from the same watersheds as water samples. The results were combined with data from other states to assess marker cross reaction and to relate marker results to E. coli, the regulated water-quality parameter, with a higher degree of statistical significance. Results from samples from the Huntington River collected under different flow conditions on three dates indicated that humans were unlikely to be a major source of fecal contamination, except for a single positive result at one station that indicated the potential for human sources. Ruminants (deer, moose, cow, or sheep) were potential sources of fecal contamination at all six stations on the Huntington River during one high-flow event and at all but two stations during the other high-flow event. Canids were potential sources of fecal contamination at some stations during two high-flow events, with genetic-marker concentrations in samples from two of the six stations showing consistent positive results for canids for both storm dates. A base-flow sample showed no evidence of major fecal contamination in the Huntington River from humans

  9. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...... specimens before slaughter is therefore vital to prevent disease transmission. By combining two techniques – immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this study developed a reliable and specific method for rapid detection of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. The specificity...... of the assay was assured by two selection steps: 1) Dynabeads®M-270 Amine microbeads (2.8 μm in diameter) coated with C. jejuni monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary selection to isolate bacteria from fecal samples. 2) A PCR assay amplifying the Hippuricase gene was performed as the specific selection...

  10. Levels of fecal corticosterone in sandhill cranes during a human-led migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartup, B.K.; Olsen, G.H.; Czekala, Nancy M.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Langenberg, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen captive-reared greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were conditioned to follow ultralight aircraft to promote migration between Wisconsin and Florida (U SA) after release. Fecal samples were collected throughout the training period in Wisconsin and during a 1,977-km human-led migration to Florida to determine fecal corticosterone (FC) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. The mean (?SE) FC concentration during the training period was 1O9.5?7.5 ng/g and was representative of baseline levels recorded previously from sandhill cranes. Fecal corticosterone concentrations increased in early migration compared to concentrations 1 mo prior to departure (Pmigration period. The variability of FC concentrations in individual samples was greater throughout the migration than the training period. Increases in FC during migration were modest and generally consistent with normal corticosterone elevations observed in migrating birds.

  11. Lack of correlation between fecal blood loss and drug-induced gastric mucosal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedenbro, J.L.; Wetterberg, P.; Vallgren, S.; Bergqvist, L.

    1988-05-01

    Increased fecal blood loss was produced in healthy volunteers by the administration of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), naproxen or fenflumizole. Basal as well as drug-induced gastrointestinal blood loss was measured using /sup 51/Cr erythrocyte labeling. Median rise in daily fecal blood loss was 432%. All subjects were endoscoped at the initiation and at the completion of the study. Endoscopic findings were assessed quantitatively by two observers in two different ways. All subjects but three had gastric mucosal lesions at follow-up endoscopy. There was a good correlation between the endoscopic assessments but no statistical correlation between the endoscopic assessment and the increase in fecal blood loss. The data suggest that factors other than gastric mucosal lesions have to be taken into account when investigating NSAID-induced gastrointestinal bleeding.

  12. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Muehlenbein

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53 from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental

  14. Timing and Risk Factors for a Positive Fecal Immunochemical Test in Subsequent Screening for Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Chiang

    Full Text Available Following a negative test, the performance of fecal immunochemical testing in the subsequent screening round is rarely reported. It is crucial to allocate resources to participants who are more likely to test positive subsequently following an initial negative result.To identify risk factors associated with a positive result in subsequent screening.Dataset was composed of consecutive participants who voluntarily underwent fecal tests and colonoscopy in a routine medical examination at the National Taiwan University Hospital between January 2007 and December 2011. Risk factor assessment of positive fecal test in subsequent screening was performed by using the Cox proportional hazards models.Our cohort consisted of 3783 participants during a 5-year period. In three rounds of subsequent testing, 3783, 1537, and 624 participants underwent fecal tests, respectively; 5.7%, 5.1%, and 3.9% tested positive, respectively, and the positive predictive values were 40.2%, 20.3%, and 20.8%, respectively. Age ≥60 years (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.21-1.93 and male gender (1.32, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69 were risk factors; however, an interaction between age and gender was noted. Men had higher risk than women when they were <60 years of age (p = 0.002, while this difference was no longer observed when ≥60 years of age (p = 0.74. The optimal interval of screening timing for participant with baseline negative fecal test was 2 years.Following a negative test, older age and male gender are risk factors for a positive result in the subsequent rounds while the gender difference diminishes with age. Biennial screening is sufficient following a negative fecal test.

  15. Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Isern, Nancy G.; Hoyt, David W.; Howsmon, Daniel P.; Shaffer, Michael; Lozupone, Catherine A.; Hahn, Juergen; Adams, James B.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome. Using NMR spectroscopy and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we examined metabolite profiles and microbial compositions in fecal samples, respectively. Of the 59 metabolites detected, isopropanol concentrations were significantly higher in feces of children with ASD after multiple testing corrections. We also observed similar trends of fecal metabolites to previous studies; children with ASD have higher fecal p-cresol and possibly lower GABA concentrations. In addition, Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) with leave-out-validation suggested that a group of metabolites- caprate, nicotinate, glutamine, thymine, and aspartate- may potentially function as a biomarker to separate ASD participants from the neurotypical group (78% sensitivity and 81% specificity). Consistent with our previous Arizona cohort study, we also confirmed lower gut microbial diversity and reduced relative abundances of Prevotella copri in children with ASD. After multiple testing corrections, we also learned that relative abundances of Feacalibacterium prausnitzii and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were lower in feces of children with ASD. Despite a relatively short list of fecal metabolites, the data in this study support that children with ASD have altered metabolite profiles in feces when compared with neurotypical children and warrant further investigation of metabolites in larger cohorts.

  16. Adaptation to Spanish language and validation of the fecal incontinence quality of life scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Miguel; Garrigues, Vicente; Soria, Maria Jose; Andreu, Montserrat; Mearin, Fermin; Clave, Pere

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a psychometric evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale in the Spanish language. Eleven hospitals in Spain participated in the study, which included 118 patients with active fecal incontinence. All the patients filled out a questionnaire on the severity of their incontinence, a general questionnaire of health (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form), and a Spanish translation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal), which consists of 29 items in four domains: lifestyle, behavior, depression, and embarrassment. On a second visit, patients repeated the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. For each domain, an evaluation was made of temporal reliability, internal reliability, the convergent validity with the generic questionnaire of health, and the discriminant validity correlating the domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal with the severity of fecal incontinence. For cultural adaptation, the answer alternatives for 14 items were modified. A total of 111 patients (94 percent) completed the study adequately. Temporal reliability (test-retest) was good for all domains except for embarrassment, which showed significant differences (P 0.80, between 0.84 and 0.96). The four domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal significantly correlated with the domains of the generic questionnaire on health (P Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal correlated negatively with the need to wear pads (P Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal incorporates sufficient requirements of reliability and validity to be applied to patients with fecal incontinence.

  17. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  18. Probabilistic assessment of compliance with the numerical criteria for fecal coliforms in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, YoonKyung

    2017-04-01

    Most guidelines for assessing fecal contamination in surface waters suggest that a waterbody is impaired if a certain percent or the geometric mean of samples exceeds the numerical criteria for fecal indicator organisms. However, this raw score approach is not able to account for the uncertainty and variability in the sample statistics. In a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, the uncertainty in the mean parameter is expressed as a posterior distribution, and the probability of not violating the criterion is referred to as the confidence of compliance (COC). Further, the spatiotemporal variability in the mean parameter can be quantified by imposing the hierarchical structure on the model. The monitoring data spanning 91 sites across the four major rivers (the Han, Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong) of South Korea for the years 2007-2016 were used. The Bayesian hierarchical model was developed for each river to predict the COC with the criteria for fecal coliforms. The established criteria for fecal coliforms are less than 10, 100, 200, and 1,000 CFU/100mL in the river whose water quality goal corresponds to Class Ia, Ib, II, and III, respectively. The model results suggested that the COC varied significantly by site, ranging from 0.0 to 98.9 percent across the four rivers. In the Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong Rivers, COC values in the upper river sections were substantially lower than those in the upper river sections. The model suggested that for all four rivers the spatial component, compared with annual and seasonal components, made the largest contribution to the variability in mean fecal coliforms. In all four rivers, mean levels for fecal coliform during the summer (July to September) were distinctly higher than those during other seasons. A decreasing pattern was clearly shown in the Yeongsan River over the recent decade, while monotonic increases or decreases were not shown in other three rivers.

  19. Prevalence of fecal incontinence and associated risk factors in elderly outpatients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Nurhan; Yuruyen, Mehmet; Atay, Kadri; Yavuzer, Hakan; Hatemi, Ibrahim; Doventas, Alper; Erdincler, Deniz Suna; Dobrucalı, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Data on the prevalence of fecal incontinence in elderly patients admitted to outpatient clinics in Turkey are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of fecal incontinence and the associated risk factors in the elderly outpatients. Patients 60 years and older admitted to a geriatrics outpatient clinic between October 2013 and March 2014 were included. Demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, marital status, educational status, parity (for females), fecal incontinence (FI), urinary incontinence (UI), constipation, comorbid conditions, and medications were recorded. FI assessment was based on the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). A total of 364 patients (64.8% female, n = 236) with a mean age of 73.2 ± 8.1 years were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of FI was 9.9% (10.2% female, 9.4% male). UI was 42.6%. Co-occurrence of FI and UI was 7.4%. According to the FISI, the most frequent type of defecation was liquid stool (61.1%). While the predictive factors for FI were polypharmacy (standardized coefficient, [r] = 0.203, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.009-0.040, p = 0.002), UI (r = 0.134, 95% CI = 0.006-0.156, p = 0.035), and being married (r = 0.200, 95% CI = -0.088 to -0.020, p = 0.002) in females, those were UI (r = 0.306, 95% CI = 0.093-0.309, p incontinence and polypharmacy seem to be the most important risk factors for fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence should be questioned in detail and evaluated using FISI in elderly outpatients.

  20. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results

  1. Factors associated with fecal incontinence in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-Chen; Chang, Shiow-Ru; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Hsiao, Chin-Fen; Chen, Chi-Hau; Lin, Ho-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with fecal incontinence in female patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.   Data regarding clinical and urodynamic parameters and history of fecal incontinence of 1334 women with lower urinary tract symptoms who had previously undergone urodynamic evaluation were collected and subjected to univariate, multivariate, and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis to identify significant associations between these parameters and fecal incontinence.   Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [OR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01-1.05, P=0.005), presence of diabetes (OR=2.10, 95%CI=1.22-3.61, P=0.007), presence of urodynamic stress incontinence (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.24-2.91, P=0.003), pad weight (OR=1.01, 95%CI=1.00-1.01, P=0.04), and detrusor pressure at maximum flow (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03, P=0.003) as independent risk factors for fecal incontinence. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis identified age≥55years, detrusor pressure at maximum flow≥35 cmH(2) O, and pad weight≥15g as having positive predictive values of 11.4%, 11.5%, and 12.4%, respectively, thus indicating that they are the most predictive values in concomitant fecal incontinence.   Detrusor pressure at maximum flow and pad weight may be associated with fecal incontinence in female patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, but require confirmation as indicators by further study before their use as screening tools. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Assessment of Fecal ASCA Measurement as a Biomarker of Crohn Disease in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vivian; Valim, Clarissa; Moman, Rajat; Richman, Ashley; Zhou, Jing; Ramgopal, Veena; Albert, Rachel; Boone, James H; Rufo, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    A simple and reliable biomarker for Crohn disease (CD) would be a valuable clinical tool. We hypothesized that anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) may be present in the stool of patients with CD. Accordingly, we measured ASCA in the stool and serum of children and adolescents with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We included 114 patients 19 years or younger (73 boys) with IBD, including 83 patients with CD and 31 subjects without CD (28 with ulcerative colitis, and 3 patients with suspected IBD but without evidence of chronic inflammation at the time of their endoscopy and colonoscopy). Fecal and serum samples were analyzed using semiquantitative ASCA enzyme-linked immunoassays. Median ASCA levels were significantly elevated in the stool (P = 0.04) and serum (P = 0.0008) of patients with CD, when compared to levels observed in patients without CD. Fecal ASCA levels were similarly more elevated in patients with active CD, relative to levels observed in patients with active ulcerative colitis and acute colitis (P = 0.004). Among patients with CD, fecal and serum ASCA levels were higher (P = 0.01 and 0.01, respectively) in patients with more recently diagnosed disease. Fecal ASCA levels are higher in patients with active and newly diagnosed disease. Data from the present study suggest that measurement of fecal ASCA levels could represent a novel noninvasive biomarker for use in evaluating patients with suspected or known IBD. Further studies are necessary to better define the value of fecal ASCA measurements in identifying CD and response to therapy in children and young adults.

  3. Usefulness of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Chang, Chee-Jen; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Lai, Ming-Wei; Chao, Hsun-Chin; Kong, Man-Shan

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the value of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea. METHODS: Patients with acute infectious diarrhea ranging from 3 mo to 10 years in age were enrolled, and one to three stool samples from each subject were collected. Certain parameters, including white blood cells /differential count, C-reactive protein, fecal mucus, fecal pus cells, duration of fever, vomiting, diarrhea and severity (indicated by Clark and Vesikari scores), were recorded and analyzed. Fecal lactoferrin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared in different pathogen and disease activity. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were also used for analysis. RESULTS: Data included 226 evaluations for 117 individuals across three different time points. Fecal lactoferrin was higher in patients with Salmonella (11.17 μg/g ± 2.73 μg/g) or Campylobacter (10.32 μg/g ± 2.94 μg/g) infections and lower in patients with rotavirus (2.82 μg/g ± 1.27 μg/g) or norovirus (3.16 μg/g ± 1.18 μg/g) infections. Concentrations of fecal lactoferrin were significantly elevated in patients with severe (11.32 μg/g ± 3.29 μg/g) or moderate (3.77 μg/g ± 2.08 μg/g) disease activity compared with subjects with mild (1.51 μg/g ± 1.36 μg/g) disease activity (P lactoferrin increased during bacterial infection and with greater disease severity and may be a good marker for predicting and monitoring intestinal inflammation in children with infectious diarrhea. PMID:22072854

  4. Neuromodulation for fecal and urinary incontinence: functional results in 57 consecutive patients from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheron, Jean-Luc; Chodez, Marine; Boillot, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is a recognized treatment for fecal and urinary incontinence. Few articles have been published about patients presenting with both types of incontinence. The aim of this study was to report the functional results in patients operated on for simultaneous fecal and urinary incontinence by the use of sacral nerve stimulation. This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The investigation was conducted in the academic departments of colorectal surgery and urology. Between January 2001 and March 2010, 57 consecutive patients (54 women) with a mean age of 58 years (range, 16-76) were included. Two-stage sacral nerve modulation (test and implant) was performed. Functional study before testing, at 6 months, and at the end of follow-up after implantation included the use of the Cleveland Clinic incontinence score, Urinary Symptoms Profile, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life score, and the Ditrovie score. Patient satisfaction with the technique was evaluated at a median follow-up of 62.8 months. : Fecal incontinence improved from 14.1/20 to 7.2/20 at 6 months and 6.9/20 at the end of follow-up. Urinary incontinence, mainly urge incontinence (47% of patients), and urgency frequency (34% of patients) improved at 6 months and end of follow-up, but not retention and dysuria. Specific quality of life was improved for fecal and urinary incontinence at 6 months and end of follow-up. At the end of follow-up, 73% patients were highly satisfied with the technique, but 9% felt their condition had deteriorated. The reoperation rate was 29%, of which 12% were indicated because of a complication. This study was limited by its retrospective nature and the multiple causes of incontinence. Fecal and urinary incontinence, studied by symptoms scores and specific quality-of-life scores, are improved in patients receiving sacral nerve stimulation for double incontinence.

  5. Human-derived extracellular matrix from Wharton's jelly: An untapped substrate to build up a standardized and homogeneous coating for vascular engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Pan; Velot, Émilie; Francius, Grégory; Menu, Patrick; Decot, Véronique

    2017-01-15

    human derived ECM would be a promising choice for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of multiple pollutants in selected Tamil Nadu coastal waters, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdul Muthalif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea water samples from five different coastal cities (Chennai S1, Cuddalore S2, Nagappattinam S3, Tuticorin S4 and Kanyakumari S5 in Tamil Nadu were collected during premonsoon 2015 for physiochemical, microbiological and trace metal studies. The high bacterial load in the study sites indicated that which received enormous waste materials from different sources like land materials, municipal discharges, agricultural and industrial discharges, and more visits. The higher pollution index (PI ratio (>1 were observed in all sampling sites which indicated the human fecal matters were responsible for sea water pollution. The statistical approach (correlation explained that the physiochemical and trace metal parameters are not supporting the microbial growth in large extend. Based on the report, this study was suggesting that throughout impoundment is needed to protect fresh water sources.

  7. Isotopic nitrogen in fecal fiber as an indicator of winter diet in caribou and muskoxen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry S.; Addison, Jennifer; Shively, Rachel; Oliver, Lola

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: The ratios of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N values) in excreta have been used to examine aspects of trophic and nutritional ecology across taxa. Nitrogen fractions in feces of herbivores include endogenous (e.g., sloughed intestinal cells, unresorbed digestive secretions, and microbial debris) and dietary sources. For animals such as large herbivores, that have diets and feces with high concentrations of indigestible fiber, endogenous 15N may constrain the use of fecal δ15N values to estimate dietary δ15N values and reconstruct diets. METHODS: We compared two techniques (detergent and detergent-free) to isolate fractions of plant fibers in the forages of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus); estimated the discrimination factors between the δ15N values of fecal fiber residues and of the diets of captive animals; and used the more effective isotopic tracer of dietary δ15N values to examine the relationships between the δ15N values of fecal residues and diet composition in several populations of wild caribou and muskoxen throughout North America in winter. RESULTS: The detergent-based approach contaminated the fractions of plant fibers in forages and feces with 14N, whereas the detergent-free method was a good proxy to estimate δ15N values of plant fibers (r2= 0.92) and provided a better estimate of the fecal-fiber to diet discrimination factor for both species (caribou = 3.6‰; muskoxen = 2.8‰). In wild populations, the δ15N values of fecal fibers reflected diet composition in muskoxen (adjusted R2= 0.43) but not caribou (adjusted R2= 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Contamination from detergent residues prohibited the use of detergent extraction in isolating forage 15N from endogenous 15N in the feces of herbivores. Although δ15N values in fecal fibers can be used to track dietary δ15N values in wild herbivores, discrimination between fecal extracts and diet may vary with the contribution of endogenous nitrogen (N), and

  8. Fecal volatile organic compounds: a novel, cheaper method of diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Chris S J; Reade, Sophie; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    2014-09-01

    The investigation of a novel, cheaper method of diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an area of active research. Recently, investigations into the metabolomic profile of IBD patients and animal models of colitis compared to healthy controls has begun to receive considerable attention and correlations between the fecal volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolome and IBD is merging. Patients and clinicians have often reported a change in odor of feces during relapse of IBD. Therefore, this article will focus specifically on the fecal VOC metabolome and its potential role in identifying a novel diagnostic method for IBD.

  9. Long-term efficacy and safety of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, Anders; Wexner, Steven D; Coller, John A; Devroede, Ghislain; Lerew, Darin R; Madoff, Robert D; Hull, Tracy

    2011-09-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is effective in the treatment of urinary incontinence and is currently under Food and Drug Administration review in the United States for fecal incontinence. Previous reports have focused primarily on short-term results of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence. The present study reports the long-term effectiveness and safety of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence in a large prospective multicenter study. Patients with fecal incontinent episodes more than twice per week were offered participation in this multicentered prospective trial. Patients showing ≥ 50% improvement during test stimulation were offered chronic implantation of the InterStim Therapy system (Medtronic; Minneapolis, MN). The aims of the current report were to provide 3-year follow-up data on patients from that study who underwent sacral nerve stimulation and were monitored under the rigors of an Food and Drug Administration-approved investigational protocol. One hundred thirty-three patients underwent test stimulation with a 90% success rate, of whom 120 (110 females) with a mean age of 60.5 years and a mean duration of fecal incontinence of 7 years received chronic implantation. Mean length of follow-up was 3.1 (range, 0.2-6.1) years, with 83 patients completing all or part of the 3-year follow-up assessment. At 3 years follow-up, 86% of patients (P < .0001) reported ≥ 50% reduction in the number of incontinent episodes per week compared with baseline and the number of incontinent episodes per week decreased from a mean of 9.4 at baseline to 1.7. Perfect continence was achieved in 40% of subjects. The therapy also improved the fecal incontinence severity index. Sacral nerve stimulation had a positive impact on the quality of life, as evidenced by significant improvements in all 4 scales of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life instrument at 12, 24, and 36 months of follow-up. The most common device- or therapy-related adverse events through the

  10. Factors affecting fecal glucocorticoid levels in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A

    2008-11-01

    Subordinate female cercopithecine primates often experience decreased reproductive success in comparison with high-ranking females, with a later age at sexual maturity and first reproduction and/or longer interbirth intervals. One explanation that has traditionally been advanced to explain this is high levels of chronic social stress in subordinates, resulting from agonistic and aggressive interactions and leading to higher basal levels of glucocorticoids. We assessed the relationships among fecal cortisol levels and reproductive condition, dominance rank, degree of social support, and fertility in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semi-free-ranging colony in Franceville, Gabon. Lower-ranking females in this colony have a reproductive disadvantage relative to higher-ranking females, and we were interested in determining whether this relationship between dominance rank and reproductive success is mediated through stress hormones. We analyzed 340 fecal samples from 19 females, collected over a 14-month period. We found that pregnant females experienced higher fecal cortisol levels than cycling or lactating females. This is similar to results for other primate species and is likely owing to increased metabolic demands and interactions between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, estrogen, and placental production of corticotrophin releasing hormones during pregnancy. There was no influence of dominance rank on fecal cortisol levels, suggesting that subordinate females do not suffer chronic stress. This may be because female mandrills have a stable social hierarchy, with low levels of aggression and high social support. However, we found no relationship between matriline size, as a measure of social support, and fecal cortisol levels. Subordinates may be able to avoid aggression from dominants in the large enclosure or may react only transiently to specific aggressive events, rather than continuously expecting them. Finally, we found no relationship

  11. Determinación cuantitativa de lípidos fecales. Valores Normales

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Zamudio, César; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative determination of fecal fat is diagnostic value in pancreatitis, tropical sprue and nontropical, and other conditions of steatorrhea; serves, to assess the severity of metabolic disturbance and to measure the therapeutic efficacy. But to tell when there is excessive removal is necessary to know the normal elimination. La determinación cuantitativa de lípidos fecales es de valor diagnóstico en la pancreatitis, sprue tropical y no tropical, y en las demás condiciones de estea...

  12. Refractory Clostridium difficile Infection Cured With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Colonized Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi-Ok; An, Jun Hwan; Jung, Sook-In

    2015-01-01

    The rates and severity of Clostridium difficile infections, including pseudomembranous colitis, have increased markedly. However, there are few effective treatments for refractory or recurrent C. difficile infections and the outcomes are poor. Fecal microbiota transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as an effective and safe intervention in patients with recurrent disease, likely due to the restoration of a disrupted microbiome. Cure rates of >90% are being consistently reported from multiple centers. We cured a case of severe refractory C. difficile infection with fecal microbiota transplantation in a patient colonized by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. PMID:25691847

  13. [Fecal microbiota transplant in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemers, I; Delvallée, M

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Its incidence has increased in the past 20 years and is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Relapsing is frequent after treatment and the management of these recurrent Clostridium difficile infections is challenging. Several studies over the years have shown that fecal microbiota transplantion is associated with a high degree of success. Fecal microbiota transplantion is now part of the European recommendations in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. However, standard procedures are needed to define indications, donor's selection criteria, preparation of the stool sample and its administration as well as the patients follow up. Illustration by a case report.

  14. A budget impact analysis comparing use of a modern fecal management system to traditional fecal management methods in two canadian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langill, Mike; Yan, Songkai; Kommala, Dheerendra; Michenko, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Research suggests that fecal management systems (FMS) offer advantages, including potential cost savings, over traditional methods of caring for patients with little or no bowel control and liquid or semi-liquid stool. A budget impact model accounting for material costs of managing fecal incontinence was developed, and 1 year of experiential data from two hospitals' ICUs were applied to it. Material costs were estimated for traditional methods (ie, use of absorbent briefs/pads, skin cleansers, moisturizers) and compared with material costs of using a modern FMS for both average (normal-range weight) and complex (bariatric with wounds) ICU patients at hospital 1 and any ICU patient at hospital 2. Reductions in daily material costs per ICU patient using FMS versus traditional methods were reported by hospital 1 ($93.74 versus $143.89, average patient; $150.55 versus $476.41, complex patient) and by hospital 2 ($61.15 versus $104.85 per patient). When extrapolated to the total number of patients expected to use FMS at each institution, substantial annual cost savings were projected (hospital 1: $57,216; hospital 2: $627,095). In addition, total nursing time per day for managing fecal incontinence (ie, changing, cleaning, repositioning patients, changing pads, linens, and the like) was estimated at hospital 1, showing substantial reductions with FMS (120 minutes versus 348 minutes for average patients; 240 minutes versus 760 minutes for complex). Nursing time was not included in cost calculations to keep the analysis conservative. Results of this study suggest the materials cost of using the FMS in ICU patients was substantially lower than the cost of traditional fecal incontinence management protocols of care in both hospitals. Comparative studies using patient level data, materials, and nursing time costs, as well as complication rates, are warranted.

  15. Curbing pollution in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1991-03-01

    Existing policies to control pollution are inadequate especially those in developing countries. National economic policies do not consider environmental effects. For example, some governments subsidize fossil fuels, water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Those governments in the process of restructuring pollution control policies must seek ways to reduce their conceivable side effects on economic growth, revenue raising, and equity. They need to consider key administrative, technological, and institutional drawbacks and depend on numerous fiscal means to complement more traditional pollution control mechanism. They must intervene to prevent or reduce pollution since markets do not consider the interests of those affected by pollution. They can do so by imposing regulations on polluters, taxing emissions, limiting the amount of pollution, subsidizing cleaner options, and/or assigning and enforcing property rights. Pollution and environmental quality standards im most developing countries parallel those in the US and in Europe, but these standards are not effective because monitoring, enforcement, and regulatory capacities are inclined to be weak. In the early phases of pollution control, governments should tax fixed inputs (e.g., fuels) based on the level of expected emissions. These taxes would advance public budgets. For transnational pollution problems, affected nations should negotiate together and consider international transfers to support environmental solutions. When developing policy, governments must consider the competitive behavior of the marketplace and how people and companies will react to policy tools. These prudent considerations will define the likelihood of reducing costs and strengthen the efficiency of intervention thus determining the ability to afford environmental protection.

  16. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  17. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATIONS RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable emphasis has been placed on developing watershed-based strategies with the potential to reduce non-point-source fecal contamination. Molecular methods applied used 16S-ribosomal-deoxyribonucleic-acid (rDNA) to try to determine sources of fecal contamination. Objectiv...

  18. Denitrification on internal carbon sources in RAS is limited by fibers in fecal waste of rainbow trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Kamstra, A.; Busscher, J.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification on internal carbon sources offers the advantage to control nitrate levels in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) by using the fecal carbon produced within the husbandry system. However, it is not clear to which extent fecal carbon can be utilized by the microbial community within

  19. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition.......Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition....

  20. Dietary quality, fecal nitrogen and 2,6 diaminopimelic acid in black-tailed deer in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Kie; Timothy S. Burton

    1984-01-01

    Range managers need easily measured indices of dietary quality to ensure high quality forage for deer. Levels of fecal nitrogen and fecal 2,6 diaminopimelic acid, which have been suggested as such indices, were monitored for two herds of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in northern California. Both values were highest in summer...