WorldWideScience

Sample records for human respiratory system

  1. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  2. Dynamics of human respiratory system mycoflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Biedunkiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determing the prevalence of individual species of fungi in the respiratory systems of women and men, analysis of the dynamics of the fungi in individual sections of the respiratory system as concerns their quantity and identification of phenology of the isolated fungi coupled with an attempt at identifying their possible preferences for appearing during specific seasons of thc year. During 10 years of studies (1989- 1998. 29 species of fungi belonging: Candida, Geolrichum, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Schizosaccharomyces, Torulopsis, Trichosporon and Aspergillus were isolated from the ontocenoses of the respiratory systems of patients at the Independent Public Center for Pulmonology and Oncology in Olsztyn. Candida albicans was a clearly dominating fungus. Individual species appeared individually, in twos or threes in a single patient, they were isolated more frequently in the spring and autumn, less frequently during the winter and summer. The largest number of fungi species were isolated from sputum (29 species, bronchoscopic material (23 species and pharyngeal swabs (15 species. Sacchoromycopsis capsularis and Trichosporon beigelii should be treated as new for the respiratory system. Biodiversity of fungi, their numbers and continous fluctuations in frequency indicate that the respiratory system ontocenose offers the optimum conditions for growth and development of the majority of the majority of yeasts - like fungi.

  3. Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory System

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Jiyuan; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2013-01-01

    Traditional research methodologies in the human respiratory system have always been challenging due to their invasive nature. Recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have accelerated this research. This book compiles and details recent advances in the modelling of the respiratory system for researchers, engineers, scientists, and health practitioners. It breaks down the complexities of this field and provides both students and scientists with an introduction and starting point to the physiology of the respiratory system, fluid dynamics and advanced CFD modeling tools. In addition to a brief introduction to the physics of the respiratory system and an overview of computational methods, the book contains best-practice guidelines for establishing high-quality computational models and simulations. Inspiration for new simulations can be gained through innovative case studies as well as hands-on practice using pre-made computational code. Last but not least, students and researcher...

  4. 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the human respiratory system that allows for the simulation of particulate based contaminant deposition and clearance, while being adaptable for age, ethnicity,...

  5. Computational 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a comprehensive, morphologically-realistic computational model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while being adaptable for age, race, gender, and health/disease status. The model ...

  6. A Novel Parametric Model For The Human Respiratory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mihaela IONESCU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present some recent results in an ongoing research project between Ghent University and Chess Medical Technology Company Belgium. The overall aim of the project is to provide a fast method for identification of the human respiratory system in order to allow for an instantaneously diagnosis of the patient by the medical staff. A novel parametric model of the human respiratory system as well as the obtained experimental results is presented in this paper. A prototype apparatus developed by the company, based on the forced oscillation technique is used to record experimental data from 4 patients in this paper. Signal processing is based on spectral analysis and is followed by the parametric identification of a non-linear mechanistic model. The parametric model is equivalent to the structure of a simple electrical RLC-circuit, containing a non-linear capacitor. These parameters have a useful and easy-to-interpret physical meaning for the medical staff members.

  7. Mobilisation of toxic elements in the human respiratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L.C.; Palhano, M.J.; Bugalho de Almeida, A.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of respired particles in the respiratory system is inferred through the chemical characterisation of individual particles at the tracheal and bronchial mucosas, and the accumulation of toxic elements in lung alveoli and lymph nodes. The particles and tissue elemental distributions were identified and characterised using micro-PIXE elemental mapping of thin frozen sections using the ITN Nuclear Microprobe facility. Significant particle deposits are found at the distal respiratory tract. Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn are elements detected at these accumulation areas. The elemental distributions in the different cellular environments of lymph nodes vary. The major compartments for Al, Si, Ti, Fe and Cr are the phagocytic cells and capsule of lymph nodes, while V and Ni are in the cortex and paracortex medullar areas which retain more than 70% of these two elements, suggesting high solubility of the latter in the cellular milieu. The elemental mobilisation from particles or deposits to surrounding tissues at the respiratory ducts evidences patterns of diffusion and removal that are different than those for elements in the respiratory tract. Mobilisation of elements such as V, Cr and Ni is more relevant at alveoli areas where gaseous exchange takes place. The apparent high solubility of V and Ni in the respiratory tract tissue points towards a deviation of the lymphatic system filtering efficiency for these elements when compared to others

  8. Mathematical modelling of a human external respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A closed system of algebraic and common differential equations solved by computer is investigated. It includes equations which describe the activity pattern of the respiratory center, the phrenic nerve, the thrust produced by the diaphragm as a function of the lung volume and discharge frequency of the phrenic nerve, as well as certain relations of the lung stretch receptors and chemoreceptors on various lung and blood characteristics, equations for lung biomechanics, pulmonary blood flow, alveolar gas exchange and capillary blood composition equations to determine various air and blood flow and gas exchange parameters, and various gas mixing and arterial and venous blood composition equations, to determine other blood, air and gas mixing characteristics. Data are presented by means of graphs and tables, and some advantages of this model over others are demonstrated by test results.

  9. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  10. Research Summary 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Model Of The Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the human respiratory system that allows for the simulation of particulate based contaminant deposition and clearance, while being adaptable for age, ethnicity,...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Hemodynamic and Physiological Responses of Human Cardiovascular and Respiratory System under Drugs Administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 295-304 ISSN 1567-8822 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1073; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : human cardiovascular and respiratory system * baroreflex and chemoreflex control * physiologically based pharmacokinetic model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  12. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  13. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection: A revision of the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) appointed a task group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. The model was originally published in 1966, modified slightly in Publication No. 19, and again in Publication No. 30 (in 1979). The task group concluded that research during the past 20 y suggested certain deficiencies in the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. Research has also provided sufficient information for a revision of the model. The task group's approach has been to review, in depth, morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract; deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract; clearance of deposited materials; and the nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled radioactive substances. This review has led to a redefinition of the regions of the respiratory tract for dosimetric purposes. The redefinition has a morphologic and physiological basis and is consistent with observed deposition and clearance of particles and with resultant pathology. Regions, as revised, are the extrathoracic (E-T) region, comprising the nasal and oral regions, the pharynx, larynx, and upper part of the trachea; the fast-clearing thoracic region (T[f]), comprising the remainder of the trachea and bronchi; and the slow-clearing thoracic region (T[s]), comprising the bronchioles, alveoli, and thoracic lymph nodes. A task group report will include models for calculating radiation doses to these regions of the respiratory tract following inhalation of representative alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting particulate and gaseous radionuclides. The models may be implemented as a package of computer codes available to a wide range of users

  14. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  15. Effects of Long-Term Dust Exposure on Human Respiratory System Health in Minqin County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyu; Li, Sheng; Wang, Shigong; Shang, Kezheng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of long-term sand dust exposure on human respiratory health. Dust events break out frequently in Minqin County, northwest China, whereas Pingliang City, northwest China, is rarely influenced by dust events. Therefore, Minqin and Pingliang were selected as sand dust exposure region and control area, respectively. The incidence of respiratory system diseases and symptoms was determined through a structured respiratory health questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-A) and personal interviews. The subjects comprised 728 farmers (Minqin, 424; Pingliang, 304) aged 40 years or older, who had nondocumented occupational history to industrial dust exposure. Prevalences (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) of chronic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, and chronic cough increased 9.6% (3.141, 1.776-5.555), 7.5% (2.468, 1.421-4.286), and 10.2% (1.787, 1.246-2.563) in Minqin comparison with Pingliang, respectively, and the differences were significant (p <.01).

  16. Functional Impairment of Mononuclear Phagocyte System by the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bohmwald

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ, and dendritic cells (DCs. MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV. The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma. Monocytes, MΦ, and DCs significantly contribute to acute inflammation during hRSV-induced bronchiolitis and asthma exacerbation. Furthermore, these cells seem to be an important component for the association between hRSV and reactive airway disease. After hRSV infection, the first cells encountered by the virus are respiratory epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages (AMs, DCs, and monocytes in the airways. Because AMs constitute the predominant cell population at the alveolar space in healthy subjects, these cells work as major innate sentinels for the recognition of pathogens. Although adaptive immunity is crucial for viral clearance, AMs are required for the early immune response against hRSV, promoting viral clearance and controlling immunopathology. Furthermore, exposure to hRSV may affect the phagocytic and microbicidal capacity of monocytes and MΦs against other infectious agents. Finally, different studies have addressed the roles of different DC subsets during infection by hRSV. In this review article, we discuss the role of the lung MPS during hRSV infection and their involvement in the development of bronchiolitis.

  17. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanohorns in different human cells of the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Franziska; Lange, Martina; Hoppmann, Pia; Heutelbeck, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    One of the new synthetic carbon-based nanomaterials is carbon nanohorns (CNH). A potential risk for employees of production processes is an unintentional intake of these nanomaterials via inhalation. Once taken up, nanoparticles might interact with cells of different tissues as well as with intercellular substances. These interactions may have far-reaching consequences for human health. Currently, many gaps in available information on the CNH toxicological profile remain. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of CNH particles on human epithelial cells of the respiratory system with special consideration given to different particle sizes. In all cell lines, cell viability was reduced after 24 h of exposure up to 60% and metabolic activity as evidenced by mitochondrial activity was lowered to 9% at a concentration of 1 g/L. The three respiratory cell lines differed in their sensitivity. The most robust cells were the bronchial epithelial cells. Further, particle size fractions induced different adverse effect strength, whereby no correlation between particle size fraction and toxicity was found. These findings demonstrate the need for further information regarding the behavior and effect strength of nanomaterial. To avoid the production of new harmful materials, a more comprehensive integration of results from toxicity studies in the development processes of engineered nanomaterials is recommended not only from an occupational viewpoint but also from an environmental perspective.

  18. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  19. A Two-Dimensional Human Minilung System (Model for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Magro-Lopez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is a major cause of serious pediatric respiratory diseases that lacks effective vaccine or specific therapeutics. Although our understanding about HRSV biology has dramatically increased during the last decades, the need for adequate models of HRSV infection is compelling. We have generated a two-dimensional minilung from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. The differentiation protocol yielded at least six types of lung and airway cells, although it is biased toward the generation of distal cells. We show evidence of HRSV replication in lung cells, and the induction of innate and proinflammatory responses, thus supporting its use as a model for the study of HRSV–host interactions.

  20. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  1. Human nasal turbinates as a viable source of respiratory epithelial cells using co-culture system versus dispase-dissociation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noruddin, Nur Adelina Ahmad; Saim, Aminuddin B; Chua, Kien Hui; Idrus, Ruszymah

    2007-12-01

    To compare a co-culture system with a conventional dispase-dissociation method for obtaining functional human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates for tissue engineering application. Human respiratory epithelial cells were serially passaged using a co-culture system and a conventional dispase-dissociation technique. The growth kinetics and gene expression levels of the cultured respiratory epithelial cells were compared. Four genes were investigated, namely cytokeratin-18, a marker for ciliated and secretory epithelial cells; cytokeratin-14, a marker for basal epithelial cells; MKI67, a proliferation marker; and MUC5B, a marker for mucin secretion. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies against the high molecular-weight cytokeratin 34 beta E12, cytokeratin 18, and MUC5A to investigate the protein expression from cultured respiratory epithelial cells. Respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both methods maintained polygonal morphology throughout the passages. At passage 1, co-cultured respiratory epithelial showed a 2.6-times higher growth rate compared to conventional dispase dissociation technique, and 7.8 times higher at passage 2. Better basal gene expression was observed by co-cultured respiratory epithelial cells compared to dispase dissociated cells. Immunocytochemical analyses were positive for the respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both techniques. Co-culture system produced superior quality of cultured human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates as compared to dispase dissociation technique.

  2. A mathematical model of transport and regional uptake of radioactive gases in the human respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Inseok

    The purpose of this research is to describe the development of a mathematical model of diffusion, convection, and lateral transport into the airway wall and alveolar absorption for inhaled radioactive gases in the human conductive and respiratory airways based on a Single Path Trumpet-bell model (SPM). Mathematical simulation models have been used successfully to study transport, absorption into the blood through alveoli, and lung tissue uptake of soluble and nonreactive radioactive gases. Results from such simulations also show clearly that inhaled radioactive gases are absorbed into the lung tissues as well as into the blood through the alveoli. In contrast to previous reports in the literature, the present study found that blood uptake through alveoli is much greater than that calculated previously. Regional depositions in the lung from inhaled radioactive gases are presented as the result of this simulation. The committed effective dose to lung tissue due to submersion in radioactive clouds has been newly defined using the results of this simulation.

  3. Doping and respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, L; Pinchi, G; Puxeddu, E

    2007-03-01

    Historically many different drugs have been used to enhance sporting performances. The magic elixir is still elusive and the drugs are still used despite the heavy adverse effects. The respiratory system is regularly involved in this research probably because of its central location in the body with several connections to the cardiovascular system. Moreover people are aware that O2 consumption and its delivery to mitochondria firstly depend on ventilation and on the respiratory exchanges. The second step consists in the tendency to increase V'O2 max and to prolong its availability with the aim of improving the endurance time and to relieve the fatigue. Many methods and substances had been used in order to gain an artificial success. Additional oxygen, autologous and homologous transfusion and erythropoietin, mainly the synthetic type, have been administered with the aim of increasing the amount of oxygen being delivered to the tissues. Some compounds like stimulants and caffeine are endowed of excitatory activity on the CNS and stimulate pulmonary ventilation. They did not prove to have any real activity in supporting the athletic performances. Beta-adrenergic drugs, particularly clenbuterol, when administered orally or parenterally develop a clear illicit activity on the myosin fibres and on the muscles as a whole. Salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol and formoterol are legally admitted when administrated by MDI in the treatment of asthma. The prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperactivity is higher in athletes than amongst the general population. This implies that clear rules must be provided to set a correct diagnosis of asthma in the athletes and a correct therapy to align with the actual guidelines according to the same rights of the "other" asthmatic patients.

  4. Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Deposition Within an In Vitro Exposure System for Simulating Exposure in the Human Respiratory Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Shinkichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the risk assessment of airborne chemicals, a variety of in vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to replicate airborne chemical exposure in vivo. Since cells at the air-liquid interface are exposed to cigarette smoke as an aerosol in direct exposure systems, it is possible to reproduce the situation of cigarette smoke exposure in the human respiratory system using this device. However it is difficult to know whether the exposed cigarette smoke in this system is consistent with the smoke retained in the human respiratory tract. The purpose of this study is to clarify this point using the CULTEX® RFS module which is a recently developed direct exposure system. For this purpose, solanesol and acetaldehyde were respectively chosen as the particulate and gas/vapor phase representatives of smoke constituents, and their deposition and balance per unit area of cell culture surface of the RFS module were measured (dosimetry. We also conducted human retention studies to compare with the dosimetry data. By comparing inhaled smoke and exhaled smoke under three inhalation conditions, we estimated the regional retention and balance of each representative per unit surface area of the respiratory tract (mouth, bronchi, and alveoli separately. The deposition of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit area of cell culture surface in the RFS module decreased dependent on the dilution flow rate and ranged from 0.26-0.0076%/cm2 in our experimental conditions. The ratio of deposited acetaldehyde to deposited solanesol ranged from 0.96-1.96 in the RFS module. The retention of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit surface area in the mouth and the bronchi ranged from 0.095-0.0083%/cm2 in this study. The retention per unit surface area of alveoli was far lower than in the other two regions (0.0000063%/cm2. The ratio of retained acetaldehyde to retained solanesol ranged from 0.54-1.97. From these results, we concluded that the CULTEX® RFS module can simulate

  5. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  6. Respiratory care management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Richard M

    2004-04-01

    Hospital-wide computerized information systems evolved from the need to capture patient information and perform billing and other financial functions. These systems, however, have fallen short of meeting the needs of respiratory care departments regarding work load assessment, productivity management, and the level of outcome reporting required to support programs such as patient-driven protocols. The respiratory care management information systems (RCMIS) of today offer many advantages over paper-based systems and hospital-wide computer systems. RCMIS are designed to facilitate functions specific to respiratory care, including assessing work demand, assigning and tracking resources, charting, billing, and reporting results. RCMIS incorporate mobile, point-of-care charting and are highly configurable to meet the specific needs of individual respiratory care departments. Important and substantial benefits can be realized with an RCMIS and mobile, wireless charting devices. The initial and ongoing costs of an RCMIS are justified by increased charge capture and reduced costs, by way of improved productivity and efficiency. It is not unusual to recover the total cost of an RCMIS within the first year of its operation. In addition, such systems can facilitate and monitor patient-care protocols and help to efficiently manage the vast amounts of information encountered during the practitioner's workday. Respiratory care departments that invest in RCMIS have an advantage in the provision of quality care and in reducing expenses. A centralized respiratory therapy department with an RCMIS is the most efficient and cost-effective way to monitor work demand and manage the hospital-wide allocation of respiratory care services.

  7. Development of a bolus injection system for regional deposition studies of nanoparticles in the human respiratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koujalagi, V; Semple, S; Ayres, J G; Ramesh, S L; Gunarathne, G P P

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the work carried out in developing a precision bolus injection system in order to understand the regional deposition of nanoparticles (NP) in human lung. A real-time control system has been developed that is capable of storing graphite NP, assessing human breathing pattern and delivering a bolus of the stored NP at a pre-determined instance of the inhalation phase of breathing. This will form the basis for further development of a system to deliver radioactive nanoparticles to enable 3-dimensional lung imaging using techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET). The system may then be used to better understand the actual regional deposition in human lung, which could validate or challenge the current computational lung models such as that published by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP-1994). A dose related response to inhaled PM can possibly be shown, which can be used to review the current workplace exposure limits (WELs).

  8. Development of a bolus injection system for regional deposition studies of nanoparticles in the human respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koujalagi, V.; Ramesh, S. L.; Gunarathne, G. P. P.; Semple, S.; Ayres, J. G.

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the work carried out in developing a precision bolus injection system in order to understand the regional deposition of nanoparticles (NP) in human lung. A real-time control system has been developed that is capable of storing graphite NP, assessing human breathing pattern and delivering a bolus of the stored NP at a pre-determined instance of the inhalation phase of breathing. This will form the basis for further development of a system to deliver radioactive nanoparticles to enable 3-dimensional lung imaging using techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET). The system may then be used to better understand the actual regional deposition in human lung, which could validate or challenge the current computational lung models such as that published by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP-1994). A dose related response to inhaled PM can possibly be shown, which can be used to review the current workplace exposure limits (WELs).

  9. Respiratory guiding system for respiratory motion management in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Tae Suk

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory guiding systems have been shown to improve the respiratory regularity. This, in turn, improves the efficiency of synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy, and it reduces the artifacts caused by irregular breathing in imaging techniques such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), which is used for treatment planning in RGRT. We have previously developed a respiratory guiding system that incorporates an individual-specific guiding waveform, which is easy to follow for each volunteer, to improve the respiratory regularity. The present study evaluates the application of this system to improve the respiratory regularity for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system incorporating an individual specific guiding waveform to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. Most volunteers showed significantly less residual motion at each phase during guided breathing owing to the improvement in respiratory regularity. Therefore, the respiratory guiding system can clearly reduce the residual, or respiratory, motion in each phase. From the result, the CTV and the PTV margins during RGRT can be reduced by using the respiratory guiding system, which reduces the residual motions, thus improving the accuracy of RGRT

  10. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  11. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  12. Respiratory analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements.

  13. New ICRP human respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The new ICRP dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses. The model is also directly applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. The requirement to describe intake, and deposition, clearance and dosimetry in each respiratory tract region, for a wide range of subjects at various levels of exercise necessarily means that the model is more complex than that of ICRP Publication 30. The widespread use of powerful personal computers, and the availability of user-friendly software to implement the model, however, will make it widely and readily accessible when the report is published. (Author)

  14. The Virome and Its Major Component, Anellovirus, a Convoluted System Molding Human Immune Defenses and Possibly Affecting the Development of Asthma and Respiratory Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Freer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome, a thriving and complex microbial community colonizing the human body, has a broad impact on human health. Colonization is a continuous process that starts very early in life and occurs thanks to shrewd strategies microbes have evolved to tackle a convoluted array of anatomical, physiological, and functional barriers of the human body. Cumulative evidence shows that viruses are part of the microbiome. This part, called virome, has a dynamic composition that reflects what we eat, how and where we live, what we do, our genetic background, and other unpredictable variables. Thus, the virome plays a chief role in shaping innate and adaptive host immune defenses. Imbalance of normal microbial flora is thought to trigger or exacerbate many acute and chronic disorders. A compelling example can be found in the respiratory apparatus, where early-life viral infections are major determinants for the development of allergic diseases, like asthma, and other non-transmissible diseases. In this review, we focus on the virome and, particularly, on Anelloviridae, a recently discovered virus family. Anelloviruses are major components of the virome, present in most, if not all, human beings, where they are acquired early in life and replicate persistently without causing apparent disease. We will discuss how modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems by Anelloviruses can influence the development of respiratory diseases in childhood and provide evidence for the use of Anelloviruses as useful and practical molecular markers to monitor inflammatory processes and immune system competence.

  15. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  16. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Malay; Madabhavi, Irappa; Niranjan, Narasimhalu; Dogra, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion. PMID:26229557

  17. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion.

  18. Cleavage of a Neuroinvasive Human Respiratory Virus Spike Glycoprotein by Proprotein Convertases Modulates Neurovirulence and Virus Spread within the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Le Coupanec

    Full Text Available Human coronaviruses (HCoV are respiratory pathogens that may be associated with the development of neurological diseases, in view of their neuroinvasive and neurotropic properties. The viral spike (S glycoprotein is a major virulence factor for several coronavirus species, including the OC43 strain of HCoV (HCoV-OC43. In an attempt to study the role of this protein in virus spread within the central nervous system (CNS and neurovirulence, as well as to identify amino acid residues important for such functions, we compared the sequence of the S gene found in the laboratory reference strain HCoV-OC43 ATCC VR-759 to S sequences of viruses detected in clinical isolates from the human respiratory tract. We identified one predominant mutation at amino acid 758 (from RRSR↓ G758 to RRSR↓R758, which introduces a putative furin-like cleavage (↓ site. Using a molecular cDNA infectious clone to generate a corresponding recombinant virus, we show for the first time that such point mutation in the HCoV-OC43 S glycoprotein creates a functional cleavage site between the S1 and S2 portions of the S protein. While the corresponding recombinant virus retained its neuroinvasive properties, this mutation led to decreased neurovirulence while potentially modifying the mode of virus spread, likely leading to a limited dissemination within the CNS. Taken together, these results are consistent with the adaptation of HCoV-OC43 to the CNS environment, resulting from the selection of quasi-species harboring mutations that lead to amino acid changes in viral genes, like the S gene in HCoV-OC43, which may contribute to a more efficient establishment of a less pathogenic but persistent CNS infection. This adaptative mechanism could potentially be associated with human encephalitis or other neurological degenerative pathologies.

  19. Investigations of respiratory control systems simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Grodins' respiratory control model was investigated and it was determined that the following modifications were necessary before the model would be adaptable for current research efforts: (1) the controller equation must be modified to allow for integration of the respiratory system model with other physiological systems; (2) the system must be more closely correlated to the salient physiological functionings; (3) the respiratory frequency and the heart rate should be expanded to illustrate other physiological relationships and dependencies; and (4) the model should be adapted to particular individuals through a better defined set of initial parameter values in addition to relating these parameter values to the desired environmental conditions. Several of Milhorn's respiratory control models were also investigated in hopes of using some of their features as modifications for Grodins' model.

  20. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented.

  1. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  2. Scaling laws for oxygen transport across the space-filling system of respiratory membranes in the human lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chen

    Space-filling fractal surfaces play a fundamental role in how organisms function at various levels and in how structure determines function at different levels. In this thesis, we develop a quantitative theory of oxygen transport to and across the surface of the highly branched, space-filling system of alveoli, the fundamental gas exchange unit (acinar airways), in the human lung. Oxygen transport in the acinar airways is by diffusion, and we treat the two steps---diffusion through the branched airways, and transfer across the alveolar membranes---as a stationary diffusion-reaction problem, taking into account that there may be steep concentration gradients between the entrance and remote alveoli (screening). We develop a renormalization treatment of this screening effect and derive an analytic formula for the oxygen current across the cumulative alveolar membrane surface, modeled as a fractal, space-filling surface. The formula predicts the current from a minimum of morphological data of the acinus and appropriate values of the transport parameters, through a number of power laws (scaling laws). We find that the lung at rest operates near the borderline between partial screening and no screening; that it switches to no screening under exercise; and that the computed currents agree with measured values within experimental uncertainties. From an analysis of the computed current as a function of membrane permeability, we find that the space-filling structure of the gas exchanger is simultaneously optimal with respect to five criteria. The exchanger (i) generates a maximum oxygen current at minimum permeability; (ii) 'wastes' a minimum of surface area; (iii) maintains a minimum residence time of oxygen in the acinar airways; (iv) has a maximum fault tolerance to loss of permeability; and (v) generates a maximum current increase when switching from rest to exercise.

  3. The Respiratory System. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit with instructor's guide provides materials on aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the respiratory system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human respiratory system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to famlliarize the student with some of the…

  4. Human herpesviruses respiratory infections in patients with acute respiratory distress (ARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoli, Manuela; Arvia, Rosaria; di Valvasone, Simona; Liotta, Francesco; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Azzi, Alberta; Peris, Adriano

    2016-08-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is today a leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU). ARDS and pneumonia are closely related to critically ill patients; however, the etiologic agent is not always identified. The presence of human herpes simplex virus 1, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in respiratory samples of critically ill patients is increasingly reported even without canonical immunosuppression. The main aim of this study was to better understand the significance of herpesviruses finding in lower respiratory tract of ARDS patients hospitalized in ICU. The presence of this group of herpesviruses, in addition to the research of influenza viruses and other common respiratory viruses, was investigated in respiratory samples from 54 patients hospitalized in ICU, without a known microbiological causative agent. Moreover, the immunophenotype of each patient was analyzed. Herpesviruses DNA presence in the lower respiratory tract seemed not attributable to an impaired immunophenotype, whereas a significant correlation was observed between herpesviruses positivity and influenza virus infection. A higher ICU mortality was significantly related to the presence of herpesvirus infection in the lower respiratory tract as well as to impaired immunophenotype, as patients with poor outcome showed severe lymphopenia, affecting in particular T (CD3+) cells, since the first days of ICU hospitalization. In conclusion, these results indicate that herpesviruses lower respiratory tract infection, which occurs more frequently following influenza virus infection, can be a negative prognostic marker. An independent risk factor for ICU patients with ARDS is an impaired immunophenotype.

  5. Numerical simulation of volume-controlled mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Bolun; Cai, Maolin; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a key therapy for patients who cannot breathe adequately by themselves, and dynamics of mechanical ventilation system is of great significance for life support of patients. Recently, models of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 1 lung are used to simulate the respiratory system of patients. However, humans have 2 lungs. When the respiratory characteristics of 2 lungs are different, a single-lung model cannot reflect real respiratory system. In this paper, to illustrate dynamic characteristics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs, we propose a mathematical model of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs and conduct experiments to verify the model. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs. This research study can be used for improving the efficiency and safety of volume-controlled mechanical ventilation system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  7. Human respiratory syncytial virus load normalized by cell quantification as predictor of acute respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Novo, Miriam; Boga, José A; Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta E; Rojo-Alba, Susana; Fernández, Ana; Menéndez, María J; de Oña, María; Melón, Santiago

    2018-05-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections. The main objective is to analyze the prediction ability of viral load of HRSV normalized by cell number in respiratory symptoms. A prospective, descriptive, and analytical study was performed. From 7307 respiratory samples processed between December 2014 to April 2016, 1019 HRSV-positive samples, were included in this study. Low respiratory tract infection was present in 729 patients (71.54%). Normalized HRSV load was calculated by quantification of HRSV genome and human β-globin gene and expressed as log10 copies/1000 cells. HRSV mean loads were 4.09 ± 2.08 and 4.82 ± 2.09 log10 copies/1000 cells in the 549 pharyngeal and 470 nasopharyngeal samples, respectively (P respiratory tract infection and 4.22 ± 2.28 log10 copies/1000 cells with upper respiratory tract infection or febrile syndrome (P < 0.05). A possible cut off value to predict LRTI evolution was tentatively established. Normalization of viral load by cell number in the samples is essential to ensure an optimal virological molecular diagnosis avoiding that the quality of samples affects the results. A high viral load can be a useful marker to predict disease progression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Respiratory system. Part 2: Gaseous exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair

    This article, which isthe last in the life sciences series and the second of two articles on the respiratory system, describes gaseous exchange in the lungs, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and internal and external respiration. The article concludes with a brief consideration of two conditions that affect gas exchange and transport: carbon monoxide poisoning and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  9. Endocan and the respiratory system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechagia M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria Kechagia,1,2 Ioannis Papassotiriou,2 Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis1 1Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, Larissa, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Endocan, formerly called endothelial cell-specific molecule 1, is an endothelial cell-associated proteoglycan that is preferentially expressed by renal and pulmonary endothelium. It is upregulated by proangiogenic molecules as well as by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and since it reflects endothelial activation and dysfunction, it is regarded as a novel tissue and blood-based relevant biomarker. As such, it is increasingly being researched and evaluated in a wide spectrum of healthy and disease pathophysiological processes. Here, we review the present scientific knowledge on endocan, with emphasis on the evidence that underlines its possible clinical value as a prognostic marker in several malignant, inflammatory and obstructive disorders of the respiratory system. Keywords: endocan, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, respiratory disorders

  10. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    membrane of the eyes, mouth, or nose and possibly through the ... transmembrane anchor near the C terminus. It is cleaved into two ... immunity induced by previous strains (Hall, 2001). Fluctuations in the .... isolation, and other serological techniques. Antigen .... Respiratory syncytial virus in B.N. fields, D.M. Knipe and.

  11. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p infected children required respiratory support. hMPV is present in young.......6%) ARTI episodes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting the hMPV N gene and the RSV L gene. Two children were co-infected with hMPV and RSV. They were excluded from statistical analysis. Hospitalization for ARTI caused by hMPV was restricted to very young...

  12. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  13. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  14. Evaluation of the new respiratory gating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengyu; Tang, Xiaoli; Chan, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The newly released Respiratory Gating for Scanners (RGSC; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) system has limited existing quality assurance (QA) protocols and pertinent publications. Herein, we report our experiences of the RGSC system acceptance and QA. Methods The RGSC system integration was tested with peripheral equipment, spatial reproducibility, and dynamic localization accuracy for regular and irregular breathing patterns, respectively. A QUASAR Respiratory Motion Phantom and a mathematical fitting method were used for data acquisition and analysis. Results The results showed that the RGSC system could accurately measure regular motion periods of 3–10 s. For irregular breathing patterns, differences from the existing Real-time Position Management (RPM; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) system were observed. For dynamic localization measurements, the RGSC system showed 76% agreement with the programmed test data within ±5% tolerance in terms of fitting period. As s comparison, the RPM system showed 66% agreement within ±5% tolerance, and 65% for the RGSC versus RPM measurements. Conclusions New functions and positioning accuracy improve the RGSC system’s ability to achieve higher dynamic treatment precision. A 4D phantom is helpful for the QA tests. Further investigation is required for the whole RGSC system performance QA. PMID:29722356

  15. Equation Discovery for Model Identification in Respiratory Mechanics of the Mechanically Ventilated Human Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzert, Steven; Guttmann, Josef; Steinmann, Daniel; Kramer, Stefan

    Lung protective ventilation strategies reduce the risk of ventilator associated lung injury. To develop such strategies, knowledge about mechanical properties of the mechanically ventilated human lung is essential. This study was designed to develop an equation discovery system to identify mathematical models of the respiratory system in time-series data obtained from mechanically ventilated patients. Two techniques were combined: (i) the usage of declarative bias to reduce search space complexity and inherently providing the processing of background knowledge. (ii) A newly developed heuristic for traversing the hypothesis space with a greedy, randomized strategy analogical to the GSAT algorithm. In 96.8% of all runs the applied equation discovery system was capable to detect the well-established equation of motion model of the respiratory system in the provided data. We see the potential of this semi-automatic approach to detect more complex mathematical descriptions of the respiratory system from respiratory data.

  16. Verification and compensation of respiratory motion using an ultrasound imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Chiu, Wei-Hung; Tien, Der-Chi; Wu, Ren-Hong; Hsu, Chung-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to use ultrasound imaging as an aid for moving the treatment couch during diagnosis and treatment procedures associated with radiation therapy, in order to offset organ displacement caused by respiratory motion. A noninvasive ultrasound system was used to replace the C-arm device during diagnosis and treatment with the aims of reducing the x-ray radiation dose on the human body while simultaneously being able to monitor organ displacements. Methods: This study used a proposed respiratory compensating system combined with an ultrasound imaging system to monitor the compensation effect of respiratory motion. The accuracy of the compensation effect was verified by fluoroscopy, which means that fluoroscopy could be replaced so as to reduce unnecessary radiation dose on patients. A respiratory simulation system was used to simulate the respiratory motion of the human abdomen and a strain gauge (respiratory signal acquisition device) was used to capture the simulated respiratory signals. The target displacements could be detected by an ultrasound probe and used as a reference for adjusting the gain value of the respiratory signal used by the respiratory compensating system. This ensured that the amplitude of the respiratory compensation signal was a faithful representation of the target displacement. Results: The results show that performing respiratory compensation with the assistance of the ultrasound images reduced the compensation error of the respiratory compensating system to 0.81–2.92 mm, both for sine-wave input signals with amplitudes of 5, 10, and 15 mm, and human respiratory signals; this represented compensation of the respiratory motion by up to 92.48%. In addition, the respiratory signals of 10 patients were captured in clinical trials, while their diaphragm displacements were observed simultaneously using ultrasound. Using the respiratory compensating system to offset, the diaphragm

  17. Nation-wide surveillance of human acute respiratory virus infections between 2013 and 2015 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Anna; Lee, Nam-Joo; Chu, Hyuk; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Sung Soon; Choi, Jang-Hoon

    2018-07-01

    The prevalence of eight respiratory viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Korea was investigated through analysis of data recorded by the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Surveillance System (KINRESS) from 2013 to 2015. Nasal aspirate and throat swabs specimens were collected from 36 915 patients with ARIs, and viral nucleic acids were detected by real-time (reverse-transcription) polymerase chain reaction for eight respiratory viruses, including human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSVs), influenza viruses (IFVs), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), human coronaviruses (HCoVs), human rhinovirus (HRV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human bocavirus (HBoV), and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The overall positive rate of patient specimens was 49.4% (18 236/36 915), 5% of which carried two or more viruses simultaneously. HRV (15.6%) was the most predominantly detected virus, followed by IFVs (14.6%), HAdV (7.5%), HPIVs (5.8%), HCoVs (4.2%), HRSVs (3.6%), HBoV (1.9%), and HMPV (1.6%). Most of the ARIs were significantly correlated with clinical symptoms of fever, cough, and runny nose. Although HRV and HAdV were frequently detected throughout the year in patients, other respiratory viruses showed apparent seasonality. HRSVs and IFVs were the major causative agents of acute respiratory diseases in infants and young children. Overall, this study demonstrates a meaningful relationship between viral infection and typical manifestations of known clinical features as well as seasonality, age distribution, and co-infection among respiratory viruses. Therefore, these data could provide useful information for public health management and to enhance patient care for primary clinicians. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Interference Between Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Rhinovirus Infection in Infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, Niek B.; Wu, Pingsheng; Bont, Louis; Blanken, Maarten O; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Chappell, James D; Wang, Li; Yu, Chang; Larkin, Emma K; Carroll, Kecia N; Anderson, Larry J; Moore, Martin L; Sloan, Chantel D; Hartert, Tina V

    2017-01-01

    Background.: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) are the most common viruses associated with acute respiratory tract infections in infancy. Viral interference is important in understanding respiratory viral circulation and the impact of vaccines. Methods.: To study viral

  19. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Guro Hospital, Korea Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory

  20. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum

    2012-01-01

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory guidance

  1. The pressure gradient in the human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Michaela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory airways cause resistance to air flow during inhalation and exhalation. The pressure gradient is necessary to transport the air from the mount (or nose to pulmonary alveoli. The knowledge of pressure gradient (i.e. respiratory airways resistance is also needed to solve the question of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for CFD simulations of aerosol transport. Understanding of aerosol transport in the human lungs can help us to determine the health hazard of harmful particles. On the other hand it can be used to set the conditions for transport of medication to the desirable place. This article deals with the description of the mathematical equations defining the pressure gradient and resistance in the bronchial three and describes the geometry used in the calculation.

  2. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  4. Tetratrichomonads from the oral cavity and respiratory tract of humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutišová, K.; Kulda, J.; Čepička, I.; Flegr, J.; Koudela, Břetislav; Teras, J.; Tachezy, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-11 ISSN 0031-1820 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Karlovy univerzity v Praze(CZ) 264/1999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tetratrichomonas spp. * human respiratory tract * oral cavity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.703, year: 2005

  5. Characterization of novel human respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.

    2011-01-01

    Wereldwijd komen vier humane coronavirussen (HCoVs) voor, waaronder NL63 en 229E. NL63 werd in 2004 ontdekt in het AMC en veroorzaakt de kinderziekte pseudokroep; 229E is een verkoudheidsvirus. Waarschijnlijk veroorzaken beide virussen vergelijkbare symptomen bij volwassenen. Er is weinig bekend

  6. Human torso phantom for imaging of heart with realistic modes of cardiac and respiratory motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutchko, Rostyslav; Balakrishnan, Karthikayan; Gullberg, Grant T; O& #x27; Neil, James P

    2013-09-17

    A human torso phantom and its construction, wherein the phantom mimics respiratory and cardiac cycles in a human allowing acquisition of medical imaging data under conditions simulating patient cardiac and respiratory motion.

  7. Occurrence of human respiratory syncytial virus in summer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobugawa, Y; Takeuchi, T; Hibino, A; Hassan, M R; Yagami, R; Kondo, H; Odagiri, T; Saito, R

    2017-01-01

    In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007-2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.

  8. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  9. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ozone, a pulmonary irritant, causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects that are attributed to neuronal and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. In order to elucidate the systemic consequences and the contribution of the HPA axis in mediating metabolic and respiratory effects of acrolein, a sensory irritant, we examined pulmonary, nasal, and systemic effects in rats following exposure. Male, 10 week old Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed to 0, 2 or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Acrolein exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal damage in both strains as demonstrated by increased inspiratory and expiratory times indicating labored breathing, elevated biomarkers of injury, and neutrophilic inflammation. Overall, at both time points acrolein exposure caused noticeably more damage in the nasal passages as opposed to the lung with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also led to metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK>Wistar) as indicated by glucose tolerance testing. In addition, serum total cholesterol (GKs only), LDL cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK>Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-c

  10. Respiratory monitoring system based on fiber optic macro bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Widyakinanti, Astari; Dhia, Arika; Gumelar, Muhammad Raditya; Widianto, Arif; Randy, Muhammad; Soedibyo, Harry

    2018-02-01

    We proposed a respiratory monitoring system for living activities in human body based on fiber optic macro-bending for laboratory scale. The respiration sensor consists of a single-mode optical fiber and operating on a wavelength at around 1550 nm. The fiber optic was integrated into an elastic fabric placed on the chest and stomach of the monitored human subject. Deformations of the flexible textile involving deformations of the fiber optic bending curvature, which was proportional to the chest and stomach expansion. The deformation of the fiber was detected using photodetector and processed using microcontroller PIC18F14K50. The results showed that this system able to display various respiration pattern and rate for sleeping, and after walking and running activities in real time.

  11. Virtual respiratory system for interactive e-learning of spirometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tomalak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in computer simulation technology offers new possibilities for modern medicine. On one hand – virtual organs can help to create animal or human models for research, on the other hand – e-learning or distant learning through Internet is now possible. The aim of our work was to create a system for interactive learning of spirometry (SILS, enabling students or physicians to observe spirometric measurements (flow-volume modified by setting level and kind of abnormalities within the respiratory system. SILS is based on a virtual respiratory system presented previously in several papers. Its main features are: separation of the lungs and chest; anatomical division of the lungs; division of airway resistance into transmural pressure dependent (Rp and lung volume dependent (Rv parts. The one mathematical formula that represents Rp describes both flow limitation (forced expiration and dependence of Raw on lungs volume (small airflows. The output of system are spirometric parameters (as FEV1, FVC, FEV1%FVC and a flow–volume loop constructed according to results of simulation of forced expiration for the chosen abnormality kind and level. As a result – this system may be used in teaching process in medical schools and postgraduate education. We offer access to a basic version of SILS for students and physicians at: www.spirometry.ibib.waw.pl and www.zpigichp.edu.pl. As we expect feedback from users, it is possible to modify user interface or model features to comply with users' requests.

  12. Human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory infections in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Tran Quynh Nhu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus (HBoV), a novel virus, is recognized to increasingly associate with previously unknown etiology respiratory infections in young children. In this study, the epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics of HBoV infections were described in hospitalized Vietnamese pediatric patients. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1,082 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from patients with acute respiratory infections at the Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Samples were screened for HBoV by PCR and further molecularly characterized by sequencing. HBoV was found in 78 (7.2%) children. Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 66.7% of patients infected with HBoV. Children 12-24 months old were the most affected age group. Infections with HBoV were found year-round, though most cases occurred in the dry season (December-April). HBoV was possible to cause severe diseases as determined by higher rates of hypoxia, pneumonia, and longer hospitalization duration in patients with HBoV infection than in those without (P-value infection with HBoV did not affect the disease severity. The phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene showed minor variations and all HBoV sequences belonged to species 1 (HBoV1). In conclusion, HBoV1 was circulating in Vietnam and detected frequently in young children during dry season. Acute respiratory infections caused by HBoV1 were severe enough for hospitalization, which implied that HBoV1 may have an important role in acute respiratory infections among children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Human coronavirus and severe acute respiratory infection in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Hygor; Faggion, Heloisa Z; Leotte, Jaqueline; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R R; Raboni, Sonia M

    2016-05-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are an important cause of respiratory tract infection and are responsible for causing the common cold in the general population. Thus, adequate surveillance of HCoV is essential. This study aimed to analyze the impact of HCoV infections and their relation to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in a hospitalized population in Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, and assessed inpatients under investigation for SARI by the hospital epidemiology department, and all patients who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from January 2012 to December 2013 to detect respiratory viruses (RVs). Viral infection was detected by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with primers specific to the subtypes HCoV-229E/NL63 and OC43/HKU1. The overall positivity rate was 58.8% (444/755), and HCoVs were detected in 7.6% (n = 34) of positive samples. Children below two years of age were most frequently affected (62%). Comorbidities were more likely to be associated with HCoVs than with other RVs. Immunosuppression was an independent risk factor for HCoV infection (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.6). Dyspnea was less frequently associated with HCoV infection (p infected with HCoV (9%) died from respiratory infection. HCoVs are important respiratory pathogens, especially in hospitalized children under 2 years of age and in immunosuppressed patients. They may account for a small proportion of SARI diagnoses, increased need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and death.

  14. Respiratory compensation to a primary metabolic alkalosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mark; Alvarez, Naiara M; Trevino, Michael; Weinstein, Gary L

    2012-11-01

    There is limited and disparate information about the extent of the respiratory compensation (hypoventilation) that occurs in response to a primary metabolic alkalosis in humans. Our aim was to examine the influence of the plasma bicarbonate concentration, the plasma base excess, and the arterial pH on the arterial carbon dioxide tension in 52 adult patients with primary metabolic alkalosis, mostly due to diuretic use or vomiting. Linear regression analysis was used to correlate degrees of alkalosis with arterial carbon dioxide tensions. In this alkalotic cohort, whose arterial plasma bicarbonate averaged 31.6 mEq/l, plasma base excess averaged 7.8 mEq/l, and pH averaged 7.48, both plasma bicarbonate and base excess correlated closely with arterial carbon dioxide tensions (r = 0.97 and 0.96, respectively; p respiratory compensation (hypoventilation) to primary metabolic alkalosis than has been reported in prior smaller studies.

  15. Respiratory system mechanics during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzotti, L; Vassiliou, M; Amygdalou, A; Psarakis, Ch; Rasmussen, T R; Laopodis, V; Behrakis, P

    2002-04-01

    The influence of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) on the mechanical properties of the respiratory system (RS) was examined using multiple regression analysis (MRA). Measurements of airway pressure (PaO) and flow (V') were obtained from 32 patients at four distinct stages of the LC procedure: 1) Immediately before the application of pneumoperitoneum (PP) at supine position, 2) 5 min after the induction of PP at Trendelenburg position, 3) 5 min after the patients position at reverse Trendelenburg, and 4) 5 min after the end ofthe surgical procedure with the patient again in supine position. Evaluated parameters were the RS elastance (Ers), resistance (Rrs), impedance (Zrs), the angle theta indicating the balance between the elastic and resistive components of the impedance, as well as the end-expiratory elastic recoil pressure (EEP). Ers and Zrs increased considerably during PP and remained elevated immediately after abolishing PP Rrs, on the contrary, returned to pre-operative levels right after the operation. Change of body position from Trendelenburg (T) to reverseTrendelenburg (rT) mainly induced a significant change in theta, thus indicating an increased dominance of the elastic component of Zrs on changing fromT to rT. There was no evidence of increased End-Expiratory Pressure during PP

  16. Ozone exposure increases respiratory epithelial permeability in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.; McCartney, W.H.; Bromberg, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown to cause an increase in the permeability of the respiratory epithelium in animals. We used inhaled aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) to investigate whether human respiratory epithelial permeability is similarly affected by exposure to ozone. In a randomized, crossover double-blinded study, 8 healthy, nonsmoking young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise (minute ventilation = 66.8 L/min). SRaw and FVC were measured before and at the end of exposures. Seventy-five minutes after the exposures, the pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was measured by sequential posterior lung imaging with a computer-assisted gamma camera. Ozone exposure caused respiratory symptoms in all 8 subjects and was associated with a 14 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM) decrement in FVC (p less than 0.001) and a 71 +/- 22% increase in SRaw (p = 0.04). Compared with the air exposure day, 7 of the 8 subjects showed increased /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance after the ozone exposure, with the mean value increasing from 0.59 +/- 0.08 to 1.75 +/- 0.43%/min (p = 0.03). These data show that ozone exposure sufficient to produce decrements in the pulmonary function of human subjects also causes an increase in /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

  17. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AS THE DEBUT OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Ischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.

  18. Influence of indoor formaldehyde pollution on respiratory system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some adults surveyed complained of common respiratory system disorders, including coughing (11.8%), nasal irritation (39.2%), Heterosmia (14.51%), and throat irritation (25.27%); 12% of children suffered from asthma. The analysis identified formaldehyde pollution and ventilation frequency as risk factors for respiratory ...

  19. Impact of cement dust pollution on respiratory systems of Lafarge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, the impact of cement dust pollution on respiratory systems of Lafarge cement workers was evaluated. A total of 120 respondents; 60 from the factory workers and 60 (controls) from Ifo, a nearby village 22 km NE of the factory were interviewed in 2014 using a modified respiratory symptom score ...

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae enhances human respiratory syncytial virus infection in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.T. Nguyen (Tien); R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); Elberse, K. (Karin); G. van Amerongen (Geert); S. Yüksel (Selma); A. Luijendijk (Ad); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); W.P. Duprex (William Paul); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHuman respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are important causative agents of respiratory tract infections. Both pathogens are associated with seasonal disease outbreaks in the pediatric population, and can often be detected simultaneously in infants

  1. CFD heat transfer simulation of the human upper respiratory tract for oronasal breathing condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Farahmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries due to inhalation of hot gas are commonly encountered when dealing with fire and combustible material, which is harmful and threatens human life. In the literature, various studies have been conducted to investigate heat and mass transfer characteristics in the human respiratory tract (HRT. This study focuses on assessing the injury taking place in the upper human respiratory tract and identifying acute tissue damage, based on level of exposure. A three-dimensional heat transfer simulation is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software to study the temperature profile through the upper HRT consisting of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, trachea, and the first two generations of bronchi. The model developed is for the simultaneous oronasal breathing during the inspiration phase with a high volumetric flow rate of 90 liters/minute and the inspired air temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. The geometric model depicting the upper HRT is generated based on the data available and literature cited. The results of the simulation give the temperature distribution along the center and the surface tissue of the respiratory tract. This temperature distribution will help to assess the level of damage induced in the upper respiratory tract and appropriate treatment for the damage. A comparison of nasal breathing, oral breathing, and oronasal breathing is performed. Temperature distribution can be utilized in the design of the respirator systems where inlet temperature is regulated favoring the human body conditions.

  2. Biology of human respiratory syncytial virus: a review | Aliyu | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in young children worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection during infancy and early childhood worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus belongs to the ...

  3. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcner, J.; Jedelsky, J.; Lizal, F.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  4. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  5. Central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity: a rebreathing demonstration illustrating integrative human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Christina M; Skow, Rachel J; Tymko, Michael M; Boulet, Lindsey M; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D; Ainslie, Philip N; Lemieux, Chantelle C M; Day, Trevor A

    2016-03-01

    One of the most effective ways of engaging students of physiology and medicine is through laboratory demonstrations and case studies that combine 1) the use of equipment, 2) problem solving, 3) visual representations, and 4) manipulation and interpretation of data. Depending on the measurements made and the type of test, laboratory demonstrations have the added benefit of being able to show multiple organ system integration. Many research techniques can also serve as effective demonstrations of integrative human physiology. The "Duffin" hyperoxic rebreathing test is often used in research settings as a test of central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of the hyperoxic rebreathing test for both respiratory and cerebrovascular responses to increases in CO2 and illustrate the integration of the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems. In the present article, methods such as spirometry, respiratory gas analysis, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound are described, and raw data traces can be adopted for discussion in a tutorial setting. If educators have these instruments available, instructions on how to carry out the test are provided so students can collect their own data. In either case, data analysis and quantification are discussed, including principles of linear regression, calculation of slope, the coefficient of determination (R(2)), and differences between plotting absolute versus normalized data. Using the hyperoxic rebreathing test as a demonstration of the complex interaction and integration between the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems provides senior undergraduate, graduate, and medical students with an advanced understanding of the integrative nature of human physiology. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  6. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia stabilizes mean arterial blood pressure at high-frequency interval in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Maja; Walløe, Lars; Holme, Nathalie L A; Maes, Elke; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Arterial blood pressure variations are an independent risk factor for end organ failure. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a sign of a healthy cardiovascular system. However, whether RSA counteracts arterial blood pressure variations during the respiratory cycle remains controversial. We restricted normal RSA with non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) to test the hypothesis that RSA normally functions to stabilize mean arterial blood pressure. Ten young volunteers were investigated during metronome-paced breathing and IPPV. Heart rate (ECG), mean arterial blood pressure and left stroke volume (finger arterial pressure curve) and right stroke volume (pulsed ultrasound Doppler) were recorded, while systemic and pulmonary blood flow were calculated beat-by-beat. Respiratory variations (high-frequency power, 0.15-0.40 Hz) in cardiovascular variables were estimated by spectral analysis. Phase angles and correlation were calculated by cross-spectral analysis. The magnitude of RSA was reduced from 4.9 bpm(2) (95% CI 3.0, 6.2) during metronome breathing to 2.8 bpm(2) (95% CI 1.1, 5.0) during IPPV (p = 0.03). Variations in mean arterial blood pressure were greater (2.3 mmHg(2) (95% CI 1.4, 3.9) during IPPV than during metronome breathing (1.0 mmHg(2) [95% CI 0.7, 1.3]) (p = 0.014). Respiratory variations in right and left stroke volumes were inversely related in the respiratory cycle during both metronome breathing and IPPV. RSA magnitude is lower and mean arterial blood pressure variability is greater during IPPV than during metronome breathing. We conclude that in healthy humans, RSA stabilizes mean arterial blood pressure at respiratory frequency.

  7. [Development of expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-hua; Chen, You-ling; Yan, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    To develop an internet-based expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases. SaaS system was used to build architecture; pattern of forward reasoning was applied for inference engine design; ASP.NET with C# from the tool pack of Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used for website-interview medical expert system.The database of the system was constructed with Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The developed expert system contained large data memory and high efficient function of data interview and data analysis for diagnosis of various diseases.The users were able to perform this system to obtain diagnosis for common respiratory diseases via internet. The developed expert system may be used for internet-based diagnosis of various respiratory diseases,particularly in telemedicine setting.

  8. Role of fluorographic examinations in diagnosis of respiratory system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'derman, A.M.; Tsurkan, E.P.; Moskovchuk, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    Materials are considered on the role of fluorography in diagnosis of posttuberculous changes and chromic respiratory system diseases during total epidemiologic examination of 7791 adults from urban and rural population. A scheme is developed that characterize diagnosed pathology of respiratory organs with references to medical establishments rendering medical supervision and forms of supervision. It is shown that fluorograhic examination of the population provide an early diagnosis of both tuberculosis, neoplastic diseases and nonspecific pulmonary diseases that have no visible clinical symptomatology

  9. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  10. Activity of respiratory system during laser irradiation of brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, N. A.; Sergeyeva, L. I.

    1984-06-01

    The performance of one of the principal links of the respiratory system, the respiratory center, was studied as a function of the exposure of the medulla oblongata and the sensomotor zone of the cerebral hemisphere cortex to low level laser irradiation in the red wavelength of the spectrum. Experiments were done on white rats under barbital anesthesia. Under such conditions a substantial effect was observed on the activity of the respiratory center. Laser light may display activating or inhibitory influences, in some cases the bilateral symmetry of the activity of the respiratory center is affected indicating deep changes in the integrative mechanism of the functioning of the right and left sides of the hemispheres. The laser beam effect depends on many factors: specific light properties, duration of the exposure, repetition of exposures, initial functional state of the CNS, etc.

  11. From Head to Toe: Respiratory, Circulatory, and Skeletal Systems. Book 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Arthur, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement curricular programs dealing with the human body, this booklet offers an activity-based, student-oriented approach for middle school teachers and students. Twelve activities focus on principles and skills related to the respiratory, circulatory, and skeletal systems. Each activity consists of student sheets and a teacher's…

  12. Evaluation of Chest Ultrasound Integrated Teaching of Respiratory System Physiology to Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Matteo; Bondì, Michela; Rubini, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a widely used diagnostic technique, whose integration in medical education is constantly growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate chest ultrasound usefulness in teaching respiratory system physiology, students' perception of chest ultrasound integration into a traditional lecture in human physiology, and short-term…

  13. Interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A M; Chadwick, M V; Nicholson, A G; Dewar, A; Groger, R K; Brown, E J; Ratliff, T L; Wilson, R

    2002-01-01

    Endobronchial infection is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in the majority of cases. We have investigated the adherence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the human respiratory mucosa. Organ cultures constructed with human tissue were infected with M. tuberculosis in the presence or absence of mycobacterial fibronectin attachment cell surface proteins and examined by scanning electron microscopy. M. tuberculosis adhered mainly to extracellular matrix (ECM) in areas of mucosal damage, but not to ciliated mucosa, intact extruded cells, basement membrane or collagen fibres. Bacteria also adhered to fibrous but not globular mucus and occasionally to healthy unciliated mucosa, open tight junctions and to extruded cells that had degenerated, exposing their contents. There was a significant reduction (pprotein (FAP) and M. bovis antigen 85B protein, in a concentration dependent manner. The combined effect of FAP and antigen 85B protein was significantly greater than either protein alone. Bacterial adherence to fibrous mucus was not influenced by fibronectin. We conclude that M. tuberculosis adheres to ECM in areas of mucosal damage at least in part via FAP and antigen 85B protein.

  14. Minocycline affects human neutrophil respiratory burst and transendothelial migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Astrid; Indorato, Boris; Paccosi, Sara

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating the in vitro activity of minocycline and doxycycline on human polymorphonuclear (h-PMN) cell function. h-PMNs were isolated from whole venous blood of healthy subjects; PMN oxidative burst was measured by monitoring ROS-induced oxidation of luminol and transendothelial migration was studied by measuring PMN migration through a monolayer of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Differences between multiple groups were determined by ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test; Student's t test for unpaired data for two groups. Minocycline (1-300 µM) concentration dependently and significantly inhibited oxidative burst of h-PMNs stimulated with 100 nM fMLP. Ten micromolar concentrations, which are superimposable to C max following a standard oral dose of minocycline, promoted a 29.8 ± 4 % inhibition of respiratory burst (P minocycline impaired PMN transendothelial migration, with maximal effect at 100 µM (42.5 ± 7 %, inhibition, n = 5, P minocycline exerted on innate immune h-PMN cell function.

  15. [Aging of the respiratory system: anatomical changes and physiological consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketata, W; Rekik, W K; Ayadi, H; Kammoun, S

    2012-10-01

    The respiratory system undergoes progressive involution with age, resulting in anatomical and functional changes that are exerted on all levels. The rib cage stiffens and respiratory muscles weaken. Distal bronchioles have reduced diameter and tend to be collapsed. Mobilized lung volumes decrease with age while residual volume increases. Gas exchanges are modified with a linear decrease of PaO(2) up to the age of 70 years and a decreased diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. Ventilatory responses to hypercapnia, hypoxia and exercise decrease in the elderly. Knowledge of changes in the respiratory system related to advancing age is a medical issue of great importance in order to distinguish the effects of aging from those of diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and integration schemes for physiological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Exercise subroutine modifications are implemented in an exercise-respiratory system model yielding improvement of system response to exercise forcings. A more physiologically desirable respiratory ventilation rate in addition to an improved regulation of arterial gas tensions and cerebral blood flow is observed. A respiratory frequency expression is proposed which would be appropriate as an interfacing element of the respiratory-pulsatile cardiovascular system. Presentation of a circulatory-respiratory system integration scheme along with its computer program listing is given. The integrated system responds to exercise stimulation for both nonstressed and stressed physiological states. Other integration possibilities are discussed with respect to the respiratory, pulsatile cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and the long-term circulatory systems.

  17. Mitochondrial respiratory efficiency is positively correlated with human sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Provenzano, Sara Pinto; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    To correlate sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency with variations in sperm motility and with sperm morphologic anomalies. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically-treated sperm cells. A possible relationship among sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm motility, and morphologic anomalies was investigated. Mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was positively correlated with sperm motility and negatively correlated with the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. Moreover, midpiece defects impaired mitochondrial functionality. Our data indicate that an increase in sperm motility requires a parallel increase in mitochondrial respiratory capacity, thereby supporting the fundamental role played by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in sperm motility of normozoospermic subjects. These results are of physiopathological relevance because they suggest that disturbances of sperm mitochondrial function and of energy production could be responsible for asthenozoospermia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Solution of human respiratory tract model for chronic inhalation intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadar, Minal Y.; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    For the radiation workers of fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants, inhalation is one of the major routes of intake of internal contamination. In case of routine monitoring which would result in lung activity above detection limit, it is assumed that intake has occurred at the midpoint of monitoring interval so that underestimation introduced by the unknown time of intake is less than a factor of three. In the plants, chronic intakes of 239 Pu are possible if low levels of 239 Pu activities remain undetected. In ICRP-78, the retention values are given as a function of time for continuous chronic inhalation of 239 Pu at 1.71 Bq/day that would result in Committed Effective Dose (CED) of 20 mSv. Retention values (R) are not given for inhalation intake at any other rate. Therefore, Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) is solved for continuous chronic inhalation at 1 Bq/day rate for type M compounds of 239 Pu to estimate R as a function of time. These values will be useful in estimating intake from lung activity measurements in case of chronic intakes

  19. Effect of ultraviolet exposure on mitochondrial respiratory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-09-01

    To find the photodynamic effect of ultraviolet light on the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondria were obtained from rat livers, and the suspension was exposed to an extensive ultraviolet light. The oxygen consumption was measured polarographically with a Clark oxygen electrode. The effect of ultraviolet exposure on the five states of respiratory control (Chance and Williams), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control index in mitochondria was discussed. The ultraviolet light with a dose of 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ erg/cm/sup 2/ caused the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria to uncouple. The 2nd phosphorylation site of the respiratory chain was susceptible to ultraviolet exposure. The stimulation of latent ATPase activity in mitochondria following exposure was observed by increasing exposure of ultraviolet light. However, DNP-stimulated ATPase was found to be stable in activity. The uncoupling of the respiratory chain by ultraviolet exposure was not detected if the mitochondrial suspension was preincubated with bovine serum albumin before exposure. The changes in light absorption of the mitochondrial suspension were followed at 520 nm after exposure. A close correlation was found between the ultraviolet exposure and swelling in mitochondria. But, the reversing contraction was observed by adding ATP to the swelled mitochondria. The peroxide compound was formed in mitochondria irradiated with ultraviolet light. The amount of compounds formed was dependent on the radiant energy of ultraviolet light. The possible mechanisms involved in the photodynamic effect of ultraviolet light to the mitochondrial respiration system were discussed.

  20. Cancer epidemiology in respiratory system among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, A.

    1976-11-01

    A summary of some published papers about cancer in respiratory system among uranium miners is presented. A comparative table relating cancer cases among uranium miners is shown. A table relating cases among miners in Checoslovaquia and cumulative exposure levels due to radon daughter products is also given [pt

  1. Contactless respiratory monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging applications using a laser range sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Johannes W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI exam, a respiratory signal can be required for different purposes, e.g. for patient monitoring, motion compensation or for research studies such as in functional MRI. In addition, respiratory information can be used as a biofeedback for the patient in order to control breath holds or shallow breathing. To reduce patient preparation time or distortions of the MR imaging system, we propose the use of a contactless approach for gathering information about the respiratory activity. An experimental setup based on a commercially available laser range sensor was used to detect respiratory induced motion of the chest or abdomen. This setup was tested using a motion phantom and different human subjects in an MRI scanner. A nasal airflow sensor served as a reference. For both, the phantom as well as the different human subjects, the motion frequency was precisely measured. These results show that a low cost, contactless, laser-based approach can be used to obtain information about the respiratory motion during an MRI exam.

  2. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  3. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  4. Transmission of human respiratory syncytial virus in the immunocompromised ferret model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, L. (Leon); S.L. Smits (Saskia); E.J.B. Veldhuis Kroeze (Edwin); G. van Amerongen (Geert); Pohl, M.O. (Marie O.); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. (Albert D. M. E.); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractHuman respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in vulnerable patients, such as the very young, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals of any age. Nosocomial transmission of HRSV remains a serious challenge in hospital settings, with

  5. Patterns of Human Respiratory Viruses and Lack of MERS-Coronavirus in Patients with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Southwestern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Abdulhaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook enhanced surveillance of those presenting with respiratory symptoms at five healthcare centers by testing all symptomatic outpatients between November 2013 and January 2014 (winter time. Nasal swabs were collected from 182 patients and screened for MERS-CoV as well as other respiratory viruses using RT-PCR and multiplex microarray. A total of 75 (41.2% of these patients had positive viral infection. MERS-CoV was not detected in any of the samples. Human rhinovirus (hRV was the most detected pathogen (40.9% followed by non-MERS-CoV human coronaviruses (19.3%, influenza (Flu viruses (15.9%, and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV (13.6%. Viruses differed markedly depending on age in which hRV, Flu A, and hCoV-OC43 were more prevalent in adults and RSV, hCoV-HKU1, and hCoV-NL63 were mostly restricted to children under the age of 15. Moreover, coinfection was not uncommon in this study, in which 17.3% of the infected patients had dual infections due to several combinations of viruses. Dual infections decreased with age and completely disappeared in people older than 45 years. Our study confirms that MERS-CoV is not common in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia and shows high diversity and prevalence of other common respiratory viruses. This study also highlights the importance and contribution of enhanced surveillance systems for better infection control.

  6. Investigating parameters participating in the infant respiratory control system attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, any participating parameter in a non-linear system represents the dynamics of the whole system. Taken's time delay embedding theory provides the fundamental basis for allowing non-linear analysis to be performed on physiological, time-series data. In practice, only one measurable parameter is required to be measured to convey an accurate representation of the system dynamics. In this paper, the infant respiratory control system is represented using three variables-a digitally sampled respiratory inductive plethysmography waveform, and the derived parameters tidal volume and inter-breath interval time series data. For 14 healthy infants, these data streams were analysed using recurrence plot analysis across one night of sleep. The measured attractor size of these variables followed the same qualitative trends across the nights study. Results suggest that the attractor size measures of the derived IBI and tidal volume are representative surrogates for the raw respiratory waveform. The extent to which the relative attractor sizes of IBI and tidal volume remain constant through changing sleep state could potentially be used to quantify pathology, or maturation of breathing control.

  7. Influence of the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system on the energetically optimum breathing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J H; Milic-Emili, J

    1993-01-01

    We hypothesized that the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system should have significant implications for the energetically optimal frequency of breathing, in view of the fact that these properties cause marked dependencies of overall system resistance and elastance on frequency. To test our hypothesis we simulated two models of canine and human respiratory system mechanics during sinusoidal breathing and calculated the inspiratory work (WI) and pressure-time integral (PTI) per minute under both resting and exercise conditions. The two models were a two-compartment viscoelastic model and a single-compartment model. Requiring minute alveolar ventilation to be fixed, we found that both models predicted almost identical optimum breathing frequencies. The calculated PTI was very insensitive to increases in breathing frequency above the optimal frequencies, while WI was found to increase slowly with frequency above its optimum. In contrast, both WI and PTI increased sharply as frequency decreased below their respective optima. A sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were very insensitive to the elastance and resistance values chosen to characterize tissue viscoelasticity. We conclude that the WI criterion for choosing the frequency of breathing is compatible with observations in nature, whereas the optimal frequency predictions of the PTI are rather too high. Both criteria allow for a fairly wide margin of choice in frequency above the optimum values without incurring excessive additional energy expenditure. Furthermore, contrary to our expectations, the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system tissues do not pose a noticeable problem to the respiratory controller in terms of energy expenditure.

  8. 38 CFR 4.97 - Schedule of ratings-respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-respiratory system. 4.97 Section 4.97 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Respiratory System § 4.97 Schedule of ratings—respiratory system. Rating DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND THROAT 6502Septum, nasal, deviation of: Traumatic only...

  9. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  10. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); S. Chutinimitkul (Salin); V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by

  11. The effects of carbon monoxide on respiratory chemoreflexes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, A.E.; Somogyi, R.B.; Sasano, Hiroshi; Sasano, Nobuko; Fisher, J.A.; Duffin, James

    2004-01-01

    As protection against low-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide environments, the respiratory chemoreceptors reflexly increase breathing. Since CO is also frequently present in such environments, it is important to know whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflexes responsiveness. Although the peripheral chemoreceptors fail to detect hypoxia produced by CO poisoning, whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide is unknown. The responsiveness of 10 healthy male volunteers were assessed before and after inhalation of ∼1200 ppm CO in air using two iso-oxic rebreathing tests; hypoxic, to emphasize the peripheral chemoreflex, and hyperoxic, to emphasize the central chemoreflex. Although mean (SEM) COHb values of 10.2 (0.2)% were achieved, no statistically significant effects of CO were observed. The average differences between pre- and post-CO values for ventilation response threshold and sensitivity were -0.5 (0.9) mmHg and 0.8 (0.3) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hyperoxia, and 0.7 (1.1) mmHg and 1.2 (0.8) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hypoxia. The 95% confidence intervals for the effect of CO were small. We conclude that environments with low levels of CO do not have a clinically significant effect acutely on either the central or the peripheral chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide

  12. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  13. Effect of human milk prostaglandins and lactoferrin on respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, M; Giouzeppos, O; Schnagl, R D; May, J T

    1997-03-01

    The effect of lactoferrin and prostaglandins E and F2 alpha on the growth of rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture was investigated. Lactoferrin inhibited the growth of respiratory syncytial virus at a concentration tenfold lower than that normally present in human milk. The prostaglandins had no effect on either virus growth, even at a concentration of 100-fold more than that found in human milk. Lactoferrin may have some antiviral properties in human milk in addition to its known antibacterial functions.

  14. SRS-A leukotrienes decrease the activity of human respiratory cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) constituents leukotrienes (LT) C4 and D4 on the ciliary activity of human respiratory cells. The ciliary beat frequency on human nasal cells harvested by cell scraping from the inferior turbinate was measured...

  15. Hyperthermic-induced hyperventilation and associated respiratory alkalosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiss, Chris R; Nosaka, Kazunori; Laursen, Paul B

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if increased environmental heat leads to hyperthermic-induced hypocapnia and associated alkalosis during prolonged self-paced cycling. Nine male cyclists completed three 100 km stochastic time trials in hot (34 degrees C), neutral (22 degrees C) and cold (10 degrees C) environments. Intermittent measurements of rectal and skin temperature, expired gases, blood pH, PaCO(2), PaO(2), and bicarbonate were made throughout. Rectal temperature increased significantly throughout all trials (P respiratory alkalosis.

  16. Testing Human Skin and Respiratory Sensitizers—What Is Good Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anki Malmborg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for accurate in vitro assessment of skin and respiratory sensitizers are urgently needed. Sensitization is a complex biological process that cannot be evaluated accurately using single events or biomarkers, since the information content is too restricted in these measurements. On the contrary, if the tremendous information content harbored in DNA/mRNA could be mined, most complex biological processes could be elucidated. Genomic technologies available today, including transcriptional profiling and next generation sequencing, have the power to decipher sensitization, when used in the right context. Thus, a genomic test platform has been developed, denoted the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD assay. Due to the high informational content of the GARD test, accurate predictions of both the skin and respiratory sensitizing capacity of chemicals, have been demonstrated. Based on a matured dendritic cell line, acting as a human-like reporter system, information about potency has also been acquired. Consequently, multiparametric diagnostic technologies are disruptive test principles that can change the way in which the next generation of alternative methods are designed.

  17. Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractViral attachment to the host cell is critical for tissue and species specificity of virus infections. Recently, pattern of viral attachment (PVA) in human respiratory tract was determined for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1. However, PVA of human influenza viruses

  18. Intermittent hypoxia, respiratory plasticity and sleep apnea in humans: present knowledge and future investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateika, Jason H; Syed, Ziauddin

    2013-09-15

    This review examines the role that respiratory plasticity has in the maintenance of breathing stability during sleep in individuals with sleep apnea. The initial portion of the review considers the manner in which repetitive breathing events may be initiated in individuals with sleep apnea. Thereafter, the role that two forms of respiratory plasticity, progressive augmentation of the hypoxic ventilatory response and long-term facilitation of upper airway and respiratory muscle activity, might have in modifying breathing events in humans is examined. In this context, present knowledge regarding the initiation of respiratory plasticity in humans during wakefulness and sleep is addressed. Also, published findings which reveal that exposure to intermittent hypoxia promotes breathing instability, at least in part, because of progressive augmentation of the hypoxic ventilatory response and the absence of long-term facilitation, are considered. Next, future directions are presented and are focused on the manner in which forms of plasticity that stabilize breathing might be promoted while diminishing destabilizing forms, concurrently. These future directions will consider the potential role of circadian rhythms in the promotion of respiratory plasticity and the role of respiratory plasticity in enhancing established treatments for sleep apnea. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Intermittent hypoxia, respiratory plasticity and sleep apnea in humans; present knowledge and future investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateika, Jason H.; Syed, Ziauddin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the role that respiratory plasticity has in the maintenance of breathing stability during sleep in individuals with sleep apnea. The initial portion of the review considers the manner in which repetitive breathing events may be initiated in individuals with sleep apnea. Thereafter, the role that two forms of respiratory plasticity, progressive augmentation of the hypoxic ventilatory response and long-term facilitation of upper airway and respiratory muscle activity, might have in modifying breathing events in humans is examined. In this context, present knowledge regarding the initiation of respiratory plasticity in humans during wakefulness and sleep is addressed. Also, published findings which reveal that exposure to intermittent hypoxia promotes breathing instability, at least in part, because of progressive augmentation of the hypoxic ventilatory response and the absence of long-term facilitation, are considered. Next, future directions are presented and are focused on the manner in which forms of plasticity that stabilize breathing might be promoted while diminishing destabilizing forms, concurrently. These future directions will consider the potential role of circadian rhythms in the promotion of respiratory plasticity and the role of respiratory plasticity in enhancing established treatments for sleep apnea. PMID:23587570

  20. Cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: effects of Pasteurella multocida on respiratory burst activity of avian respiratory tract phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, D L; Toth, T E; Pyle, R H; Siegel, P B

    1988-12-01

    The respiratory tract of healthy chickens contain few free-residing phagocytic cells. Intratracheal inoculation with Pasteurella multocida stimulated a significant (P less than 0.05) migration of cells to the lungs and air sacs of White Rock chickens within 2 hours after inoculation. We found the maximal number of avian respiratory tract phagocytes (22.9 +/- 14.0 x 10(6] at 8 hours after inoculation. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells revealed 2 populations on the basis of cell-size and cellular granularity. One of these was similar in size and granularity to those of blood heterophils. Only this population was capable of generating oxidative metabolites in response to phorbol myristate acetate. The ability of the heterophils to produce hydrogen peroxide, measured as the oxidation of intracellularly loaded 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, decreased with time after inoculation. These results suggest that the migration of heterophils, which are capable of high levels of oxidative metabolism, to the lungs and air sacs may be an important defense mechanism of poultry against bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

  1. The revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    A task group has revised the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract used to calculate annual limits on intake of radionuclides. The revised model can be used to project respiratory tract doses for workers and members of the public from airborne radionuclides and to assess past exposures. Doses calculated for specific extrathoracic and thoracic tissues can be adjusted to account for differences in radiosensitivity and summed to yield two values of dose for the respiratory tract that are applicable to the ICRP tissue weighted dosimetry system

  2. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  3. Respiratory health in Latin America: number of specialists and human resources training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-García, Juan-Carlos; Salas-Hernández, Jorge; Pérez Padilla, Rogelio; Montes de Oca, María

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is made up of a number of developing countries. Demographic changes are occurring in the close to 600 million inhabitants, in whom a significant growth in population is combined with the progressive ageing of the population. This part of the world poses great challenges for general and respiratory health. Most of the countries have significant, or even greater, rates of chronic respiratory diseases or exposure to risk. Human resources in healthcare are not readily available, particularly in the area of respiratory disease specialists. Academic training centers are few and even non-existent in the majority of the countries. The detailed analysis of these conditions provides a basis for reflection on the main challenges and proposals for the management and training of better human resources in this specialist area. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet; Quistgaard, Esben M.; Nordlund, Par; Thanabalu, Thirumaran; Torres, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target

  5. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Quistgaard, Esben M. [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordlund, Par [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Thanabalu, Thirumaran [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Torres, Jaume, E-mail: jtorres@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target.

  6. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  7. Experimental verification of a two-dimensional respiratory motion compensation system with ultrasound tracking technique in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lai-Lei; Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Liao, Ai-Ho; Kuo, Chia-Chun; Yu, Hsiao-Wei; Zhou, Yi-Liang; Tien, Der-Chi; Jeng, Shiu-Chen; Chiou, Jeng-Fong

    2018-05-01

    This study proposed respiratory motion compensation system (RMCS) combined with an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) to compensate for respiration-induced tumor motion during radiotherapy, and to address the problem of inaccurate radiation dose delivery caused by respiratory movement. This study used an ultrasound imaging system to monitor respiratory movements combined with the proposed UITA and RMCS for tracking and compensation of the respiratory motion. Respiratory motion compensation was performed using prerecorded human respiratory motion signals and also sinusoidal signals. A linear accelerator was used to deliver radiation doses to GAFchromic EBT3 dosimetry film, and the conformity index (CI), root-mean-square error, compensation rate (CR), and planning target volume (PTV) were used to evaluate the tracking and compensation performance of the proposed system. Human respiratory pattern signals were captured using the UITA and compensated by the RMCS, which yielded CR values of 34-78%. In addition, the maximum coronal area of the PTV ranged from 85.53 mm 2 to 351.11 mm 2 (uncompensated), which reduced to from 17.72 mm 2 to 66.17 mm 2 after compensation, with an area reduction ratio of up to 90%. In real-time monitoring of the respiration compensation state, the CI values for 85% and 90% isodose areas increased to 0.7 and 0.68, respectively. The proposed UITA and RMCS can reduce the movement of the tracked target relative to the LINAC in radiation therapy, thereby reducing the required size of the PTV margin and increasing the effect of the radiation dose received by the treatment target. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MTO1 mutations are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and lactic acidosis and cause respiratory chain deficiency in humans and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Enrico; Dallabona, Cristina; Invernizzi, Federica; Yarham, John W; Melchionda, Laura; Blakely, Emma L; Lamantea, Eleonora; Donnini, Claudia; Santra, Saikat; Vijayaraghavan, Suresh; Roper, Helen P; Burlina, Alberto; Kopajtich, Robert; Walther, Anett; Strom, Tim M; Haack, Tobias B; Prokisch, Holger; Taylor, Robert W; Ferrero, Ileana; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

    2013-11-01

    We report three families presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and multiple defects of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activities. By direct sequencing of the candidate gene MTO1, encoding the mitochondrial-tRNA modifier 1, or whole exome sequencing analysis, we identified novel missense mutations. All MTO1 mutations were predicted to be deleterious on MTO1 function. Their pathogenic role was experimentally validated in a recombinant yeast model, by assessing oxidative growth, respiratory activity, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and complex IV activity. In one case, we also demonstrated that expression of wt MTO1 could rescue the respiratory defect in mutant fibroblasts. The severity of the yeast respiratory phenotypes partly correlated with the different clinical presentations observed in MTO1 mutant patients, although the clinical outcome was highly variable in patients with the same mutation and seemed also to depend on timely start of pharmacological treatment, centered on the control of lactic acidosis by dichloroacetate. Our results indicate that MTO1 mutations are commonly associated with a presentation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and MRC deficiency, and that ad hoc recombinant yeast models represent a useful system to test the pathogenic potential of uncommon variants, and provide insight into their effects on the expression of a biochemical phenotype. © 2013 The Authors. *Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of the MEMS based portable respiratory training system with a tactile sensor for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sun Young; Yoon, Myonggeun; Chung, Mijoo; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-10-01

    In respiratory-gated radiotherapy, it is important to maintain the regular respiratory cycles of patients. If patients undergo respiration training, their regular breathing pattern is affected. Therefore, we developed a respiratory training system based on a micro electromechanical system (MEMS) and evaluated the feasibility of the MEMS in radiotherapy. By comparing the measured signal before and after radiation exposure, we confirmed the effects of radiation. By evaluating the period of the electric signal emitted by a tactile sensor and its constancy, the performance of the tactile sensor was confirmed. Moreover, by comparing the delay between the motion of the MEMS and the electric signal from the tactile sensor, we confirmed the reaction time of the tactile sensor. The results showed that a baseline shift occurred for an accumulated dose of 400 Gy in the sensor, and both the amplitude and period changed. The period of the signal released by the tactile sensor was 5.39 and its standard deviation was 0.06. Considering the errors from the motion phantom, a standard deviation of 0.06 was desirable. The delay time was within 0.5 s and not distinguishable by a patient. We confirmed the performance of the MEMS and concluded that MEMS could be applied to patients for respiratory-gated radiotherapy.

  10. Human airway epithelial cell cultures for modeling respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human respiratory pathogen with narrow species tropism. Limited availability of human pathologic specimens during early RSV-induced lung disease and ethical restrictions for RSV challenge studies in the lower airways of human volunteers has slowed our understanding of how RSV causes airway disease and greatly limited the development of therapeutic strategies for reducing RSV disease burden. Our current knowledge of RSV infection and pathology is largely based on in vitro studies using nonpolarized epithelial cell-lines grown on plastic or in vivo studies using animal models semipermissive for RSV infection. Although these models have revealed important aspects of RSV infection, replication, and associated inflammatory responses, these models do not broadly recapitulate the early interactions and potential consequences of RSV infection of the human columnar airway epithelium in vivo. In this chapter, the pro et contra of in vitro models of human columnar airway epithelium and their usefulness in respiratory virus pathogenesis and vaccine development studies will be discussed. The use of such culture models to predict characteristics of RSV infection and the correlation of these findings to the human in vivo situation will likely accelerate our understanding of RSV pathogenesis potentially identifying novel strategies for limiting the severity of RSV-associated airway disease.

  11. Human bocavirus isolated from children with acute respiratory tract infections in Korea, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jong Gyun; Choi, Seong Yeol; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) was first recognized in respiratory samples in 2005. The clinical importance of HBoV infection remains unclear. This report describes the clinical features and molecular phylogeny of HBoV isolates in children with acute respiratory infections. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 1,528 children with acute respiratory infections between 2010 and 2011. Respiratory samples were screened for HBoV by multiplex PCR. A phylogenetic analysis of the HBoV VP1/VP2 gene was also undertaken. HBoV was detected in 187 (12.2%) of the 1,528 patients with a peak incidence of infection observed in patients aged 12-24 months. Coinfection with other respiratory viruses was observed in 107 (57.2%) of the HBoV-positive children. The peak of HBoV activity occurred during the month of June in both 2010 and 2011. A higher previous history of wheezing (P = 0.016), a higher frequency of chest retraction (P respiratory symptom score (P = 0.002), and a longer duration of hospital stay (P = 0.021) were observed in HBoV-positive children compared with the HBoV-negative group. Phylogenetic analysis showed all 187 HBoV-positive isolates were identified as HBoV 1, indicating minimal sequence variations among the isolates. A single lineage of HBoV 1 was found to have circulated in children with acute respiratory infections between 2010 and 2011 and was associated with several clinical characteristics including age, seasonality, and clinical severity with retraction, wheezing, and longer hospitalization. The clinical relevance of the minimal sequence variations of HBoV remains to be determined. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Excretion patterns of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus among young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Koch, A

    2006-01-01

    of the infected children showed to have an upper respiratory tract infection when following up. CONCLUSION: Viral RNA was present in nasal secretions, saliva, sweat, and faeces, but whether or not the virions were infectious and constitute a potential mode of transmission remains to be shown in future studies.......BACKGROUND: As respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) cause serious respiratory tract infections, the routes of transmission of these viruses are important to elucidate. We examined the modes of virus shedding and shedding duration of RSV and hMPV in young children....... METHODS: From each child in a group of 44 children (37 RSV-positive, 6 hMPV-positive, and 1 co-infected child), aged between 0.5-38 months, hospitalised at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, one nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), saliva, urine, and faeces sample were collected at inclusion and weekly...

  13. Information system for diagnosis of respiratory system diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, G. V.; Korobova, L. A.; Ivashin, A. L.; Matytsina, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    An information system is for the diagnosis of patients with lung diseases. The main problem solved by this system is the definition of the parameters of cough fragments in the monitoring recordings using a voice recorder. The authors give the recognition criteria of recorded cough moments, audio records analysis. The results of the research are systematized. The cough recognition system can be used by the medical specialists to diagnose the condition of the patients and to monitor the process of their treatment.

  14. Color structured light system of chest wall motion measurement for respiratory volume evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huijun; Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jue; Que, Chengli; Wang, Guangfa; Fang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    We present a structured light system to dynamically measure human chest wall motion for respiratory volume estimation. Based on a projection of an encoded color pattern and a few active markers attached to the trunk, respiratory volumes are obtained by evaluating the 3-D topographic changes of the chest wall in an anatomically consistent measuring region during respiration. Three measuring setups are established: a single-sided illuminating-recording setup for standing posture, an inclined single-sided setup for supine posture, and a double-sided setup for standing posture. Results are compared with the pneumotachography and show good agreement in volume estimations [correlation coefficient: R>0.99 (Pvolume during the isovolume maneuver (standard deviationpulmonary functional differences between the diseased and the contralateral sides of the thorax, and subsequent improvement of this imbalance after drainage. These results demonstrate the proposed optical method is capable of not only whole respiratory volume evaluation with high accuracy, but also regional pulmonary function assessment in different chest wall behaviors, with the advantage of whole-field measurement.

  15. A safe and efficient BCG vectored vaccine to prevent the disease caused by the human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Jurado, Emma; Soto, Jorge; Gálvez, Nicolás; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2017-09-02

    The human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Such infections also cause a large number of hospitalizations and affects mainly newborns, young children and the elderly worldwide. Symptoms associated with hRSV infection are due to an exacerbated immune response characterized by low levels of IFN-γ, recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils to the site of infection and lung damage. Although hRSV is a major health problem, no vaccines are currently available. Different immunization approaches have been developed to achieve a vaccine that activates the immune system, without triggering an unbalanced inflammation. These approaches include live attenuated vaccine, DNA or proteins technologies, and the use of vectors to express proteins of the virus. In this review, we discuss the host immune response to hRSV and the immunological mechanisms underlying an effective and safe BCG vectored vaccine against hRSV.

  16. Human Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Inhibition of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in the Common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Bao, Linlin; Chen, Cong; Zou, Tingting; Xue, Ying; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gu, Songzhi; Gao, Xiaopan; Cui, Sheng; Wang, Jianmin; Qin, Chuan; Jin, Qi

    2017-06-15

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in humans is highly lethal, with a fatality rate of 35%. New prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat human infections are urgently needed. We isolated a fully human neutralizing antibody, MCA1, from a human survivor. The antibody recognizes the receptor-binding domain of MERS-CoV S glycoprotein and interferes with the interaction between viral S and the human cellular receptor human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a human neutralizing monoclonal antibody that completely inhibits MERS-CoV replication in common marmosets. Monotherapy with MCA1 represents a potential alternative treatment for human infections with MERS-CoV worthy of evaluation in clinical settings. © Crown copyright 2017.

  17. Human milk reduces outpatient upper respiratory symptoms in premature infants during their first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaymore Bier, Jo-Ann; Oliver, Tanya; Ferguson, Anne; Vohr, Betty R

    2002-01-01

    To determine if ingestion of human milk after discharge reduces symptoms of infections in premature infants. Follow-up of 39 infants with birth weights milk and 15 of whom received only formula after discharge, was carried out. Mothers were given a calendar on which they recorded any signs of infections and feeding and day-care information. Data were collected at 1 month after discharge and at 3, 7, and 12 months corrected age. Results show no differences between groups in birth weight, gestation, gender, maternal age, parental tobacco use, number of siblings, and day-care attendance. Socioeconomic status score was higher in the human milk group. Infants who received human milk had fewer days of upper respiratory symptoms at 1 month after discharge (pmilk post discharge is associated with a reduction of upper respiratory symptoms in premature infants during their first year of life.

  18. The significance of Candida in the human respiratory tract: our evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kathryn M; Huffnagle, Gary B; Dickson, Robert P

    2017-04-01

    Candida is an opportunistic pathogen and the most commonly isolated fungal genus in humans. Though Candida is often detected in respiratory specimens from humans with and without lung disease, its significance remains undetermined. While historically considered a commensal organism with low virulence potential, the status of Candida as an innocent bystander has recently been called into question by both clinical observations and animal experimentation. We here review what is currently known and yet to be determined about the clinical, microbiological and pathophysiological significance of the detection of Candida spp. in the human respiratory tract. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Breath pacing system and method for pacing the respiratory activity of a subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    To provide a breath pacing system and a corresponding method for pacing the respiratory activity of a subject that provide the possibility to adapt the output signal to the respiration characteristics of the subject automatically and effectively a breath pacing system (10) for pacing the respiratory

  20. Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Moran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the “stealth phase”, defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the “stealth phase” phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  1. Water extract of Pueraria lobata Ohwi has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng-Jih Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV infects all age groups and causes bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome with a significant mortality rate. To date, only ribavirin has been used to manage HRSV infection. However, ribavirin is expensive with an only modest effect. Furthermore, ribavirin has several side effects, which means it has limited clinical benefit. Pueraria lobata Ohwi (P. lobata is a common ingredient of Ge-Gen-Tang (Kakkon-to and Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (Shoma-kakkon-to, which are prescriptions of Chinese traditional medicine proven to have antiviral activity against HRSV. Therefore, it was hypothesized that P. lobata might be effective against HRSV. To find a cost-effective therapeutic modality, both human upper (HEp-2 and lower (A549 respiratory tract cell lines were used to test the hypothesis that P. lobata could inhibit HRSV-induced plaque formation. Results showed that the water extract of P. lobata was effective (p < 0.0001 against HRSV-induced plaque formation. P. lobata was more effective when given prior to viral inoculation (p < 0.0001 by inhibiting viral attachment (p < 0.0001 and penetration (p < 0.0001. However, supplementation with P. lobata could not stimulate interferon secretion after HRSV infection. In conclusion, P. lobata has antiviral activity against HRSV-induced plaque formation in airway mucosa mainly by inhibiting viral attachment and internalization. Further identification of effective constituents could contribute to the prevention of HRSV infection.

  2. Codetection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Habituated Wild Western Lowland Gorillas and Humans During a Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  3. Codetection of respiratory syncytial virus in habituated wild western lowland gorillas and humans during a respiratory disease outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  4. Transmissibility of the monkeypox virus clades via respiratory transmission: investigation using the prairie dog-monkeypox virus challenge system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is endemic within Africa where it sporadically is reported to cause outbreaks of human disease. In 2003, an outbreak of human MPXV occurred in the US after the importation of infected African rodents. Since the eradication of smallpox (caused by an orthopoxvirus (OPXV related to MPXV and cessation of routine smallpox vaccination (with the live OPXV vaccinia, there is an increasing population of people susceptible to OPXV diseases. Previous studies have shown that the prairie dog MPXV model is a functional animal model for the study of systemic human OPXV illness. Studies with this model have demonstrated that infected animals are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple routes of exposure causing subsequent infection, but were not able to prove that infected animals could transmit the virus exclusively via the respiratory route. Herein we used the model system to evaluate the hypothesis that the Congo Basin clade of MPXV is more easily transmitted, via respiratory route, than the West African clade. Using a small number of test animals, we show that transmission of viruses from each of the MPXV clade was minimal via respiratory transmission. However, transmissibility of the Congo Basin clade was slightly greater than West African MXPV clade (16.7% and 0% respectively. Based on these findings, respiratory transmission appears to be less efficient than those of previous studies assessing contact as a mechanism of transmission within the prairie dog MPXV animal model.

  5. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  6. Propagation of respiratory viruses in human airway epithelia reveals persistent virus-specific signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaidi-Laziosi, Manel; Brito, Francisco; Benaoudia, Sacha; Royston, Léna; Cagno, Valeria; Fernandes-Rocha, Mélanie; Piuz, Isabelle; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Huang, Song; Constant, Samuel; Boldi, Marc-Olivier; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2018-06-01

    The leading cause of acute illnesses, respiratory viruses, typically cause self-limited diseases, although severe complications can occur in fragile patients. Rhinoviruses (RVs), respiratory enteroviruses (EVs), influenza virus, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs), and coronaviruses are highly prevalent respiratory pathogens, but because of the lack of reliable animal models, their differential pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. We sought to compare infections by respiratory viruses isolated from clinical specimens using reconstituted human airway epithelia. Tissues were infected with RV-A55, RV-A49, RV-B48, RV-C8, and RV-C15; respiratory EV-D68; influenza virus H3N2; RSV-B; and human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43. Replication kinetics, cell tropism, effect on tissue integrity, and cytokine secretion were compared. Viral adaptation and tissue response were assessed through RNA sequencing. RVs, RSV-B, and HCoV-OC43 infected ciliated cells and caused no major cell death, whereas H3N2 and EV-D68 induced ciliated cell loss and tissue integrity disruption. H3N2 was also detected in rare goblet and basal cells. All viruses, except RV-B48 and HCoV-OC43, altered cilia beating and mucociliary clearance. H3N2 was the strongest cytokine inducer, and HCoV-OC43 was the weakest. Persistent infection was observed in all cases. RNA sequencing highlighted perturbation of tissue metabolism and induction of a transient but important immune response at 4 days after infection. No majority mutations emerged in the viral population. Our results highlight the differential in vitro pathogenesis of respiratory viruses during the acute infection phase and their ability to persist under immune tolerance. These data help to appreciate the range of disease severity observed in vivo and the occurrence of chronic respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised hosts. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemic 2014 enterovirus D68 cross-reacts with human rhinovirus on a respiratory molecular diagnostic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Shane C; Schleiss, Mark R; Arbefeville, Sophie; Steiner, Marie E; Hanson, Ryan S; Pollock, Catherine; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging virus known to cause sporadic disease and occasional epidemics of severe lower respiratory tract infection. However, the true prevalence of infection with EV-D68 is unknown, due in part to the lack of a rapid and specific nucleic acid amplification test as well as the infrequency with which respiratory samples are analyzed by enterovirus surveillance programs. During the 2014 EV-D68 epidemic in the United States, we noted an increased frequency of "low-positive" results for human rhinovirus (HRV) detected in respiratory tract samples using the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor respiratory viral panel, a multiplex PCR assay able to detect 14 known respiratory viruses but not enteroviruses. We simultaneously noted markedly increased admissions to our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for severe lower respiratory tract infections in patients both with and without a history of reactive airway disease. Accordingly, we hypothesized that these "low-positive" RVP results were due to EV-D68 rather than rhinovirus infection. Sequencing of the picornavirus 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 49 samples positive for HRV by the GenMark RVP revealed that 33 (67.3%) were in fact EV-D68. Notably, the mean intensity of the HRV RVP result was significantly lower in the sequence-identified EV-D68 samples (20.3 nA) compared to HRV (129.7 nA). Using a cut-off of 40 nA for the differentiation of EV-D68 from HRV resulted in 94% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The robust diagnostic characteristics of our data suggest that the cross-reactivity of EV-D68 and HRV on the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor RVP platform may be an important factor to consider in making accurate molecular diagnosis of EV-D68 at institutions utilizing this system or other molecular respiratory platforms that may also cross-react.

  8. Computational Breakthrough of Natural Lead Hits from the Genus of Arisaema against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Kamal; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Ghosh, Manik

    2018-01-01

    To date, efforts for the prevention and treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been still vain, and there is no safe and effective clinical accepted vaccine. Arisaema genus has claimed for various traditional bioactivities, but scientific assessments are quite limited. This encouraged us to carry out our present study on around 60 phytoconstituents of different Arisaema species as a natural inhibitor against the human RSV. Selected 60 phytochemical entities were evaluated on the docking behavior of human RSV receptor (PDB: 4UCC) using Maestro 9.3 (Schrödinger, LLC, Cambridge, USA). Furthermore, kinetic properties and toxicity nature of top graded ligands were analyzed through QikProp and ProTox tools. Notably, rutin (glide score: -8.49), schaftoside (glide score: -8.18) and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside (glide score - 7.29) have resulted in hopeful natural lead hits with an ideal range of kinetic descriptors values. ProTox tool (oral rodent toxicity) has resulted in likely toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Finally, the whole efforts can be explored further as a model to confirm its anti-human RSV potential with wet laboratory experiments. Rutin, schaftoside, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside showed promising top hits docking profile against human respiratory syncytial virusMoreover, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties (QikProp) of top hits resulted within an ideal range of kinetic descriptorsProTox tool highlighted toxicity class ranges, LD 50 values, and possible toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Abbreviations used: RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus, PRRSV: Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, ADME-T: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.

  9. Human bocavirus infection as a cause of severe acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, F M; van Kampen, J J A; van der Eijk, A A; van Rossum, A M C; de Hoog, M; Schutten, M; Smits, S L; Bodewes, R; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fraaij, P L A

    2015-10-01

    In 2005 human bocavirus (HBoV) was discovered in respiratory tract samples of children. The role of HBoV as the single causative agent for respiratory tract infections remains unclear. Detection of HBoV in children with respiratory disease is frequently in combination with other viruses or bacteria. We set up an algorithm to study whether HBoV alone can cause severe acute respiratory tract infection (SARI) in children. The algorithm was developed to exclude cases with no other likely cause than HBoV for the need for admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with SARI. We searched for other viruses by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in these cases and studied their HBoV viral loads. To benchmark our algorithm, the same was applied to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive patients. From our total group of 990 patients who tested positive for a respiratory virus by means of RT-PCR, HBoV and RSV were detected in 178 and 366 children admitted to our hospital. Forty-nine HBoV-positive patients and 72 RSV-positive patients were admitted to the PICU. We found seven single HBoV-infected cases with SARI admitted to PICU (7/49, 14%). They had no other detectable virus by NGS. They had much higher HBoV loads than other patients positive for HBoV. We identified 14 RSV-infected SARI patients with a single RSV infection (14/72, 19%). We conclude that our study provides strong support that HBoV can cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. B lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Tan, Bruce K.; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive humoral immune responses in the airways are mediated by B cells and plasma cells that express highly evolved and specific receptors and produce immunoglobulins of most isotypes. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory diseases caused by excessive exposure to foreign antigens, these same immune cells can cause disease by virtue of overly vigorous responses. This review discusses the generation, differentiation, signaling, activation and recruitment pathways of B cells and plasma cells, with special emphasis on unique characteristics of subsets of these cells functioning within the respiratory system. The primary sensitization events that generate B cells responsible for effector responses throughout the airways usually occur in the upper airways, in tonsils and adenoid structures that make up Waldeyer’s Ring. Upon secondary exposure to antigen in the airways, antigen-processing dendritic cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes that drain the upper and lower airways and further B cell expansion takes place at those sites. Antigen exposure in the upper or lower airways can also drive expansion of B lineage cells in the airway mucosal tissue and lead to the formation of inducible lymphoid follicles or aggregates that can mediate local immunity or disease. PMID:23540615

  11. Differential expression of the MERS-coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tract of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor - dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) - is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not

  12. Particle deposition and clearance of atmospheric particles in the human respiratory tract during LACE 98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundke, U.; Hänel, G.

    2003-04-01

    During the LACE 98footnote{Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment, (Germany) 1998} experiment microphysical, chemical and optical properties of atmospheric particles were measured by several groups. (Bundke et al.). The particle deposition and clearance of the particles in the human respiratory tract was calculated using the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) deposition and clearance model (ICRP 1994). Particle growth as function of relative humidity outside the body was calculated from measurement data using the model introduced by Bundke et al.. Particle growth inside the body was added using a non-equilibrium particle growth model. As a result of the calculations, time series of the total dry particle mass and -size distribution were obtained for all compartments of the human respiratory tract defined by ICRP 1994. The combined ICRP deposition and clearance model was initialized for different probationers like man, woman, children of different ages and several circumstances like light work, sitting, sleeping etc. Keeping the conditions observed during LACE 98 constant a approximation of the aerosol burdens of the different compartments was calculated up to 4 years of exposure and compared to the results from Snipes et al. for the "Phoenix" and "Philadelphia" aerosol. References: footnotesize{ Bundke, U. et al.,it{Aerosol Optical Properties during the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98)} ,10.1029/2000JD000188, JGR, 2002 ICRP,it{Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection, Bd. ICRP Publication 66}, Annals of the ICRP, 24,1-3, Elsevier Science, Ocford, 1994 Snipes et al. ,it{The 1994 ICRP66 Human Respiratory Tract Model as a Tool for predicting Lung Burdens from Exposure to Environmental Aerosols}, Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 12, 547-553,1997}

  13. Potential toxicity and safety evaluation of nanomaterials for the respiratory system and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachogianni T

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thomais Vlachogianni,1 Konstantinos Fiotakis,1 Spyridon Loridas,1 Stamatis Perdicaris,2 Athanasios Valavanidis1 1Department of Chemistry, Free Radicals Research Group, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Product Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs are a diverse group of materials finding increasing use in manufacturing, computing, food, pharmaceuticals, and biomedicine due to their very small size and exceptional properties. Health and safety concerns for ENMs have forced regulatory agencies to consider preventive measures and regulations for workers’ health and safety protection. Respiratory system toxicity from inhalable ENMs is the most important concern to health specialists. In this review, we focus on similarities and differences between conventional microparticles (diameters in mm and µm, which have been previously studied, and nanoparticles (sizes between 1 and 100 nm in terms of size, composition, and mechanisms of action in biological systems. In past decades, respirable particulate matter (PM, asbestos fibers, crystalline silicate, and various amorphous dusts have been studied, and epidemiological evidence has shown how dangerous they are to human health, especially from exposure in working environments. Scientific evidence has shown that there is a close connection between respirable PM and pulmonary oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS. There is a close connection between oxidative stress in the cell and the elicitation of an inflammatory response via pro-inflammatory gene transcription. Inflammatory processes increase the risk for lung cancer. Studies in vitro and in vivo in the last decade have shown that engineered nanoparticles (ENPs at various doses can cause ROS generation, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in the cell. It is assumed that ENPs have the

  14. Human Metapneumovirus Infection is Associated with Severe Respiratory Disease in Preschool Children with History of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same family as that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, however, it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with a history of severe prematurity. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool-age children (≤5 years) with and without history of severe prematurity (prematurity. Preschool children with a history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity, and history of asthma. Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with a history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A Rare Case of Human Coronavirus 229E Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Healthy Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foula Vassilara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E is one of the first coronavirus strains being described. It is linked to common cold symptoms in healthy adults. Younger children and the elderly are considered vulnerable to developing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. In particular, immunocompromised patients have been reported with severe and life-threatening LRTIs attributed to HCoV-229E. We report for the first time a case of LRTI and acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in a healthy adult with no comorbidities and HCoV-229E strain identified as the only causative agent. A 45-year-old female with a clear medical history presented with fever, cough, and headache. Respiratory tract infection was diagnosed, and empirical antibiotics were started. Within two days, she developed bilateral pleural effusions, diffuse consolidations, and ground glass opacities involving all lung fields. She needed immediate oxygen supply, while ABGs deteriorated and chest imaging and PaO2/FiO2 indicated ARDS. Early administration of systemic corticosteroids led to gradual clinical improvement. Multiplex PCR from nasal secretions was positive only for HCoV-229E and negative for multiple other pathogens. It remains to be elucidated how an immunocompetent adult developed a life-threatening LRTI caused by a “benign considered” coronavirus strain, the HCoV-229E.

  16. Enterovirus serotypes in patients with central nervous system and respiratory infections in Viet Nam 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B'Krong, Nguyen Thi Thuy Chinh; Minh, Ngo Ngoc Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Do, Lien Anh Ha; Nhung, Nguyen Ngoc; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Thwaites, Guy; Van Tan, Le; van Doorn, H Rogier; Thanh, Tran Tan

    2018-04-12

    Enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of human illness. Enteroviruses have been associated with regional and global epidemics, recently, including with severe disease (Enterovirus A71 and D68), and are of interest as emerging viruses. Here, we typed Enterovirus A-D (EV) from central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory infections in Viet Nam. Data and specimens from prospective observational clinical studies conducted between 1997 and 2010 were used. Species and serotypes were determined using type-specific RT-PCR and viral protein 1 or 4 (VP1, VP4) sequencing. Samples from patients with CNS infection (51 children - 10 CSF and 41 respiratory/rectal swabs) and 28 adults (28 CSF) and respiratory infection (124 children - 124 respiratory swabs) were analysed. Twenty-six different serotypes of the four Enterovirus species (A-D) were identified, including EV-A71 and EV-D68. Enterovirus B was associated with viral meningitis in children and adults. Hand, foot and mouth disease associated Enteroviruses A (EV-A71 and Coxsackievirus [CV] A10) were detected in children with encephalitis. Diverse serotypes of all four Enterovirus species were found in respiratory samples, including 2 polio-vaccine viruses, but also 8 CV-A24 and 8 EV-D68. With the exception of EV-D68, the relevance of these viruses in respiratory infection remains unknown. We describe the diverse spectrum of enteroviruses from patients with CNS and respiratory infections in Viet Nam between 1997 and 2010. These data confirm the global circulation of Enterovirus genera and their associations and are important for clinical diagnostics, patient management, and outbreak response.

  17. Detecting regional lung properties using audio transfer functions of the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, K; Adler, A; Goubran, R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel instrument has been developed for measuring changes in the distribution of lung fluid the respiratory system. The instrument consists of a speaker that inputs a 0-4kHz White Gaussian Noise (WGN) signal into a patient's mouth and an array of 4 electronic stethoscopes, linked via a fully adjustable harness, used to recover signals on the chest surface. The software system for processing the data utilizes the principles of adaptive filtering in order to obtain a transfer function that represents the input-output relationship for the signal as the volume of fluid in the lungs is varied. A chest phantom model was constructed to simulate the behavior of fluid related diseases within the lungs through the injection of varying volumes of water. Tests from the phantom model were compared to healthy subjects. Results show the instrument can obtain similar transfer functions and sound propagation delays between both human and phantom chests.

  18. Replication of avian, human and swine influenza viruses in porcine respiratory explants and association with sialic acid distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauwynck Hans J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the history of human influenza pandemics, pigs have been considered the most likely "mixing vessel" for reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses (AIVs. However, the replication efficiencies of influenza viruses from various hosts, as well as the expression of sialic acid (Sia receptor variants in the entire porcine respiratory tract have never been studied in detail. Therefore, we established porcine nasal, tracheal, bronchial and lung explants, which cover the entire porcine respiratory tract with maximal similarity to the in vivo situation. Subsequently, we assessed virus yields of three porcine, two human and six AIVs in these explants. Since our results on virus replication were in disagreement with the previously reported presence of putative avian virus receptors in the trachea, we additionally studied the distribution of sialic acid receptors by means of lectin histochemistry. Human (Siaα2-6Gal and avian virus receptors (Siaα2-3Gal were identified with Sambucus Nigra and Maackia amurensis lectins respectively. Results Compared to swine and human influenza viruses, replication of the AIVs was limited in all cultures but most strikingly in nasal and tracheal explants. Results of virus titrations were confirmed by quantification of infected cells using immunohistochemistry. By lectin histochemistry we found moderate to abundant expression of the human-like virus receptors in all explant systems but minimal binding of the lectins that identify avian-like receptors, especially in the nasal, tracheal and bronchial epithelium. Conclusions The species barrier that restricts the transmission of influenza viruses from one host to another remains preserved in our porcine respiratory explants. Therefore this system offers a valuable alternative to study virus and/or host properties required for adaptation or reassortment of influenza viruses. Our results indicate that, based on the expression of Sia

  19. The viral transcription group determines the HLA class I cellular immune response against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolina; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Infantes, Susana; Lemonnier, François A; David, Chella S; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of virus-infected cells requires previous recognition of short viral antigenic peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen class I molecules that are exposed on the surface of infected cells. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response is critical for the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus infection. In this study, naturally processed viral human leukocyte antigen class I ligands were identified with mass spectrometry analysis of complex human leukocyte antigen-bound peptide pools isolated from large amounts of human respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. Acute antiviral T-cell response characterization showed that viral transcription determines both the immunoprevalence and immunodominance of the human leukocyte antigen class I response to human respiratory syncytial virus. These findings have clear implications for antiviral vaccine design. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The Viral Transcription Group Determines the HLA Class I Cellular Immune Response Against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolina; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Infantes, Susana; Lemonnier, François A.; David, Chella S.; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of virus-infected cells requires previous recognition of short viral antigenic peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen class I molecules that are exposed on the surface of infected cells. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response is critical for the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus infection. In this study, naturally processed viral human leukocyte antigen class I ligands were identified with mass spectrometry analysis of complex human leukocyte antigen-bound peptide pools isolated from large amounts of human respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. Acute antiviral T-cell response characterization showed that viral transcription determines both the immunoprevalence and immunodominance of the human leukocyte antigen class I response to human respiratory syncytial virus. These findings have clear implications for antiviral vaccine design. PMID:25635267

  1. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  2. The human cathelicidin LL-37 has antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke M Currie

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness among infants, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or disease modifying treatment available and novel interventions are urgently required. Cathelicidins are cationic host defence peptides expressed in the inflamed lung, with key roles in innate host defence against infection. We demonstrate that the human cathelicidin LL-37 has effective antiviral activity against RSV in vitro, retained by a truncated central peptide fragment. LL-37 prevented virus-induced cell death in epithelial cultures, significantly inhibited the production of new infectious particles and diminished the spread of infection, with antiviral effects directed both against the viral particles and the epithelial cells. LL-37 may represent an important targetable component of innate host defence against RSV infection. Prophylactic modulation of LL-37 expression and/or use of synthetic analogues post-infection may represent future novel strategies against RSV infection.

  3. Respiratory and Systemic Effects of LASSBio596 Plus Surfactant in Experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnatas Dutra Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Exogenous surfactant has been proposed as adjunctive therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but it is inactivated by different factors present in the alveolar space. We hypothesized that co-administration of LASSBio596, a molecule with significant anti-inflammatory properties, and exogenous surfactant could reduce lung inflammation, thus enabling the surfactant to reduce edema and improve lung function, in experimental ARDS. Methods: ARDS was induced by cecal ligation and puncture surgery in BALB/c mice. A sham-operated group was used as control (CTRL. After surgery (6 hours, CTRL and ARDS animals were assigned to receive: (1 sterile saline solution; (2 LASSBio596; (3 exogenous surfactant or (4 LASSBio596 plus exogenous surfactant (n = 22/group. Results: Regardless of exogenous surfactant administration, LASSBio596 improved survival rate and reduced collagen fiber content, total number of cells and neutrophils in PLF and blood, cell apoptosis, protein content in BALF, and urea and creatinine levels. LASSBio596 plus surfactant yielded all of the aforementioned beneficial effects, as well as increased BALF lipid content and reduced surface tension. Conclusion: LASSBio596 exhibited major anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic effects in experimental sepsis-induced ARDS. Its association with surfactant may provide further advantages, potentially by reducing surface tension.

  4. Isolation and identification of antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from respiratory system infections in shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Reisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of pathogenic agents in humans, that engages different body parts including respiratory system and causes to spend lots of costs and extending patient’s treatment period. This study which is performed to separate and investigate the pattern of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from upper respiratory system infections in Shahrekord.   Materials and methods: This study was done by sectional-descriptive method On 200 suspicious persons to the upper respiratory system infections who were referred to the Imam Ali clinic in Shahrekord in 2012. After isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from cultured nose discharges, antibiotic resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR by using defined primer pairs .   Results : Among 200 investigated samples in 60 cases (30% Staphylococcus aureus infection (by culturing and PCR method was determined. Isolates showed the lowest amount of antibiotic resistance to vancomycin (0.5% and the highest amount of resistance to the penicillin G and cefotaxime (100%. mecA gene (encoding methicillin resistance with frequency of 85.18% and aacA-D gene (encoding resistance to aminoglycosides with frequency of 28.33% showed the highest and lowest frequency of antibiotic resistance genes coding in Staphylococcus aureus isolates respectively .   Discussion and conclusion : Notable prevalence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in community acquired respiratory infections, recommend continuous control necessity to impede the spreading of these bacteria and their infections.  

  5. Effects on respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mohammed Said

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.

  6. Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Gaston, Benjamin; Folkerts, Gert

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade a plethora of studies have unravelled the multiple roles of nitric oxide (NO) in airway physiology and pathophysiology. In the respiratory tract, NO is produced by a wide variety of cell types and is generated via oxidation of l-arginine that is catalyzed by the enzyme NO

  7. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  8. Human milk 90K (Mac-2 BP): possible protective effects against acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornarini, B; Iacobelli, S; Tinari, N; Natoli, C; De Martino, M; Sabatino, G

    1999-01-01

    Eighty-six children fed human milk were followed prospectively from birth to 12 months of age to assess the effect of milk 90K, a secreted glycoprotein with immune-stimulatory properties, on development of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The level of human milk 90K was inversely related to episodes of ARI (r = - 0.34; P = 0.001). The average 90K level in human milk fed to children who did not develop ARI was significantly higher than in milk fed to children in whom infection occurred on multiple occasions (156.6 +/- 144.8 microg/ml versus 70.9 +/- 92.3 microg/ml; P = 0.001). These data suggest that the protective effects of human milk against ARI may be due in part to immune maturation effects by secreted 90K.

  9. The draft genome sequence of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) facilitates study of human respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinxia; Alföldi, Jessica; Gori, Kevin; Eisfeld, Amie J; Tyler, Scott R; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Brawand, David; Law, G Lynn; Skunca, Nives; Hatta, Masato; Gasper, David J; Kelly, Sara M; Chang, Jean; Thomas, Matthew J; Johnson, Jeremy; Berlin, Aaron M; Lara, Marcia; Russell, Pamela; Swofford, Ross; Turner-Maier, Jason; Young, Sarah; Hourlier, Thibaut; Aken, Bronwen; Searle, Steve; Sun, Xingshen; Yi, Yaling; Suresh, M; Tumpey, Terrence M; Siepel, Adam; Wisely, Samantha M; Dessimoz, Christophe; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Birren, Bruce W; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Di Palma, Federica; Engelhardt, John F; Palermo, Robert E; Katze, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an important animal model for multiple human respiratory diseases. It is considered the 'gold standard' for modeling human influenza virus infection and transmission. Here we describe the 2.41 Gb draft genome assembly of the domestic ferret, constituting 2.28 Gb of sequence plus gaps. We annotated 19,910 protein-coding genes on this assembly using RNA-seq data from 21 ferret tissues. We characterized the ferret host response to two influenza virus infections by RNA-seq analysis of 42 ferret samples from influenza time-course data and showed distinct signatures in ferret trachea and lung tissues specific to 1918 or 2009 human pandemic influenza virus infections. Using microarray data from 16 ferret samples reflecting cystic fibrosis disease progression, we showed that transcriptional changes in the CFTR-knockout ferret lung reflect pathways of early disease that cannot be readily studied in human infants with cystic fibrosis disease.

  10. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  11. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  12. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultema, Jelle B.; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kouřil, Roman

    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes 1 to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a

  13. Glycomic analysis of human respiratory tract tissues and correlation with influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevenan Walther

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in influenza infection of the human respiratory tract is binding of the virus to sialic (Sia acid terminated receptors. The binding of different strains of virus for the receptor is determined by the α linkage of the sialic acid to galactose and the adjacent glycan structure. In this study the N- and O-glycan composition of the human lung, bronchus and nasopharynx was characterized by mass spectrometry. Analysis showed that there was a wide spectrum of both Sia α2-3 and α2-6 glycans in the lung and bronchus. This glycan structural data was then utilized in combination with binding data from 4 of the published glycan arrays to assess whether these current glycan arrays were able to predict replication of human, avian and swine viruses in human ex vivo respiratory tract tissues. The most comprehensive array from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics contained the greatest diversity of sialylated glycans, but was not predictive of productive replication in the bronchus and lung. Our findings indicate that more comprehensive but focused arrays need to be developed to investigate influenza virus binding in an assessment of newly emerging influenza viruses.

  14. Inhaled Pollutants: The Molecular Scene behind Respiratory and Systemic Diseases Associated with Ultrafine Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Traboulsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood, fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks, incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene, metals, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter (PM. PM0.1 (ultrafine particles (UFP, those particles with a diameter less than 100 nm (includes nanoparticles (NP are considered especially dangerous to human health and may contribute significantly to the development of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and atherosclerosis. Some of the pathogenic mechanisms through which PM0.1 may contribute to chronic disease is their ability to induce inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death by molecular mechanisms that include transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. Epigenetic mechanisms including non-coding RNA (ncRNA may also contribute towards the development of chronic disease associated with exposure to PM0.1. This paper highlights emerging molecular concepts associated with inhalational exposure to PM0.1 and their ability to contribute to chronic respiratory and systemic disease.

  15. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  16. Genetic diversity of human metapneumovirus in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagušić, Maja; Slović, Anamarija; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana; Forčić, Dubravko

    2017-11-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is recognized as a global and frequent cause of acute respiratory tract infections among people of all ages. The objectives of this study were molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of HMPV strains which produced moderate and severe acute respiratory tract infections in children in Croatia during four consecutive seasons (2011-2014). A total of 117 HMPV-positive samples collected from hospitalized pediatric patients presenting with acute respiratory tract infections and tested by direct immunofluorescence assay were first analyzed by amplifying a part of the F gene. Sixteen samples were further analyzed based on complete F, G, and SH gene sequences. HMPV genome was identified in 92 of 117 samples (78%) and the circulation of multiple lineages of HMPV was confirmed. In 2011, 2012, and 2014, subgroups A2 and B2 co-circulated, while B1 gained prevalence in 2013 and 2014. The study established the presence of a novel subcluster A2c in Croatia. This subcluster has only recently been detected in East and Southeast Asia. This study provides new insights into epidemiology and genetic diversity of HMPV in this part of Europe. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Phylogenic analysis of human bocavirus detected in children with acute respiratory infection in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmoe, Sebastien; Vernet, Marie-Astrid; Njankouo-Ripa, Mohamadou; Penlap, Véronique Beng; Vabret, Astrid; Njouom, Richard

    2017-07-17

    Human Bocavirus (HBoV) was first identified in 2005 and has been shown to be a common cause of respiratory infections and gastroenteritis in children. In a recent study, we found that 10.7% of children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) were infected by HBoV. Genetic characterization of this virus remains unknown in Central Africa, particularly in Cameroon Leeding us to evaluate the molecular characteristics of HBoV strains in Cameroonian children with ARI. Phylogenetic analysis of partial HBoV VP1/2 sequences showed a low level of nucleotide variation and the circulation of HBoV genotype 1 (HBoV-1) only. Three clades were obtained, two clustering with each of the reference strains ST1 and ST2, and a third group consisting of only Cameroon strains. By comparing with the Swedish reference sequences, ST1 and ST2, Cameroon sequences showed nucleotide and amino acid similarities of respectively 97.36-100% and 98.35-100%. These results could help improve strategies for monitoring and control of respiratory infections in Cameroon.

  18. Culturing of respiratory viruses in well-differentiated pseudostratified human airway epithelium as a tool to detect unknown viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farsani, Seyed Mohammad Jazaeri; Deijs, Martin; Dijkman, Ronald; Molenkamp, Richard; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Currently, virus discovery is mainly based on molecular techniques. Here, we propose a method that relies on virus culturing combined with state-of-the-art sequencing techniques. The most natural ex vivo culture system was used to enable replication of respiratory viruses. Three respiratory clinical

  19. 76 FR 62164 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing Impairment, and Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases AGENCY... System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing Impairment, and Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases. The purpose of this...) the Cardiovascular System (38 CFR 4.100-4.104), (3) the Impairment of Auditory Acuity (38 CFR 4.85 and...

  20. Culturing of respiratory viruses in well-differentiated pseudostratified human airway epithelium as a tool to detect unknown viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri Farsani, Seyed Mohammad; Deijs, Martin; Dijkman, Ronald; Molenkamp, Richard; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, virus discovery is mainly based on molecular techniques. Here, we propose a method that relies on virus culturing combined with state-of-the-art sequencing techniques. The most natural ex vivo culture system was used to enable replication of respiratory viruses. Method Three respiratory clinical samples were tested on well-differentiated pseudostratified tracheobronchial human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures grown at an air–liquid interface, which resemble the airway epithelium. Cells were stained with convalescent serum of the patients to identify infected cells and apical washes were analyzed by VIDISCA-454, a next-generation sequencing virus discovery technique. Results Infected cells were observed for all three samples. Sequencing subsequently indicated that the cells were infected by either human coronavirus OC43, influenzavirus B, or influenzavirus A. The sequence reads covered a large part of the genome (52%, 82%, and 57%, respectively). Conclusion We present here a new method for virus discovery that requires a virus culture on primary cells and an antibody detection. The virus in the harvest can be used to characterize the viral genome sequence and cell tropism, but also provides progeny virus to initiate experiments to fulfill the Koch's postulates. PMID:25482367

  1. A diverse group of previously unrecognized human rhinoviruses are common causes of respiratory illnesses in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ming Lee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the most prevalent human pathogens, and consist of 101 serotypes that are classified into groups A and B according to sequence variations. HRV infections cause a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe lower respiratory symptoms. Defining the role of specific strains in various HRV illnesses has been difficult because traditional serology, which requires viral culture and neutralization tests using 101 serotype-specific antisera, is insensitive and laborious.To directly type HRVs in nasal secretions of infants with frequent respiratory illnesses, we developed a sensitive molecular typing assay based on phylogenetic comparisons of a 260-bp variable sequence in the 5' noncoding region with homologous sequences of the 101 known serotypes. Nasal samples from 26 infants were first tested with a multiplex PCR assay for respiratory viruses, and HRV was the most common virus found (108 of 181 samples. Typing was completed for 101 samples and 103 HRVs were identified. Surprisingly, 54 (52.4% HRVs did not match any of the known serotypes and had 12-35% nucleotide divergence from the nearest reference HRVs. Of these novel viruses, 9 strains (17 HRVs segregated from HRVA, HRVB and human enterovirus into a distinct genetic group ("C". None of these new strains could be cultured in traditional cell lines.By molecular analysis, over 50% of HRV detected in sick infants were previously unrecognized strains, including 9 strains that may represent a new HRV group. These findings indicate that the number of HRV strains is considerably larger than the 101 serotypes identified with traditional diagnostic techniques, and provide evidence of a new HRV group.

  2. A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective interfering (DI viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8 was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1; it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.

  3. [Measurement of the passive compliance of the total respiratory system in newborn after respiratory insufficiency for risk assessment of respiratory disorders during the first 6 month of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olechowski, Wiesław; Majorek-Olechowska, Bernadetta

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the relationships between postnatal passive respiratory compliance (Crs) and development of respiratory disorders during the first 6 month of life in preterm and full-term infants after respiratory insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether other relevant neonatal factors, like degree of prematurity, birth weigh, ventilatory conditions, sepsis, and respiratory disease severity affected this relationship. The passive respiratory compliance was measured by the single occlusion technique in 73 preterm infants after respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 19 full-term infants after congenital pneumonia and 33 healthy full-term infants. Respiratory function measurements were performed by single occlusion technique, during natural sleep, after acute phase of illness, before discharge from neonatal department. Crs was significantly lower in premature newborns newborns who have suffered from a congenital pneumonia (p = 0.0411), than in healthy full-term newborn infants. Premature infants who have undergone sepsis have significantly decreased Crs in relationship with those who did not have this complication (p = 0.0334). Preterm newborns who have suffered pneumonia during treatment of RDS have significantly frequent respiratory problems during the first 6 month of age (p = 0.043). Full-term infants after congenital pneumonia have more but not significantly frequent respiratory problems than healthy term newborns (p = 0.055) in this period. Decreased neonatal Crs wasn't significantly related to respiratory disorders in age of 6 month of life. Prematurity under 36 week of gestational age, low birth weight and suffering from sepsis in premature infants significantly decreased Crs in newborn. Decreased neonatal Crs in premature and full term infants after respiratory insufficiency wasn't significantly related to respiratory disorders during first 6 month of life. This study has showed significantly increase of respiratory problems in this

  4. Innovative characteristics of the new dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract studied by the ICRP appointed Task Group of Committee 2

    CERN Document Server

    Melandri, C; Tarroni, G

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, the ICRP appointed a Task Group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the current lung dosimetric model. On the basis of the knowledge acquired during the past 20 years, the Task Group's approach has been to review, in depth, the morphology and physiology of the human respiratory tract, inspirability of aerosols and regional deposition of inhaled particles as functions of aerosol size and breathing parameters, clearance of deposited materials, nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory system caused by inhaled radioactive substances. In the proposed model, clearance from the three regions of the respiratory tract (extrathoracic ET, fast-clearing thoracic T sub f and slow-clearing thoracic T sub s , comprising lymph nodes) is described in terms of competition between the mechanical processes moving particles, which do not depend on the substances, and those of absorption into the blood, determined solely by the material. A Task Group report will also include models for calcula...

  5. Physiological system integrations with emphasis on the respiratory-cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The integration of two types of physiological system simulations is presented. The long term model is a circulatory system model which simulates long term blood flow variations and compartmental fluid shifts. The short term models simulate transient phenomena of the respiratory, thermoregulatory, and pulsatile cardiovascular systems as they respond to stimuli such as LBNP, exercise, and environmental gaseous variations. An overview of the interfacing approach is described. Descriptions of the variable interface for long term to short term and between the three short term models are given.

  6. Effect of compounds with antibacterial activities in human milk on respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, J; Gordon, A; May, J T

    1998-11-01

    The effect of some antibacterial compounds present in human milk were tested for antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus, Semliki Forest virus and cytomegalovirus. These included the gangliosides GM1, GM2 and GM3, sialyl-lactose, lactoferrin and chondroitin sulphate A, B and C, which were all tested for their ability to inhibit the viruses in cell culture. Of the compounds tested, only the ganglioside GM2, chondroitin sulphate B and lactoferrin inhibited the absorption and growth of respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture, and none inhibited the growth of Semliki Forest virus, indicating that lipid antiviral activity was not associated with any of the gangliosides. While the concentrations of these two compounds required to inhibit respiratory syncytial virus were in excess of those present in human milk, sialyl-lactose concentrations similar to those present in human milk increased the growth of cytomegalovirus. Lactoferrin was confirmed as inhibiting both respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus growth in culture even when used at lower concentrations than those present in human milk. The antiviral activities of GM2, chondroitin sulphate B and lactoferrin were tested when added to an infant formula. Lactoferrin continued to have antiviral activity against cytomegalovirus, but a lower activity against respiratory syncytial virus; ganglioside GM2 and chondroitin sulphate B still maintained antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus.

  7. Elucidative analysis and sequencing of two respiratory health monitoring methods to study the impact of varying atmospheric composition on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Amit; Hothi, Navjot; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Nirankar; Chakraborty, Monojit; Bansal, Sangeeta

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric composition of ambient air consists of different gases in definite proportion that affect the earth's climate and its ecological system. Due to varied anthropogenic reasons, this composition is changed, which ultimately have an impact on the health of living beings. For survival, the human respiratory system is one of the sensitive systems, which is easily and closely affected by the change in atmospheric composition of an external environment. Many studies have been conducted to quantify the effects of atmospheric pollution on human health by using different approaches. This article presents different scenario of studies conducted to evaluate the effects on different human groups. Differences between the studies conducted using spirometry and survey methods are presented in this article to extract a better sequence between these two methodologies. Many studies have been conducted to measure the respiratory status by evaluating the respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions. Limited numbers of studies are found with repeated spirometry on the same subjects for long duration to nullify the error arising due to decrease in efforts by the same subjects during manoeuvre of pulmonary function tests. Present study reveals the importance of methodological sequencing in order to obtain more authentic and reliable results. This study suggests that impacts of deteriorating atmospheric composition on human health can be more significantly studied if spirometry is done after survey analysis. The article also proposes that efficiency and authenticity of surveys involving health impacts will increase, if medical data information of patients is saved in hospitals in a proper format.

  8. SU-G-JeP3-09: Tumor Location Prediction Using Natural Respiratory Volume for Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT): System Verification Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M; Jung, J; Yoon, D; Shin, H; Kim, S; Suh, T [The catholic university of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gated radiation therapy (RGRT) gives accurate results when a patient’s breathing is stable and regular. Thus, the patient should be fully aware during respiratory pattern training before undergoing the RGRT treatment. In order to bypass the process of respiratory pattern training, we propose a target location prediction system for RGRT that uses only natural respiratory volume, and confirm its application. Methods: In order to verify the proposed target location prediction system, an in-house phantom set was used. This set involves a chest phantom including target, external markers, and motion generator. Natural respiratory volume signals were generated using the random function in MATLAB code. In the chest phantom, the target takes a linear motion based on the respiratory signal. After a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan of the in-house phantom, the motion trajectory was derived as a linear equation. The accuracy of the linear equation was compared with that of the motion algorithm used by the operating motion generator. In addition, we attempted target location prediction using random respiratory volume values. Results: The correspondence rate of the linear equation derived from the 4DCT images with the motion algorithm of the motion generator was 99.41%. In addition, the average error rate of target location prediction was 1.23% for 26 cases. Conclusion: We confirmed the applicability of our proposed target location prediction system for RGRT using natural respiratory volume. If additional clinical studies can be conducted, a more accurate prediction system can be realized without requiring respiratory pattern training.

  9. Development of Non-contact Respiratory Monitoring System for Newborn Using a FG Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurami, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yushi; Natori, Michiya; Ohzeki, Kazuo; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    In recent years, development of neonatal care is strongly hoped, with increase of the low-birth-weight baby birth rate. Especially respiration of low-birth-weight baby is incertitude because central nerve and respiratory function is immature. Therefore, a low-birth-weight baby often causes a disease of respiration. In a NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), neonatal respiration is monitored using cardio-respiratory monitor and pulse oximeter at all times. These contact-type sensors can measure respiratory rate and SpO2 (Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen). However, because a contact-type sensor might damage the newborn's skin, it is a real burden to monitor neonatal respiration. Therefore, we developed the respiratory monitoring system for newborn using a FG (Fiber Grating) vision sensor. FG vision sensor is an active stereo vision sensor, it is possible for non-contact 3D measurement. A respiratory waveform is calculated by detecting the vertical motion of the thoracic and abdominal region with respiration. We attempted clinical experiment in the NICU, and confirmed the accuracy of the obtained respiratory waveform was high. Non-contact respiratory monitoring of newborn using a FG vision sensor enabled the minimally invasive procedure.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, S.; Suffield, S. R.; Recknagle, K. P.; Jacob, R. E.; Einstein, D. R.; Kuprat, A. P.; Carson, J. P.; Colby, S. M.; Saunders, J. H.; Hines, S. A.; Teeguarden, J. G.; Straub, T. M.; Moe, M.; Taft, S. C.; Corley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived respectively from computed tomography (CT) and µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation–exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Two different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the nasal sinus compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. In contrast, higher spore deposition was predicted in the lower conducting airways of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology for deposition.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Suffield, Sarah R.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Colby, Sean M.; Saunders, James H.; Hines, Stephanie; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Straub, Tim M.; Moe, M.; Taft, Sarah; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-09-30

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. The highest exposure concentration was modeled in the rabbit based upon prior acute inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulation was also conducted at the same concentration. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. As a result, higher particle deposition was predicted in the conducting airways and deep lung of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology.

  12. Respiratory system dynamical mechanical properties: modeling in time and frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alysson Roncally; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2011-06-01

    The mechanical properties of the respiratory system are important determinants of its function and can be severely compromised in disease. The assessment of respiratory system mechanical properties is thus essential in the management of some disorders as well as in the evaluation of respiratory system adaptations in response to an acute or chronic process. Most often, lungs and chest wall are treated as a linear dynamic system that can be expressed with differential equations, allowing determination of the system's parameters, which will reflect the mechanical properties. However, different models that encompass nonlinear characteristics and also multicompartments have been used in several approaches and most specifically in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Additionally, the input impedance over a range of frequencies can be assessed with a convenient excitation method allowing the identification of the mechanical characteristics of the central and peripheral airways as well as lung periphery impedance. With the evolution of computational power, the airway pressure and flow can be recorded and stored for hours, and hence continuous monitoring of the respiratory system mechanical properties is already available in some mechanical ventilators. This review aims to describe some of the most frequently used models for the assessment of the respiratory system mechanical properties in both time and frequency domain.

  13. Automated respiratory therapy system based on the ARDSNet protocol with systemic perfusion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomprapa Anake

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A medical expert system of automatic artificial ventilation is set up in a star topology with additional closed-loop hemodynamic control. Arterial blood pressure (MAP is controlled by noradrenaline (NA as a controlling variable. The overall patient-in-the-loop expert system can intensively and intelligently perform a long-term treatment based on the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (ARDSNet protocol. Three main goals are actively carried out, namely the stabilization and regulation of oxygenation, plateau pressure and blood pH value. The developed system shows a distinctive experimental result based on a 31.5-kg pig, in order to fulfil the ventilatory goals and to ensure proper systemic perfusion. Hence, this system has enormous potentials to realize a commercial system for individual patient with ARDS.

  14. Effects of wood smoke particles from wood-burning stoves on the respiratory health of atopic humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddervold Ingunn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that particulate air pollution derived from wood stoves causes acute inflammation in the respiratory system, increases the incidence of asthma and other allergic diseases, and increases respiratory morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate acute respiratory effects from short-term wood smoke exposure in humans. Twenty non-smoking atopic volunteers with normal lung function and without bronchial responsiveness were monitored during three different experimental exposure sessions, aiming at particle concentrations of about 200 μg/m3, 400 μg/m3, and clean air as control exposure. A balanced cross-over design was used and participants were randomly allocated to exposure orders. Particles were generated in a wood-burning facility and added to a full-scale climate chamber where the participants were exposed for 3 hours under controlled environmental conditions. Health effects were evaluated in relation to: peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, and forced vital capacity (FVC. Furthermore, the effects were assessed in relation to changes in nasal patency and from markers of airway inflammation: fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC and nasal lavage (NAL samples were collected before, and at various intervals after exposure. Results No statistically significant effect of wood smoke exposure was found for lung function, for FENO, for NAL or for the nasal patency. Limited signs of airway inflammation were found in EBC. Conclusion In conclusion, short term exposure with wood smoke at a concentration normally found in a residential area with a high density of burning wood stoves causes only mild inflammatory response.

  15. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Paterson, Suzanna; Chiu, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies) that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell generation and

  16. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ascough

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell

  17. Detection of human bocavirus from children and adults with acute respiratory tract illness in Guangzhou, southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bocavirus (HBoV is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positive samples from ARTI patients with a wide age distribution from Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=2811 were collected and analyzed from children and adults with ARTI over a 13-month period. The HBoV complete genome from a 60 year-old female patient isolate was also determined. Results HBoV DNA was detected in 65/2811 (2.3% samples, of which 61/1797 were from children (Mycoplasma pneumoniae had the highest frequency of 16.9% (11/65. Upper and lower respiratory tract illness were common symptoms, with 19/65 (29.2% patients diagnosed with pneumonia by chest radiography. All four adult patients had systemic influenza-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome revealed a close relationship with other HBoVs, and a more distant relationship with HBoV2 and HBoV3. Conclusions HBoV was detected from children and adults with ARTI from Guangzhou, southern China. Elderly people were also susceptive to HBoV. A single lineage of HBoV was detected among a wide age distribution of patients with ARTI.

  18. Multi-Organ Damage in Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Transgenic Mice Infected with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyu Zhao

    Full Text Available The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV causes severe acute respiratory failure and considerable extrapumonary organ dysfuction with substantial high mortality. For the limited number of autopsy reports, small animal models are urgently needed to study the mechanisms of MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis of the disease and to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutics against MERS-CoV infection. In this study, we developed a transgenic mouse model globally expressing codon-optimized human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4, the receptor for MERS-CoV. After intranasal inoculation with MERS-CoV, the mice rapidly developed severe pneumonia and multi-organ damage, with viral replication being detected in the lungs on day 5 and in the lungs, kidneys and brains on day 9 post-infection. In addition, the mice exhibited systemic inflammation with mild to severe pneumonia accompanied by the injury of liver, kidney and spleen with neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. Importantly, the mice exhibited symptoms of paralysis with high viral burden and viral positive neurons on day 9. Taken together, this study characterizes the tropism of MERS-CoV upon infection. Importantly, this hDPP4-expressing transgenic mouse model will be applicable for studying the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection and investigating the efficacy of vaccines and antiviral agents designed to combat MERS-CoV infection.

  19. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Impact of Human Systems Community of Interest D O T M L P F $450M COI Budget Has Broad Impact in Several DOTMLPF Areas Decision Making Selection...and fit to a military career. • 26 personality dimensions such as optimism, excitement seeking, and non- delinquency • Applicant chooses from...Adaptive Collaborative Control Technologies ( IMPACT ) architecture designed • IMPACT “DoD Virtual Lab” established (Year 1) • 1 operator x 6 vehicles

  20. Real-time system for respiratory-cardiac gating in positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, G.J.; Reutter, B.W.; Ho, M.H.; Huesman, R.H.; Reed, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    A Macintosh-based signal processing system has been developed to support simultaneous respiratory and cardiac gating on the ECAT EXACT HR PET scanner. Using the Lab-View real-time software environment, the system reads analog inputs from a pneumatic respiratory bellows and an EGG monitor to compute an appropriate histogram memory location for the PET data. Respiratory state is determined by the bellows signal amplitude; cardiac state is based on the time since the last R-wave. These two states are used in a 2D lookup table to determine a combined respiratory-cardiac state. A 4-bit address encoding the selected histogram is directed from the system to the ECAT scanner, which dynamically switches the destination of tomograph events as respiratory-cardiac state changes. to Test the switching efficiency of the combined Macintosh/ECAT system, a rotating emission phantom was built. Acquisitions with 25 msec states while the phantom was rotating at 240 rpm demonstrate the system could effectively stop motion at this rate, with approximately 5 msec switching time between states

  1. Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Philippines, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungnapa Malasao

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children worldwide. We performed molecular analysis of HRSV among infants and children with clinical diagnosis of severe pneumonia in four study sites in the Philippines, including Biliran, Leyte, Palawan, and Metro Manila from June 2012 to July 2013. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened for HRSV using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were tested by conventional PCR and sequenced for the second hypervariable region (2nd HVR of the G gene. Among a total of 1,505 samples, 423 samples were positive for HRSV (28.1%, of which 305 (72.1% and 118 (27.9% were identified as HRSV-A and HRSV-B, respectively. Two genotypes of HRSV-A, NA1 and ON1, were identified during the study period. The novel ON1 genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in 2nd HVR of the G gene increased rapidly and finally became the predominant genotype in 2013 with an evolutionary rate higher than the NA1 genotype. Moreover, in the ON1 genotype, we found positive selection at amino acid position 274 (p<0.05 and massive O- and N-glycosylation in the 2nd HVR of the G gene. Among HRSV-B, BA9 was the predominant genotype circulating in the Philippines. However, two sporadic cases of GB2 genotype were found, which might share a common ancestor with other Asian strains. These findings suggest that HRSV is an important cause of severe acute respiratory infection among children in the Philippines and revealed the emergence and subsequent predominance of the ON1 genotype and the sporadic detection of the GB2 genotype. Both genotypes were detected for the first time in the Philippines.

  2. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kida, S [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai City, Miyagi (Japan); Kishi, K; Sato, K [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Dobashi, S; Takeda, K [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  3. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K; Kida, S; Kishi, K; Sato, K; Dobashi, S; Takeda, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  4. Regulatory peptides in the upper respiratory system and oral cavity of man. An immunocytochemical and radioimmunological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser-Kronberger, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study a dense network of peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the upper respiratory system and the oral cavity of man was investigated. The occurrence, distribution and concentrations of regulatory peptide immunoreactivities in human nasal mucosa, soft palate, ventricular fold, vocal cord, epiglottis, subglottis, glandula submandibularis and glandula parotis were investigated using highly efficient immunocytochemical and radio-immunological methods. In the tissues investigated vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and other derivatives from the VIP-precursor (peptide histidine methionine = PHM), prepro VIP (111-122)), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and its C-flanking peptide (CPON), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, neurokinin A, bombesin-flanking peptide and somatostatin were detected. The regulatory peptides demonstrated also included the recently isolated peptides helospectin and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP). Single endocrine-like cells were for the first time demonstrated within the respiratory epithelium and in the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa and soft palate and in groups within ducts. Ultrastructural immunelectronmicroscopy was performed using an ABC-pre-embedding method. In addition, semithin Epon resin sections were immunostained. The concentrations of VIP, NPY, CGRP, substance P and neurokinin A were measured using radioimmunological methods. The peptide immunoreactivities demonstrated in a dense network of neuronal structures and endocrine cells give indication for the presence of a complex regulatory system with potent physiological mechanisms in the upper respiratory system and allocated tissues of man

  5. The role of Mycobacterium avium complex fibronectin attachment protein in adherence to the human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A M; Chadwick, M V; Nicholson, A G; Dewar, A; Groger, R K; Brown, E J; Wilson, R

    2000-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic respiratory pathogens that infect non-immunocompromised patients with established lung disease, although they can also cause primary infections. The ability to bind fibronectin is conserved among many mycobacterial species. We have investigated the adherence of a sputum isolate of MAC to the mucosa of organ cultures constructed with human tissue and the contribution of M. avium fibronectin attachment protein (FAP) to the process. MAC adhered to fibrous, but not globular mucus, and to extracellular matrix (ECM) in areas of epithelial damage, but not to intact extruded cells and collagen fibres. Bacteria occasionally adhered to healthy unciliated epithelium and to cells that had degenerated exposing their contents, but never to ciliated cells. The results obtained with different respiratory tissues were similar. Two ATCC strains of MAC gave similar results. There was a significant reduction (P fibrous mucus was unchanged. Immunogold labelling demonstrated fibronectin in ECM as well as in other areas of epithelial damage, but only ECM bound FAP. A Mycobacterium smegmatis strain had the same pattern of adherence to the mucosa as MAC. When the FAP gene was deleted, the strain demonstrated reduced adherence to ECM, and adherence was restored when the strain was transfected with an M. avium FAP expression construct. We conclude that MAC adheres to ECM in areas of epithelial damage via FAP and to mucus with a fibrous appearance via another adhesin. Epithelial damage exposing ECM and poor mucus clearance will predispose to MAC airway infection.

  6. Comparative epidemiology of human metapneumovirus- and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, John P; Arvelo, Wences; Ortíz, José; Reyes, Lissette; Gray, Jennifer; Estevez, Alejandra; Castañeda, Oscar; Langley, Gayle; Lindblade, Kim A

    2014-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infections (ARI), but little is known about how it compares with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Central America. Objectives In this study, we describe hospitalized cases of HMPV- and RSV-ARI in Guatemala. Methods We conducted surveillance at three hospitals (November 2007–December 2012) and tested nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens for HMPV and RSV using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We calculated incidence rates, and compared the epidemiology and outcomes of HMPV-positive versus RSV-positive and RSV-HMPV-negative cases. Results We enrolled and tested specimens from 6288 ARI cases; 596 (9%) were HMPV-positive and 1485 (24%) were RSV-positive. We observed a seasonal pattern of RSV but not HMPV. The proportion HMPV-positive was low (3%) and RSV-positive high (41%) for age Guatemala, but HMPV hospitalizations are less frequent than RSV and, in young children, less severe than other etiologies. Preventive interventions should take into account the wide variation in incidence by age and unpredictable timing of incidence peaks. PMID:24761765

  7. Effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at the onset of submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, P J; Parolin, M L; Jones, N L; Heigenhauser, G J F

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at rest and during submaximal exercise. Subjects exercised on two occasions for 15 min at 55 % of their maximal oxygen uptake while either hyperventilating (R-Alk) or breathing normally (Con). Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 1 and 15 min of exercise. At rest, no effects on muscle metabolism were observed in response to R-Alk. In the first minute of exercise, there was a delayed activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in R-Alk compared with Con, resulting in a reduced rate of pyruvate oxidation. Also, glycogenolysis was higher in R-Alk compared with Con, which was attributed to a higher availability of the monoprotonated form of inorganic phosphate (P(i)), resulting in an elevated rate of pyruvate production. The mismatch between pyruvate production and its oxidation resulted in net lactate accumulation. These effects were not seen after 15 min of exercise, with no further differences in muscle metabolism between conditions. The results from the present study suggest that respiratory alkalosis may play an important role in lactate accumulation during the transition from rest to exercise in acute hypoxic conditions, but that other factors mediate lactate accumulation during steady-state exercise.

  8. Purification and characterization of factors produced by Aspergillus fumigatus which affect human ciliated respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitani, R; Taylor, G; Elezis, E N; Llewellyn-Jones, C; Mitchell, J; Kuze, F; Cole, P J; Wilson, R

    1995-09-01

    The mechanisms by which Aspergillus fumigatus colonizes the respiratory mucosa are unknown. Culture filtrates of eight of nine clinical isolates of A. fumigatus slowed ciliary beat frequency and damaged human respiratory epithelium in vitro. These changes appeared to occur concurrently. Culture filtrates of two clinical isolates of Candida albicans had no effect on ciliated epithelium. We have purified and characterized cilioinhibitory factors of a clinical isolate of A. fumigatus. The cilioinhibitory activity was heat labile, reduced by dialysis, and partially extractable into chloroform. The activity was associated with both high- and low-molecular-weight factors, as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50. A low-molecular-weight cilioinhibitory factor was further purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and shown by mass spectrometry to be gliotoxin, a known metabolite of A. fumigatus. Gliotoxin significantly slowed ciliary beat frequency in association with epithelial damage at concentrations above 0.2 microgram/ml; other Aspergillus toxins, i.e., fumagillin and helvolic acid, were also cilioinhibitory but at much higher concentrations. High-molecular-weight (> or = 35,000 and 25,000) cilioinhibitory materials had neither elastolytic nor proteolytic activity and remain to be identified. Thus, A. fumigatus produces a number of biologically active substances which slow ciliary beating and damage epithelium and which may influence colonization of the airways.

  9. [Different species of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming-hui; Zhao, Lin-qing; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Ru-nan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Tian, Run

    2013-12-01

    To understand the clinical characteristics of different groups human rhinovirus (HRV)-A, B and C infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Beijing. Respiratory tract specimens (n = 1412) collected from children with ARI during Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2012 were tested for HRV by using semi-nested PCR. Gene fragments of VP4/VP2 capsid protein amplified from HRV positive specimens were sequenced for HRV genotype confirmation. Then epidemiological characteristics of these HRV-positive cases were analyzed. Among these 1412 specimens tested, 103 (7.3%) were HRV positive, including 54 (52.4%) positive for HRV-A, 14 (13.6%) for HRV-B, 35 (34.0%) for HRV-C determined by sequence analysis. The positive rates of HRV-A, B and C (2.5%, 16/638; 0.3%, 2/638 and 1.3%, 8/638) in children with acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) were lower than those (5.8%, 36/623; 1.8%, 11/623 and 3.9%, 24/623) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) (P = 0.003, 0.011, 0.003). In children with LRI, the positive rates of HRV-A, C were similar to each other (P = 0.112), and both were higher than that of HRV-B (P = 0.000, P = 0.026). The severity of ARI among children positive for different groups HRV showed no significant difference evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis H test (Hc = 0.044, P > 0.05), as well as that between children co-infected with HRV and other viruses and those infected with HRV only evaluated by Wilcoxon rank sum test (Zc = 0.872, P > 0.05). HRV is one of important pathogens for children with ARI, especially LRI in Beijing. The positive rates of HRV-A and HRV-C are similar to each other, and both are higher than that of HRV-B. No significant difference was shown among children with different HRV genotypes by evaluation of the severity of ARI, and co-infections of HRV with other viruses do not significantly increase the severity of ARI.

  10. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 37. Competency Curricula for Respiratory Therapy Assistant and Respiratory Therapy Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-31

    instruction. The training aids, like strategies, extend from the traditional references and handout material in the form of a student syllabus to...on careers; select students ; and identify and select faculty. The System Threa sub-systems, as described, comprise the proposed system for Education...of Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing Treatment . . . . . . . . ... 13 5. Chest Physiotherapy ...... . .. . . . . . 14 6. Respiratory Exercises

  11. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Human Respiratory Epithelium Affected by Invasive Candida Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aun Muhammad

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is potentially life-threatening systemic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans. Candida enters the blood stream and disseminate throughout the body and it is often observed in hospitalized patients, immunocompromised individuals or those with chronic diseases. This infection is opportunistic and risk starts with the colonization of C. albicans on mucocutaneous surfaces and respiratory epithelium. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are involved in the regulation of virtually every cellular process. They regulate and control the levels of mRNA stability and post-transcriptional gene expression. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been associated in many disease states, and miRNA-based therapies are in progress. In this study, we investigated possible variations of miRNA expression profiles of respiratory epithelial cells infected by invasive Candida species. For this purpose, respiratory epithelial tissues of infected individuals from hospital laboratory were accessed before their treatment. Invasive Candida infection was confirmed by isolation of Candia albicans from the blood cultures of the same infected individuals. The purity of epithelial tissues was assessed by flow cytometry (FACSCalibur cytometer; BD Biosciences, Heidelberg, Germany using statin antibody (S-44. TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR (in a TaqMan Low Density Array format was used for miRNA expression profiling. MiRNAs investigated, the levels of expression of 55 miRNA were significantly altered in infected tissues. Some miRNAs showed dramatic increase (miR-16-1 or decrease of expression (miR-17-3p as compared to control. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these miRNA-targeted genes suggests that Candidal infection affect many important biological pathways. In summary, disturbance in miRNA expression levels indicated the change in cascade of pathological processes and the regulation of respiratory epithelial functions

  12. Glycolipid-Dependent, Protease Sensitive Internalization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Into Cultured Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Aufaugh; Carter, William G; Lingwood, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of PAK strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa into human respiratory epithelial cell lines and HeLa cervical cancer cells in vitro was readily demonstrable via a gentamycin protection assay. Depletion of target cell glycosphingolipids (GSLs) using a glucosyl ceramide synthase inhibitor, P4, completely prevented P. aeruginosa internalization. In contrast, P4 treatment had no effect on the internalization of Salmonella typhimurium into HeLa cells. Internalized P. aeruginosa were within membrane vacuoles, often containing microvesicles, between the bacterium and the limiting membrane. P. aeruginosa internalization was markedly enhanced by target cell pretreatment with the exogenous GSL, deacetyl gangliotetraosyl ceramide (Gg4). Gg4 binds the lipid raft marker, GM1 ganglioside. Target cell pretreatment with TLCK, but not other (serine) protease inhibitors, prevented both P. aeruginosa host cell binding and internalization. NFkB inhibition also prevented internalization. A GSL-containing lipid-raft model of P. aeruginosa host cell binding/internalization is proposed PMID:21270937

  13. The potential health and economic benefits of preventing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis through quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Forhan, Sara E; Gottlieb, Sami L; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2008-08-18

    We estimated the health and economic benefits of preventing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) through quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We applied a simple mathematical model to estimate the averted costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved by preventing RRP in children whose mothers had been vaccinated at age 12 years. Under base case assumptions, the prevention of RRP would avert an estimated USD 31 (range: USD 2-178) in medical costs (2006 US dollars) and save 0.00016 QALYs (range: 0.00001-0.00152) per 12-year-old girl vaccinated. Including the benefits of RRP reduced the estimated cost per QALY gained by HPV vaccination by roughly 14-21% in the base case and by 100% in the sensitivity analyses. More precise estimates of the incidence of RRP are needed, however, to quantify this impact more reliably.

  14. Practical application of the new ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.R.; Guilmette, R.A.; Jarvis, N.S.; Roy, M

    1998-07-01

    The ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) has been applied to calculate general-purpose dose coefficients using default values of parameters relating to the material and the subjects. The ICRP Task Group on Internal Dosimetry is developing a 'Technical Document' giving guidance on application of the HRTM in situations where using specific information can improve dose assessment. It will include an analysis of the sensitivity of doses and bioassay quantities, lung retention and excretion rates, to relevant parameter values. Guidance will be given on characterising and sampling radioactive aerosols and on determining absorption rates. Examples will be given illustrating application of the HRTM in a wide range of situations. This paper provides a selective summary of the document at its current stage of development, with emphasis on determining absorption rates. (author)

  15. Innovative characteristics of the new dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract studied by the ICRP appointed Task Group of Committee 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1991-02-01

    In 1984, the ICRP appointed a Task Group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the current lung dosimetric model. On the basis of the knowledge acquired during the past 20 years, the Task Group's approach has been to review, in depth, the morphology and physiology of the human respiratory tract, inspirability of aerosols and regional deposition of inhaled particles as functions of aerosol size and breathing parameters, clearance of deposited materials, nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory system caused by inhaled radioactive substances. In the proposed model, clearance from the three regions of the respiratory tract (extrathoracic ET, fast-clearing thoracic T f and slow-clearing thoracic T s , comprising lymph nodes) is described in terms of competition between the mechanical processes moving particles, which do not depend on the substances, and those of absorption into the blood, determined solely by the material. A Task Group report will also include models for calculating radiation doses to tissues of the respiratory system following inhalation of α, β and γ emitting particulate and gaseous radionuclides. (author)

  16. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    Full Text Available Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2 exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient

  17. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galateja Jordakieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice (n = 20 were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10 or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA (n = 10. A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42 at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens

  18. Lost life years due to premature mortality caused by diseases of the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniecka-Bryła, Irena; Paciej-Gołębiowska, Paulina; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Bryła, Marek

    2018-06-04

    In Poland, as in most other European countries, diseases of the respiratory system are the 4th leading cause of mortality; they are responsible for about 8% of all deaths in the European Union (EU) annually. To assess the socio-economic aspects of mortality, it has become increasingly common to apply potential measures rather than conventionally used ratios. The aim of this study was to analyze years of life lost due to premature deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system in Poland from 1999 to 2013. The study was based on a dataset of 5,606,516 records, obtained from the death certificates of Polish residents who died between 1999 and 2013. The information on deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system, i.e., coded as J00-J99 according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10), was analyzed. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) indicator was used in the study. In the years 1999-2013, the Polish population suffered 280,519 deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system (4.69% of all deaths). In the period analyzed, a gradual decrease in the standardized death rate was observed - from 46.31 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1999 to 41.02 in 2013. The dominant causes of death were influenza and pneumonia (J09-J18) and chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47). Diseases of the respiratory system were the cause of 4,474,548.92 lost life years. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per person (SEYLLp) was 104.72 per 10,000 males and 52.85 per 10,000 females. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per death (SEYLLd) for people who died due to diseases of the respiratory system was 17.54 years of life on average for men and 13.65 years on average for women. The use of the SEYLL indicator provided significant information on premature mortality due to diseases of the respiratory system, indicating the fact that they play a large role in the health status of the Polish

  19. Evaluating humidity recovery efficiency of currently available heat and moisture exchangers: a respiratory system model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Janaina Jaber Lucato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficiency of humidification in available heat and moisture exchanger models under conditions of varying tidal volume, respiratory rate, and flow rate. INTRODUCTION: Inspired gases are routinely preconditioned by heat and moisture exchangers to provide a heat and water content similar to that provided normally by the nose and upper airways. The absolute humidity of air retrieved from and returned to the ventilated patient is an important measurable outcome of the heat and moisture exchangers' humidifying performance. METHODS: Eight different heat and moisture exchangers were studied using a respiratory system analog. The system included a heated chamber (acrylic glass, maintained at 37°C, a preserved swine lung, a hygrometer, circuitry and a ventilator. Humidity and temperature levels were measured using eight distinct interposed heat and moisture exchangers given different tidal volumes, respiratory frequencies and flow-rate conditions. Recovery of absolute humidity (%RAH was calculated for each setting. RESULTS: Increasing tidal volumes led to a reduction in %RAH for all heat and moisture exchangers while no significant effect was demonstrated in the context of varying respiratory rate or inspiratory flow. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that heat and moisture exchangers are more efficient when used with low tidal volume ventilation. The roles of flow and respiratory rate were of lesser importance, suggesting that their adjustment has a less significant effect on the performance of heat and moisture exchangers.

  20. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  1. Aspiration pneumonia induces muscle atrophy in the respiratory, skeletal, and swallowing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Riyo; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Ebihara, Satoru; Kobayashi, Makoto; Tsukita, Yoko; Nihei, Mayumi; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Niu, Kaijun; Ebihara, Takae; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2018-05-22

    activated autophagy in the TA and the tongue, whereas weak or little activation was detected in the diaphragm. The aspiration challenge resulted in a greater proportion of smaller myofibers than in controls in the diaphragm, TA, and tongue, suggesting muscle atrophy. CT scans clearly showed that aspiration pneumonia was followed by muscle atrophy in aged patients. Aspiration pneumonia induced muscle atrophy in the respiratory, skeletal, and swallowing systems in a preclinical animal model and in human patients. Diaphragmatic atrophy may weaken the force of cough to expectorate sputum or mis-swallowed contents. Skeletal muscle atrophy may cause secondary sarcopenia. The atrophy of swallowing muscles may weaken the swallowing function. Thus, muscle atrophy could become a new therapeutic target of aspiration pneumonia. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  2. Deposition and retention models for internal dosimetry of the human respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-01-01

    A general overview of particulate deposition and clearance, particularly as related to radionuclides, but generally applicable is described. The respiratory system is divided into naso-pharynx (N-P) and tracheobronchial (T-B) (together constituting anatomical dead space and ciliated, mucus-covered portion) and pulmonary (caudally from respiratory bronchioles). N-P deposition (N) is expressed by: N = 0.62 + 0.475log(aerodynamic diameter)/sup 2/(inhalation, liters/min). T-B deposition calculated from anatomical and physical data (affected by hygroscopicity, especially for low-MW and low-density particles). Clearance mechanisms include: (1) a very rapid phase (minutes) for particles deposited on ciliated epithelium; (2) a rapid phase consisting of the slower elements of ciliary clearance and the rapidly recruitable phagocytes (transitional character of this phase makes it difficult to estimate half-time, 24 hr); (3) a slower alveolar phase dependent on properties of dust; (4) elimination via lymph. (3) and (4) have similar kinetics, but (3) is via T-B and GI.

  3. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  4. Human metapnuemovirus infections in hospitalized children and comparison with other respiratory viruses. 2005-2014 prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz García-García

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, rhinovirus (HRV, adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population.A prospective study performed on all children less than 14 years of age with a respiratory tract disease admitted to a secondary hospital between September 2005- June 2014. Clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed. Nasopharyngeal aspirate was taken at admission for viral study with polymerase chain reaction for 16 respiratory viruses. A total of 3,906 children were included. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 75.2% of them. The most common identified virus was HRSV, followed by HRV. HMPV was detected in 214 cases (5.5%; 133 (62% were single infections and the remaining were detected in coinfection with other viruses. 90.7% cases were detected between February and May. Children's mean age was 13.83 ± 18 months. Fever was frequent (69%, and bronchiolitis (27%, and recurrent wheezing (63% were the main clinical diagnosis. Hypoxia was present in 65% of the patients and 47% of them had an infiltrate in X-ray. Only 6 (2.8% children were admitted to the intensive care unit. Only the duration of the hospitalization was different, being longer in the coinfections group (p <0.05. There were many differences in seasonality and clinical characteristics between HMPV and other respiratory viruses being more similar to HRSV.HMPV infections accounted for 5.5% of total viral infections in hospitalized children. The clinical characteristics were similar to HRSV infections, but seasonality and clinical data were different from other viral

  5. Morphogenesis of the rhea (Rhea americana respiratory system in different embryonic and foetal stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata P. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The rhea (Rhea americana is an important wild species that has been highlighted in national and international livestock. This research aims to analyse embryo-foetal development in different phases of the respiratory system of rheas. Twenty-three embryos and foetuses were euthanized, fixed and dissected. Fragments of the respiratory system, including the nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, syrinx, bronchi and lungs, were collected and processed for studies using light and scanning electron microscopy. The nasal cavity presented cubic epithelium in the early stages of development. The larynx exhibited typical respiratory epithelium between 27 and 31 days. The trachea showed early formation of hyaline cartilage after 15 days. Syrinx in the mucous membrane of 18-day foetuses consisted of ciliated epithelium in the bronchial region. The main bronchi had ciliated epithelium with goblet cells in the syringeal region. In the lung, the parabronchial stage presented numerous parabronchi between 15 and 21 days. This study allowed the identification of normal events that occur during the development of the rhea respiratory system, an important model that has not previously been described. The information generated here will be useful for the diagnosis of pathologies that affect this organic system, aimed at improving captive production systems.

  6. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  7. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhaes E.N.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.

  8. Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov., a slowly growing mycobacterium isolated from human respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca M; DeGroote, Mary Ann; Marola, Jamie L; Buss, Sarah; Jones, Victoria; McNeil, Michael R; Freifeld, Alison G; Elaine Epperson, L; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Jackson, Mary; Iwen, Peter C; Salfinger, Max; Strong, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A novel slowly growing, non-chromogenic species of the class Actinobacteria was isolated from a human respiratory sample in Nebraska, USA, in 2012. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence supported placement into the genus Mycobacterium with high sequence similarity to a previously undescribed strain isolated from a patient respiratory sample from Oregon, USA, held in a collection in Colorado, USA, in 2000. The two isolates were subjected to phenotypic testing and whole genome sequencing and found to be indistinguishable. The bacteria were acid-fast stain-positive, rod-shaped and exhibited growth after 7-10 days on solid media at temperatures ranging from 25 to 42°C. Colonies were non-pigmented, rough and slightly raised. Analyses of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight profiles showed no matches against a reference library of 130 mycobacterial species. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical for the two isolates, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) between their genomes was 99.7 % and phylogenetic comparisons classified the novel mycobacteria as the basal most species in the slowly growing Mycobacterium clade. Mycobacterium avium is the most closely related species based on rpoB gene sequence similarity (92 %), but the ANI between the genomes was 81.5 %, below the suggested cut-off for differentiating two species (95 %). Mycolic acid profiles were more similar to M. avium than to Mycobacterium simiae or Mycobacterium abscessus. The phenotypic and genomic data support the conclusion that the two related isolates represent a novel Mycobacterium species for which the name Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE-TNMC-100812T (=ATCC BAA-2683T=DSM 46873T).

  9. Deposition of biomass combustion aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndahl, Jakob; Pagels, Joakim; Boman, Christoffer; Swietlicki, Erik; Massling, Andreas; Rissler, Jenny; Blomberg, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Sandström, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Smoke from biomass combustion has been identified as a major environmental risk factor associated with adverse health effects globally. Deposition of the smoke particles in the lungs is a crucial factor for toxicological effects, but has not previously been studied experimentally. We investigated the size-dependent respiratory-tract deposition of aerosol particles from wood combustion in humans. Two combustion conditions were studied in a wood pellet burner: efficient ("complete") combustion and low-temperature (incomplete) combustion simulating "wood smoke." The size-dependent deposition fraction of 15-to 680-nm particles was measured for 10 healthy subjects with a novel setup. Both aerosols were extensively characterized with regard to chemical and physical particle properties. The deposition was additionally estimated with the ICRP model, modified for the determined aerosol properties, in order to validate the experiments and allow a generalization of the results. The measured total deposited fraction of particles from both efficient combustion and low-temperature combustion was 0.21-0.24 by number, surface, and mass. The deposition behavior can be explained by the size distributions of the particles and by their ability to grow by water uptake in the lungs, where the relative humidity is close to saturation. The experiments were in basic agreement with the model calculations. Our findings illustrate: (1) that particles from biomass combustion obtain a size in the respiratory tract at which the deposition probability is close to its minimum, (2) that particle water absorption has substantial impact on deposition, and (3) that deposition is markedly influenced by individual factors.

  10. Predicting nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections by a risk index based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yong; Shan, Xue; Zhao, Jingya; Han, Xuelin; Tian, Shuguang; Chen, Fangyan; Su, Xueting; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Wang, Hongyuan; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    Although belonging to one of the most common type of nosocomial infection, there was currently no simple prediction model for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). This study aims to develop a risk index based system for predicting nosocomial LRTIs based on data from a large point-prevalence

  11. Systemic dermatitis and obstructive respiratory syndrome following occupational sensitization to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raşcu, Agripina; Bucur, Letiţia; Naghi, Eugenia; Drăghici, B

    2003-01-01

    We present a derma-respiratory syndrome in a patient occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE). At the beginning of its industrial use trichloroethylene was considered harmless. But, in time it showed a high noxious capacity. It produces an important and various pathology, which evolves as acute or chronic disease. The case we present shows that trichloroethylene can induce cutaneous pathology that excels contact dermatitis. It also proves that trichloroethylene can produce systemic effects (obstructive respiratory syndrome). The particularity of the case is based on the succession of the events, first the cutaneous and then the respiratory effects. A long period of time was necessary for the installation of the symptoms (for cutaneous and bronchial sensitization to take place). The case presented is the proof that trichloroethylene's great toxicity cannot be doubted and that the clinical forms due to sensitization to trichloroethylene can be dramatic.

  12. El Bocavirus humano: un nuevo virus respiratorio Human bocavirus: a new respiratory virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones respiratorias agudas son una causa muy importante de morbilidad y mortalidad, especialmente en los niños y en los países en desarrollo. Con los métodos de laboratorio actuales, aproximadamente una tercera parte de estas infecciones se queda sin diagnóstico etiológico. Se acepta que los virus juegan un papel cardinal y que más de 200 virus, pertenecientes a seis familias virales están implicados en la génesis de este problema. La familia Parvoviridae se conoce desde mediados del siglo XX. El Parvovirus humano B19, identificado en 1980 y causante de enfermedades febriles y exantemáticas, fue considerado por muchos años como el único miembro de esta familia capaz de afectar a la especie humana. Sin embargo, un grupo de investigadores suecos comandado por Tobías Allander informó en agosto de 2005 el hallazgo de un nuevo Parvovirus, denominado provisionalmente Bocavirus humano, relacionado con infección respiratoria aguda en niños. En este artículo se resumen las características de este nuevo agente, se resalta la importancia de su hallazgo y de la técnica de investigación empleada. Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly in children and also in developing countries. The aethiology of approximately 30% of these infections remains obscure, using current laboratory methods. It has been accepted that viruses play an important role and more than 200 viruses, belonging to 6 viral families are implied in the pathogenesis of this problem. Parvoviridae family has been known since the middle of the XX century. Human Parvovirus B19 was identified in 1980; it causes rashes and febrile diseases and it was considered for many years as the only member of this family able to affect humans. However, Dr. Tobias Allander and colleagues, at Karolinska Institut, have discovered a previously unknown parvovirus, called Human Bocavirus, that has been found to affect children, causing lower

  13. Identification of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei adhesins for human respiratory epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei cause the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. A well-studied aspect of pathogenesis by these closely-related bacteria is their ability to invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the means by which B. pseudomallei and B. mallei adhere to cells are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to identify adherence factors expressed by these organisms. Results Comparative sequence analyses identified a gene product in the published genome of B. mallei strain ATCC23344 (locus # BMAA0649 that resembles the well-characterized Yersinia enterocolitica autotransporter adhesin YadA. The gene encoding this B. mallei protein, designated boaA, was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to significantly increase adherence to human epithelial cell lines, specifically HEp2 (laryngeal cells and A549 (type II pneumocytes, as well as to cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE. Consistent with these findings, disruption of the boaA gene in B. mallei ATCC23344 reduced adherence to all three cell types by ~50%. The genomes of the B. pseudomallei strains K96243 and DD503 were also found to contain boaA and inactivation of the gene in DD503 considerably decreased binding to monolayers of HEp2 and A549 cells and to NHBE cultures. A second YadA-like gene product highly similar to BoaA (65% identity was identified in the published genomic sequence of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 (locus # BPSL1705. The gene specifying this protein, termed boaB, appears to be B. pseudomallei-specific. Quantitative attachment assays demonstrated that recombinant E. coli expressing BoaB displayed greater binding to A549 pneumocytes, HEp2 cells and NHBE cultures. Moreover, a boaB mutant of B. pseudomallei DD503 showed decreased adherence to these respiratory cells. Additionally, a B. pseudomallei strain lacking expression of both boaA and boaB was impaired in its ability to

  14. Phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein at serine 54 regulates viral uncoating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Ana; Gonzalez-Armas, Juan C.; Villanueva, Nieves

    2008-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) structural P protein, phosphorylated at serine (S) and threonine (T) residues, is a co-factor of viral RNA polymerase. The phosphorylation of S54 is controlled by the coordinated action of two cellular enzymes: a lithium-sensitive kinase, probably glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3) β and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of lithium-sensitive kinase, soon after infection, blocks the viral growth cycle by inhibiting synthesis and/or accumulation of viral RNAs, proteins and extracellular particles. P protein phosphorylation at S54 is required to liberate viral ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) from M protein, during the uncoating process. Kinase inhibition, late in infection, produces a decrease in genomic RNA and infectious viral particles. LiCl, intranasally applied to mice infected with HRSV A2 strain, reduces the number of mice with virus in their lungs and the virus titre. Administration of LiCl to humans via aerosol should prevent HRSV infection, without secondary effects

  15. Transmission of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Immunocompromised Ferret Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Leon; Smits, Saskia L.; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J. B.; van Amerongen, Geert; Pohl, Marie O.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Stittelaar, Koert J.

    2018-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in vulnerable patients, such as the very young, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals of any age. Nosocomial transmission of HRSV remains a serious challenge in hospital settings, with intervention strategies largely limited to infection control measures, including isolation of cases, high standards of hand hygiene, cohort nursing, and use of personal protective equipment. No vaccines against HRSV are currently available, and treatment options are largely supportive care and expensive monoclonal antibody or antiviral therapy. The limitations of current animal models for HRSV infection impede the development of new preventive and therapeutic agents, and the assessment of their potential for limiting HRSV transmission, in particular in nosocomial settings. Here, we demonstrate the efficient transmission of HRSV from immunocompromised ferrets to both immunocompromised and immunocompetent contact ferrets, with pathological findings reproducing HRSV pathology in humans. The immunocompromised ferret-HRSV model represents a novel tool for the evaluation of intervention strategies against nosocomial transmission of HRSV. PMID:29301313

  16. Influence of a Gas Exchange Correction Procedure on Resting Metabolic Rate and Respiratory Quotient in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Jose E; Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a gas exchange correction protocol on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ), assessed by a Vmax Encore 29n metabolic cart (SensorMedics Co., Yorba Linda, California) in overnight fasted and fed humans, and to assess the predictive power of body size for corrected and uncorrected RMR. Healthy participants (23 M/29 F; 34 ± 9 years old; 26.3 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) ingested two 3-hour-apart glucose loads (75 g). Indirect calorimetry was conducted before and hourly over a 6-hour period. Immediately after indirect calorimetry assessment, gas exchange was simulated through high-precision mass-flow regulators, which permitted the correction of RMR and RQ values. Uncorrected and corrected RMR and RQ were directly related at each time over the 6-hour period. However, uncorrected versus corrected RMR was 6.9% ± 0.5% higher (128 ± 7 kcal/d; P exchange in humans over a 6-hour period is feasible and provides information of improved accuracy. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kailang; Li, Weikai; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang; (Harvard-Med); (UMM-MED)

    2010-03-04

    NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I coronaviruses recognize different receptors. We determined the crystal structure of NL63-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) complexed with human ACE2. NL63-CoV RBD has a novel {beta}-sandwich core structure consisting of 2 layers of {beta}-sheets, presenting 3 discontinuous receptor-binding motifs (RBMs) to bind ACE2. NL63-CoV and SARS-CoV have no structural homology in RBD cores or RBMs; yet the 2 viruses recognize common ACE2 regions, largely because of a 'virus-binding hotspot' on ACE2. Among group I coronaviruses, RBD cores are conserved but RBMs are variable, explaining how these viruses recognize different receptors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding viral evolution and virus-receptor interactions.

  18. Simple gas chromatographic system for analysis of microbial respiratory gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Dual column ambient temperature system, consisting of pair of capillary columns, microbead thermistor detector and micro gas-sampling valve, is used in remote life-detection equipment for space experiments. Performance outweighs advantage gained by utilizing single-column systems to reduce weight, conserve carrier gas and operate at lower power levels.

  19. Clinical characteristics and viral load of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children hospitaled for acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Li, Yu-Ning; Tang, Yi-Jie; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Yang, Xue-Mei; Li, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Jun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. Three hundred and eighty-seven children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV, and twelve additional respiratory viruses. Bronchiolitis was the leading diagnoses both in RSV and HMPV positive patients. A significantly greater frequency of wheezing (52% vs. 33.52%, P = 0.000) was noted in RSV positive and negative patients. The RSV viral load was significant higher in children aged infections (P = 0.000). No difference was found in the clinical features of HMPV positive and negative patients. The HMPV viral load had no correlation with any clinical characteristics. The incidences of severe disease were similar between single infection and coinfection for the two viruses (RSV, P = 0.221; HMPV, P = 0.764) and there has no statistical significance between severity and viral load (P = 0.166 and P = 0.721). Bronchiolitis is the most common disease caused by RSV and HMPV. High viral load or co-infection may be associated with some symptoms but neither has a significant impact on disease severity for the two viruses. J. Med. Virol. 89:589-597, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Application of morphological and physiological parameters representative of a sample Brazilian population in the human respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, A.A.; Cardoso, J.C.S.; Lourenco, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) proposed in ICRP Publication 66 account for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. These changing characteristics can influence the rates and the sites of deposition. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The HRTM model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. lt is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined in ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The respiratory values at different levels of activity for ages varying from

  1. Technical Note: A respiratory monitoring and processing system based on computer vision: prototype and proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Nicolas; Atallah, Vincent; Escarmant, Patrick; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-09-08

    Monitoring and controlling respiratory motion is a challenge for the accuracy and safety of therapeutic irradiation of thoracic tumors. Various commercial systems based on the monitoring of internal or external surrogates have been developed but remain costly. In this article we describe and validate Madibreast, an in-house-made respiratory monitoring and processing device based on optical tracking of external markers. We designed an optical apparatus to ensure real-time submillimetric image resolution at 4 m. Using OpenCv libraries, we optically tracked high-contrast markers set on patients' breasts. Validation of spatial and time accuracy was performed on a mechanical phantom and on human breast. Madibreast was able to track motion of markers up to a 5 cm/s speed, at a frame rate of 30 fps, with submillimetric accuracy on mechanical phantom and human breasts. Latency was below 100 ms. Concomitant monitoring of three different locations on the breast showed discrepancies in axial motion up to 4 mm for deep-breathing patterns. This low-cost, computer-vision system for real-time motion monitoring of the irradiation of breast cancer patients showed submillimetric accuracy and acceptable latency. It allowed the authors to highlight differences in surface motion that may be correlated to tumor motion.v. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. A new respiratory monitoring and processing system based on Wii remote: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y; Vedam, S; Gao, S; Balter, P

    2013-07-01

    To create a patient respiratory management system and patient self-practice tool using the Wii remote, a widely available consumer hardware product. The Wii remote (Wiimote) (Nintendo, Redmond, WA) contains an infrared (IR) camera that can track up to four spots whose coordinates are reported to a host computer via Bluetooth. The Wiimote is capable of tracking a fiducial box currently used by a commercial monitoring system [Real-time Position Management(TM) (RPM) system, Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA], if the correct IR source is used. The authors validated the Wiimote tracking by comparing the amplitude and frequency of signals among those reported by Wiimote with known movements from an inhouse servo-driven respiratory simulator, as well as with those measured using the RPM. The simulator comparison was done using standard sinusoid signals with amplitude of 2.0 cm as well as recorded patient respiratory traces. The RPM comparisons were done by simultaneously recording the RPM reflective box position with the Wiimote and the RPM. Timing was compared between these two systems by using the digital beam-on signal from the CT scanner, for the 4DCT to synchronize these acquisitions. The data acquisition rate from the Wiimote was 100.0 ± 0.4 Hz with a version 2.1 Bluetooth adaptor. The standard deviation of the height of the motion extrema was 0.06 and 1.1 mm when comparing those measured by the Wiimote and the servomotor encoder for standard sinusoid signal and prerecorded patient respiratory signal, respectively. The standard deviation of the amplitude of motion extrema between the Wiimote and RPM was 0.9 mm and the timing difference was 253 ms. The performance of Wiimote shows promise for respiratory monitoring for its faster sampling rate as well as the potential optical and GPU abilities. If used with care it can deliver reasonable spatial and temporal accuracy.

  3. The feasibility of the auto tuning respiratory compensation system with ultrasonic image tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Nieh, Shu-Kan; Tien, Der-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of using the analytical technique of ultrasound images in combination with an auto tumor localization system. During respiration, the activity of breathing in and out causes organs displacement at the lower lobe of the lung, and the maximum displacement range happens in the Superior-Inferior (SI) direction. Therefore, in this study all the tumor positioning is in SI direction under respiratory compensation, in which the compensations are carried out to the organs at the lower lobe and adjacent to the lower lobe of lung.In this research, due to the processes of ultrasound imaging generation, image analysis and signal transmission, when the captured respiratory signals are sent to auto tumor localization system, there was a signal time delay. The total delay time of the entire signal transmission process was 0.254 ± 0.023 seconds (with the lowest standard deviation) after implementing a series of analyses. To compensate for this signal delay time (0.254 ± 0.023 sec), a phase lead compensator (PLC) was designed and built into the auto tumor localization system. By analyzing the impact of the delay time and the respiratory waveforms under different frequencies on the phase lead compensator, an overall system delay time can be configured. Results showed as the respiratory frequency increased, variable value ``a'' and the subsequent gain ``k'' in the controller becomes larger. Moreover, value ``a'' and ``k'' increased as the system delay time increased when the respiratory frequency was fixed. The relationship of value ``a'' and ``k'' to the respiratory frequency can be obtained by using the curve fitting method to compensate for the respiratory motion for tumor localization. Through the comparison of the uncompensated signal and the compensated signal performed by the auto tumor localization system on the simulated respiratory signal, the feasibility of using ultrasound image analysis technology combined with the

  4. SU-D-17A-07: Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Ultrasonography Respiratory Monitoring System for 4DCT Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, P; Cheng, S; Chao, C; Jain, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion artifacts are commonly seen in the abdominal and thoracic CT images. A Real-time Position Management (RPM) system is integrated with CT simulator using abdominal surface as a surrogate for tracking the patient respiratory motion. The respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is then reconstructed by GE advantage software. However, there are still artifacts due to inaccurate respiratory motion detecting and sorting methods. We developed an Ultrasonography Respiration Monitoring (URM) system which can directly monitor diaphragm motion to detect respiratory cycles. We also developed a new 4DCT sorting and motion estimation method to reduce the respiratory motion artifacts. The new 4DCT system was compared with RPM and the GE 4DCT system. Methods: Imaging from a GE CT scanner was simultaneously correlated with both the RPM and URM to detect respiratory motion. A radiation detector, Blackcat GM-10, recorded the X-ray on/off and synchronized with URM. The diaphragm images were acquired with Ultrasonix RP system. The respiratory wave was derived from diaphragm images and synchronized with CT scanner. A more precise peaks and valleys detection tool was developed and compared with RPM. The motion is estimated for the slices which are not in the predefined respiratory phases by using block matching and optical flow method. The CT slices were then sorted into different phases and reconstructed, compared with the images reconstructed from GE Advantage software using respiratory wave produced from RPM system. Results: The 4DCT images were reconstructed for eight patients. The discontinuity at the diaphragm level due to an inaccurate identification of phases by the RPM was significantly improved by URM system. Conclusion: Our URM 4DCT system was evaluated and compared with RPM and GE 4DCT system. The new system is user friendly and able to reduce motion artifacts. It also has the potential to monitor organ motion during

  5. Human-Systems Integration Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to baseline a Human-Systems Integration Processes (HSIP) document as a companion to the NASA-STD-3001 and Human Integration Design...

  6. Distance to human populations influences epidemiology of respiratory disease in desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Ashley A. Coble (formerly Emerson), no longer USGS; Yee, Julie L.; Mack, Jeremy S.; Perry, William M.; Anderson, Kemp M.; Brown, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    We explored variables likely to affect health of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in a 1,183-km2 study area in the central Mojave Desert of California between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated 1,004 tortoises for prevalence and spatial distribution of 2 pathogens, Mycoplasma agassizii and M. testudineum, that cause upper respiratory tract disease. We defined tortoises as test-positive if they were positive by culture and/or DNA identification or positive or suspect for specific antibody for either of the two pathogens. We used covariates of habitat (vegetation, elevation, slope, and aspect), tortoise size and sex, distance from another test-positive tortoise, and anthropogenic variables (distances to roads, agricultural areas, playas, urban areas, and centroids of human-populated census blocks). We used both logistic regression models and regression trees to evaluate the 2 species of Mycoplasma separately. The prevalence of test-positive tortoises was low: 1.49% (15/1,004) for M. agassizii and 2.89% (29/1,004) for M. testudineum. The spatial distributions of test-positive tortoises for the 2 Mycoplasma species showed little overlap; only 2 tortoises were test-positive for both diseases. However, the spatial distributions did not differ statistically between the 2 species. We consistently found higher prevalence of test-positive tortoises with shorter distances to centroids of human-populated census blocks. The relationship between distance to human-populated census blocks and tortoises that are test-positive for M. agassizii and potentially M. testudineum may be related to release or escape of captive tortoises because the prevalence of M. agassizii in captive tortoises is high. Our findings have application to other species of chelonians where both domestic captive and wild populations exist. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA Respiratory Monitoring System Using a Flow Microsensor and an Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellal Idir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive system for respiratory monitoring using a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS flow sensor and an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit accelerometer. The designed system is intended to be wearable and used in a hospital or at home to assist people with respiratory disorders. To ensure the accuracy of our system, we proposed a calibration method based on ANN (Artificial Neural Network to compensate the temperature drift of the silicon flow sensor. The sigmoid activation functions used in the ANN model were computed with the CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer algorithm. This algorithm was also used to estimate the tilt angle in body position. The design was implemented on reconfigurable platform FPGA.

  8. Differences in viral load among human respiratory syncytial virus genotypes in hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infections in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadji, Francois Marie Ngako; Okamoto, Michiko; Furuse, Yuki; Tamaki, Raita; Suzuki, Akira; Lirio, Irene; Dapat, Clyde; Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mariko; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Tallo, Veronica; Lupisan, Socorro; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-27

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading viral etiologic agent of pediatric lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Two antigenic subgroups, HRSV-A and B, each contain several genotypes. While viral load may vary among HRSV genotypes and affect the clinical course of disease, data are scarce regarding the actual differences among genotypes. Therefore, this study estimated and compared viral load among NA1 and ON1 genotypes of HRSV-A and BA9 of HRSV-B. ON1 is a newly emerged genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in the G gene as observed previously with BA genotypes in HRSV-B. Children <5 years of age with an initial diagnosis of severe or very severe pneumonia at a hospital in the Philippines from September 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HRSV genotypes were determined and the viral load measured from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). The viral load of HRSV genotype NA1 were significantly higher than those of ON1 and BA9. Regression analysis showed that both genotype NA1 and younger age were significantly associated with high HRSV viral load. The viral load of NA1 was higher than that of ON1 and BA9 in NPS samples. HRSV genotypes may be associated with HRSV viral load. The reasons and clinical impacts of these differences in viral load among HRSV genotypes require further evaluation.

  9. On the respiratory mechanics measured by forced oscillation technique in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Almeida Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are the most common cause of death and morbidity in systemic sclerosis (SSc. The forced oscillation technique (FOT offers a simple and detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that SSc may introduce changes in the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system, and that FOT may help the diagnosis of these abnormalities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested these hypotheses in controls (n = 30 and patients with abnormalities classified using spirometry (n = 52 and pulmonary volumes (n = 29. Resistive data were interpreted with the zero-intercept resistance (Ri and the slope of the resistance (S as a function of frequency. Reactance changes were evaluated by the mean reactance between 4 and 32 Hz (Xm and the dynamic compliance (Crs,dyn. The mechanical load was evaluated using the absolute value of the impedance in 4 Hz (Z4Hz. A compartmental model was used to obtain central (R and peripheral (Rp resistances, and alveolar compliance (C. The clinical usefulness was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. The presence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL was also evaluated. For the groups classified using spirometry, SSc resulted in increased values in Ri, R, Rp and Z4Hz (p0.90. In groups classified by pulmonary volume, SSc resulted in reductions in S, Xm, C and Crs,dyn (p0.80. It was also observed that EFL is not common in patients with SSc. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that the respiratory resistance and reactance are changed in SSc. This analysis provides a useful description that is of particular significance for understanding respiratory pathophysiology and to ease the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in these patients.

  10. Blood flow index using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green as a minimally invasive tool to assess respiratory muscle blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenette, Jordan A; Henderson, William R; Dominelli, Paolo B

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with indocyanine green (ICG) dye has recently been used to measure respiratory muscle blood flow (RMBF) in humans. This method is based on the Fick principle and is determined by measuring ICG in the respiratory muscles using transcutaneous NIRS...... relationships with the work of breathing and EMG for both respiratory muscles. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) comparing BFI vs. the work of breathing for the intercostal and sternocleidomastoid muscles were 0.887 (P

  11. Ferrets as a Novel Animal Model for Studying Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stittelaar, Koert J.; de Waal, Leon; van Amerongen, Geert; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J.B.; Fraaij, Pieter L.A.; van Baalen, Carel A.; van Kampen, Jeroen J.A.; van der Vries, Erhard; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; de Swart, Rik L.

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of severe respiratory tract disease in immunocompromised patients. Animal models are indispensable for evaluating novel intervention strategies in this complex patient population. To complement existing models in rodents and non-human primates, we have evaluated the potential benefits of an HRSV infection model in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Nine- to 12-month-old HRSV-seronegative immunocompetent or immunocompromised ferrets were infected with a low-passage wild-type strain of HRSV subgroup A (105 TCID50) administered by intra-tracheal or intra-nasal inoculation. Immune suppression was achieved by bi-daily oral administration of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Throat and nose swabs were collected daily and animals were euthanized four, seven, or 21 days post-infection (DPI). Virus loads were determined by quantitative virus culture and qPCR. We observed efficient HRSV replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. In immunocompromised ferrets, virus loads reached higher levels and showed delayed clearance as compared to those in immunocompetent animals. Histopathological evaluation of animals euthanized 4 DPI demonstrated that the virus replicated in the respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These animal models can contribute to an assessment of the efficacy and safety of novel HRSV intervention strategies. PMID:27314379

  12. Ferrets as a Novel Animal Model for Studying Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert J. Stittelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is an important cause of severe respiratory tract disease in immunocompromised patients. Animal models are indispensable for evaluating novel intervention strategies in this complex patient population. To complement existing models in rodents and non-human primates, we have evaluated the potential benefits of an HRSV infection model in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo. Nine- to 12-month-old HRSV-seronegative immunocompetent or immunocompromised ferrets were infected with a low-passage wild-type strain of HRSV subgroup A (105 TCID50 administered by intra-tracheal or intra-nasal inoculation. Immune suppression was achieved by bi-daily oral administration of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Throat and nose swabs were collected daily and animals were euthanized four, seven, or 21 days post-infection (DPI. Virus loads were determined by quantitative virus culture and qPCR. We observed efficient HRSV replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. In immunocompromised ferrets, virus loads reached higher levels and showed delayed clearance as compared to those in immunocompetent animals. Histopathological evaluation of animals euthanized 4 DPI demonstrated that the virus replicated in the respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These animal models can contribute to an assessment of the efficacy and safety of novel HRSV intervention strategies.

  13. [Detection and Analysis of Human Parainfluenza Virus Infection in Hospitalized Adults with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Qiao; Liu, Xue-Wei; Zhou, Tao; Pei, Xiao-Fang

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and gene characteristics of different groups of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in hospitalized adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI). RT-PCR was used to detect HPIV hemagglutinin (HA) DNA,which was extracted from sputum samples of 1 039 adult patients with ARI from March,2014 to June,2016. The HA gene amplified from randomly selected positive samples were sequenced to analyze the homology and variation. 10.6% (110/1 039) of these samples were positive for HPIV,including 8 cases of HPIV-1,22 cases of HPIV-2,46 cases of HPIV-3 and 34 cases of HPIV-4. Detectable rate varied among different groups of HPIV according to seasons of the year and ages of patients. No significant differences were found between the positive samples and the reference sequences. Compared with different reference strains of different regions,the genetic distance of nucleotide is the smallest between the strains tested in this study and the reference strains of other provinces and cities in China. In Chengdu region,HPIV virus is highly detected in ARI,all subtypes were detected with HPIV-3 being the main subtype.

  14. Ameliorating Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Wi, Ga Ram; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. The lack of proper prophylactics and therapeutics for controlling hRSV infection has been of great concern worldwide. Xylitol is a well-known sugar substitute and its effect against bacteria in the oral cavity is well known. However, little is known of its effect on viral infections. In this study, the effect of dietary xylitol on hRSV infection was investigated in a mouse model for the first time. Mice received xylitol for 14 d prior to virus challenge and for a further 3 d post challenge. Significantly larger reductions in lung virus titers were observed in the mice receiving xylitol than in the controls receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, fewer CD3(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes, whose numbers reflect inflammatory status, were recruited in the mice receiving xylitol. These results indicate that dietary xylitol can ameliorate hRSV infections and reduce inflammation-associated immune responses to hRSV infection.

  15. Harmonisation of the acute respiratory infection reporting system in the Czech Republic with the European community networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyncl, J.; Paget, W.J.; Havlickova, M.; Kriz, B.

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory virus activity is detected in Europe each winter, yet the precise timing and size of this activity is highly unpredictable. The impact of influenza infection and/or acute respiratory infection in European countries is continuously monitored through a variety of surveillance systems. All

  16. Elevated temperature triggers human respiratory syncytial virus F protein six-helix bundle formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, Abdul S.; Jackson, Trent P.; Crisafi, Katherine; Burimski, Irina; Kilgore, Nicole R.; Zoumplis, Dorian; Allaway, Graham P.; Wild, Carl T.; Salzwedel, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. The RSV fusion (F) protein mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane during virus entry and is a primary target for antiviral drug and vaccine development. The F protein contains two heptad repeat regions, HR1 and HR2. Peptides corresponding to these regions form a six-helix bundle structure that is thought to play a critical role in membrane fusion. However, characterization of six-helix bundle formation in native RSV F protein has been hindered by the fact that a trigger for F protein conformational change has yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that RSV F protein on the surface of infected cells undergoes a conformational change following exposure to elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of the six-helix bundle structure. We first generated and characterized six-helix bundle-specific antibodies raised against recombinant peptides modeling the RSV F protein six-helix bundle structure. We then used these antibodies as probes to monitor RSV F protein six-helix bundle formation in response to a diverse array of potential triggers of conformational changes. We found that exposure of 'membrane-anchored' RSV F protein to elevated temperature (45-55 deg. C) was sufficient to trigger six-helix bundle formation. Antibody binding to the six-helix bundle conformation was detected by both flow cytometry and cell-surface immunoprecipitation of the RSV F protein. None of the other treatments, including interaction with a number of potential receptors, resulted in significant binding by six-helix bundle-specific antibodies. We conclude that native, untriggered RSV F protein exists in a metastable state that can be converted in vitro to the more stable, fusogenic six-helix bundle conformation by an increase in thermal energy. These findings help to better define the mechanism of

  17. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chung; Sinusas, Albert J; Liu, Chi; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory–cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory–cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased

  18. Prevalence of human rhinovirus in children admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sai-Zhen; Xiao, Ni-Guang; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Xie, Guang-Cheng; Zhong, Li-Li; Wang, Juan; Huang, Han; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections. This study analyzed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of three HRV groups (HRV-A, -B, and -C) among 1,165 children aged 14 years or younger who were hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infection in China. PCR or reverse transcription-PCR was performed to detect 14 respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from September 2007 to August 2008 in Changsha, China. HRV was detected in 202 (17.3%) of the 1,165 children; 25.3% of the HRV-positive children were 13-36 months of age (χ(2)  = 22.803, P = 0.000). HRV was detected year round and peaked between September and December. Fifty-three percent of the HRV-positive samples were also positive for other respiratory viruses; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common secondary virus. Phylogenetic analysis using the VP4/VP2 region grouped the HRV-positive strains as follows: 101 HRV-A (50.0%), 21 HRV-B (10.4%), and 80 HRV-C (39.6%). HRV-A infections occurred predominantly in spring and autumn, and the peak prevalence of HRV-C was in early winter and late autumn. HRV-B infections were less common in spring (χ(2)  = 31.914, P = 0.000). No significant difference in clinical severity or presentation was found between patients with HRV single infection and HRV co-detections. Furthermore, the clinical characterizations did not differ among the three HRV species. These results suggest that HRV-C is an important viral agent along with HRV-A and HRV-B and that among hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in China, the three HRV genotypes have similar clinical characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development of a home screening system for pediatric respiratory sleep studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Lim, Chu Sing

    2006-12-01

    To develop a simple and portable home screening monitor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. In such a system, identifying the respiratory events and occurrences of motional artifacts are two essential elements that can affect the accuracy of the study. Moreover, such a system needs to be easy to set up and user friendly. The proposed system includes the following: electrocardiogram, pulse oximeter, microcontroller-based computation device, and a tri-axial accelerometer. Three physiologic parameters derived with this device were used to identify central (CE) and obstructive (OE) respiratory events. The criteria used were based on documented evidence and compared against corresponding standard polysomnographic scorings. In addition, a module was constructed in conjunction with a RS232 chip to transmit the recorded data to a personal computer. The accelerometer was used as a motion artifact detector. Detectable signals were acquired from the accelerometer when artifacts were induced on the photoplethysmography by motions in three regulated test activities lasting at least 30 seconds each. In classifying respiratory events, the combined use of oxygen saturation, heart rate, and pulse transit time to produce a complex classification (logic OR) showed promise. For OE, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.828 and 0.859, respectively. For CE, these values were 0.868 and 0.762, respectively. The proposed system potentially fulfils the criterion as a home screening tool and can form an indispensable addition to the SDB investigation in the pediatric population.

  20. A versatile hydraulically operated respiratory servo system for ventilation and lung function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M; Slama, H

    1983-09-01

    A description is given of the design and performance of a microcomputer-controlled respiratory servo system that incorporates the characteristics of a mechanical ventilator and also allows the performance of a multitude of test procedures required for assessment of pulmonary function in paralyzed animals. The device consists of a hydraulically operated cylinder-piston assembly and solenoid valves that direct inspiratory and expiratory gas flow and also enable switching to different test gas sources. The system operates as a volume-flow-preset ventilator but may be switched to other operational cycling modes. Gas flow rates may be constant or variable. The system operates as an assister-controller and, combined with a gas analyzer, can function as a "demand" ventilator allowing for set-point control of end-tidal PCO2 and PO2. Complex breathing maneuvers for a variety of single- and multiple-breath lung function tests are automatically performed. Because of the flexibility in selection and timing of respiratory parameters, the system is particularly suitable for respiratory gas studies.

  1. A Wearable Respiratory Biofeedback System Based on Generalized Body Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-situ experiments with 22 subjects indicated that the biofeedback device was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering wearable respiratory trainings. Pilot studies on wearable training patterns and resultant heart rate variability suggested that paced respirations at abdominal level and with identical inhaling/exhaling ratio were more appropriate for decreasing sympathetic arousal and increasing parasympathetic activities. PMID:21545293

  2. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Szydłowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

  3. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  4. Changes in rat respiratory system produced by exposure to exhaust gases of combustion of glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Daniel Silveira; Evangelista, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro; Zin, Walter Araujo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila

    2017-08-01

    The combustion of residual glycerol to generate heat in industrial processes has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for disposal of this environmental liability. Thus, we investigated the effects of exposure to the exhaust gases of glycerol combustion in the rat respiratory system. We used 2 rats groups, one exposed to the exhaust gases from glycerol combustion (Glycerol), and the other exposed to ambient air (Control). Exposure occurred 5h a day, 5days a week for 13 weeks. We observed statistically changes in all parameters of respiratory system mechanics in vivo. This results was supported by histological analysis and morphometric data, confirming narrower airways and lung parenchimal changes. Variables related to airway resistance (ΔR N ) and elastic properties of the tissue (ΔH), increased after challenge with methacholine. Finally, analysis of lung tissue micromechanics showed statistically increases in all parameters (R, E and hysteresivity). In conclusion, exhaust gases from glycerol combustion were harmful to the respiratory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early consumption of human milk oligosaccharides is inversely related to subsequent risk of respiratory and enteric disease in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepans, Mary Beth Flanders; Wilhelm, Susan L; Hertzog, Melody; Rodehorst, T Kim Callahan; Blaney, Susan; Clemens, Beth; Polak, Josef J; Newburg, David S

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study tested the relationship between human milk oligosaccharide consumption, oligosaccharide content of feces, and subsequent disease in breastfed infants. Forty-nine (49) mother-infant pairs provided milk and fecal samples 2 weeks postpartum; infant health was assessed through 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. LNF-II (lacto-N-fucopentaose II), a major human milk oligosaccharide, was measured to represent levels of total oligosaccharides consumed in milk and remaining in feces. LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks postpartum were associated with fewer infant respiratory problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.010), as were LNF-II levels in infant feces (p = 0.003). LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks were also associated with fewer respiratory problems by 12 weeks (p = 0.038), and fewer enteric problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.004) and 12 weeks (p = 0.045). Thus, consumption of human milk oligosaccharides through breastfeeding, represented by LNF-II, was associated with less reported respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in infants.

  6. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  7. Effects of Asian sand dust particles on the respiratory and immune system.

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Akiko; Matsuda, Yugo; Murayama, Rumiko; Tsuji, Kenshi; Nishikawa, Masataka; Koike, Eiko; Yoshida, Seiichi; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that Asian sand dust (ASD) particles can affect respiratory health; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ASD on airway epithelial cells and immune cells, and their contributing factors to the effects. Human airway epithelial cells were exposed to ASD collected on 1-3 May (ASD1) and on 12-14 May (ASD2) 2011 in Japan and heat-treated ASD1 for excluding heat-sensitive substances (H-ASD) at a concentration of 0, 3, 30 or 90 µg ...

  8. Consideration of the accuracy by variation of respiration in real-time position management respiratory gating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jun Young; Kang, Tae Young; Beak, Geum Mun; Kwon, Gyeong Tae

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) has been carried out using RPM (Real-time Position Management) Respiratory Gating System (version 1.7.5, varian, USA) in Asan Medical Center. This study was to analyze and evaluate the accuracy of Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) according to variation of respiration. Making variation of respiration using Motion Phantom:QUASAR Programmable Respiratory Motion Phantom (Moudus Medical Device Inc. CANADA) able to adjust respiration pattern randomly was varying period, amplitude and baseline by analyze 50 patient's respiration of lung and liver cancer. One of the variations of respiration is baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. The other variation of respiration is baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm. Experiments were performed in the same way that is used RPM Respiratory Gating System (phase gating, usually 30-70% gating) in Asan Medical Center. It was all exposed radiation under one of the conditions of baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. Under the other condition of baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm equally radiation was exposed. The variations of baseline shifts didn't accurately reflect on phase gating in RPM Respiratory Gating System. This inexactitude makes serious uncertainty in Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. So, Must be stabilized breathing of patient before conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. also must be monitored breathing of patient in the middle of treatment. If you observe considerable changes of breathing when conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. Stopping treatment immediately and then must be need to recheck treatment site using fluoroscopy. If patient's respiration rechecked using fluoroscopy restabilize, it is possible to restart Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy

  9. MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications (MERESSINA project: a novel bioengineering goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaramuzzo RT

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosa T Scaramuzzo,1,2 Massimiliano Ciantelli,1 Ilaria Baldoli,3 Lisa Bellanti,3 Marzia Gentile,1 Francesca Cecchi,3 Emilio Sigali,1 Selene Tognarelli,3 Paolo Ghirri,1–4 Stefano Mazzoleni,3 Arianna Menciassi,3 Armando Cuttano,1 Antonio Boldrini,1–4 Cecilia Laschi,3 Paolo Dario3 1Centro di Formazione e Simulazione Neonatale "NINA," UO Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy; 2Istituto di Scienze della Vita, 3The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy; 4Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Respiratory function is mandatory for extrauterine life, but is sometimes impaired in newborns due to prematurity, congenital malformations, or acquired pathologies. Mechanical ventilation is standard care, but long-term complications, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are still largely reported. Therefore, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage devices for assistance. Commercially available breathing function simulators are rarely suitable for the anatomical and physiological realities. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity mechatronic simulator of neonatal airways and lungs for staff training and mechanical ventilator testing. The project is divided into three different phases: (1 a review study on respiratory physiology and pathophysiology and on already available single and multi-compartment models; (2 the prototyping phase; and (3 the on-field system validation. Keywords: simulation, lung, newborn, continuous medical education, respiratory system

  10. Respiratory motion prediction by using the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, Manish; Nystroem, Haakan; Aarup, Lasse Rye; Noettrup, Trine Jakobi; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2005-01-01

    The quality of radiation therapy delivered for treating cancer patients is related to set-up errors and organ motion. Due to the margins needed to ensure adequate target coverage, many breast cancer patients have been shown to develop late side effects such as pneumonitis and cardiac damage. Breathing-adapted radiation therapy offers the potential for precise radiation dose delivery to a moving target and thereby reduces the side effects substantially. However, the basic requirement for breathing-adapted radiation therapy is to track and predict the target as precisely as possible. Recent studies have addressed the problem of organ motion prediction by using different methods including artificial neural network and model based approaches. In this study, we propose to use a hybrid intelligent system called ANFIS (the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) for predicting respiratory motion in breast cancer patients. In ANFIS, we combine both the learning capabilities of a neural network and reasoning capabilities of fuzzy logic in order to give enhanced prediction capabilities, as compared to using a single methodology alone. After training ANFIS and checking for prediction accuracy on 11 breast cancer patients, it was found that the RMSE (root-mean-square error) can be reduced to sub-millimetre accuracy over a period of 20 s provided the patient is assisted with coaching. The average RMSE for the un-coached patients was 35% of the respiratory amplitude and for the coached patients 6% of the respiratory amplitude

  11. Respiratory motion prediction by using the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakar, Manish [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Nystroem, Haakan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aarup, Lasse Rye [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noettrup, Trine Jakobi [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Olsen, Dag Rune [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Department of Medical Physics and Technology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway)

    2005-10-07

    The quality of radiation therapy delivered for treating cancer patients is related to set-up errors and organ motion. Due to the margins needed to ensure adequate target coverage, many breast cancer patients have been shown to develop late side effects such as pneumonitis and cardiac damage. Breathing-adapted radiation therapy offers the potential for precise radiation dose delivery to a moving target and thereby reduces the side effects substantially. However, the basic requirement for breathing-adapted radiation therapy is to track and predict the target as precisely as possible. Recent studies have addressed the problem of organ motion prediction by using different methods including artificial neural network and model based approaches. In this study, we propose to use a hybrid intelligent system called ANFIS (the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) for predicting respiratory motion in breast cancer patients. In ANFIS, we combine both the learning capabilities of a neural network and reasoning capabilities of fuzzy logic in order to give enhanced prediction capabilities, as compared to using a single methodology alone. After training ANFIS and checking for prediction accuracy on 11 breast cancer patients, it was found that the RMSE (root-mean-square error) can be reduced to sub-millimetre accuracy over a period of 20 s provided the patient is assisted with coaching. The average RMSE for the un-coached patients was 35% of the respiratory amplitude and for the coached patients 6% of the respiratory amplitude.

  12. Evaluation of respiratory parameters in minimally processed lettuce grown under organic or conventional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Mello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased preference for minimally processed vegetables has been attributed to the health benefits associated with fresh produce and the demand for ready-to-eat salads. In this paper, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. was evaluated for the effects of different cropping systems on the respiratory properties. Lettuce was packaged in low density polyethylene bags and stored in a refrigerator at 4 ºC. The concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen inside the package was monitored during the storage at zero, three, six, eight, ten and twelve days by gas chromatography. Dry matter variation was measured gravimetrically up to day fourteen of storage. Values of respiratory rate for conventional lettuce increased from day 1 to 3 and remained low, while respiratory rate of the organic lettuce increased three-fold up to day 8, stabilizing at a high level. Variation in dry matter during storage also resulted from differences between the two cultivation systems. The highest content of dry matter was achieved by organic lettuce.

  13. MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications (MERESSINA) project: a novel bioengineering goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Baldoli, Ilaria; Bellanti, Lisa; Gentile, Marzia; Cecchi, Francesca; Sigali, Emilio; Tognarelli, Selene; Ghirri, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuttano, Armando; Boldrini, Antonio; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory function is mandatory for extrauterine life, but is sometimes impaired in newborns due to prematurity, congenital malformations, or acquired pathologies. Mechanical ventilation is standard care, but long-term complications, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are still largely reported. Therefore, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage devices for assistance. Commercially available breathing function simulators are rarely suitable for the anatomical and physiological realities. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity mechatronic simulator of neonatal airways and lungs for staff training and mechanical ventilator testing. The project is divided into three different phases: (1) a review study on respiratory physiology and pathophysiology and on already available single and multi-compartment models; (2) the prototyping phase; and (3) the on-field system validation. PMID:23966804

  14. Consecutive Food and Respiratory Allergies Amplify Systemic and Gut but Not Lung Outcomes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Gregory; Gourbeyre, Paxcal; Bihouée, Tiphaine; Aubert, Phillippe; Lair, David; Cheminant, Marie-Aude; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Neunlist, Michel; Magnan, Antoine; Bodinier, Marie

    2015-07-22

    Epidemiological data suggest a link between food allergies and the subsequent development of asthma. Although this progression may result from the additional effects of exposure to multiple allergens, whether both allergies amplify each other's effects remains unknown. This study investigated whether oral exposure to food allergens influences the outcomes of subsequent respiratory exposure to an asthma-inducing allergen. Mice were sensitized and orally challenged with wheat (FA) and then exposed to house dust mite (HDM) extract (RA). Immunoglobulin (Ig), histamine, and cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA. Intestinal and lung physiology was assessed. Ig levels, histamine release, and cytokine secretion were higher after exposure to both allergens than after separate exposure to each. Intestinal permeability was higher, although airway hyper-responsiveness and lung inflammation remained unchanged. Exposure to food and respiratory allergens amplifies systemic and gut allergy-related immune responses without any additional effect on lung function and inflammation.

  15. Effectiveness of the Respiratory Gating System for Stereotectic Radiosurgery of Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heung Kwon; Kwon, Kyung Tae; Park, Cheol Su; Yang, Oh Nam; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Jeong Man [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    For stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of a tumor in the region whose movement due to respiration is significant, like Lung lower lobe, the gated therapy, which delivers radiation dose to the selected respiratory phases when tumor motion is small, was performed using the Respiratory gating system and its clinical effectiveness was evaluated. For two SRS patients with a tumor in Lung lower lobe, a marker block (infrared reflector) was attached on the abdomen. While patient' respiratory cycle was monitored with Real-time Position Management (RPM, Varian, USA), 4D CT was performed (10 phases per a cycle). Phases in which tumor motion did not change rapidly were decided as treatment phases. The treatment volume was contoured on the CT images for selected treatment phases using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. In order to verify setup reproducibility and positional variation, 4D CT was repeated. Gross tumor volume (GTV) showed maximum movement in superior-inferior direction. For patient no 1, motion of GTV was reduced to 2.6 mm in treatment phases (30-60%), while that was 9.4 mm in full phases (0-90%) and for patient no 2, it was reduced to 2.3 mm in treatment phases (30-70%), while it was 11.7 mm in full phases (0-90%). When comparing two sets of CT images, setup errors in all the directions were within 3 mm. Since tumor motion was reduced less than 5 mm, the Respiratory gating system for SRS of Lung lower lobe is useful.

  16. [Relationship between viral load of human bocavirus and clinical characteristics in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Bing; Zhong, Li-Li; Xie, Le-Yun; Xiao, Ni-Guang

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection and to explore the relationship between the viral load of HBoV and the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. A total of 1 554 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children who were hospitalized due to acute lower respiratory tract infection between March 2011 and March 2014 were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 RNA and 2 DNA viruses, adenovirus (ADV) and HBoV, and to measure the viral load of HBoV in HBoV-positive children. A comprehensive analysis was performed with reference to clinical symptoms and indicators. In the 1 554 specimens, 1 212 (77.99%) were positive for viruses, and 275 (17.70%) were HBoV-positive. In HBoV-positive cases, 94.9% were aged infection, and 230 (83.64%) had mixed infection. There was no significant difference in viral load between children with single infection and mixed infection (P>0.05). The patients with fever had a significantly higher viral load than those without fever (Pacute lower respiratory tract infection (P>0.05). HBoV is one of the important pathogens of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. Children with a higher viral load of HBoV are more likely to experience symptoms such as fever and wheezing. However, the severity of disease and mixed infection are not significantly related to viral load.

  17. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  18. School absence and treatment in school children with respiratory symptoms in the Netherlands: Data from the Child Health Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee-van Der Wekke, J.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To assess the prevalence of respiratory problems, and the relation of these problems with school attendance, medicine use, and medical treatment. Design - The Child Health Monitoring System. Setting - Nineteen public health services across the Netherlands. Participants - 5186

  19. Effects of Household Air Pollution in Malawi and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status on Respiratory Symptoms and Inflammation, Injury, and Repair Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles; Jary, Hannah; Mortimer, Kevin; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Curran-Everett, Doug; Gordon, Stephen; Petrache, Irina

    2018-04-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are associated with increased risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Both HAP and HIV are widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Malawi, where HIV has 10.6% prevalence in patients 15-49 years old. We hypothesized that HIV infection (HIV + ) and habitual exposure to HAP (HAP + ) synergize to cause systemic inflammation and vascular injury, which may herald early onset of chronic respiratory diseases. In this pilot study, 50 subjects from Malawi with known HIV status were administered surveys recording demographics, HAP exposure, and respiratory symptoms/diagnoses. Peripheral blood was collected, and Meso Scale Discovery V-Plex assay was used to measure the levels of 41 serum markers. Almost all subjects (96%) reported HAP + , 30 were HIV + , 20 were HIV - , with a mean age of 22 years in both groups. More females (73%) were HIV + , whereas 65% of those who were HIV - were males. The vast majority were never-smokers (70% of HIV - and 83% of HIV + subjects, respectively). Forty-six percent of all subjects (57% of HIV + HAP + and 33% of HIV - HAP + ) reported respiratory diagnoses and/or respiratory symptoms, with breathlessness and cough being most common. Although HIV + HAP + individuals had a trend to increased proinflammatory cytokines and vascular injury markers, and decreases in proangiogenic factors compared with HIV - HAP + , only the decrease in serum interleukin-16 (by 44%) was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Also, compared with other subjects, serum interleukin-2 levels were significantly decreased (by 31%; P = 0.02) in HIV + subjects with persistent respiratory symptoms. This study suggests a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms in HIV + individuals exposed to HAP. The significant decrease in interleukin-2 and interleukin-16, cytokines associated with HIV clearance, may contribute to viral persistence, and because their low levels were found to correlate with

  20. Maturation Modulates Pharyngeal-Stimulus Provoked Pharyngeal and Respiratory Rhythms in Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Lang, Ivan M; Shaker, Reza; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2018-02-01

    Pharyngeal-provocation induced aerodigestive symptoms in infants remain an enigma. Sources of pharyngeal provocation can be anterograde as with feeding, and retrograde as in gastroesophageal reflux. We determined maturational and dose-response effects of targeted pharyngeal-stimulus on frequency, stability, and magnitude of pharyngeal and respiratory waveforms during multiple pharyngeal swallowing responses in preterm-born infants when they were of full-term postmenstrual age (PMA). Eighteen infants (11 male) were studied longitudinally at 39.8 ± 4.8 weeks PMA (time-1) and 44.1 ± 5.8 weeks PMA (time-2). Infants underwent concurrent pharyngo-esophageal manometry, respiratory inductance plethysmography, and nasal airflow thermistor methods to test sensory-motor interactions between the pharynx, esophagus, and airway. Linear mixed models were used and data presented as mean ± SEM or %. Overall, responses to 250 stimuli were analyzed. Of the multiple pharyngeal swallowing responses (n = 160), with maturation (a) deglutition apnea duration decreases (p  0.05), and (c) respiratory changes were unaffected (p > 0.05). Initial and subsequent pharyngeal responses and respiratory rhythm interactions become more distinct with maturation. Interval oromotor experiences and volume-dependent increase in adaptive responses may be contributory. These mechanisms may be important in modulating and restoring respiratory rhythm normalcy.

  1. Frequency of human bocavirus (HBoV) infection among children with febrile respiratory symptoms in Argentina, Nicaragua and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmón‐Mulanovich, Gabriela; Sovero, Merly; Laguna‐Torres, V. Alberto; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Lescano, Andres G.; Chauca, Gloria; Sanchez, J. Felix; Rodriguez, Francisco; Parrales, Eduardo; Ocaña, Victor; Barrantes, Melvin; Blazes, David L.; Montgomery, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Salmón‐Mulanovich et al. (2010) Frequency of human bocavirus (HBoV) infection among children with febrile respiratory symptoms in Argentina, Nicaragua and Peru. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 1–5. Background  Globally, respiratory infections are the primary cause of illness in developing countries, specifically among children; however, an etiological agent for many of these illnesses is rarely identified. Objectives  Our study aimed to estimate the frequency of human bocavirus (HBoV) infection among pediatric populations in Argentina, Nicaragua and Peru. Methods  We conducted a cross‐sectional study using stored samples of an influenza‐like illness surveillance program. Irrespective of previous diagnosis, nasopharyngeal or nasal swab specimens were randomly selected and tested using real‐time PCR from three sites during 2007 from patients younger than 6 years old. Results  A total of 568 specimens from Argentina (185), Nicaragua (192) and Peru (191) were tested. The prevalence of HBoV was 10·8% (95% CI: 6·3; 15·3) in Argentina, 33·3% in Nicaragua (95% CI: 26·6; 40·1) and 25·1% in Peru (95% CI: 18·9; 31·3). Conclusions  These findings demonstrate circulation of HBoV in Argentina, Nicaragua and Peru among children with influenza‐like symptoms enrolled in a sentinel surveillance program. PMID:21138534

  2. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Könik, Arda; Johnson, Karen L; Dasari, Paul; Pretorius, P H; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A; Connolly, Caitlin M; Segars, Paul W; Lindsay, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  3. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könik, Arda; Connolly, Caitlin M.; Johnson, Karen L.; Dasari, Paul; Segars, Paul W.; Pretorius, P. H.; Lindsay, Clifford; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  4. Acute encephalopathy with concurrent respiratory and metabolic disturbances in first known parenteral human administration of flunixin meglumine and acepromazine maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Michael F; Wilson, Anwar C; Acquisto, Nicole M; Spillane, Linda; Schneider, Sandra M

    2013-08-01

    Flunexin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for veterinary use in horses and cattle. Acepromazine is a phenothiazine derivative used in horses, dogs, and cats. Human exposure to these substances is rare. We report a case of a human injection of two equine medications, flunixin and acepromazine, which resulted in altered mental status, respiratory alkalosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and elevation of liver transaminases in a 43-year-old woman who worked as a horse trainer. The patient intentionally self-injected these medications and subsequently presented to the Emergency Department with altered mental status and lethargy. The patient required hospitalization for metabolic abnormalities, including respiratory alkalosis, and suffered a gastrointestinal bleed requiring blood transfusion. The patient ultimately recovered with supportive measures. We believe this to be the first case of concomitant injection of flunixin and acepromazine in a human. This report explains a case of parenteral administration of two equine medications and the subsequent complications in a patient that presented to the Emergency Department. Human exposure to veterinary medications cannot be predicted by their effect in animals due to variations in absorption, distribution, and metabolism. Physicians should be aware that individuals who work with animals may have access to large quantities of veterinary medicine. This case also exemplifies the challenges that Emergency Physicians face on a daily basis, and generates additional consideration for overdoses and intoxications from medications that are not considered commonplace in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of urease by Haemophilus influenzae during human respiratory tract infection and role in survival in an acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a common cause of otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infection in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prior studies have shown that H. influenzae expresses abundant urease during growth in the middle ear of the chinchilla and in pooled human sputum, suggesting that expression of urease is important for colonization and infection in the hostile environments of the middle ear and in the airways in adults. Virtually nothing else is known about the urease of H. influenzae, which was characterized in the present study. Results Analysis by reverse transcriptase PCR revealed that the ure gene cluster is expressed as a single transcript. Knockout mutants of a urease structural gene (ureC) and of the entire ure operon demonstrated no detectable urease activity indicating that this operon is the only one encoding an active urease. The ure operon is present in all strains tested, including clinical isolates from otitis media and COPD. Urease activity decreased as nitrogen availability increased. To test the hypothesis that urease is expressed during human infection, purified recombinant urease C was used in ELISA with pre acquisition and post infection serum from adults with COPD who experienced infections caused by H. influenzae. A total of 28% of patients developed new antibodies following infection indicating that H. influenzae expresses urease during airway infection. Bacterial viability assays performed at varying pH indicate that urease mediates survival of H. influenzae in an acid environment. Conclusions The H. influenzae genome contains a single urease operon that mediates urease expression and that is present in all clinical isolates tested. Nitrogen availability is a determinant of urease expression. H. influenzae expresses urease during human respiratory tract infection and urease is a target of the human antibody response. Expression of urease enhances viability in an acid

  6. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tr...

  7. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  8. The effect of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners: a diachronic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichletidis, L; Tsiotsios, I; Chloros, D; Daskalopoulou, E; Ziomas, I; Michailidis, K; Kottakis, I; Konstantinidis, T H; Palladas, P

    2004-01-01

    It is not known whether working in surface lignite mines can cause x-ray lesions or disorders of respiratory function. The aim of the study was to investigate the diachronic impact of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners at mines in Eordea, Greece. Cases of 199 workers (Group A) residing permanently in the Eordea valley and 151 (Group B) living outside the Eordea valley were studied during Phase I and then re-examined after three years (Phase II). These cases were compared to those of 71 office workers living in Eordea valley (Group C) and to 96 living in Grevena, a region without pollution (Group D). The study included the completion of the MRC questionnaire for the detection of respiratory diseases, pulmonary function tests, measurement of diffusion capacity, otorhinolaryngologic examination, rhinomanonetry as well as chest and paranasal cavity X-rays. Chronic bronchitis was reported by 26.8%, 24.8%, 17.9% and 10.6% respectively of the subjects of groups A, B, C and D according to the answers of the questionnaire (pmines under conditions of excessive pollution by airborne contaminants have a high prevalence of atrophic rhinitis and, in addition to other standard examinations, should undergo rhinomanometry testing and X-ray imaging of the paranasal cavities.

  9. Modeling of Embedded Human Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ISAT study [7] for DARPA in 20051 concretized the notion of an embedded human, who is a necessary component of the system. The proposed work integrates...Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 229–244, March 2008. [7] C. J. Tomlin and S. S. Sastry, “Embedded humans,” tech. rep., DARPA ISAT

  10. Clinical features of human metapneumovirus genotypes in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sai-Zhen; Xiao, Ni-Guang; Zhong, Li-Li; Yu, Tian; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-11-01

    To explore the epidemiological and clinical features of different human metapneumovirus (hMPV) genotypes in hospitalized children. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or PCR was employed to screen for both hMPV and other common respiratory viruses in 2613 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens collected from children with lower respiratory tract infections from September 2007 to February 2011 (a period of 3.5 years). The demographics and clinical presentations of patients infected with different genotypes of hMPV were compared. A total of 135 samples were positive for hMPV (positive detection rate: 5.2%). Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 45.9% (62/135) of cases, and human bocavirus was the most common additional respiratory virus. The most common symptoms included cough, fever, and wheezing. The M gene was sequenced for 135 isolates; of these, genotype A was identified in 72.6% (98/135) of patients, and genotype B was identified in 27.4% (37/135) of patients. The predominant genotype of hMPV changed over the 3.5-year study period from genotype A2b to A2b or B1 and then to predominantly B1. Most of clinical features were similar between patients infected with different hMPV genotypes. These results suggested that hMPV is an important viral pathogen in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha. The hMPV subtypes A2b and B1 were found to co-circulate. The different hMPV genotypes exhibit similar clinical characteristics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification of Probiotic Strains from Human Milk in Breastfed Infants with Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamtu Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and industrial exploitation of probiotics from human milk is a goal for worldwide milk biotechnology centres because of their modulation effect on the immune system in infants and adults. In the proposed study we have analysed fermentation patterns of Lactobacilli isolated from human milk, the reliability of API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation system and a possible link between lactose concentrations and fermentation profiles on carbohydrates. We had succesfully identified three species of Lactobacillus (paracasei ssp paracasei, fermentum, acidophilus and one unsatisfactory identification of Lactoccocus lactis ssp lactis. These strains had different carbohydrate fermentation patterns but with common characteristics and showed no statistically significant correlations between their carbohydrate metabolic trends and lactose concentrations in the milk samples.

  12. Comparative studies on virus detection in acute respiratory diseases in humans by means of RIA and cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlicher, L.

    1982-01-01

    In winter 1981, 146 patients with an acute respiratory infection were examined. Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained by intranasal catheter. Comparative investigations were performed by cultivation in tissue culture and by a four-layer radioimmunoassay. In the radioimmunoassay, polystyrene beads were used as the solid phase, ginea pig antivirus immunoglobulins as the captive antibodies, rabbit anti-virus immunoglobulins as the secondary antibodies and 125 I-labelled sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulins were used as the indicator antibodies. The radioimmunoassay was developed for the detection of adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B virus and parainfluenza type 1, type 2 and type 3 virus. Tissue culture seems to be more sensitive for detection of adenovirus and influenza A virus, though some infections with influenza A virus could only be diagnosed by the radioimmunoassay. In other cases (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza B virus) antigen detection by radioimmunoassay is more efficient. Presently the combination of both antigen-detection-systems still is the optimal diagnostic procedure for detecting virus infections of the respiratory tract. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Co-circulation of genetically distinct human metapneumovirus and human bocavirus strains in young children with respiratory tract infections in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Alessandra; Canuti, Marta; Frati, Elena; Pariani, Elena; Perin, Silvana; Ruzza, Maria Lorena; Farina, Claudio; Podestà, Alberto; Zanetti, Alessandro; Amendola, Antonella; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human Bocavirus (hBoV) identified the etiological causes of several cases of acute respiratory tract infections in children. This report describes the molecular epidemiology of hMPV and hBoV infections observed following viral surveillance of children hospitalized for acute respiratory tract infections in Milan, Italy. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 240 children ≤3 years of age (130 males, 110 females; median age, 5.0 months; IQR, 2.0-12.5 months) and tested for respiratory viruses, including hMPV and hBoV, by molecular methods. hMPV-RNA and hBoV-DNA positive samples were characterized molecularly and a phylogenetical analysis was performed. PCR analysis identified 131/240 (54.6%) samples positive for at least one virus. The frequency of hMPV and hBoV infections was similar (8.3% and 12.1%, respectively). Both infections were associated with lower respiratory tract infections: hMPV was present as a single infectious agent in 7.2% of children with bronchiolitis, hBoV was associated with 18.5% of pediatric pneumonias and identified frequently as a single etiological agent. Genetically distinct hMPV and hBoV strains were identified in children examined with respiratory tract infections. Phylogenetic analysis showed an increased prevalence of hMPV genotype A (A2b sublineage) compared to genotype B (80% vs. 20%, respectively) and of the hBoV genotype St2 compared to genotype St1 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, respectively). Interestingly, a shift in hMPV infections resulting from A2 strains has been observed in recent years. In addition, the occurrence of recombination events between two hBoV strains with a breakpoint located in the VP1/VP2 region was identified. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The effects of human serum to the morphology, proliferation and gene expression level of the respiratory epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Heikal Mohd; Siang, Kan Chan; Hashim, Nurul Izzati; Zhi, Ng Pei; Zamani, Nur Fathurah; Sabri, Primuharsa Putra; Busra, Mohd Fauzi; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji

    2014-08-01

    The culture of human airway epithelial cells has played an important role in advancing our understanding of the metabolic and molecular mechanisms underlying normal function and disease pathology of airway epithelial cells. The present study focused on investigating the effects of human serum (HS) on the qualitative and quantitative properties of the human respiratory epithelium compared to the fetal bovine serum (FBS), as a supplement in culture. Respiratory epithelial (RE) cells derived from human nasal turbinate were co-cultured with fibroblasts, subsequently separated at 80-90% confluency by differential trypsinization. RE cells were then sub-cultured into 2 different plates containing 5% allogenic HS and FBS supplemented media respectively up to passage 1 (P1). Cell morphology, growth rate, cell viability and population doubling time were assessed under light microscope, and levels of gene expression were measured via real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RE cells appeared as polygonal shape and expanded when cultured in HS whereas RE cells in FBS were observed to be easily matured thus limit the RE cells expansion. Proliferation rate of RE cells in HS supplemented media (7673.18 ± 1207.15) was 3 times higher compared to RE in FBS supplemented media (2357.68 ± 186.85). Furthermore, RE cells cultured in HS-supplemented media required fewer days (9.15 ± 1.10) to double in numbers compared to cells cultured in FBS-supplemented media (13.66 ± 0.81). Both the differences were significant (p0.05). In conclusion, HS is a comparatively better choice of media supplement in accelerating growth kinetics of RE cells in vitro thus producing a better quality of respiratory epithelium for future tracheal reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteomic analysis of mitochondria in respiratory epithelial cells infected with human respiratory syncytial virus and functional implications for virus and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Diane C; Howell, Gareth; Barr, John N; Hiscox, Julian A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise the mitochondrial proteome of airway epithelial cells infected with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), a major cause of paediatric illness. Quantitative proteomics, underpinned by stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture, coupled to LC-MS/MS, was applied to mitochondrial fractions prepared from HRSV-infected and mock-infected cells 12 and 24 h post-infection. Datasets were analysed using ingenuity pathway analysis, and the results were validated and characterised using bioimaging, targeted inhibition and gene depletion. The data quantitatively indicated that antiviral signalling proteins converged on mitochondria during HRSV infection. The mitochondrial receptor protein Tom70 was found to act in an antiviral manner, while its chaperone, Hsp90, was confirmed to be a positive viral factor. Proteins associated with different organelles were also co-enriched in the mitochondrial fractions from HRSV-infected cells, suggesting that alterations in organelle dynamics and membrane associations occur during virus infection. Protein and pathway-specific alterations occur to the mitochondrial proteome in a spatial and temporal manner during HRSV infection, suggesting that this organelle may have altered functions. These could be targeted as part of potential therapeutic strategies to disrupt virus biology. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Biomechanical investigation of different surgical strategies for the treatment of rib fractures using a three-dimensional human respiratory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kao-Shang; Truong, Thanh An; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Hou, Sheng-Mou

    2017-11-02

    Rib fracture is a common injury and can result in pain during respiration. Conservative treatment of rib fracture is applied via mechanical ventilation. However, ventilator-associated complications frequently occur. Surgical fixation is another approach to treat rib fractures. Unfortunately, this surgical treatment is still not completely defined. Past studies have evaluated the biomechanics of the rib cage during respiration using a finite element method, but only intact conditions were modelled. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a realistic numerical model of the human rib cage and to analyse the biomechanical performance of intact, injured and treated rib cages. Three-dimensional finite element models of the human rib cage were developed. Respiratory movement of the human rib cage was simulated to evaluate the strengths and limitations of different scenarios. The results show that a realistic human respiratory movement can be simulated and the predicted results were closely related to previous study (correlation coefficient>0.92). Fixation of two fractured ribs significantly decreased the fixation index (191%) compared to the injured model. This fixation may provide adequate fixation stability as well as reveal lower bone stress and implant stress compared with the fixation of three or more fractured ribs.

  17. Human resources in innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    2007-01-01

    Human resources in innovation systems: With focus on introduction of highly educated labour in small Danish firms This thesis has two purposes: (1) a ‘general' purpose to enhance our knowledge on the relationship between innovation, technological and organisational change, and human resources......, including knowledge and skills embodied in human resources, and (2) a more ‘specific' purpose to enhance our knowledge on introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading changes in small Danish firms. Chapter 1 establishes the relevance of this research interest, and it also states...... stemming from human resources - such as insight, understanding, creativity, and action - are inherently important to all innovation processes. The chapter also suggests a tentative conceptual and analytical framework for studying human resources and their development within a system of innovation approach...

  18. An ultrastructural study of the interaction of human eosinophils with respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimpen, JLL; Garofalo, R; Welliver, RC; Fujihara, K; Ogra, PL

    It was shown previously that eosinophils are activated in vivo and in vitro by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (Garofalo et al., J Pediatr 1992: 120: 28-32; Kimpen et al., Pediatr Res 1992: 32: 160-4). For study of the interaction of eosinophils and RSV on the ultrastructural level, normodense

  19. Seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air and resulting radiation dose to human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of radiation hazard of indoor radon is largely due to the radon progenies, which are inhaled and deposited in the human respiratory tract. It is essential to evaluate aerodynamic characteristics of the radon progenies, which are either attached or unattached to aerosol particles, because the dose is strongly dependent on the location of deposition in respiratory tract and hence on the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosol particles. This paper presents the seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air under domestic conditions at Nagoya University, Japan. A low pressure cascade impactor as an instrument for classifying aerosol sizes and imaging plate as a radiation detector have been employed to characterize the activity size distribution of short-lived radon decay products. In parallel, radon and its progenies concentrations were measured. Taking into account the progeny characteristics, the inhalation dose in the different seasons was also estimated based on a lung dose model with the structure that is related to the ICRP66 respiratory tract model. The result evident that, the highest dose 0.22 mSvy−1 was observed during the winter where the highest value of equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EEC and lowest value of the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD were found in this season; whereas, the dose in spring appeared to be lowest 0.02 mSvy−1.

  20. Molecular typing and epidemiology profiles of human adenovirus infection among paediatric patients with severe acute respiratory infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yamin; Zhou, Weimin; Zhao, Yanjie; Wang, Yanqun; Xie, Zhengde; Lou, Yongliang; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been recognised as pathogens that cause a broad spectrum of diseases. The studies on HAdV infection among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) are limited. To investigate the prevalence, epidemiology, and genotype of HAdV among children with SARI in China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) or induced sputum (IS) was collected from hospitalised children with SARIs in Beijing (representing Northern China; n = 259) and Zhejiang Province (representing Eastern China; n = 293) from 2007 to 2010. The prevalence of HAdV was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequence typing of PCR fragments that targeted the second half of the hexon gene. In addition, co-infection with other human respiratory viruses, related epidemiological profiles and clinical presentations were investigated. In total, 76 (13.8%) of 552 SARI patients were positive for HAdV, and the infection rates of HAdV in Northern and Eastern China were 20.1% (n = 52) and 8.2% (n = 24), respectively. HAdV co-infection with other respiratory viruses was frequent (infection rates: Northern China, 90.4%; Eastern China, 70.8%). The peak seasons for HAdV-B infection was winter and spring. Additionally, members of multiple species (Human mastadenovirus B, C, D and E) were circulating among paediatric patients with SARI, of which HAdV-B (34/52; 65.4%) and HAdV-C (20/24, 83.3%) were the most predominant in Northern and Eastern China, respectively. These findings provide a benchmark for future epidemiology and prevention strategies for HAdV.

  1. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  2. Pediatric respiratory and systemic effects of chronic air pollution exposure: nose, lung, heart, and brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Exposures to particulate matter and gaseous air pollutants have been associated with respiratory tract inflammation, disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers, systemic inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain and systemic circulation of particulate matter. Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to significant amounts of ozone, particulate matter and associated lipopolysaccharides. MC dogs exhibit brain inflammation and an acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by air pollutants. MC children, adolescents and adults have a significant upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in olfactory bulb and frontal cortex, as well as neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of the 42 amino acid form of beta -amyloid peptide (Abeta 42), including diffuse amyloid plaques in frontal cortex. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain inflammation and the accumulation of Abeta 42, which precede the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the pathological hallmarks of AD. Our findings of nasal barrier disruption, systemic inflammation, and the upregulation of COX2 and IL-1beta expression and Abeta 42 accumulation in brain suggests that sustained exposures to significant concentrations of air pollutants such as particulate matter could be a risk factor for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood; Hussain, Saber M.; Rowe, John J.; Nielsen, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  4. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  5. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  6. Novel avian-origin human influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between ferrets via respiratory droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Deng, Wei; Dong, Libo; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Lv, Qi; Li, Fengdi; Yuan, Jing; Xiang, Zhiguang; Gao, Kai; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Jiangning; Yao, Yanfeng; Yu, Pin; Li, Xiyan; Huang, Weijuan; Zhao, Xiang; Lan, Yu; Guo, Junfeng; Yong, Weidong; Wei, Qiang; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-02-15

    The outbreak of human infections caused by novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) in China since March 2013 underscores the need to better understand the pathogenicity and transmissibility of these viruses in mammals. In a ferret model, the pathogenicity of influenza A(H7N9) was found to be less than that of an influenza A(H5N1) strain but comparable to that of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), based on the clinical signs, mortality, virus dissemination, and results of histopathologic analyses. Influenza A(H7N9) could replicate in the upper and lower respiratory tract, the heart, the liver, and the olfactory bulb. It is worth noting that influenza A(H7N9) exhibited a low level of transmission between ferrets via respiratory droplets. There were 4 mutations in the virus isolated from the contact ferret: D678Y in the gene encoding PB2, R157K in the gene encoding hemagglutinin (H3 numbering), I109T in the gene encoding nucleoprotein, and T10I in the gene encoding neuraminidase. These data emphasized that avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between mammals, highlighting its potential for human-to-human transmissibility.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of the SH (small hydrophobic) gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), over 2 consecutive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Hildenêr Nogueira; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal; Campos, Angélica Cristine de Almeida; Leal, Andrea Lima; Silva, Tereza Souza; Bosso, Patrícia Alves Ramos; Moraes, Claudia Trigo Pedroso; Filho, Claudionor Gomes da Silva; Vieira, Sandra Elisabete; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Stewien, Klaus Eberhard; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) strains were isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from 965 children between 2004 and 2005, yielding 424 positive samples. We sequenced the small hydrophobic protein (SH) gene of 117 strains and compared them with other viruses identified worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis showed a low genetic variability among the isolates but allowed us to classify the viruses into different genotypes for both groups, HRSVA and HRSVB. It is also shown that the novel BA-like genotype was well segregated from the others, indicating that the mutations are not limited to the G gene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review.

  9. A computer-aided audit system for respiratory therapy consult evaluations: description of a method and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Lucy; Stoller, James K

    2013-05-01

    Use of respiratory therapist (RT)-guided protocols enhances allocation of respiratory care. In the context that optimal protocol use requires a system for auditing respiratory care plans to assure adherence to protocols and expertise of the RTs generating the care plan, a live audit system has been in longstanding use in our Respiratory Therapy Consult Service. Growth in the number of RT positions and the need to audit more frequently has prompted development of a new, computer-aided audit system. The number and results of audits using the old and new systems were compared (for the periods May 30, 2009 through May 30, 2011 and January 1, 2012 through May 30, 2012, respectively). In contrast to the original, live system requiring a patient visit by the auditor, the new system involves completion of a respiratory therapy care plan using patient information in the electronic medical record, both by the RT generating the care plan and the auditor. Completing audits in the new system also uses an electronic respiratory therapy management system. The degrees of concordance between the audited RT's care plans and the "gold standard" care plans using the old and new audit systems were similar. Use of the new system was associated with an almost doubling of the rate of audits (ie, 11 per month vs 6.1 per month). The new, computer-aided audit system increased capacity to audit more RTs performing RT-guided consults while preserving accuracy as an audit tool. Ensuring that RTs adhere to the audit process remains the challenge for the new system, and is the rate-limiting step.

  10. Respiratory acidosis prolongs, while alkalosis shortens, the duration and recovery time of vecuronium in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2002-03-01

    To determine the effects of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis by mechanical ventilation on the onset, duration, and recovery times of vecuronium. Randomized, prospective study. Operating rooms in the Sapporo Medical University Hospital and Kitami Red Cross Hospital. 90 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups by arterial carbon dioxide tension level (PaCO2; mmHg) after induction: hyperventilation group (PaCO2 = 25-35), normoventilation group (PaCO2 = 35-45), and hypoventilation group (PaCO2 = 45-55). Anesthesia was maintained by spinal block with inhalation of 50% to 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen and intermittent intravenous administration of fentanyl and midazolam with tracheal intubation. After vecuronium 0.08 mg/kg was given, onset, duration, and recovery time were measured by mechanomyography (Biometer Myograph 2,000, Odense, Denmark). There were significant differences in the duration and recovery time of vecuronium among the normoventilation group (12.7 +/- 3.3 min and 11.8 +/- 2.8 min, respectively), the hyperventilation group (10.6 +/- 3.5 min and 9.2 +/- 2.7 min, respectively; p respiratory acidosis and shortened in respiratory alkalosis.

  11. Systems for the management of respiratory disease in primary care - an international series: Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nicholas

    2008-03-01

    Australia has a complex health system with policy and funding responsibilities divided across federal and state/territory boundaries and service provision split between public and private providers. General practice is largely funded through the federal government. Other primary health care services are provided by state/territory public entities and private allied health practitioners. Indigenous health services are specifically funded by the federal government through a series of Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations. NATIONAL POLICY AND MODELS: The dominant primary health care model is federally-funded private "small business" general practices. Medicare reimbursement items have incrementally changed over the last decade to include increasing support for chronic disease care with both generic and disease specific items as incentives. Asthma has received a large amount of national policy attention. Other respiratory diseases have not had similar policy emphasis. Australia has a high prevalence of asthma. Respiratory-related encounters in general practice, including acute and chronic respiratory illness and influenza immunisations, account for 20.6% of general practice activity. Lung cancer is a rare disease in general practice. Tuberculosis is uncommon and most often found in people born outside of Australia. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders have higher rates of asthma, smoking and tuberculosis. Access to care is positively influenced by substantial public funding underpinning both the private and public sectors through Medicare. Access to general practice care is negatively influenced by workforce shortages, the ongoing demands of acute care, and the incremental way in which system redesign is occurring in general practice. Most general practice operates from privately-owned rooms. The Australian Government requires general practice facilities to be accredited against certain standards in order for the practice to receive income from a number of

  12. Opioid system and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Tuominen, Lauri

    2017-04-10

    Emotions are states of vigilant readiness that guide human and animal behaviour during survival-salient situations. Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct basic human emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness and surprise) that govern different survival functions. Opioid receptors are expressed abundantly in the mammalian emotion circuit, and the opioid system modulates a variety of functions related to arousal and motivation. Yet, its specific contribution to different basic emotions has remained poorly understood. Here, we review how the endogenous opioid system and particularly the μ receptor contribute to emotional processing in humans. Activation of the endogenous opioid system is consistently associated with both pleasant and unpleasant emotions. In general, exogenous opioid agonists facilitate approach-oriented emotions (anger, pleasure) and inhibit avoidance-oriented emotions (fear, sadness). Opioids also modulate social bonding and affiliative behaviour, and prolonged opioid abuse may render both social bonding and emotion recognition circuits dysfunctional. However, there is no clear evidence that the opioid system is able to affect the emotions associated with surprise and disgust. Taken together, the opioid systems contribute to a wide array of positive and negative emotions through their general ability to modulate the approach versus avoidance motivation associated with specific emotions. Because of the protective effects of opioid system-mediated prosociality and positive mood, the opioid system may constitute an important factor contributing to psychological and psychosomatic resilience. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Positive selection results in frequent reversible amino acid replacements in the G protein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botosso, Viviane F; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Ueda, Mirthes; Arruda, Eurico; Gilio, Alfredo E; Vieira, Sandra E; Stewien, Klaus E; Peret, Teresa C T; Jamal, Leda F; Pardini, Maria I de M C; Pinho, João R R; Massad, Eduardo; Sant'anna, Osvaldo A; Holmes, Eddie C; Durigon, Edison L

    2009-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age and the elderly, causing annual disease outbreaks during the fall and winter. Multiple lineages of the HRSVA and HRSVB serotypes co-circulate within a single outbreak and display a strongly temporal pattern of genetic variation, with a replacement of dominant genotypes occurring during consecutive years. In the present study we utilized phylogenetic methods to detect and map sites subject to adaptive evolution in the G protein of HRSVA and HRSVB. A total of 29 and 23 amino acid sites were found to be putatively positively selected in HRSVA and HRSVB, respectively. Several of these sites defined genotypes and lineages within genotypes in both groups, and correlated well with epitopes previously described in group A. Remarkably, 18 of these positively selected tended to revert in time to a previous codon state, producing a "flip-flop" phylogenetic pattern. Such frequent evolutionary reversals in HRSV are indicative of a combination of frequent positive selection, reflecting the changing immune status of the human population, and a limited repertoire of functionally viable amino acids at specific amino acid sites.

  14. Positive selection results in frequent reversible amino acid replacements in the G protein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane F Botosso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age and the elderly, causing annual disease outbreaks during the fall and winter. Multiple lineages of the HRSVA and HRSVB serotypes co-circulate within a single outbreak and display a strongly temporal pattern of genetic variation, with a replacement of dominant genotypes occurring during consecutive years. In the present study we utilized phylogenetic methods to detect and map sites subject to adaptive evolution in the G protein of HRSVA and HRSVB. A total of 29 and 23 amino acid sites were found to be putatively positively selected in HRSVA and HRSVB, respectively. Several of these sites defined genotypes and lineages within genotypes in both groups, and correlated well with epitopes previously described in group A. Remarkably, 18 of these positively selected tended to revert in time to a previous codon state, producing a "flip-flop" phylogenetic pattern. Such frequent evolutionary reversals in HRSV are indicative of a combination of frequent positive selection, reflecting the changing immune status of the human population, and a limited repertoire of functionally viable amino acids at specific amino acid sites.

  15. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  16. Intranasal Administration of Maleic Anhydride-Modified Human Serum Albumin for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Neither vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy is available to prevent and treat RSV infection. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is the only product approved to prevent serious RSV infection, but its high cost is prohibitive in low-income countries. Here, we aimed to identify an effective, safe, and affordable antiviral agent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP of RSV infection in children at high risk. We found that maleic anhydride (ML-modified human serum albumin (HSA, designated ML-HSA, exhibited potent antiviral activity against RSV and that the percentages of the modified lysines and arginies in ML- are correlated with such anti-RSV activity. ML-HSA inhibited RSV entry and replication by interacting with viral G protein and blocking RSV attachment to the target cells, while ML-HAS neither bound to F protein, nor inhibited F protein-mediated membrane fusion. Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of mice. ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis of RSV infection in children at high risk in both low- and high-income countries.

  17. Technical and dosimetric aspects of respiratory gating using a pressure-sensor motion monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. Allen; Stepaniak, Christopher; Gore, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This work introduces a gating technique that uses 4DCT to determine gating parameters and to plan gated treatment, and employs a Siemens linear accelerator to deliver the gated treatment. Because of technology incompatibility, the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) and the Siemens accelerator require two different motion-monitoring systems. The motion monitoring system (AZ-773V, Anzai Med.) used for the gated delivery utilizes a pressure sensor to detect the external respiratory motion (pressure change) in real time. Another system (RPM, Varian) used for the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) is based on an infrared camera to detect motion of external markers. These two motion monitoring systems (RPM and Anzai systems) were found to correlate well with each other. The depth doses and profile measured for gated delivery (with a duty cycle of 25% or 50%) were found to agree within 1.0% with those measured for ungated delivery, indicating that gating did not significantly alter beam characteristics. The measurement verified also that the MU linearity and beam output remained unchanged (within 0.3%). A practical method of using 4DCT to plan a gated treatment was developed. The duty cycle for either phase or amplitude gating can be determined based on 4DCT with consideration of set-up error and delivery efficiency. The close-loop measurement involving the entire gating process (imaging, planning, and delivery) showed that the measured isodose distributions agreed with those intended, validating the accuracy and reliability of the gating technique. Based these observations, we conclude that the gating technique introduced in this work, integrating Siemens linear accelerator and Anzai pressure sensor device with GE/Varian RPM 4DCT, is reliable and effective, and it can be used clinically to account for respiratory motion during radiation therapy

  18. Evaluation of irradiation position in respiratory-gated radiotherapy using a phantom system simulating patient respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Masaya; Ueda, Takashi; Kitoh, Satoshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Goka, Tomonori; Ogino, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory-gated (RG) radiotherapy is useful for minimizing the irradiated volume of normal tissues resulting from the shifting of internal structures caused by respiratory movement. The present study was conducted to evaluate the treatment field in RG radiotherapy using a phantom system simulating patient respiration. A phantom system consisting of a 3-cm ball-shaped dummy tumor and film placed in a cork lung phantom was used (THK Co., Ltd.). RG radiotherapy was employed in the expiratory phase. The phantom movement distance was set to 2 cm, and the gating signals from a respiratory-gating system (AZ-733V, Anzai Medical) were varied. The settings used for irradiation were an X-ray energy of 6 MV (PRIMUS, Toshiba Medical Systems), treatment field of 5 cm x 7 cm, and X-ray dose of 100 MU. Images were acquired using an electric portal-imaging device (EPID, OPTIVUE 500), and the X-ray dose distribution was measured by the film method. In images acquired using the EPID, the tumor margins became less clear when the gating signals were increased, and the ITVs were determined to be 3.6 cm, 3.7 cm, 4.2 cm, and 5.1 cm at gating rates of 10%, 25%, 50%, and no gate, respectively. With regard to the X-ray dose distribution measured by the film method, the dose profile in the cephalocaudal direction was shifted toward the expiratory phase, and the degree of shift became greater when the gating signals were increased. In addition, the optimal treatment fields in the cephalocaudal direction were determined to be 5.2 cm, 5.2 cm, 5.6 cm, and 7.0 cm at gating rates of 10%, 25%, 50%, and no gating, respectively. Although RG radiotherapy is useful for improving the accuracy of radiotherapy, the characteristics of the RG radiotherapy technique and the radiotherapy system must be clearly understood when this method is to be employed in clinical practice. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is now assuming a central role in radiotherapy, and properly identifying internal margins is an

  19. Systems for the management of respiratory disease in primary care--an international series: Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammed Osman

    2009-03-01

    Pakistan has a population exceeding 160 million. Communicable diseases remain the most important health problem in Pakistan, with non-communicable diseases and injuries comprising a quarter of all deaths. The government provides a multi-tiered healthcare system, from the Basic Health Unit at the village level, ranging up to the tertiary care teaching hospitals in the larger cities. These facilities are accessible to all, and are usually free or highly subsidised. Patients have the choice to see a private or government GP, a specialist, or an alternative medicine healer. The current National Health Policy focusses mainly on prevention of communicable diseases, as well as improving primary and secondary health care services. Only 6% of 13 to 14 year olds are medically diagnosed as having asthma, and more than half report symptoms of rhinitis. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis in patients over 65 is 14% and 6% in rural females and males, respectively, and 9% (with no sex difference) in urban areas. The higher rates of chronic bronchitis observed in females in rural areas may be attributed to high levels of indoor air pollution due to cooking over smoking fires. It is estimated that 36% of adult males, and 9% of females, smoke, and the cigarette consumption per person per year in Pakistan is among the highest in South Asia. Pakistan is ranked 7th among the 22 highest tuberculosis disease burden countries in the world. In 2006 the number of all TB cases was 76,668 compared to 97,245 in 2004. It is estimated that 70-80,000 people are infected with HIV, but only 3,000 AIDS cases have been reported so far. The incidence of acute respiratory infections in children varies, and is a common cause of morbidity. In adults, it is estimated that pneumonia may affect as many as 2.8 million Pakistanis. Patients usually can access their local GPs or alternative medical practitioners with relative ease. In villages in remote areas, access to government-run health care facilities

  20. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  1. Mathematical modeling and validation in physiology applications to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bachar, Mostafa; Kappel, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This volume synthesizes theoretical and practical aspects of both the mathematical and life science viewpoints needed for modeling of the cardiovascular-respiratory system specifically and physiological systems generally.  Theoretical points include model design, model complexity and validation in the light of available data, as well as control theory approaches to feedback delay and Kalman filter applications to parameter identification. State of the art approaches using parameter sensitivity are discussed for enhancing model identifiability through joint analysis of model structure and data. Practical examples illustrate model development at various levels of complexity based on given physiological information. The sensitivity-based approaches for examining model identifiability are illustrated by means of specific modeling  examples. The themes presented address the current problem of patient-specific model adaptation in the clinical setting, where data is typically limited.

  2. Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouchier, R.A.M.; Schneeberger, P.M.; Rozendaal, F.W.; Broekman, J.M.; Kemink, S.A.G.; Munnster, V.; Kuiken, T.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F.; Schutten, M.; Doornum, van G.J.J.; Koch, G.; Bosman, A.; Koopmans, M.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including at least seven fatal cases, posing a serious human

  3. Amyloidosis involving the respiratory system: 5-year′s experience of a multi-disciplinary group′s activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Scala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients′ clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012. Among the 298 patients evaluated during the study period, we identified three cases of amyloidosis with involvement of the respiratory system, associated or not with other extra-thoracic localizations, whose diagnosis was histo-pathologically confirmed after the pulmonologist, the radiologist, and the pathologist evaluation. Our experience of a multidisciplinary team confirms that intra-thoracic amyloidosis is an uncommon disorder, representing 1.0% of the cases of rare and diffuse lung diseases referred to our center. The diagnosis of the disease is not always easy and quick as the amyloidosis may involve different parts of the respiratory system (airways, pleura, parenchyma. It is therefore recommended to remind this orphan disease in the differential diagnosis of the wide clinical scenarios the pulmonologist may intercept in clinical practice.

  4. SPECIFIC DISORDERS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF THERAPY WITH DORNASE ALFA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Simanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to specific disorders of the respiratory system in cystic fibrosis. 64 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF aged 2 months to 32 years and residing in the Udmurtian Republic were studied. Epidemiological and genetic specifics of this disease in the mentioned region of the RF were examined. Clinical, X-ray, functional and microbiological studies of the CF patients’ respiratory system were conducted. It was found that genotype delF508 and chronic infection Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus cause severe structural changes to the bronchopulmonary system more often. The obtained data suggest the advisability of identifying the groups of CF patients at the highest risk of severe respiratory system disorders in order to optimise therapeutic efforts. The article provides indicators of clinical efficacy of a dornase alfa therapy in CF children.Key words: cystic fibrosis, genotype, delF508 mutation, respiratory organs, pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, staphylococcal infection, respiratory function, mucolytic function, dornase alfa. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:44-48

  5. Estimate of the real-time respiratory simulation system in cyberknife image-guided radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Chul Kee; Chung, Weon Kuu; Lee, Suk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the target accuracy according to the movement with respiration of an actual patient in a quantitative way by developing a real-time respiratory simulation system (RRSS), including a patient customized 3D moving phantom. The real-time respiratory simulation system (RRSS) consists of two robots in order to implement both the movement of body surfaces and the movement of internal organs caused by respiration. The quantitative evaluation for the 3D movement of the RRSS was performed using a real-time laser displacement sensor for each axis. The average difference in the static movement of the RRSS was about 0.01 ∼ 0.06 mm. Also, in the evaluation of the dynamic movement by producing a formalized sine wave with the phase of four seconds per cycle, the difference between the measured and the calculated values for each cycle length in the robot that was in charge of body surfaces and the robot that was in charge of the movement of internal tumors showed 0.10 ∼ 0.55 seconds, and the correlation coefficients between the calculated and the measured values were 0.998 ∼ 0.999. The differences between the maximum and the minimum amplitudes were 0.01 ∼ 0.06 mm, and the reproducibility was within ±0.5 mm. In the case of the application and non-application of respiration, the target errors were -0.05 ∼ 1.05 mm and -0.13 ∼ 0.74 mm, respectively, and the entire target errors were 1.30 mm and 0.79 mm, respectively. Based on the accuracy in the RRSS system, various respiration patterns of patients can be reproduced in real-time. Also, this system can be used as an optimal tool for applying patient customized accuracy management in image-guided radiosurgery.

  6. Estimate of the real-time respiratory simulation system in cyberknife image-guided radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Chul Kee [Konyang Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kyonggi University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weon Kuu [Konyang Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the target accuracy according to the movement with respiration of an actual patient in a quantitative way by developing a real-time respiratory simulation system (RRSS), including a patient customized 3D moving phantom. The real-time respiratory simulation system (RRSS) consists of two robots in order to implement both the movement of body surfaces and the movement of internal organs caused by respiration. The quantitative evaluation for the 3D movement of the RRSS was performed using a real-time laser displacement sensor for each axis. The average difference in the static movement of the RRSS was about 0.01 {approx} 0.06 mm. Also, in the evaluation of the dynamic movement by producing a formalized sine wave with the phase of four seconds per cycle, the difference between the measured and the calculated values for each cycle length in the robot that was in charge of body surfaces and the robot that was in charge of the movement of internal tumors showed 0.10 {approx} 0.55 seconds, and the correlation coefficients between the calculated and the measured values were 0.998 {approx} 0.999. The differences between the maximum and the minimum amplitudes were 0.01 {approx} 0.06 mm, and the reproducibility was within {+-}0.5 mm. In the case of the application and non-application of respiration, the target errors were -0.05 {approx} 1.05 mm and -0.13 {approx} 0.74 mm, respectively, and the entire target errors were 1.30 mm and 0.79 mm, respectively. Based on the accuracy in the RRSS system, various respiration patterns of patients can be reproduced in real-time. Also, this system can be used as an optimal tool for applying patient customized accuracy management in image-guided radiosurgery.

  7. Structural Analysis of Major Species Barriers between Humans and Palm Civets for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang (UMM)

    2008-09-23

    It is believed that a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was passed from palm civets to humans and caused the epidemic of SARS in 2002 to 2003. The major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections are the specific interactions between a defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) on a viral spike protein and its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this study a chimeric ACE2 bearing the critical N-terminal helix from civet and the remaining peptidase domain from human was constructed, and it was shown that this construct has the same receptor activity as civet ACE2. In addition, crystal structures of the chimeric ACE2 complexed with RBDs from various human and civet SARS-CoV strains were determined. These structures, combined with a previously determined structure of human ACE2 complexed with the RBD from a human SARS-CoV strain, have revealed a structural basis for understanding the major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections. They show that the major species barriers are determined by interactions between four ACE2 residues (residues 31, 35, 38, and 353) and two RBD residues (residues 479 and 487), that early civet SARS-CoV isolates were prevented from infecting human cells due to imbalanced salt bridges at the hydrophobic virus/receptor interface, and that SARS-CoV has evolved to gain sustained infectivity for human cells by eliminating unfavorable free charges at the interface through stepwise mutations at positions 479 and 487. These results enhance our understanding of host adaptations and cross-species infections of SARS-CoV and other emerging animal viruses.

  8. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan

    2008-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  9. Potential risks to human respiratory health from "acid fog": evidence from experimental studies of volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, J D; Linn, W S; Avol, E L

    1985-11-01

    Observations of high acidity (pH as low as 1.7) in fogwater collected in polluted areas have provoked concern for public health. Effects of exposure to acidic pollutants have not been studied under foggy conditions; thus there is no directly relevant information from which to estimate the health risk. Indirectly relevant information is available from numerous studies of volunteers exposed to "acid fog precursors" under controlled conditions at less than 100% relative humidity. The effect of fog in modifying responses to inhaled acidic pollutants is difficult to predict: depending on circumstances, fog droplets might either increase or decrease the effective dose of pollutants to the lower respiratory tract. Fog inhalation per se may have unfavorable effects in some individuals. Sulfur dioxide is known to exacerbate airway constriction in exercising asthmatics, at exposure concentrations attainable in ambient air. Nitrogen dioxide has shown little untoward respiratory effect at ambient concentrations in most studies, although it has been suggested to increase bronchial reactivity. Sulfuric acid aerosol has shown no clear effects at concentrations within the ambient range. At somewhat higher levels, increased bronchial reactivity and change in mucociliary clearance have been suggested. Almost no information is available concerning nitric acid.

  10. A Triple Co-Culture Model of the Human Respiratory Tract to Study Immune-Modulatory Effects of Liposomes and Virosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A M Blom

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract with its ease of access, vast surface area and dense network of antigen-presenting cells (APCs represents an ideal target for immune-modulation. Bio-mimetic nanocarriers such as virosomes may provide immunomodulatory properties to treat diseases such as allergic asthma. In our study we employed a triple co-culture model of epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells to simulate the human airway barrier. The epithelial cell line 16HBE was grown on inserts and supplemented with human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs and dendritic cells (MDDCs for exposure to influenza virosomes and liposomes. Additionally, primary human nasal epithelial cells (PHNEC and EpCAM+ epithelial progenitor cell mono-cultures were utilized to simulate epithelium from large and smaller airways, respectively. To assess particle uptake and phenotype change, cell cultures were analyzed by flow cytometry and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA. All cell types internalized virosomes more efficiently than liposomes in both mono- and co-cultures. APCs like MDMs and MDDCs showed the highest uptake capacity. Virosome and liposome treatment caused a moderate degree of activation in MDDCs from mono-cultures and induced an increased cytokine production in co-cultures. In epithelial cells, virosome uptake was increased compared to liposomes in both mono- and co-cultures with EpCAM+ epithelial progenitor cells showing highest uptake capacity. In conclusion, all cell types successfully internalized both nanocarriers with virosomes being taken up by a higher proportion of cells and at a higher rate inducing limited activation of MDDCs. Thus virosomes may represent ideal carrier antigen systems to modulate mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract without causing excessive inflammatory changes.

  11. A Wireless Electronic Esophageal Stethoscope for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems during Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsaei H.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The basic requirements for monitoring anesthetized patients during surgery are assessing cardiac and respiratory function. Esophageal stethoscopes have been developed for this purpose, but these devices may not provide clear heart and lung sound due to existence of various noises in operating rooms. In addition, the stethoscope is not applicable for continues monitoring, and it is unsuitable for observing inaccessible patients in some conditions such as during CT scan. Objective: A wireless electronic esophageal stethoscope is designed for continues auscultation of heart and lung sounds in anesthetized patients. The system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The former acquires, amplifies and transmits the acquired sound signals to the latter via a frequency modulation transmitter. The receiver demodulates, amplifies, and delivers the received signal to a headphone to be heard by anesthesiologist. Results: The usability and effectiveness of the designed system was qualitatively evaluated by 5 anesthesiologists in Namazi Hospital and Shahid Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, Iran on 30 patients in several operating rooms in different conditions; e.g., when electro surgery instruments are working. Fortunately, the experts on average ranked good quality for the heard heart and lung sounds and very good on the user friendly being of the instrument. Conclusion: Evaluation results demonstrate that the developed system is capable of capturing and transmitting heart and lung sounds successfully. Therefore, it can be used to continuously monitor anesthetized patients’ cardiac and respiratory function. Since via the instrument wireless auscultation is possible, it could be suitable for observing inaccessible patients in several conditions such as during CT scan.

  12. A Wireless Electronic Esophageal Stethoscope for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems during Anaesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei, H.; Vakily, A.; Shafiei, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The basic requirements for monitoring anesthetized patients during surgery are assessing cardiac and respiratory function. Esophageal stethoscopes have been developed for this purpose, but these devices may not provide clear heart and lung sound due to existence of various noises in operating rooms. In addition, the stethoscope is not applicable for continues monitoring, and it is unsuitable for observing inaccessible patients in some conditions such as during CT scan. Objective: A wireless electronic esophageal stethoscope is designed for continues auscultation of heart and lung sounds in anesthetized patients. The system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The former acquires, amplifies and transmits the acquired sound signals to the latter via a frequency modulation transmitter. The receiver demodulates, amplifies, and delivers the received signal to a headphone to be heard by anesthesiologist. Results: The usability and effectiveness of the designed system was qualitatively evaluated by 5 anesthesiologists in Namazi Hospital and Shahid Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, Iran on 30 patients in several operating rooms in different conditions; e.g., when electro surgery instruments are working. Fortunately, the experts on average ranked good quality for the heard heart and lung sounds and very good on the user friendly being of the instrument. Conclusion: Evaluation results demonstrate that the developed system is capable of capturing and transmitting heart and lung sounds successfully. Therefore, it can be used to continuously monitor anesthetized patients’ cardiac and respiratory function. Since via the instrument wireless auscultation is possible, it could be suitable for observing inaccessible patients in several conditions such as during CT scan. PMID:28451580

  13. Comparison of visual biofeedback system with a guiding waveform and abdomen-chest motion self-control system for respiratory motion management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yujiro; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Kanai, Takayuki; Ito, Kengo; Sato, Kiyokazu; Dobashi, Suguru; Yamamoto, Takaya; Ishikawa, Yojiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of 4D computed tomography imaging and cause artifacts. Visual biofeedback systems associated with a patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches) (representing simpler visual coaching techniques without a guiding waveform) are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching in reducing respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. We collected data from 11 healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared with free-breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86 and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18 and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with the wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to the other techniques. Our results showed that visual biofeedback combined with a wave model could potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management, although all techniques were able to reduce respiratory irregularities

  14. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Pat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC and augmented RIC (aRIC models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B and post- bronchodilation (post-B conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI. The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp and peripheral resistance (Rp tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle" showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In

  15. Experiment for ambulatory inhalation rehabilitation of occupational dust-radiation injuries of the respiratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Nikolova, M.E.; Todorov, A.; Kuteva, E.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was carried out for ambulatory inhalation rehabilitation on a group of 172 subjects with pronounced injuries of the respiratory system. Parallely with them was a rehabilitated group of 8 pensioners. Because of the specific nature of the production etiopathogenetic complex including inhalation introduced radioactive and stable aerosols and their uninterrupted action during rehabilitation, the experiment conducted is of special importance for the perspective elaboration and implementation of health measures in a numerous contingent of workers in industrial important branches without discontinuing work. A positive effect was obtained in 54,2% of the treated non-smokers. No improvement was found of the objective ventilation indices of respiration in smokers and pensioners. As far as physical and anamnestic indices are concerned, such as rales, cough, dyspnea, pains in the chest etc., there was impovement in all treated subjects. Finally, some conclusions are drawn about the future trends of inhalation prophylaxis in the respective branches of production

  16. A study on the relationship between trace elements and respiratory system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiaolin; Wu Lanlan; Yuan Ling; Huang Liyun; Jia Zhanxiang; Chen Yang

    1995-01-01

    19 elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Se, Cu, Zn, etc.) in hair of 65 patients with chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and corpulmonale and 65 healthy persons were determined with instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was shown that the contents of Ca and Mg are lower while the contents of Fe, As and Co higher for the patients. For the patients with chronic bronchitis in attack period the contents of Ca and Mg are lower and the content of Fe higher than those in relaxed period. A highly positive relation between Ca and Mg contents was also found. In addition, inorganic elements in 'Kechuandeping' capsule, a prepared traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic bronchitis, were determined, and the contents of Ca, Mg, Sr, etc. were found higher than the corresponding average values for 120 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines, indicating a possible shortage of Ca, Mg, etc. for the patients with respiratory-system diseased

  17. Systemic signature of the lung response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L A Pennings

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a frequent cause of severe bronchiolitis in children. To improve our understanding of systemic host responses to RSV, we compared BALB/c mouse gene expression responses at day 1, 2, and 5 during primary RSV infection in lung, bronchial lymph nodes, and blood. We identified a set of 53 interferon-associated and innate immunity genes that give correlated responses in all three murine tissues. Additionally, we identified blood gene signatures that are indicative of acute infection, secondary immune response, and vaccine-enhanced disease, respectively. Eosinophil-associated ribonucleases were characteristic for the vaccine-enhanced disease blood signature. These results indicate that it may be possible to distinguish protective and unfavorable patient lung responses via blood diagnostics.

  18. Source and role of diacylglycerol formed during phagocytosis of opsonized yeast particles and associated respiratory burst in human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Bianca, V.; Grzeskowiak, M.; Lissandrini, D.; Rossi, F.

    1991-01-01

    The results presented in this paper demonstrate that in human neutrophils phagocytosis of C3b/bi and IgG-opsonized yeast particles is associated with activation of phospholipase D and that this reaction is the main source of diglycerides. The demonstration is based upon the following findings: (1) the challenge of neutrophils with these opsonized particles was followed by a rapid formation of [3H]alkyl-phosphatidic acid [( 3H]alkyl-PA) and [3H]alkyl-diglyceride [( 3H]alkyl-DG) in cells labeled with [3H]alkyl-lyso-phosphatidylcholine; (2) in the presence of ethanol [3H]alkyl-phosphatidylethanol was formed, and accumulation of [3H]alkyl-PA and [3H]alkyl-DG was depressed; (3) propranolol, by inhibiting the dephosphorylation of [3H]alkyl-PA, completely inhibited the accumulation of [3H]alkyl-DG and depressed by about 75% the formation of diglyceride mass. Evidence is also presented that phagocytosis of C3b/bi and IgG-opsonized yeast particles and associated respiratory burst can take place independently of diglyceride formation and of the activity of this second messenger on protein kinase C. In fact: (a) propranolol while completely inhibited the formation of diglyceride mass did not modify either the phagocytosis or respiratory burst; (b) these two processes were insensitive to staurosporine

  19. Human-system Interfaces for Automatic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins,J. (BNL); Fleger, S.; Barnes V. (NRC)

    2010-11-07

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, our study identified several topics for additional research.

  20. [Characteristics of the sympathoadrenal system response to psychoemotional stress under hypoxic conditions in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of the respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanov, E O; Os'mak, Ie D; Kuz'mins'ka, L A

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional and hypoxic stress in healthy young people and in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of respiratory system were studied. It was shown that in aging a more pronounced response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. At the same time, elderly people with different types of aging of the respiratory system did not demonstrate a difference in the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. Unlike in young people, in aged people, combination of psychoemotional and hypoxic stresses resulted in further activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The reaction of the sympathoadrenal system was more expressed in elderly people with accelerated ageing of the respiratory system.

  1. Evaluation of the educational value of YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; Algrain, Hala A; AlKhelaif, Rana A; AlEshaiwi, Sarah M

    2013-11-13

    A number of studies have evaluated the educational contents of videos on YouTube. However, little analysis has been done on videos about physical examination. This study aimed to analyze YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. It was hypothesized that the educational standards of videos on YouTube would vary significantly. During the period from November 2, 2011 to December 2, 2011, YouTube was searched by three assessors for videos covering the clinical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. For each video, the following information was collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority, and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos. A total of 1920 videos were screened. Only relevant videos covering the examination of adults in the English language were identified (n=56). Of these, 20 were found to be relevant to cardiovascular examinations and 36 to respiratory examinations. Further analysis revealed that 9 provided useful information on cardiovascular examinations and 7 on respiratory examinations: scoring mean 14.9 (SD 0.33) and mean 15.0 (SD 0.00), respectively. The other videos, 11 covering cardiovascular and 29 on respiratory examinations, were not useful educationally, scoring mean 11.1 (SD 1.08) and mean 11.2 (SD 1.29), respectively. The differences between these two categories were significant (P.86. A small number of videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems were identified as educationally useful; these videos can be used by medical students for independent learning and by clinical teachers as learning resources. The scoring system utilized by this study is simple, easy to apply, and could be used by other researchers on similar topics.

  2. New Combined Scoring System for Predicting Respiratory Failure in Iraqi Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Noah Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an acute post-infective autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy, it is the commonest peripheral neuropathy causing respiratory failure. The aim of the study is to use the New Combined Scoring System in anticipating respiratory failure in order to perform elective measures without waiting for emergency situations to occur.
    Patients and methods: Fifty patients with GBS were studied. Eight clinical parameters (including progression of patients to maximum weakness, respiratory rate/minute, breath holding
    count (the number of digits the patient can count in holding his breath, presence of facial muscle weakness (unilateral or bilateral, presence of weakness of the bulbar muscle, weakness of the neck flexor muscle, and limbs weakness were assessed for each patient and a certain score was given to
    each parameter, a designed combined score being constructed by taking into consideration all the above mentioned clinical parameters. Results and discussion: Fifteen patients (30% that were enrolled in our study developed respiratory failure. There was a highly significant statistical association between the development of respiratory failure and the lower grades of (bulbar muscle weakness score, breath holding count scores, neck muscle weakness score, lower limbs and upper limbs weakness score , respiratory rate score and the total sum score above 16 out of 30 (p-value=0.000 . No significant statistical difference was found regarding the progression to maximum weakness (p-value=0.675 and facial muscle weakness (p-value=0.482.
    Conclusion: The patients who obtained a combined score (above 16’30 are at great risk of having respiratory failure.

  3. Development of a robust and cost-effective 3D respiratory motion monitoring system using the kinect device: Accuracy comparison with the conventional stereovision navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Myungsoo; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Namkug

    2018-07-01

    To develop and validate a robust and cost-effective 3D respiratory monitoring system based on a Kinect device with a custom-made simple marker. A 3D respiratory monitoring system comprising the simple marker and the Microsoft Kinect v2 device was developed. The marker was designed for simple and robust detection, and the tracking algorithm was developed using the depth, RGB, and infra-red images acquired from the Kinect sensor. A Kalman filter was used to suppress movement noises. The major movements of the marker attached to the four different locations of body surface were determined from the initially collected tracking points of the marker while breathing. The signal level of respiratory motion with the tracking point was estimated along the major direction vector. The accuracy of the results was evaluated through a comparison with those of the conventional stereovision navigation system (NDI Polaris Spectra). Sixteen normal volunteers were enrolled to evaluate the accuracy of this system. The correlation coefficients between the respiratory motion signal from the Kinect device and conventional navigation system ranged from 0.970 to 0.999 and from 0.837 to 0.995 at the abdominal and thoracic surfaces, respectively. The respiratory motion signal from this system was obtained at 27-30 frames/s. This system with the Kinect v2 device and simple marker could be used for cost-effective, robust and accurate 3D respiratory motion monitoring. In addition, this system is as reliable for respiratory motion signal generation and as practically useful as the conventional stereovision navigation system and is less sensitive to patient posture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A chest radiograph scoring system in patients with severe acute respiratory infection: a validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Emma; Haven, Kathryn; Reed, Peter; Bissielo, Ange; Harvey, Dave; McArthur, Colin; Bringans, Cameron; Freundlich, Simone; Ingram, R. Joan H.; Perry, David; Wilson, Francessa; Milne, David; Modahl, Lucy; Huang, Q. Sue; Gross, Diane; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Grant, Cameron C.

    2015-01-01

    The term severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) encompasses a heterogeneous group of respiratory illnesses. Grading the severity of SARI is currently reliant on indirect disease severity measures such as respiratory and heart rate, and the need for oxygen or intensive care. With the lungs being the primary organ system involved in SARI, chest radiographs (CXRs) are potentially useful for describing disease severity. Our objective was to develop and validate a SARI CXR severity scoring system. We completed validation within an active SARI surveillance project, with SARI defined using the World Health Organization case definition of an acute respiratory infection with a history of fever, or measured fever of ≥ 38 °C; and cough; and with onset within the last 10 days; and requiring hospital admission. We randomly selected 250 SARI cases. Admission CXR findings were categorized as: 1 = normal; 2 = patchy atelectasis and/or hyperinflation and/or bronchial wall thickening; 3 = focal consolidation; 4 = multifocal consolidation; and 5 = diffuse alveolar changes. Initially, four radiologists scored CXRs independently. Subsequently, a pediatrician, physician, two residents, two medical students, and a research nurse independently scored CXR reports. Inter-observer reliability was determined using a weighted Kappa (κ) for comparisons between radiologists; radiologists and clinicians; and clinicians. Agreement was defined as moderate (κ > 0.4–0.6), good (κ > 0.6–0.8) and very good (κ > 0.8–1.0). Agreement between the two pediatric radiologists was very good (κ = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.65–1.00) and between the two adult radiologists was good (κ = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.57–0. 93). Agreement of the clinicians with the radiologists was moderate-to-good (pediatrician:κ = 0.65; pediatric resident:κ = 0.69; physician:κ = 0.68; resident:κ = 0.67; research nurse:κ = 0.49, medical students: κ = 0.53 and κ = 0.56). Agreement between clinicians was good-to-very good

  5. Pneumoperitoneum deteriorates intratidal respiratory system mechanics: an observational study in lung-healthy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Steffen; Biesemann, Andreas; Spaeth, Johannes; Schumann, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery leads to atelectasis and impairment of oxygenation. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is supposed to counteract atelectasis. We hypothesized that the derecruiting effects of pneumoperitoneum would deteriorate the intratidal compliance profile in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. In 30 adult patients scheduled for surgery with pneumoperitoneum, respiratory variables were measured during mechanical ventilation. We calculated the dynamic compliance of the respiratory system (C RS ) and the intratidal volume-dependent C RS curve using the gliding-SLICE method. The C RS curve was then classified in terms of indicating intratidal recruitment/derecruitment (increasing profile) and overdistension (decreasing profile). During the surgical interventions, the PEEP level was maintained nearly constant at 7 cm H 2 O. Data are expressed as mean [confidence interval]. Baseline C RS was 60 [54-67] mL cm H 2 O -1 . Application of pneumoperitoneum decreased C RS to 40 [37-43] mL cm H 2 O -1 which partially recovered to 54 [50-59] mL cm H 2 O -1 (P < 0.001) after removal but remained below the value measured before pneumoperitoneum (P < 0.001). Baseline compliance profiles indicated intratidal recruitment/derecruitment in 48 % patients. After induction of pneumoperitoneum, intratidal recruitment/derecruitment was indicated in 93 % patients (P < 0.01), and after removal intratidal recruitment/derecruitment was indicated in 59 % patients. Compliance profiles showing overdistension were not observed. Analyses of the intratidal compliance profiles reveal that pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery causes intratidal recruitment/derecruitment which partly persists after its removal. The analysis of the intratidal volume-dependent C RS profiles could be used to guide intraoperative PEEP adjustments during elevated intraabdominal pressure.

  6. Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five Australian urban populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C.; Sherwood, Steven C.; Bambrick, Hilary

    2018-03-01

    Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression. We then added 15 heat stress indices to these models, ranking their goodness of fit using the Akaike information criterion. Admissions for each health outcome were nearly always higher in hot or humid conditions. Contrary to our hypothesis that location would determine the best-fitting heat stress index, we found that the best indices were related largely by health outcome of interest, rather than location as hypothesized. In particular, heatwave and temperature indices had the best fit to cardiovascular admissions, humidity indices had the best fit to respiratory admissions, and combined heat-humidity indices had the best fit to renal admissions. With a few exceptions, the results were similar across all five cities. The best-fitting heat stress indices appear to be useful across several Australian cities with differing climates, but they may have varying usefulness depending on the outcome of interest. These findings suggest that future research on heat and health impacts, and in particular hospital demand modeling, could better reflect reality if it avoided "all-cause" health outcomes and used heat stress indices appropriate to specific diseases and disease groups.

  7. Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five Australian urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C; Sherwood, Steven C; Bambrick, Hilary

    2018-03-01

    Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression. We then added 15 heat stress indices to these models, ranking their goodness of fit using the Akaike information criterion. Admissions for each health outcome were nearly always higher in hot or humid conditions. Contrary to our hypothesis that location would determine the best-fitting heat stress index, we found that the best indices were related largely by health outcome of interest, rather than location as hypothesized. In particular, heatwave and temperature indices had the best fit to cardiovascular admissions, humidity indices had the best fit to respiratory admissions, and combined heat-humidity indices had the best fit to renal admissions. With a few exceptions, the results were similar across all five cities. The best-fitting heat stress indices appear to be useful across several Australian cities with differing climates, but they may have varying usefulness depending on the outcome of interest. These findings suggest that future research on heat and health impacts, and in particular hospital demand modeling, could better reflect reality if it avoided "all-cause" health outcomes and used heat stress indices appropriate to specific diseases and disease groups.

  8. Absence of detectable influenza RNA transmitted via aerosol during various human respiratory activities--experiments from Singapore and Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian W Tang

    Full Text Available Two independent studies by two separate research teams (from Hong Kong and Singapore failed to detect any influenza RNA landing on, or inhaled by, a life-like, human manikin target, after exposure to naturally influenza-infected volunteers. For the Hong Kong experiments, 9 influenza-infected volunteers were recruited to breathe, talk/count and cough, from 0.1 m and 0.5 m distance, onto a mouth-breathing manikin. Aerosolised droplets exhaled from the volunteers and entering the manikin's mouth were collected with PTFE filters and an aerosol sampler, in separate experiments. Virus detection was performed using an in-house influenza RNA reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. No influenza RNA was detected from any of the PTFE filters or air samples. For the Singapore experiments, 6 influenza-infected volunteers were asked to breathe (nasal/mouth breathing, talk (counting in English/second language, cough (from 1 m/0.1 m away and laugh, onto a thermal, breathing manikin. The manikin's face was swabbed at specific points (around both eyes, the nostrils and the mouth before and after exposure to each of these respiratory activities, and was cleaned between each activity with medical grade alcohol swabs. Shadowgraph imaging was used to record the generation of these respiratory aerosols from the infected volunteers and their impact onto the target manikin. No influenza RNA was detected from any of these swabs with either team's in-house diagnostic influenza assays. All the influenza-infected volunteers had diagnostic swabs taken at recruitment that confirmed influenza (A/H1, A/H3 or B infection with high viral loads, ranging from 10(5-10(8 copies/mL (Hong Kong volunteers/assay and 10(4-10(7 copies/mL influenza viral RNA (Singapore volunteers/assay. These findings suggest that influenza RNA may not be readily transmitted from naturally-infected human source to susceptible recipients via these natural respiratory activities, within

  9. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ans Timmermans

    Full Text Available Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77 presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29% and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%. Western Cambodian H1N1(2009 isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation, despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7% and parainfluenza virus (3.8%, while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3% were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in

  10. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Ans; Melendrez, Melanie C; Se, Youry; Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light of an increasingly important role of permissive mutations in influenza virus evolution

  11. Antibody-Induced Internalization of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, A; De Schryver, M; Van der Gucht, W; Heykers, A; Pintelon, I; Hotard, A L; Moore, M L; Melero, J A; McLellan, J S; Graham, B S; Broadbent, L; Power, U F; Caljon, G; Cos, P; Maes, L; Delputte, P

    2017-07-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections remain a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalizations among infants. Infection recurs frequently and establishes a weak and short-lived immunity. To date, RSV immunoprophylaxis and vaccine research is mainly focused on the RSV fusion (F) protein, but a vaccine remains elusive. The RSV F protein is a highly conserved surface glycoprotein and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies induced by natural infection. Here, we analyzed an internalization process of antigen-antibody complexes after binding of RSV-specific antibodies to RSV antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells. The RSV F protein and attachment (G) protein were found to be internalized in both infected and transfected cells after the addition of either RSV-specific polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) or RSV glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), as determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining and flow-cytometric analysis. Internalization experiments with different cell lines, well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells (WD-PBECs), and RSV isolates suggest that antibody internalization can be considered a general feature of RSV. More specifically for RSV F, the mechanism of internalization was shown to be clathrin dependent. All RSV F-targeted MAbs tested, regardless of their epitopes, induced internalization of RSV F. No differences could be observed between the different MAbs, indicating that RSV F internalization was epitope independent. Since this process can be either antiviral, by affecting virus assembly and production, or beneficial for the virus, by limiting the efficacy of antibodies and effector mechanism, further research is required to determine the extent to which this occurs in vivo and how this might impact RSV replication. IMPORTANCE Current research into the development of new immunoprophylaxis and vaccines is mainly focused on the RSV F protein since, among others, RSV F-specific antibodies are

  12. A Human Body Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondel Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  13. Response localization of the pharmacological agents histamine and salbutamol along the respiratory system by forced oscillations in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E F; Polko, A H; Visser, B F

    1989-01-01

    The bronchodilating effect of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol on the impedance of the respiratory system was studied in 25 asthmatic subjects after histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. Histamine caused an increase of respiratory resistance (Rrs) at lower frequencies and a frequency dependence of Rrs. Respiratory reactance (Xrs) decreased at all frequencies after histamine challenge. These changes can be explained by peripheral airway obstruction. Impedance measurements performed 5 min after inhalation of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol showed a decrease of Rrs values at lower frequencies, a disappearance of the frequency dependence of Rrs, and a significant increase of Xrs values. No significant differences in absolute changes of Rrs and Xrs are observed between the salbutamol regimens. These changes after inhalation of salbutamol can be explained by supposing a predominant action on the peripheral airways.

  14. A biophysical model of the mitochondrial respiratory system and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Beard

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A computational model for the mitochondrial respiratory chain that appropriately balances mass, charge, and free energy transduction is introduced and analyzed based on a previously published set of data measured on isolated cardiac mitochondria. The basic components included in the model are the reactions at complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport system, ATP synthesis at F1F0 ATPase, substrate transporters including adenine nucleotide translocase and the phosphate-hydrogen co-transporter, and cation fluxes across the inner membrane including fluxes through the K+/H+ antiporter and passive H+ and K+ permeation. Estimation of 16 adjustable parameter values is based on fitting model simulations to nine independent data curves. The identified model is further validated by comparison to additional datasets measured from mitochondria isolated from rat heart and liver and observed at low oxygen concentration. To obtain reasonable fits to the available data, it is necessary to incorporate inorganic-phosphate-dependent activation of the dehydrogenase activity and the electron transport system. Specifically, it is shown that a model incorporating phosphate-dependent activation of complex III is able to reasonably reproduce the observed data. The resulting validated and verified model provides a foundation for building larger and more complex systems models and investigating complex physiological and pathophysiological interactions in cardiac energetics.

  15. A Biophysical Model of the Mitochondrial Respiratory System and Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A computational model for the mitochondrial respiratory chain that appropriately balances mass, charge, and free energy transduction is introduced and analyzed based on a previously published set of data measured on isolated cardiac mitochondria. The basic components included in the model are the reactions at complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport system, ATP synthesis at F(1F(0 ATPase, substrate transporters including adenine nucleotide translocase and the phosphate-hydrogen co-transporter, and cation fluxes across the inner membrane including fluxes through the K/H antiporter and passive H and K permeation. Estimation of 16 adjustable parameter values is based on fitting model simulations to nine independent data curves. The identified model is further validated by comparison to additional datasets measured from mitochondria isolated from rat heart and liver and observed at low oxygen concentration. To obtain reasonable fits to the available data, it is necessary to incorporate inorganic-phosphate-dependent activation of the dehydrogenase activity and the electron transport system. Specifically, it is shown that a model incorporating phosphate-dependent activation of complex III is able to reasonably reproduce the observed data. The resulting validated and verified model provides a foundation for building larger and more complex systems models and investigating complex physiological and pathophysiological interactions in cardiac energetics.

  16. Model of human recurrent respiratory papilloma on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane for tumor angiogenesis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Kuzminienė, Alina; Palubinskienė, Jolita; Balnytė, Ingrida; Ulozienė, Ingrida; Valančiūtė, Angelija

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to develop a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model of recurrent respiratory papilloma (RPP) and to evaluate its morphological and morphometric characteristics, together with angiogenic features. Fresh RRP tissue samples obtained from 13 patients were implanted in 174 chick embryo CAMs. Morphological, morphometric, and angiogenic changes in the CAM and chorionic epithelium were evaluated up until 7 days after the implantation. Immunohistochemical analysis (34βE12, Ki-67, MMP-9, PCNA, and Sambucus nigra staining) was performed to detect cytokeratins and endothelial cells and to evaluate proliferative capacity of the RRP before and after implantation on the CAM. The implanted RRP tissue samples survived on CAM in 73% of cases while retaining their essential morphologic characteristics and proliferative capacity of the original tumor. Implants induced thickening of both the CAM (241-560%, p=0.001) and the chorionic epithelium (107-151%, p=0.001), while the number of blood vessels (37-85%, p=0.001) in the CAM increased. The results of the present study confirmed that chick embryo CAM is a relevant host for serving as a medium for RRP fresh tissue implantation. The CAM assay demonstrated the specific RRP tumor growth pattern after implantation and provided the first morphological and morphometric characterization of the RRP CAM model that opens new horizons in studying this disease.

  17. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P glucose load RQ increased to a maximum level at 0.95 (0.22) and decreased then gradually to baseline level. The experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  18. Quality assurance for respiratory-gated stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung using real-time position management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaguchi, Yuji; Maruyama, Masato; Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated comprehensive quality assurance (QA) for respiratory-gated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the lungs using a real-time position management system (RPM). By using the phantom study, we evaluated dose liberality and reproducibility, and dose distributions for low monitor unite (MU), and also checked the absorbed dose at isocenter and dose profiles for the respiratory-gated exposure using RPM. Furthermore, we evaluated isocenter dose and dose distributions for respiratory-gated SBRT plans in the lungs using RPM. The maximum errors for the dose liberality were 4% for 2 MU, 1% for 4-10 MU, and 0.5% for 15 MU and 20 MU. The dose reproducibility was 2% for 1 MU and within 0.1% for 5 MU or greater. The accuracy for dose distributions was within 2% for 2 MU or greater. The dose error along a central axis for respiratory cycles of 2, 4, and 6 sec was within 1%. As for geometric accuracy, 90% and 50% isodose areas for the respiratory-gated exposure became almost 1 mm and 2 mm larger than without gating, respectively. For clinical lung-SBRT plans, the point dose at isocenter agreed within 2.1% with treatment planning system (TPS). And the pass rates of all plans for TPS were more than 96% in the gamma analysis (3 mm/3%). The geometrical accuracy and the dose accuracy of TPS calculation algorithm are more important for the dose evaluation at penumbra region for respiratory-gated SBRT in lung using RPM. (author)

  19. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease secondary to electronic nicotine delivery system use confirmed with open lung biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Mark; Nandakumar, Lakshmy; Singh, Mahendra; Wyld, David; Windsor, Morgan; Fielding, David

    2017-05-01

    As a modern phenomenon, there is currently limited understanding of the possible toxic effects and broader implications of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Large volumes of aerosolized particles are inhaled during "vaping" and there are now an increasing number of case reports demonstrating toxic effects of ENDS, as well as human studies demonstrating impaired lung function in users. This article presents a case of respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) precipitated by vaping in a 33-year-old male with 10 pack years of traditional cigarette and prior treatment for mixed germ cell tumour. The patient had started vaping 10-15 times per day while continuing to smoke 10 traditional cigarettes per day. After 3 months of exposure to e-cigarette vapour, chest computed tomography demonstrated multiple new poorly defined pulmonary nodules with fluffy parenchyma opacification centred along the terminal bronchovascular units. Video-assisted thoracoscopy with lung biopsy of the right upper and right middle lobes was undertaken. The microscopic findings were overall consistent with RB-ILD. This case demonstrates toxicity with use of ENDS on open lung biopsy with resolution of radiographic findings on cessation. We believe that this is the first case where open lung biopsy has demonstrated this and our findings are consistent with RB-ILD.

  20. Recombinant human DNase in children with airway malacia and lower respiratory tract infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, R.; Jongste, J.C. de; Vaessen-Verberne, A.A.; Hop, W.C.J.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with airway malacia often have protracted courses of airway infections, because dynamic airway collapse during coughing results in impaired mucociliary clearance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the mucolytic drug recombinant human deoxyribonuclease

  1. A mitochondrial cytochrome b mutation causing severe respiratory chain enzyme deficiency in humans and yeast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakely, E.L.; Mitchell, A.L.; Fisher, N.; Meunier, B.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Schaefer, A.M.; Jackson, M.J.; Turnbull, D.M.; Taylor, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the majority of disease-related mitochondrial DNA mutations exhibit significant biochemical and clinical heterogeneity, mutations within the mitochondrially encoded human cytochrome b gene (MTCYB) are almost exclusively associated with isolated complex III deficiency in muscle and a clinical

  2. Genotoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nanomaterial industry has recently seen rapid growth, therefore, the risk assessment of human exposure to nanomaterials in consumer products is of paramount importance. The genotoxicity of nanomaterials is a fundamental aspect of hazard identification and regulatory guidance....

  3. The Genotoxicity of Titanium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the exponential growth of the nanomaterial industry, risk assessment of human exposure to nanomaterials in consumer products is of paramount importance. The genotoxicity of nanomaterials is an important aspect of hazard identification and regulatory guidance. However, this...

  4. Modeling acute respiratory illness during the 2007 San Diego wildland fires using a coupled emissions-transport system and generalized additive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Brian; French, Nancy H F; Koziol, Benjamin W; Billmire, Michael; Owen, Robert Chris; Johnson, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Michele; Loboda, Tatiana; Wu, Shiliang

    2013-11-05

    A study of the impacts on respiratory health of the 2007 wildland fires in and around San Diego County, California is presented. This study helps to address the impact of fire emissions on human health by modeling the exposure potential of proximate populations to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) from vegetation fires. Currently, there is no standard methodology to model and forecast the potential respiratory health effects of PM plumes from wildland fires, and in part this is due to a lack of methodology for rigorously relating the two. The contribution in this research specifically targets that absence by modeling explicitly the emission, transmission, and distribution of PM following a wildland fire in both space and time. Coupled empirical and deterministic models describing particulate matter (PM) emissions and atmospheric dispersion were linked to spatially explicit syndromic surveillance health data records collected through the San Diego Aberration Detection and Incident Characterization (SDADIC) system using a Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) statistical approach. Two levels of geographic aggregation were modeled, a county-wide regional level and division of the county into six sub regions. Selected health syndromes within SDADIC from 16 emergency departments within San Diego County relevant for respiratory health were identified for inclusion in the model. The model captured the variability in emergency department visits due to several factors by including nine ancillary variables in addition to wildfire PM concentration. The model coefficients and nonlinear function plots indicate that at peak fire PM concentrations the odds of a person seeking emergency care is increased by approximately 50% compared to non-fire conditions (40% for the regional case, 70% for a geographically specific case). The sub-regional analyses show that demographic variables also influence respiratory health outcomes from smoke. The model developed in this study allows a

  5. Effect of a Health Care System Respiratory Fluoroquinolone Restriction Program To Alter Utilization and Impact Rates of Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Katherine M; Hobbs, Athena L V; Jaso, Theresa C; Bissett, Jack D; Cruz, Christopher M; Douglass, Elizabeth T; Garey, Kevin W

    2017-06-01

    Fluoroquinolones are one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotic classes in the United States despite their association with adverse consequences, including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We sought to evaluate the impact of a health care system antimicrobial stewardship-initiated respiratory fluoroquinolone restriction program on utilization, appropriateness of quinolone-based therapy based on institutional guidelines, and CDI rates. After implementation, respiratory fluoroquinolone utilization decreased from a monthly mean and standard deviation (SD) of 41.0 (SD = 4.4) days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days (PD) preintervention to 21.5 (SD = 6.4) DOT/1,000 PD and 4.8 (SD = 3.6) DOT/1,000 PD posteducation and postrestriction, respectively. Using segmented regression analysis, both education (14.5 DOT/1,000 PD per month decrease; P = 0.023) and restriction (24.5 DOT/1,000 PD per month decrease; P cost of moxifloxacin, the formulary respiratory fluoroquinolone, was observed postrestriction compared to preintervention within the health care system ($123,882 versus $12,273; P = 0.002). Implementation of a stewardship-initiated respiratory fluoroquinolone restriction program can increase appropriate use while reducing overall utilization, acquisition cost, and CDI rates within a health care system. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Respiratory chain complex I, a main regulatory target of the cAMP/PKA pathway is defective in different human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, S.; De Rasmo, D.; Technikova-Dobrova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has 31 supernumerary subunits in addition to the 14 conserved from prokaryotes to humans. Multiplicity of structural protein components, as well as of biogenesis factors, makes complex I a sensible pace-...

  7. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with...

  8. Nonrandom variability in respiratory cycle parameters of humans during stage 2 sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarreszadeh, M; Bruce, E N; Gothe, B

    1990-08-01

    We analyzed breath-to-breath inspiratory time (TI), expiratory time (TE), inspiratory volume (VI), and minute ventilation (Vm) from 11 normal subjects during stage 2 sleep. The analysis consisted of 1) fitting first- and second-order autoregressive models (AR1 and AR2) and 2) obtaining the power spectra of the data by fast-Fourier transform. For the AR2 model, the only coefficients that were statistically different from zero were the average alpha 1 (a1) for TI, VI, and Vm (a1 = 0.19, 0.29, and 0.15, respectively). However, the power spectra of all parameters often exhibited peaks at low frequency (less than 0.2 cycles/breath) and/or at high frequency (greater than 0.2 cycles/breath), indicative of periodic oscillations. After accounting for the corrupting effects of added oscillations on the a1 estimates, we conclude that 1) breath-to-breath fluctuations of VI, and to a lesser extent TI and Vm, exhibit a first-order autoregressive structure such that fluctuations of each breath are positively correlated with those of immediately preceding breaths and 2) the correlated components of variability in TE are mostly due to discrete high- and/or low-frequency oscillations with no underlying autoregressive structure. We propose that the autoregressive structure of VI, TI, and Vm during spontaneous breathing in stage 2 sleep may reflect either a central neural mechanism or the effects of noise in respiratory chemical feedback loops; the presence of low-frequency oscillations, seen more often in Vm, suggests possible instability in the chemical feedback loops. Mechanisms of high-frequency periodicities, seen more often in TE, are unknown.

  9. Diversity of aging of the immune system classified in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) model of human infectious diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guichelaar, Teun; van Erp, Elisabeth A; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Smits, Noortje A M; van Els, Cécile A C M; Pieren, Daan K J; Luytjes, Willem

    2018-01-01

    Susceptibility and declined resistance to human pathogens like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) at old age is well represented in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Despite providing a preferred model of human infectious diseases, little is known about aging of its adaptive immune system. We aimed

  10. Oxidative stress and respiratory symptoms due to human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Asante, Kwadwo A.; Baidoo, Elvis; Obirikorang, Christian; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Isoda, Norikazu; Nimako, Collins

    2017-01-01

    Studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its metabolites in PM10, soils, rat livers and cattle urine in Kumasi, Ghana, revealed high concentrations and cancer potency. In addition, WHO and IARC have reported an increase in cancer incidence and respiratory diseases in Ghana. Human urine were therefore collected from urban and control sites to: assess the health effects associated with PAHs exposure using malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); identify any association between OH-PAHs, MDA, 8-OHdG with age and sex; and determine the relationship between PAHs exposure and occurrence of respiratory diseases. From the results, urinary concentrations of the sum of OH-PAHs (∑OHPAHs) were significantly higher from urban sites compared to the control site. Geometric mean concentrations adjusted by specific gravity, GM SG , indicated 2-OHNaphthalene (2-OHNap) (6.01 ± 4.21 ng/mL) as the most abundant OH-PAH, and exposure could be through the use of naphthalene-containing-mothballs in drinking water purification, insect repellent, freshener in clothes and/or “treatment of various ailments”. The study revealed that exposure to naphthalene significantly increases the occurrence of persistent cough (OR = 2.68, CI: 1.43–5.05), persistent headache (OR = 1.82, CI: 1.02–3.26), tachycardia (OR = 3.36, CI: 1.39–8.10) and dyspnea (OR = 3.07, CI: 1.27–7.43) in Kumasi residents. Highest level of urinary 2-OHNap (224 ng/mL) was detected in a female, who reported symptoms of persistent cough, headache, tachycardia, nasal congestion and inflammation, all of which are symptoms of naphthalene exposure according to USEPA. The ∑OHPAHs, 2-OHNap, 2-3-OHFluorenes, and -OHPhenanthrenes showed a significantly positive correlation with MDA and 4-OHPhenanthrene with 8-OHdG, indicating possible lipid peroxidation/cell damage or degenerative disease in some participants. MDA and 8-OHdG were highest in age group 21–60. The present study

  11. Assessment of a volume-dependent dynamic respiratory system compliance in ALI/ARDS by pooling breathing cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Möller, Knut; Guttmann, Josef

    2012-01-01

    New methods were developed to calculate the volume-dependent dynamic respiratory system compliance (C rs ) in mechanically ventilated patients. Due to noise in respiratory signals and different characteristics of the methods, their results can considerably differ. The aim of the study was to establish a practical procedure to validate the estimation of intratidal dynamic C rs . A total of 28 patients from intensive care units of eight German university hospitals with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were studied retrospectively. Dynamic volume-dependent C rs was determined during ongoing mechanical ventilation with the SLICE method, dynostatic algorithm and adaptive slice method. Conventional two-point compliance C 2P was calculated for comparison. A number of consecutive breathing cycles were pooled to reduce noise in the respiratory signals. C rs -volume curves produced with different methods converged when the number of pooling cycles increased (n ≥ 7). The mean volume-dependent C rs of 20 breaths was highly correlated with mean C 2P (C 2P,mean = 0.945 × C rs,mean − 0.053, r 2 = 0.968, p < 0.0001). The Bland–Altman analysis indicated that C 2P,mean was lower than C rs,mean (−2.4 ± 6.4 ml cm −1 H 2 O, mean bias ± 2 SD), but not significant according to the paired t-test (p > 0.05). Methods for analyzing dynamic respiratory mechanics are sensitive to noise and will converge to a unique solution when the number of pooled cycles increases. Under steady-state conditions, assessment of the volume-dependent C rs in ALI/ARDS patients can be validated by pooling respiratory data of consecutive breaths regardless of which method is applied. Confidence in dynamic C rs determination may be increased with the proposed pooling. (note)

  12. Modulation of Host Immunity by Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Virulence Factors: A Synergic Inhibition of Both Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Canedo-Marroquín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ARTIs and high rates of hospitalizations in children and in the elderly worldwide. Symptoms of hRSV infection include bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The lung pathology observed during hRSV infection is due in part to an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by immune cell infiltration to the lungs. HRSV is an enveloped virus, a member of the Pneumoviridae family, with a non-segmented genome and negative polarity-single RNA that contains 10 genes encoding for 11 proteins. These include the Fusion protein (F, the Glycoprotein (G, and the Small Hydrophobic (SH protein, which are located on the virus surface. In addition, the Nucleoprotein (N, Phosphoprotein (P large polymerase protein (L part of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex, the M2-1 protein as a transcription elongation factor, the M2-2 protein as a regulator of viral transcription and (M protein all of which locate inside the virion. Apart from the structural proteins, the hRSV genome encodes for the non-structural 1 and 2 proteins (NS1 and NS2. HRSV has developed different strategies to evade the host immunity by means of the function of some of these proteins that work as virulence factors to improve the infection in the lung tissue. Also, hRSV NS-1 and NS-2 proteins have been shown to inhibit the activation of the type I interferon response. Furthermore, the hRSV nucleoprotein has been shown to inhibit the immunological synapsis between the dendritic cells and T cells during infection, resulting in an inefficient T cell activation. Here, we discuss the hRSV virulence factors and the host immunological features raised during infection with this virus.

  13. Demonstration of carboxylesterase in cytology samples of human nasal respiratory epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, D.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Avila, K. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The epithelial lining of the nasal airways is a target for responses induced by a variety of toxicant exposures. The high metabolic capacity of this tissue has been suggested to play a role in both protection of the airways through detoxication of certain toxicants, as well as in activation of other compounds to more toxic metabolites. Specifically, nasal carboxylesterase (CE) has been shown to mediate the toxicity of inhaled esters and acrylates by converting them to more toxic acid and alcohol metabolites which can be cytotoxic and/or carcinogenic to the nasal mucosa. Due to difficulties in extrapolating rodent models to human, new paradigms using human cells and tissues are essential to understanding and evaluating the metabolic processes in human nasal epithelium.

  14. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  15. BreathSens: A Continuous On-Bed Respiratory Monitoring System With Torso Localization Using an Unobtrusive Pressure Sensing Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason J; Huang, Ming-Chun; Xu, Wenyao; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Stevens, Luke; Alshurafa, Nabil; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-09-01

    The ability to continuously monitor respiration rates of patients in homecare or in clinics is an important goal. Past research showed that monitoring patient breathing can lower the associated mortality rates for long-term bedridden patients. Nowadays, in-bed sensors consisting of pressure sensitive arrays are unobtrusive and are suitable for deployment in a wide range of settings. Such systems aim to extract respiratory signals from time-series pressure sequences. However, variance of movements, such as unpredictable extremities activities, affect the quality of the extracted respiratory signals. BreathSens, a high-density pressure sensing system made of e-Textile, profiles the underbody pressure distribution and localizes torso area based on the high-resolution pressure images. With a robust bodyparts localization algorithm, respiratory signals extracted from the localized torso area are insensitive to arbitrary extremities movements. In a study of 12 subjects, BreathSens demonstrated its respiratory monitoring capability with variations of sleep postures, locations, and commonly tilted clinical bed conditions.

  16. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  17. Identification of a novel human papillomavirus by metagenomic analysis of samples from patients with febrile respiratory illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Mokili

    Full Text Available As part of a virus discovery investigation using a metagenomic approach, a highly divergent novel Human papillomavirus type was identified in pooled convenience nasal/oropharyngeal swab samples collected from patients with febrile respiratory illness. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome and the L1 gene reveals that the new HPV identified in this study clusters with previously described gamma papillomaviruses, sharing only 61.1% (whole genome and 63.1% (L1 sequence identity with its closest relative in the Papillomavirus episteme (PAVE database. This new virus was named HPV_SD2 pending official classification. The complete genome of HPV-SD2 is 7,299 bp long (36.3% G/C and contains 7 open reading frames (L2, L1, E6, E7, E1, E2 and E4 and a non-coding long control region (LCR between L1 and E6. The metagenomic procedures, coupled with the bioinformatic methods described herein are well suited to detect small circular genomes such as those of human papillomaviruses.

  18. Human tissue in systems medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Schuur, Klaas; Oniscu, Anca; Mullen, Peter; Reynolds, Paul A; Harrison, David J

    2013-12-01

    Histopathology, the examination of an architecturally artefactual, two-dimensional and static image remains a potent tool allowing diagnosis and empirical expectation of prognosis. Considerable optimism exists that the advent of molecular genetic testing and other biomarker strategies will improve or even replace this ancient technology. A number of biomarkers already add considerable value for prediction of whether a treatment will work. In this short review we argue that a systems medicine approach to pathology will not seek to replace traditional pathology, but rather augment it. Systems approaches need to incorporate quantitative morphological, protein, mRNA and DNA data. A significant challenge for clinical implementation of systems pathology is how to optimize information available from tissue, which is frequently sub-optimal in quality and amount, and yet generate useful predictive models that work. The transition of histopathology to systems pathophysiology and the use of multiscale data sets usher in a new era in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction based on the analysis of human tissue. © 2013 The Authors. FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of FEBS.

  19. Anatomy of Respiratory Rhythmic Systems in Brain Stem and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jüch, P.J.W.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of two respiratory rhythmic loci in the dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum were studied by retrograde and anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. The injection areas were determined with extracellular activity recording using HRP filled glass micropipettes,

  20. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenesis and interaction with the immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis and control. Worldwide PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic...

  1. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondwani Kawaza

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care.We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups.87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62 compared with 44.0% (11/25 for controls. 65.5% (19/29 of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13 of controls. 64.6% (31/48 of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17 of controls. 61.5% (16/26 of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived.Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  2. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaza, Kondwani; Machen, Heather E; Brown, Jocelyn; Mwanza, Zondiwe; Iniguez, Suzanne; Gest, Al; Smith, E O'Brian; Oden, Maria; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care. We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups. 87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls) were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62) compared with 44.0% (11/25) for controls. 65.5% (19/29) of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13) of controls. 64.6% (31/48) of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17) of controls. 61.5% (16/26) of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived. Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  3. A novel pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay: frequent detection of human coronavirus NL63 in children hospitalized with respiratory tract infections in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four human coronaviruses are currently known to infect the respiratory tract: human coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43 and 229E (HCoV-229E, SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV and the recently identified human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63. In this study we explored the incidence of HCoV-NL63 infection in children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections in Belgium. Methods Samples from children hospitalized with respiratory diseases during the winter seasons of 2003 and 2004 were evaluated for the presence of HCoV-NL63 using a optimized pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay. Results Seven HCoV-NL63 positive samples were identified, six were collected during January/February 2003 and one at the end of February 2004. Conclusions Our results support the notation that HCoV-NL63 can cause serious respiratory symptoms in children. Sequence analysis of the S gene showed that our isolates could be classified into two subtypes corresponding to the two prototype HCoV-NL63 sequences isolated in The Netherlands in 1988 and 2003, indicating that these two subtypes may currently be cocirculating.

  4. Development of a Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography Module Supporting Multiple Sensors for Wearable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbo Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring.

  5. Respiratory behavior of turning stage mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. under closed system at different temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiration rate and respiratory quotient of mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. ‘Himsona’ fruits harvested at the turning stage were determined under closed system at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 °C (ambient temperatures. The rate of respiration was higher at the start of the experiment and gradually declined as the storage period prolonged, before becoming almost constant. The steady-state respiration rate for CO2 evolution were observed to be 14.35, 15.04,19.95, 21.7 and 20.3 ml/kg-h at 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively. The RQ values for tomato varied from 0.55 to 1.10 with time under the experimental conditions. The respiration rate at steady state based on carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen consumption in closed condition decreased by about 46 % and 73 %, respectively relative to initial respiration rate values at normal air atmosphere. The results suggest that the respiration rate of tomato increased with temperature and decrease with storage time.

  6. Respiratory system loop gain in normal men and women measured with proportional-assist ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Andrew; Malhotra, Atul; Fogel, Robert B; Edwards, Jill K; Schory, Karen; White, David P

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that increased chemical control instability (CCI) in men could partially explain the male predominance in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). CCI was assessed by sequentially increasing respiratory control system loop gain (LG) with proportional-assist ventilation (PAV) in 10 men (age 24-48 yr) and 9 women (age 22-36 yr) until periodic breathing or awakening occurred. Women were studied in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The amount by which PAV amplified LG was quantified from the tidal volume amplification factor [(VtAF) assisted tidal volume/unassisted tidal volume]. LG was calculated as the inverse of the VtAF occurring at the assist level immediately preceding the emergence of periodic breathing (when LG x VtAF = 1). Only 1 of 10 men and 2 of 9 women developed periodic breathing with PAV. The rest were resistant to periodic breathing despite moderately high levels of PAV amplification. We conclude that LG is low in the majority of normal men and women and that higher volume amplification factors are needed to determine whether gender differences exist in this low range.

  7. Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

  8. Clinical Accuracy of the Respiratory Tumor Tracking System of the CyberKnife: Assessment by Analysis of Log Files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogeman, Mischa; Prevost, Jean-Briac; Nuyttens, Joost; Poell, Johan; Levendag, Peter; Heijmen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the clinical accuracy of the respiratory motion tracking system of the CyberKnife treatment device. Methods and Materials: Data in log files of 44 lung cancer patients treated with tumor tracking were analyzed. Errors in the correlation model, which relates the internal target motion with the external breathing motion, were quantified. The correlation model error was compared with the geometric error obtained when no respiratory tracking was used. Errors in the prediction method were calculated by subtracting the predicted position from the actual measured position after 192.5 ms (the time lag to prediction in our current system). The prediction error was also measured for a time lag of 115 ms and a new prediction method. Results: The mean correlation model errors were less than 0.3 mm. Standard deviations describing intrafraction variations around the whole-fraction mean error were 0.2 to 1.9 mm for cranio-caudal, 0.1 to 1.9 mm for left-right, and 0.2 to 2.5 mm for anterior-posterior directions. Without the use of respiratory tracking, these variations would have been 0.2 to 8.1 mm, 0.2 to 5.5 mm, and 0.2 to 4.4 mm. The overall mean prediction error was small (0.0 ± 0.0 mm) for all directions. The intrafraction standard deviation ranged from 0.0 to 2.9 mm for a time delay of 192.5 ms but was halved by using the new prediction method. Conclusions: Analyses of the log files of real clinical cases have shown that the geometric error caused by respiratory motion is substantially reduced by the application of respiratory motion tracking.

  9. [Pulmonary cystic disease may be a rare complication to recurrent respiratory human papilloma virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Peter Thaysen; Weinreich, Ulla M Øller

    2014-12-08

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis (JLP), treated since childhood with multiple resections, was admitted with symptoms of pneumonia. A chest X-ray and CAT-scan revealed multiple lung cysts and a bronchoalveolar lavage detected human papilloma virus 11. The patient responded well to antibiotics. A body plethysmography showed small lung volumes and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, but normal volume diffusion capacity divided by alveolar volume. Pulmonary cystic disease should be considered when patients with JLP have symptoms of pneumonia.

  10. Extraction and Analysis of Respiratory Motion Using Wearable Inertial Sensor System during Trunk Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Gaidhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory activity is an essential vital sign of life that can indicate changes in typical breathing patterns and irregular body functions such as asthma and panic attacks. Many times, there is a need to monitor breathing activity while performing day-to-day functions such as standing, bending, trunk stretching or during yoga exercises. A single IMU (inertial measurement unit can be used in measuring respiratory motion; however, breathing motion data may be influenced by a body trunk movement that occurs while recording respiratory activity. This research employs a pair of wireless, wearable IMU sensors custom-made by the Department of Electrical Engineering at San Diego State University. After appropriate sensor placement for data collection, this research applies principles of robotics, using the Denavit-Hartenberg convention, to extract relative angular motion between the two sensors. One of the obtained relative joint angles in the “Sagittal” plane predominantly yields respiratory activity. An improvised version of the proposed method and wearable, wireless sensors can be suitable to extract respiratory information while performing sports or exercises, as they do not restrict body motion or the choice of location to gather data.

  11. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzyszyn, Z; Czerny, B; Myśliwiec, Z; Pawlik, A; Droździk, M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of artichoke extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (including reaction kinetics) was studied. The effect of the extract on the activity of isolated cytochrome oxidase was also studied. Extract in the range of 0.68-2.72 microg/ml demonstrated potent and concentration-dependent inhibitory activity. Concentrations > or =5.4 microg/ml entirely inhibited MRC activity. The succinate oxidase system (MRC complexes II-IV) was the most potently inhibited, its activity at an extract concentration of 1.36 microg/ml being reduced by 63.3% compared with the control (p artichoke extracts may rely in part on the effects of their active compounds on the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain system.

  12. Diesel exhaust particulate extracts inhibit transcription of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and cell viability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, Kathleen A.; Klinge, Carolyn M. [University of Louisville School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we tested the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particulate extracts (DEPEs), prepared from a truck run at different speeds and engine loads, would inhibit genomic estrogen receptor activation of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, we examined how DEPEs affect NRF-1-regulated TFAM expression and, in turn, Tfam-regulated mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, MTCO1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI) expression as well as cell proliferation and viability. We report that 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), and raloxifene increased NRF-1 transcription in HUVECs in an ER-dependent manner. DEPEs inhibited NRF-1 transcription, and this suppression was not ablated by concomitant treatment with E{sub 2}, 4-OHT, or raloxifene, indicating that the effect was not due to inhibition of ER activity. While E{sub 2} increased HUVEC proliferation and viability, DEPEs inhibited viability but not proliferation. Resveratrol increased NRF-1 transcription in an ER-dependent manner in HUVECs, and ablated DEPE inhibition of basal NRF-1 expression. Given that NRF-1 is a key nuclear transcription factor regulating genes involved in mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, these data suggest that DEPEs may adversely affect mitochondrial function leading to endothelial dysfunction and resveratrol may block these effects. (orig.)

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors for Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections among Children in the Remote Highlands of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andrew; Budge, Philip J.; Williams, John; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Johnson, Monika; Zhu, Yuwei; Hartinger, Stella; Verastegui, Hector; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Grijalva, Carlos G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The disease burden and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (MPV) infections among children living in remote, rural areas remain unclear. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective, household-based cohort study of children aged factors for RSV detection included younger age (RR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03), the presence of a smoker in the house (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.12-2.38), residing at higher altitudes (RR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.25-3.00 for 2nd compared to 1st quartile residents; RR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.26-3.13 for 3rd compared to 1st quartile residents). Having an unemployed household head was significantly associated with MPV risk (RR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.12-4.01). Conclusion In rural high altitude communities in Peru, childhood ARI due to RSV or MPV were common and associated with higher morbidity than ARI due to other viruses or with no viral detections. The risk factors identified in this study may be considered for interventional studies to control infections by these viruses among young children from developing countries. PMID:26107630

  14. Structural and Nonstructural Viral Proteins Are Targets of T-Helper Immune Response against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Mir, Carmen; Gebe, John A; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Proper antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses require previous recognition of viral antigenic peptides that are bound to HLA class II molecules, which are exposed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The helper immune response is critical for the control and the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infection, a virus with severe health risk in infected pediatric, immunocompromised, and elderly populations. In this study, using a mass spectrometry analysis of complex HLA class II-bound peptide pools that were isolated from large amounts of HRSV-infected cells, 19 naturally processed HLA-DR ligands, most of them included in a complex nested set of peptides, were identified. Both the immunoprevalence and the immunodominance of the HLA class II response to HRSV were focused on one nonstructural (NS1) and two structural (matrix and mainly fusion) proteins of the infective virus. These findings have clear implications for analysis of the helper immune response as well as for antiviral vaccine design. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Reductions in the variations of respiration signals for respiratory-gated radiotherapy when using the video-coaching respiration guiding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Yea, Ji Woon; Oh, Se An

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) has been used to minimize the dose to normal tissue in lung-cancer radiotherapy. The present research aims to improve the regularity of respiration in RGRT by using a video-coached respiration guiding system. In the study, 16 patients with lung cancer were evaluated. The respiration signals of the patients were measured by using a realtime position management (RPM) respiratory gating system (Varian, USA), and the patients were trained using the video-coaching respiration guiding system. The patients performed free breathing and guided breathing, and the respiratory cycles were acquired for ~5 min. Then, Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used to calculate the mean and the standard deviation for each phase. The standard deviation was computed in order to analyze the improvement in the respiratory regularity with respect to the period and the displacement. The standard deviation of the guided breathing decreased to 48.8% in the inhale peak and 24.2% in the exhale peak compared with the values for the free breathing of patient 6. The standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was found to be decreased when using the respiratory guiding system. The respiratory regularity was significantly improved when using the video-coaching respiration guiding system. Therefore, the system is useful for improving the accuracy and the efficiency of RGRT.

  16. Evaluation of the Educational Value of YouTube Videos About Physical Examination of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azer, Samy A; AlGrain, Hala A; AlKhelaif, Rana A; AlEshaiwi, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of studies have evaluated the educational contents of videos on YouTube. However, little analysis has been done on videos about physical examination. Objective This study aimed to analyze YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. It was hypothesized that the educational standards of videos on YouTube would vary significantly. Methods During the period from November 2, 2011 to December 2, 2011, YouTube was searched by three ass...

  17. Low-Flow Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal Using the Hemolung Respiratory Dialysis System® to Facilitate Lung-Protective Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkanti, Bindu; Rajagopal, Keshava; Patel, Kirti P; Aravind, Sangeeta; Nunez-Centanu, Emmanuel; Hussain, Rahat; Shabari, Farshad Raissi; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Banjac, Igor S; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor D; Loyalka, Pranav

    2017-06-01

    Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) permits reductions in alveolar ventilation requirements that the lungs would otherwise have to provide. This concept was applied to a case of hypercapnia refractory to high-level invasive mechanical ventilator support. We present a case of an 18-year-old man who developed post-pneumonectomy acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after resection of a mediastinal germ cell tumor involving the left lung hilum. Hypercapnia and hypoxemia persisted despite ventilator support even at traumatic levels. ECCO 2 R using a miniaturized system was instituted and provided effective carbon dioxide elimination. This facilitated establishment of lung-protective ventilator settings and lung function recovery. Extracorporeal lung support increasingly is being applied to treat ARDS. However, conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) generally involves using large cannulae capable of carrying high flow rates. A subset of patients with ARDS has mixed hypercapnia and hypoxemia despite high-level ventilator support. In the absence of profound hypoxemia, ECCO 2 R may be used to reduce ventilator support requirements to lung-protective levels, while avoiding risks associated with conventional ECMO.

  18. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  19. Determination of respiratory system compliance during pressure support ventilation by small variations of pressure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Tobias; Schädler, Dirk; Rostalski, Philipp; Zick, Günther; Frerichs, Inéz; Weiler, Norbert

    2017-09-22

    In mechanically ventilated patients, measurement of respiratory system compliance (C rs ) is of high clinical interest. Spontaneous breathing activity during pressure support ventilation (PSV) can impede the correct assessment of C rs and also alter the true C rs by inducing lung recruitment. We describe a method for determination of C rs during PSV and assess its accuracy in a study on 20 mechanically ventilated patients. To assess C rs during pressure support ventilation (C rs,PSV ), we performed repeated changes in pressure support level by ± 2 cmH 2 O. C rs,PSV was calculated from the volume change induced by these changes in pressure support level, taking into account the inspiration time and the expiratory time constant. As reference methods, we used C rs , measured during volume controlled ventilation (C rs,VCV ). In a post-hoc analysis, we assessed C rs during the last 20% of the volume-controlled inflation (C rs,VCV20 ). Values were compared by linear regression and Bland-Altman methods comparison. Comparing C rs,PSV to the reference value C rs,VCV , we found a coefficient of determination (r 2 ) of 0.90, but a relatively high bias of - 7 ml/cm H 2 O (95% limits of agreement - 16.7 to + 2.7 ml/cmH 2 O). Comparison with C rs,VCV20 resulted in a negligible bias (- 1.3 ml/cmH 2 O, 95% limits of agreement - 13.9 to + 11.3) and r 2 of 0.81. We conclude that the novel method provides an estimate of end-inspiratory C rs during PSV. Despite its limited accuracy, it might be useful for non-invasive monitoring of C rs in patients undergoing pressure support ventilation.

  20. Bone histological correlates for air sacs and their implications for understanding the origin of the dinosaurian respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, Markus; Bertozzo, Filippo; Sander, P Martin

    2018-01-01

    Air sacs are an important component of the avian respiratory system, and corresponding structures also were crucial for the evolution of sauropod dinosaur gigantism. Inferring the presence of air sacs in fossils so far is restricted to bones preserving internal pneumatic cavities and foramina as osteological correlates. We here present bone histological correlates for air sacs as a new potential identification tool for these elements of the respiratory system. The analysis of several avian and non-avian dinosaur samples revealed delicate fibres in secondary trabecular and secondary endosteal bone that in the former case (birds) is known or in the latter (non-avian dinosaurs) assumed to have been in contact with air sacs, respectively. The bone histology of this 'pneumosteal tissue' is markedly different from those regions where muscles attached presenting classical Sharpey's fibres. The pneumatized bones of several non-dinosaurian taxa do not exhibit the characteristics of this 'pneumosteum'. Our new histology-based approach thus can be instrumental in reconstructing the origin of air sacs among dinosaurs and hence for our understanding of this remarkable evolutionary novelty of the respiratory system. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. MODERN MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN. RECOURSES OF SYSTEM ANTI INFLAMMATORY TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of etiology and pathogenesis of acute respiratory infections in children are observed in this article. Modern approach to management of its treatment in pediatric patients, including often ailing children, is described. Authors give characteristics to main directions of treatment of obstructive syndrome. An experience of anti-inflammatory therapy with fenspiride (eurespal in children of different age is summa ized in this article.Key words: often ailing children, acute respiratory infections, bronchoobstructive syndrome, anti-inflammatory treatment, fenspiride.

  2. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4...

  3. Application of the physiological and morphological parameters of the brazilian population sample to the mathematical model of the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene Alves dos

    2005-01-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined by the ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. (author)

  4. Respiratory failure following anti-lung serum: study on mechanisms associated with surfactant system damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, B.; Hallman, M.; Bergmann, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Within 2 minutes intravenous anti-lung serum (ALS) into guinea pig induces a respiratory failure that is fatal within 30 min. The relationship between surfactant, alveolar-capillary permeability and respiratory failure was studied. Within two minutes ALS induced a leak in the alveolar-capillary barrier. Within 30 minutes 28.3% (controls, given normal rabbit serum: 0.7%) of iv 131 I-albumin, and 0.5% (controls 0.02%) of iv surfactant phospholipid tracer were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage. Furthermore, 57% (controls 32%) of the endotracheally administered surfactant phospholipid became associated with lung tissue and only less than 0.5% left the lung. The distribution of proteins and phospholipids between the in vivo small volume bronchoalveolar lavages and the ex vivo bronchoalveolar lavages were dissimilar: 84% (controls 20%) of intravenously injected, lavageable 131 I-albumin and 23% (controls 18%) of total lavageable phospholipid were recovered in the in vivo small volume bronchoalveolar lavages. ALS also decreased lavageable surfactant phospholipid by 41%. After ALS the minimum surface tension increased. The supernatant of the lavage increased the minimum surface tension of normal surfactant. In addition, the sediment fraction of the lavage had slow surface adsorption, and a marked reduction in 35,000 and 10,000 MW peptides. Exogenous surfactant ameliorated the ALS-induced respiratory failure. We propose that inhibition, altered intrapulmonary distribution, and dissociation of protein and phospholipid components of surfactant are important in early pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure

  5. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Yamamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders.

  6. Development of respiratory motion reduction device system (RMRDs) for radiotherapy in moving tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk; Yang, Dae-Sik; Choil, Myung-Sun; Kim, Chui-Yong

    2004-01-01

    The internal target volume (ITV) for tumors in the abdomen or thorax includes sufficient margin for breathing-related movement of tumor volumes during treatment. Depending on the location of the tumor, the magnitude of the ITV margin extends from 1 to 3 cm, which increases substantially the volume of the irradiated normal tissue, hence resulting in an increase in normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). We developed a simple and handy method which can reduce ITV margins in patients with moving tumors: the respiratory motion reduction device system (RMRDs). The patient's clinical database was structured for moving tumor patients and patient set-up error measurement and immobilization device effects were investigated. The system is composed of the respiration presser device (RPD) utilized in the prone position and the abdominal strip device (ASD) utilized in the supine position, and the analysis program, which enables analysis of patient set-up reproducibility. It was tested for analyzing the diaphragm movement from patients with RMRDs, the magnitude of the ITV margin was determined and the dose-volume histogram (DVH) was computed using treatment planning software. The dose to normal tissue in patients with and without RMRDs was analyzed by comparing the fraction of the normal liver receiving 50% of the isocenter dose. Average diaphragm movement due to respiration was 16±1.9 mm in the case of the supine position, and 12±1.9 mm in the case of the prone position. When utilizing the RMRDs, which was personally developed in our hospital, the value was reduced to 5±1.4 mm, and in the case in which the belt immobilization device was utilized, the value was reduced to 3±0.9 mm. In the case where the strip device was utilized, the value was proven to reduce to 4±0.3 mm. As a result of analyzing the volume of normal liver where 50% of the prescription dose is irradiated in DVH according to the radiation treatment planning, the use of the RMRD can create a reduction

  7. Combined effects of leaks, respiratory system properties and upper airway patency on the performance of home ventilators: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaixian; Rabec, Claudio; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus; Hardy, Sébastien; Aouf, Sami; Escourrou, Pierre; Roisman, Gabriel

    2017-11-21

    Combined effects of leaks, mechanical property of respiratory system and upper airway (UA) patency on patient-ventilator synchrony (PVA) and the level of clinically "tolerable" leaks are not well established in home ventilators. We comparatively assessed on a bench model, the highest leak level tolerated without inducing significant asynchrony ("critical leak") in three home ventilators (Astral 150, Trilogy 100 and Vivo 60; noted as A150, T100 and V60 respectively) subjected to three simulated diseased respiratory conditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obesity hypoventilation (OHS) and neuromuscular disorders (NMD), with both open and closed UA. Also, total leak values in the device reports were compared to the bench-measured values. With open UA, all ventilators were able to avoid asynchrony up to a 30 L/min leak and even to 55 L/min in some cases. UA closure and respiratory diseases especially OHS influenced PVA. With closed UA, the critical leak of A150 and T100 remained higher than 55 L/min in COPD and OHS, while for V60 decreased to 41 and 33 L/min respectively. In NMD with closed UA, only T100 reached a high critical leak of 69 L/min. Besides, inspiratory trigger sensitivity change was often necessary to avoid PVA. Home ventilators were able to avoid PVA in high-level leak conditions. However, asynchrony appeared in cases of abnormal mechanical properties of respiratory system or closed UA. In case of closed UA, the EPAP should be adjusted prior to the inspiratory trigger. Not applicable.

  8. Human Adaptive Mechatronics and Human-System Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics in projects for mechatronics studies, which are 'Human Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM' and 'Human-System Modelling (HSM', are presented in this paper. The main research theme of the HAM project is a design strategy for a new intelligent mechatronics system, which enhances operators' skills during machine operation. Skill analyses and control system design have been addressed. In the HSM project, human modelling based on hierarchical classification of skills was studied, including the following five types of skills: social, planning, cognitive, motion and sensory-motor skills. This paper includes digests of these research topics and the outcomes concerning each type of skill. Relationships with other research activities, knowledge and information that will be helpful for readers who are trying to study assistive human-mechatronics systems are also mentioned.

  9. A theoretical approach to the deposition and clearance of fibers with variable size in the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, Robert; Hofmann, Werner

    2009-01-01

    In the study presented here, a mathematical approach for the deposition and clearance of rigid and chemically stable fibers in the human respiratory tract (HRT) is described in detail. For the simulation of fiber transport and deposition in lung airways an advanced concept of the aerodynamic diameter is applied to a stochastic lung model with individual particle trajectories computed according to a random walk algorithm. Interception of fibrous material at airway bifurcations is considered by implementation of correction factors obtained from previously published numerical approaches to fiber deposition in short bronchial sequences. Fiber clearance is simulated on the basis of a multicompartment model, within which separate clearance scenarios are assumed for the alveolar, bronchiolar, and bronchial lung region and evacuation of fibrous material commonly takes place via the airway and extrathoracic path to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or via the transepithelial path to the lymph nodes and blood vessels. Deposition of fibrous particles in the HRT is controlled by the fiber aspect ratio β in as much as particles with diameters <0.1 μm deposit less effectively with increasing β, while larger particles exhibit a positive correlation between their deposition efficiencies and β. A change from sitting to light-work breathing conditions causes only insignificant modifications of total fiber deposition in the HRT, whereas alveolar and, above all, tubular deposition of fibrous particles with a diameter ≥0.1 μm are affected remarkably. For these particles enhancement of the inhalative flow rate results in an increase of the extrathoracic and bronchial deposition fractions. Concerning the clearance of fibers from the HRT, 24-h retention is noticeably influenced by β and, not less important, by the preferential deposition sites of the simulated particles. The significance of β with respect to particle size may be regarded as similar to that determined for the

  10. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV. Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NFkappaB, activator protein (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i., resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  11. Phylogenetic evidence for intratypic recombinant events in a novel human adenovirus C that causes severe acute respiratory infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqun; Li, Yamin; Lu, Roujian; Zhao, Yanjie; Xie, Zhengde; Shen, Jun; Tan, Wenjie

    2016-03-10

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are prevalent in hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). Here, we report a unique recombinant HAdV strain (CBJ113) isolated from a HAdV-positive child with SARI. The whole-genome sequence was determined using Sanger sequencing and high-throughput sequencing. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome indicated that the CBJ113 strain shares a common origin with HAdV-C2, HAdV-C6, HAdV-C1, HAdV-C5, and HAdV-C57 and formed a novel subclade on the same branch as other HAdV-C subtypes. BootScan and single nucleotide polymorphism analyses showed that the CBJ113 genome has an intra-subtype recombinant structure and comprises gene regions mainly originating from two circulating viral strains: HAdV-1 and HAdV-2. The parental penton base, pVI, and DBP genes of the recombinant strain clustered with the HAdV-1 prototype strain, and the E1B, hexon, fiber, and 100 K genes of the recombinant clustered within the HAdV-2 subtype, meanwhile the E4orf1 and DNA polymerase genes of the recombinant shared the greatest similarity with those of HAdV-5 and HAdV-6, respectively. All of these findings provide insight into our understanding of the dynamics of the complexity of the HAdV-C epidemic. More extensive studies should address the pathogenicity and clinical characteristics of the novel recombinant.

  12. Assessment of dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacà, Raffaele L; Zannin, Emanuela; Ventura, Maria L; Sancini, Giulio; Pedotti, Antonio; Tagliabue, Paolo; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    1) To investigate the possibility of estimating respiratory system impedance (Zrs, forced oscillation technique) by using high-amplitude pressure oscillations delivered during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; 2) to characterize the relationship between Zrs and continuous distending pressure during an increasing/decreasing continuous distending pressure trial; 3) to evaluate how the optimal continuous distending pressure identified by Zrs relates to the point of maximal curvature of the deflation limb of the quasi-static pressure-volume curve. Prospective laboratory animal investigation. Experimental medicine laboratory. Eight New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were ventilated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Zrs was measured while continuous distending pressure was increased and decreased between 2 and 26 cm H2O in 1-minute steps of 4 cm H2O. At each step, a low-amplitude (6 cm H2O) sinusoidal signal was alternated with a high-amplitude (18 cm H2O) asymmetric high-frequency oscillatory ventilation square pressure waveform. Pressure-volume curves were determined at the end of the continuous distending pressure trial. All measurements were repeated after bronchoalveolar lavage. Zrs was estimated from flow and pressure measured at the inlet of the tracheal tube and expressed as resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). Linear correlation between the values, measured by applying the small-amplitude sinusoidal signal and the ventilator waveform, was good for Xrs (r = 0.95 ± 0.04) but not for Rrs (r = 0.60 ± 0.34). Following lavage, the Xrs-continuous distending pressure curves presented a maximum on the deflation limb, identifying an optimal continuous distending pressure that was, on average, 1.1 ± 1.7 cm H2O below the point of maximal curvature of the deflation limb of the pressure-volume curves. Xrs can be accurately measured during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation without interrupting ventilation and/or connecting additional devices. An optimal

  13. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P increased mean mealtime, frequency, and mean inter

  14. Reverse Genetics for Fusogenic Bat-Borne Orthoreovirus Associated with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Humans: Role of Outer Capsid Protein σC in Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawagishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelson Bay orthoreoviruses (NBVs are members of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses and possess 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. NBV was first isolated from a fruit bat in Australia more than 40 years ago, but it was not associated with any disease. However, several NBV strains have been recently identified as causative agents for respiratory tract infections in humans. Isolation of these pathogenic bat reoviruses from patients suggests that NBVs have evolved to propagate in humans in the form of zoonosis. To date, no strategy has been developed to rescue infectious viruses from cloned cDNA for any member of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses. In this study, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system free of helper viruses and independent of any selection for NBV isolated from humans with acute respiratory infection. cDNAs corresponding to each of the 10 full-length RNA gene segments of NBV were cotransfected into culture cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and viable NBV was isolated using a plaque assay. The growth kinetics and cell-to-cell fusion activity of recombinant strains, rescued using the reverse genetics system, were indistinguishable from those of native strains. We used the reverse genetics system to generate viruses deficient in the cell attachment protein σC to define the biological function of this protein in the viral life cycle. Our results with σC-deficient viruses demonstrated that σC is dispensable for cell attachment in several cell lines, including murine fibroblast L929 cells but not in human lung epithelial A549 cells, and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. We also used the system to rescue a virus that expresses a yellow fluorescent protein. The reverse genetics system developed in this study can be applied to study the propagation and pathogenesis of pathogenic NBVs and in the generation of recombinant NBVs for future vaccines and therapeutics.

  15. Effects of bedding systems selected by manual muscle testing on sleep and sleep-related respiratory disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Liu, Hau-Min

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of applying manual muscle testing (MMT) for bedding selection and examined the bedding effect on sleep. Four lay testers with limited training in MMT performed muscle tests for the selection of the bedding systems from five different mattresses and eight different pillows for 14 participants with mild sleep-related respiratory disturbances. For each participant individually, two bedding systems-one inducing stronger muscle forces and the other inducing weaker forces-were selected. The tester-participant pairs showed 85% and 100% agreement, respectively, for the selection of mattresses and pillows that induced the strongest muscle forces. The firmness of the mattress and the height of the pillow were significantly correlated with the body weight and body mass index of the participants for the selected strong bedding system but not for the weak bedding system. Finally, differences were observed between the strong and the weak bedding systems with regard to sleep-related respiratory disturbances and the percentage of slow-wave sleep. It was concluded that MMT can be performed by inexperienced testers for the selection of bedding systems.

  16. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  17. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  18. Human respiratory syncytial virus: prevalence, viral co-infections and risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age at a general hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabego, Landry; Balol'Ebwami, Serge; Kasengi, Joe Bwija; Miyanga, Serge; Bahati, Yvette Lufungulo; Kambale, Richard; de Beer, Corena

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under the age of 5 years at the Provincial General Hospital of Bukavu (PGHB), and to analyse factors associated with the risk of ARI being diagnosed as lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). A total of 146 children under 5 years visiting the PGHB for ARI between August and December 2016 were recruited, and socio-demographic information, clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected. The samples were analysed by a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction targeting 15 different viruses. Of 146 samples collected, 84 (57.5 %) displayed a positive result of at least one of the 15 viruses. The overall prevalence of HRSV was 21.2 %. HRSV A (30, 20.5 %) was the virus the most detected, followed by HRV (24, 16.4 %), PIV3 (20, 16.6) and ADV (7, 4.79 %). The other viruses were detected in three or fewer cases. There were only 11 (7.5 %) cases of co-infection. HRSV infection, malnutrition, younger age, rural settings, low income and mother illiteracy were associated with the risk of ARI being diagnosed as LRTI in bivariate analyses but, after adjusting for the confounding factors, only HRSV infection and younger age were independently associated with LRTI. The prevalence of HRSV is high among children visiting the PGHB for ARI. HRSV infection and lower age are independently associated with the risk of ARI being diagnosed as LRTI.

  19. Stupid Tutoring Systems, Intelligent Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…

  20. SU-F-J-129: Verification of Geometric and Dosimetric Accuracy of Respiratory Management Systems Using Homemade Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goksel, E; Kucucuk, H; Senkesen, O [Acibadem Kozyatgi Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Tezcanli, E [Acibadem University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Different placements of Infrared Cameras (IRC) in CT and treatment rooms can cause gating window level (GWL) variations leading to differences between GWL used for planning and treatments. Although, Varian Clinac DHX-OBI sytem and CT are equipped with the same kind of IRC, Truebeam STx (TB) has a different type of IRC known as banana type. In this study; geometric and dosimetric accuracy of respiratory management system (RPM) for different machines were investigated with a special homemade phantom. Methods: Special phantom was placed on the respiratory simulator machine and a CT data set was obtained at the end of the expirium phase (EOE). Conformal and IMRT plans were generated on the EOE CT image series for both DHX-OBI and TB LINACs while a VMAT plan was generated only for TB.The acquired respiratory graphs in the CT were directly sent to DHX-OBI system, and they were converted with software before sending to TB. EBT3 films were placed inside the phantom and were irradiated using RPM system with two machines for different plans. Planar dose distributions were compared with gamma analysis (GA) method (3mm, %3) to evaluate planned-measured dose differences. In addition, radio-opac marker was placed in the center of the phantom to evaluate the geometric accuracy of treatment field with gated flouroscopy (GF). Results: There were no shifts detected between planning and treeatment GWL for both DHX-OBI and TB. Difference on the GF image between digital graticule and radio-opac marker was <1mm for TB and 1mm for DHX-OBI. Although, GA agreement was 97% for conformal and IMRT techniques in TB, it was 96% for VMAT technique. While GA agreement was 98% for conformal technique in DHX-OBI, IMRT was 95%.ConclusionThis study showed that RPM can be used accurately in spite of different IRC placements or different types of ICR used.

  1. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP. PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs. However, the evolution of respiratory systems in other archosaurs, especially in the lineage leading to crocodilians, is poorly documented. Here, we use µCT-scanning to investigate the vertebral anatomy of Triassic archosaur taxa, from both the avian and crocodilian lineages as well as non-archosaurian diapsid outgroups. Our results confirm previous suggestions that unambiguous evidence of PSP (presence of internal pneumatic cavities linked to the exterior by foramina is found only in bird-line (ornithodiran archosaurs. We propose that pulmonary air sacs were present in the common ancestor of Ornithodira and may have been subsequently lost or reduced in some members of the clade (notably in ornithischian dinosaurs. The development of these avian-like respiratory features might have been linked to inferred increases in activity levels among ornithodirans. By contrast, no crocodile-line archosaur (pseudosuchian exhibits evidence for unambiguous PSP, but many of these taxa possess the complex array of vertebral laminae and fossae that always accompany the presence of air sacs in ornithodirans. These laminae and fossae are likely homologous with those in ornithodirans, which suggests the need for further investigation of the hypothesis that a reduced, or non-invasive, system of pulmonary air sacs may be have

  2. In vivo measurements of relaxation process in the human liver by MRI. The role of respiratory gating/triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O; Ring, P

    1988-01-01

    In vivo estimation of relaxation processes in the liver by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be helpful for characterization of various pathological conditions in the liver. However, such measurements may be significantly hampered by movement of the liver with the respiration. The effect...... of synchronization of data acquisition to the respiratory cycle on measured T1- and T2-relaxation curves was studied in normal subjects, patients with diffuse liver disease, and patients with focal liver pathology. Multi spin echo sequences with five different repetition times were used. The measurements were...... carried out with and without respiratory gating/triggering. In the healthy subjects as well as in the patients with diffuse liver diseases respiratory synchronization did not alter the obtained relaxation curves. However, in the patients with focal pathology the relaxation curves were significantly...

  3. Assessment of human respiration patterns via noncontact sensing using Doppler multi-radar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-03-16

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique.

  4. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  5. Biomedical Science, Unit I: Respiration in Health and Medicine. Respiratory Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology; The Behavior of Gases; Introductory Chemistry; and Air Pollution. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text deals with the human respiratory system and its relation to the environment. Topics include the process of respiration, the relationship of air to diseases of the respiratory system, the chemical and physical properties of gases, the impact on air quality of human activities and the effect of this air pollution on health.…

  6. Feedbacks in human-landscape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    As human interactions with Earth systems intensify in the "Anthropocene", understanding the complex relationships among human activity, landscape change, and societal responses to those changes is increasingly important. Interdisciplinary research centered on the theme of "feedbacks" in human-landscape systems serves as a promising focus for unraveling these interactions. Deciphering interacting human-landscape feedbacks extends our traditional approach of considering humans as unidirectional drivers of change. Enormous challenges exist, however, in quantifying impact-feedback loops in landscapes with significant human alterations. This paper illustrates an example of human-landscape interactions following a wildfire in Colorado (USA) that elicited feedback responses. After the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire, concerns for heightened flood potential and debris flows associated with post-fire hydrologic changes prompted local landowners to construct tall fences at the base of a burned watershed. These actions changed the sediment transport regime and promoted further landscape change and human responses in a positive feedback cycle. The interactions ultimately increase flood and sediment hazards, rather than dampening the effects of fire. A simple agent-based model, capable of integrating social and hydro-geomorphological data, demonstrates how such interacting impacts and feedbacks could be simulated. Challenges for fully capturing human-landscape feedback interactions include the identification of diffuse and subtle feedbacks at a range of scales, the availability of data linking impact with response, the identification of multiple thresholds that trigger feedback mechanisms, and the varied metrics and data needed to represent both the physical and human systems. By collaborating with social scientists with expertise in the human causes of landscape change, as well as the human responses to those changes, geoscientists could more fully recognize and anticipate the coupled

  7. Serological prevalence of human parvovirus B19 in diseases or disordersrelated to different human body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Osman; Aydin, Hakan; Uslu, Hakan

    2016-02-17

    Human parvovirus B19 is a pathogen that affects different parts of the body. We planned this study because of the lack of data on B19 seroprevalence based on different body-system diseases. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies was investigated retrospectively in 1239 patients by review of medical records from 2009-2012, according to their diseases classified under general titles in compliance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Parvovirus B19-specific antibodies were detected by quantitative enzyme immunoassays. The positivity rate was 27.8% for only IgG, 8.5% for only IgM, and 2.6% for both IgG and IgM. The highest positivity for IgG alone was found in musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases (55.9%), while the highest positivity for IgM was found in neoplasms (16.4%). The highest positivity for IgG was seen in rheumatoid arthritis (72.2%) and pregnancy (52.6%), and the highest positivity for total IgM was found in upper respiratory tract disease (21.0%) and hepatic failure (17.1%). Parvovirus B19 seroprevalence was relatively low in northeastern Anatolia compared to most serological studies conducted in other regions. We think that this study has provided the first wide-ranging information on the seroprevalence of B19 in diseases and disorders of the major human body systems.

  8. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  9. Variable Ventilation Improved Respiratory System Mechanics and Ameliorated Pulmonary Damage in a Rat Model of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluri-Martins, André; Moraes, Lillian; Santos, Raquel S; Santos, Cintia L; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2017-01-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a major complication after lung transplantation. Variable ventilation (VV) has been shown to improve respiratory function and reduce pulmonary histological damage compared to protective volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in different models of lung injury induced by endotoxin, surfactant depletion by saline lavage, and hydrochloric acid. However, no study has compared the biological impact of VV vs. VCV in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury, which has a complex pathophysiology different from that of other experimental models. Thirty-six animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) ischemia-reperfusion (IR), in which the left pulmonary hilum was completely occluded and released after 30 min; and (2) Sham, in which animals underwent the same surgical manipulation but without hilar clamping. Immediately after surgery, the left (IR-injured) and right (contralateral) lungs from 6 animals per group were removed, and served as non-ventilated group (NV) for molecular biology analysis. IR and Sham groups were further randomized to one of two ventilation strategies: VCV ( n = 6/group) [tidal volume (V T ) = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 2 cmH 2 O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ) = 0.4]; or VV, which was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated V T values ( n = 1200; mean V T = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation. After 5 min of ventilation and at the end of a 2-h period (Final), respiratory system mechanics and arterial blood gases were measured. At Final, lungs were removed for histological and molecular biology analyses. Respiratory system elastance and alveolar collapse were lower in VCV than VV (mean ± SD, VCV 3.6 ± 1.3 cmH 2 0/ml and 2.0 ± 0.8 cmH 2 0/ml, p = 0.005; median [interquartile range], VCV 20.4% [7.9-33.1] and VV 5.4% [3.1-8.8], p = 0.04, respectively). In left lungs of IR animals, VCV increased the expression of interleukin-6 and

  10. Variable Ventilation Improved Respiratory System Mechanics and Ameliorated Pulmonary Damage in a Rat Model of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. M. Rocco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a major complication after lung transplantation. Variable ventilation (VV has been shown to improve respiratory function and reduce pulmonary histological damage compared to protective volume-controlled ventilation (VCV in different models of lung injury induced by endotoxin, surfactant depletion by saline lavage, and hydrochloric acid. However, no study has compared the biological impact of VV vs. VCV in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury, which has a complex pathophysiology different from that of other experimental models. Thirty-six animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1 ischemia-reperfusion (IR, in which the left pulmonary hilum was completely occluded and released after 30 min; and (2 Sham, in which animals underwent the same surgical manipulation but without hilar clamping. Immediately after surgery, the left (IR-injured and right (contralateral lungs from 6 animals per group were removed, and served as non-ventilated group (NV for molecular biology analysis. IR and Sham groups were further randomized to one of two ventilation strategies: VCV (n = 6/group [tidal volume (VT = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 2 cmH2O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 = 0.4]; or VV, which was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated VT values (n = 1200; mean VT = 6 mL/kg, with a 30% coefficient of variation. After 5 min of ventilation and at the end of a 2-h period (Final, respiratory system mechanics and arterial blood gases were measured. At Final, lungs were removed for histological and molecular biology analyses. Respiratory system elastance and alveolar collapse were lower in VCV than VV (mean ± SD, VCV 3.6 ± 1.3 cmH20/ml and 2.0 ± 0.8 cmH20/ml, p = 0.005; median [interquartile range], VCV 20.4% [7.9–33.1] and VV 5.4% [3.1–8.8], p = 0.04, respectively. In left lungs of IR animals, VCV increased the expression of interleukin-6 and intercellular

  11. Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids induce the respiratory burst of human neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osthaus Wilhelm A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is increasingly recognized that infectious complications in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN may be caused by altered immune responses. Neutrophils and monocytes are the first line of defence against bacterial and fungal infection through superoxide anion production during the respiratory burst. To characterize the impact of three different types of lipid solutions that are applied as part of TPN formulations, we investigated the unstimulated respiratory burst activation of neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood. Methods Whole blood samples were incubated with LCT (Intralipid®, LCT/MCT (Lipofundin® and LCT-MUFA (ClinOleic® in three concentrations (0.06, 0.3 and 0.6 mg ml-1 for time periods up to one hour. Hydrogen peroxide production during the respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Results LCT and LCT-MUFA induced a hydrogen peroxide production in neutrophils and monocytes without presence of a physiological stimulus in contrast to LCT/MCT. Conclusion We concluded that parenteral nutrition containing unsaturated oleic (C18:1 and linoleic (C18:2 acid can induce respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes, resulting in an elevated risk of tissue damage by the uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species. Contradictory observations reported in previous studies may in part be the result of different methods used to determine hydrogen peroxide production.

  12. Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri Arbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to assess the long-term respiratory effects of tear gases among the subjects with history of frequent exposure. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire by NIOSH and pulmonary function tests was performed in 93 males exposed to the tear gases frequently and 55 nonexposed subjects. Results. The mean numbers of total exposure and last 2 years exposure were 8.4±6.4 times, 5.6±5.8 times, respectively. Tear gas exposed subjects were presented with a higher rate for cough and phlegm more than 3 months (24.7% versus 11.3%, P>0.05. Mean FEV1/FVC and % predicted MMFR in smoker exposed subjects are significantly lower than those in smoker controls (81.7% versus 84.1%, P=0.046 and 89.9% versus 109.6%, P=0.0004, resp.. % predicted MMFR in nonsmoker exposed subjects is significantly lower than that in nonsmoker controls (99.4% versus 113.1%, P=0.05. Odds ratios for chest tightness, exercise dyspnea, dyspnea on level ground, winter morning cough, phlegm, and daily phlegm were increased almost 2 to 2.5 folds among tear gas exposed subjects. Conclusion. The rates for respiratory complaints were high in the case of the exposure to the tear gases previously. Tears gas exposed subjects were found to be under the risk for chronic bronchitis.

  13. Diagnosis and epidemiology of respiratory system diseases due to plant dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscicki, J.W.; Indulski, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Of the respiratory tract diseases - byssinosis - i.e. the disease diagnosed in textile industry workers has aroused interest and controversies for many years. In Western Europe Countries the USA, Egypt and Pakistan this disease was diagnosed in more than half of the workers employed at cotton processing. Epidemiological data imply that in Eastern and Middle Europe few authors diagnose byssinosis in the population exposed to vegetable dusts. In the Soviet Union, the greatest cotton producer in the world, processing the greatest amounts of this raw material in the textile industry, medical examinations carried out in different centres did not show byssinosis symptoms in textile workers, that would apply to Schilling's criteria. Vegetable dusts inherent in agricultural and food industry largely promote the occurrence of nonspecific respiratory tract diseases. They are diagnosed as chronic bronchitis, which at dusted workstations are the mean cause of sickness absenteeism. The preventive activities aimed at the reduction of hazardous effects of dust upon organism would consist mostly in application of technical measures, i.e. technological processes hermetization and ventilation and only in scarce cases - in the use of good antidust personal protective measures.

  14. Smoking status in parents of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of respiratory system disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursan Cinar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the statuses of hospitalized children with diagnosis of respiratory tract disease with cigarette use in the parents. This descriptive study was conducted in a Gowerment Hospital in the Sakarya city center in Turkey between June 2007 and June 2008. The inclusion criterion was willingness of families with children hospitalized due to diagnosis of respiratory disease to particípate in the study. Data were collected from 345 parents using the questionnaire prepared by researchers. In our study parental smoking was observed in 42.3% of fathers, 7.8% mothers and for 20.9% both parents were smoking. It was found that the hospitalization rates were more than two times higher in children diagnosed with pneumonia and bronchitis and three times higher in children hospitalized for asthma whose parents smoke at home compared to those whose parents are non-smokers. Health care professionals who take care of children need to discuss the harmful effects of smoking and the importance of reducing childhood exposure to secondhand smoke; parents should be educated and encouraged not to smoke.

  15. Adaptive SLICE method: an enhanced method to determine nonlinear dynamic respiratory system mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Möller, Knut; Guttmann, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce and evaluate the adaptive SLICE method (ASM) for continuous determination of intratidal nonlinear dynamic compliance and resistance. The tidal volume is subdivided into a series of volume intervals called slices. For each slice, one compliance and one resistance are calculated by applying a least-squares-fit method. The volume window (width) covered by each slice is determined based on the confidence interval of the parameter estimation. The method was compared to the original SLICE method and evaluated using simulation and animal data. The ASM was also challenged with separate analysis of dynamic compliance during inspiration. If the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the respiratory data decreased from +∞ to 10 dB, the relative errors of compliance increased from 0.1% to 22% for the ASM and from 0.2% to 227% for the SLICE method. Fewer differences were found in resistance. When the SNR was larger than 40 dB, the ASM delivered over 40 parameter estimates (42.2 ± 1.3). When analyzing the compliance during inspiration separately, the estimates calculated with the ASM were more stable. The adaptive determination of slice bounds results in consistent and reliable parameter values. Online analysis of nonlinear respiratory mechanics will profit from such an adaptive selection of interval size. (paper)

  16. Characterization of human coronavirus etiology in Chinese adults with acute upper respiratory tract infection by real-time RT-PCR assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roujian Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to SARS associated coronaviruses, 4 non-SARS related human coronaviruses (HCoVs are recognized as common respiratory pathogens. The etiology and clinical impact of HCoVs in Chinese adults with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI needs to be characterized systematically by molecular detection with excellent sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we detected 4 non-SARS related HCoV species by real-time RT-PCR in 981 nasopharyngeal swabs collected from March 2009 to February 2011. All specimens were also tested for the presence of other common respiratory viruses and newly identified viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV and human bocavirus (HBoV. 157 of the 981 (16.0% nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for HCoVs. The species detected were 229E (96 cases, 9.8%, OC43 (42 cases, 4.3%, HKU1 (16 cases, 1.6% and NL63 (11 cases, 1.1%. HCoV-229E was circulated in 21 of the 24 months of surveillance. The detection rates for both OC43 and NL63 were showed significantly year-to-year variation between 2009/10 and 2010/11, respectively (P<0.001 and P = 0.003, and there was a higher detection frequency of HKU1 in patients aged over 60 years (P = 0.03. 48 of 157(30.57% HCoV positive patients were co-infected. Undifferentiated human rhinoviruses and influenza (Flu A were the most common viruses detected (more than 35% in HCoV co-infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human parainfluenza virus (PIV and HBoV were detected in very low rate (less than 1% among adult patients with URTI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All 4 non-SARS-associated HCoVs were more frequently detected by real-time RT-PCR assay in adults with URTI in Beijing and HCoV-229E led to the most prevalent infection. Our study also suggested that all non-SARS-associated HCoVs contribute significantly to URTI in adult patients in China.

  17. Approaches to systems biology. Four methods to study single-cell gene expression, cell motility, antibody reactivity, and respiratory metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Peter

    To understand how complex systems, such as cells, function, comprehensive Measurements of their constituent parts must be made. This can be achieved by combining methods that are each optimized to measure specific parts of the system. Four such methods,each covering a different area, are presented...... from such measurements allows models of the system to be developed and tested. For each of the methods, such analysis and modelling approaches have beenapplied and are presented: Differentially regulated genes are identified and classified according to function; cell-specfic motility models...... are developed that can distinguish between different surfaces; a method for selecting repertoires of antigens thatseparate mice based on their response to treatment is developed; and the observed concentrations of free and bound NADH is used to build and test a basic model of respiratory metabolism...

  18. Respiratory system model for quasistatic pulmonary pressure-volume (P-V) curve: inflation-deflation loop analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, R; Narusawa, U

    2008-06-01

    A respiratory system model (RSM) is developed for the deflation process of a quasistatic pressure-volume (P-V) curve, following the model for the inflation process reported earlier. In the RSM of both the inflation and the deflation limb, a respiratory system consists of a large population of basic alveolar elements, each consisting of a piston-spring-cylinder subsystem. A normal distribution of the basic elements is derived from Boltzmann statistical model with the alveolar closing (opening) pressure as the distribution parameter for the deflation (inflation) process. An error minimization by the method of least squares applied to existing P-V loop data from two different data sources confirms that a simultaneous inflation-deflation analysis is required for an accurate determination of RSM parameters. Commonly used terms such as lower inflection point, upper inflection point, and compliance are examined based on the P-V equations, on the distribution function, as well as on the geometric and physical properties of the basic alveolar element.

  19. New insight into the evolution of the vertebrate respiratory system and the discovery of unidirectional airflow in iguana lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieri, Robert L; Craven, Brent A; Schachner, Emma R; Farmer, C G

    2014-12-02

    The generally accepted framework for the evolution of a key feature of the avian respiratory system, unidirectional airflow, is that it is an adaptation for efficiency of gas exchange and expanded aerobic capacities, and therefore it has historically been viewed as important to the ability of birds to fly and to maintain an endothermic metabolism. This pattern of flow has been presumed to arise from specific features of the respiratory system, such as an enclosed intrapulmonary bronchus and parabronchi. Here we show unidirectional airflow in the green iguana, a lizard with a strikingly different natural history from that of birds and lacking these anatomical features. This discovery indicates a paradigm shift is needed. The selective drivers of the trait, its date of origin, and the fundamental aerodynamic mechanisms by which unidirectional flow arises must be reassessed to be congruent with the natural history of this lineage. Unidirectional flow may serve functions other than expanded aerobic capacity; it may have been present in the ancestral diapsid; and it can occur in structurally simple lungs.

  20. Estimating intratidal nonlinearity of respiratory system mechanics: a model study using the enhanced gliding-SLICE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Stefan; Burcza, Boris; Guttmann, Josef; Haberthür, Christoph; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the clinical situation and in most research work, the analysis of respiratory system mechanics is limited to the estimation of single-value compliances during static or quasi-static conditions. In contrast, our SLICE method analyses intratidal nonlinearity under the dynamic conditions of mechanical ventilation by calculating compliance and resistance for six conjoined volume portions (slices) of the pressure–volume loop by multiple linear regression analysis. With the gliding-SLICE method we present a new approach to determine continuous intratidal nonlinear compliance. The performance of the gliding-SLICE method was tested both in computer simulations and in a physical model of the lung, both simulating different intratidal compliance profiles. Compared to the original SLICE method, the gliding-SLICE method resulted in smaller errors when calculating the compliance or pressure course (all p 2 O s L −1 to 0.8 ± 0.3 cmH 2 O s L −1 (mathematical model) and from 7.2 ± 3.9 cmH 2 O s L −1 to 0.4 ± 0.2 cmH 2 O s L −1 (physical model) (all p < 0.001). We conclude that the new gliding-SLICE method allows detailed assessment of intratidal nonlinear respiratory system mechanics without discontinuity error

  1. Control system oriented human interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.

    1976-11-01

    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor

  2. Burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in South African Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Pregnant and Postpartum Women: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhi, Shabir A; Cutland, Clare L; Downs, Sarah; Jones, Stephanie; van Niekerk, Nadia; Simoes, Eric A F; Nunes, Marta C

    2018-05-17

    Limited data exist on the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness among pregnant women, to determine their potential benefit from RSV vaccination. We evaluated the incidence of RSV illness from midpregnancy until 24 weeks postpartum in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and HIV-infected women and their infants. Mother-infant dyads were enrolled in maternal influenza vaccine efficacy trials. These included 1060 and 1056 HIV-uninfected pregnant women in 2011 and 2012, respectively, 194 HIV-infected pregnant women in 2011, and their infants. Upper respiratory tract samples obtained at illness visits were tested for RSV. The incidence (per 1000 person-months) of RSV illness (n = 43 overall) among HIV-uninfected women was lower in 2011 (1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], .6-2.2) than in 2012 (4.0; 95% CI, 2.8-5.6). The incidence of RSV illness (n = 5) in HIV-infected women was 3.4 (95% CI, 1.4-8.1). Maternal RSV infection was associated with respiratory symptoms including cough (72.1%), rhinorrhea (39.5%), sore throat (37.2%), and headache (42%), but fever was absent. RSV infection during pregnancy was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Postpartum, RSV infection in mothers (n = 27) was associated with concurrent infection among 51.9% of their infants and, conversely, 29.8% of mothers investigated within 7 days of their infants having an RSV illness also tested positive for RSV. RSV infection is associated with respiratory illness during pregnancy and postpartum. Vaccination of pregnant women against RSV could benefit the mother, albeit primarily against nonfebrile illness, and her infant. NCT01306669 and NCT01306682.

  3. Respiratory Monitoring by Porphyrin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A respiratory monitoring system based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor with a functional film was designed and investigated. Porphyrins 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H,23H-porphine (TSPP and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H, 23H-porphine manganese (III chloride (MnTSPP used as sensitive elements were assembled with a poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (PDDA. Films were deposited on the QCM resonators using layer-by-layer method in order to develop the sensor. The developed system, in which the sensor response reflects lung movements, was able to track human respiration providing respiratory rate (RR and respiratory pattern (RP. The sensor system was tested on healthy volunteers to compare RPs and calculate RRs. The operation principle of the proposed system is based on the fast adsorption/desorption behavior of water originated from human breath into the sensor films deposited on the QCM electrode.

  4. Human engineering in mobile radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.; McMahon, J.; Motl, G.

    1988-01-01

    To a large degree, mobile radwaste systems are replacing installed plant systems at US nuclear plants due to regulatory obsolescence, high capital and maintenance costs, and increased radiation exposure. Well over half the power plants in the United States now use some sort of mobile system similar to those offered by LN Technologies Corporation. Human engineering is reflected in mobile radwaste system design due to concerns about safety, efficiency, and cost. The radwaste services business is so competitive that vendors must reflect human engineering in several areas of equipment design in order to compete. The paper discusses radiation exposure control, contamination control, compact components, maintainability, operation, and transportability

  5. A case for human systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J L

    2015-06-18

    Can the human brain itself serve as a model for a systems neuroscience approach to understanding the human brain? After all, how the brain is able to create the richness and complexity of human behavior is still largely mysterious. What better choice to study that complexity than to study it in humans? However, measurements of brain activity typically need to be made non-invasively which puts severe constraints on what can be learned about the internal workings of the brain. Our approach has been to use a combination of psychophysics in which we can use human behavioral flexibility to make quantitative measurements of behavior and link those through computational models to measurements of cortical activity through magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, we have tested various computational hypotheses about what neural mechanisms could account for behavioral enhancement with spatial attention (Pestilli et al., 2011). Resting both on quantitative measurements and considerations of what is known through animal models, we concluded that weighting of sensory signals by the magnitude of their response is a neural mechanism for efficient selection of sensory signals and consequent improvements in behavioral performance with attention. While animal models have many technical advantages over studying the brain in humans, we believe that human systems neuroscience should endeavor to validate, replicate and extend basic knowledge learned from animal model systems and thus form a bridge to understanding how the brain creates the complex and rich cognitive capacities of humans. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal and neonatal adaptations with a focus on the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, C I; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Regazzi, F M; Veiga, G A L; Angrimani, D S

    2012-12-01

    Among the modifications that occur during the neonatal period, pulmonary development is the most critical. The neonate's lungs must be able to perform adequate gas exchange, which was previously accomplished by the placenta. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is defined as insufficient surfactant production or pulmonary structural immaturity and is specifically relevant to preterm newborns. Prenatal maternal betamethasone treatment of bitches at 55 days of gestation leads to structural changes in the neonatal lung parenchyma and consequently an improvement in the preterm neonatal respiratory condition, but not to an increase in pulmonary surfactant production. Parturition represents an important challenge to neonatal adaptation, as the uterine and abdominal contractions during labour provoke intermittent hypoxia. Immediately after birth, puppies present venous mixed acidosis (low blood pH and high dioxide carbon saturation) and low but satisfactory Apgar scores. Thus, the combination of physiological hypoxia during birth and the initial effort of filling the pulmonary alveoli with oxygen results in anaerobiosis. As a neonatal adaptation follow-up, the Apgar analysis indicates a tachypnoea response after 1 h of life, which leads to a shift in the blood acid-base status to metabolic acidosis. One hour is sufficient for canine neonates to achieve an ideal Apgar score; however, a haemogasometric imbalance persists. Dystocia promotes a long-lasting bradycardia effect, slows down Apgar score progression and aggravates metabolic acidosis and stress. The latest data reinforce the need to accurately intervene during canine parturition and offer adequate medical treatment to puppies that underwent a pathological labour. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. A linear, time-varying simulation of the respiratory tract system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, O.

    1992-11-01

    These results show that regional deposition efficiencies of inhaled particles are highly dependent on the level of physical activity in all the spectrum of thermodynamic and aerodynamic aerosol particle sizes; also it was shown that for particles in the aerodynamic size range, the values of regional deposition efficiencies at the inner regions of the lung are highly dependent on age. In addition, the shape of regional deposition efficiency curves as a function of particle size have a similar behavior for all ages; thus, any variation of the airway geometry and respiratory physiological parameters such as tidal volumes and breathing frequencies due to age difference do not cause a change in the fundamental mechanisms of deposition. Thus, for all the cases of physical activity and age dependency, the deposition of ultrafine aerosol particles is highly enhanced by diffusive processes in all regions of the respiratory tract, and for very large aerosol size particles this behavior is repeated again due to impaction and sedimentation mechanisms. Although the results presented at this work, are the result of computer simulations based on different sources of experimental data, the structure of the computer simulation code BIODEP is flexible enough to the acquisition of any kind of new experimental information in terms of biokinetic analysis and regional deposition parameters. In addition, since the design of BIODEP was intended for easy access to the users, then with exception of the subroutine DIVPAG, at this moment, the modular design of BIODEP using FORTRAN 77 allows the implementation of all the subroutines of BIODEP to be used in a interactive mode with any microcomputer.

  8. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea on lung volumes and mechanical properties of the respiratory system in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeyrim, Arikin; Zhang, Yongping; Li, Nanfang; Zhao, Minghua; Wang, Yinchun; Yao, Xiaoguang; Keyoumu, Youledusi; Yin, Ting

    2015-07-25

    Even through narrowing of the upper-airway plays an important role in the generation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the peripheral airways is implicated in pre-obese and obese OSA patients, as a result of decreased lung volume and increased lung elastic recoil pressure, which, in turn, may aggravate upper-airway collapsibility. A total of 263 male (n = 193) and female (n = 70) subjects who were obese to various degrees without a history of lung diseases and an expiratory flow limitation, but troubled with snoring or suspicion of OSA were included in this cross-sectional study. According to nocturnal-polysomnography the subjects were distributed into OSA and non-OSA groups, and were further sub-grouped by gender because of differences between males and females, in term of, lung volume size, airway resistance, and the prevalence of OSA among genders. Lung volume and respiratory mechanical properties at different-frequencies were evaluated by plethysmograph and an impulse oscillation system, respectively. Functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume were significantly decreased in the OSA group compared to the non-OSA group among males and females. As weight and BMI in males in the OSA group were greater than in the non-OSA group (90 ± 14.8 kg vs. 82 ± 10.4 kg, p volumes decreases were independent from BMI and associated with the severity of OSA. This result was further confirmed by the female cohort. Significant increases in total respiratory resistance and decreases in respiratory conductance (Grs) were observed with increasing severity of OSA, as defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in both genders. The specific Grs (sGrs) stayed relatively constant between the two groups in woman, and there was only a weak association between AHI and sGrs among man. Multiple-stepwise-regression showed that reactance at 5 Hz was highly correlated with AHI in males and females or hypopnea index in females, independently

  9. Measurement of the deposited activity of the short-lived radon progeny in the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezzu, G.; Butterweck-Dempewolf, G.; Schuler, C.

    1998-01-01

    Volunteers were exposed in the radon chamber at Paul Scherrer Institut to an atmosphere enriched with highly unattached radon progeny. The deposited radon progeny activity in the respiratory tract of the volunteers was determined using a low level in-vivo counter. The detector arrangement and its calibration for the measurement of deposited radon progeny activity is described and the results for a mouth and a nose breathing volunteer are presented. For the nose breathing volunteer 55% of the deposited radon progeny activity was located in the head and the remaining 45% in the chest whereas for the mouth breathing volunteer 25% was located in the head and the remaining 75% in the chest. A mean clearance half-life for the deposited radon progeny from the respiratory tract of (2±1) h was obtained from the analyses of the temporal behaviour of the deposited radon progeny activity in the head. (orig.)

  10. Dotriacontane-16,17-14C distribution pattern in the respiratory system of two hamster species after passive exposure to radioactive labelled smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmoch, N.; Mohr, U.

    1974-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative distribution of 14 C labeled dotriacontane (DOT- 14 C) determined by liquid scintillation counting and autoradiography in the respiratory system, the digestive tract, liver and kidneys of Syrian golden and European hamsters, males and females, is described after they had been exposed to radioactive labeled cigarette smoke. The different DOT- 14 C distributions are discussed in detail with special attention given to the respiratory tract, related species differences and the topographic subdivisions of apex nasi, fundus nasi, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs. It is apparent that the absolute amount of activity in the respiratory tract related to body size of the Syrian golden hamster is greater than in the European hamster but that the percentual distribution exhibits a greater filtering action of the upper respiratory tract of Syrian golden hamster than of the European hamster so that a larger percentual amount of total inhaled particulate matter reaches the lungs. The European hamster might be a more useful model for the investigation of respiratory tract carcinogenesis due to the possibility of a longer life time exposure and a higher sensitivity to respiratory tract carcinogens

  11. Bioengineered 2'-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose inhibit the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteric pathogens to human intestinal and respiratory cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Stefan; Jennewein, Stefan; Hüfner, Eric; Weiss, Christel; Borkowski, Julia; Putze, Johannes; Schroten, Horst

    2013-10-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides help to prevent infectious diseases in breastfed infants. Larger scale testing, particularly in animal models and human clinical studies, is still limited due to shortened availability of more complex oligosaccharides. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL) synthesized by whole-cell biocatalysis for their biological activity in vitro. Therefore, we have tested these oligosaccharides for their inhibitory potential of pathogen adhesion in two different human epithelial cell lines. 2'-FL could inhibit adhesion of Campylobacter jejuni, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar fyris, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the intestinal human cell line Caco-2 (reduction of 26%, 18%, 12%, and 17%, respectively), as could be shown for 3-FL (enteropathogenic E coli 29%, P aeruginosa 26%). Furthermore, adherence of P aeruginosa to the human respiratory epithelial cell line A549 was significantly inhibited by 2'-FL and 3-FL (reduction of 24% and 23%, respectively). These results confirm the biological and functional activity of biotechnologically synthesized human milk oligosaccharides. Mass-tailored human milk oligosaccharides could be used in the future to supplement infant formula ingredients or as preventatives to reduce the impact of infectious diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigations of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems on Board the International Space Station: Experiments Puls and Pneumocard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. M.; Baevsky, R. M.; Drescher, J.; Tank, J.

    parameters describing the results of the function of these systems like heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, or breathing frequency, concentration of O2 and CO2 , etc. Missing significant changes of these parameters during weightlessness supports the hypothesis that adaptational and compensatory mechanisms are sufficient and guarantee cardiovascular homeostasis under changing environmental conditions. characteristic changes of the vegetative balance and of the activity of different regulatory elements at the brainstem and subcortical level. This changes guaranteed the adaptation to long term weightlessness. However, it remains unclear to what extent the different levels are involved. Moreover, the criteria describing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory interaction for the different functional states are not defined yet. The investigation of this problems is highly relevant in order to improve the medical control, especially if considering that the disruption of regulatory systems mostly precedes dangerous destruction of homeostasis. cardiovascular and respiratory function on Board the International Space Station (ISS) aiming to obtain new insights into the interaction between different regulatory elements. "Puls" is measures ECG, photoplethysmogram (PPG), and the pneumotachogram (PTG). The ECG is used to measure time series of R-R intervals and to analyse HRV. PPG is used to define the pulse wave velocity, phases of the cardiac cycle, and an estimate of the filling of finger vessels. The variability of these parameters is also calculated and compared to HRV. The analysis of the PTG allows to describe the interaction of the regulatory parameters of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Hence, an important feature of the experiment "Puls" is the investigation of regulatory mechanisms rather than of cardiovascular homeostasis. cardiography) and left ventricular contractility (seismocardiography) will be obtained. This expansion is of major importance

  13. A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Rech, Raquel Rubia; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio Egídio; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Silveira, Simone; Zanella, Janice Reis Ciacci

    2015-01-01

    Passive monitoring for detection of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in pigs has been carried out in Brazil since 2009, detecting mostly the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. Since then, outbreaks of acute respiratory disease suggestive of influenza A virus infection have been observed frequently in Brazilian pig herds. During a 2010-2011 influenza monitoring, a novel H1N2 influenza virus was detected in nursery pigs showing respiratory signs. The pathologic changes were cranioventral acute necrotizing bronchiolitis to subacute proliferative and purulent bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Lung tissue samples were positive for both influenza A virus and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus based on RT-qPCR of the matrix gene. Two IAVs were isolated in SPF chicken eggs. HI analysis of both swine H1N2 influenza viruses showed reactivity to the H1δ cluster. DNA sequencing was performed for all eight viral gene segments of two virus isolates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the HA and NA genes clustered with influenza viruses of the human lineage (H1-δ cluster, N2), whereas the six internal gene segments clustered with the A(H1N1)pdm09 group. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus derived from pandemic H1N1 virus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs in Brazil. The emergence of a reassortant IAV demands the close monitoring of pigs through the full-genome sequencing of virus isolates in order to enhance genetic information about IAVs circulating in pigs.

  14. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase

  15. Clinical characteristics of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in patients with combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vyshnyvetskyy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to assess the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of patients with a combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and congestive heart failure (CHF. Materials and methods. The study included 177 patients who had been diagnosed COPD by criteria GOLD. CHF was diagnosed in 77 (43.5 % cases – 29 (16.4 % with reduced systolic function and 48 (27.1 % with preserved systolic function. We analyzed some important parameters characterizing respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We tried to identify statistically significant difference of parameters between patients with COPD and those with COPD and CHF. Moreover, patients with CHF were evaluated as a whole, and separately with reduced and with preserved systolic function. Results. Thus, we observed significant deterioration in general clinical, laboratory, spirometric and echocardiographic parameters depending on the presence and severity of CHF in patients with COPD. In particular, the presence of CHF, especially with impaired systolic function significantly impair indicators such as incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and signs of ischemia on the ECG, NT-proBNP levels, prevalence of concentric, eccentric hypertrophy and concentric LV remodeling and diastolic dysfunction type "relaxation disorder", and incidence of a-wave absence during assessment of motion of the rear pulmonary artery valve wall. Listed changes as well as some of the tendencies that have not reached a certain level of significance, indicate that patients with COPD and concomitant CHF, especially with impaired systolic function, worsens general clinical parameters (breath rate, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, frequency arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia on ECG; laboratory levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, cholesterol, glomerular filtration rate; spirometric indicators of bronchial obstruction (FEV1, FVC, instant volume expiratory flow rates; echocardiographic indicators suggest the

  16. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase

  17. Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2015-01-01

    The NASA/SP-2015-3709, Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide, also known as the "HSIPG," provides a tool for implementing HSI activities within the NASA systems engineering framework. The HSIPG is written to aid the HSI practitioner engaged in a program or project (P/P), and serves as a knowledge base to allow the practitioner to step into an HSI lead or team member role for NASA missions. Additionally, this HSIPG is written to address the role of HSI in the P/P management and systems engineering communities and aid their understanding of the value added by incorporating good HSI practices into their programs and projects. Through helping to build a community of knowledgeable HSI practitioners, this document also hopes to build advocacy across the Agency for establishing strong, consistent HSI policies and practices. Human Systems Integration (HSI) has been successfully adopted (and adapted) by several federal agencies-most notably the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-as a methodology for reducing system life cycle costs (LCCs). These cost savings manifest themselves due to reductions in required numbers of personnel, the practice of human-centered design, decreased reliance on specialized skills for operations, shortened training time, efficient logistics and maintenance, and fewer safety-related risks and mishaps due to unintended human/system interactions. The HSI process for NASA establishes how cost savings and mission success can be realized through systems engineering. Every program or project has unique attributes. This HSIPG is not intended to provide one-size-fits-all recommendations for HSI implementation. Rather, HSI processes should be tailored to the size, scope, and goals of individual situations. The instructions and processes identified here are best used as a starting point for implementing human-centered system concepts and designs across programs and projects of varying types, including

  18. Genetic variability in G2 and F2 region between biological clones of human respiratory syncytial virus with or without host immune selection pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trigo Pedroso Moraes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.

  19. Genetic variability in G2 and F2 region between biological clones of human respiratory syncytial virus with or without host immune selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia Trigo Pedroso; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal; Campos, Angelica Cristine Almeida; Bosso, Patricia Alves; Lima, Hildener Nogueira; Stewien, Klaus Eberhard; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabete; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.

  20. Activity of Ingavirin (6-[2-(1H-Imidazol-4-ylethylamino]-5-oxo-hexanoic Acid Against Human Respiratory Viruses in in Vivo Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg I. Kiselev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory viral infections constitute the most frequent reason for medical consultations in the World. They can be associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from self-limited upper respiratory tract infections to more devastating conditions such as pneumonia. In particular, in serious cases influenza A leads to pneumonia, which is particularly fatal in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, obesity, young children and the elderly. In the present study, we show a protective effect of the low-molecular weight compound Ingavirin (6-[2-(1H-imidazol-4-ylethylamino]-5-oxohexanoic acid against influenza A (H1N1 virus, human parainfluenza virus and human adenovirus infections in animals. Mortality, weight loss, infectious titer of the virus in tissues and tissue morphology were monitored in the experimental groups of animals. The protective action of Ingavirin was observed as a reduction of infectious titer of the virus in the lung tissue, prolongation of the life of the infected animals, normalization of weight dynamics throughout the course of the disease, lowering of mortality of treated animals compared to a placebo control and normalization of tissue structure. In case of influenza virus infection, the protective activity of Ingavirin was similar to that of the reference compound Tamiflu. Based on the results obtained, Ingavirin should be considered as an important part of anti-viral prophylaxis and therapy.

  1. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in

  2. Adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression and the effects of systemic theophylline administration on respiratory function 4 months after C2 hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantwi, Kwaku D; Basura, Gregory J; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that in an animal model of acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), respiratory function can be restored by theophylline. We also have shown that respiratory recovery occurs spontaneously after prolonged postinjury survival periods when a hemidiaphragm is paralyzed by an ipsilateral upper cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection. Theophylline mediates functional recovery by central nervous system adenosine A1 receptor antagonism; however, it is unclear whether adenosine receptors are altered after prolonged postinjury periods and whether theophylline can further enhance restored respiratory function that occurs spontaneously. To assess putative effects of systemic theophylline administration on further enhancing spontaneous respiratory muscle recovery 4 months after C2 hemisection in rats and to determine whether adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression is altered in these animals. Electrophysiologic assessment of respiratory activity in the phrenic nerves was conducted in C2 hemisected rats 4 months after hemisection under standardized conditions. Immediately thereafter, rats were killed and the cervical spinal cords were prepared for adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression by in situ hybridization. Spontaneous recovery of respiratory activity in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve was detected in a majority (15/20) of C2 hemisected animals and amounted to 44.06% +/- 2.38% when expressed as a percentage of activity in the homolateral phrenic nerve in noninjured animals. At the optimal dosage used in the acute studies, theophylline (15 mg/kg) did not enhance, but rather unexpectedly blocked, recovered respiratory activity in 4 out of 5 animals tested. At dosages of 5 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, the drug blocked recovered respiratory activity in 3 out of 4 and 3 out of 5 animals tested, respectively. Quantitative analysis of adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression did not reveal a significant difference between experimental animals

  3. Impact of a radio frequency management information system on the process and timing of providing respiratory care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K; Kester, Lucy; Orens, Douglas K; McCarthy, Kevin

    2002-08-01

    Although radio frequency (RF) systems have proliferated and are designed to simplify care delivery in many clinical settings, little information is available on the impact of such RF systems on the delivery of patient care. Having used a hand-held-device-based management information system in our Respiratory Therapy Section for 16 years, we assessed the impact of an RF system on the delivery of respiratory therapy (RT) services. A single nursing unit dedicated to pulmonary and ear, nose, and throat care was selected for the RF system trial. Baseline (pre-RF) data were collected over 2 separate 1-month intervals (February 1999 and February 2000). The main outcome measures were (1) the amount of time needed at the beginning of the shift to organize and assign orders for RT services, (2) the time interval between notification of an RT consult order and completion of the RT consult, and (3) the time interval between notification of an RT treatment order and completion of the RT treatment. The activities required for organizing and assigning the orders were manually timed. Starting 6 weeks after therapists were trained to use the RF system, similar data were collected while using the RF system for two 1-month intervals (February and March 2001). The mean +/- SD time interval between receiving an RT consult order and completing the consult was reduced from 7.8 +/- 18.9 h to 2.8 +/- 2.4 h (p = 0.002). The percentage of patients who waited longer than 8 hours between receipt of a consult order and completion of the consult decreased from 18% to 4.7% (p = 0.026). The total time required for organizing and assigning RT work was reduced from 81.6 min to 43.6 min. The RF system had several advantages over the hand-held-device-based system: (1) shorter interval between the order for and completion of an RT consult, (2) lower percentage of patients for whom the interval between the order and the consult exceeded 8 hours, and (3) less time required to make shift assignments

  4. Group & Intergroup Relations in Living Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    organizational diagnosis , the group is itself a living human system. A group may be underbounded, overbounded, or optimally bounded. The state of group...very im- portant to understand and to use in order to conduct organizational diagnosis " using group methods. 2 -43 (Alderfer, 1977b). The group...Boundary Relations and Organizational Diagnosis . In H. Meltzer and F.W. Wickert (eds.) Humanizing Organizational Behavior. Springfield, Illinois: Thomas

  5. CORRELATION BETWEEN HUMAN NEEDS SYSTEM - PERSONALITY - HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela MINICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the main attributes of an economic approach of needs and preferences, with detailed focus on the correlation between meta-needs and personality, by correlating the principle of hierarchy established by Maslow with the balance theory. Adopting an integrated system of human capital motivation, which takes into account the complex aspects involved in the knowledge society, represents a managerial requirement for any organisation.

  6. [The changes of physiological reactivity of cardiorespiratory system to respiratory homeostasis with the use of complex stimulation of special work capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, O M

    2012-01-01

    We present the influence of the program of special additional stimulation of work capacity of high-performance athletes on the sensitivity of cardiorespiratory system to hypercapnic and hypoxic shifts in respiratory homeostasis. We found that under the influence of the pre-start complex a decrease in the sensitivity of ventilator responses to CO2-H+ stimuli in combination with a reduction in the thresholds of the reaction take place. This creates conditions for increased mobilization properties of the cardiorespiratory system and economization of its reaction under conditions of changes of respiratory homeostasis characteristic of intense training and competitive loads in the sport.

  7. Maternal and Fetal Recovery After Severe Respiratory Failure: A Case Report of Air Transportation of a Pregnant Woman on ECMO Using the CentriMag Transporter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyev, Rymbay; Kapyshev, Timur; Goncharov, Alex; Lesbekov, Timur; Pya, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe cardiopulmonary failure has increased because of improved outcomes. A specially designed ECMO transport system allows for safe transport of patients over long distances. We report a 28-year-old pregnant woman (26 weeks gestation) with acute respiratory distress syndrome in whom ECMO support was necessary for survival, and she was transported to another facility 1,155 km away with the aid of the portable ECMO system. Transport was uneventful, and the patient's condition remained stable. Acute respiratory distress syndrome improved gradually until the patient was discharged from the hospital with excellent maternal and fetal outcome.

  8. Implementing systems thinking for infection prevention: The cessation of repeated scabies outbreaks in a respiratory care ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Sheuwen; Howley, Peter P; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) is often adopted to complement epidemiologic investigation for outbreaks and infection-related adverse events in hospitals; however, RCA has been argued to have limited effectiveness in preventing such events. We describe how an innovative systems analysis approach halted repeated scabies outbreaks, and highlight the importance of systems thinking for outbreaks analysis and sustaining effective infection prevention and control. Following RCA for a third successive outbreak of scabies over a 17-month period in a 60-bed respiratory care ward of a Taiwan hospital, a systems-oriented event analysis (SOEA) model was used to reanalyze the outbreak. Both approaches and the recommendations were compared. No nosocomial scabies have been reported for more than 1975 days since implementation of the SOEA. Previous intervals between seeming eradication and repeat outbreaks following RCA were 270 days and 180 days. Achieving a sustainable positive resolution relied on applying systems thinking and the holistic analysis of the system, not merely looking for root causes of events. To improve the effectiveness of outbreaks analysis and infection control, an emphasis on systems thinking is critical, along with a practical approach to ensure its effective implementation. The SOEA model provides the necessary framework and is a viable complementary approach, or alternative, to RCA. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Aaron; Pang, Lan; Hanson, Jarod; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Streich, Rebecca; Lafontaine, Eric R; Nagy, Tamás; Tripp, Ralph A; Rada, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether an extracellular, oxidative antimicrobial mechanism inherent to tracheal epithelial cells is capable of inactivating influenza H1N2 virus. Epithelial cells were isolated from tracheas of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both primary human and rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells were differentiated in air-liquid interface cultures. A/swine/Illinois/02860/09 (swH1N2) influenza A virions were added to the apical side of airway cells for 1 h in the presence or absence of lactoperoxidase or thiocyanate. Characterization of rat epithelial cells (morphology, Duox expression) occurred via western blotting, PCR, hydrogen peroxide production measurement and histology. The number of viable virions was determined by plaque assays. Statistical difference of the results was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Our data show that rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells develop a differentiated, polarized monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance, mucin production and expression of dual oxidases. Influenza A virions are inactivated by human and rat epithelial cells via a dual oxidase-, lactoperoxidase- and thiocyanate-dependent mechanism. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium-influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium.

  10. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  11. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a longitudinal study comparing severity associated with human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 and other risk factors in a large pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiatrak, Brian J; Wiatrak, Deborah W; Broker, Thomas R; Lewis, Linda

    2004-11-01

    A database was developed for prospective, longitudinal study of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in a large population of pediatric patients. Data recorded for each patient included epidemiological factors, human papilloma virus (HPV) type, clinical course, staged severity of disease at each surgical intervention, and frequency of surgical intervention. The study hypothesizes that patients with HPV type 11 (HPV-11) and patients younger than 3 years of age at diagnosis are at risk for more aggressive and extensive disease. The 10-year prospective epidemiological study used disease staging for each patient with an original scoring system. Severity scores were updated at each surgical procedure. Parents of children with RRP referred to the authors' hospital completed a detailed epidemiological questionnaire at the initial visit or at the first return visit after the study began. At the first endoscopic debridement after study enrollment, tissue was obtained and submitted for HPV typing using polymerase chain reaction techniques and in situ hybridization. Staging of disease severity was performed in real time at each endoscopic procedure using an RRP scoring system developed by one of the authors (B.J.W.). The frequency of endoscopic operative debridement was recorded for each patient. Information in the database was analyzed to identify statistically significant relationships between extent of disease and/or HPV type, patient age at diagnosis, and selected epidemiological factors. The study may represent the first longitudinal prospective analysis of a large pediatric RRP population. Fifty-eight of the 73 patients in the study underwent HPV typing. Patients infected with HPV-11 were significantly more likely to have higher severity scores, require more frequent surgical intervention, and require adjuvant therapy to control disease progression. In addition, patients with HPV-11 RRP were significantly more likely to develop tracheal disease, to require

  12. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Lawton, Craig R.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Longsine, Dennis E. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX); Forsythe, James Chris; Gauthier, John Henry; Le, Hai D.

    2008-10-01

    A Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was initiated in 2005 to investigate Human Performance Modeling in a System of Systems analytic environment. SAND2006-6569 and SAND2006-7911 document interim results from this effort; this report documents the final results. The problem is difficult because of the number of humans involved in a System of Systems environment and the generally poorly defined nature of the tasks that each human must perform. A two-pronged strategy was followed: one prong was to develop