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Sample records for human red cell

  1. Shape memory of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M

    2004-05-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spheres. Shape excursions were induced by shear flow. In virtually all red cells, a shape memory was found. After stop of flow and during the return of the latex spheres to the original location, the red cell shape was biconcave. The return occurred by a tank-tread motion of the membrane. The memory could not be eliminated by deforming the red cells in shear flow up to 4 h at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that 1). the characteristic time of stress relaxation is >80 min and 2). red cells in vivo also have a shape memory.

  2. Shape Memory of Human Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spher...

  3. Human Red Cells With Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purified cells were used as hosts for the culture of P.falciparum in vitro. Results show that GPI-linked molecules on the red cell surface are not required for the efficient entry of the parasites, and that the PNH red cells are competent to sustain the growth of P.falciparum. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol ...

  4. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...... proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function....

  5. Reflection coefficients of permeant molecules in human red cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J D; Eyring, E M

    1975-08-01

    The Staverman reflection coefficient, sigma for several permeant molecules was determined in human red cell suspensions with a Durrum stopped-flow spectrophotometer. This procedure was first used with dog, cat, and beef red cells and with human red cells. The stopped-flow technique used was similar to the rapid-flow method used by those who originally reported sigma measurements in human red cells for molecules which rapidly penetrate the red cell membrane. The sigma values we obtained agreed with those previously reported for most of the slow penetrants, except malonamide, but disagreed with all the sigma values previously reported for the rapid penetrants. We were unable to calculate an "equivalent pore radius" with our sigma data. The advantages of our equipment and our experimental procedure are discussed. Our sigma data suggest that sigma is indirectly proportional to the log of the nonelectrolyte permeability coefficient, omega. Since a similar trend has been previously shown for log omega and molar volume of the permeant molecules, a correlatioo was shown between sigma and molar volume suggesting the membrane acts as a sieve.

  6. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  7. Freeze-Dried Human Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    period in the liquid state. 2. The levels of glycolytic intermediates (ATP, adenosine 5’triphosphate; 2,3-DPG 2, 3- diphosphoglycerate ) in rehydrated...8217 diphosphate, ADP; adenosine 5 monophosphate, AMP; 2,3- diphosphoglycerate . 2.3-DPG and lactate: (2) measurement of cell indices (mean cell volume (MCV), mean...monophosphate: 2,3-DPG. 2.3- diphosphoglycerate : MCV. Mean Cell Volume: MCH, Mean Cell Hemoglobin: MCHC, Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentrations. ** Lactate levels

  8. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

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    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  9. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

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    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  10. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  11. Circulating red cell-derived microparticles in human malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Dondorp, Arjen M; Krudsood, Srivicha; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Combes, Valery; Grau, Georges E; White, Nicholas J; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Day, Nicholas P J; Chotivanich, Kesinee

    2011-03-01

    In patients with falciparum malaria, plasma concentrations of cell-derived microparticles correlate with disease severity. Using flow cytometry, we quantified red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) in patients with malaria and identified the source and the factors associated with production. RMP concentrations were increased in patients with Plasmodium falciparum (n = 29; median, 457 RMPs/μL [range, 13-4,342 RMPs/μL]), Plasmodium vivax (n = 5; median, 409 RMPs/μL [range, 281-503/μL]), and Plasmodium malariae (n = 2; median, 163 RMPs/μL [range, 127-200 RMPs/μL]) compared with those in healthy subjects (n = 11; median, 8 RMPs/μL [range, 3-166 RMPs/μL]; P = .01). RMP concentrations were highest in patients with severe falciparum malaria (P = .01). Parasitized red cells produced >10 times more RMPs than did unparasitized cells, but the overall majority of RMPs still derived from uninfected red blood cells (URBCs). In cultures, RMP production increased as the parasites matured. Hemin and parasite products induced RMP production in URBCs, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting heme-mediated oxidative stress as a pathway for the generation of RMPs.

  12. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

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    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  13. Establishment of immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce enucleated red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kurita

    Full Text Available Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs.

  14. F NMR measurement of intracellular free calcium in human red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Schanne, F.A.X.

    1986-01-01

    Optical techniques for the measurement of intracellular Ca are not readily applicable to the human red cell because of the intense absorption of hemoglobin. The authors have therefore examined the use of 19 F NMR of 5,5'-difluoro-1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (5FBAPTA) introduced non-disruptively by intracellular hydrolysis of the membrane-permeant acetoxymethyl ester derivative. 19 F NMR spectra of 5FBAPTA-containing erythrocytes at 188 MHz displayed two well resolved resonances corresponding to the free and Ca-bound forms of the chelator, the resonance of the free form being ten-fold larger than that of the Ca-bound form. Addition of the ionophore A23187 resulted in the disappearance of the resonance of the free anion and a quantitative increase in the intensity of the resonance of the Ca-complex. From these data, and a K/sub D/ of 708 nM for the Ca-5FBAPTA complex, the authors estimate red cell free Ca to be 70 nM, which is in the range of values obtained for other cells, despite the fact that the human red cell, which lacks intracellular organelles for storing Ca, possesses only 1 μmol total Ca/1. cells in comparison to mmols of total Ca found in other cells. The authors ability to use 19 F NMR to measure free Ca in the red blood cell paves the way for future NMR studies of red cell free Ca concentrations in human essential hypertension as well as in other diseases states in which alterations in cellular Ca homeostasis may be involved

  15. Membrane transport of anandamide through resealed human red blood cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of resealed red blood cell membranes (ghosts) allows the study of the transport of a compound in a nonmetabolizing system with a biological membrane. Transmembrane movements of anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, arachidonoylethanolamide) have been studied by exchange efflux experiments...... at 0°C and pH 7.3 with albumin-free and albumin-filled human red blood cell ghosts. The efflux kinetics is biexponential and is analyzed in terms of compartment models. The distribution of anandamide on the membrane inner to outer leaflet pools is determined to be 0.275 ± 0.023, and the rate constant...... of unidirectional flux from inside to outside is 0.361 ± 0.023 s. The rate constant of unidirectional flux from the membrane to BSA in the medium ([BSA]) increases with the square root of [BSA] in accordance with the theory of an unstirred layer around ghosts. Anandamide passed through the red blood cell membrane...

  16. Cobalt uptake and binding in human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Brown, Anthony M; Harbak, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    of cobalt, and also from the initial slope of the cobalt buffering curve. The cobalt accumulation is similar in fed and ATP-depleted cells. The buffering curve for [Co(T)](c) can be fitted by a Michaelis type function with B(max)=24 mmol (l cells)(-1) and half-saturation at 240 µM [Co(2+)](c). The tracer...... reversibly bound, being releasable by excess extracellular EGTA in the presence of A23187, and partly tightly bound, remaining in the cells even at high ionophore concentrations. The tightly bound fraction builds up over time, and is larger and develops earlier in fed cells compared to ATP-depleted cells......-migrate with hemoglobin in Sephadex column chromatography of a lysate of (57)Co-loaded cells. (57)Co also co-migrates with hemoglobin when added to a lysate of unlabeled cells or to a solution of purified hemoglobin, in both cases with a time-dependent development of tight binding. Cobalt is known to bind to the globin...

  17. Sphero-echinocytosis of human red blood cells caused by snake, red-back spider, bee and blue-ringed octopus venoms and its inhibition by snake sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsenberger, W; Leigh, C M; Mirtschin, P J

    1995-06-01

    It was found that bee (Apis mellifera) venom, red-back spider (Latrodectus mactans) venom, blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa) venom, ten different snake venoms, phospholipase A2 and four snake toxins caused sphero-echinocytosis of human red blood cells at 200 ng/ml. Most venoms and toxins lost the ability to deform human red blood cells when their components of less than mol. wt 10,000 were applied. In a number of cases the sphero-echinocytotic effect was also inhibited by blood sera of Notechis scutatus and Pseudonaja textilis.

  18. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  19. Directly observed reversible shape changes and hemoglobin stratification during centrifugation of human and Amphiuma red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph F; Inoué, Shinya

    2006-02-21

    This paper describes changes that occur in human and Amphiuma red blood cells observed during centrifugation with a special microscope. Dilute suspensions of cells were layered, in a centrifuge chamber, above an osmotically matched dense solution, containing Nycodenz, Ficoll, or Percoll (Pharmacia) that formed a density gradient that allowed the cells to slowly settle to an equilibrium position. Biconcave human red blood cells moved downward at low forces with minimum wobble. The cells oriented vertically when the force field was increased and Hb sedimented as the lower part of each cell became bulged and assumed a "bag-like" shape. The upper centripetal portion of the cell became thinner and remained biconcave. These changes occurred rapidly and were completely reversible upon lowering the centrifugal force. Bag-shaped cells, upon touching red cells in rouleau, immediately reverted to biconcave disks as they flipped onto a stack. Amphiuma red cells displayed a different type of reversible stratification and deformation at high force fields. Here the cells became stretched, with the nucleus now moving centrifugally, the Hb moving centripetally, and the bottom of the cells becoming thinner and clear. Nevertheless, the distribution of the marginal bands at the cells' rim was unchanged. We conclude that centrifugation, per se, while changing a red cell's shape and the distribution of its intracellular constituents, does so in a completely reversible manner. Centrifugation of red cells harboring altered or missing structural elements could provide information on shape determinants that are still unexplained.

  20. The effect of storage time of human red cells on intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation in a rat isovolemic exchange model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, N. J.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Mik, E. G.; Gouwerok, C. W.; Verhaar, R.; Goedhart, P. T.; de Korte, D.; Ince, C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the storage time of human leukodepleted red blood cell concentrates compromises intestinal microvascular oxygen concentration oxygen (muPo(2)) during isovolemic exchange transfusion at low hematocrit. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting:

  1. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Ann B; Steinberg, Steven J; Watkins, Paul A; Moser, Hugo W; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Ryder, Oliver A; Hacia, Joseph G

    2011-06-17

    Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC) levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and rodents with plasmalogen disorders, we propose that cross

  2. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

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    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  3. Human mesenchymal stem cells promote CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell proliferation with preserved red blood cell differentiation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Show Xuan; Leong, Yin Yee; Ng, Wai Hoe; Ng, Albert Wee Po; Ismail, Ida Shazrina; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Tan, Jun Jie

    2017-06-01

    Studies showed that co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord blood-derived CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) offered greater therapeutic effects but little is known regarding the effects of human Wharton's jelly derived MSCs on HSC expansion and red blood cell (RBC) generation in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MSCs on HSC expansion and differentiation. HSCs were co-cultured with MSCs or with 10% MSCs-derived conditioned medium, with HSCs cultured under standard medium served as a control. Cell expansion rates, number of mononuclear cell post-expansion and number of enucleated cells post-differentiation were evaluated. HSCs showed superior proliferation in the presence of MSC with mean expansion rate of 3.5 × 10 8  ± 1.8 × 10 7 after day 7 compared to the conditioned medium and the control group (8.9 × 10 7  ± 1.1 × 10 8 and 7.0 × 10 7  ± 3.3 × 10 6 respectively, P cell was greater compared to earlier passages, indicating successful RBC differentiation. Cord blood-derived CD34 + HSCs can be greatly expanded by co-culturing with MSCs without affecting the RBC differentiation capability, suggesting the importance of direct MSC-HSCs contact in HSC expansion and RBC differentiation. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Proteins involved in invasion of human red blood cells by malaria parasites

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    Ewa Jaśkiewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a disease caused by parasites of Plasmodium species. It is responsible for around 1-2 million deaths annually, mainly children under the age of 5. It occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas.Malaria is caused by five Plasmodium species:[i] P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. knowlesi[/i] and [i]P. ovale[/i]. Mosquitoes spread the disease by biting humans. The malaria parasite has two stages of development: the human stage and the mosquito stage. The first stage occurs in the human body and is divided into two phases: the liver phase and the blood phase.The invasion of erythrocytes by [i]Plasmodium[/i] merozoites is a multistep process of specific protein interactions between the parasite and red blood cell. The first step is the reversible merozoite attachment to the erythrocyte followed by its apical reorientation, then formation of an irreversible “tight” junction and finally entry into the red cell in a parasitophorous vacuole.The blood phase is supported by a number of proteins produced by the parasite. The merozoite surface GPI-anchored proteins (MSP-1, 2, 4, 5, 8 and 10 assist in the process of recognition of susceptible erythrocytes, apical membrane antigen (AMA-1 may be directly responsible for apical reorientation of the merozoite and apical proteins which function in tight junction formation. These ligands are members of two families: Duffy binding-like (DBL and reticulocyte binding-like (RBL proteins. In [i]Plasmodium[/i] [i]falciparum[/i] the DBL family includes: EBA-175, EBA-140 (BAEBL, EBA-181 (JESEBL, EBA-165 (PEBL and EBL-1 ligands.To date, no effective antimalarial vaccine has been developed, but there are several studies for this purpose. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the molecular basis of host cells invasion by parasites. Major efforts are focused on developing a multiantigenic and multiepitope vaccine preventing all steps of [i]Plasmodium[/i] invasion.

  5. On the Mechanism of Human Red Blood Cell Longevity: Roles of Calcium, the Sodium Pump, PIEZO1, and Gardos Channels

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    Virgilio L. Lew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a healthy adult, the transport of O2 and CO2 between lungs and tissues is performed by about 2 · 1013 red blood cells, of which around 1.7 · 1011 are renewed every day, a turnover resulting from an average circulatory lifespan of about 120 days. Cellular lifespan is the result of an evolutionary balance between the energy costs of maintaining cells in a fit functional state versus cell renewal. In this Review we examine how the set of passive and active membrane transporters of the mature red blood cells interact to maximize their circulatory longevity thus minimizing costs on expensive cell turnover. Red blood cell deformability is critical for optimal rheology and gas exchange functionality during capillary flow, best fulfilled when the volume of each human red blood cell is kept at a fraction of about 0.55–0.60 of the maximal spherical volume allowed by its membrane area, the optimal-volume-ratio range. The extent to which red blood cell volumes can be preserved within or near these narrow optimal-volume-ratio margins determines the potential for circulatory longevity. We show that the low cation permeability of red blood cells allows volume stability to be achieved with extraordinary cost-efficiency, favouring cell longevity over cell turnover. We suggest a mechanism by which the interplay of a declining sodium pump and two passive membrane transporters, the mechanosensitive PIEZO1 channel, a candidate mediator of Psickle in sickle cells, and the Ca2+-sensitive, K+-selective Gardos channel, can implement red blood cell volume stability around the optimal-volume-ratio range, as required for extended circulatory longevity.

  6. Mesoporous silica particles modified with graphitic carbon: interaction with human red blood cells and plasma proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro; Franqui, Lidiane Silva; Bettini, Jefferson; Strauss, Mathias, E-mail: diego.martinez@lnnano.cnpem.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Joao Paulo Vita; Mazali, Italo Odone [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work the interaction of the mesoporous silica particles (SBA-15, ∼700 nm) modified with graphitic carbon (SBA-15/C) on human red blood cells (hemolysis) and plasma proteins (protein corona formation) is studied. XPS and CHN analysis showed that the carbon content on the SBA-15/C samples varied from 2 to 10% and was tuned by the functionalization step. The formed carbon structures where associated to graphitic nanodomains coating the pores surface as verified by Raman spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR. Advanced TEM/EELS analysis showed that the carbon structures are distributed along the SBA-15 mesopores. SAXS and textural analyses were used to confirm that the porous structure of the silica support is kept after the modification procedure and to calculate the number of graphitic carbon stacked layers coating the mesopores. After incubation of SBA-15 with human red blood cells (RBCs), it was observed a dose-dependent hemolytic effect, probably, due to binding of the material silanol-rich surface to the phosphatidylcholine molecules from the RBC membrane. The graphitic carbon modifications have mitigated this effect, indicating that the graphitic carbon coating protected the silanol groups of the particle surface hindering the hemolysis. Considering the protein corona formation, selective biomolecular interaction of proteins was observed for the different materials using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Besides, graphitic carbon modification decreased the amount of proteins on the corona. Together, the in vitro hemolysis and protein corona assays are promising biological models to understand the influence of silica surface functionalization on their bionano-interactions. Finally, our work contributes to the development of fundamental research on such nanomaterials chemistry in the emerging field of nanobioscience and nanotoxicology. (author)

  7. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  8. Near infrared light induces post-translational modifications of human red blood cell proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walski, Tomasz; Dyrda, Agnieszka; Dzik, Małgorzata; Chludzińska, Ludmiła; Tomków, Tomasz; Mehl, Joanna; Detyna, Jerzy; Gałecka, Katarzyna; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that near infrared (NIR) light exerts beneficial effects on cells. Its usefulness in the treatment of cancer, acute brain injuries, strokes and neurodegenerative disorders has been proposed. The mechanism of the NIR action is probably of photochemical nature, however it is not fully understood. Here, using a relatively simple biological model, human red blood cells (RBCs), and a polychromatic non-polarized light source, we investigate the impact of NIR radiation on the oxygen carrier, hemoglobin (Hb), and anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3). The exposure of intact RBCs to NIR light causes quaternary transitions in Hb, dehydration of proteins and decreases the amount of physiologically inactive methemoglobin, as detected by Raman spectroscopy. These effects are accompanied by a lowering of the intracellular pH (pHi) and changes in the cell membrane topography, as documented by atomic force microscopy (AFM). All those changes are in line with our previous studies where alterations of the membrane fluidity and membrane potential were attributed to NIR action on RBCs. The rate of the above listed changes depends strictly on the dose of NIR light that the cells receive, nonetheless it should not be considered as a thermal effect.

  9. Single-cell force spectroscopy as a technique to quantify human red blood cell adhesion to subendothelial laminin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszek, Jamie L; Partola, Kostyantyn; Zhang, Jing; Andemariam, Biree; Lykotrafitis, George

    2014-12-18

    Single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based assay, enables quantitative study of cell adhesion while maintaining the native state of surface receptors in physiological conditions. Human healthy and pathological red blood cells (RBCs) express a large number of surface proteins which mediate cell-cell interactions, or cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In particular, RBCs adhere with high affinity to subendothelial matrix laminin via the basal cell adhesion molecule and Lutheran protein (BCAM/Lu). Here, we established SCFS as an in vitro technique to study human RBC adhesion at baseline and following biochemical treatment. Using blood obtained from healthy human subjects, we recorded adhesion forces from single RBCs attached to AFM cantilevers as the cell was pulled-off of substrates coated with laminin protein. We found that an increase in the overall cell adhesion measured via SCFS is correlated with an increase in the resultant total force measured on 1 µm(2) areas of the RBC membrane. Further, we showed that SCFS can detect significant changes in the adhesive response of RBCs to modulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Lastly, we identified variability in the RBC adhesion force to laminin amongst the human subjects, suggesting that RBCs maintain diverse levels of active BCAM/Lu adhesion receptors. By using single-cell measurements, we established a powerful new method for the quantitative measurement of single RBC adhesion with specific receptor-mediated binding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In Vitro Large Scale Production of Human Mature Red Blood Cells from Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Coculturing with Human Fetal Liver Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafei Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro models of human erythropoiesis are useful in studying the mechanisms of erythroid differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. Here we describe an erythroid liquid culture system starting from cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. HSCs were cultured for more than 50 days in erythroid differentiation conditions and resulted in a more than 109-fold expansion within 50 days under optimal conditions. Homogeneous erythroid cells were characterized by cell morphology, flow cytometry, and hematopoietic colony assays. Furthermore, terminal erythroid maturation was improved by cosculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells. Cocultured erythroid cells underwent multiple maturation events, including decrease in size, increase in glycophorin A expression, and nuclear condensation. This process resulted in extrusion of the pycnotic nuclei in up to 80% of the cells. Importantly, they possessed the capacity to express the adult definitive β-globin chain upon further maturation. We also show that the oxygen equilibrium curves of the cord blood-differentiated red blood cells (RBCs are comparable to normal RBCs. The large number and purity of erythroid cells and RBCs produced from cord blood make this method useful for fundamental research in erythroid development, and they also provide a basis for future production of available RBCs for transfusion.

  11. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J; Gray, Warren D; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V; Dillard, Rebecca S; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Stephens, David; Roback, John D; Searles, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators.

  12. Inborn defects in the antioxidant systems of human red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, Rob; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; Roos, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) contain large amounts of iron and operate in highly oxygenated tissues. As a result, these cells encounter a continuous oxidative stress. Protective mechanisms against oxidation include prevention of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenging of various forms of

  13. Seventy-five genetic loci influencing the human red blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Harst, Pim; Zhang, Weihua; Mateo Leach, Irene; Rendon, Augusto; Verweij, Niek; Sehmi, Joban; Paul, Dirk S; Elling, Ulrich; Allayee, Hooman; Li, Xinzhong; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Voss, Katrin; Weichenberger, Christian X; Albers, Cornelis A; Al-Hussani, Abtehale; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Ciullo, Marina; Danjou, Fabrice; Dina, Christian; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Franke, Lude; Gögele, Martin; Hartiala, Jaana; Hersch, Micha; Holm, Hilma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Lagou, Vasiliki; Langenberg, Claudia; Lopez, Lorna M; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Melander, Olle; Murgia, Federico; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Reilly, Paul F; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Parsa, Afshin; Pirastu, Nicola; Porcu, Eleonora; Portas, Laura; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Shin, So-Youn; Tang, Clara S; Teumer, Alexander; Traglia, Michela; Ulivi, Sheila; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jing Hua; Anni, Franco; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Attwood, Antony; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Benyamin, Beben; Boehm, Bernhard O; Cookson, William O; Das, Debashish; de Bakker, Paul I W; de Boer, Rudolf A; de Geus, Eco J C; de Moor, Marleen H; Dimitriou, Maria; Domingues, Francisco S; Döring, Angela; Engström, Gunnar; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fischer, Krista; Galanello, Renzo; Garner, Stephen F; Genser, Bernd; Gibson, Quince D; Girotto, Giorgia; Gudbjartsson, Daniel Fannar; Harris, Sarah E; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hastie, Claire E; Hedblad, Bo; Illig, Thomas; Jolley, Jennifer; Kähönen, Mika; Kema, Ido P; Kemp, John P; Liang, Liming; Lloyd-Jones, Heather; Loos, Ruth J F; Meacham, Stuart; Medland, Sarah E; Meisinger, Christa; Memari, Yasin; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Kathy; Moffatt, Miriam F; Nauck, Matthias; Novatchkova, Maria; Nutile, Teresa; Olafsson, Isleifur; Onundarson, Pall T; Parracciani, Debora; Penninx, Brenda W; Perseu, Lucia; Piga, Antonio; Pistis, Giorgio; Pouta, Anneli; Puc, Ursula; Raitakari, Olli; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Ruggiero, Daniela; Ruokonen, Aimo; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Sala, Cinzia; Salumets, Andres; Sambrook, Jennifer; Schepers, Hein; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Silljé, Herman H W; Sladek, Rob; Smit, Johannes H; Starr, John M; Stephens, Jonathan; Sulem, Patrick; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tragante, Vinicius; van Gilst, Wiek H; van Pelt, L Joost; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Völker, Uwe; Whitfield, John B; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Wirnsberger, Gerald; Algra, Ale; Cucca, Francesco; d'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Danesh, John; Deary, Ian J; Dominiczak, Anna F; Elliott, Paul; Fortina, Paolo; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Greinacher, Andreas; Hazen, Stanley L; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Khaw, Kay Tee; Lehtimäki, Terho; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D; Montgomery, Grant W; Moore, Carmel; Navis, Gerjan; Pirastu, Mario; Pramstaller, Peter P; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Schadt, Eric; Scott, James; Shuldiner, Alan R; Smith, George Davey; Smith, J Gustav; Snieder, Harold; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tang, W H Wilson; Toniolo, Daniela; Tönjes, Anke; Visscher, Peter M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Beckmann, Jacques S; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Ferreira, Manuel A; Sanna, Serena; Uda, Manuela; Hicks, Andrew A; Penninger, Josef Martin; Gieger, Christian; Kooner, Jaspal S; Ouwehand, Willem H; Soranzo, Nicole; Chambers, John C

    2012-12-20

    Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related parameters in up to 135,367 individuals. Here we identify 75 independent genetic loci associated with one or more red blood cell phenotypes at P < 10(-8), which together explain 4-9% of the phenotypic variance per trait. Using expression quantitative trait loci and bioinformatic strategies, we identify 121 candidate genes enriched in functions relevant to red blood cell biology. The candidate genes are expressed preferentially in red blood cell precursors, and 43 have haematopoietic phenotypes in Mus musculus or Drosophila melanogaster. Through open-chromatin and coding-variant analyses we identify potential causal genetic variants at 41 loci. Our findings provide extensive new insights into genetic mechanisms and biological pathways controlling red blood cell formation and function.

  14. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh; Aghdami, Nasser; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, α-globulin, and γ-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  15. Human red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase and monophosphoglycerate mutase: genetic evidence for two separate loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S H; Anderson, J E; Giblett, E R

    1977-01-01

    Rare genetic variants of human red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase (DPGM) and monophosphoglycerate mutase (MPGM) were compared by starch gel electrophoresis. The isozyme patterns showed that genetic variation of the enzymes were independent from each other, thus DPGM and MPGM must be controlled by two separate loci. Images Fig. 1 PMID:195467

  16. Rejuvenation of stored human red blood cells reverses the renal microvascular oxygenation deficit in an isovolemic transfusion model in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, Nicolaas J. H.; Hilarius, Petra M.; Johannes, Tanja; de Korte, Dirk; Ince, Can; Verhoeven, Arthur J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Storage of red blood cells (RBCs) results in various biochemical changes, including a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid. Previously it was shown that stored human RBCs show a deficit in the oxygenation of the microcirculation in the gut of

  17. The Action of Red Cell Calcium Ions on Human Erythrophagocytosis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Romero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we have studied in vitro the effect of increasing red cell Ca2+ ions on human erythrophagocytosis by peripheral monocyte-derived autologous macrophages. In addition, the relative contribution to phagocytosis of phosphatidylserine exposure, autologous IgG binding, complement deposition and Gárdos channel activity was also investigated. Monocytes were obtained after ficoll-hypaque fractionation and induced to transform by adherence to glass coverslips, for 24 h at 37°C in a RPMI medium, containing 10% fetal calf serum. Red blood cells (RBC were loaded with Ca2+ using 10 μM A23187 and 1 mM Ca-EGTA buffers, in the absence of Mg2+. Ca2+-loaded cells were transferred to above coverslips and incubated for 2 h at 37°C under various experimental conditions, after which phagocytosis was assessed by light microscopy. Confirming earlier findings, phagocytosis depended on internal Ca2+. Accordingly; it was linearly raised from about 2–15% by increasing the free Ca2+ content of the loading solution from 0.5 to 20 μM, respectively. Such a linear increase was virtually doubled by the presence of 40% autologous serum. At 7 μM Ca2+, the phagocytosis degree attained with serum was practically equal to that obtained with either 2 mg/ml affinity-purified IgG or 40% IgG-depleted serum. However, phagocytosis was reduced to levels found with Ca2+ alone when IgG-depleted serum was inactivated by heat, implying an involvement of complement. On the other hand, phagocytosis in the absence of serum was markedly reduced by preincubating macrophages with phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes. In contrast, a similar incubation in the presence of serum affected it partially whereas employing liposomes made only of phosphatidylcholine essentially had no effect. Significantly, the Gárdos channel inhibitors clotrimazole (2 μM and TRAM-34 (100 nM fully blocked serum-dependent phagocytosis. These findings show that a raised internal Ca2+ promotes

  18. Superior Red Blood Cell Generation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Through a Novel Microcarrier-Based Embryoid Body Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Jaichandran; Lam, Alan Tin-Lun; Chen, Hong Yu; Yang, Bin Xia; Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Reuveny, Shaul; Loh, Yuin-Han; Oh, Steve Kah-Weng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro generation of red blood cells (RBCs) from human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells appears to be a promising alternate approach to circumvent shortages in donor-derived blood supplies for clinical applications. Conventional methods for hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) rely on embryoid body (EB) formation and/or coculture with xenogeneic cell lines. However, most current methods for hPSC expansion and EB formation are not amenable for scale-up to levels required for large-scale RBC generation. Moreover, differentiation methods that rely on xenogenic cell lines would face obstacles for future clinical translation. In this study, we report the development of a serum-free and chemically defined microcarrier-based suspension culture platform for scalable hPSC expansion and EB formation. Improved survival and better quality EBs generated with the microcarrier-based method resulted in significantly improved mesoderm induction and, when combined with hematopoietic differentiation, resulted in at least a 6-fold improvement in hematopoietic precursor expansion, potentially culminating in a 80-fold improvement in the yield of RBC generation compared to a conventional EB-based differentiation method. In addition, we report efficient terminal maturation and generation of mature enucleated RBCs using a coculture system that comprised primary human mesenchymal stromal cells. The microcarrier-based platform could prove to be an appealing strategy for future scale-up of hPSC culture, EB generation, and large-scale generation of RBCs under defined and xeno-free conditions.

  19. Automated high resolution full-field spatial coherence tomography for quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neeru; Dubey, Kavita; Srivastava, Vishal; Ahmad, Azeem; Mehta, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    We developed an automated high-resolution full-field spatial coherence tomography (FF-SCT) microscope for quantitative phase imaging that is based on the spatial, rather than the temporal, coherence gating. The Red and Green color laser light was used for finding the quantitative phase images of unstained human red blood cells (RBCs). This study uses morphological parameters of unstained RBCs phase images to distinguish between normal and infected cells. We recorded the single interferogram by a FF-SCT microscope for red and green color wavelength and average the two phase images to further reduced the noise artifacts. In order to characterize anemia infected from normal cells different morphological features were extracted and these features were used to train machine learning ensemble model to classify RBCs with high accuracy.

  20. Ex-vivo expansion of red blood cells: how real for transfusion in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Masselli, Elena; Varricchio, Lilian; Whitsett, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compared to other cell therapies transfusion poses the unique challenge of requiring great cell doses (2.5×10(12) cells vs 10(7) cells). Although production of such cell numbers is theoretically possible, current technologies generate red cells in numbers sufficient only for safety studies. It is conceived that by the time these studies will be completed, technical barriers to mass cell production will have been eliminated making transfusion with ex-vivo generated red cells a reality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of Red Sorghum Bran Anthocyanin on a Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, P.S.; Kumar, M.S.; Das, A.S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women worldwide both in the developed and developing countries. Thus effective treatment of breast cancer with potential antitumour drugs is important. In this paper, human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has been employed to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of red sorghum bran anthocyanin. The present investigation showed that red sorghum bran anthocyanin induced growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells at significant level. The growth inhibition is dose dependent and irreversible in nature. When MCF-7 cells were treated with red sorghum bran anthocyanins due to activity of anthocyanin morphological changes were observed. The morphological changes were identified through the formation of apoptopic bodies. The fragmentation by these anthocyanins on DNA to oligonuleosomal-sized fragments, is a characteristic of apoptosis, and it was observed as concentration-dependent. Thus, this paper clearly demonstrates that human breast cancer cell MCF-7 is highly responsive by red sorghum bran anthocyanins result from the induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  2. Histones induce phosphatidylserine exposure and a procoagulant phenotype in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, F; Ammollo, C T; Esmon, N L; Esmon, C T

    2014-10-01

    Extracellular histones exert part of their prothrombotic activity through the stimulation of blood cells. Besides platelets, histones can bind to red blood cells (RBCs), which are important contributors to thrombogenesis, but little is known about the functional consequences of this interaction. To evaluate the effect of histones on the procoagulant potential of human RBCs with particular regard to the expression of surface phosphatidylserine (PS). PS exposure on human RBCs treated with a natural mixture of histones or recombinant individual histones was evaluated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V binding and measured with flow cytometry. Calcium influx in RBCs loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorophore Fluo-4 AM was assessed with flow cytometry. The procoagulant potential of histone-treated RBCs was evaluated with a purified prothrombinase assay and a one-stage plasma recalcification clotting test. Natural histones induced PS exposure on RBCs in a dose-dependent manner, and neutralization or cleavage of histones by heparin or activated protein C, respectively, abolished PS externalization. H4 was mainly responsible for the stimulating activity of histones, whereas the other subtypes were almost ineffective. Similarly, natural histones and H4 induced influx of calcium into RBCs, whereas the other individual histones did not. Histone-induced exposure of PS on RBCs translated into increased prothrombinase complex-mediated prothrombin activation and accelerated fibrin formation in plasma. Histones induce RBCs to express a procoagulant phenotype through the externalization of PS. This finding provides new insights into the prothrombotic activity of extracellular histones. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Seventy-five genetic loci influencing the human red blood cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, P.; Zhang, W.; Mateo Leach, I.; Rendon, A.; Verweij, N.; Sehmi, J.; Paul, D.S.; Elling, U.; Allayee, H.; Li, X.; Radhakrishnan, A.; Tan, S.T.; Voss, K.; Weichenberger, C.X.; Albers, C.A.; Al-Hussani, A.; Asselbergs, F.W.; Ciullo, M.; Danjou, F.; Dina, C.; Esko, T.; Evans, D.M.; Franke, L.; Gogele, M.; Hartiala, J.; Hersch, M.; Holm, H.; Hottenga, J.J.; Kanoni, S.; Kleber, M.E.; Lagou, V.; Langenberg, C.; Lopez, L.M.; Lyytikainen, L.P.; Melander, O.; Murgia, F.; Nolte, I.M.; O'Reilly, P.F.; Padmanabhan, S.; Parsa, A.; Pirastu, N.; Porcu, E.; Portas, L.; Prokopenko, I.; Ried, J.S.; Shin, S.Y.; Tang, C.S.; Teumer, A.; Traglia, M.; Ulivi, S.; Westra, H.J.; Yang, J.; Zhao, J.H.; Anni, F.; Abdellaoui, A.; Attwood, A.; Balkau, B.; Bandinelli, S.; Bastardot, F.; Benyamin, B.; Boehm, B.O.; Cookson, W.O.; Das, D; de Bakker, P.I.; de Boer, R.A.; de Geus, E.J.; de Moor, M.H.; Dimitriou, M.; Domingues, F.S.; Doring, A.; Engstrom, G.; Eyjolfsson, G.I.; Ferrucci, L.; Fischer, K.; Galanello, R.; Garner, S.F.; Genser, B.; Gibson, Q.D.; Girotto, G.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Harris, S.E.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Hastie, C.E.; Hedblad, B.; Illig, T.; Jolley, J.; Kahonen, M.; Kema, I.P.; Kemp, J.P.; Liang, L.; Lloyd-Jones, H.; Loos, R.J.; Meacham, S.; Medland, S.E.; Meisinger, C.; Memari, Y.; Mihailov, E.; Miller, K.; Moffatt, M.F.; Nauck, M., et al.

    2012-01-01

    Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related

  4. Investigations on the role of hemoglobin in sulfide metabolism by intact human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Christopher L; Savitsky, Anton; Feelisch, Martin; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M

    2018-03-01

    In addition to their role as oxygen transporters, red blood cells (RBCs) contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis by regulating nitric oxide (NO) metabolism via interaction of hemoglobin (Hb) with nitrite and NO itself. RBCs were proposed to also participate in sulfide metabolism. Although Hb is known to react with sulfide, sulfide metabolism by intact RBCs has not been characterized so far. Therefore we explored the role of Hb in sulfide metabolism in intact human RBCs. We find that upon exposure of washed RBCs to sulfide, no changes in oxy/deoxyhemoglobin (oxy/deoxyHb) are observed by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy. However, sulfide reacts with methemoglobin (metHb), forming a methemoglobin-sulfide (metHb-SH) complex. Moreover, while metHb-SH is stable in cell-free systems even in the presence of biologically relevant thiols, it gradually decomposes to produce oxyHb, inorganic polysulfides and thiosulfate in intact cells, as detected by EPR and mass spectrometry. Taken together, our results demonstrate that under physiological conditions RBCs are able to metabolize sulfide via intermediate formation of a metHb-SH complex, which subsequently decomposes to oxyHb. We speculate that decomposition of metHb-SH is preceded by an inner-sphere electron transfer, forming reduced Hb (which binds oxygen to form oxyHb) and thiyl radical (a process we here define as "reductive sulfhydration"), which upon release, gives rise to the oxidized products, thiosulfate and polysulfides. Thus, not only is metHb an efficient scavenger and regulator of sulfide in blood, intracellular sulfide itself may play a role in keeping Hb in the reduced oxygen-binding form and, therefore, be involved in RBC physiology and function. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Kinetics of Ouabain Inhibition and the Partition of Rubidium Influx in Human Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauge, L. A.; Adragna, Norma

    1971-01-01

    In the development of ouabain inhibition of rubidium influx in human red blood cells a time lag can be detected which is a function of at least three variables: the concentrations of external sodium, rubidium, and ouabain. The inhibition is antagonized by rubidium and favored by sodium. Similar considerations could be applied to the binding of ouabain to membrane sites. The total influx of rubidium as a function of external rubidium concentration can be separated into two components: (a) a linear uptake not affected by external sodium or ouabain and not requiring an energy supply, and (b) a saturable component. The latter component, on the basis of the different effects of the aforementioned factors, can be divided into three fractions. The first is ouabain-sensitive, inhibited by external sodium at low rubidium, and requires an energy supply; this represents about 70–80% of the total uptake and is related to the active sodium extrusion mechanism. The second is ouabain-insensitive, activated by external sodium over the entire range of rubidium concentrations studied, and dependent on internal ATP; this represents about 15% of the total influx; it could be coupled to an active sodium extrusion or belong to a rubidium-potassium exchange. The third, which can be called residual influx, is ouabain-insensitive, unaffected by external sodium, and independent of internal ATP; this represents about 10–20% of the total influx. PMID:5553102

  6. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, S.; Hoffman, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain-sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS-treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES-buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o

  7. Detection of microparticles from human red blood cells by multiparametric flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisendi, Giulia; Finetti, Elena; Manganaro, Daniele; Cordova, Nicoletta; Montagnani, Giuliano; Spano, Carlotta; Prapa, Malvina; Guarneri, Valentina; Otsuru, Satoru; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Mari, Giorgio; Dominici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background During storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo chemical and biochemical changes referred to as “storage lesions”. These events determine the loss of RBC integrity, resulting in lysis and release of microparticles. There is growing evidence of the clinical importance of microparticles and their role in blood transfusion-related side effects and pathogen transmission. Flow cytometry is currently one of the most common techniques used to quantify and characterise microparticles. Here we propose multiparametric staining to monitor and quantify the dynamic release of microparticles by stored human RBC. Material and methods RBC units (n=10) were stored under blood bank conditions for up to 42 days. Samples were tested at different time points to detect microparticles and determine the haemolysis rate (HR%). Microparticles were identified by flow cytometry combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye, annexin V and anti-glycophorin A antibody. Results We demonstrated that CFSE can be successfully used to label closed vesicles with an intact membrane. The combination of CFSE and glycophorin A antibody was effective for monitoring and quantifying the dynamic release of microparticles from RBC during storage. Double staining with CFSE/glycophorin A was a more precise approach, increasing vesicle detection up to 4.7-fold vs the use of glycophorin A/annexin V alone. Moreover, at all the time points tested, we found a robust correlation (R=0.625; p=0.0001) between HR% and number of microparticles detected. Discussion Multiparametric staining, based on a combination of CFSE, glycophorin A antibody and annexin V, was able to detect, characterise and monitor the release of microparticles from RBC units during storage, providing a sensitive approach to labelling and identifying microparticles for transfusion medicine and, more broadly, for cell-based therapies. PMID:25369588

  8. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can

  9. Volumetric measurement of human red blood cells by MOSFET-based microfluidic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhong; Ai, Ye; Cheng, Yuanbing; Li, Chang Ming; Kang, Yuejun; Wang, Zhiming

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a MOSFET-based (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) microfluidic gate to characterize the translocation of red blood cells (RBCs) through a gate. In the microfluidic system, the bias voltage modulated by the particles or biological cells is connected to the gate of MOSFET. The particles or cells can be detected by monitoring the MOSFET drain current instead of DC/AC-gating method across the electronic gate. Polystyrene particles with various standard sizes are utilized to calibrate the proposed device. Furthermore, RBCs from both adults and newborn blood sample are used to characterize the performance of the device in distinguishing the two types of RBCs. As compared to conventional DC/AC current modulation method, the proposed device demonstrates a higher sensitivity and is capable of being a promising platform for bioassay analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    -activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia....

  11. Clearance of Human IgG1-Sensitised Red Blood Cells In Vivo in Humans Relates to the In Vitro Properties of Antibodies from Alternative Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathryn L.; Smith, Cheryl S.; Ip, Natasha C. Y.; Ellison, Cara J.; Kirton, Christopher M.; Wilkes, Anthony M.; Williamson, Lorna M.; Clark, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human FcγR, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the FcγRI and FcγRII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in FcγRIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for FcγRIIIa 158F, 20-fold for FcγRIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for FcγRIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with FcγRIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where FcγRI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only FcγRIII binding and FcγRIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of FcγRIII in RBC clearance. PMID:25302805

  12. Clearance of human IgG1-sensitised red blood cells in vivo in humans relates to the in vitro properties of antibodies from alternative cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Armour

    Full Text Available We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human FcγR, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the FcγRI and FcγRII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in FcγRIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for FcγRIIIa 158F, 20-fold for FcγRIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for FcγRIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with FcγRIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where FcγRI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only FcγRIII binding and FcγRIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of FcγRIII in RBC clearance.

  13. A study of membrane protein defects and alpha hemoglobin chains of red blood cells in human beta thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer-Fessard, P.; Garel, M.C.; Domenget, C.; Guetarni, D.; Bachir, D.; Colonna, P.; Beuzard, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The soluble pool of alpha hemoglobin chains present in blood or bone marrow cells was measured with a new affinity method using a specific probe, beta A hemoglobin chain labeled with [ 3 H]N-ethylmaleimide. This pool of soluble alpha chains was 0.067 ± 0.017% of hemoglobin in blood of normal adult, 0.11 ± 0.03% in heterozygous beta thalassemia and ranged from 0.26 to 1.30% in homozygous beta thalassemia intermedia. This elevated pool of soluble alpha chains observed in human beta thalassemia intermedia decreased 33-fold from a value of 10% of total hemoglobin in bone marrow cells to 0.3% in the most dense red blood cells. The amount of insoluble alpha chains was measured by using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in urea and Triton X-100. In beta thalassemia intermedia the amount of insoluble alpha chains was correlated with the decreased spectrin content of red cell membrane and was associated with a decrease in ankyrin and with other abnormalities of the electrophoretic pattern of membrane proteins. The loss and topology of the reactive thiol groups of membrane proteins was determined by using [ 3 H]N-ethylmaleimide added to membrane ghosts prior to urea and Triton X-100 electrophoresis. Spectrin and ankyrin were the major proteins with the most important decrease of thiol groups

  14. Does Magnetic Field Affect Malaria Parasite Replication in Human Red Blood Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturiya, Alexandr N.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Yin, Dan; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Digestion of red blood cell (RBC) hemoglobin by the malaria parasite results in the formation of paramagnetic hemazoin crystals inside the parasite body. A number of reports suggest that magnetic field interaction with hamazoin crystals significantly reduces the number of infected cells in culture, and thus magnetic field can be used to combat malaria. We studies the effects of magnetic filed on the Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle inside RBCs under various experimental conditions. No effect was found during prolonged exposure of infected RBCs to constant magnetic fields up to 6000 Gauss. Infected RBCs were also exposed, under temperature-controlled conditions, to oscillating magnetic fields with frequencies in the range of 500-20000 kHz, and field strength 30-600 Gauss. This exposure often changed the proportion of different parasite stages in treated culture compared to controls. However, no significant effect on parasitemia was observed in treated cultures. This result indicates that the magnetic field effect on Plasmodium falciparum is negligible, or that hypothetical negative and positive effects on different stages within one 48-hour compensate each other.

  15. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological lev...

  16. Carboxylated nanodiamonds inhibit γ-irradiation damage of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K; Silva-Campa, E; Melendrez-Amavizca, R; Teran Arce, F; Mata-Haro, V; Landon, P B; Zhang, C; Pedroza-Montero, M; Lal, R

    2016-04-07

    Nanodiamonds when carboxylated (cNDs) act as reducing agents and hence could limit oxidative damage in biological systems. Gamma (γ)-irradiation of whole blood or its components is required in immunocompetent patients to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, γ-irradiation of blood also deoxygenates red blood cells (RBCs) and induces oxidative damage, including abnormalities in cellular membranes and hemolysis. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we examined the effect of cNDs on γ-irradiation mediated deoxygenation and morphological damage of RBCs. γ-Radiation induced several morphological phenotypes, including stomatocytes, codocytes and echinocytes. While stomatocytes and codocytes are reversibly damaged RBCs, echinocytes are irreversibly damaged. AFM images show significantly fewer echinocytes among cND-treated γ-irradiated RBCs. The Raman spectra of γ-irradiated RBCs had more oxygenated hemoglobin patterns when cND-treated, resembling those of normal, non-irradiated RBCs, compared to the non-cND-treated RBCs. cND inhibited hemoglobin deoxygenation and morphological damage, possibly by neutralizing the free radicals generated during γ-irradiation. Thus cNDs have the therapeutic potential to preserve the quality of stored blood following γ-irradiation.

  17. All or none cell responses of Ca2+-dependent K channels elicited by calcium or lead in human red cells can be explained by heterogeneity of agonist distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.; Garcia-Sancho, J.; Herreros, B.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the all or none cell response of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels to added Ca in human red cells depleted of ATP by incubation with iodoacetate and inosine. A procedure was used which allows separation and differential analysis of responding and nonresponding cells. Responding (H for heavy) cells incubated in medium containing 5 mM K lose KCl and water and increase their density to the point of sinking on diethylphthalate (specific gravity = 1.12) on centrifugation. Nonresponding (L for light) cells do not lose KCl at all. There is no intermediate behavior. Increasing the Ca concentration in the medium increases the fraction of cells which become H. No differences in the sensitivity to Ca2+ of the individual K+ channels were detected in inside-out vesicles prepared either from H or from L cells. The Ca content of H cells was higher than that of L cells. Cells depleted of ATP by incubation with iodoacetate and inosine sustain pump-leak Ca fluxes of about 15 mumol/liter cells per hour. ATP seems to be resynthesized in these cells at the expense of cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate stores at a rate of about 150 mumol/liter cells per hour. Inhibition of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase by tetrathionate increased 6-8 times the measured rate of uptake of external 45Ca. This was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of H cells. All or none cell responses of Ca2+-dependent K channels have also been evidenced in intact human red cells on addition of Pb. They have the same characteristics as those in responding and nonresponding cells. The detailed study of the kinetics of Pb-induced shrinkage of red cells suspended in medium containing 5 mM K showed that changes of Pb concentration changed not only the fraction of H cells but also the rate of shrinkage of responding cells. H cells generated by Pb treatment contained significantly more lead than L cells

  18. Influence of estrogenic pesticides on membrane integrity and membrane transfer of monosaccharide into the human red cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermann, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Some natural and synthetic estrogens inhibit carrier-mediated transport of glucose into human red blood cells and membrane vesicles from the placenta. The inhibitory action of these estrogens on transport appears to be a direct effect at the membrane and does not involve receptor binding and protein synthesis. It is not clear, however, whether such inhibition is a common feature among estrogenic agents. Several chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides have been shown to possess estrogenic activity. These pesticides could have inhibitory effects on the human sodium-independent glucose transporter. Owing to the apparent importance of this membrane transporter in human tissues, direct interaction of hormones and xenobiotics with the glucose transporter is of fundamental significance. Some pesticides have been shown to alter membrane structure directly and alter the passive permeability of membranes. Whether the estrogenic pesticides influence passive diffusion of sugars across membranes has not been established. Finally, preliminary observations have suggested that some estrogens and pesticides have lytic effects on intact cells. Consequently, this study focuses on the ability of several estrogens and estrogenic pesticides to disrupt the cell membrane, influence the monosaccharide transporter, and alter the rate of monosaccharide permeation through the membrane by simple diffusion

  19. The influence of nanodiamond on the oxygenation states and micro rheological properties of human red blood cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Tsai, Lin-Wei; Perevedentseva, Elena; Chang, Hsin-Hou; Lin, Ching-Hui; Sun, Der-Shan; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Priezzhev, Alexander; Mona, Jani; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Nanodiamond has been proven to be biocompatible and proposed for various biomedical applications. Recently, nanometer-sized diamonds have been demonstrated as an effective Raman/fluorescence probe for bio-labeling, as well as, for drug delivery. Bio-labeling/drug delivery can be extended to the human blood system, provided one understands the interaction between nanodiamonds and the blood system. Here, the interaction of nanodiamonds (5 and 100 nm) with human red blood cells (RBC) in vitro is discussed. Measurements have been facilitated using Raman spectroscopy, laser scanning fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser diffractometry (ektacytometry). Data on cell viability and hemolytic analysis are also presented. Results indicate that the nanodiamonds in the studied condition do not cause hemolysis, and the cell viability is not affected. Importantly, the oxygenation/deoxygenation process was not found to be altered when nanodiamonds interacted with the RBC. However, the nanodiamond can affect some RBC properties such as deformability and aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. These results suggest that the nanodiamond can be used as an effective bio-labeling and drug delivery tool in ambient conditions, without complicating the blood's physiological conditions. However, controlling the blood properties including deformability of RBCs and rheological properties of blood is necessary during treatment.

  20. Passive transport pathways for Ca2+ and Co2+ in human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Harbak, Henrik; Bennekou, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The passive transport of calcium and cobalt and their interference were studied in human red cells using (45)Ca and (57)Co as tracers. In ATP-depleted cells, with the ATP concentration reduced to about 1µM, the progress curve for (45)Ca uptake at 1mM rapidly levels off with time, consistent...... with a residual Ca-pump activity building up at increasing [Ca(T)](c) to reach at [Ca(T)](c) about 5µmol(lcells)(-1) a maximal pump rate that nearly countermands the passive Ca influx, resulting in a linear net uptake at a low level. In ATP-depleted cells treated with vanadate, supposed to cause Ca-pump arrest......, a residual pump activity is still present at high [Ca(T)](c). Moreover, vanadate markedly increases the passive Ca(2+) influx. The residual Ca-pump activity in ATP-depleted cells is fuelled by breakdown of the large 2,3-DPG pool, rate-limited by the sustainable ATP-turnover at about 40-50µmol(lcells)(-1)h(-1...

  1. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca(2+)-sensitive and Ca(2+)-resistant human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-10-08

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological level of extracellular Ca2+ (1.4mM). However, with cells that are resistant to Ca2+ alone, the extract was still able to reduce proliferation and stimulate differentiation.

  2. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological level of extracellular Ca2+ (1.4 mM). However, with cells that are resistant to Ca2+ alone, the extract was still able to reduce proliferation and stimulate differentiation. PMID:19394137

  3. Long-term conservation of human red blood cells for transfusion; Langzeitkonservierung von menschlichen roten Blutkoerperchen zur Transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sputtek, A. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Transfusionsmedizin; Mingers, B. [Ing.-Buero Mingers, Willich-Anrath (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Since decades various cold conservation techniques have been available for storing cell-free as well as cell-containing components of human blood for long time periods. The development of a method based on hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and liquid nitrogen (=LN{sub 2}) has now greatly simplified the technical management of the cryoconservation of red blood cells (erythrocytes). This technique is meanwhile proven at the laboratory scale, in animal experiments, and clinical phase I and phase II tests on patients and test subjects. However, there are still a number of technical problems to be solved before it can be used at a larger scale. [Deutsch] Bereits seit Jahrzehnten koennen sowohl zellfreie als auch zellhaltige Komponenten des menschlichen Blutes durch unterschiedliche Kaeltekonservierungsverfahren ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum haltbar gemacht werden. Die technische Handhabung der Tiefkaelte-Konservierung von roten Blutkoerperchen (= Erythrozyten) konnte durch die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens unter Einsatz des Gefrierschutzadditivs Hydroxyethylstaerke (= HES) und Fluessigstickstoff (= LN{sub 2}) stark vereinfacht werden. Im Labormassstab, in Tierversuchen und in Klinischen Phase-I- und Phase-II-Pruefungen an Probanden bzw. Patienten hat es sich inzwischen bewaehrt. Vor einem `grosstechnischen` Einsatz sind allerdings noch eine Reihe von technischen Fragestellungen zu klaeren. (orig.)

  4. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  5. Differential effect of HOE642 on two separate monovalent cation transporters in the human red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhardt, Ingolf; Weiss, Erwin; Robinson, Hannah C

    2007-01-01

    Residual K(+) fluxes in red blood cells can be stimulated in conditions of low ionic strength. Previous studies have identified both the non-selective, voltage-dependent cation (NSVDC) channel and the K(+)(Na(+))/H(+) exchanger as candidate pathways mediating this effect, although it is possible...... blood cell apoptosis (eryptosis) and disease....

  6. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghdami, Nasser [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahbazi, Ebrahim [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdi, Reza Salman [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini, E-mail: Salekdeh@royaninstitute.org [Department of Molecular Systems Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Systems Biology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Hossein, E-mail: Baharvand@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, {alpha}-globulin, and {gamma}-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  7. Artificial Red Cells with Polyhemoglobin Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Y. Reciprocal binding of oxygen and diphosphoglycerate by human hemoglobin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59:526-532, 1968. 12. Bunn, H. F., Seal, U. S...and Scott, A. F. The role of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate in mediating hemoglobin function of mammalian red cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sciences 241:498-519

  8. Proliferative and phenotypical characteristics of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells: comparison of Ficoll gradient centrifugation and red blood cell lysis buffer treatment purification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Mehdi; Rodrigues, Robim M; Buyl, Karolien; Branson, Steven; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Lagneaux, Laurence; Rogiers, Vera; De Kock, Joery

    2014-09-01

    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue harbors a multipotent stem cell population, the so-called human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs). These cells are able to differentiate in vitro into various cell types and possess immunomodulatory features. Yet procedures to obtain AT-MSCs can vary significantly. The two most extensively used AT-MSC purification techniques are (i) density gradient centrifugation using Ficoll and (ii) red blood cell (RBC) lysis buffer treatment of the stromal vascular fraction. In the context of potential clinical cell therapy, the stem cell yield after purification and upon consecutive passages, as well as the purity of the obtained cell population, are of utmost importance. We investigated the expansion capacity and purity of AT-MSCs purified by both procedures immediately after isolation and upon consecutive passages. We also investigated possible purification-dependent differences in their expression of immune-inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. We found that RBC lysis buffer treatment is a more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs than density gradient fractionation. However, the resulting AT-MSC-RBC population contains a significantly higher number of CD34(+) cells, particularly during the first passages after plating. From passage 4 onward, no significant differences could be observed between both populations with respect to the immunophenotype, expansion capacity and expression of immune inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. Our data show that RBC lysis buffer treatment may be a good alternative to density fractionation, providing a faster, more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs with biologically preserved characteristics. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transfusion of 35-day-stored red blood cells does not alter lipopolysaccharide tolerance during human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Hezel, Maike E.; Klanderman, Robert B.; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van der Spek, Anne H.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) encompasses immunosuppressive and proinflammatory effects induced by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Changes that occur during storage in the RBC product have been hypothesized to underlie TRIM, mediated by tolerance of toll-like receptors (TLR). We

  10. NO Metabolites Levels in Human Red Blood Cells are Affected by Palytoxin, an Inhibitor of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli-Alinovi, Cristiana; Tellone, Ester; Russo, Anna Maria; Ficarra, Silvana; Pirolli, Davide; Galtieri, Antonio; Giardina, Bruno; Misiti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Palytoxin (PTX), a marine toxin, represents an increasing hazard for human health. Despite its high toxicity for biological systems, the mechanisms triggered by PTX, are not well understood. The high affinity of PTX for erythrocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump is largely known, and it indicates PTX as a sensitive tool to characterize the signal transducer role for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump. Previously, it has been reported that in red blood cells (RBC), probably via a signal transduction generated by the formation of a PTX-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase complex, PTX alters band 3 functions and glucose metabolism. The present study addresses the question of which other signaling pathways are regulated by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in RBC. Here it has been evidenced that PTX following its interaction with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump, alters RBC morphology and this event is correlated to decreases by 30% in nitrites and nitrates levels, known as markers of plasma membrane eNOS activity. Orthovanadate (OV), an antagonist of PTX binding to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump, was able to reverse the effects elicited by PTX. Finally, current investigation firstly suggests that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump, following its interaction with PTX, triggers a signal transduction involved in NO metabolism regulation.

  11. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (red blood cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. (author)

  12. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell (Na/sup +//K/sup +/) ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwave radiation. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersected between 23 and 24 C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to a 6 W/kg dose rate at 1 C intervals between 23 and 27 C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. An hypothesis based on the interaction of microwave radiation with enzyme structure during a conformational rearrangement is proposed as an explanation for the effect.

  13. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell Na+/K+ ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz continuous wave microwave radiation to confirm and extend a report of Na+ transport inhibition under certain conditions of temperature and exposure. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 degrees C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersect between 23 and 24 degrees C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 degrees C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to electromagnetic radiation, at a dose rate of 6 W/kg and at five temperatures between 23 and 27 degrees C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 degrees C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. A possible explanation for the unusual temperature/microwave interaction is proposed.

  14. Enhanced opsonisation of Rhesus D-positive human red blood cells by recombinant polymeric immunoglobulin G anti-G antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Solano, Dylana; Fuenmayor, Jaheli; Montaño, Ramon F

    2018-02-01

    Anti-RhD antibodies (anti-D) are important in the prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN) due to RhD incompatibility. Current preparations of anti-D are sourced from hyperimmune human plasma, so its production carries a risk of disease and is dependent on donor availability. Despite the efforts to develop a monoclonal preparation with similar prophylactic properties to the plasma-derived anti-D, no such antibody is yet available. Here we studied the agglutinating, opsonic and haemolytic activities of two recombinant polymeric immunoglobulins (Ig) against the G antigen of the Rh complex. Recombinant polymeric anti-G IgG1 (IgG1μtp) and IgG3 (IgG3μtp) were produced in vitro, purified by protein G-affinity chromatography, and analysed by gel electrophoresis. Their agglutinating, opsonic and haemolytic activities were evaluated using haemagglutination, erythrophagocytosis, and complement activation assays. The recombinant IgG1μtp and IgG3μtp anti-G antibodies ranged from 150,000 to 1,000,000 Da in molecular weight, indicating the formation of polymeric IgG. No complement activation or haemolytic activity was detected upon incubation of RhD-positive red-blood cells with the polymeric anti-G IgG. Both polymers were better opsonins than a prophylactic preparation of plasma-derived anti-D. The enhanced opsonic properties of the polymeric anti-G IgG1μtp and IgG3μtp could allow them to mediate the clearance of RhD-positive red blood cells from circulation more efficiently than natural or other synthetic prophylactic anti-D options. Their inability to induce complement-mediated haemolysis would be prophylactically convenient and is comparable in vitro to that of the available plasma-derived polyclonal anti-D preparations. The described properties suggest that polymeric antibodies like these (but with anti-D specificity) may be testable candidates for prophylaxis of HDFN caused by anti-D.

  15. Fundamental studies on ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) of human peripheral blood leukocytes using sheep red blood cells as target cells, and the effect of erythrophagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yukinobu; Takaya, Masatoshi; Arimori, Shigeru

    1979-01-01

    We investigated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human peripheral blood leukocytes by using 51 Cr-labelled sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as target cells and anti-SRBC rabbit antibody. Lysis of SRBC was mediated by either human peripheral lymphoid cells or phagocytes (Monocytes and granulocytes). SRBC were useful as target cells in ADCC assay against human lymphoid cells, since decreased cytotoxic activity of phagocyte-contaminated crude lymphocyte fraction was recovered by elimination of contaminating phagocytes. The monocytes inhibited ADCC of lymphoid cells through phagocytosis of SRBC. This assay system may be useful for estimating not only Fc receptor-mediated cytotoxicity but also Fc receptor-mediated phagocytic activity of human peripheral blood leukocytes. (author)

  16. [3H]Ouabain binding and Na+, K+-ATPase in resealed human red cell ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, D.G.; Lauf, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of the cardiac glycoside [ 3 H]ouabain with the Na+, K+ pump of resealed human erythrocyte ghosts was investigated. Binding of [ 3 H]ouabain to high intracellular Na+ ghosts was studied in high extracellular Na+ media, a condition determined to produce maximal ouabain binding rates. Simultaneous examination of both the number of ouabain molecules bound per ghost and the corresponding inhibition of the Na+, K+-ATPase revealed that one molecule of [ 3 H]ouabain inhibited one Na+, K+-ATPase complex. Intracellular magnesium or magnesium plus inorganic phosphate produced the lowest ouabain binding rate. Support of ouabain binding by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was negligible, provided synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the residual adenylate kinase activity was prevented by the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A. Uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) alone did not support ouabain binding after inhibition of the endogenous nucleoside diphosphokinase by trypan blue and depletion of residual ATP by the incorporation of hexokinase and glucose. ATP acting solely at the high-affinity binding site of the Na+, K+ pump (Km approximately 1 microM) promoted maximal [ 3 H]ouabain binding rates. Failure of 5'-adenylyl-beta-gamma-imidophosphate (AMP-PNP) to stimulate significantly the rate of ouabain binding suggests that phosphorylation of the pump was required to expose the ouabain receptor

  17. The Molecular Basis for Altered Cation Permeability in Hereditary Stomatocytic Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna F. Flatt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal human RBCs have a very low basal permeability (leak to cations, which is continuously corrected by the Na,K-ATPase. The leak is temperature-dependent, and this temperature dependence has been evaluated in the presence of inhibitors to exclude the activity of the Na,K-ATPase and NaK2Cl transporter. The severity of the RBC cation leak is altered in various conditions, most notably the hereditary stomatocytosis group of conditions. Pedigrees within this group have been classified into distinct phenotypes according to various factors, including the severity and temperature-dependence of the cation leak. As recent breakthroughs have provided more information regarding the molecular basis of hereditary stomatocytosis, it has become clear that these phenotypes elegantly segregate with distinct genetic backgrounds. The cryohydrocytosis phenotype, including South-east Asian Ovalocytosis, results from mutations in SLC4A1, and the very rare condition, stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis, is caused by mutations in SLC2A1. Mutations in RHAG cause the very leaky condition over-hydrated stomatocytosis, and mutations in ABCB6 result in familial pseudohyperkalemia. All of the above are large multi-spanning membrane proteins and the mutations may either modify the structure of these proteins, resulting in formation of a cation pore, or otherwise disrupt the membrane to allow unregulated cation movement across the membrane. More recently mutations have been found in two RBC cation channels, PIEZO1 and KCNN4, which result in dehydrated stomatocytosis. These mutations alter the activation and deactivation kinetics of these channels, leading to increased opening and allowing greater cation fluxes than in wild type.

  18. Effects of ultraviolet-visible irradiation in the presence of melanin isolated from human black or red hair upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, I.A.; Persad, S.; Ranadive, N.S.; Haberman, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the possibility that ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of pheomelanin may be more harmful to cells than the irradiation in the presence of eumelanin. The effects of UV-visible irradiation upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in the presence of the melanin isolated from human black hair (eumelanin) or from red hair (pheomelanin) were investigated. Irradiation of these cells was found to produce cell lysis, as observed by leakage of 51Cr from labeled cells and intracellular lactic dehydrogenase from the cells and decrease in cell viability demonstrated by the trypan blue exclusion test. The three parameters were quantitatively parallel to one another under various experimental conditions, namely different periods of irradiation and irradiation in the presence of different concentrations of melanin. The above effects were more pronounced when the irradiation was carried out in the presence of melanin from red hair than in the presence of black-hair melanin. In the absence of either melanin, the irradiation did not produce any significant effect in cell viability or cell lysis. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of red-hair melanin also decreased the transplantability of these cells. These observations clearly show that irradiation of cells in the presence of pheomelanin could produce cytotoxic effects. The present experimental design may have application in the development of in vitro models for the study of UV radiation-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis. The reactions of pheomelanin may be related to the susceptibility of ''Celtic'' skin to UV radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.

  19. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864.7100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell...

  1. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  3. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  4. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  5. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  6. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37 0 C in the presence of 14 C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14 C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  7. [Effect of low-energy 633 nm red light stimulation on proliferation and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Y; Li, D L; Duan, X D; Peng, D Z

    2016-09-20

    To investigate the changes of proliferative activity and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT after being irradiated with low-energy 633 nm red light. Irradiation distance was determined through preliminary experiment. HaCaT cells were conventionally sub-cultured with RPMI 1640 culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. Cells of the third passage were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into blank control group and 0.082, 0.164, 0.245, 0.491, 1.472, 2.453, 4.910, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups according to the random number table, with 3 wells in each group. Cells in blank control group were not irradiated, while cells in the latter 8 irradiation groups were irradiated with 633 nm red light for 10, 20, 30, 60, 180, 300, 600, and 1 200 s in turn. Cells were reirradiated once every 8 hours. After being irradiated for 48 hours (6 times) in irradiation groups, the proliferative activity of cells in 9 groups was determined with cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (2) Another batch of cells were grouped and irradiated as in experiment (1). After being irradiated for once in irradiation groups, cells in 9 groups were conventionally cultured for 60 min with detection reagent of reactive oxygen species. At post culture minute (PCM) 0 (immediately), 30, 60, and 120, reactive oxygen species level of cells was determined with microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (3) Another batch of cells were divided into blank control group, 0.082, 0.491, 2.453, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups, and positive control group. Cells in blank control group and positive control group were not irradiated (positive control reagent of reactive oxygen species was added to cells in positive control group), and cells in irradiation groups were irradiated as in experiment (1) for once. The expression of reactive oxygen species in cells of each

  8. The human red cell voltage-dependent cation channel. Part III: Distribution homogeneity and pH dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennekou, P.; Barksmann, T. L.; Christophersen, P.

    2006-01-01

    The homogeneity of the distribution of the non-selective voltage-dependent cation channel (the NSVDC channel) in the human erythrocyte, and the pH dependence was investigated. Activation of this channel caused a uniform cellular dehydration, which was characterized by the changes in the erythrocyte...... osmotic resistance profiles: After 1/2 h of activation, the osmolarity at 50% hemolysis changed from 73 mM (control) to 34 mM NaCl, corresponding to 0.48% and 0.21% NaCl respectively. Unchanging standard deviations show participation of the entire erythrocyte population, which implies an even distribution...... of the NSVDC channel among the cells. Inactivation of the NSVDC channel with N-ethyl-maleimide (NEM) or blocking of the Cl- conductance with NS1652 retarded the migration of the resistance profiles towards lower osmolarities. The NSVDC channel activation was blocked by a decrease of the intracellular...

  9. Clinical comparison of cardiac blood pool visualization with technetium-99m red blood cells labeled in vivo and with technetium-99m human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.; Rogers, W.L.; Clare, J.M.; Brown, M.L.; Pitt, B.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m red blood cells (Tc-RBC) labeled by an in vivo technique were compared with two preparations of Tc-99m human serum albumin (HSA) for cardiac blood-pool imaging. Relative distribution of the tracers was analyzed on end-diastolic frames of gated blood-pool studies and on whole-body (head to mid-thigh) anterior pinhole images. The Tc-RBC demonstrated greater relative percentage localization in the cardiac blood pool, higher target-to-background ratios in the left ventricle, and less liver concentration. For cardiac blood-pool imaging, Tc-RBC labeled by the in vivo approach appears to be superior to the two Tc-HSA preparations studied

  10. Influence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism on sodium-potassium permeability in human red blood cells: studies with bisulfite and other redox agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John C.

    1969-01-01

    It is known that bisulfite ions can selectively deplete red blood cells of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Studies of the effects of bisulfite on sodium-potassium permeability and metabolism were undertaken to clarify the physiologic role of the abundant quantities of 2,3-DPG in human erythrocytes. Treatment of cells with bisulfite results in a reversible increase in the passive permeability to Na and K ions. Metabolism of glucose to lactate is increased, with a rise in the intracellular ratio of fructose diphosphate to hexose monophosphate. Cell 2,3-DPG is quantitatively converted to pyruvate and inorganic phosphate. The permeability effects of bisulfite are countered by ethacrynic acid and by such oxidizing agents as pyruvate and methylene blue. Taken together, the results suggest that the effects on Na-K flux of bisulfite are related more to the reducing potential of this anion than to its capacity to deplete cells of 2,3-DPG. PMID:5765015

  11. Nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and mesoporous silica nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and nanobiointeractions with red blood cells and human plasma proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Leandro C.; de Araújo, Maciel M.; de Moraes, Ana Carolina M.; da Silva, Douglas S.; Ferreira, Ariane G.; Franqui, Lidiane S.; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T.; Alves, Oswaldo L.

    2018-04-01

    The current work refers to the development of a novel nanocomposite based on graphene oxide (GO) and mesoporous amino silica nanoparticles (H2N-MSNs) and its biological interaction with red blood cells (RBCs) and human blood plasma toward the investigation of nanobiointeractions. Silica nanoparticles and several graphene oxide-based materials are, separately, known for their high hemolytic potential and strong interaction with human plasma proteins. In this context, the GO-MSN interaction and its influence in minimizing the reported effects were investigated. The materials were synthesized by covalently attaching H2N-MSNs onto the surface of GO through an amidation reaction. GO-MSN nanocomposites were obtained by varying the mass of H2N-MSNs and were characterized by FTIR, NMR, XRD, TGA, zeta potential and TEM. The characterization results confirm that nanocomposites were obtained, suggest covalent bond attachment mostly by amine-epoxy reactions and evidence an unexpected reduction reaction of GO by H2N-MSNs, whose mechanism is proposed. Biological assays showed a decrease of hemolysis (RBC lysis) and a minimization of the interaction with human plasma proteins (protein corona formation). These are important findings toward achieving in vivo biocompatibility and understanding the nanobiointeractions. Finally, this work opens possibilities for new nanomedicine applications of GO-MSN nanocomposites, such as drug delivery system.

  12. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  13. Diverse captive non-human primates with phytanic acid-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial phytanic acid levels in their red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Ann B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans and rodents with impaired phytanic acid (PA metabolism can accumulate toxic stores of PA that have deleterious effects on multiple organ systems. Ruminants and certain fish obtain PA from the microbial degradation of dietary chlorophyll and/or through chlorophyll-derived precursors. In contrast, humans cannot derive PA from chlorophyll and instead normally obtain it only from meat, dairy, and fish products. Results Captive apes and Old world monkeys had significantly higher red blood cell (RBC PA levels relative to humans when all subjects were fed PA-deficient diets. Given the adverse health effects resulting from PA over accumulation, we investigated the molecular evolution of thirteen PA metabolism genes in apes, Old world monkeys, and New world monkeys. All non-human primate (NHP orthologs are predicted to encode full-length proteins with the marmoset Phyh gene containing a rare, but functional, GA splice donor dinucleotide. Acox2, Scp2, and Pecr sequences had amino acid positions with accelerated substitution rates while Amacr had significant variation in evolutionary rates in apes relative to other primates. Conclusions Unlike humans, diverse captive NHPs with PA-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial RBC PA levels. The favored hypothesis is that NHPs can derive significant amounts of PA from the degradation of ingested chlorophyll through gut fermentation. If correct, this raises the possibility that RBC PA levels could serve as a biomarker for evaluating the digestive health of captive NHPs. Furthermore, the evolutionary rates of the several genes relevant to PA metabolism provide candidate genetic adaptations to NHP diets.

  14. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864...

  15. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Back, Djuna Z.; Kostova, Elena B.; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Bruggen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with

  16. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio, Di; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M.; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system....

  17. Sub-minute kinetics of human red cell fumarase: 1 H spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and 13 C rapid-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishmarev, Dmitry; Wright, Alan J; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Pileio, Giuseppe; Stevanato, Gabriele; Brindle, Kevin M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2018-03-01

    Fumarate is an important probe of metabolism in hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. It is used to detect the release of fumarase in cancer tissues, which is associated with necrosis and drug treatment. Nevertheless, there are limited reports describing the detailed kinetic studies of this enzyme in various cells and tissues. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the sub-minute kinetics of human red blood cell fumarase using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and to provide a quantitative description of the enzyme that is relevant to the use of fumarate as a probe of cell rupture. The fumarase reaction was studied using time courses of 1 H spin-echo and 13 C-NMR spectra. 1 H-NMR experiments showed that the fumarase reaction in hemolysates is sufficiently rapid to make its kinetics amenable to study in a period of approximately 3 min, a timescale characteristic of hyperpolarized 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. The rapid-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (RD-DNP) technique was used to hyperpolarize [1,4- 13 C]fumarate, which was injected into concentrated hemolysates. The kinetic data were analyzed using recently developed FmR α analysis and modeling of the enzymatic reaction using Michaelis-Menten equations. In RD-DNP experiments, the decline in the 13 C-NMR signal from fumarate, and the concurrent rise and fall of that from malate, were captured with high spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, which allowed the robust quantification of fumarase kinetics. The kinetic parameters obtained indicate the potential contribution of hemolysis to the overall rate of the fumarase reaction when 13 C-NMR RD-DNP is used to detect necrosis in animal models of implanted tumors. The analytical procedures developed will be applicable to studies of other rapid enzymatic reactions using conventional and hyperpolarized substrate NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Rapid photolytic release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate from a protected analogue: utilization by the Na:K pump of human red blood cell ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, J.H.; Forbush, B. III; Hoffman, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    2-Nitrobenzyl phosphate and 1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl phosphate have been synthesized and demonstrated to be suitable as photolabile sources of inorganic phosphate. The same protecting groups were attached to the terminal phosphate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. These caged ATP compounds released adenosine 5'-triphosphate on illumination at 340 nm in aqueous solution and P 3 -1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl-ATP gave about a 70 percent yield in under 30 s. The unphotolyzed caged ATP was neither a substrate nor inhibitor of purified renal Na,K-ATPase (EC 3.61.3). Following photolysis in the presence of the enzyme, the liberated ATP was hydrolyzed but at an inhibited rate. The photo-dependent inhibition could be eliminated by prior addition of glutathione or bisulfite to the irradiated solution. Caged ATP was incorporated into resealed human erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells depleted of internal energy stores. While the NA : K pump was unable to use incorporated caged ATP as a substrate, the ATP liberated by photolysis activated the pump as evidenced by measurements of K-dependent, ouabain-sensitive Na efflux. Thus the caged ATP can be used as a stable source of ATP unmetabolizable by intracellular ATPases until the ATP is released following photolytic irradiation

  19. Gamma ray induced oxidative damage to human red blood cells proteins under hypotonic conditions and its prevention by natural phenolic malabaricone compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, K.; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    As an oxygen shuttle, Human RBCs must continue to perform the task while being exposed to a wide range of environments for each vascular circuit and to a variety of xenobiotics across its life time. The inability to synthesise new protein makes them uniquely vulnerable to oxidative stress. Antioxidants can help in protecting the RBCs from oxidative insults. Currently herbal antioxidants gained worldwide popularity as drugs and food/drug supplements for the treatment of various diseases. The present effort was aimed at formulating some natural phenolic compounds isolated from M.malabarica (mal B and mal C) to prevent the biochemical parameters which are considered as biomarkers of redox balance primarily contribute to alterations in red blood cells proteins during gamma radiation induced oxidative stress. Compared to control gamma ray treatment with hypotonic stress resulted in significant haemolysis, associated with increased MDA (3.3 fold, p<0.001) and met-haemoglobin (7.0 fold, p<0.001). The structural deformation due to membrane damage was confirmed from SEM images and Heinz body formation, while the cell permeability was evident from the K + efflux (30.4%, p<0.05) and increased intracellular Na + concentration (5.2%, p<0.05). The membrane damage, due to the reduction of the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio and depletion (p<0.001) of ATP, 2,3-DPG by 54.7% and Na + -K + ATPase activity (48.%) indicated loss of RBC functionally. Pre-treatment of the RBCs with mal B (5μM), mal C (2.5 μM) or vitamin E (50 μM) for 1 h reversed these adverse effects of gamma radiation under hypotonic conditions on all these parameters and provided significant protection against oxidative haemolysis. (author)

  20. Radioassay for serum and red cell folate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, D.L.; Herbert, V.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, reliable assay for serum and red cell folate is described. It uses plain untreated liquid or powdered milk, requiring no special handling or purification, as binder. Such milk makes it possible to ignore endogenous serum folate binder, since crude (but not purified) milk contains a factor which releases folate from serum binder. It simplifies counting radioactivity by employing a gamma emitting isotope of pteroylglutamic acid (PGA), namely the 125 I-tyramide of PGA. Like the 3 H-PGA assay of Givas and Gutcho, it permits the use of stable PGA rather than unstable methyltetrahydrofolic acid (MeTHFA) standards, because it is carried out at pH 9.3, a pH at which milk folate binder is unable to distinguish PGA from MeTHFA, which is the predominant folate in human tissues. The equipment required to do the radioassay is present in most diagnostic chemistry laboratories. Results are essentially identical to the generally accepted Lactobacillus casei microbiologic method of folate assay, except that false low results are not produced in the radioassay by antibiotics, tranquilizers, and chemotherapeutic agents. Three caveats in its use are the relative instability of 125 I-PGA as compared to 3 H-PGA, the fact that various powdered milks differ widely in folate-binding capacity, and that only about 60 percent of commercially obtained skim or powdered milk preparations appear to contain the substance which splits folate from serum binder

  1. Studies on ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) using sheep red blood cells as target cells, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yukinobu; Takaya, Masatoshi; Arimori, Shigeru

    1979-01-01

    A non-specific cytotoxic mediator from effector cells (human peripheral blood leukocytes) was investigated in the ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) system using antibody-coated sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as target cells. 51 Cr-labelled homologous (sheep) or heterologous (human) red blood cells were used as adjacent cells. Either crude lymphocyte fraction, phagocyte depleted fraction or granulocyte rich fraction separated from human peripheral leukocytes showed moderate cytotoxic effect on homologous adjacent cells, however no cytotoxic activity on heterologous adjacent cells was demonstrated in any leukocyte fraction. This suggests that the cytotoxic effects on homologous adjacent cells were resulted from the translocation of antibody molecules to adjacent cells from antibody-coated target cells. We concluded that the cytotoxic mechanism in this ADCC system was not mediated by non-specific soluble factors released from either human peripheral lymphocytes, monocytes or granulocytes. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  3. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8185...

  4. [Establishment and identification of mouse lymphoma cell line EL4 expressing red fluorescent protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Jie; Cao, Jiang; Chen, Chong; Wang, Dong-Yang; Zeng, Ling-Yu; Pan, Xiu-Ying; Xu, Kai-Lin

    2010-02-01

    This study was purposed to construct a lentiviral vector encoding red fluorescent protein (DsRed) and transfect DsRed into EL4 cells for establishing mouse leukemia/lymphoma model expressing DsRed. The bicistronic SIN lentiviral transfer plasmid containing the genes encoding neo and internal ribosomal entry site-red fluorescent protein (IRES-DsRed) was constructed. Human embryonic kidney 293FT cells were co-transfected with the three plasmids by liposome method. The viral particles were collected and used to transfect EL4 cells, then the cells were selected by G418. The results showed that the plasmid pXZ208-neo-IRES-DsRed was constructed successfully, and the viral titer reached to 10(6) U/ml. EL4 cells were transfected by the viral solution efficiently. The transfected EL4 cells expressing DsRed survived in the final concentration 600 microg/ml of G418. The expression of DsRed in the transfected EL4 cells was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In conclusion, the EL4/DsRed cell line was established successfully.

  5. Mechanisms of immune red cell destruction, and red cell compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garratty, G.

    1983-01-01

    The immune destruction of red cells can occur as a complement-mediated intravascular process, or extravascularly, where the red cells are destroyed by macrophages following interaction with cell-bound IgG1, IgG3, and/or C3b. Many of the factors that affect this in vivo destruction are not taken into account during in vitro pretransfusion compatibility testing. At present, even by use of more elaborate tests, it is difficult to accurately predict the fate of a transfused unit of blood. By using some simple information, such as antibody specificity and thermal range, it is sometimes possible to predict the outcome of transfusing a unit of blood that is incompatible in vitro. At other times it may be necessary to utilize 51 Cr-labeled red cells to determine the risk of transfusing such units. Because of the paucity of reported clinical correlations, macrophage/monocyte monolayer assays are of little practical value at present

  6. Partitioning of red blood cell aggregates in bifurcating microscale flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2017-03-01

    Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. Aggregate sizes were determined using image processing. The mean aggregate size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and aggregate proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean aggregate size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by aggregates of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC aggregation are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  7. [The influence of pulsed low-intensity laser radiation of the red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra on the human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, S V; Kliuchnikov, D Iu; Antipov, E V; Volchkov, S E; Kiseleva, O N

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have for a long time been an object of investigation with a view to elucidating the prospects for their application in clinical medicine and cosmetology. One of the approaches to the non-specific regulation of the activity of these cells at the stage of preliminary in vitro combination is the treatment with low-intensity laser radiation (LILR). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using pulsed LILR of the infrared and red spectra for this purpose. We used the 4th passage adhesive MSC cultures based at the umbilical tissue of a donor who gave the informed consent to participate in the study. The source of illumination was a Lazmik-VLOK laser therapeutic apparatus (RU No RZN 2014/1410 dated 06.02.2014) with the matrix laser infrared radiation heads (wavelength 904 nm, light pulse length 108 ns, frequency 1500 Hz). The apparatus was operated either in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.05 and 0.14 mW/cm2 and the red spectrum (wavelength 635 nm, light pulse length 144 ns, frequency 1500 Hz) or in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.03 and 0.12. The exposition was 5 min in both regimes. The study has demonstrated that neither the morphological structure nor the viability of mesenchymal stem cells changed under the influence of energy and time parameters used in experiments. The number of cells was shown to slightly increase in comparison with control. The most pronounced effect was documented after illumination with pulse infrared (904 nm) LILR in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime. The maximum effect was observed during a period between days 1 and 3 of cultivation.

  8. Thrombocytopenia responding to red blood cell transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, Ahmad A.; Awidi, Abdalla; Rasul, Kakil I.; Al-Homsi, Ussama

    2004-01-01

    Three patients with severe symptomatic iron defficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia had a significant rise in the platelet count a few days following packed red blood cell transfusion. Pretransfusion platelet count of of patient one was 17x10/L. 22x10/Lin patient two and 29x10/L in patient three. On the 6th day of post tranfusion, the platelet count rose to 166x10/Lin patient one, 830x10/L in patient two and 136x10/L in patient three. The possible mechcnism behind such an unreported observation are discussed. (author)

  9. An Experimental Study on Effects of Distilled Red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on A549 human ephithelial lung cancer cell in vitro and implanted Sarcoma-180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Won

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : In order to investigate effects and immune improvement of distilled red-ginseng herbal Acupuncture, expression of Cox-1, Cox-2, and mRNA of Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed in A549 cell in vivo. Survival time and expression of cytokine mRNA were measured for the mice with Sarcoma-180 induced abdominal cancer. Methods : Balb/c mouse was treated with distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture at Wisu(BL21 and Chung- wan(CV12 to investigate anti-cancer effects and immune response. Results : 1. For expression of mRNA of Cox-1 using RT-PCR, the control group and the experiment groups didn't show significant differences. For Cox-2, both experiment groups and the normal group showed significant decrease. 2.For expression of mRNA of Bcl-2 using RT-PCR, experiment groups showed slight decrease compared to the control group. For Bax, no significant changes were shown between the control group and experiment groups. 3.For survival time, all of experiment groups showed 11.1 % increase compared to the control group. 4. For IL-2 and IL-4 productivity using Flow cytometry, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 5.For IL-2 productivity using ELISA, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 6.For expression of cytokine mRNA using RT-PCR, significant increase of IL-2 and IL-4 were witnessed in the experiment group II compared to the control group. Significant increase of IL-10 was shown in all of experiment groups compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can expect that distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture may be further effects in anti-cancer and immune improvement if increasing concentration.

  10. Red cell concentrate storage and transport temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, V; Cardigan, R; Thomas, S

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the current U.K. guidelines for storage and transport of red cell concentrates (RCC) in saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol (SAGM). The guidelines stipulate storage at 2-6 °C but allow exposure to between 1-10 °C core temperature in a single occurrence of less than 5 h and a surface temperature of 2-10 °C for no more than 12 h during transportation. Twenty RCC units in SAGM were selected on the day of blood collection (day 0) and in vitro quality was tested pre- and post-temperature deviation at 10 °C and up to day 42 of storage. Each group of 10 RCC units was incubated for either 12 h or for both 5 and 12 h. Haemolysis was below the 0·8% U.K. limit at day 42 in all units, although there was an unexpected trend towards lower haemolysis in packs incubated for 5 and 12 h rather than just 12 h alone. Supernatant potassium was significantly higher than reference data on day 35 (P levels of adenosine triphosphate and, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate to reference data from previous studies, throughout storage. These results suggest that exposure to 10 °C for 12 h or for 5 and 12 h did not adversely affect in vitro red cell quality for the remainder of the components shelf life. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Infra-red laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO2 substrates for rapid prototyping, high yield, human neuronal cell patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raos, B J; Unsworth, C P; Costa, J L; Rohde, C A; Simpson, M C; Doyle, C S; Dickinson, M E; Bunting, A S; Murray, A F; Delivopoulos, E; Graham, E S

    2013-01-01

    Cell patterning commonly employs photolithographic methods for the micro fabrication of structures on silicon chips. These require expensive photo-mask development and complex photolithographic processing. Laser based patterning of cells has been studied in vitro and laser ablation of polymers is an active area of research promising high aspect ratios. This paper disseminates how 800 nm femtosecond infrared (IR) laser radiation can be successfully used to perform laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates for the patterning of human hNT astrocytes (derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line (hNT)) whilst 248 nm nanosecond ultra-violet laser radiation produces photo-oxidization of the parylene-C and destroys cell patterning. In this work, we report the laser ablation methods used and the ablation characteristics of parylene-C for IR pulse fluences. Results follow that support the validity of using IR laser ablative micromachining for patterning human hNT astrocytes cells. We disseminate the variation in yield of patterned hNT astrocytes on parylene-C with laser pulse spacing, pulse number, pulse fluence and parylene-C strip width. The findings demonstrate how laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates can offer an accessible alternative for rapid prototyping, high yield cell patterning with broad application to multi-electrode arrays, cellular micro-arrays and microfluidics. (paper)

  12. Red blood cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Alloimmunization is a recognized complication of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and causes delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and provides problems sourcing compatible blood for future transfusions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of RBC alloimmunization in SCD patients in ...

  13. Phase separation of the plasma membrane in human red blood cells as a potential tool for diagnosis and progression monitoring of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maulucci

    Full Text Available Glycosylation, oxidation and other post-translational modifications of membrane and transmembrane proteins can alter lipid density, packing and interactions, and are considered an important factor that affects fluidity variation in membranes. Red blood cells (RBC membrane physical state, showing pronounced alterations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, could be the ideal candidate for monitoring the disease progression and the effects of therapies. On these grounds, the measurement of RBC membrane fluidity alterations can furnish a more sensitive index in T1DM diagnosis and disease progression than Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, which reflects only the information related to glycosylation processes. Here, through a functional two-photon microscopy approach we retrieved fluidity maps at submicrometric scale in RBC of T1DM patients with and without complications, detecting an altered membrane equilibrium. We found that a phase separation between fluid and rigid domains occurs, triggered by systemic effects on membranes fluidity of glycation and oxidation. The phase separation patterns are different among healthy, T1DM and T1DM with complications patients. Blood cholesterol and LDL content are positively correlated with the extent of the phase separation patterns. To quantify this extent a machine learning approach is employed to develop a Decision-Support-System (DSS able to recognize different fluidity patterns in RBC. Preliminary analysis shows significant differences(p<0.001 among healthy, T1DM and T1DM with complications patients. The development of an assay based on Phase separation of the plasma membrane of the Red Blood cells is a potential tool for diagnosis and progression monitoring of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and could allow customization and the selection of medical treatments in T1DM in clinical settings, and enable the early detection of complications.

  14. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  15. Shape-Shifted Red Blood Cells: A Novel Red Blood Cell Stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Verónica; Puente-Marin, Sara; Nombela, Iván; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María Carmen; Carracedo, Begoña; Villena, Alberto; Mercado, Luis; Coll, Julio; Ortega-Villaizan, María Del Mar

    2018-04-19

    Primitive nucleated erythroid cells in the bloodstream have long been suggested to be more similar to nucleated red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds than the red cells of fetal and adult mammals. Rainbow trout Ficoll-purified red blood cells (RBCs) cultured in vitro undergo morphological changes, especially when exposed to stress, and enter a new cell stage that we have coined shape-shifted RBCs (shRBCs). We have characterized these shRBCs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, Wright⁻Giemsa staining, cell marker immunostaining, and transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation. shRBCs showed reduced density of the cytoplasm, hemoglobin loss, decondensed chromatin in the nucleus, and striking expression of the B lymphocyte molecular marker IgM. In addition, shRBCs shared some features of mammalian primitive pyrenocytes (extruded nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on cell surface). These shRBCs were transiently observed in heat-stressed rainbow trout bloodstream for three days. Functional network analysis of combined transcriptomic and proteomic studies resulted in the identification of proteins involved in pathways related to the regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation, cellular response to stress, and immune system process. In addition, shRBCs increased interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin 1 β (IL1β), interferon ɣ (IFNɣ), and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) protein production in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). In conclusion, shRBCs may represent a novel cell stage that participates in roles related to immune response mediation, homeostasis, and the differentiation and development of blood cells.

  16. Shape-Shifted Red Blood Cells: A Novel Red Blood Cell Stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Verónica; Puente-Marin, Sara; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María Carmen; Carracedo, Begoña; Mercado, Luis; Coll, Julio

    2018-01-01

    Primitive nucleated erythroid cells in the bloodstream have long been suggested to be more similar to nucleated red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds than the red cells of fetal and adult mammals. Rainbow trout Ficoll-purified red blood cells (RBCs) cultured in vitro undergo morphological changes, especially when exposed to stress, and enter a new cell stage that we have coined shape-shifted RBCs (shRBCs). We have characterized these shRBCs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, Wright–Giemsa staining, cell marker immunostaining, and transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation. shRBCs showed reduced density of the cytoplasm, hemoglobin loss, decondensed chromatin in the nucleus, and striking expression of the B lymphocyte molecular marker IgM. In addition, shRBCs shared some features of mammalian primitive pyrenocytes (extruded nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on cell surface). These shRBCs were transiently observed in heat-stressed rainbow trout bloodstream for three days. Functional network analysis of combined transcriptomic and proteomic studies resulted in the identification of proteins involved in pathways related to the regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation, cellular response to stress, and immune system process. In addition, shRBCs increased interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin 1 β (IL1β), interferon ɣ (IFNɣ), and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) protein production in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). In conclusion, shRBCs may represent a novel cell stage that participates in roles related to immune response mediation, homeostasis, and the differentiation and development of blood cells. PMID:29671811

  17. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  18. Training the next generation analyst using red cell analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Meghan N.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2016-05-01

    We have seen significant change in the study and practice of human reasoning in recent years from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. Ubiquitous communication coupled with advances in computing and a plethora of analytic support tools have created a push for instantaneous reporting and analysis. This notion is particularly prevalent in law enforcement, emergency services and the intelligence community (IC), where commanders (and their civilian leadership) expect not only a birds' eye view of operations as they occur, but a play-by-play analysis of operational effectiveness. This paper explores the use of Red Cell Analytics (RCA) as pedagogy to train the next-gen analyst. A group of Penn State students in the College of Information Sciences and Technology at the University Park campus of The Pennsylvania State University have been practicing Red Team Analysis since 2008. RCA draws heavily from the military application of the same concept, except student RCA problems are typically on non-military in nature. RCA students utilize a suite of analytic tools and methods to explore and develop red-cell tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs), and apply their tradecraft across a broad threat spectrum, from student-life issues to threats to national security. The strength of RCA is not always realized by the solution but by the exploration of the analytic pathway. This paper describes the concept and use of red cell analytics to teach and promote the use of structured analytic techniques, analytic writing and critical thinking in the area of security and risk and intelligence training.

  19. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  20. Red blood cell alloimmunization among sickle cell Kuwaiti Arab patients who received red blood cell transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Reem; Al Shemmari, Salem; Al-Bashir, Abdulaziz

    2009-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common in the Arabian Gulf region. Most cases require a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, increasing the potential for RBC alloantibody development. The incidence of RBC alloimmunization among Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients is not yet known. This study retrospectively assessed the effect of using two different matching protocols on the incidence of alloimmunization among multiply transfused Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients. A total of 233 Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 110) received RBC transfusion through standard ABO- and D-matched nonleukoreduced blood; Group 2 (n = 123) received RBCs matched for ABO, Rh, and K1 poststorage-leukoreduced blood. Multivariate analysis was performed on the factors associated with RBC alloimmunization and antibody specificity. Sixty-five percent of patients in Group 1 developed clinically significant RBC alloantibody with an increased prevalence in females; in patients in Group 2, 23.6% developed RBC alloantibodies (p = 0.01). In Group 1, 72 patients (65.5%) had alloantibodies directed against Rh and Kell systems (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis further confirmed the results, showing that blood transfusion type and sex have significant effects on the rate of alloimmunizations. This study confirms the importance of selecting RBCs matched for Rh and Kell to reduce the risk of alloimmunizations among Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients.

  1. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A. Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-09-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121°C. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures upto 300°C. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectagle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin.

  2. The effect of centrifugation at various g force levels on rheological properties of rat, dog, pig and human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ferenc; Toth, Eniko; Miszti-Blasius, Kornel; Nemeth, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory investigations often require centrifugation of blood samples for various erythrocyte tests. Although there is a lack of data about the effect of centrifugation at various g force levels on erythrocyte rheological properties. We aimed to investigate the effect of a 10-minute centrifugation at 500, 1000 or 1500 g at 15°C of rat, dog, pig and human venous (K3-EDTA, 1.5 mg/ml) blood samples. Hematological parameters, erythrocyte deformability, cell membrane stability, osmotic gradient ektacytometry (osmoscan) and erythrocyte aggregation were determined. Hematological and erythrocyte deformability parameters showed interspecies differences, centrifugation caused no significant alterations. Cell membrane stability for human erythrocytes centrifuged at higher g level showed less decrease in deformability. Osmoscan O min parameter showed slight elevation in dog centrifuged aliquots. Erythrocyte aggregation parameters changed unexpectedly. Rat and dog erythrocyte aggregation indices significantly dropped in centrifuged aliquots. Pig erythrocyte aggregation indices increased significantly after centrifugation. Human erythrocyte aggregation was the most stable one among the investigated species. The used centrifugation protocols caused the largest alterations in erythrocyte aggregation in a controversial way among the investigated species. On the other hand, erythrocyte deformability parameters were stable, cell membrane stability and osmoscan data show minor shifts.

  3. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuna Zoe de Back

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC. During steady state haematopoiesis, approximately 1010 red blood cells are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  4. Phase separation of the plasma membrane in human red blood cells as a potential tool for diagnosis and progression monitoring of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulucci, Giuseppe; Cordelli, Ermanno; Rizzi, Alessandro; De Leva, Francesca; Papi, Massimiliano; Ciasca, Gabriele; Samengo, Daniela; Pani, Giovambattista; Pitocco, Dario; Soda, Paolo; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Iannello, Giulio; De Spirito, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Glycosylation, oxidation and other post-translational modifications of membrane and transmembrane proteins can alter lipid density, packing and interactions, and are considered an important factor that affects fluidity variation in membranes. Red blood cells (RBC) membrane physical state, showing pronounced alterations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), could be the ideal candidate for monitoring the disease progression and the effects of therapies. On these grounds, the measurement of RBC membrane fluidity alterations can furnish a more sensitive index in T1DM diagnosis and disease progression than Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects only the information related to glycosylation processes. Here, through a functional two-photon microscopy approach we retrieved fluidity maps at submicrometric scale in RBC of T1DM patients with and without complications, detecting an altered membrane equilibrium. We found that a phase separation between fluid and rigid domains occurs, triggered by systemic effects on membranes fluidity of glycation and oxidation. The phase separation patterns are different among healthy, T1DM and T1DM with complications patients. Blood cholesterol and LDL content are positively correlated with the extent of the phase separation patterns. To quantify this extent a machine learning approach is employed to develop a Decision-Support-System (DSS) able to recognize different fluidity patterns in RBC. Preliminary analysis shows significant differences(pBlood cells is a potential tool for diagnosis and progression monitoring of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and could allow customization and the selection of medical treatments in T1DM in clinical settings, and enable the early detection of complications.

  5. Protective effect of red wine on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, M.; Joksic, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of red wines 'Cabernet Sauvignon' on the micronuclei formation in human lymphocytes. Blood samples of healthy volunteers were irratiated in vitro using 60 Co as a source of radiation, dose of 2Gy. Irradiated samples, as well as unirradiated controls, were treated with concentrations of red wine ranged from 100-500 ml/2x106 cells. Obtained results demonstrated significant decrease of the micronuclei frequency (t=9.14; p0.05) in treated samples versus untreated controls. The results of our study demonstrated radioprotective effect of red wine

  6. From red cells to soft porous lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Zhu, Zenghao; Nathan, Rungun

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we report a novel experimental study to examine the lubrication theory for highly compressible porous media (Feng & Weinbaum, JFM, 422, 282, 2000), which was applied to the frictionless motion of red cells over the endothelial surface layer (ESL). The experimental setup consists of a running conveyer belt covered with a porous sheet, and an upper planar board, i.e. planing surface. The pore pressure generation was captured when the planing surface glides over the porous sheet. If the lateral leakage was eliminated, we found that the overall pore pressure's contribution to the total lift, fair 80%, and the friction coefficient η = 0.0981, when U =5 m/s, L =0.381 m, λ = h2/h0 = 1 and k =h2/h1 = 3, where U is the velocity of the conveyor belt; L is the planing surface length; h0, h1 and h2 are the undeformed, leading and trailing edge porous layer thickness, respectively. fair increases with the increase in U, λ and L, while decreases with the increase in k. η decreases with the increase in fair. If lateral pressure leakage exists, the pore pressure generation is reduced by nearly 90%. All the results agreed well with the theoretical predictions. The study here lays the foundation for applying soft porous media for new type of bearing with significantly reduced friction. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF CBET) under Award No. 1511096.

  7. Abnormal red cell structure and function in neuroacanthocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C A Cluitmans

    Full Text Available Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN belongs to a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders known as neuroacanthocytosis (NA. This genetically heterogeneous group of diseases is characterized by degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia and by the presence of deformed red blood cells with thorny protrusions, acanthocytes, in the circulation.The goal of our study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant red cell morphology and the corresponding functional consequences. This could shed light on the etiology of the neurodegeneration.We performed a qualitative and semi-quantitative morphological, immunofluorescent, biochemical and functional analysis of the red cells of several patients with PKAN and, for the first time, of the red cells of their family members.We show that the blood of patients with PKAN contains not only variable numbers of acanthocytes, but also a wide range of other misshapen red cells. Immunofluorescent and immunoblot analyses suggest an altered membrane organization, rather than quantitative changes in protein expression. Strikingly, these changes are not limited to the red blood cells of PKAN patients, but are also present in the red cells of heterozygous carriers without neurological problems. Furthermore, changes are not only present in acanthocytes, but also in other red cells, including discocytes. The patients' cells, however, are more fragile, as observed in a spleen-mimicking device.These morphological, molecular and functional characteristics of red cells in patients with PKAN and their family members offer new tools for diagnosis and present a window into the pathophysiology of neuroacanthocytosis.

  8. Low-affinity FcγR interactions can decide the fate of novel human IgG-sensitised red blood cells and platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathryn L; Smith, Cheryl S; Turner, Craig P; Kirton, Christopher M; Wilkes, Anthony M; Hadley, Andrew G; Ghevaert, Cedric; Williamson, Lorna M; Clark, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    G1Δnab is a mutant human IgG1 constant region with a lower ability to interact with FcγR than the natural IgG constant regions. Radiolabelled RBCs and platelets sensitised with specific G1Δnab Abs were cleared more slowly from human circulation than IgG1-sensitised counterparts. However, non-destructive splenic retention of G1Δnab-coated RBCs required investigation and plasma radioactivities now suggest this also occurred for platelets sensitised with an IgG1/G1Δnab mixture. In vitro assays with human cells showed that G1Δnab-sensitised RBCs did not cause FcγRI-mediated monocyte activation, FcγRIIIa-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or macrophage phagocytosis although they did adhere to macrophages. Thus, FcγRII was implicated in the adhesion despite the Δnab mutation reducing the already low-affinity binding to this receptor class. Additional contacts via P-selectin enhance the interaction of sensitised platelets with monocytes and this system provided evidence of FcγRII-dependent activation by G1Δnab. These results emphasise the physiological relevance of low-affinity interactions: It appears that FcγRII interactions of G1Δnab allowed splenic retention of G1Δnab-coated RBCs with inhibitory FcγRIIb binding preventing RBC destruction and that FcγRIIb engagement by G1Δnab on IgG1/G1Δnab-sensitised platelets overcame activation by IgG1. Considering therapeutic blocking Abs, G1Δnab offers lower FcγR binding and a greater bias towards inhibition than IgG2 and IgG4 constant regions. PMID:24285214

  9. Red cell ferritin and iron stores in chronic granulocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, J.; Neuwirth, J.; Voglova, J.; Brabec, V.; Chrobak, L.

    1994-01-01

    Basic red cell ferritin was investigated in 28 patients with different phases of chronic granulocytic leukemia (GCL). Red cell ferritin was significantly decreased in remission after busulphan treatment and significantly elevated in the blast crisis as compared to healthy controls. Bone marrow stainable iron was decreased or absent in 86% of patients in the initial phase at the time of diagnosis and in 92% of those in remission. Red cell ferritin correlated with serum ferritin, however, serum ferritin level remained above normal range during all phases of the disease. A negative correlation between red cell ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb) (r = -0.605, p < 0.001) suggested that red cell ferritin level reflected the rate of iron utilization for heme synthesis. Decrease red cell iron observed in the remission may be explained by regression of dyserythropoiesis and by restoration of normal Hb synthesis after busulphan treatment. A progressive dyserythropoiesis in the blast crisis may lead to an increased red cell ferritin level. (author)

  10. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Materials and methods Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. Results During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. Discussion These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance. PMID:22153688

  11. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance.

  12. Red blood cell transfusion for people undergoing hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Susan J; Millette, Sarah L; Shokoohi, Ali; Pulford, E C; Doree, Carolyn; Murphy, Michael F; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-04-21

    nature of the transfusion interventions, types of surgery and participants varied between trials. The mean age of participants ranged from 81 to 87 years and approximately 24% of participants were men. The largest trial enrolled 2016 participants, over 60% of whom had a history of cardiovascular disease. The percentage of participants receiving a red blood cell transfusion ranged from 74% to 100% in the liberal transfusion threshold group and from 11% to 45% in the restrictive transfusion threshold group. There were no results available for the smallest trial (18 participants). All studies were at some risk of bias, in particular performance bias relating to the absence of blinding of personnel. We judged the evidence for all outcomes, except myocardial infarction, was low quality reflecting risk of bias primarily from imbalances in protocol violations in the largest trial and imprecision, often because of insufficient events. Thus, further research is likely to have an important impact on these results.There was no evidence of a difference between a liberal versus restricted threshold transfusion in mortality, at 30 days post hip fracture surgery (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 1.26; five trials; 2683 participants; low quality evidence) or at 60 days post surgery (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.44; three trials; 2283 participants; low quality evidence). Assuming an illustrative baseline risk of 50 deaths per 1000 participants in the restricted threshold group at 30 days, these data equate to four fewer (95% CI 17 fewer to 14 more) deaths per 1000 in the liberal threshold group at 30 days.There was no evidence of a difference between a liberal versus restricted threshold transfusion in functional recovery at 60 days, assessed in terms of the inability to walk 10 feet (3 m) without human assistance (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.15; two trials; 2083 participants; low quality evidence).There was low quality evidence of no difference between the

  13. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-08-11

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBCs). Although the oxygen affinity of blood is well-understood and routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of RBC volume and Hb concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers, and they are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume, and Hb concentration for individual RBCs in high throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.9%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-Hb dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with Hb concentration but independent of osmolarity, which suggests variation in the Hb to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2-3 DPG) ratio on a cellular level. By quantifying the functional behavior of a cellular population, our system adds a dimension to blood cell analysis and other measurements of single-cell variability.

  14. Red blood cell transfusion in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsler, Stefan; Ketter, Ralf; Eichler, Hermann; Schwerdtfeger, Karsten; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo; Oertel, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    The necessity of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in neurosurgical procedures is under debate. Although detailed recommendations exist for many other surgical disciplines, there are very limited data on the probability of transfusions during neurosurgical procedures. Three-thousand and twenty-six consecutive adult patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures at Saarland University Hospital from December 2006 to June 2008 were retrospectively analyzed for administration of RBCs. The patients were grouped into 11 main diagnostic categories for analysis. The transfusion probability and cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio) were calculated. Overall, the transfusion probability for neurosurgical procedures was 1.7 % (52/3,026). The probability was 6.5 % for acute subdural hematoma (7/108), 6.2 % for spinal tumors (5/80), 4.6 % for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, 4/98), 2.8 % for abscess (3/108), 2.4 % for traumatic brain injury (4/162), 2.3 % for cerebral ischemia (1/44), 1.9 % for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) /aneurysms (4/206), 1.4 % for brain tumors (10/718), 0.8 % for hydrocephalus (2/196), 0.4 % for degenerative diseases of the spine (5/1290), including 3.6 % (3/82) for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and 0 % for epidural hematoma (0/15). The transfusion probabilities for clipping and coiling of SAH were 2.9 % (2/68) and 1.7 % (2/120) respectively. The probability of blood transfusion during neurosurgical procedures is well below the 10 % level which is generally defined as the limit for preoperative appropriation of RBCs. Patients with spinal tumors, acute subdural hematomas or ICH, i.e., patients undergoing large decompressive procedures of bone or soft tissue, had a higher probability of transfusion.

  15. Bisphenol A, bisphenol S, bisphenol F and bisphenol AF induce different oxidative stress and damage in human red blood cells (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćczak, Aneta; Cyrkler, Monika; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogs are widely used in the production of various everyday use products, which leads to a common exposure of humans to these substances. The effect of bisphenols on oxidative stress parameters has not been described in detail in non-nucleated cells, therefore, we have decided to evaluate the impact of BPA and its analogs, i.e. bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with the compounds studied in the concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 500μg/ml for 1, 4 or 24h. It has been found that bisphenols enhanced ROS (including • OH) formation, depleted GSH level, increased lipid peroxidation and changed the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px. It has been noted that the strongest alterations in ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were induced by BPAF, which changed CAT and SOD activity even at 0.5μg/ml. It has also been shown that BPA caused the strongest changes in GSH level, while BPS, which is the main BPA substituent in the manufacture did not alter most parameters studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Red cell survival and sequestration in acute intermittent porphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawalkha, P.L.; Soni, S.G.; Agrawal, V.K.; Misra, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Life span and sequestration of red cells have been studied in twenty one proved cases of acute intermittent porphyria of different age and sex group from Bikaner District, Rajasthan State (India). Chromium-51 labelled red cells were used in the study and the excess count method of Bughe Jones and Szur was used to calculate the index of sequestration. The mean apparent half survival time of erythrocytes in the control subjects was 25.9 +- 2.9 (S.D.) days and the same in the prophyria patients was 27.0 +- 3.8 days. This shows that the life span of red cells is normal in both the patient and the control. Excess destruction of red blood cells was found to take place in either spleen or liver in the disease and no excess accumulation of erythrocytes occurred over spleen as compared to liver. (M.G.B.)

  17. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... differences with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 31 trials totalling 9813 randomised patients were included. The proportion of patients receiving red blood cells (relative risk 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.63, 8923 patients, 24 trials) and the number of red blood cell units transfused (mean...... were associated with a reduction in the number of red blood cell units transfused and number of patients being transfused, but mortality, overall morbidity, and myocardial infarction seemed to be unaltered. Restrictive transfusion strategies are safe in most clinical settings. Liberal transfusion...

  18. Immunospecific red cell binding of iodine 125-labeled immunoglobulin G erythrocyte autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masouredis, S.P.; Branks, M.J.; Garratty, G.; Victoria, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary interaction of autoantibodies with red cells has been studied by using labeled autoantibodies. Immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies obtained from IgG antiglobulin-positive normal blood donors were labeled with radioactive iodine and compared with alloanti-D with respect to their properties and binding behavior. Iodine 125 -labeled IgG autoantibody migrated as a single homogeneous peak with the same relative mobility as human IgG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric focusing pattern of labeled autoantibodies varied from donor to donor but was similar to that of alloanti-D, consisting of multiple IgG populations with isoelectric points in the neutral to alkaline range. 125 I-autoantibody bound to all human red cells of common Rh phenotypes. Evidence for immunospecific antibody binding of the labeled autoantibody was based on variation in equilibrium binding to nonhuman and human red cells of common and rare phenotypes, enhanced binding after red cell protease modification, antiglobulin reactivity of cell-bound IgG comparable to that of cell-bound anti-D, and saturation binding in autoantibody excess. Scatchard analysis of two 125 I-autoantibody preparations yielded site numbers of 41,500 and 53,300 with equilibrium constants of 3.7 and 2.1 X 10(8) L X mol-1. Dog, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and baboon red cells were antigen(s) negative by quantitative adsorption studies adsorbing less than 3% of the labeled autoantibody. Reduced ability of rare human D--red blood cells to adsorb the autoantibody and identification of donor autoantibodies that bind to Rh null red blood cells indicated that eluates contained multiple antibody populations of complex specificities in contrast to anti-D, which consists of a monospecific antibody population. Another difference is that less than 70% of the autoantibody IgG was adsorbed by maximum binding red blood cells as compared with greater than 85% for alloanti-D

  19. The Effect of Shape Memory on Red Blood Cell Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiting; Shi, Lingling; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2013-11-01

    An elastic spring model is applied to study the effect of the shape memory on the motion of red blood cell in flows. In shear flow, shape memory also plays an important role to obtain all three motions: tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. In Poiseuille flow, cell has an equilibrium shape as a slipper or parachute depending on capillary number. To ensure the tank-treading motion while in slippery shape, a modified model is proposed by introducing a shape memory coefficient which describes the degree of shape memory in cells. The effect of the coefficient on the cell motion of red blood cell will be presented.

  20. Does Erythropoietin Regulate TRPC Channels in Red Blood Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Danielczok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cation channels play an essential role in red blood cells (RBCs ion homeostasis. One set of ion channels are the transient receptor potential channels of canonical type (TRPC channels. The abundance of these channels in primary erythroblasts, erythroid cell lines and RBCs was associated with an increase in intracellular Ca2+ upon stimulation with Erythropoietin (Epo. In contrast two independent studies on Epo-treated patients revealed diminished basal Ca2+ concentration or reduced phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer membrane leaflet. Methods: To resolve the seemingly conflicting reports we challenged mature human and mouse RBCs of several genotypes with Epo and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and recorded the intracellular Ca2+ content. Next Generation Sequencing was utilised to approach a molecular analysis of reticulocytes. Results/Conclusions: Our results allow concluding that Epo and PGE2 regulation of the Ca2+ homeostasis is distinctly different between murine and human RBCs and that changes in intracellular Ca2+ upon Epo treatment is a primary rather than a compensatory effect. In human RBCs, Epo itself has no effect on Ca2+ fluxes but inhibits the PGE2-induced Ca2+ entry. In murine mature RBCs functional evidence indicates TRPC4/C5 mediated Ca2+ entry activated by Epo whereas PGE2 leads to a TRPC independent Ca2+ entry.

  1. Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease.

  2. Certain Red Blood Cell Indices of Maternal and Umbilical Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Background: Umbilical cord blood analysis may give a clue to the state of health of both pregnant mothers and their neonates. However ... Keywords: Umbilical cord blood; maternal blood; haemoglobin concentration; packed cell volume; red cell indices. Received on .... The packed cell volume was measured using the.

  3. In vivo red blood cell compatibility testing using indium-113m tropolone-labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, G.J.; Gravelle, D.; Dietz, G.; Driedger, A.A.; King, M.; Cradduck, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo radionuclide crossmatch is a method for identifying compatible blood for transfusion when allo- or autoantibodies preclude the use of conventional crossmatching techniques. A technique for labeling small volumes of donor red blood cells with [/sup 113m/In]tropolone is reported. The use of /sup 113m/In minimizes the accumulation of background radioactivity and the radiation dose especially so when multiple crossmatches are performed. Labeling red cells with [/sup 113m/In]tropolone is faster and easier to perform than with other radionuclides. Consistently high labeling efficiencies are obtained and minimal /sup 113m/In activity elutes from the labeled red blood cells. A case study involving 22 crossmatches is presented to demonstrate the technique. The radiation dose equivalent from /sup 113m/In is significantly less than with other radionuclides that may be used to label red cells

  4. Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels.

  5. Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels

  6. The Human Cell Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  7. Red blood cell dynamics: from cell deformation to ATP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi; Forsyth, Alison M; Stone, Howard A

    2011-10-01

    The mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) deformation under both static and dynamic, i.e., flow, conditions have been studied extensively since the mid 1960s. Deformation-induced biochemical reactions and possible signaling in RBCs, however, were proposed only fifteen years ago. Therefore, the fundamental relationship between RBC deformation and cellular signaling dynamics i.e., mechanotransduction, remains incompletely understood. Quantitative understanding of the mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs requires integrative studies of physical models of RBC deformation and cellular biochemical reactions. In this article we review the physical models of RBC deformation, spanning from continuum membrane mechanics to cellular skeleton dynamics under both static and flow conditions, and elaborate the mechanistic links involved in deformation-induced ATP release. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  9. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Back, Djuna Z; Kostova, Elena B; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K; van Bruggen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  10. Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Sforza, Stefano; Galaverna, Gianni; Ghidini, Cristiana; Caporaso, Nicola; Vescovi, Pier Paolo; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2005-05-01

    Many in vitro studies demonstrated significant biological effects of trans-resveratrol. Thus, understanding the rate of intestinal absorption and metabolization in vivo of trans-resveratrol is the prerequisite to evaluate its potential health impact. Bioavailability studies mainly in animals or in humans using the pure compound at very high doses were performed. In this work, trans-resveratrol bioavailability from a moderate consumption of red wine in 25 healthy humans has been studied by three different experiments. The wine ingestion was associated to three different dietary approaches: fasting, a standard meal, a meal with high and low amount of lipids. Trans-resveratrol 3- and 4'-glucuronides were synthesized, purified, and characterized as pure standards. Bioavailability data were obtained by measuring the concentration of free, 3-glucuronide and 4'-glucuronide trans-resveratrol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection, in serum samples taken at different times after red wine administration. Free trans-resveratrol was found, in trace amounts, only in some serum samples collected 30 min after red wine ingestion while after longer times resveratrol glucuronides predominated. Trans-resveratrol bioavailability was shown to be independent from the meal or its lipid content. The finding in human serum of trans-resveratrol glucuronides, rather than the free form of the compound, with a high interindividual variability, raises some doubts about the health effects of dietary resveratrol consumption and suggests that the benefits associated to red wine consumption could be probably due to the whole antioxidant pool present in red wine.

  11. Lacking deoxygenation-linked interaction between cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and HbF from fetal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the memb......Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain...... of the membrane protein band 3, which liberates glycolytic enzymes from this site. This study aims to investigate the role of fetal HbF (that has lower anion-binding capacity than HbA) in fetal red cells (that are subjected to low O2 tensions), and to elucidate possible linkage (e.g. via the major red cell...... membrane organising centre, band 3) between the individual oxygenation-linked reactions encountered in red cells. Methods: The interaction between band 3 and Hb is analysed in terms of the effects, measured under different conditions, of a 10-mer peptide that corresponds to the N-terminus of human band 3...

  12. Consequences of dysregulated complement regulators on red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielen, Astrid J. F.; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana

    2018-01-01

    The complement system represents the first line of defense that is involved in the clearance of pathogens, dying cells and immune complexes via opsonization, induction of an inflammatory response and the formation of a lytic pore. Red blood cells (RBCs) are very important for the delivery of oxygen

  13. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction.

  14. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction. PMID:16507316

  15. Evidence that cell surface charge reduction modifes capillary red cell velocity-flux relationships in hamster cremaster muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, H.; Wieringa, P. A.; Spaan, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. From capillary red cell velocity (V)-flux (F) relationships of hamster cremaster muscle a yield velocity (VF = 0) can be derived at which red cell flux is zero. Red cell velocity becomes intermittent and/or red blood cells come to a complete standstill for velocities close to this yield velocity,

  16. Circulating Red Cell–derived Microparticles in Human Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Krudsood, Srivicha; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Combes, Valery; Grau, Georges E.; White, Nicholas J.; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Day, Nicholas P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In patients with falciparum malaria, plasma concentrations of cell-derived microparticles correlate with disease severity. Using flow cytometry, we quantified red blood cell–derived microparticles (RMPs) in patients with malaria and identified the source and the factors associated with production. RMP concentrations were increased in patients with Plasmodium falciparum (n = 29; median, 457 RMPs/μL [range, 13–4,342 RMPs/μL]), Plasmodium vivax (n = 5; median, 409 RMPs/μL [range, 281–503/μL]), and Plasmodium malariae (n = 2; median, 163 RMPs/μL [range, 127–200 RMPs/μL]) compared with those in healthy subjects (n = 11; median, 8 RMPs/μL [range, 3–166 RMPs/μL]; P = .01). RMP concentrations were highest in patients with severe falciparum malaria (P = .01). Parasitized red cells produced >10 times more RMPs than did unparasitized cells, but the overall majority of RMPs still derived from uninfected red blood cells (URBCs). In cultures, RMP production increased as the parasites matured. Hemin and parasite products induced RMP production in URBCs, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting heme-mediated oxidative stress as a pathway for the generation of RMPs. PMID:21282195

  17. Hemolysis of human red blood cells induced by the combination of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and divalent metals: modulation by anaerobiosis, certain antioxidants and oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Sadovnic, M; Varani, J; Tirosh, O; Kohen, R

    1999-08-01

    The objective of the present communication is to describe the role played by combinations between diethydithiocarbamate (DDC) and divalent metals in hemolysis of human RBC. RBC which had been treated with DDC (10-50 microM) were moderately hemolyzed (about 50%) upon the addition of subtoxic amounts of Cu2+ (50 microM). However, a much stronger and a faster hemolysis occurred either if mixtures of RBC-DDC were immediately treated either by Co2+ (50 microM) or by a premixture of Cu2+ and Co2+ (Cu:Co) (50 microM). While Fe2+ and Ni2+, at 50 microM, initiated 30-50% hemolysis when combined with DDC (50 microM), on a molar basis, Cd2+ was at least 50 fold more efficient than any of the other metals in the initiation of hemolysis by DDC. On the other hand, neither Mn2+ nor Zn2+, had any hemolysis-initiating effects. Co2+ was the only metal which totally blocked hemolysis if added to DDC prior to the addition of the other metals. Hemolysis by mixtures of DDC + (Cu:Co) was strongly inhibited by anaerobiosis (flushing with nitrogen gas), by the reducing agents glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine, mercaptosuccinate, ascorbate, TEMPO, and alpha-tocopherol, by the PLA2 inhibitorbromophenacylbromide (BrPACBr), by tetracycline as well as by phosphatidyl choline, cholesterol and by trypan blue. However, TEMPO, BrPACBr and PC were the only agents which inhibited hemolysis induced by DDC: Cd2+ complexes. On the other hand, none of the classical scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) employed e.g dimethylthiourea, catalase, histidine, mannitol, sodium benzoate, nor the metal chelators desferal and phenanthroline, had any appreciable inhibitory effects on hemolysis induced by DDC + (Cu:Co). DDC oxidized by H2O2 lost its capacity to act in concert either with Cu2+ or with Cd2+ to hemolyze RBC. While either heating RBC to temperatures greater than 37 degrees C or exposure of the cells to glucose-oxidase-generated peroxide diminished their susceptibility to hemolysis, exposure to the

  18. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  19. In vivo red cell destruction by anti-Lu6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issitt, P.D.; Valinsky, J.E.; Marsh, W.L.; DiNapoli, J.; Gutgsell, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    An example is presented of an IgG1, anti-Lu6, that reacted by indirect antiglobulin test and was capable of destroying antigen-positive red cells in vivo. Two methods for the measurement of red cell survival, 51 Cr labeling and flow cytometry, gave the same result: 20 percent of the test dose of Lu:6 red cells was destroyed in the first hour after injection and 80 percent in the first 24 hours. The clinical relevance of the antibody was correctly predicted by an in vitro monocyte monolayer assay. The finding that this example of anti-Lu6 was clinically significant should not be taken to mean that all antibodies directed against high-incidence Lutheran and Lutheran system-related antigens will behave similarly. When such antibodies are encountered, in vivo and/or in vitro studies to assess their clinical significance are necessary before rare blood is used for transfusion

  20. Sup(99m) Technetium - labeled red blood cells 'in vitro'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo Filho, M.; Souza Moura, I.N. de; Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A simple technique for the preparation of sup(99m) Tc labeled red blood cells using a comercial kit is described. To each 3ml of plain blood with anti-coagulant was added 1ml of solution of commercial kit with 6.8 μg of stannous chloride. This mixture was incubated in water bath, at 37 0 C, for 60 minutes. Then technetium-99m was added and the mixture was left for another ten minutes, in water bath, at 37 0 C. Under these conditions there was the best labeling of the red blood cells. Similar results were obtained with a solution of stannous chloride prepared freshly. The labeling is strong for 6.8 μg stannous chloride because the labeling was not removed by the several washes of the red blood cells or by the left in water bath. (Author) [pt

  1. Techniques for measuring red cell, platelet, and WBC survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, K.; Freeman, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Blood cell survival studies yield valuable information concerning production and destruction of cells circulating in the bloodstream. Methodologies for the measurement of red cell survival include nonisotopic methods such as differential agglutination and hemolysis. The isotopic label may be radioactive or, if not, will require availability of a mass spectrograph. These methods fall into two categories, one where red cells of all ages are labeled ( 51 Cr, DFP32, etc.) and those employing a cohort label of newly formed cells ( 14 C glycine, 75 Se methionine, etc.). Interpretation of results for methodology employed and mechanism of destruction, random or by senescence, are discussed. A similar approach is presented for platelet and leukocyte survival studies. The inherent difficulties and complications of sequestration, storage, and margination of these cells are emphasized and discussed. 38 references

  2. Geometrical Aspects During Formation of Compact Aggregates of Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past forty years considerable progress has been achieved on the knowledge of human blood as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning suspension, whose initial state, that is at rest (stasis or at very low shear rates, has a gel-like internal structure which is destroyed as shear stress increases. The main goal of this communication is to describe the role of geometrical aspects during RBC (red blood cell aggregate formation, growth and compaction on naturally aggregate (porcine blood and non-aggregate (bovine blood samples. We consider how these aspects coupled with tension equilibrium are decisive to transform red cell linear roleaux to three-dimensional aggregates or clusters. Geometrical aspects are also crucial on the compaction of red blood cell aggregates. These densely packed aggregates could precipitate out of blood- either as dangerous deposits on arterial walls, or as clots which travel in suspension until they block some crucial capillary.

  3. Labelling of red blood cells with 99m pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyth, A.; Raam, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    This paper describes a method for labelling red blood cells with 99mTc in vitro, using electrolytically generated stannous ions as the reducing agent for 99mTc-pertechnetate. A labelling of 95% was found. A method for the in vivo labelling of red blood cells is also reported. This involves an injection of a stanno-DTPA-complex followed 20 minutes later by a 99mTc-pertechnetate solution scintillation camera images show more background activity when the in vivo method of labelling is used

  4. Internal magnesium, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and the regulation of the steady-state volume of human red blood cells by the Na/K/2Cl cotransport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study is concerned with the relationship between the Na/K/Cl cotransport system and the steady-state volume (MCV) of red blood cells. Cotransport rate was determined in unfractionated and density- separated red cells of different MCV from different donors to see whether cotransport differences contribute to the difference in the distribution of MCVs. Cotransport, studied in cells at their original MCVs, was determined as the bumetanide (10 microM)-sensitive 22Na efflux in the presence of ouabain (50 microM) after adjusting cellular Na (Nai) and Ki to achieve near maximal transport rates. This condition was chosen to rule out MCV-related differences in Nai and Ki that might contribute to differences in the net chemical driving force for cotransport. We found that in both unfractionated and density-separated red cells the cotransport rate was inversely correlated with MCV. MCV was correlated directly with red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), whereas total red cell Mg was only slightly elevated in cells with high MCV. Thus intracellular free Mg (Mgifree) is evidently lower in red cells with high 2,3-DPG (i.e., high MCV) and vice versa. Results from flux measurements at their original MCVs, after altering Mgifree with the ionophore A23187, indicated a high Mgi sensitivity of cotransport: depletion of Mgifree inhibited and an elevation of Mgifree increased the cotransport rate. The apparent K0.5 for Mgifree was approximately 0.4 mM. Maximizing Mgifree at optimum Nai and Ki minimized the differences in cotransport rates among the different donors. It is concluded that the relative cotransport rate is regulated for cells in the steady state at their original cell volume, not by the number of copies of the cotransporter but by differences in Mgifree. The interindividual differences in Mgifree, determined primarily by differences in the 2,3-DPG content, are responsible for the differences in the relative cotransport activity that results in an inverse relationship

  5. First successful automated red cell exchange (erythrocytapheresis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION: Despite several documented challenges, Hematopoietic Stem cell Transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative therapy for Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). However HSCT is expensive with its complications, therefore supportive care remains the main available option to many Nigerians. Frequent blood ...

  6. Radioprotective activity of the Piper betle-derived phenolic, allylpyrocatechol against gamma-ray induced hemolysis of human red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    As an oxidative shuttle, human (RBCs) are most susceptible to oxidative damages leading to multiple diseases including haemolytic anemia that is a major public health problem in the developing countries. The present effort was aimed at formulating some natural phenolic compounds isolated from piper betle - allylpyrocatechol (APC) to prevent the alterations in the RBC membrane. The biochemical parameters which are considered as biomarkers of redox balance primarily contribute to damages in RBC membrane during gamma radiation induced oxidative stress were investigated

  7. The role of red blood cell deformability and Na,K-ATPase function in selected risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in humans: focus on hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, J; Vrbjar, N

    2016-09-19

    Deformability of red blood cells (RBC) is the ability of RBC to change their shape in order to pass through narrow capillaries in circulation. Deterioration in deformability of RBC contributes to alterations in microcirculatory blood flow and delivery of oxygen to tissues. Several factors are responsible for maintenance of RBC deformability. One of them is the Na,K-ATPase known as crucial enzyme in maintenance of intracellular ionic homeostasis affecting thus regulation of cellular volume and consequently RBC deformability. Decreased deformability of RBC has been found to be the marker of adverse outcomes in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors influences rheological properties of the blood. This review summarizes knowledge concerning the RBC deformability in connection with selected risk factors of CVD, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, based exclusively on papers from human studies. We attempted to provide an update on important issues regarding the role of Na,K-ATPase in RBC deformability. In patients suffering from hypertension as well as diabetes mellitus the Na,K-ATPase appears to be responsible for the changes leading to alterations in RBC deformability. The triggering factor for changes of RBC deformability during hypercholesterolemia seems to be the increased content of cholesterol in erythrocyte membranes.

  8. A case of recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia during remission associated with acute pure red cell aplasia and hemophagocytic syndrome due to human parvovirus B19 infection successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 47-year-old man diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in April 2011. He also had a congenital chromosomal abnormality, a balanced translocation. Treatment with prednisolone (PSL) 60 mg/day resulted in resolution of the AIHA, and the treatment was completed in November 2011. While the patient no longer had anemia, the direct and indirect Coombs tests remained positive. In May 2013, he developed recurrent AIHA associated with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection. Tests for anti-erythropoietin and anti-erythropoietin receptor antibodies were positive. Steroid pulse therapy resulted in resolution of the AIHA, PRCA, as well as HPS. The serum test for anti-erythropoietin antibodies also became negative after the treatment. However, although the serum was positive for anti-HPV B19 IgG antibodies, the patient continued to have a low CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4, B19 infection (HPV B19 DNA remained positive), suggesting the risk of recurrence and bone marrow failure.

  9. In vivo studies of the long-term 51Cr red cell survival of serologically incompatible red cell units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.L.; Ness, P.M.; Barrasso, C.; Kickler, T.S.; Drew, H.; Tsan, M.F.; Shirey, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term survival of serologically incompatible red cell units was measured in five patients with antibodies to high-frequency antigens. Initially, the survival of 1 ml of 51 Cr-labeled incompatible red cells was measured over 1 hour. After demonstrating that the 1-hour survival times were successful (greater than 70%), each patient then received 5 ml of the same 51 Cr-labeled red cells followed by the transfusion of the remainder of the red cell unit. The long-term T 1/2Cr survival for each case was patient 1 (anti-McCa), 15 days; patient 2 (anti-JMH), 12 days; patient 3 (anti-Kna), 31 days; patient 4 (anti-McCa), 12 days; and patient 5 (anti-Hya), 14 days. Each antibody tested in an in vitro homologous macrophage assay showed less than 5 percent phagocytosis. Anti-JMH was the only antibody to react with IgG subclass antisera and was determined to be IgG4. The macrophage assay, IgG subclass testing, and short-term (1 hour, 1 ml) 51 Cr survival studies all indicated that the short-term survival was good. However, only the measurement of long-term survival with transfused units of serologically incompatible red cells was able to determine the actual survival, and clinical significance of the alloantibodies. Determining the actual long-term survival by the method described here can be of importance for patients requiring chronic red cell transfusion

  10. Review of Florida Red Tide and Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lora E.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.; Walsh, Cathy J.; Nierenberg, Kate; Clark, John; Reich, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Julie; Benson, Janet; Cheng, Yung Sung; Naar, Jerome; Pierce, Richard; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Abraham, William M.; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Zaias, Julia; Wanner, Adam; Mendes, Eliana; Shalat, Stuart; Hoagland, Porter; Stephan, Wendy; Bean, Judy; Watkins, Sharon; Clarke, Tainya; Byrne, Margaret; Baden, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides. These harmful algal blooms are caused by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, and similar organisms, all of which produce a suite of natural toxins known as brevetoxins. Florida red tide research has benefited from a consistently funded, long term research program, that has allowed an interdisciplinary team of researchers to focus their attention on this specific environmental issue—one that is critically important to Gulf of Mexico and other coastal communities. This long-term interdisciplinary approach has allowed the team to engage the local community, identify measures to protect public health, take emerging technologies into the field, forge advances in natural products chemistry, and develop a valuable pharmaceutical product. The Review includes a brief discussion of the Florida red tide organisms and their toxins, and then focuses on the effects of these toxins on animals and humans, including how these effects predict what we might expect to see in exposed people. PMID:21218152

  11. Red palm oil: nutritional, physiological and therapeutic roles in improving human wellbeing and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, O O; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J

    2009-01-01

    The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease has created a growing interest in dietary red palm oil research. Also, the link between nutrition and health, oxidative stress and the severity or progression of disease has stimulated further interest in the potential role of red palm oil (a natural antioxidant product) to improve oxidative status by reducing oxidative stress in patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases. In spite of its level of saturated fatty acid content (50%), red palm oil has not been found to promote atherosclerosis and/or arterial thrombosis. This is probably due to the ratio of its saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid content and its high concentration of antioxidants such as beta-carotene, tocotrienols, tocopherols and vitamin E. It has also been reported that the consumption of red palm oil reduces the level of endogenous cholesterol, and this seems to be due to the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of red palm oil to health include a reduction in the risk of arterial thrombosis and/or atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, a reduction in oxidative stress and a reduction in blood pressure. It has also been shown that dietary red palm oil, taken in moderation in animals and humans, promotes the efficient utilisation of nutrients, activates hepatic drug metabolising enzymes, facilitates the haemoglobinisation of red blood cells and improves immune function. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional, physiological and biochemical roles of red palm oil in improving wellbeing and quality of life.

  12. Pure red cell aplasia following irradiation of an asymptomatic thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kazuo; Masaoka, Akira; Mizuno, Takeo; Ichimura, Hideki

    1982-01-01

    An unusual case of pure red-cell aplasia (PRCA) developed sixteen days after irradiation of an asymptomatic thymoma. After removal of the encapsulated thymoma there was no improvement in the anemia, and no response to adrenocortical and anabolic steroid hormones or immunosuppressive agents. (author)

  13. Detection of pulmonary hemorrhage with technetium-labeled red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Laman, D.; Sachs, M.; Miller, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques to aid in the diagnosis of massive pulmonary hemoptysis would be helpful in guiding more-invasive procedures such as bronchial artery angiography, which carries a risk of transverse myelitis. A patient was studied with technetium-labeled red cells and successfully detected a site of intermittent hemorrhage from the lung

  14. Alterations of red blood cell metabolome in overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darghouth, D.; Koehl, B.; Heilier, J.F.; Madalinski, G.; Bovee, P.H.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Delaunay, J.; Junot, C.; Romeo, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, clinically characterized by hemolytic anemia, is a rare disorder of the erythrocyte membrane permeability to monovalent cations, associated with mutations in the Rh-associated glycoprotein gene. We assessed the red blood cell metabolome of 4 patients with this

  15. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this techno...

  16. The effects of cryopreservation on red blood cell rheologic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Lagerberg, Johan W. M.; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In transfusion medicine, frozen red blood cells (RBCs) are an alternative for liquid-stored RBCs. Little is known about the rheologic properties (i.e., aggregability and deformability) of thawed RBCs. In this study the rheologic properties of high-glycerol frozen RBCs and postthaw stored

  17. Characteristic point algorithm in laser ektacytometry of red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. Yu.; Ustinov, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of measuring red blood cell deformability by laser diffractometry in shear flow (ektacytometry). A new equation is derived that relates the parameters of the diffraction pattern to the width of the erythrocyte deformability distribution. The numerical simulation method shows that this equation provides a higher accuracy of measurements in comparison with the analogous equation obtained by us earlier.

  18. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmuniz...

  19. Red blood cell transfusion during septic shock in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Smith, S H; Carlsen, S

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) remains controversial in patients with septic shock, but current practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate RBC transfusion practice in septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU), and patient characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion....

  20. Frequency and specificity of red blood cell alloantibodies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood transfusion usually results in production of alloantibody against one or more foreign red blood cell antigens which may complicate subsequent transfusions. The probability of alloimmunization depends on number and frequency of transfusion, antigen immunogenicity, recipient immune response and ...

  1. Evaluation of red blood cell stability during immersion blood warming

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The practice of warming blood for transfusion by immersion into a waterbath has been investigated. Objective: To find the maximum waterbath temperature at which blood can be heated effectively without effecting the red blood cell functional and structural integrity. Method: Blood, three days after donation ...

  2. Red blood cells intended for transfusion : quality criteria revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogman, CF; Meryman, HT

    Great variation exists with respect to viability and function of fresh and stored red blood cells (RBCs) as well as of the contents of RBC hemoglobin (Hb) in individual units. Improved technology is available for the preparation as well as the storage of RBCs. The authors raise the question whether

  3. Assessment of Red Blood Cell Parameters and Peripheral Smear at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold agglutination disease (CAD) is characterized by an auto‑antibody which is able to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) at temperatures lower than that of the body, and subsequently to activate the complement system responsible for lysis of RBCs. Patients show hemolytic anemia of varying degrees of severity, which ...

  4. Restrictive or Liberal Red-Cell Transfusion for Cardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazer, C David; Whitlock, Richard P; Fergusson, Dean A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of a restrictive versus liberal red-cell transfusion strategy on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains unclear. METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 5243 adults undergoing cardiac surgery who had a E...

  5. Risk of red blood cell alloimmunisation in Rwanda: Assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Screening of alloantibodies in patients is not yet done in district hospitals of Rwanda. The practice is to transfuse ABO/D compatible blood following an immediate spin crossmatch (IS-XM) or indirect antiglobulin test crossmatch (IAT-XM). Objectives: To assess the risk of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunisation ...

  6. On the shape memory of red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Daniel; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2017-04-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) undergo remarkably large deformations when subjected to external forces but return to their biconcave discoid resting shape as the forces are withdrawn. In many experiments, such as when RBCs are subjected to a shear flow and undergo the tank-treading motion, the membrane elements are also displaced from their original (resting) locations along the cell surface with respect to the cell axis, in addition to the cell being deformed. A shape memory is said to exist if after the flow is stopped the RBC regains its biconcave shape and the membrane elements also return to their original locations. The shape memory of RBCs was demonstrated by Fischer ["Shape memory of human red blood cells," Biophys. J. 86, 3304-3313 (2004)] using shear flow go-and-stop experiments. Optical tweezer and micropipette based stretch-relaxation experiments do not reveal the complete shape memory because while the RBC may be deformed, the membrane elements are not significantly displaced from their original locations with respect to the cell axis. Here we present the first three-dimensional computational study predicting the complete shape memory of RBCs using shear flow go-and-stop simulations. The influence of different parameters, namely, membrane shear elasticity and bending rigidity, membrane viscosity, cytoplasmic and suspending fluid viscosity, as well as different stress-free states of the RBC is studied. For all cases, the RBCs always exhibit shape memory. The complete recovery of the RBC in shear flow go-and-stop simulations occurs over a time that is orders of magnitude longer than that for optical tweezer and micropipette based relaxations. The response is also observed to be more complex and composed of widely disparate time scales as opposed to only one time scale that characterizes the optical tweezer and micropipette based relaxations. We observe that the recovery occurs in three phases: a rapid compression of the RBC immediately after the flow is stopped

  7. Engineering of red cells of Arabidopsis thaliana and comparative genome-wide gene expression analysis of red cells versus wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

    2011-04-01

    We report metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis red cells and genome-wide gene expression analysis associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis and other metabolic pathways between red cells and wild-type (WT) cells. Red cells of A. thaliana were engineered for the first time from the leaves of production of anthocyanin pigment 1-Dominant (pap1-D). These red cells produced seven anthocyanin molecules including a new one that was characterized by LC-MS analysis. Wild-type cells established as a control did not produce anthocyanins. A genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that nearly 66 and 65% of genes in the genome were expressed in the red cells and wild-type cells, respectively. In comparison with the WT cells, 3.2% of expressed genes in the red cells were differentially expressed. The expression levels of 14 genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanin were significantly higher in the red cells than in the WT cells. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the TTG1-GL3/TT8-PAP1 complex regulated the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Furthermore, most of the genes with significant differential expression levels in the red cells versus the WT cells were characterized with diverse biochemical functions, many of which were mapped to different metabolic pathways (e.g., ribosomal protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis, glycolysis, glyoxylate metabolism, and plant secondary metabolisms) or organelles (e.g., chloroplast). We suggest that the difference in gene expression profiles between the two cell lines likely results from cell types, the overexpression of PAP1, and the high metabolic flux toward anthocyanins.

  8. Margination of Stiffened Red Blood Cells Regulated By Vessel Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Li, Donghai; Li, Yongjian; Wan, Jiandi; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng

    2017-11-10

    Margination of stiffened red blood cells has been implicated in many vascular diseases. Here, we report the margination of stiffened RBCs in vivo, and reveal the crucial role of the vessel geometry in the margination by calculations when the blood is seen as viscoelastic fluid. The vessel-geometry-regulated margination is then confirmed by in vitro experiments in microfluidic devices, and it establishes new insights to cell sorting technology and artificial blood vessel fabrication.

  9. Noncytotoxic orange and red/green derivatives of DsRed-Express2 for whole-cell labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glick Benjamin S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-cell labeling is a common application of fluorescent proteins (FPs, but many red and orange FPs exhibit cytotoxicity that limits their use as whole-cell labels. Recently, a tetrameric red FP called DsRed-Express2 was engineered for enhanced solubility and was shown to be noncytotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. Our goal was to create derivatives of this protein with different spectral properties. Results Building on previous studies of DsRed mutants, we created two DsRed-Express2 derivatives: E2-Orange, an orange FP, and E2-Red/Green, a dual-color FP with both red and green emission. We show that these new FPs retain the low cytotoxicity of DsRed-Express2. In addition, we show that these new FPs are useful as second or third colors for flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Conclusion E2-Orange and E2-Red/Green will facilitate the production of healthy, stably fluorescent cell lines and transgenic organisms for multi-color labeling studies.

  10. Red Blood Cell Mechanical Fragility Test for Clinical Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Luke A; Olia, Salim E; Kameneva, Marina V

    2017-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) susceptibility to mechanically induced hemolysis, or RBC mechanical fragility (MF), is an important parameter in the characterization of erythrocyte membrane health. The rocker bead test (RBT) and associated calculated mechanical fragility index (MFI) is a simple method for the assessment of RBC MF. Requiring a minimum of 15.5 mL of blood and necessitating adjustment of hematocrit (Ht) to a "standard" value (40%), the current RBT is not suitable for use in most studies involving human subjects. To address these limitations, we propose a 6.5 mL reduced volume RBT and corresponding modified MFI (MMFI) that does not require prior Ht adjustment. This new method was assessed for i) correlation to the existing text, ii) to quantify the effect of Ht on MFI, and iii) validation by reexamining the protective effect of plasma proteins on RBC MF. The reduced volume RBT strongly correlated (r = 0.941) with the established large volume RBT at matched Hts, and an equation was developed to calculate MMFI: a numerical estimation (R 2  = 0.923) of MFI if performed with the reduced volume RBT at "standard" (40%) Ht. An inversely proportional relationship was found between plasma protein concentration and RBC MF using the MMFI-reduced volume method, supporting previous literature findings. The new reduced volume RBT and modified MFI will allow for the measurement of RBC MF in clinical and preclinical studies involving humans or small animals. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Red Cell Alloantibodies in Multiple Transfused Thalassaemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, C N

    2011-01-01

    Thalassaemia major patients require lifelong transfusion support due to which they are prone for alloimmunization to foreign RBCs. Alloimmunization can be prevented by extended phenotype match blood transfusion. The study was conducted to know the extent of problem of alloimmunization and to find important red cell antibodies in thalassaemia patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 32 thalassaemia patients were enrolled. The specimen was subjected to red cell alloantibody and autoantibody by column gel agglutination technique. R 1 (w) R 1 , R 2 R 2 , rr (papaine and non papain) and 11 cell panel reagent cells were used in screening and identification of alloantibodies respectively. Six (18.8 %) subjects were alloimmunized. All alloimmunized subjects were recipient of more than 20 units of transfusion. Total seven clinically significant alloantibodies were identified. Anti E and anti c were commonest antibodies in four (12.5%) patients. Red cell alloimmunization is an important risk in thalassaemia patient. 71.4% of alloantibodies were anti E and anti c type. Extended phenotype match blood transfusion for Rh-c and Rh-E antigens or level 2 antigen matching stringency needs to be explored in preventing alloimmunization in thalassaemia patients.

  12. Influence of red blood cell-derived microparticles upon vasoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed S; Doctor, Allan

    2017-10-01

    Here we review recent data and the evolving understanding of the role of red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) in normal physiology and in disease progression. Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to a variety of stimuli through several cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes. MPs have been investigated as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and are thought to have biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in apoptosis. Specifically, RMPs are produced normally during RBC maturation and their production is accelerated during processing and storage for transfusion. Several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs from that of intact RBCs, and the nature and composition of RMP components are affected by both storage duration and the character of storage solutions. Recognised RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion, as well as influence upon vasoregulation via nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. Of particular relevance, RMPs are more avid NO scavengers than intact RBCs and this feature has been proposed as a mechanism for the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that has been observed following transfusion. Preliminary human studies demonstrate that circulating RMP abundance increases with RBC transfusion and is associated with altered plasma vasoactivity and abnormal vasoregulation. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from stored RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in transfusion recipients is an area of continued

  13. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  14. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  15. Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/redbloodcellantibodyscreen.html Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an RBC Antibody Screen? An RBC (red blood cell) antibody screen ...

  16. Red blood cell distribution width: biomarker for red cell dysfunction and critical illness outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed S.; Spinella, Philip C.; Hartman, Mary E.; Steffen, Katherine M.; Jackups, Ronald; Holubkov, Richard; Wallendorf, Mike; Doctor, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is reported to be an independent predictor of outcome in adults with a variety of conditions. We sought to determine if RDW is associated with morbidity or mortality in critically ill children. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Patients All admissions to Saint Louis Children’s Hospital Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between 1/1/2005 and 12/31/2012. Interventions We collected demographics, laboratory values, hospitalization characteristics and outcomes. We calculated the relative change in RDW (R-RDW) from admission (A-RDW) to the highest RDW during the first 7 days of hospitalization. Our primary outcome was ICU mortality or use of ECMO as a composite. Secondary outcomes were ICU- and ventilator-free days. Measurements and main results We identified 3,913 eligible subjects with an estimated mortality (by PIM2) of 2.94±9.25% and an actual ICU mortality of 2.91%. For the study cohort, A-RDW was 14.12±1.89% and R-RDW was +2.63±6.23%. On univariate analysis, both A-RDW and R-RDW correlated with mortality or use of ECMO (OR=1.19 [95% CI: 1.12–1.27] and OR=1.06 [95% CI: 1.04–1.08], respectively, p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, including severity of illness, both A-RDW (OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.24) and R-RDW (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.07) remained independently associated with ICU mortality or use of ECMO. A-RDW and R-RDW both weakly correlated with fewer ICU-free (r2=0.038) and ventilator-free days, (r2=0.05), (p<0.001). Conclusions Independent of illness severity in critically ill children, A-RDW is associated with ICU mortality and morbidity. These data suggest that RDW may be a biomarker for RBC injury that is of sufficient magnitude to influence critical illness outcome, possibly via oxygen delivery impairment. PMID:27832023

  17. Effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on red blood cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadage, Vijay H.; Kulkarni, Gauri R.

    2011-03-01

    Laser radiation has many applications in biomedical field, such as wound healing, tissue repairing, heating and ablation processes. Intravenous low power laser radiation is used clinically for skin and vascular disorders. Laser radiation improves microcirculation and modulates the rheological properties of blood. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectra) is used to see the structural changes in erythrocyte membrane. In the present work He Ne laser (λ= 632nm, power=2mW) is used to irradiate human Red blood cells. Red blood cells are separated from human whole blood using centrifugation method (time=10 min., temperature=15°C and RPM=3000) and then exposed to HeNe laser radiation. Laser exposure time is varied from 10 min. to 40min for Red blood cells. Absorption spectrum, FTIR and fluorescence spectra of RBC are compared before and after HeNe laser irradiation. The absorption spectrum of RBC after exposure to HeNe laser shows a significant decrease in absorbance. The FTIR spectrum of non irradiated RBC clearly show the peaks due to O-H (free group), C=O (amide I group), N=O (nitro group), C-O (anhydride group) and C-H (aromatic group). Laser radiation changes in transmittance in FTIR spectra related to C=O group and percentage of transmittance increases for O-H, C=C, N=O, C-O and C-H group.

  18. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  19. Red blood cell-deformability measurement: review of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, M

    2009-01-01

    Cell-deformability characterization involves general measurement of highly complex relationships between cell biology and physical forces to which the cell is subjected. The review takes account of the modern technical solutions simulating the action of the force applied to the red blood cell in macro- and microcirculation. Diffraction ektacytometers and rheoscopes measure the mean deformability value for the total red blood cell population investigated and the deformation distribution index of individual cells, respectively. Deformation assays of a whole single cell are possible by means of optical tweezers. The single cell-measuring setups for micropipette aspiration and atomic force microscopy allow conducting a selective investigation of deformation parameters (e.g., cytoplasm viscosity, viscoelastic membrane properties). The distinction between instrument sensitivity to various RBC-rheological features as well as the influence of temperature on measurement are discussed. The reports quoted confront fascinating possibilities of the techniques with their medical applications since the RBC-deformability has the key position in the etiology of a wide range of conditions.

  20. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular

  1. Red blood cell and platelet genotyping: from current practice to future high-throughput donor typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Beiboer, S. H. W.; Feskens, M.; Cheroutre, G.; Maaskant-van Wijkb, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular basis of almost all red cell and platelet blood group antigens is known. This enables the prediction of red cell or platelet phenotypes based upon the genotypes. In many laboratories, blood group genotyping assays are routinely used in cases where patient red cells cannot be used for

  2. Effects of ethanol on red blood cell rheological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabai, M; Detterich, J A; Wenby, R B; Toth, K; Meiselman, H J

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of red wine is associated with a decreased risk of several cardiovascular diseases (e.g., coronary artery disease, stroke), but unfortunately literature reports regarding ethanol's effects on hemorheological parameters are not concordant. In the present study, red blood cell (RBC) deformability was tested via laser ektacytometry (LORCA, 0.3-30 Pa) using two approaches: 1) addition of ethanol to whole blood at 0.25%-2% followed by incubation and testing in ethanol-free LORCA medium; 2) addition of ethanol to the LORCA medium at 0.25%-6% then testing untreated native RBC in these media. The effects of ethanol on deformability for oxidatively stressed RBC were investigated as were changes of RBC aggregation (Myrenne Aggregometer) for cells in autologous plasma or 3% 70 kDa dextran. Significant dose-related increases of RBC deformability were observed at 0.25% (p health benefits of moderate wine consumption require further investigation.

  3. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Associated with Good Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Okui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia are paraneoplastic syndromes that are rarer than myasthenia gravis in patients with thymoma. Good syndrome coexisting with PRCA is an extremely rare pathology. We report the case of a 50-year-old man with thymoma and PRCA associated with Good syndrome who achieved complete PRCA remission after thymectomy and postoperative immunosuppressive therapy, and provide a review of the pertinent literature.

  4. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    OpenAIRE

    B. T. Dzumabaeva; L. S. Birjukova; L. B. Kaplanskaya; D. P. Maksimov

    2011-01-01

    The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19) is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis...

  5. Revisiting the Red Effect on Attractiveness and Sexual Receptivity: No effect of the color red on human mate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Peperkoorn, Leonard; Roberts, S. Craig; Pollet, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by differentiating color effects by temporal context (short-term vs. long-term mating). Experiment 1 involved Dutch participants rating a woman in red, white, and black on (sexual) attractiveness. Exper...

  6. Role of hemolysis in red cell adenosine triphosphate release in simulated exercise conditions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairbäurl, Heimo; Ruppe, Florian A; Bärtsch, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release from red blood cells has been discussed as a possible mediator controlling microcirculation in states of decreased tissue oxygen. Because intravascular hemolysis might also contribute to plasma ATP, we tested in vitro which portion of ATP release is due to hemolysis in typical exercise-induced strains to the red blood cells (shear stress, deoxygenation, and lactic acidosis). Human erythrocytes were suspended in dextran-containing media (hematocrit 10%) and were exposed to shear stress in a rotating Couette viscometer at 37°C. Desaturation (oxygen saturation of hemoglobin ∼20%) was achieved by tonometry with N2 before shear stress exposure. Cells not exposed to shear stress were used as controls. Na lactate (15 mM), lactic acid (15 mM, pH 7.0), and HCl (pH 7.0) were added to simulate exercise-induced lactic acidosis. After incubation, extracellular hemoglobin was measured to quantify hemolysis. ATP was measured with the luciferase assay. Shear stress increased extracellular ATP in a stress-related and time-dependent manner. Hypoxia induced a ∼10-fold increase in extracellular ATP in nonsheared cells and shear stress-exposed cells. Lactic acid had no significant effect on ATP release and hemolysis. In normoxic cells, approximately 20%-50% of extracellular ATP was due to hemolysis. This proportion decreased to less than 10% in hypoxic cells. Our results indicate that when exposing red blood cells to typical strains they encounter when passing through capillaries of exercising skeletal muscle, ATP release from red blood cells is caused mainly by deoxygenation and shear stress, whereas lactic acidosis had only a minor effect. Hemolysis effects were decreased when hemoglobin was deoxygenated. Together, by specific release and hemolysis, extracellular ATP reaches values that have been shown to cause local vasodilatation.

  7. Structural Changes in the Surface of Red Blood Cell Membranes during Long-Term Donor Blood Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study changes in the surface of red blood cell membranes of donor blood at the macro- and ultrastructural level during its storage for 30 days and to evaluate the functional state of the red blood cell membrane during the whole storage period. Material and methods. The investigation was conducted on human whole blood and packed red blood cells placed in the specialized packs containing the preservative CPDA-1, by using calibrated electroporation and atomic force microscopy and measuring plasma pH. Conclusion. The long-term, up to 30-day, storage of whole blood and packed red blood cells at 4°C was attended by lower plasma pH and increased hemolysis rate constant during calibrated electroporation and by the development of oxidative processes. The hemolysis rate constant was also higher in the packed red blood cells than that in the whole blood. On days 5—6, the membrane structure showed defects that developed, as the blood was stored, and caused irreversible cell membrane damage by day 30. Key words: donor blood, red blood cell membranes, atomic force microscopy.

  8. Red Blood Cell Membrane-Cloaked Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Cody Westcott

    Herein we describe the development of the Red Blood Cell coated nanoparticle, RBC-NP. Purified natural erythrocyte membrane is used to coat drug-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Synthetic PLGA co-polymer is biocompatible and biodegradable and has already received US FDA approval for drug-delivery and diagnostics. This work looks specifically at the retention of immunosuppressive proteins on RBC-NPs, right-sidedness of natural RBC membranes interfacing with synthetic polymer nanoparticles, sustained and retarded drug release of RBC-NPs as well as further surface modification of RBC-NPs for increased targeting of model cancer cell lines.

  9. The absolute counting of red cell-derived microparticles with red cell bead by flow rate based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Imwong, Malika; Soontarawirat, Ingfar; Kotjanya, Duangporn; Khakhai, Chulalak; Ohashi, Jun; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2009-05-01

    Activation of red blood cell is associated with the formation of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs). Analysis of circulating RMPs is becoming more refined and clinically useful. A quantitative Trucount tube method is the conventional method uses for quantitating RMPs. In this study, we validated a quantitative method called "flow rate based assay using red cell bead (FCB)" to measure circulating RMPs in the peripheral blood of healthy subjects. Citrated blood samples collected from 30 cases of healthy subjects were determined the RMPs count by using double labeling of annexin V-FITC and anti-glycophorin A-PE. The absolute RMPs numbers were measured by FCB, and the results were compared with the Trucount or with flow rate based calibration (FR). Statistical correlation and agreement were analyzed using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. There was no significant difference in the absolute number of RMPs quantitated by FCB when compared with those two reference methods including the Trucount tube and FR method. The absolute RMPs count obtained from FCB method was highly correlated with those obtained from Trucount tube (r(2) = 0.98, mean bias 4 cell/microl, limit of agreement [LOA] -20.3 to 28.3 cell/microl), and FR method (r(2) = 1, mean bias 10.3 cell/microl, and LOA -5.5 to 26.2 cell/microl). This study demonstrates that FCB is suitable and more affordable for RMPs quantitation in the clinical samples. This method is a low cost and interchangeable to latex bead-based method for generating the absolute counts in the resource-limited areas. (c) 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  10. Isolation, sequencing and expression of RED, a novel human gene encoding an acidic-basic dipeptide repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assier, E; Bouzinba-Segard, H; Stolzenberg, M C; Stephens, R; Bardos, J; Freemont, P; Charron, D; Trowsdale, J; Rich, T

    1999-04-16

    A novel human gene RED, and the murine homologue, MuRED, were cloned. These genes were named after the extensive stretch of alternating arginine (R) and glutamic acid (E) or aspartic acid (D) residues that they contain. We term this the 'RED' repeat. The genes of both species were expressed in a wide range of tissues and we have mapped the human gene to chromosome 5q22-24. MuRED and RED shared 98% sequence identity at the amino acid level. The open reading frame of both genes encodes a 557 amino acid protein. RED fused to a fluorescent tag was expressed in nuclei of transfected cells and localised to nuclear dots. Co-localisation studies showed that these nuclear dots did not contain either PML or Coilin, which are commonly found in the POD or coiled body nuclear compartments. Deletion of the amino terminal 265 amino acids resulted in a failure to sort efficiently to the nucleus, though nuclear dots were formed. Deletion of a further 50 amino acids from the amino terminus generates a protein that can sort to the nucleus but is unable to generate nuclear dots. Neither construct localised to the nucleolus. The characteristics of RED and its nuclear localisation implicate it as a regulatory protein, possibly involved in transcription.

  11. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Red Cell Indexes Made Easy Using an Interactive Animation: Do Students and Their Scores Concur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachroo, Upasana; Vinod, Elizabeth; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; W., Jesi; Prince, Neetu

    2018-01-01

    A good understanding of red cell indexes can aid medical students in a considerable manner, serving as a basis to unravel both concepts in red cell physiology and abnormalities associated with the same. In this study, we tried to assess whether an interactive animation was helpful in improving student comprehension and understanding of red cell…

  13. A Gaussian process and derivative spectral-based algorithm for red blood cell segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingying; Wang, Jianbiao; Zhou, Mei; Hou, Xiyue; Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting

    2017-07-01

    As an imaging technology used in remote sensing, hyperspectral imaging can provide more information than traditional optical imaging of blood cells. In this paper, an AOTF based microscopic hyperspectral imaging system is used to capture hyperspectral images of blood cells. In order to achieve the segmentation of red blood cells, Gaussian process using squared exponential kernel function is applied first after the data preprocessing to make the preliminary segmentation. The derivative spectrum with spectral angle mapping algorithm is then applied to the original image to segment the boundary of cells, and using the boundary to cut out cells obtained from the Gaussian process to separated adjacent cells. Then the morphological processing method including closing, erosion and dilation is applied so as to keep adjacent cells apart, and by applying median filtering to remove noise points and filling holes inside the cell, the final segmentation result can be obtained. The experimental results show that this method appears better segmentation effect on human red blood cells.

  14. Measuring osmosis and hemolysis of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhead, Lauren K; MacMillan, Frances M

    2017-06-01

    Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane. By placing red blood cells in solutions of differing osmolarities and tonicities, this experiment demonstrates the effects of osmosis and the resultant changes in cell volume. Using hemoglobin standard solutions, where known concentrations of hemoglobin are produced, the proportion of hemolysis and the effect of this on resultant hematocrit can be estimated. No change in cell volume occurs in isotonic NaCl, and, by placing blood cells in hypotonic NaCl, incomplete hemolysis occurs. By changing the bathing solution to either distilled water or isosmotic urea, complete hemolysis occurs due to their hypotonic effects. With the use of animal blood in this practical, students gain useful experience in handling tissue fluids and calculating dilutions and can appreciate the science behind clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Correlation of serum unconjugated oestriol to red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, H; Ditzel, J

    1983-03-01

    In order to evaluate the possible underlying factors for the increase in red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate content observed in late diabetic pregnancy, its relationship with serum unconjugated oestriol, human placental lactogen, haemoglobin and hydrogen ion concentrations was investigated in 42 pregnant diabetic women. A significant correlation was found between red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and serum unconjugated oestriol (r = 0.54, p less than 0.001), whereas no correlation was present between 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and the following variables: arterial pH, haemoglobin concentration and human placental lactogen. The content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate correlated significantly with haemoglobin-oxygen affinity expressed as P50 at pH 7.4 (r = 0.34, p less than 0.05). The results of this study indicate that serum unconjugated oestriol may participate in the regulation of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate content and thereby of the maternal blood oxygen release to the fetus.

  16. Brazilian red propolis: phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity and effect against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, Izabel Cristina Gomes; Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino de Moraes; do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; de Souza, Naiana Soares; Oliveira, José Marcos dos Santos; Arruda, Rodolfo Elleson dos Santos; Mousinho, Kristiana Cerqueira; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Basílio-Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; Parolia, Abhishek; Barreto, Francisco Stefânio

    2015-10-14

    The implementation of new public healthcare models that stimulate the use of natural products from traditional medicine, as a so-called integrated medicine, refers to an approach that use best of both conventional medicine and traditional medicine. Propolis is a widely used natural product by different ancient cultures and known to exhibit biological activities beneficial for health. The large number of studies conducted with propolis had shown that its chemical composition differs as a function of the climate, plant diversity and bee species and plays an important role on its therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to analyse the phytochemical profile of the ethanolic extract of red propolis (EEP) and its fractionation, antioxidant action of EEP and its fractions hexane, cloroform and ethyl acetate and cytotoxic activity of EEP on human tumour cell lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovary) and HCT-116 (colon). EEP was obtained by maceration with absolute ethanol, then it was concentrated in rotaevaporator up to complete evaporation of the solvent. The crude extract was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol and they were subjected to phytochemical screening and total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of EEP and fractions was done by means of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Biomarkers of red propolis were identified by LC-Orbitrap-FTMS. To assess cytotoxic activity of the extract, cells were exposed to EEP over 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by means of MTT assay. The percentage of cell growth inhibition (IC50) was analysed by means of non-linear regression, and the absorbance values of the various investigated concentrations were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's or Tamhane's tests (α = 0.05). The results obtained using phytochemical screening and LC-Orbitrap-FTMS indicated the presence of phlobaphene tannins, catechins, chalcones, aurones, flavonones

  17. Human monoclonal antibodies reactive with human myelomonocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, M R; Santos, D J; Elboim, H S; Tumber, M B; Frackelton, A R

    1989-04-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), in remission, were depleted of CD8-positive T-cells and cultured with Epstein-Barr virus. Four of 20 cultures (20%) secreted human IgG antibodies selectively reactive with the cell surfaces of certain human leukemia cell lines. Three polyclonal, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed, B-cell lines were expanded and fused with the human-mouse myeloma analogue HMMA2.11TG/O. Antibody from secreting clones HL 1.2 (IgG1), HL 2.1 (IgG3), and HL 3.1 (IgG1) have been characterized. All three react with HL-60 (promyelocytic), RWLeu4 (CML promyelocytic), and U937 (monocytic), but not with KG-1 (myeloblastic) or K562 (CML erythroid). There is no reactivity with T-cell lines, Burkitt's cell lines, pre-B-leukemia cell lines, or an undifferentiated CML cell line, BV173. Leukemic cells from two of seven patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and one of five with acute lymphocytic leukemia react with all three antibodies. Normal lymphocytes, monocytes, polymorphonuclear cells, red blood cells, bone marrow cells, and platelets do not react. Samples from patients with other diverse hematopoietic malignancies showed no reactivity. Immunoprecipitations suggest that the reactive antigen(s) is a lactoperoxidase iodinatable series of cell surface proteins with molecular weights of 42,000-54,000 and a noniodinatable protein with a molecular weight of 82,000. Based on these data these human monoclonal antibodies appear to react with myelomonocytic leukemic cells and may detect a leukemia-specific antigen or a highly restricted differentiation antigen.

  18. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Parra, Diego; Chirife, Jorge; Zamora, Clara; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2018-04-07

    Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF). More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3- O -glucoside, malvidin 3- O -(6″-acetyl-glucose), petunidin-3- O -glucoside, quercetin-3- O -glucuronide, syringenin-3- O -glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA).

  19. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rocha-Parra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF. More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-(6″-acetyl-glucose, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, syringenin-3-O-glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA.

  20. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  1. Diagnosis and epidemiology of red blood cell enzyme disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Wijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell possess an active metabolic machinery that provides the cell with energy to pump ions against electrochemical gradients, to maintain its shape, to keep hemoglobin iron in the reduced (ferrous form, and to maintain enzyme and hemoglobin sulfhydryl groups. The main source of metabolic energy comes from glucose. Glucose is metabolized through the glycolytic pathway and through the hexose monophosphate shunt. Glycolysis catabolizes glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which represent the end products of glucose metabolism in the erythrocyte. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is phosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is reduced to NADH in glycolysis. 2,3- Bisphosphoglycerate, an important regulator of the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, is generated during glycolysis by the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. The hexose monophosphate shunt oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate, reducing NADP+ to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. The red cell lacks the capacity for de novo purine synthesis but has a salvage pathway that permits synthesis of purine nucleotides from purine bases...

  2. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  3. Revisiting the Red Effect on Attractiveness and Sexual Receptivity : No Effect of the Color Red on Human Mate Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperkoorn, L.S.; Roberts, S. Craig; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2016-01-01

    Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by

  4. Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Francois

    2008-02-01

    Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses, so carotenoid-based ornaments might be particularly useful as honest indicators of immuno-compentence. Tetraonid birds, such as the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus, exhibit supra-orbital yellow red combs, a conspicuous ornament which functions in intra- and inter-sexual selection. The colour of combs is due to epidermal pigmentation by carotenoids, while their size is testosterone-dependent. In this study, I investigated whether comb characteristics, and in particular, comb colour, indicated immuno-competence in free-living male red grouse. I assessed T-cell-mediated immunity using a standardised challenge with phytohaemagglutinin. Red grouse combs reflect in the red and in the ultraviolet spectrum of light, which is not visible to humans but that grouse most likely see, so I measured comb colour across the whole bird visible spectrum (300 700 nm) using a reflectance spectrometer. I found that males with bigger and redder combs, but with less ultraviolet reflectance, had greater T-cell-mediated immune response. Comb colour predicted T-cell-mediated immune response better than comb size, indicating that the carotenoid-based colouration of this ornament might reliably signal this aspect of male quality.

  5. Human leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikashvili, E.L.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobil'skiy, A.I.; Kharabadze, N.E.; Shonia, N.I.; Desai, L.S.; Foley, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the determination of trace elements in nucleic acids and histones in human leukaemic cells by activation analysis are reported. The Cr 2+ , Fe 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Sb 2+ content of DNA and RNA of leukaemic cells compared to that of lymphocytes from a patient with infectious mononucleosis or a normal donor are shown tabulated. Similar comparisons are shown for the same trace metal content of histones isolated from the same type of cells. It is felt that the results afford further interesting speculation that trace metals may be involved in the interactions between histones and DNA (especially at the binding sites of histones to DNA), which affect transcription characteristics. (U.K.)

  6. Micronuclei in red blood cells of armored catfish Hypostomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... with micronuclei and 17 ± 0.005 mg/kg of total chrome in tissues, detected through atomic absorption spectrophotometry. .... and human cell lines, DNA damage induction by potas- .... Effects of metallic ion toxicity on human ...

  7. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA, a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated.

  8. Assessment of red cell sodium transport in essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, J.R.; Etkin, N.L.; McSwigan, J.D.; Eaton, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Abnormal erythrocyte Na+ transport has been reported in patients with essential hypertension and some first-degree relatives. The two major techniques now employed for estimating Na+ transport--Na+/Li+ countertransport and Na+/K+ cotransport--are rather intricate and time consuming. Furthermore, the precise nature of the transport processes being measured is not clear. We have developed a simpler, more direct technique based on measurement of 22Na+ accumulation by erythrocytes. 22Na+ uptake by red cells from patients with essential hypertension averages twice normal. Indeed, of 21 patients with essential hypertension, only 2 patients had values within the upper end of the normal range. In 12 patients with secondary hypertension and no family history of essential hypertension, erythrocyte 22Na+ accumulation was within normal limits. Control experiments indicate that our technique for estimating red cell 22Na+ uptake is highly reproducible and shows little day-to-day variation. This procedure for the assessment of erythrocyte Na+ transport should be useful in differential diagnosis and the presymptomatic identification of individuals genetically prone to essential hypertension

  9. Utilization of red blood cell transfusion in an obstetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, A A; McMorland, G H; Wadsworth, L D

    1988-11-01

    The transfusion experience for a 1-year period (September 1985 to August 1986) at a tertiary referral obstetric hospital was reviewed retrospectively. During the review period 7731 mothers were delivered and 6003 patients (83%) underwent type-and-screen procedures. A total of 1057 units of red blood cells were crossmatched, and 362 of these 1057 units were transfused to 100 parturient women so that the overall crossmatch/transfusion ratio was 2.9:1. Five percent of transfused patients received 1 unit; 52% of patients received 2 units, 19% received 3 units and 24% received greater than or equal to 4 units of packed red blood cells. Major indications for transfusion were uterine atony, 27%; retained placenta, 17%; trauma, 17%, placenta previa, 7%; and abruptio placentae, 5%. In 12% of patients transfusions were done because of anemia. This study shows the value of audit and confirms that the type-and-screen procedure is an effective way of reducing the crossmatch/transfusion ratio without compromising patient care, even in high-risk patients.

  10. Attenuation of Red Blood Cell Storage Lesions with Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sanford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored red blood cells (RBCs undergo oxidative stress that induces deleterious metabolic, structural, biochemical, and molecular changes collectively referred to as “storage lesions”. We hypothesized that vitamin C (VitC, reduced or oxidized would reduce red cell storage lesions, thus prolonging their storage duration. Whole-blood-derived, leuko-reduced, SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol-preserved RBC concentrates were equally divided into four pediatric storage bags and the following additions made: (1 saline (saline; (2 0.3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Lo VitC; (3 3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Hi VitC; or (4 0.3 mmol/L oxidized VitC (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA as final concentrations. Biochemical and rheological parameters were serially assessed at baseline (prior to supplementation and Days 7, 21, 42, and 56 for RBC VitC concentration, pH, osmotic fragility by mechanical fragility index, and percent hemolysis, LDH release, glutathione depletion, RBC membrane integrity by scanning electron microscopy, and Western blot for β-spectrin. VitC exposure (reduced and oxidized significantly increased RBC antioxidant status with varying dynamics and produced trends in reduction in osmotic fragility and increases in membrane integrity. Conclusion: VitC partially protects RBC from oxidative changes during storage. Combining VitC with other antioxidants has the potential to improve long-term storage of RBC.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF RED-BLOOD-CELL DEFORMABILITY IN RELATION TO CELL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSCH, FH; WERRE, JM; ROERDINKHOLDERSTOELWINDER, B; HULS, T; WILLEKENS, FLA; WICHERS, G; HALIE, MR

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined with an ektacytometer in fractions separated on the basis of differences in cell volume or density. Deformability was measured with ektacytometry (rpm-scan and osmo-scan). We studied three groups of RBC fractions:l. By counterflow centrifugation we

  12. Erythrokinetics, ferrokinetics and red cell survival in sickle cell anaemia under subtropical climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, R.

    1975-01-01

    Ferrokinetic parameters were evaluated with 59 Fe and red-cell survival with 51 Cr by classical techniques in a total of 17 patients with sickle-cell disease. The mean plasma 59 Fe half-disappearance time in these patients was 29.5 min as compared with a normal value of 92 min, and the t1/2 51 Cr 8.0 days as compared with a normal value of 26.0 days. The mean red-cell iron turnover rate was elevated to 9 times normal. The increased destruction of red cells appeared to take place predominantly, though not entirely, in the spleen. Eight of the 17 patients studied were identified as having intercurrent complications, but these did not significantly affect the results of the investigations. A group of 5 boys in whom the red-cell iron turnover rate was elevated to a lesser degree than in the other patients were subjected to more detailed studies of plasma 59 Fe clearance with particular reference to ineffective erythropoiesis. In these patients, the plasma 59 Fe clearance curves showed precocious humps characteristic of ineffective erythropoiesis. Detailed analysis of the results indicated ineffective erythropoiesis corresponding to 3.6, 16.0, 22.6, 32.0 and 50.0 % of the iron initially taken up by the bone marrow. It is concluded that while the anaemia in most patients with sickle-cell disease is mainly due to shortened survival of the circulating red cells, with increased destruction of red cells in the spleen, ineffective erythropoiesis may none the less be an important factor determining the actual degree of this anaemia

  13. Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun

    2012-04-01

    We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.

  14. 3D morphometry of red blood cells by digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmolo, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Gennari, Oriella; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    Three dimensional (3D) morphometric analysis of flowing and not-adherent cells is an important aspect for diagnostic purposes. However, diagnostics tools need to be quantitative, label-free and, as much as possible, accurate. Recently, a simple holographic approach, based on shape from silhouette algorithm, has been demonstrated for accurate calculation of cells biovolume and displaying their 3D shapes. Such approach has been adopted in combination with holographic optical tweezers and successfully applied to cells with convex shape. Nevertheless, unfortunately, the method fails in case of specimen with concave surfaces. Here, we propose an effective approach to achieve correct 3D shape measurement that can be extended in case of cells having concave surfaces, thus overcoming the limit of the previous technique. We prove the new procedure for healthy red blood cells (RBCs) (i.e., discocytes) having a concave surface in their central region. Comparative analysis of experimental results with a theoretical 3D geometrical model of RBC is discussed in order to evaluate accuracy of the proposed approach. Finally, we show that the method can be also useful to classify, in terms of morphology, different varieties of RBCs. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  15. Survival of transfused red blood cells: In vivo compatibility testing with chromium-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharkar, D.D.; Pineda, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The /sup 51/Cr red cell survival test and specific test for measurement of the disappearance rate of labeled red cells. This procedure can be used for the assessment of red cell compatibility testing in vivo. The authors recommend that more routine transfusions as well as ''difficult'' transfusions be monitored by /sup 51/Cr in vivo compatibility testing before the actual transfusions, so that more consistent and reliable survival values are achieved

  16. Erythropoetin treatment can increase 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgegård, G; Sandhagen, B

    2001-01-01

    Some patients experience an improved well-being during treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin even with an unchanged Hb level. We have hypothesized that this may not be only a placebo effect. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells increases in response to anaemia/hypoxia and causes a shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, allowing a more effective oxygen delivery. We have investigated red cell 2,3-DPG concentrations during erythropoietin treatment in healthy volunteers as a mediator of a possible physiological explanation. Thirteen healthy subjects with no iron deficiency were recruited and randomly assigned to a treatment group comprising five males and three females and a control group including three males and two females. The treatment group was treated with erythropoietin (Recormon), 20 IE/kg subcutaneously three times/week for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at each injection day and 10 days after the last injection and at corresponding times in the control group. B-Hb, red cell 2,3-DPG and P50 were measured by standard techniques and oxygen-releasing capacity was calculated. due to the sampling (26 ml each time, three times/week) the mean Hb level was lowered from 140.5 +/- 5.9 to 128.6 +/- 10.4 g/L in the control group whereas the erythropoietin treatment group maintained a mean Hb level of about 142 g/L (plevel curve as well as that for oxygen releasing capacity also differed significantly between the two groups (p levels. treatment with erythropoietin causes an increase in red cell 2,3-DPG levels.

  17. Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient

  18. Human leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikashvili, E.L.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobil'skiy, A.I.; Kharabadze, N.E.; Shonia, N.I.; Desai, L.S.; Foley, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    Trace metals were measured by neutron-activation analyses in purified nucleic acids and histone(s) of lymphocytes from patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia or infectious mononucleosis, and from normal donors. DNA isolated from lymphocytes of a patient with infectious mononucleosis and a normal donor showed a high content of Cr 2+ , Sb 2+ , Fe 2+ , Zn 2+ , whereas DNA of lymphoblasts from a patient with acute lymphocytic leukaemia had a lower content of these trace metals, but the Co 2+ content was 20-fold higher than in DNA of normal donor lymphocytic cells. Total histones from leukaemic cells had higher contents of most of the trace metals except for Zn 2+ , which was present in lesser concentration than in histones from normal donor lymphocytic cells. Lysine-rich (F1) histones showed lower contents of Cr 2+ , Sb 2+ and Co 2+ , whereas arginine-rich (F3) histones had significantly higher contents of these trace metals. These observations may be of interest in that F3 histones more effectively inhibit RNA synthesis in human lymphocytic cells than do other species of histones. (author)

  19. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Variant of a Common Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-05-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a distinct but rare subtype of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). It presents as a red macule or papule; therefore, in most cases, it may easily be mistaken for a benign vascular lesion, such as a telangiectasia or angioma. A red dot BCC in an older woman is described. Clinical and histological differences between red dot BCCs and telangiectasias are described. A 72-year-old woman initially presented with a painless red macule on her nose. Biopsy of the lesion established the diagnosis of a red dot BCC. Pubmed was searched for the following terms: angioma, basal cell carcinoma, dermoscope, diascopy, red dot, non-melanoma skin cancer, telangiectasia, and vascular. The papers were reviewed for cases of red dot basal cell carcinoma. Clinical and histological characteristics of red dot basal cell carcinoma and telangiectasias were compared. Red dot BCC is an extremely rare variant of BCC that may be confused with benign vascular lesions. Although BCCs rarely metastasize and are associated with low mortality, they have the potential to become locally invasive and destructive if left untreated. Thus, a high index of suspicion for red dot BCC is necessary. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):645-647.

  20. Raman spectroscopic studies of optically trapped red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Gupta, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic studies were performed on optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) collected from healthy volunteers and patients suffering from malaria (Plasmodium vivax infection) using near infrared (785 nm) laser source. The results show significant alteration in the spectra averaged over ∼ 50 non-parasitized RBCs per sample. As compared to RBCs from healthy donors, in cells collected from malaria patients, a significant decrease in the intensity of the low spin (oxygenated-haemoglobin) marker Raman band at 1223 cm -1 (υ 13 or υ 42 ) along with a concomitant increase in the high spin (deoxygenated-haemoglobin) marker bands at 1210 cm -1 (υ 5 + υ 18 ) and 1546 cm -1 (υ 11 ) was observed. The changes primarily suggest a reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity for the non-parasitized red cells in malaria patients. The possible causes include up regulation of intra-erythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and/or ineffective erythropoiesis resulted from the disease. During the above study we also observed that significant photo-damage may results to the intracellular haemoglobin (Hb) if higher laser power is used. For a laser power above ∼ 5 mW the observed increase in intensity of the Raman bands at 975 cm -1 (υ 46 ), 1244 cm -1 (υ 42 ) and 1366 cm -1 (υ 4 ) with increasing exposure time suggests photo-denaturation of Hb and the concomitant decrease in intensity of the Raman band at 1544 cm -1 (υ 11 ) suggests photo induced methaemoglobin formation. The photo damage of intracellular haemoglobin by the above processes was also observed to result in intracellular heme aggregation. (author)

  1. Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.

    2013-12-17

    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m 2-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m2), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m2; WW: 1.9 W/m2). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m2-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m2) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m2-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m2) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m2-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.; Hatzell, Marta; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m 2-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m2), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m2; WW: 1.9 W/m2). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m2-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m2) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m2-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m2) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m2-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Hemoglobin redox reactions and red blood cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Joseph M; Nagababu, Enika

    2013-06-10

    The physiological mechanism(s) for recognition and removal of red blood cells (RBCs) from circulation after 120 days of its lifespan is not fully understood. Many of the processes thought to be associated with the removal of RBCs involve oxidative stress. We have focused on hemoglobin (Hb) redox reactions, which is the major source of RBC oxidative stress. The importance of Hb redox reactions have been shown to originate in large parts from the continuous slow autoxidation of Hb producing superoxide and its dramatic increase under hypoxic conditions. In addition, oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with redox reactions that originate from Hb reactions with nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) and the resultant formation of highly toxic peroxynitrite when NO reacts with superoxide released during Hb autoxidation. The interaction of Hb, particularly under hypoxic conditions with band 3 of the RBC membrane is critical for the generating the RBC membrane changes that trigger the removal of cells from circulation. These changes include exposure of antigenic sites, increased calcium leakage into the RBC, and the resultant leakage of potassium out of the RBC causing cell shrinkage and impaired deformability. The need to understand the oxidative damage to specific membrane proteins that result from redox reactions occurring when Hb is bound to the membrane. Proteomic studies that can pinpoint the specific proteins damaged under different conditions will help elucidate the cellular aging processes that result in cells being removed from circulation.

  4. Detection and quantification of subtle changes in red blood cell density using a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Edward J; Velasquez, Anthony; Lu, Shulin; Murphy, Ryann O; ElKhal, Abdala; Mazor, Ofer; Gorelik, Pavel; Sharda, Anish; Ghiran, Ionita C

    2016-08-16

    Magnetic levitation has emerged as a technique that offers the ability to differentiate between cells with different densities. We have developed a magnetic levitation system for this purpose that distinguishes not only different cell types but also density differences in cells of the same type. This small-scale system suspends cells in a paramagnetic medium in a capillary placed between two rare earth magnets, and cells levitate to an equilibrium position determined solely by their density. Uniform reference beads of known density are used in conjunction with the cells as a means to quantify their levitation positions. In one implementation images of the levitating cells are acquired with a microscope, but here we also introduce a cell phone-based device that integrates the magnets, capillary, and a lens into a compact and portable unit that acquires images with the phone's camera. To demonstrate the effectiveness of magnetic levitation in cell density analysis we carried out levitation experiments using red blood cells with artificially altered densities, and also levitated those from donors. We observed that we can distinguish red blood cells of an anemic donor from those that are healthy. Since a plethora of disease states are characterized by changes in cell density magnetic cell levitation promises to be an effective tool in identifying and analyzing pathologic states. Furthermore, the low cost, portability, and ease of use of the cell phone-based system may potentially lead to its deployment in low-resource environments.

  5. Peripheral Red Blood Cell Split Chimerism as a Consequence of Intramedullary Selective Apoptosis of Recipient Red Blood Cells in a Case of Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marziali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80%  circulating donor red blood cells (RBC. The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow  level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism.

  6. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according...... to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , Psodium (r = 0·57, P......sodium efflux was higher in patients with cirrhosis (+46%, Psodium buffers showed that the F-insensitive sodium efflux was twice as high in cirrhosis as in controls (P = 0...

  7. Duration of red blood cell storage and inflammatory marker generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Caroline; Tariket, Sofiane; Chou, Ming Li; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a life-saving treatment for several pathologies. RBCs for transfusion are stored refrigerated in a preservative solution, which extends their shelf-life for up to 42 days. During storage, the RBCs endure abundant physicochemical changes, named RBC storage lesions, which affect the overall quality standard, the functional integrity and in vivo survival of the transfused RBCs. Some of the changes occurring in the early stages of the storage period (for approximately two weeks) are reversible but become irreversible later on as the storage is extended. In this review, we aim to decipher the duration of RBC storage and inflammatory marker generation. This phenomenon is included as one of the causes of transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM), an emerging concept developed to potentially elucidate numerous clinical observations that suggest that RBC transfusion is associated with increased inflammatory events or effects with clinical consequence. PMID:28263172

  8. Mechanisms of Xenon Effect on Skin and Red Blood Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponomarev, Alexander; Rodin, V.; Gurevich, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    The usage of Xenon (Xe) is known in anesthesia and biobanking areas. It is considered preservation effect of Xe is associated either with clathrate formation - solid gaseous structures or dissolution of Xe molecules in liquid phase without physical state modification (so-called hyperbarium) [1......]. This study is addressed to establish differences between hyberbarium or clathrate Xe actions as well as its applications on various bioobjects with anaerobic - red blood cells (RBCs) and aerobic (skin fragments) metabolism. Xe clathrates and hyperbarium storage were simulated under 277 K and 620-725 k...... to control (15.68 ± 1.11, CI95%). Skin fragments were harvested from rat tails and divided on hyberbarium, clathrate and dimetylsulfoxide cryopreserved as control group and stored for 7 days. Assessment was performed by point-score method including epidermal-dermal integrity various assays and engraftment...

  9. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... trials, SilverPlatter Medline (1950 to date), SilverPlatter Embase (1980 to date), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to present). Reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews were assessed, and authors and experts in transfusion were contacted to identify additional trials....... TRIAL SELECTION: Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy in adults or children, irrespective of language, blinding procedure, publication status, or sample size. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently screened...

  10. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  11. Adaptation of red cell enzymes and intermediates in metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, K M; Goebel, F D; Neitzert, A; Hausmann, L; Schneider, J

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic activity of the red cell glycolytic pathway hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP) with dependent glutathione system was studied in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 10), hyperlipoproteinemia (n = 16), hypoglycemia (n = 25) and hyperglycemia (n = 23). In uncontrolled diabetics and patients with hyperthyroidism the mean value of glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), glutathione reductase (GR) was increased, whereas these enzyme activities were reduced in patients with hypoglycemia. Apart from a few values of hexokinase (HK) which were lower than normal the results in hyperlipoproteinemia patients remained essentially unchanged, including the intermediates such as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced glutathione (GSH). While increased rates of 2,3-DPG and ATP in hypoglycemia patients were obtained, these substrates were markedly reduced in diabetics.

  12. Growth-inhibitory effects of the red alga Gelidium amansii on cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue-Hwa; Tu, Ching-Jung; Wu, Hsiao-Ting

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii, an edible red agar cultivated off the northeast coast of Taiwan, on the growth of two lines of cancer cells, murine hepatoma (Hepa-1) and human leukemia (HL-60) cells, as well as a normal cell line, murine embryo fibroblast cells (NIH-3T3). The potential role of G. amansii on the induction of apoptosis was also examined. The results indicated that all extracts from G. amansii, including phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and methanol extracts from dried algae as well as the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extract from freeze-dried G. amansii agar, inhibited the growth of Hepa-1 and NIH-3T3 cells, but not the growth of HL-60 cells. Annexin V-positive cells were observed in methanol and DMSO extract-treated, but not PBS extract-treated Hepa-1 and NIH-3T3 cells, suggesting that the lipid-soluble extracts of G. amansii induced apoptosis. In summary, extracts of G. amansii from various preparations exhibited antiproliferative effects on Hepa-1 and NIH-3T3 cells, and apoptosis may play a role in the methanol and DMSO extract-induced inhibitory effects. However, the antiproliferative effects of PBS extracts was not through apoptosis. Moreover, the growth-inhibitory effects of G. amansii were not specific to cancer cells.

  13. Comparative study on the effect of radiation on whole blood and isolate red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of the dielectric properties of red blood cells requires several steps for preparation and isolation from whole blood. These steps may results in changes in the cells properties, and they are time consuming . The present study aims to compare the properties of both whole blood and isolated red blood cells and the effect of gamma radiation on these properties. Adult male rats were exposed to 1, 3.5 and 7 Gy as single dose, from Cs-137 source.The studies dielectric properties, in the frequency range 40 k Hz to 5 MHz, and light scattering studies for suspensions of whole blood and isolated red blood cells from the same groups were measured. The obtained results showed that whole blood and red blood cells suspensions followed the same trend in their response to radiation, which suggests the possibility of using whole blood suspension for the evaluation of the red blood cells properties

  14. Wherever I may roam: protein and membrane trafficking in P. falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deponte, Marcel; Hoppe, Heinrich C; Lee, Marcus C S; Maier, Alexander G; Richard, Dave; Rug, Melanie; Spielmann, Tobias; Przyborski, Jude M

    2012-12-01

    Quite aside from its immense importance as a human pathogen, studies in recent years have brought to light the fact that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is an interesting eukaryotic model system to study protein trafficking. Studying parasite cell biology often reveals an overrepresentation of atypical cell biological features, possibly driven by the parasites' need to survive in an unusual biological niche. Malaria parasites possess uncommon cellular compartments to which protein traffic must be directed, including secretory organelles such as rhoptries and micronemes, a lysosome-like compartment referred to as the digestive vacuole and a complex (four membrane-bound) plastid, the apicoplast. In addition, the parasite must provide proteins to extracellular compartments and structures including the parasitophorous vacuole, the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, the Maurer's clefts and both cytosol and plasma membrane of the host cell, the mature human red blood cell. Although some of these unusual destinations are possessed by other cell types, only Plasmodium parasites contain them all within one cell. Here we review what is known about protein and membrane transport in the P. falciparum-infected cell, highlighting novel features of these processes. A growing body of evidence suggests that this parasite is a real "box of tricks" with regards to protein traffic. Possibly, these tricks may be turned against the parasite by exploiting them as novel therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological and Metabolic Parameters of Red Blood Cells after Their Treatment with Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Deryugina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the morphology of red blood cells (RBC and the association of morphological parameters with lipid peroxidation processes and the content of organic phosphates in RBC when treating packed red blood cells with the ozonized saline solution (with an ozone concentration of 2 mg/l after different storage periods.Materials and methods. The morphology of human RBC, the concentration of malonic dialdehyde (MDA in RBC, the catalase activity, the concentration of ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG were studied before and after treatment of RBC with the ozonized saline (with the ozone concentration of 2 mg/l after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days of storage.Results. The effect of ozone (2 ng/l in vitro on the packed red blood cells after 7–21 days of storage contributed to the recovery of RBC shape, increased the concentration of ATP and 2,3-DPG, and optimized the lipid peroxidation. Ozone did not demonstrate a pronounced positive effect on these parameters when the packed RBCs were stored for 30 days.Conclusion. The treatment of the packed RBCs with the ozonized saline solution (with the ozone concentration of 2 mg/l contributed to the recovery of the discocyte count due to optimization of lipid peroxidation processes in cell membranes and enhanced the synthesis of organic phosphates in cells due to the activation of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. This can be used to improve the morphological and metabolic status of the packed RBCs before their transfusion. 

  16. Density increment and decreased survival of rat red blood cells induced by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimoto, M.; Miura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were injected with CdCl 2 subcutaneously to examine in vivo effects of Cd on density and survival of red blood cells. During the 7 days after administration of 1.0 mg Cd/kg, the following sequence of events occurred: (1) a progressive increase in the amount of more dense red blood cells concomitant with a decrease in that of light red blood cells from the first to the third day; (2) an increase in the spleen weight at the third day; (3) a decrease in the hematocrit value and an increase in the amount of light red blood cells at the fifth day; and (4) a recovery of the hematocrit value at the seventh day. Five days after administration, the hematocrit value decreased in a dose-dependent mode and the decrease was significant at the 1% level at 1.0 and 1.5 mg Cd/kg. A highly significant splenomegaly was also observed at 0.5 to 1.5 mg Cd/kg. In order to label red blood cells in vivo, [ 3 H] diisopropylfluorophosphate ([ 3 H]DFP) was injected into rats. At Day 11, Cd at either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg was administered to [ 3 H]DFP-prelabeled animals. Cd administration accelerated 3 H-labeled red cell clearance from the blood. Six days after Cd administration, the radioactivity of red blood cells was 76 and 68% of the control at 0.5 and 1.0 mg Cd/kg, respectively. In vitro treatment of rat red density and accelerated in vivo clearance of red blood cells from the recipient circulation. These results show that Cd at low dose can cause anemia by increasing red cell density and by accelerating red cell sequestration, presumably in the spleen

  17. Revising the South African guidelines for human settlement planning and design (the red book)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Willemien

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design, commonly known as the Red Book, is a South African publication aimed at providing practical guidance to built environment professionals in support of the creation of sustainable and vibrant...

  18. Stretching of red blood cells using an electro-optics trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Mozzammel; Moisescu, Mihaela G; Valkai, Sándor; Dér, András; Savopol, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    The stretching stiffness of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) was investigated using a combination of an AC dielectrophoretic apparatus and a single-beam optical tweezer. The experiments were performed at 10 MHz, a frequency high enough to avoid conductivity losses, but below the second turnover point between positive and negative dielectrophoresis. By measuring the geometrical parameters of single healthy human RBCs as a function of the applied voltage, the elastic modulus of RBCs was determined (µ = 1.80 ± 0.5 µN/m) and compared with similar values of the literature got by other techniques. The method is expected to be an easy-to-use, alternative tool to determine the mechano-elastic properties of living cells, and, on this basis, to distinguish healthy and diseased cells.

  19. Assessment of oxidant susceptibility of red blood cells in various species based on cell deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Michael J; Meiselman, Herbert J; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M; Pyne, Michael; Kakanis, Michael; Keane, James; Brenu, Ekua; Christy, Rhys; Baskurt, Oguz K

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the oxidant susceptibility of red blood cells (RBC) from four species (echidna, human, koala, Tasmanian devil) based on changes in cellular deformability. These species were specifically chosen based on differences in lifestyle and/or biology associated with varied levels of oxidative stress. The major focus was the influence of superoxide radicals generated within the cell (phenazine methosulfate, PMS, 50 μM) or in the extracellular medium (xanthine oxidase-hypoxanthine, XO-HX, 0.1 U/ml XO) on RBC deformability at various shear stresses (SS). RBC deformability was assessed by laser-diffraction analysis using a "slit-flow ektacytometer". Both superoxide-generating treatments resulted in significant increases of methemoglobin for all species (p koala cells exhibited a similar sigmoid-like response to SS, short-beaked echidna values were markedly lower and only increased slightly with SS, while Tasmanian devil RBC were extremely rigid. The effect of XO-HX on RBC deformability was less when compared with PMS (i.e., smaller increase in rigidity) with the exception of Tasmanian devil RBC which exhibited essentially no deformation even at the highest SS; Tasmanian devil RBC response to XO-HX was thus comparable to that observed with PMS. Our findings indicate that ektacytometry can be used to determine the oxidant susceptibility of RBC from different species which varies significantly among mammals representing diverse lifestyles and evolutionary histories. These differences in susceptibility are consistent with species-specific discrepancies between observed and allometrically-predicted life spans and are compatible with the oxidant theory of aging.

  20. Optimising methods of red cell sedimentation from cord blood to maximise nucleated cell recovery prior to cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkaikar, M; Gupta, M; Ghosh, K; Swaminathan, S; Sonawane, L; Mohanty, D

    2007-01-01

    Human cord blood is now an established source of stem cells for haematopoietic reconstitution. Red blood cell (RBC) depletion is required to reduce the cord blood unit volume for commercial banking. Red cell sedimentation using hydroxy ethyl starch (HES) is a standard procedure in most cord blood banks. However, while standardising the procedure for cord blood banking, a significant loss of nucleated cells (NC) may be encountered during standard HES sedimentation protocols. This study compares four procedures for cord blood processing to obtain optimal yield of nucleated cells. Gelatin, dextran, 6% HES and 6% HES with an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were compared for RBC depletion and NC recovery. Dilution of the cord blood unit with an equal volume of PBS prior to sedimentation with HES resulted in maximum NC recovery (99% [99.5 +/- 1.3%]). Although standard procedures using 6% HES are well established in Western countries, they may not be applicable in India, as a variety of factors that can affect RBC sedimentation (e.g., iron deficiency, hypoalbuminaemia, thalassaemia trait, etc.) may reduce RBC sedimentation and thus reduce NC recovery. While diluting cord blood with an equal volume of PBS is a simple method to improve the NC recovery, it does involve an additional processing step.

  1. The effect of curvature on the undulation spectrum of Red Blood Cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark L.; Levine, Alex J.

    2009-03-01

    The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane has a composite structure of a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network. The study of the mechanical properties of RBCs is crucial to our understanding of their ability withstand large amplitude deformations during their passage through the microvasculature. The linear mechanical response of this composite membrane can be measured by observing its undulatory dynamics in thermal equilibrium, i.e. microrheology. Previous models of these dynamics postulated an effective surface tension. In this talk, we show that surface tension is not necessary. Rather, the coupling of membrane bending to spectrin network compression by curvature can account for the observed dynamics. We use a simplified theoretical model to describe the undulatory dynamics of RBCs, measured experimentally by the Popescu group.ootnotetextG. Popescu et al. ``Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy, Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases, (2008), in print'' Analyzing their data using our model, we observe dramatic changes in RBC membrane elasticity associated with cells' morphological transition from discocytes to echinocyte to spherocyte.

  2. Normal versus sickle red blood cells: hemodynamic and permeability characteristics in reperfusion lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J; Seibert, A; Shah, A; Taylor, A

    1990-01-01

    Decreased deformability and increased internal viscosity of the sickle red blood cell (SRBC) contribute to abnormal flow in the microcirculation. Since the lungs are commonly affected in sickle cell disease, we compared the hemodynamics of the normal human red blood cell (NRBC) with the SRBC in the pulmonary circulation. The SRBC has decreased antioxidant enzyme activities compared with the NRBC. Thus, using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), we determined the ability of the NRBC and the SRBC to attenuate the increased permeability and resulting edema seen in the oxidant stress of reperfusion lung injury (RLI). We found that lungs perfused with a 5% SRBC perfusate had higher pulmonary arterial pressures (Ppa) and resistances than lungs perfused with a 5% NRBC perfusate. Lungs made ischemic and reperfused with a physiologic cell-free perfusate resulted in a significant increase (P less than .05) in Kfc compared with the preischemic Kfc (.45 +/- .06 to 1.4 +/- 22 mL.min-1.cm H2O.100 g-1). In lungs reperfused with 5% RBC-containing perfusates, the Kfc did not change from preischemic Kfc with NRBCs and decreased from the preischemic Kfc with SRBCs. These findings suggest that the SRBC causes physiologically significant increases in Ppa and resistances and the SRBC, like the NRBC, offers apparent protection in RLI.

  3. An electronic apparatus for early detection of changes in red cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electronic apparatus was developed for anaesthetists to use to detect changes in red cell concentration during surgery. The mechanism is based on the relationship between the red cell content and the electrical conductivity of blood. In a pilot study of 170 blood samples, a correlation coefficient of 0,9806 was obtained ...

  4. An electronic apparatus for early detection of changes in red cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-19

    Aug 19, 1989 ... An electronic apparatus was developed for anaesthetists to use to detect changes in red cell concentration during sur- gery. The mechanism is based on the relationship between the red cell content and the electrical conductivity of blood. In a pilot study of 170 blood samples, a correlation coefficient.

  5. Preoperative factors associated with red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Medom; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Norgaard, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a frequently used treatment in patients admitted with a fractured hip, but the use remains an area of much debate. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative factors associated with the risk of receiving a red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture...

  6. Light scattering by red blood cells in ektacytometry: Fraunhofer versus anomalous diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streekstra, G. J.; Hoekstra, A. G.; Nijhof, E. J.; Heethaar, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present literature on ektacytometry, small angle light scattering by ellipsoidal red blood cells is commonly approximated by Fraunhofer diffraction. Calculations on a sphere with the size and relative refractive index of a red cell, however, show that Fraunhofer diffraction deviates

  7. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and ...

  8. The Red Blood Cell Membrane of Preterm Infants in the Early Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the nanostructure of red blood cell membranes and erythrocyte index in preterm neonatal infants.Subjects and methods. The trial enrolled 47 neonatal infants, including 33 preterm infants who were included in a study group and 14 fullterm infants who formed a comparative group. The gestational age of the preterm infants was 33.3±1.9 weeks and the birth weight was 2065.4±304.8 g. Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and erythrocyte indices were estimat ed and the red blood cells were examined using an atomicforce microscope.Results. At birth, the preterm infants showed macrocytosis, intrauterine poikylocytosis, and the impaired nanostructure of red blood cell membranes. Intrauterine hypoxia affects the red blood cell membrane nanostructures: a phospholipid bilayer and a spectrin matrix, without damaging the membrane protein component. The detected changes are reversible and directed to maintaining the functional ability of red blood cells in a critical situation. At birth, gestational age, a baby's weight, hemoglobin, and blood cholesterol and standard bicarbonate levels influence the parameters of a red blood cell component. The early neonatal period was characterized by an active process on the red blood cell membranes and a change of morphological forms, suggesting the continuing postnatal rearrangement of erythropoiesis and a preterm infant's adaptation to new environmental conditions.

  9. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aml Mohamed Nada Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. Methods: This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Results: Red cell distribution width (RDW was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008. It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7% than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035. Mean platelet volume (MPV was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238. RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. Conclusion: RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in

  10. Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity μ by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

  11. Effect of fish oil supplementation on the n-3 fatty acid content of red blood cell membranes in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S E; Rhodes, P G; Rao, V S; Goldgar, D E

    1987-05-01

    Very low birth weight infants demonstrate significant reductions in red blood cell membrane docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) following delivery unless fed human milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a dietary source of DHA (MaxEPA, R. P. Scherer Corporation, Troy, MI) could prevent the decline in red blood cell phospholipid DHA in very low birth weight infants whose enteral feeding consisted of a preterm formula without DHA. Longitudinal data were obtained on membrane phospholipid DHA in both unsupplemented and MaxEPA-supplemented infants by a combination of thin-layer and gas chromatography. These infants (n = 39) ranged in age from 10 to 53 days at enrollment (0 time). At enrollment, phospholipid DHA and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) were inversely correlated with age in days. During the study, mean red blood cell phospholipid DHA declined without supplementary DHA as determined by biweekly measurement, but infants supplemented with MaxEPA maintained the same weight percent of phospholipid (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylserine) DHA as at enrollment. The pattern of red blood cell phospholipid fatty acids in supplemented infants was similar to that reported for preterm infants fed human milk.

  12. effect of thermal stress of short duration on the red blood cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ivanc

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... of red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume ... The temperature at which stress begins to occur ..... of Barton (2002) that PCV is a measure of the cellular ..... Tufts B (eds) Fish respiration.

  13. Fetal red blood cell parameters in thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpean, Rossarin; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Ratanasiri, Thawalwong

    2013-01-01

    With the lack of fetal blood specimens in routine practice, little is known about red blood cell (RBC) parameters of fetuses with various thalassemia syndromes. This study aimed to describe these in various forms of thalassemia. The study was performed on 93 fetal blood specimens obtained from pregnant women by cordocentesis during 18-24 weeks of gestation. RBC parameters were recorded on automated analyzer. Hemoglobin (Hb) and DNA analyses were performed for definite genotyping. No significant difference in RBC parameters was observed between non-thalassemic fetuses and those with β-thalassemia trait, Hb E trait, homozygous Hb E and β-thalassemia/Hb E disease. However, in those with α(0)-thalassemia trait and double heterozygous α(0)-thalassemia/Hb E, slight reduction in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was noted. Fetuses with the Hb H disease showed significant reductions in Hb, MCV and mean corpuscular Hb (MCH). Marked reductions in Hb, hematocrit, MCH and mean cell Hb concentration and increased RBC distribution width with numerous nucleated RBC were clearly observed in Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. Simple analysis of fetal RBC parameters is useful for making presumptive prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia syndromes including Hb H disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis which can then be confirmed by Hb and DNA analyses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Thermal analysis of cryoprotective solutions for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, T

    1998-05-01

    A differential scanning calorimeter was used to study the thermal behavior of glycerol-water solutions (binary system) and the more complex glycerol-based cryoprotective solutions that are used clinically in order to examine the cryoprotective role of glycerol in preserving frozen red blood cells. The melting and glass transition temperatures for the clinically used cryoprotective solutions were as expected, based on the nonequilibriumphase diagram for cryoprotective solutions incorporating isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Two zones were identified in which solidification occurred without the formation of ice crystals: a glassy state that is crystallographically amorphous was found for glycerol concentrations between 40 and 55% in the binary system and between 45 and 60% in the complex system; a glassy state in the complete absence of ice was found at glycerol concentrations greater than 55% for the binary system or 60% for the complex system. In clinical practice, cryoprotectants are used at initial concentrations lower than those at which these two glassy states occur but there is an increase in the effective glycerol concentration inside and outside the cells as ice forms during the freezing process.

  15. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Buytaert-Hoefen, Kimberley A.; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Castilla, Joaquin; Hansen, Eric T.; Hlavinka, Dennis; Goodrich, Raymond P.; Soto, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  16. Vitamin E nanoemulsion activity on stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A L; Azevedo Filho, C A; Pereira, G; Silva, D C N; Castro, M C A B; Almeida, A F; Lucena, S C A; Santos, B S; Barjas-Castro, M L; Fontes, A

    2017-06-01

    Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo numerous changes that have been termed RBC storage lesion, which can be related to oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, acting on cell lipids. Thus, this study aimed to investigate vitamin E activity on stored RBCs. We prepared a vitamin E nanoemulsion that was added to RBC units and stored at 4 °C. Controls, without vitamin E, were kept under the same conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored for up to 35 days of storage. RBC elasticity was also evaluated using an optical tweezer system. Vitamin E-treated samples presented a significant decrease in ROS production. Additionally, the elastic constant for vitamin E-treated RBCs did not differ from the control. Vitamin E decreased the amount of ROS in stored RBCs. Because vitamin E acts on lipid oxidation, results suggest that protein oxidation should also be considered a key factor for erythrocyte elastic properties. Thus, further studies combining vitamin E with protein antioxidants deserve attention, aiming to better preserve overall stored RBC properties. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  17. Using qualitative research methods in biomedical innovation: the case of cultured red blood cells for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Catherine; King, Emma

    2016-05-11

    Qualitative research has a key role to play in biomedical innovation projects. This article focuses on the appropriate use of robust social science methodologies (primarily focus group studies) for identifying the public's willingness and preference for emerging medical technologies. Our study was part of the BloodPharma project (now known as the Novosang project) to deliver industrially generated red blood cells for transfusion. Previous work on blood substitutes shows that the public prefers donated human blood. However, no research has been conducted concerning attitudes to stem cell derived red blood cells. Qualitative research methods including interviews and focus groups provide the methodological context for this paper. Focus groups were used to elicit views from sub-sections of the UK population about the potential use of such cultured red blood cells. We reflect on the appropriateness of that methodology in the context of the BloodPharma project. Findings are in the form of lessons transferable to other interdisciplinary, science-led teams about what a social science dimension can bring; why qualitative research should be included; and how it can be used effectively. Qualitative data collection offers the strength of exploring ambivalence and investigating the reasons for views, but not necessarily their prevalence in wider society. The inherent value of a qualitative method, such as focus groups, therefore lies in its ability to uncover new information. This contrasts with a quantitative approach to simply 'measuring' public opinion on a topic about which participants may have little prior knowledge. We discuss a number of challenges including: appropriate roles for embedded social scientists and the intricacies of doing upstream engagement as well as some of the design issues and limitations associated with the focus group method.

  18. Dressed for Sex: Red as a Female Sexual Signal in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Pazda, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    Background In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. Methodology/Principal Findings Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors) on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors) on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors) than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. Conclusions/Significance These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning. PMID:22514643

  19. Dressed for sex: red as a female sexual signal in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Elliot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning.

  20. In vivo regeneration of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate following transfusion of DPG-depleted AS-1, AS-3 and CPDA-1 red cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, A; Keegan, T; Holme, S

    1989-01-01

    Regeneration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) was determined following transfusion of DPG-depleted group O red cells into group A recipients. Blood from five donors was stored in the adenine-containing solutions CPDA-1, AS-1 or AS-3 for 35 d at 4 degrees C. Post-transfusion red cell DPG and ATP were measured in separated group O red cells over a 7 d period. The studies confirmed rapid in vivo DPG regeneration with greater than or equal to 50% of the maximum level being achieved within 7 h. An average of 95% of the recipients' pre-transfusion DPG level was achieved by 72 h and by 7 d mean (+/- SEM) DPG levels relative to recipient's pre-transfusion DPG averaged 84% (+/- 13%), 92% (+/- 17%) and 84% (+/- 21%) for CPDA-1, AS-1 and AS-3 red cells, respectively. Results were comparable to those previously reported for blood stored in ACD for 15-20 d (Valeri & Hirsch, 1969; Beutler & Wood, 1969). The immediate regeneration rate, V, closely approximated first order regeneration kinetics with AS-3 red cells exhibiting double the rate of CPDA-1 red cells (P less than 0.001). AS-1 red cells exhibited an intermediate rate of regeneration which was not significantly different compared to either CPDA-1 or AS-3 (P greater than 0.05). V exhibited a significant (P less than 0.05) positive correlation with ATP levels 5-7 h post-infusion. ATP regeneration of the infused cells was rapid with a mean increase of 1.2 mumol/g Hb above post-storage levels being achieved 1 h following transfusion.

  1. Rapid and label-free separation of Burkitt's lymphoma cells from red blood cells by optically-induced electrokinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liang

    Full Text Available Early stage detection of lymphoma cells is invaluable for providing reliable prognosis to patients. However, the purity of lymphoma cells in extracted samples from human patients' marrow is typically low. To address this issue, we report here our work on using optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP force to rapidly purify Raji cells' (a type of Burkitt's lymphoma cell sample from red blood cells (RBCs with a label-free process. This method utilizes dynamically moving virtual electrodes to induce negative ODEP force of varying magnitudes on the Raji cells and RBCs in an optically-induced electrokinetics (OEK chip. Polarization models for the two types of cells that reflect their discriminate electrical properties were established. Then, the cells' differential velocities caused by a specific ODEP force field were obtained by a finite element simulation model, thereby established the theoretical basis that the two types of cells could be separated using an ODEP force field. To ensure that the ODEP force dominated the separation process, a comparison of the ODEP force with other significant electrokinetics forces was conducted using numerical results. Furthermore, the performance of the ODEP-based approach for separating Raji cells from RBCs was experimentally investigated. The results showed that these two types of cells, with different concentration ratios, could be separated rapidly using externally-applied electrical field at a driven frequency of 50 kHz at 20 Vpp. In addition, we have found that in order to facilitate ODEP-based cell separation, Raji cells' adhesion to the OEK chip's substrate should be minimized. This paper also presents our experimental results of finding the appropriate bovine serum albumin concentration in an isotonic solution to reduce cell adhesion, while maintaining suitable medium conductivity for electrokinetics-based cell separation. In short, we have demonstrated that OEK technology could be a promising tool for

  2. An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for estimating red cell survival of transfused red cells-validation using CR-51 labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, H.; Kickler, T.; Smith, B.; LaFrance, N.

    1984-01-01

    The survival time of transfused red cells antigenically distinct from the recipient's red cells was determined using an indirect enzyme linked antiglobulin test. These results were then compared to those determined by Cr-51 labeling. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias and one patient (2 studies) with traumatic hemolytic anemia caused by a prosthetic heart valve were studied. Survival times were performed by transfusing a 5cc aliquot of Cr-51 labeled cells along with the remaining unit. One hour post transfusion, a blood sample was drawn and used as the 100% value. Subsequent samples drawn over a 2-3 week period were then compared to the initial sample to determine percent survival for both methods. The ELISA method for measuring red cell survival in antigenically distinct cells is in close agreement with the Cr-51 method. Although CR-51 labeling is the accepted method for red cell survival determination the ELISA method can be used when radioisotopes are unavailable or contraindicated or when the decision to estimate red cell survival is made after transfusion

  3. Genome engineering in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minjung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Hyongbum

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing in human cells is of great value in research, medicine, and biotechnology. Programmable nucleases including zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and RNA-guided engineered nucleases recognize a specific target sequence and make a double-strand break at that site, which can result in gene disruption, gene insertion, gene correction, or chromosomal rearrangements. The target sequence complexities of these programmable nucleases are higher than 3.2 mega base pairs, the size of the haploid human genome. Here, we briefly introduce the structure of the human genome and the characteristics of each programmable nuclease, and review their applications in human cells including pluripotent stem cells. In addition, we discuss various delivery methods for nucleases, programmable nickases, and enrichment of gene-edited human cells, all of which facilitate efficient and precise genome editing in human cells.

  4. X-ray microanalysis of Plasmodium falciparum and infected red blood cells: effects of qinghaosu and chloroquine on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.; Ye, Z.; Van Dyke, K.; Kirk, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Cryosections of human red blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis to determine the elemental composition of the parasites and their red cell hosts separately. The effects of two antimalarial drugs, qinghaosu and chloroquine, on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus concentrations were studied. Malarial infection causes a decrease in potassium concentration and an increase in sodium concentration in the host red cells. The drastic change in the cation composition, however, occurs only in red cells infected by late stage parasites (late trophozoite and schizont). Red cells infected by early stage parasites (ring stage) show only small changes in sodium concentration. Furthermore, the noninfected red cells in parasitized cultures show no difference in composition from those of normal red cells. Treatment of the parasitized cultures with qinghaosu (10(-6) M) or chloroquine (10(-6) M) for 8 hr causes phosphorus concentration of both early and late parasites to decrease. An 8 hr treatment with qinghaosu also produces a reduction in potassium and an increase in sodium concentrations in early and late parasites. In contrast, 8 hr treatment with chloroquine only causes a change in the sodium and potassium concentrations of the late stage parasites and does not affect the early stage parasites

  5. Ethanol potentiates the genotoxicity of the food-derived mammary carcinogen PhIP in human estrogen receptor-positive mammary cells: mechanistic support for lifestyle factors (cooked red meat and ethanol) associated with mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Durr-E-Shahwar; David, Rhiannon M; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2018-04-01

    Consumption of cooked/processed meat and ethanol are lifestyle risk factors in the aetiology of breast cancer. Cooking meat generates heterocyclic amines such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Epidemiology, mechanistic and animal studies indicate that PhIP is a mammary carcinogen that could be causally linked to breast cancer incidence; PhIP is DNA damaging, mutagenic and oestrogenic. PhIP toxicity involves cytochrome P450 (CYP1 family)-mediated metabolic activation to DNA-damaging species, and transcriptional responses through Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen-receptor-α (ER-α). Ethanol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor strongly associated with breast cancer risk. Ethanol toxicity involves alcohol dehydrogenase metabolism to reactive acetaldehyde, and is also a substrate for CYP2E1, which when uncoupled generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage. Here, using human mammary cells that differ in estrogen-receptor status, we explore genotoxicity of PhIP and ethanol and mechanisms behind this toxicity. Treatment with PhIP (10 -7 -10 -4 M) significantly induced genotoxicity (micronuclei formation) preferentially in ER-α positive human mammary cell lines (MCF-7, ER-α+) compared to MDA-MB-231 (ER-α-) cells. PhIP-induced CYP1A2 in both cell lines but CYP1B1 was selectively induced in ER-α(+) cells. ER-α inhibition in MCF-7 cells attenuated PhIP-mediated micronuclei formation and CYP1B1 induction. PhIP-induced CYP2E1 and ROS via ER-α-STAT-3 pathway, but only in ER-α (+) MCF-7 cells. Importantly, simultaneous treatments of physiological concentrations ethanol (10 -3 -10 -1 M) with PhIP (10 -7 -10 -4 M) increased oxidative stress and genotoxicity in MCF-7 cells, compared to the individual chemicals. Collectively, these data offer a mechanistic basis for the increased risk of breast cancer associated with dietary cooked meat and ethanol lifestyle choices.

  6. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  7. Kinetics of heat damage autologous red blood cells. Mechanism of clearance from blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M.; Ryan, P.F.J.; Klonizakis, I.; Elkon, K.B.; Lewis, S.M.; Hughes, G.R.V.; Lavender, J.P. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of radiolabelled heat damage red cell (HDRBC) distribution have been studied in humans using a gamma camera, and compared with the kinetics of other blood cells. Liver uptake of /sup 111/In labelled HDRBC was completed within about 10 min of injection; splenic uptake was biphasic with a half time of about 5 min over the first 20 min in following injection, and a later half time much longer than this. Activity initially present in the lung fields cleared within 24 h. The rate constant of liver uptake of sup(99m)Tc labelled HDRBC and of /sup 111/In labelled platelets were very similar; the rate constants of splenic uptake of these 2 particles were also very similar up to about 20 min following injection when the splenic platelet levels became constant and the HDRBC level continued to slowly rise. Splenic uptake and blood clearance of red cells coated with IgG (IgG-RBC), in contrast to HDRBC, were monoexponential. It was concluded that: (1) the blood clearance of HDRBC was due to pooling within, and to irreversible extraction by, the spleen; (2) liver uptake of HDRBC, which was irreversible, was completed within 10 min of injection; (3) IgG-RBC clearance was due to irreversible extraction by the spleen; (4) HDRBC uptake in the lung was unrelated to reticuloendothelial function, and represented prolonged transit through the lung microvasculature.

  8. The restoration in vivo of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in stored red cells, after transfusion. The levels of red cells 2,3-DPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Ana; Zsigmond, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Since the main reason for transfusing preserved red cells is to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the recipient, the circulating preserved red cells should have at the time of transfusion normal oxygen uptake and normal oxyhemoglobin dissociation characteristics. We evaluated the effectiveness of transfused red cells, through periodical determination of erythrocyte components, during 72 hours after transfusions of large quantities (3,000 mL) of blood. Three patients with massive hemorrhages, two after amputation and one after nephrectomy were given each 3,000 mL preserved blood (in ACD, 10 days, at 4 degrees C). Red cell 2,3-DPG and serum inorganic phosphorus were determined prior to transfusion and after, periodically, for three days. Red cell 2,3-DPG was determined by Krimsky's method and inorganic phosphorus by Kuttner and Lichtenstein's method. The in vivo restoration of 2,3-DPG--of transfused red cells is shown as a percentage of recipient's final 2,3-DPG level, and was calculated in each of the three patients. The level of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG was greater than 60% of the final level within 24 hours, after the end of transfusion. The in vivo rates of restoration of 2,3-DPG in transfused red cells for periods of 0-6, 6-24, 24-48 and 48-72 hours are 0.251, 0.238, 0.133, 0.120 mM/L cells/hour. The therapeutic significance of the increased oxygen affinity of stored blood becomes very important in clinical conditions, when large volumes of red cells are urgently needed. After massive transfusions, the restoration of 2,3-DPG in red cells produces a decrease of serum inorganic phosphorus through its consumption. The stored blood with low values of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG can be used without hesitation when correcting a chronic anemia for instance, but in acute situation, when the organism needs restoration of the oxygen releasing capacity within minutes, the resynthesis is obviously insufficient. In such situations, fresh blood or blood with a near normal 2,3-DPG

  9. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chu

    Full Text Available Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells, and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV. Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively. Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities.

  10. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingyuan; Li, Wenya; Lin, Yue; Sun, Xiaorun; Ding, Chunhua; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells), and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV). Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea) or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively). Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities. PMID:26625122

  11. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma in association with a red tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Inge; Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias; Ernert, Carsten; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Although tattoos have become exceedingly popular in recent years, only few cases of severe reactions leading to malignant transformation have been reported in the literature. This stands in contrast to the virtually innumerable number of tattoos worldwide. The composition of tattoo dyes is highly variable, and even the same colors may contain different compounds. The objective of our study was to investigate in what way tattoo dyes may potentially trigger skin cancer. We report the rare case of a 24-year-old woman who - seven months after getting a tattoo on the back of her foot - developed a squamous cell carcinoma in close proximity to the red dye used. Complications started in the form of nonspecific swelling. The lesion was histologically examined. The composition of the incorporated dye was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive element analysis. Thermogravimetry and powder diffraction were used for further characterization. While the tattoo dye primarily consisted of barium sulfate, traces of Al, S, Ti, P, Mg, and Cl were also detected. The analysis showed pigment granules of varying sizes. In rare cases, tattoo inks may have carcinogenic effects, which appear to be multifactorial. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Neonatal nucleated red blood cells in G6PD deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruchimovich, Mark; Shapira, Boris; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study is to study the absolute number of nucleated red blood cells (RBC) at birth, an index of active fetal erythropoiesis, in infants with G6PD deficiency and in controls. We tested the hypothesis that hematocrit and hemoglobin would be lower, and absolute nucleated RBC counts higher, in the G6PD deficient and that these changes would be more prominent in infants exposed passively to fava bean through maternal diet. Thirty-two term infants with G6PD deficiency were compared with 30 term controls. Complete blood counts with manual differential counts were obtained within 12 hours of life. Absolute nucleated RBC and corrected leukocyte counts were computed from the Coulter results and the differential count. G6PD deficient patients did not differ from controls in terms of gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores or in any of the hematologic parameters studied, whether or not the mother reported fava beans consumption in the days prior to delivery. Although intrauterine hemolysis is possible in G6PD deficient fetuses exposed passively to fava beans, our study supports that such events must be very rare.

  14. Zeroing in on red blood cell unit expiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyalil, Fathima; Irwin, Greg; Ross, Bryony; Manolis, Michael; Enjeti, Anoop K

    2017-12-01

    Expiry of red blood cell (RBC) units is a significant contributor to wastage of precious voluntary donations. Effective strategies aimed at optimal resource utilization are required to minimize wastage. This retrospective study analyzed the strategic measures implemented to reduce expiry of RBC units in an Australian tertiary regional hospital. The measures, which included inventory rearrangement, effective stock rotation, and the number of emergency courier services required during a 24-month period, were evaluated. There was no wastage of RBC units due to expiry over the 12 months after policy changes. Before these changes, approximately half of RBC wastage (261/511) was due to expiry. The total number of transfusions remained constant in this period and there was no increase in the use of emergency couriers. Policy changes implemented were decreasing the RBC inventory level by one-third and effective stock rotation and using a computerized system to link the transfusion services across the area. Effective stock rotation resulted in a reduction in older blood (>28 days) received in the main laboratory rotated from peripheral hospitals, down from 6%-41% to 0%-2.5%. Age-related expiry of blood products is preventable and can be significantly reduced by improving practices in the pathology service. This study provides proof of principle for "zero tolerance for RBC unit expiry" across a large networked blood banking service. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  15. Rodent Plasmodium-infected red blood cells: imaging their fates and interactions within their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claser, Carla; Malleret, Benoit; Peng, Kaitian; Bakocevic, Nadja; Gun, Sin Yee; Russell, Bruce; Ng, Lai Guan; Rénia, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Malaria, a disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, remains one of the most deadly infectious diseases known to mankind. The parasite has a complex life cycle, of which only the erythrocytic stage is responsible for the diverse pathologies induced during infection. To date, the disease mechanisms that underlie these pathologies are still poorly understood. In the case of infections caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for most malaria related deaths, pathogenesis is thought to be due to the sequestration of infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in deep tissues. Other human and rodent malaria parasite species are also known to exhibit sequestration. Here, we review the different techniques that allow researchers to study how rodent malaria parasites modify their host cells, the distribution of IRBCs in vivo as well as the interactions between IRBCs and host tissues. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Noninferiority of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosis by a point-of-care rapid test vs the laboratory fluorescent spot test demonstrated by copper inhibition in normal human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin; Dewi, Mewahyu; Subekti, Decy; Elyazar, Iqbal; Satyagraha, Ari W

    2015-06-01

    Tens of millions of patients diagnosed with vivax malaria cannot safely receive primaquine therapy against repeated attacks caused by activation of dormant liver stages called hypnozoites. Most of these patients lack access to screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a highly prevalent disorder causing serious acute hemolytic anemia with primaquine therapy. We optimized CuCl inhibition of G6PD in normal red blood cells (RBCs) to assess G6PD diagnostic technologies suited to point of care in the impoverished rural tropics. The most widely applied technology for G6PD screening-the fluorescent spot test (FST)-is impractical in that setting. We evaluated a new point-of-care G6PD screening kit (CareStart G6PD, CSG) against FST using graded CuCl treatments to simulate variable hemizygous states, and varying proportions of CuCl-treated RBC suspensions to simulate variable heterozygous states of G6PD deficiency. In experiments double-blinded to CuCl treatment, technicians reading FST and CSG test (n = 269) classified results as positive or negative for deficiency. At G6PD activity ≤40% of normal (n = 112), CSG test was not inferior to FST in detecting G6PD deficiency (P = 0.003), with 96% vs 90% (P = 0.19) sensitivity and 75% and 87% (P = 0.01) specificity, respectively. The CSG test costs less, requires no specialized equipment, laboratory skills, or cold chain for successful application, and performs as well as the FST standard of care for G6PD screening. Such a device may vastly expand access to primaquine therapy and aid in mitigating the very substantial burden of morbidity and mortality imposed by the hypnozoite reservoir of vivax malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival of red blood cells after transfusion: processes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giel eBosman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The currently available data suggest that efforts towards improving the quality of red blood cell (RBC blood bank products should concentrate on: (1 preventing the removal of a considerable fraction of the transfused RBCs that takes place within the first hours after transfusion; (2 minimizing the interaction of the transfused RBCs with the patient's immune system. These issues are important in reducing the number and extent of the damaging side effects of transfusions, such as generation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies and iron accumulation, especially in transfusion-dependent patients. Thus, it becomes important for blood bank research not only to assess the classical RBC parameters for quality control during storage, but even more so to identify the parameters that predict RBC survival, function and behaviour in the patient after transfusion. These parameters are likely to result from elucidation of the mechanisms that underly physiological RBC aging in vivo, and that lead to the generation of senescent cell antigens and the accumulation of damaged molecules in vesicles. Also, study of RBC pathology-related mechanisms, such as encountered in various hemoglobinopathies and membranopathies, may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying a storage-associated increase in susceptibility to physiological stress conditions. Recent data indicate that a combination of new approaches in vitro to mimick RBC behaviour in vivo, the growing knowledge of the signaling networks that regulate RBC structure and function, and the rapidly expanding set of proteomic and metabolomic data, will be instrumental to identify the storage-associated processes that control RBC survival after transfusion.

  18. Red cell-derived microparticles (RMP) as haemostatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jy, Wenche; Johansen, Max E; Bidot, Carlos; Horstman, Lawrence L; Ahn, Yeon S

    2013-10-01

    Among circulating cell-derived microparticles, those derived from red cells (RMP) have been least well investigated. To exploit potential haemostatic benefit of RMP, we developed a method of producing them in quantity, and here report on their haemostatic properties. High-pressure extrusion of washed RBC was employed to generate RMP. RMP were identified and enumerated by flow cytometry. Their size distribution was assessed by Doppler electrophoretic light scattering analysis (DELSA). Interaction with platelets was studied by platelet aggregometry, and shear-dependent adhesion by Diamed IMPACT-R. Thrombin generation and tissue factor (TF) expression was also measured. The effect of RMP on blood samples of patients with bleeding disorders was investigated ex vivo by thromboelastography (TEG). Haemostatic efficacy in vivo was assessed by measuring reduction of blood loss and bleeding time in rats and rabbits. RMP have mean diameter of 0.45 µm and 50% of them exhibit annexin V binding, a proxy for procoagulant phospholipids (PL). No TF could be detected by flow cytometry. At saturating concentrations of MPs, RMP generated thrombin robustly but after longer delay compared to PMP and EMP. RMP enhanced platelet adhesion and aggregation induced by low-dose ADP or AA. In TEG study, RMP corrected or improved haemostatic defects in blood of patients with platelet and coagulation disorders. RMP reduced bleeding time and blood loss in thrombocytopenic rabbits (busulfan-treated) and in Plavix-treated rats. In conclusion, RMP has broad haemostatic activity, enhancing both primary (platelet) and secondary (coagulation) haemostasis, suggesting potential use as haemostatic agent for treatment of bleeding.

  19. Algorithm for detection of overlapped red blood cells in microscopic images of blood smears

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Rondón, Miguel Fabián; Sanabria-Rosas, Laura Melissa; Bautista-Rozo, Lola Xiomara; Mendoza-Castellanos, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The hemogram is one of the most requested medical tests as it presents details about the three cell series in the blood: red series, white series and platelet series. To make some diagnostics, the specialist must undertake the test manually, observing the blood cells under the microscope, which implies a great physical effort. In order to facilitate this work, different digital image processing techniques to detect and classify red blood cells have been proposed. However, a common problem is ...

  20. A comparison of methods of determining the 100 percent survival of preserved red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeri, C.R.; Pivacek, L.E.; Ouellet, R.; Gray, A.

    1984-01-01

    Studies were done to compare three methods to determine the 100 percent survival value from which to estimate the 24-hour posttransfusion survival of preserved red cells. The following methods using small aliquots of 51 Cr-labeled autologous preserved red cells were evaluated: First, the 125 I-albumin method, which is an indirect measurement of the recipient's red cell volume derived from the plasma volume measured using 125 I-labeled albumin and the total body hematocrit. Second, the body surface area method (BSA) in which the recipient's red cell volume is derived from a body surface area nomogram. Third, an extrapolation method, which extrapolates to zero time the radioactivity associated with the red cells in the recipient's circulation from 10 to 20 or 15 to 30 minutes after transfusion. The three methods gave similar results in all studies in which less than 20 percent of the transfused red cells were nonviable (24-hour posttransfusion survival values of between 80-100%), but not when more than 20 percent of the red cells were nonviable. When 21 to 35 percent of the transfused red cells were nonviable (24-hour posttransfusion survivals of 65 to 79%), values with the 125 I-albumin method and the body surface area method were about 5 percent lower (p less than 0.001) than values with the extrapolation method. When greater than 35 percent of the red cells were nonviable (24-hour posttransfusion survival values of less than 65%), values with the 125 I-albumin method and the body surface area method were about 10 percent lower (p less than 0.001) than those obtained by the extrapolation method

  1. Effect of high dose irradiation on the red cell span in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T.W.; Koh, J.W.; Woo, K.S.; Lee, O.H.; Youn, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    As a part of studies on acute effects of high dose irradiation in vivo, the present report was carried out to evaluate the changes of the red cell life span in the white rabbits by a single whole body exposure to gamma rays from 60 Co teletherapy unit. The exposure was done in dose levels of 100, 600 and 900 rads to each experimental group of 10 rabbits. The life span apparent half survival time of red cells, and that the red cell volume in the circulting blood were measured by ICSH Reference method using 51 Cr. (Author)

  2. Clinical Utility of Red Cell Distribution Width in Alcoholic and Non-alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Milić, Sandra; Mikolašević, Ivana; Radić, Mladen; Hauser, Goran; Štimac, Davor

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of the variation of red blood cell width that is reported as a part of standard complete blood count. Red blood cell distribution width results are often used together with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) results to figure out mixed anemia. The aim of our study was to compare the values of RDW in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and to determine if RDW follows the severity of disease according to Child-Pugh score. We re...

  3. Bone scan and red blood cell scan in a patient with epidermal naevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Wolf, F.; Stosiek, N.; Peters, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    A bone scan and red blood cell scan in the rare epidermal naevus syndrome, associated with multiple haemangiomes of the bone and hypophosphataemic osteomalacia in a 20-year-old man are reported. The typical pattern of osteomalacia on the bone scan was associated with lesions of increased bone metabolism in the peripheral bones. The haemangiomas did not pool labelled red blood cells. Thus, the bone scan seems to be suited for diagnosing the complete extent of haemangiomas in bone, but they could not be specifically proven by red blood cell pooling. (orig.)

  4. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03

  5. Role of red cells and plasma composition on blood sessile droplet evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanotte, Luca; Laux, Didier; Charlot, Benoît; Abkarian, Manouk

    2017-11-01

    The morphology of dried blood droplets derives from the deposition of red cells, the main components of their solute phase. Up to now, evaporation-induced convective flows were supposed to be at the base of red cell distribution in blood samples. Here, we present a direct visualization by videomicroscopy of the internal dynamics in desiccating blood droplets, focusing on the role of cell concentration and plasma composition. We show that in diluted suspensions, the convection is promoted by the rich molecular composition of plasma, whereas it is replaced by an outward red blood cell displacement front at higher hematocrits. We also evaluate by ultrasounds the effect of red cell deposition on the temporal evolution of sample rigidity and adhesiveness.

  6. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  7. Safe extension of red blood cell storage life at 4{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1996-04-01

    The project sought to develop methods to extend the storage life of red blood cells. Extended storage would allow donor to self or autologous transfusion, expand and stabilize the blood supply, reduce the cost of medical care and eliminate the risk of transfusion related infections, including a spectrum of hepatitides (A, B and C) and HIV. The putative cause of red blood cell spoilage at 4 C has been identified as oxidative membrane damage resulting from deoxyhemoglobin and its denaturation products including hemichrome, hemin and Fe{sup 3+}. Trials with carbon monoxide, which is a stabilizer of hemoglobin, have produced striking improvement of red blood cell diagnostics for cells stored at 4 C. Carbonmonoxy hemoglobin is readily converted to oxyhemoglobin by light in the presence of oxygen. These findings have generated a working model and an approach to identify the best protocols for optimal red cell storage and hemoglobin regeneration.

  8. Direct Cytoskeleton Forces Cause Membrane Softening in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; López-Montero, Iván; Mell, Michael; Egea, Gustavo; Gov, Nir S.; Monroy, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are flexible cells specialized in the systemic transport of oxygen in vertebrates. This physiological function is connected to their outstanding ability to deform in passing through narrow capillaries. In recent years, there has been an influx of experimental evidence of enhanced cell-shape fluctuations related to metabolically driven activity of the erythroid membrane skeleton. However, no direct observation of the active cytoskeleton forces has yet been reported to our knowledge. Here, we show experimental evidence of the presence of temporally correlated forces superposed over the thermal fluctuations of the erythrocyte membrane. These forces are ATP-dependent and drive enhanced flickering motions in human erythrocytes. Theoretical analyses provide support for a direct force exerted on the membrane by the cytoskeleton nodes as pulses of well-defined average duration. In addition, such metabolically regulated active forces cause global membrane softening, a mechanical attribute related to the functional erythroid deformability. PMID:26083919

  9. Increased phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) receptor function associated with sickle red cell membrane ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, M.; Nair, C.N.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The biological receptor for tumor-promoting phorbol esters has been identified as the Ca 2+ /phospholipid dependent enzyme, protein kinase C. In the red cell, this enzyme is mainly cytosolic but becomes translocated to the membrane if the cellular Ca 2+ is allowed to rise. Since cellular Ca 2+ in sickle red cells is high, it was reasoned that this enzyme may become more membrane-bound. In fact, the authors noticed a four-fold increase in the binding of 3 H-PDBu by membrane ghosts isolated from sickle red cells compared to normal red cells (pmoles PDBu bound/mg protein; normal = 0.3 vs sickle cell = 1.4). Attempts to assay the enzyme directly as phospholipid-activated 32 P incorporation into the acid-precipitable membrane proteins also indicated a two-fold increase in the radiolabelling of sickle cell membrane ghosts. Autophosphorylation of membrane proteins and analysis of the phosphorylation profile by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography revealed phosphorylation predominantly of bands 3, 4.1 and 4.9 which are known protein kinase C substrates for the red cell enzyme. The increased membrane-associated protein kinase C in sickle red cells may have a bearing on the altered membrane properties reported in this condition

  10. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  11. Studies on sequestration of neuraminidase-treated red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simchon, S.; Jan, K.M.; Chien, S.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of reduction in the surface charge of red blood cells (RBCs) on regional blood flow and RBC distribution were studied in rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. RBCs were treated with neuraminidase to reduce their electrophoretic mobility by 56%. Normal and neuraminidase-treated RBCs labeled with 51Cr or 111In were injected into a femoral vein while an equal volume of blood was simultaneously withdrawn from a femoral artery. More than 70% of the neuraminidase-treated RBCs injected disappeared from the circulating blood in 30 min compared with less than 2% of normal RBCs. The relative distributions of neuraminidase-treated RBCs to normal RBCs, as determined from radioactivity counting, were significantly greater than 1 in the spleen (5.65 +/- 0.97, mean +/- SD), the liver (2.84 +/- 0.21), the lung (1.48 +/- 0.31), and the kidney (1.49 +/- 0.27), indicating a preferential trapping of neuraminidase-treated RBCs in these regions. This ratio was approximately 1 in all other organs. Regional blood flows in tissues were determined with 15-micron microspheres in the control period and after the infusion of neuraminidase-treated RBCs (experimental). Experimental-to-control blood flow ratios were 0.40 +/- 0.05 in the spleen, 0.66 +/- 0.06 in the liver, 0.78 +/- 0.03 in the lung, and 0.78 +/- 0.09 in the kidneys; this ratio was approximately 1 in all other organs. An experimental-to-control blood flow ratio less than 1 indicates a reduction in blood flow; this occurred in the same organs as those with trapping of neuraminidase-treated RBCs

  12. Trends in US minority red blood cell unit donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; Vassallo, Ralph; Ziman, Alyssa; Shaz, Beth

    2017-05-01

    To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors. Minority donors were stratified into the following groups: Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, white, multiracial/other, and no answer/not sure. Over the 10-year period, white donors annually constituted the majority of unique donors (range, 70.7%-73.9%), had the greatest proportion of collections (range, 76.1%-79.8%), and donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (range, 76.3%-80.2%). These donors also had the highest annual donor fraction (range, 1.82-1.91 units per donor). Black or African American donors annually constituted between 4.9 and 5.2% of all donors during the study period and donated between 4.0 and 4.3% of all RBC units. Linear regression analysis revealed decreasing numbers of donors, collections, and donated RBC units from white donors over time. Although the US population has diversified, and minority recruitment programs have been implemented, white donors constitute the majority of RBC donors and donations. Focused and effective efforts are needed to increase the proportion of minority donors. © 2017 AABB.

  13. Labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m after oral administration of SnCl2. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.C.; Parab, P.B.; Samuel, A.M.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    In vivo labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m was possible after prior oral administration of SnCl 2 , both in rats and human volunteers. Absorption of oral SnCl 2 was low but sufficient for more than 95% labeling efficiency. Prior i.v. administration of stannous chloride is known to induce in vivo labeling of red blood cells with pertechnetate. We have observed that such labeling is possible even after oral administration of stannous chloide. Nearly 95% of the circulating radioactivity and 93.7% of the administered radioactivity was in RBCs 30 min after i.v. injection of /sup 99m/TcO 4 - in rats that were fed 5 mg of stannous chloride (3.13 mg Sn 2+ ion) 2 hr before injection. Red blood cells from four human volunteers could bind pertechnetate, both in vitro and in vivo, after oral administration of 100 mg of SnCl 2 . We have obtained a blood-pool image of the human heart by labeling the RBCs in vivo by this method. We have also studied various parameters affecting the in vivo binding of RBCs with Tc-99m - such as the amount of orally administered SnCl 2 , the time of injection of radionuclide after oral SnCl 2 , and the optimum time for the imaging

  14. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  15. Proteomic analysis identifies differentially expressed proteins after red propolis treatment in Hep-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frozza, Caroline Olivieri da Silva; Ribeiro, Tanara da Silva; Gambato, Gabriela; Menti, Caroline; Moura, Sidnei; Pinto, Paulo Marcos; Staats, Charley Christian; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; Begnini, Karine Rech; de Leon, Priscila Marques Moura; Borsuk, Sibele; Savegnago, Lucielli; Dellagostin, Odir; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Here we investigated alterations in the protein profile of Hep-2 treated with red propolis using two-dimensional electrophoresis associated to mass spectrometry and apoptotic rates of cells treated with and without red propolis extracts through TUNEL and Annexin-V assays. A total of 325 spots were manually excised from the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and 177 proteins were identified using LC-MS-MS. Among all proteins identified that presented differential expression, most were down-regulated in presence of red propolis extract at a concentration of 120 μg/mL (IC50): GRP78, PRDX2, LDHB, VIM and TUBA1A. Only two up-regulated proteins were identified in this study in the non-cytotoxic (6 μg/mL) red propolis treated group: RPLP0 and RAD23B. TUNEL staining assay showed a markedly increase in the mid- to late-stage apoptosis of Hep-2 cells induced by red propolis at concentrations of 60 and 120 μg/mL when compared with non-treated cells. The increase of late apoptosis was confirmed by in situ Annexin-V analysis in which red propolis extract induced late apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The differences in tumor cell protein profiles warrant further investigations including isolation of major bioactive compounds of red propolis in different cell lines using proteomics and molecular tests to validate the protein expression here observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Mette D.; Spits, Hergen

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells that do not express rearranged receptors and have important effector and regulatory functions in innate immunity and tissue remodeling. ILCs are categorized into 3 groups based on their distinct patterns of cytokine production and the requirement of

  17. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune

  18. Biosignatures of Kerala red rain cells: Implications in understanding their origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, R.; Thomas, M.; Hogg, S.

    2013-09-01

    The red rain that fell over Kerala, southern India (2001-2012) was characterised by the red pigmented particles. Earlier proposal claiming that these are known algal bloom blown from trees (Sampath et al, 2001; DiGregorio, 2007) has been studied by us and disproved. Also, further investigation reporting their extraordinary properties including a suggestion that they lack DNA (Louis and Kumar 2003; 2006; 2008) has been invalidated (Gangappa and Hogg, 2013). However, their claim regarding the growth and replication of these cells at 300ºC needs more investigation if it is to gain acceptance. Current study provide evidences regarding the biological properties of Kerala red rain cells to gain insights into environmental conditions from which they may have originated. Combined with various research strategies and high resolution instruments, we have demonstrated the following interesting properties of Kerala red rain cells: (1) unusually thick external envelope enclosing the central core; (2)stability of red pigment at temperatures about 100ºC and pH variations; (3) absence of eukaryotic ultrastructures; (4) possible replication at 121ºC with nanostructures (possible daughter cells) having similar morphological features inside the large mother cells at such high temperature. They contain high percentage of carbon, iron, silicon and aluminum and often enclosed in a silicon rich biofilms. Further investigation shows that the positive detection of DNA in these cells was possible only after the complete removal of red pigment, thereby providing an explanation for the negative outcome of earlier studies in this regard. Moreover, evidences are shown to support that these cells contain high amounts of UV absorbing compounds, porphyrin complexes and possible scytonemin. Kerala red rain cells may prove to be polyextermophiles belonging to prokaryotes and may have possibly originated from the environment containing above mentioned chemical elements, high energy UV exposure and

  19. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-04-29

    A method is disclosed using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen from the red blood cells at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate. 4 figs.

  20. Effects of 4000 rad irradiation on the in vitro storage properties of packed red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.; Ledford, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Immunosuppressed patients who require red cell transfusions receive irradiated (1500-3000 rad) packed red cells. These cells are irradiated immediately before infusion. If a large group of patients become immunosuppressed due to exposure to radiation or chemicals, the ability to supply large volumes of irradiated blood at the time of use might not be possible. An alternate solution to providing quantities of irradiated blood is to irradiate the units prior to storage. This study presents in vitro data comparing storage of paired packed red cell units either irradiated or not irradiated. Five units of fresh blood drawn into citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) were packed to a hematocrit of 75 +/- 1 percent, and then each unit was divided in two equal parts. One of each pair was irradiated (4000 rads), and both parts of each unit were stored for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Samples were analyzed every 7 days. Irradiation caused a slight drop in red cell adenosine triphosphate and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate and a slight increase in plasma hemoglobin compared to controls. Methemoglobin, pH, and glucose consumption were identical to the controls. The evidence indicates that irradiation did not cause biochemical or metabolic changes in the red cells that would lead us to suspect a difference between irradiated and nonirradiated stored red cells in function or viability. These negative findings require in vivo confirmation

  1. Acute iatrogenic polycythemia induced by massive red blood cell transfusion during subtotal abdominal colectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chiapaikeo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A 46 year old man was transfused ten units of packed red blood cells during subtotal colectomy after intraoperative point-of-care testing values demonstrated hemoglobin values less than seven grams per deciliter (g/dL. A post-operative hemoglobin analyzed in a standard hematologic laboratory revealed a hemoglobin value of 27.8 g/dL. He underwent emergent red blood cell depletion therapy which decreased his hemoglobin to 7.5 g/dL. The physiologic consequences of iatrogenic polycythemia caused by massive transfusion during major abdominal surgery must take into account the fluid shifts that interplay between the osmotic load, viscosity of blood, and postoperative third spacing of fluid. Treatment of acute iatrogenic polycythemia can be effectively accomplished by red blood cell depletion therapy. However, fluid shifts caused by massive transfusion followed by rapid red cell depletion produce a unique physiologic state that is without a well-described algorithm for management.

  2. Red blood cell transfusions and tissue oxygenation in anemic hematology outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuruk, Koray; Bartels, Sebastiaan A.; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Bezemer, Rick; Biemond, Bart J.; Ince, Can

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little clinical evidence that red blood cell (RBC) transfusions improve oxygen availability at the microcirculatory level. We tested the hypotheses that anemia in chronically anemic patients with relatively healthy microcirculation would be associated with low tissue hemoglobin

  3. Specific features of red blood cell morphology in hemolytic disease neonates undergoing intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the characteristics of red blood cell morphology in infants who have undergone intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus. The infants are shown to have a reduction in the mean volume of red blood cells and in their mean level of hemoglobin, a decrease in the fraction of fetal hemoglobin and an increase in oxygen tension at half saturation. The above morphological characteristics of red blood cells remain decreased during the neonatal period after exchange transfusion or others, as clinically indicated, which seems to suggest that the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms to regulate hematopoiesis are exhausted and a donor’s red blood cells continue to be predominant.

  4. Nanostructure of Red Blood Cell Membranes in Premature Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the nanostructure of red blood cell membranes in premature babies with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS, by applying atomic force microscopy. Subjects and methods. The investigation included 27 newborn infants, of them 13 premature babies with NRDS formed a study group. The mean gestational age was 33.1±2.3 weeks; their birth weight was 1800±299.3 g. A comparison group consisted of 14 full-term babies with favorable pregnancy and term labor. The mean gestational age of the babies was 39.4±0.5 weeks; their birth weight was 3131.7±588.8 g; the infants had a one minute Apgar score of 8±0.4. Their red blood cells were examined using an atomic force microscope. The objects to be examined were residual umbilical cord blood (RUCB from the premature infants; central venous blood after 7 hours of birth and neonatal venous blood taken on day 7 of life. Results. RUCB from full-term babies contained planocytes that were a major morphological type of red blood cells. In physiological pregnancy and acute fetal hypoxia, the morphological composition of red blood cells in premature neonates with NRDS was close to that in full-term babies. The planocytes are also a major morphological type of red blood cells in the premature infants; the frequency of their occurrence varies. Stomatocytes are typical of all the neonates in the NRDS group; their frequency levels vary greatly: from 8 to 65% of the total number of erythrocytes. The examination revealed that the premature infants of 31—36 weeks gestation were characterized by abnormal erythrocyte shapes that showed a high variability. At birth, the premature babies were found to have changes in the nanostructure of red blood cell membranes, which were influenced by intrauterine hypoxia. The first-order value reflecting flickering in the red blood cell membrane varies to the most extent. Conclusion. Atomic force microscopy showed that the greatest changes in the structure of red

  5. Red is not a proxy signal for female genitalia in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Johns

    Full Text Available Red is a colour that induces physiological and psychological effects in humans, affecting competitive and sporting success, signalling and enhancing male social dominance. The colour is also associated with increased sexual attractiveness, such that women associated with red objects or contexts are regarded as more desirable. It has been proposed that human males have a biological predisposition towards the colour red such that it is 'sexually salient'. This hypothesis argues that women use the colour red to announce impending ovulation and sexual proceptivity, with this functioning as a proxy signal for genital colour, and that men show increased attraction in consequence. In the first test of this hypothesis, we show that contrary to the hypothesis, heterosexual men did not prefer redder female genitalia and, by extension, that red is not a proxy signal for genital colour. We found a relative preference for pinker genital images with redder genitalia rated significantly less sexually attractive. This effect was independent of raters' prior sexual experience and variation in female genital morphology. Our results refute the hypothesis that men's attraction to red is linked to an implied relationship to genital colour and women's signalling of fertility and sexual proceptivity.

  6. Mechanical and electrical properties of red blood cells using optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, A; Castro, M L Barjas; Brandão, M M; Fernandes, H P; Huruta, R R; Costa, F F; Saad, S T O; Thomaz, A A; Pozzo, L Y; Barbosa, L C; Cesar, C L

    2011-01-01

    Optical tweezers are a very sensitive tool, based on photon momentum transfer, for individual, cell by cell, manipulation and measurements, which can be applied to obtain important properties of erythrocytes for clinical and research purposes. Mechanical and electrical properties of erythrocytes are critical parameters for stored cells in transfusion centers, immunohematological tests performed in transfusional routines and in blood diseases. In this work, we showed methods, based on optical tweezers, to study red blood cells and applied them to measure apparent overall elasticity, apparent membrane viscosity, zeta potential, thickness of the double layer of electrical charges and adhesion in red blood cells

  7. Acute hydrodynamic damage induced by SPLITT fractionation and centrifugation in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Adriana; Godoy-Silva, Ruben; Hoyos, Mauricio; Camacho, Marcela

    2016-05-01

    Though blood bank processing traditionally employs centrifugation, new separation techniques may be appealing for large scale processes. Split-flow fractionation (SPLITT) is a family of techniques that separates in absence of labelling and uses very low flow rates and force fields, and is therefore expected to minimize cell damage. However, the hydrodynamic stress and possible consequent damaging effects of SPLITT fractionation have not been yet examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the hydrodynamic damage of SPLITT fractionation to human red blood cells, and to compare these effects with those induced by centrifugation. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers. Samples were diluted in a buffered saline solution, and were exposed to SPLITT fractionation (flow rates 1-10 ml/min) or centrifugation (100-1500 g) for 10 min. Cell viability, shape, diameter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and membrane potential were measured. Under the operating conditions employed, both SPLITT and centrifugation maintained cell viability above 98%, but resulted in significant sublethal damage, including echinocyte formation, decreased cell diameter, decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and membrane hyperpolarization which was inhibited by EGTA. Wall shear stress and maximum energy dissipation rate showed significant correlation with lethal and sublethal damage. Our data do not support the assumption that SPLITT fractionation induces very low shear stress and is innocuous to cell function. Some changes in SPLITT channel design are suggested to minimize cell damage. Measurement of membrane potential and cell diameter could provide a new, reliable and convenient basis for evaluation of hydrodynamic effects on different cell models, allowing identification of optimal operating conditions on different scales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Liquid Storage at 4 deg C of Previously Frozen Red Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    adenosine tnphosphate (ATP). 2.3- acceptable red cell function. A post-thaw storage ca- diphosphoglycerate (2.3-DPG), glucose, supernatant hemo...and Received for publication September 22. 1986; revision received supernatant hemoglobin levels within the acceptable range, November 29, 1986, and...percent. All units were sterile at the end of the 21-day post- thaw storage period. 6.9 The mean red cell ATP and 2,3-DPG levels are shown in Figure 1

  9. Pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation patient: inside the erythroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Labbadia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy is reported here. The patient presented with anemia unresponsive to erythropoietin treatment. Bone marrow cytomorphology was highly suggestive of parvovirus pure red cell aplasia, which was confirmed with serology and polymerase chain reaction positive for parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. After the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin the anemia improved with a rising number of the reticulocytes.

  10. The effects of red blood cell preparation method on in vitro markers of red blood cell aging and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, Katherine; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Payrat, Jean-Marc; Min, Kyungyoon

    2013-12-01

    Studies are currently under way examining whether the age of stored red blood cells (RBCs) affects clinical outcome in transfusion recipients. The effects of storage duration on the RBC storage lesion are well documented, while fewer studies are available regarding the effect of RBC production method. In this study, we compared in vitro RBC quality variables and markers of inflammatory response in apheresis and whole blood (WB)-derived RBCs, specifically those prepared after an overnight room temperature hold (RTH) of WB. SAGM RBCs, prepared from WB after overnight RTH (n = 10), were compared to SAGM RBCs prepared using an apheresis device (Alyx, n = 10). As a control, SAGM RBCs were also prepared within 2 hours of WB collection (2-hr WB, n = 10). All RBCs were stored at 4°C for 42 days with weekly assay of in vitro variables, cytokines and/or chemokines, and neutrophil activation after incubation with RBC supernatant. RTH WB RBCs exhibited decreased levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid (2.3 μmol/g hemoglobin [Hb] ± 2.1 vs. 13.7 ± 1.3 μmol/g Hb) and morphology (160 ± 10 vs. 192 ± 5) on Day 1 and increased hemolysis (0.45 ± 0.21% vs. 0.31 ± 0.09%) and microparticles (6.1 ± 2.8/10(3) RBCs vs. 3.9 ± 1.1/10(3) RBCs) on Day 42 compared to apheresis RBCs. Gro-α and ENA-78 cytokine levels were significantly higher in RTH WB than Alyx RBCs during storage. CD11b expression was highest in neutrophils exposed to supernatant from RTH WB RBCs (p < 0.05). RBC preparation method has a meaningful effect on the RBC storage lesion, which should be taken into account in addition to length of storage. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Storage characteristics of multiple-donor pooled red blood cells compared to single-donor red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Aabhas; Chowdhury, Raquibul; Hillyer, Christopher D; Mitchell, W Beau; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-12-01

    Each unit of blood donated is processed and stored individually resulting in variability in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) collected, RBC properties, and the 24-hour posttransfusion RBC survivability. As a result, each unit differs in its ability to deliver oxygen and potentially its effects on the recipient. The goal of this study was to investigate the storage of pooled RBCs from multiple donors in comparison to control standard RBC units. Two units of irradiated, leukoreduced RBCs of same ABO, D, E, C, and K antigen phenotype were collected from each of five donors using apheresis. One unit from each donor was pooled in a 2-L bag and remaining units were used as controls. After being pooled, RBCs were separated in five bags and stored at 4°C along with the controls. Quality indexes were measured on Days 2, 14, and 28 for all the units. Adenosine triphosphate assays for both pooled and controls showed a slight decrease from Day 2 to Day 28 (pooled/control from 5.22/5.24 to 4.35/4.33 µmol/g hemoglobin [Hb]). 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was successfully rejuvenated for all RBC units on Day 28 (pooled 11.46 µmol/g Hb; control 11.86 µmol/g Hb). The results showed a nonsignificant difference between pooled and control units, with a general trend of lower standard deviation for pooled units when compared to controls. Pooled units have reduced unit-to-unit variability. Future exploration of their immunogenicity is required before using pooled units for transfusion. © 2016 AABB.

  12. The effect of xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine on the permeability of red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Halima W M; Rees, David C; Brewin, John N; Hannemann, Anke; Gibson, John S

    2018-03-01

    Red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are under greater oxidative challenge than those from normal individuals. We postulated that oxidants generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) and hypoxanthine (HO) contribute to the pathogenesis of SCA through altering solute permeability. Sickling, activities of the main red cell dehydration pathways (P sickle , Gardos channel, and KCl cotransporter [KCC]), and cell volume were measured at 100, 30, and 0 mmHg O 2 , together with deoxygenation-induced nonelectrolyte hemolysis. Unexpectedly, XO/HO mixtures had mainly inhibitory effects on sickling, P sickle , and Gardos channel activities, while KCC activity and nonelectrolyte hemolysis were increased. Gardos channel activity was significantly elevated in red cells pharmacologically loaded with Ca 2+ using the ionophore A23187, consistent with an effect on the transport system per se as well as via Ca 2+ entry likely via the P sickle pathway. KCC activity is controlled by several pairs of conjugate protein kinases and phosphatases. Its activity, however, was also stimulated by XO/HO mixtures in red cells pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which is thought to prevent regulation via changes in protein phosphorylation, suggesting that the oxidants formed could also have direct effects on this transporter. In the presence of XO/HO, red cell volume was better maintained in deoxygenated red cells. Overall, the most notable effect of XO/HO mixtures was an increase in red cell fragility. These findings increase our understanding of the effects of oxidative challenge in SCA patients and are relevant to the behavior of red cells in vivo. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. Pharmacodynamic model of interleukin-21 effects on red blood cells in cynomolgus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Rune Viig; Karlsson, M.; Ingwersen, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    of treatment. The present analysis investigates the observed pharmacodynamics effects on red blood cells following various treatment schedules of human IL-21 administrated to cynomolgus monkeys. These effects are described by a novel non-linear mixed-effects model that enabled separation of drug effects......Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a novel cytokine that is currently under clinical investigations as a potential anti-cancer agent. Like many other anti-cancer agents, including other interleukins, IL-21 is seen to produce a broad range of biological effects that may be related to both efficacy and safety...... and sampling effects, the latter believed to be due partly to blood loss and partly to stress induced haemolysis in connection with blood sampling. Two different studies with a total of 9 different treatment groups of cynomolgus monkeys were used for model development. In conclusion, the model describes the IL...

  14. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  15. Acute and chronic influence of temperature on red blood cell anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, F B; Wang, T; Brahm, J

    2001-01-01

    Unidirectional (36)Cl(-) efflux via the red blood cell anion exchanger was measured under Cl(-) self-exchange conditions (i.e. no net flow of anions) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and red-eared freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta to examine the effects of acute temperature changes and acclimation temperature on this process. We also evaluated the possible adaptation of anion exchange to different temperature regimes by including our previously published data on other animals. An acute temperature increase caused a significant increase in the rate constant (k) for unidirectional Cl(-) efflux in rainbow trout and freshwater turtle. After 3 weeks of temperature acclimation, 5 degrees C-acclimated rainbow trout showed only marginally higher Cl(-) transport rates than 15 degrees C-acclimated trout when compared at the same temperature. Apparent activation energies for red blood cell Cl(-) exchange in trout and turtle were lower than values reported in endothermic animals. The Q(10) for red blood cell anion exchange was 2.0 in trout and 2.3 in turtle, values close to those for CO(2) excretion, suggesting that, in ectothermic animals, the temperature sensitivity of band-3-mediated anion exchange matches the temperature sensitivity of CO(2) transport (where red blood cell Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange is a rate-limiting step). In endotherms, such as man and chicken, Q(10) values for red blood cell anion exchange are considerably higher but are no obstacle to CO(2) transport, because body temperature is normally kept constant at values at which anion exchange rates are high. When compared at constant temperature, red blood cell Cl(-) permeability shows large differences among species (trout, carp, eel, cod, turtle, alligator, chicken and man). Cl(-) permeabilities are, however, remarkable similar when compared at preferred body temperatures, suggesting an appropriate evolutionary adaptation of red blood cell anion exchange function to the different thermal niches occupied

  16. Mathematical analysis of 51Cr-labelled red cell survival curves in congenital haemolytic anaemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasfiki, A.G.; Antipas, S.E.; Dimitriou, P.A.; Gritzali, F.A.; Melissinos, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of 51 Cr labelled red cell survival curves were calculated in 26 patients with homozygous β-thalassaemia, 8 with sickle-cell anaemia and 3 with s-β-thalassaemia, using a non-linear weighted least squares analysis computer program. In thalassaemic children the calculated parameters denote that the shorting of the mean cell life is due to early senescence alone, while there is some evidence that in thalassaemic adults additional extracellular destruction mechanisms participate as well. Red cell survival curves from patients with sickle-cell anaemia and s-β-thalassaemia resemble each other, while their parameters indicate an initial rapid loss of radioactivity, early senescence and the presence of extracellular red cell destruction factors. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells as a Transfusion Product Using a Novel Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep N; Gelderman, Monique P; Lewis, Emily M A; Farrel, John; Wood, Francine; Strader, Michael Brad; Alayash, Abdu I; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on volunteer blood donors can lead to transfusion product shortages, and current liquid storage of red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with biochemical changes over time, known as 'the storage lesion'. Thus, there is a need for alternative sources of transfusable RBCs to supplement conventional blood donations. Extracorporeal production of stem cell-derived RBCs (stemRBCs) is a potential and yet untapped source of fresh, transfusable RBCs. A number of groups have attempted RBC differentiation from CD34+ cells. However, it is still unclear whether these stemRBCs could eventually be effective substitutes for traditional RBCs due to potential differences in oxygen carrying capacity, viability, deformability, and other critical parameters. We have generated ex vivo stemRBCs from primary human cord blood CD34+ cells and compared them to donor-derived RBCs based on a number of in vitro parameters. In vivo, we assessed stemRBC circulation kinetics in an animal model of transfusion and oxygen delivery in a mouse model of exercise performance. Our novel, chronically anemic, SCID mouse model can evaluate the potential of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen to tissues (muscle) under resting and exercise-induced hypoxic conditions. Based on our data, stem cell-derived RBCs have a similar biochemical profile compared to donor-derived RBCs. While certain key differences remain between donor-derived RBCs and stemRBCs, the ability of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen in a living organism provides support for further development as a transfusion product.

  18. Dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi; Ristenpart, William D; Stone, Howard A

    2008-10-28

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a regulatory molecule for many cell functions, both for intracellular and, perhaps less well known, extracellular functions. An important example of the latter involves red blood cells (RBCs), which help regulate blood pressure by releasing ATP as a vasodilatory signaling molecule in response to the increased shear stress inside arterial constrictions. Although shear-induced ATP release has been observed widely and is believed to be triggered by deformation of the cell membrane, the underlying mechanosensing mechanism inside RBCs is still controversial. Here, we use an in vitro microfluidic approach to investigate the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from human RBCs with millisecond resolution. We demonstrate that there is a sizable delay time between the onset of increased shear stress and the release of ATP. This response time decreases with shear stress, but surprisingly does not depend significantly on membrane rigidity. Furthermore, we show that even though the RBCs deform significantly in short constrictions (duration of increased stress <3 ms), no measurable ATP is released. This critical timescale is commensurate with a characteristic membrane relaxation time determined from observations of the cell deformation by using high-speed video. Taken together our results suggest a model wherein the retraction of the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton network triggers the mechanosensitive ATP release and a shear-dependent membrane viscosity controls the rate of release.

  19. Cation depletion by the sodium pump in red cells with pathologic cation leaks. Sickle cells and xerocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Joiner, C H; Platt, O S; Lux, S E

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism by which sickle cells and xerocytic red cells become depleted of cations in vivo has not been identified previously. Both types of cells exhibit elevated permeabilities to sodium and potassium, in the case of sickle cells, when deoxygenated. The ouabain-insensitive fluxes of sodium and potassium were equivalent, however, in both cell types under these conditions. When incubated 18 hours in vitro, sickle cells lost cations but only when deoxygenated. This cation depletion was blo...

  20. A red fluorescent nude mouse model of human endometriosis: advantages of a non-invasive imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Hong, Shanshan; Tan, Jinfeng; Ke, Peiqi; Liang, Lili; Fei, Hui; Liu, Bin; Liu, Liqun; Liu, Yongdong; Yu, Bingjun

    2014-05-01

    To establish red fluorescent human endometriosis lesions in a nude mouse model and dynamically and non-invasively to compare intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection models. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and epithelial cells (EECs) isolated from 24 patients with a normal uterine cavity were transfected with 2.5×10(8) (Group 1) and 1.25×10(8) (Group 2) plaque-forming units (PFU) of adenovirus encoding red fluorescent protein (Ad-RFP). Transfection efficiencies, fluorescence intensity and apoptosis rate of the two types of cells were compared in vitro. A mixture of 2.5×10(8) PFU Ad-RFP-infected approximately 400 EECs cell mass and 2×10(6) ESCs for 36h was injected individually into 24 female nude mice subcutaneously (Group A) or intraperitoneally (Group B). From Day 5 after injection, an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) was used to non-invasively observe and compare the lesions of the two groups every week until Day 33. Specifically, the fluorescent intensity, positive rates, persistence time and lesion weight in the implanted human endometriosis lesions were compared. A parametric Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Compared with 1.25×10(8) PFU RFP, a titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP ESCs and EECs incubated for 36h exhibited higher transfection efficiencies and higher fluorescence intensities in vitro. In vivo imaging of the fluorescent human endometriosis lesions originating from an RFP titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU showed that the intensity and lesion weight in Group A were significantly higher than in Group B. However, the two groups had the same RFP-positive rates and fluorescence persistence. The structure of each lesion was evaluated by immunohistochemistry to confirm its human endometrial origin. The red fluorescent human endometriosis model established by subcutaneously injecting 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP-transfected stromal cells and epithelial cells into nude mice had a higher fluorescent positive

  1. Red blood cell transfusion in infants and children - Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Natasha

    2018-06-01

    Children routinely receive packed red blood transfusion when they are admitted in the intensive care unit or undergoing cardiac surgeries. These guidelines aim to summarize literature and provide transfusion triggers exclusively in infants and children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. RISK OF RED BLOOD CELL ALLOIMMUNISATION IN RWANDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-04

    Apr 4, 2013 ... spin crossmatch (IS-XM) or indirect antiglobulin test crossmatch (IAT-XM). Objectives: ... with an odds ratio of 4.8; [95% CI=1.2-19.8]; and a p-value of 0.031. Conclusion: ... formation of single or multiple antibodies to red blood.

  3. Nile Red Staining for Oil Determination in Microalgal Cells: A New Insight through Statistical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Halim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of global warming and rapid fossil fuel depletion, microalgae emerge as promising feedstocks for sustainable biofuel production. Nile red staining acts as a rapid diagnostic tool to measure the amount of biodiesel-convertible lipid that the cells accumulate. There is a need for the development of a more uniform staining procedure. In its first phase, this study examined the dependence of microalgal Nile red fluorescence (Tetraselmis suecica in terms of its most pertinent staining variables. A quadratic surface model that successfully described the Nile red fluorescence intensity as a composite function of its variables was generated (r2=0.86. Cell concentration was shown to have a significant effect on the fluorescence intensity. Up to a certain threshold, fluorescence intensity was shown to increase with Nile red dye concentration. In its second phase, the study reviewed findings from previous Nile red studies to elucidate some of the fundamental mechanism underlying the diffusion of Nile red dye molecules into the microalgal cells and their subsequent interaction with intracellular lipids. Through the review process, we were able to develop a simple framework that provided a set of guidelines for the standardization of the Nile red staining procedure across different microalgal species.

  4. Red blood cell phenotype prevalence in blood donors who self-identify as Hispanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheppard, Chelsea A; Bolen, Nicole L; Eades, Beth

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non-Hispanic ......CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non...

  5. Partial Red Blood Cell Exchange in Children and Young Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: Manual Versus Automated Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Carlos; Moniz, Marta; Nunes, Pedro; Abadesso, Clara; Ferreira, Teresa; Barra, António; Lichtner, Anabela; Loureiro, Helena; Dias, Alexandra; Almeida, Helena

    2017-10-31

    The benefits of manual versus automated red blood cell exchange have rarely been documented and studies in young sickle cell disease patients are scarce. We aim to describe and compare our experience in these two procedures. Young patients (≤ 21 years old) who underwent manual- or automated-red blood cell exchange for prevention or treatment of sickle cell disease complications were included. Clinical, technical and hematological data were prospectively recorded and analyzed. Ninety-four red blood cell exchange sessions were performed over a period of 68 months, including 57 manual and 37 automated, 63 for chronic complications prevention, 30 for acute complications and one in the pre-operative setting. Mean decrease in sickle hemoglobin levels was higher in automated-red blood cell exchange (p exchange and access alarm on automated-red blood cell exchange. No major complication or alloimunization was recorded. Automated-red blood cell exchange decreased sickle hemoglobin levels more efficiently than manual procedure in the setting of acute and chronic complications of sickle cell disease, with minor technical concerns mainly due to vascular access. The threshold of sickle hemoglobin should be individualized for clinical and hematological goals. In our cohort of young patients, the need for an acceptable venous access was a limiting factor, but iron-overload was avoided. Automated red blood cell exchange is safe and well tolerated. It permits a higher sickle hemoglobin removal efficacy, better volume status control and iron-overload avoidance.

  6. Effect of laser light on the fragility and permeability of the red blood cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Yassin, H. D.

    2005-01-01

    The resistance of red blood cells to hypotonic hemolysis is often characterized in terms of their osmotic fragility. The percentage of cells that hemolize when plotted as a function of different concentrations of NaCl forms fragility curve, which has a sigmoidal shape. In this study we show that the exposure of red blood cells to laser light converts the sigmoidal shape of the fragility curve to a hyperbolic one, which means that the old population of the red blood cells are the ones more affected by the light which cause their destruction. At the same time it seems that transport across the cell membrane is affected also. The biochemical and physiological implications of this finding are discussed. (author)

  7. The fight against human trafficking in the Amsterdam Red Light District

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Rijken, C.R.J.J.

    The Amsterdam Red Light District is famous for its sex-oriented businesses. Although prostitution was legalized in 2000, this did not end some of its criminal side effects, particularly the trafficking in women. In an effort to combat human trafficking in the district, the local authorities launched

  8. Red Blood Cell Transfusions in Greece: Results of a Survey of Red Blood Cell Use in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Valsami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Greece is ranked as the second highest consumer of blood components in Europe. For an effective transfusion system and in order to reduce variability of transfusion practice by implementing evidence-based transfusion guidelines it is necessary to study and monitor blood management strategies. Our study was conducted in order to evaluate the use of red blood cell units (RBC-U in nationwide scale mapping parameters that contribute to their proper management in Greece. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted by the Working Committee of Transfusion Medicine&Apheresis of the Hellenic Society of Hematology from January to December 2013. The collected data included the number, ABO/D blood group, patients’ department, and storage age of RBC-U transfused. Results: The number of RBC-U evaluated was 103,702 (17.77% out of 583,457 RBC-U transfused in Greece in 2013. RBC-U transfused by hospital department (mean percentage was as follows: Surgery 29.34%, Internal Medicine 29.48%, Oncology/Hematology 14.65%, Thalassemia 8.87%, Intensive Care Unit 6.55%, Nephrology 1.78%, Obstetrics/Gynecology 1.46%, Neonatal&Pediatric 0.31%, Private Hospitals 8.57%. RBC-U distribution according to ABO/D blood group was: A: 39.02%, B: 12.41%, AB: 5.16%, O: 43.41%, D+: 87.99%, D-: 12.01%. The majority of RBC-U (62.46% was transfused in the first 15 days of storage, 25.24% at 16 to 28 days, and 12.28% at 29-42 days. Conclusion: Despite a high intercenter variability in RBC transfusions, surgical and internal medicine patients were the most common groups of patients transfused with an increasing rate for internal medicine patients. The majority of RBC-U were transfused within the first 15 days of storage, which is possibly the consequence of blood supply insufficiency leading to the direct use of fresh blood. Benchmarking transfusion activity may help to decrease the inappropriate use of blood products, reduce the cost of care, and optimize the use of the

  9. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  10. Genetic recombination at the human RH locus: A family study of the red-cell Evans phenotype reveals a transfer of exons 2-6 from the RHD to the RHCE gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.H.; Chen, Y.; Reid, M. [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Inst., New York, NY (United States); Ghosh, S.

    1996-10-01

    The human RH locus appears to consist of two structural genes, D and CE, which map on the short arm p34-36 of chromosome 1 and specify a most complex system of blood-group genetic polymorphisms. Here we describe a family study of the Evans (also known as {open_quotes}D..{open_quotes}) phenotype, a codominant trait associated with both qualitative and quantitative changes in D-antigen expression. A cataract-causing mutation was also inherited in this family and was apparently cotransmitted with Evans, suggesting a chromosomal linkage of these two otherwise unrelated traits. Southern blot analysis and allele-specific PCR showed the linkage of Evans with a SphI RFLP marker and the presence of a hybrid gene in the RH locus. To delineate the pattern of gene expression, the composition and structure of Rh-polypeptide transcripts were characterized by reverse transcriptase-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. This resulted in the identification of a novel Rh transcript expressed only in the Evans-positive erythroid cells. Sequence analysis showed that the transcript maintained a normal open reading frame but occurred as a CE-D-CE composite in which exons 2-6 of the CE gene were replaced by the homologous counterpart of the D gene. This hybrid gene was predicted to encode a CE-D-CE fusion protein whose surface expression correlates with the Evans phenotype. The mode and consequence of such a recombination event suggest the occurrence, in the RH locus, of a segmental DNA transfer via the mechanism of gene conversion. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. EVALUATION OF ANAEMIA USING RED CELL AND RETICULOCYTE PARAMETERS USING AUTOMATED HAEMATOLOGY ANALYSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of current models of Automated Haematology Analysers help in calculating the haemoglobin contents of the mature Red cells, Reticulocytes and percentages of Microcytic and hypochromic Red cells. This has helped the clinician in reaching early diagnosis and management of Different haemopoietic disorders like Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Thalassaemia and anaemia of chronic diseases. AIM This study is conducted using an Automated Haematology Analyser to evaluate anaemia using the Red Cell and Reticulocyte parameters. Three types of anaemia were evaluated; iron deficiency anaemia, anaemia of long duration and anaemia associated with chronic disease and Iron deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS The blood samples were collected from 287 adult patients with anaemia differentiated depending upon their iron status, haemoglobinopathies and inflammatory activity. Iron deficiency anaemia (n=132, anaemia of long duration (ACD, (n=97 and anaemia associated with chronic disease with iron deficiency (ACD Combi, (n=58. Microcytic Red cells, hypochromic red cells percentage and levels of haemoglobin in reticulocytes and matured RBCs were calculated. The accuracy of the parameters was analysed using receiver operating characteristic analyser to differentiate between the types of anaemia. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There was no difference in parameters between the iron deficiency group or anaemia associated with chronic disease and iron deficiency. The hypochromic red cells percentage was the best parameter in differentiating anaemia of chronic disease with or without absolute iron deficiency with a sensitivity of 72.7% and a specificity of 70.4%. CONCLUSIONS The parameters of red cells and reticulocytes were of reasonably good indicators in differentiating the absolute iron deficiency anaemia with chronic disease.

  12. Brazilian Red Propolis Induces Apoptosis-Like Cell Death and Decreases Migration Potential in Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Rech Begnini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products continue to be an invaluable resource of anticancer drug discovery in recent years. Propolis is known for its biological activities such as antimicrobial and antitumor effects. This study assessed the effects of Brazilian red propolis (BRP on apoptosis and migration potential in human bladder cancer cells. The effect of BRP ethanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL on 5637 cells was determined by MTT, LIVE/DEAD, and migration (scratch assay assays. Apoptosis induction was investigated through flow cytometry and gene expression profile was investigated by qRT-PCR. Results showed cytotoxicity on MTT and LIVE/DEAD assays, with IC50 values of 95 μg/mL in 24 h of treatment. Cellular migration of 5637 cells was significantly inhibited through lower doses of BRP ethanolic extract (25 and 50 μg/mL. Flow cytometry analyses showed that BRP induced cytotoxicity through apoptosis-like mechanisms in 5637 cells and qRT-PCR revealed increased levels of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, p53, AIF, and antioxidant enzymes genes. Data suggest that BRP may be a potential source of drugs to bladder cancer treatment.

  13. Brazilian red propolis induces apoptosis-like cell death and decreases migration potential in bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, Karine Rech; Moura de Leon, Priscila Marques; Thurow, Helena; Schultze, Eduarda; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Martins Rodrigues, Fernanda; Borsuk, Sibele; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Savegnago, Lucielli; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Moura, Sidnei; Padilha, Francine F; Collares, Tiago; Pêgas Henriques, João Antonio; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling

    2014-01-01

    Natural products continue to be an invaluable resource of anticancer drug discovery in recent years. Propolis is known for its biological activities such as antimicrobial and antitumor effects. This study assessed the effects of Brazilian red propolis (BRP) on apoptosis and migration potential in human bladder cancer cells. The effect of BRP ethanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) on 5637 cells was determined by MTT, LIVE/DEAD, and migration (scratch assay) assays. Apoptosis induction was investigated through flow cytometry and gene expression profile was investigated by qRT-PCR. Results showed cytotoxicity on MTT and LIVE/DEAD assays, with IC50 values of 95 μg/mL in 24 h of treatment. Cellular migration of 5637 cells was significantly inhibited through lower doses of BRP ethanolic extract (25 and 50 μg/mL). Flow cytometry analyses showed that BRP induced cytotoxicity through apoptosis-like mechanisms in 5637 cells and qRT-PCR revealed increased levels of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, p53, AIF, and antioxidant enzymes genes. Data suggest that BRP may be a potential source of drugs to bladder cancer treatment.

  14. Biochemical Storage Lesions Occurring in Nonirradiated and Irradiated Red Blood Cells: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35–42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as “storage lesions.” It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion.

  15. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  16. Probing the cytoadherence of malaria infected red blood cells under flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread and deadly human parasitic diseases caused by the Plasmodium (P. species with the P. falciparum being the most deadly. The parasites are capable of invading red blood cells (RBCs during infection. At the late stage of parasites' development, the parasites export proteins to the infected RBCs (iRBC membrane and bind to receptors of surface proteins on the endothelial cells that line microvasculature walls. Resulting adhesion of iRBCs to microvasculature is one of the main sources of most complications during malaria infection. Therefore, it is important to develop a versatile and simple experimental method to quantitatively investigate iRBCs cytoadhesion and binding kinetics. Here, we developed an advanced flow based adhesion assay to demonstrate that iRBC's adhesion to endothelial CD36 receptor protein coated channels is a bistable process possessing a hysteresis loop. This finding confirms a recently developed model of cell adhesion which we used to fit our experimental data. We measured the contact area of iRBC under shear flow at different stages of infection using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF, and also adhesion receptor and ligand binding kinetics using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. With these parameters, we reproduced in our model the experimentally observed changes in adhesion properties of iRBCs accompanying parasite maturation and investigated the main mechanisms responsible for these changes, which are the contact area during the shear flow as well as the rupture area size.

  17. Splenectomy reduces packed red cell transfusion requirement in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Ramanath N; Roberts, Jared M; Morgan, Traci L; Aprahamian, Charles J; Hardin, William D; Hilliard, Lee M; Georgeson, Keith E; Barnhart, Douglas C

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure the effect of splenectomy on packed-cell transfusion requirement in children with sickle cell disease. Thirty-seven sickle cell children who underwent splenectomies between January 2000 and May 2006 at a children's hospital were reviewed. Data were collected 6 months preoperatively to 12 months postsplenectomy. Paired t test, analysis of variance, and multivariable regression analyses were performed. Of 37 children with median age 11 years (range, 2-18 years), 34 (21 males) had data that allowed analyses. Twenty-six had Hgb-SS, 5 had Hgb-SC, and 3 had Hgb S-Thal. Laparoscopic splenectomy was attempted in 36 and completed successfully in 34 (94% success). The number of units transfused decreased by 38% for 0 to 6 months and by 45% for 6 to 12 months postsplenectomy. Postoperatively, hematocrit levels increased and reticulocytes concurrently decreased with a reduction in transfusion clinic visits. The decrease in transfusion was not influenced by spleen weight, age, or hemoglobin type. Two children had acute chest syndrome (6%), and 1 had severe pneumonia (3%). Laparoscopic splenectomy can be successfully completed in sickle cell children. Splenectomy significantly reduces the packed red cell transfusion requirement and frequency of clinic visits, in sickle cell children for at least 12 months postoperatively.

  18. Export of cyclic AMP by avian red cells and inhibition by prostaglandin A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasley, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanism by which PGA 1 inhibits cAMP export by avian red cells was studied, to provide details on the molecular mechanism of a prostaglandin action and on the process of cAMP export itself. The interaction of PGA 1 with pigeon red cells is a multi-step process of uptake, metabolism and secretion. [ 3 H]PGA rapidly enters red cells and is promptly metabolized (V/sub max/ ≥ 1 nmol/min/10 7 cells) to a compound (5) that remains in the aqueous layer after ethyl acetate extraction. Chromatographic analyses, amino acid content and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry reveal that the polar metabolite is conjugated with glutathione (PGA 1 -GSH) at C-11 via a thioether bond and is largely (80%) reduced to the C-9 hydroxyl derivative

  19. Interaction of different forms of graphene with chicken embryo red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, S.; Hinzmann, Mateusz; Sawosz, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    , while others have indicated that graphene might become health hazards. In this study, we explore the biocompatibility of graphene-related materials with chicken embryo red blood cells (RBC). The hemolysis assay was employed to evaluate the in vitro blood compatibility of reduced graphene, graphene oxide......, and reduced graphene oxide, because these materials have recently been used for biomedical applications, including injectable graphene-related particles. This study investigated structural damage, ROS production and hemolysis of chicken embryo red blood cells. Different forms of graphene, when incubated...... with chicken embryo RBC, were harmful to cell structure and induced hemolysis....

  20. Levels of glutathione and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in the red blood cells of Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, N S

    1980-01-01

    There were no significant differences in packed cell volume (PCV) and red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in Australian Aborigines and Caucasians. A highly significant negative correlation was found between PCV and 2,3-DPG in both Aborigines (r = 0.251; n = 231) and Caucasians (r = 0.435; n = 227). Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the red blood cells of Aborigines were significantly lower (P < 0.001) compared to those of Caucasians. There was a significant negative correlation between PCV and GSH in both the groups; (Aborigines r = -0.637, n = 115; Caucasians r = 0.388, n = 111).

  1. Theoretical and experimental study of electroporation of red blood cells using MEMS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang; Yin, Guangyao; Zhang, Tong Yi; Chang, Donald C.; Lee, Yi Kuen

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of electroporation (EP) of red blood cells (RBCs) was presented in this paper. With additional strain energy, an energy-based model of an electropore induced on a RBC's membrane at different electric fields was proposed to predict the critical EP electric field strength. In addition, EP experiments with red blood cells at single-cell level was carried out on a micro EP chip. The measured critical EP electric field strengths are in agreement with the numerical predictions. ©2010 IEEE.

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of electroporation of red blood cells using MEMS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of electroporation (EP) of red blood cells (RBCs) was presented in this paper. With additional strain energy, an energy-based model of an electropore induced on a RBC\\'s membrane at different electric fields was proposed to predict the critical EP electric field strength. In addition, EP experiments with red blood cells at single-cell level was carried out on a micro EP chip. The measured critical EP electric field strengths are in agreement with the numerical predictions. ©2010 IEEE.

  3. Enzymes and membrane proteins of ADSOL-preserved red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sueli Soares Leonart

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The preservative solution ADSOL (adenine, dextrose, sorbitol, sodium chloride and mannitol maintains red cell viability for blood trans-fusion for 6 weeks. It would be useful to know about its preservation qualities over longer periods. OBJECTIVE: To determine some red cell biochemical parameters for peri-ods of up to 14 weeks in order to determine whether the red cell metabo-lism integrity would justify further studies aiming at increasing red cell preservation and viability. DESIGN: Biochemical evaluation designed to study red cell preservation. SETTING: São Paulo University erythrocyte metabolism referral center. SAMPLE: Six normal blood donors from the University Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Weekly assay of erythrocyte adenosine-5´-triphosphate (ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG, hexokinase (HX, phosphofructokinase (PFK, pyruvate kinase (PK, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase (6-PGD, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD, glutathione reduc-tase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx, plasma sodium and potas-sium, blood pH, and membrane proteins of red cells preserved in ADSOL were studied during storage for 14 weeks storage. RESULTS: During ADSOL preservation, erythrocyte ATP concentration decreased 60% after 5 weeks, and 90% after 10 weeks; the pH fell from 6.8 to 6.4 by the 14th week. 2,3-DPG concentration was stable during the first week, but fell 90% after 3 weeks and was exhausted after 5 weeks. By the end of the 5th week, an activity decrease of 16-30% for Hx, GAPD, GR, G-6-PD and 6-PGD, 35% for PFK and GSHPx, and 45% for PK were observed. Thereafter, a uniform 10% decay was observed for all enzymes up to the 14th week. The red blood cell membrane pro-teins did not show significant alterations in polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE during the 14 weeks. CONCLUSION: Although the blood viability was shown to be poor

  4. Protective role of Withaferin-a on red blood cell integrity during 7,12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective effect of Withaferin-A was assessed by measuring the status of glycoconjugates, membrane bound enzyme activity and red blood cell osmotic fragility. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin thrice a week for 14 ...

  5. Clearance of red cells by monoclonal IgG3 anti-D in vivo is affected by the VF polymorphism of Fcgamma RIIIa (CD16)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpel, B. M.; de Haas, M.; Koene, H. R.; van de Winkel, J. G. J.; Goodrick, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Human red cells (RBC) coated with IgG anti-D are cleared from the circulation to the spleen by macrophages which express IgG receptors (Fcgamma R). Polymorphisms of Fcgamma RIIa and Fcgamma RIIIa affect IgG binding in vitro, and may alter the efficiency of clearance of immune complexes in vivo. In a

  6. Clearance of red cells by monoclonal IgG3 anti-D in vivo is affected by the VF polymorphism of Fc gamma RIIIa (CD16)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpel, BM; De Haas, M; Koene, HR; Van de Winkel, JGJ; Goodrick, MJ

    Human red cells (RBC) coated with IgG anti-D are cleared from the circulation to the spleen by macrophages which express IgG receptors (Fcgamma R). Polymorphisms of Fcgamma RIIa and Fcgamma RIIIa affect IgG binding in vitro , and may alter the efficiency of clearance of immune complexes in vivo. In

  7. Estimation of transfused red cell survival using an enzyme-linked antiglobulin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickler, T.S.; Smith, B.; Bell, W.; Drew, H.; Baldwin, M.; Ness, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) method was developed to estimate survival of transfused red cells. This procedure is based on a principle analogous to that of the Ashby technique were antigenically distinct red cells are transfused and their survival studied. The authors compared the ELAT survival to the 51 Chromium method ( 51 Cr) in four patients. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias showed T 1/2 by ELAT of 17.5, 18, and 17 days versus 18.5, 20, and 19 days by the 51 Cr method. A fourth patient with traumatic cardiac hemolysis had two studies performed. In this case, the ELAT showed a T 1/2 of 10 and 8.1 days while 51 Cr T 1/2 values were 11 and 10.5 days. The ELAT method for measuring red cell survival yielded data which agreed closely with the results of the 51 Cr method. Although 51 Cr is the accepted method for red cell survival, the ELAT method can be used to estimate transfused red cell survival

  8. Analysis of Hereditary Elliptocytosis with Decreased Binding of Eosin-5-maleimide to Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichiro Suemori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometric test for analyzing the eosin-5-maleimide (EMA binding to red blood cells has been believed to be a specific method for diagnosing hereditary spherocytosis (HS. However, it has been reported that diseases other than HS, such as hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO, which are forms in the category of hereditary elliptocytosis (HE, show decreased EMA binding to red blood cells. We analyzed EMA binding to red blood cells in 101 healthy control subjects and 42 HS patients and obtained a mean channel fluorescence (MCF cut-off value of 36.4 (sensitivity 0.97, specificity 0.95. Using this method, we also analyzed 12 HE patients. Among them, four HE patients showed the MCF at or below the cut-off value. It indicates that some HE patients have decreased EMA binding to red blood cells. Two of these four HE patients were classified as common HE, and two were spherocytic HE with reduced spectrin. This study demonstrates that, in addition to patients with HPP or SAO, some HE patients have decreased EMA binding to red blood cells.

  9. Cost comparison of methods for preparation of neonatal red cell aliquots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Diana; Thompson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the preparation costs of two common methods used for neonatal red blood cell transfusion aliquots. Three months of data from a Level 2 and Level 3 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were used to determine the comparative cost for red cell aliquot transfusions using an eight bag aliquot/transfer system or the syringe set system. Using leuko-poor red blood cell blood collected in Adsol and containing approximately 320 ml of red blood cells and supernatant solution, the average cost of neonatal transfusion aliquots was determined using the Charter Medical syringe set and the Charter Medical eight bag aliquot/transfer system. A total of 126 red blood cell transfusion aliquots were used over the three month period. The amount transfused with each aliquot ranged from 5.0 ml - 55.0 ml with an average of 24.0 ml per aliquot. The cost per aliquot using the eight aliquot/transfer set was calculated as $36.25 and the cost per aliquot using the syringe set cost was calculated as $30.71. Additional benefits observed with the syringe set included decreased blood waste. When comparing Charter Medical multiple aliquot bag sets and the Charter Medical syringe aliquot system to provide neonatal transfusions, the use of the syringe system decreased blood waste and proved more cost effective.

  10. Relationship between red cell distribution width and early renal injury in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong; Zhao, Jiangtao; Jian, Liguo; Ding, Tongbin; Liu, Shichao

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies found that red cell distribution width was related to adverse cardiovascular events. However, few studies reported the relationship between red cell distribution width and early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Using a cross-sectional design, 334 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled according to the criterion of inclusion and exclusion. Demographic and clinical examination data were collected. Depended on the urine albumin, study population were divided into case group (n = 118) and control group (n = 216). Compared with control group, the case group tend to be higher red cell distribution width level (13.6 ± 0.9 vs.12.5 ± 0.6, p gestational diabetes mellitus patients. The elevated red cell distribution width level might be a predictor of early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. As an easy and routine examination index, red cell distribution width may provide better clinical guidance when combined with other important indices.

  11. Image-based model of the spectrin cytoskeleton for red blood cell simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Thomas G; Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Stokes, David L; Peskin, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    We simulate deformable red blood cells in the microcirculation using the immersed boundary method with a cytoskeletal model that incorporates structural details revealed by tomographic images. The elasticity of red blood cells is known to be supplied by both their lipid bilayer membranes, which resist bending and local changes in area, and their cytoskeletons, which resist in-plane shear. The cytoskeleton consists of spectrin tetramers that are tethered to the lipid bilayer by ankyrin and by actin-based junctional complexes. We model the cytoskeleton as a random geometric graph, with nodes corresponding to junctional complexes and with edges corresponding to spectrin tetramers such that the edge lengths are given by the end-to-end distances between nodes. The statistical properties of this graph are based on distributions gathered from three-dimensional tomographic images of the cytoskeleton by a segmentation algorithm. We show that the elastic response of our model cytoskeleton, in which the spectrin polymers are treated as entropic springs, is in good agreement with the experimentally measured shear modulus. By simulating red blood cells in flow with the immersed boundary method, we compare this discrete cytoskeletal model to an existing continuum model and predict the extent to which dynamic spectrin network connectivity can protect against failure in the case of a red cell subjected to an applied strain. The methods presented here could form the basis of disease- and patient-specific computational studies of hereditary diseases affecting the red cell cytoskeleton.

  12. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua-Bing, Li; Li, Jin; Bing, Qiu

    2008-01-01

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear Bow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  13. Red wine consumption improves in vitro migration of endothelial progenitor cells in young, healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Alshiek, Jonia; Aharon, Anat; Brenner, Benjamin; Roguin, Ariel

    2010-07-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the maintenance of vascular endothelial function. The moderate consumption of red wine provides cardiovascular protection. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of EPC migration in young, healthy individuals who drank red wine. Fourteen healthy volunteers consumed 250 mL red wine daily for 21 consecutive days. Vascular endothelial function, plasma stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF1alpha) concentrations, and the number, migration, and nitric oxide production of EPCs were determined before and after the daily consumption of red wine. EPCs were glucose stressed to study the effect of red wine on EPC migration, proliferation, and senescence and to study the expressions of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and members of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase) signaling pathway by Western blotting. Daily red wine consumption for 21 consecutive days significantly enhanced vascular endothelial function. Although plasma SDF1alpha concentrations were unchanged, EPC count and migration were significantly increased after this 21-d consumption period. Red wine increased the migration, proliferation, CXCR4 expression, and activity of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway and decreased the extent of apoptosis in glucose-stressed EPCs. The results of the present study indicate that red wine exerts its effect through the up-regulation of CXCR4 expression and activation of the SDF1alpha/CXCR4/Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, which results in increased EPC migration and proliferation and decreased extent of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that these effects could be linked to the mechanism of cardiovascular protection that is associated with the regular consumption of red wine.

  14. Cross-stream distribution of red blood cells in sickle-cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Lam, Wilbur; Graham, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Experiments revealed that in blood flow, red blood cells (RBCs) tend to migrate away from the vessel walls, leaving a cell-free layer near the walls, while leukocytes and platelets tend to marginate towards the vessel walls. This segregation behavior of different cellular components in blood flow can be driven by their differences in stiffness and shape. An alteration of this segregation behavior may explain endothelial dysfunction and pain crisis associated with sickle-cell disease (SCD). It is hypothesized that the sickle RBCs, which are considerably stiffer than the healthy RBCs, may marginate towards the vessel walls and exert repeated damage to the endothelial cells. Direct simulations are performed to study the flowing suspensions of deformable biconcave discoids and stiff sickles representing healthy and sickle cells, respectively. It is observed that the sickles exhibit a strong margination towards the walls. The biconcave discoids in flowing suspensions undergo a so-called tank-treading motion, while the sickles behave as rigid bodies and undergo a tumbling motion. The margination behavior and tumbling motion of the sickles may help substantiate the aforementioned hypothesis of the mechanism for the SCD complications and shed some light on the design of novel therapies.

  15. Measurement of the viability of stored red cells by the single-isotope technique using 51Cr. Analysis of validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, E.; West, C.

    1984-01-01

    A single-isotope 51 Cr method often is used to evaluate the viability of stored red cells. In this technique, the red cell mass is measured by back-extrapolation to time zero (t0) of the radioactivity of the blood between 5 and 20 minutes after infusion of the sample. If there is early destruction of stored cells, this method provides an overestimate of the red cell mass and, hence, of the viability of the stored cells. Freshly drawn red cells from normal donors were labeled with /sup 99m/Tc, and cells from the same donor which had been stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine-one (CPDA-1) for periods ranging from 7 to 49 days were labeled with 51 Cr. A comparison of the ''true red cell mass'' as determined with /sup 99m/Tc with the back-extrapolated red cell mass from stored 51 Cr-labeled cells has made it possible to define the magnitude of error introduced by early loss of red cells. The overestimation of red cell mass and viability was diminished if only the 51 Cr radioactivity between 5 and 15 minutes after infusion was used in back-extrapolating to t0. The degree of overestimation of red cell mass was greatest when the red cell viability had declined to very low levels. However, in the entire range of 10 to 80 percent viability, the overestimate of viability was usually less than 4 percent. The overestimate of viability proved to be quite similar for all samples and may be taken into account when using the single-isotope technique for measurement of red cell viability

  16. Aplasia versus pancytopenia, including the pure red cell variant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to extend evaluation to the bone marrow and plasma while supplementary imaging ... B lood. Pluripotential stem cell. Early acting molecules, primarily interleukins .... options towards early immunohaematopoietic stem cell allogeneic transplantation. ... Chronic leukaemia, leukaemia, lymphomas; large granular lymphocytic ...

  17. Erythroid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells is independent of donor cell type of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Isabel; Klich, Katharina; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Radstaak, Martina; Santourlidis, Simeon; Ghanjati, Foued; Radke, Teja F; Psathaki, Olympia E; Hargus, Gunnar; Kramer, Jan; Einhaus, Martin; Kim, Jeong Beom; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Schöler, Hans R; Schlenke, Peter; Zaehres, Holm

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates that the epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells is influenced by the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern of induced pluripotent stem cells of different somatic cell origin. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythroid promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from CD34(+) cells and those derived from neural stem cells, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion. Nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den [Laser Centre and Department of Obstetrics, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A [Division of Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Lopriore, Enrico [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.vangemert@amc.uva.nl

    2008-07-07

    Recently, we derived equations relating the flow of adult red blood cells through a placental arterio-venous anastomosis with intra-uterine and post-natal measured adult hemoglobin concentrations. In this letter, we re-derived the equations, now including a more realistic nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells, and re-evaluated the measurement accuracy of the arterio-venous flow and the lifetime of the red blood cells. (letter to the editor)

  19. Getting into the flow: Red cells go on a roll, two-component vesicles swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Dupire, Jules; Khelloufi, Kamel; Al Halifa, Al Hair; Adhesion and Inflammation Team

    2013-11-01

    Red blood cells are soft capsules. Under shear flow, their two known motions were ``tumbling'' and ``swinging-tank treading,'' depending on cell mechanics and flow conditions. We reveal new wobbling regimes, among which the ``rolling'' regime, where red cells move as wheels on a road. We show, by coupling two video-microscopy approaches providing multi-directional cell pictures that the orientation of cells flipping into the flow is determined by the shear rate. Rolling permits to avoid energetically costly cellular deformations and is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight two transient dynamics: an intermittent regime during the ``tank-treading-to-flipping'' transition and a Frisbee-like ``spinning'' regime during the ``rolling-to-tank-treading'' transition. We find that the biconcave red cell shape is very stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of shape memory and elastic buckling. Finally, we generate lipid vesicles with a shape memory by using two lipids with different bending rigidities. These vesicles swing in shear flow similarly to red blood cells but their non-axisymmetric stress-free shape changes the periodicity of the motion and induces specific features.

  20. Long-term culture and differentiation of porcine red bone marrow hematopoietic cells co-cultured with immortalized mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Abubakar; Acar, Delphine D; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Devriendt, Bert; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal cells are multipotent stromal cells with self-renewal, differentiation and immunomodulatory capabilities. We aimed to develop a co-culture model for differentiating hematopoietic cells on top of immortalized mesenchymal cells for studying interactions between hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, useful for adequately exploring the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal cells. In this study, we investigated the survival, proliferation and differentiation of porcine red bone marrow hematopoietic cells co-cultured with immortalized porcine bone marrow mesenchymal cells for a period of five weeks. Directly after collection, primary porcine bone marrow mesenchymal cells adhered firmly to the bottom of the culture plates and showed a fibroblast-like appearance, one week after isolation. Upon immortalization, porcine bone marrow mesenchymal cells were continuously proliferating. They were positive for simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and the mesenchymal cell markers CD44 and CD55. Isolated red bone marrow cells were added to these immortalized mesenchymal cells. Five weeks post-seeding, 92±6% of the red bone marrow hematopoietic cells were still alive and their number increased 3-fold during five weekly subpassages on top of the immortalized mesenchymal cells. The red bone marrow hematopoietic cells were originally small and round; later, the cells increased in size. Some of them became elongated, while others remained round. Tiny dendrites appeared attaching hematopoietic cells to the underlying immortalized mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, weekly differential-quick staining of the cells indicated the presence of monoblasts, monocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes in the co-cultures. At three weeks of co-culture, flow cytometry analysis showed an increased surface expression of CD172a, CD14, CD163, CD169, CD4 and CD8 up to 37±0.8%, 40±8%, 41±4%, 23±3% and 19±5% of the hematopoietic cells, respectively. In conclusion, continuous mesenchymal cell

  1. Hybrid clone cells derived from human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells exhibit properties of cancer stem/initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauck, Daria; Keil, Silvia; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression since it was determined that normal cell × tumor cell fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit novel properties, such as enhanced metastatogenic capacity or increased drug resistance, and even as a mechanism that could give rise to cancer stem/initiating cells (CS/ICs). CS/ICs have been proposed as cancer cells that exhibit stem cell properties, including the ability to (re)initiate tumor growth. Five M13HS hybrid clone cells, which originated from spontaneous cell fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells and HS578T-Hyg human breast cancer cells, and their parental cells were analyzed for expression of stemness and EMT-related marker proteins by Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The frequency of ALDH1-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry using AldeRed fluorescent dye. Concurrently, the cells' colony forming capabilities as well as the cells' abilities to form mammospheres were investigated. The migratory activity of the cells was analyzed using a 3D collagen matrix migration assay. M13HS hybrid clone cells co-expressed SOX9, SLUG, CK8 and CK14, which were differently expressed in parental cells. A variation in the ALDH1-positive putative stem cell population was observed among the five hybrids ranging from 1.44% (M13HS-7) to 13.68% (M13HS-2). In comparison to the parental cells, all five hybrid clone cells possessed increased but also unique colony formation and mammosphere formation capabilities. M13HS-4 hybrid clone cells exhibited the highest colony formation capacity and second highest mammosphere formation capacity of all hybrids, whereby the mean diameter of the mammospheres was comparable to the parental cells. In contrast, the largest mammospheres originated from the M13HS-2 hybrid clone cells, whereas these cells' mammosphere formation capacity was comparable to the parental breast cancer cells. All M13HS

  2. Protective effects of tea, red wine and cocoa in diabetes. Evidences from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria Angeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of diabetes through the diet has recently received an increasing interest, and polyphenolic compounds, such as flavanols, have become important potential chemopreventive natural agents due to their proved benefits on health, with low toxicity and cost. Tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of flavanols and these highly consumed foods might contribute to prevent diabetes. In this regard, there is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea, red wine and cocoa consumption against this disorder. This review summarizes the available epidemiological and interventional human studies providing evidence for and against this effect. Overall observational data suggest a benefit, but results are still equivocal and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of data indicate favourable effects on diabetes risk factors for tea, red wine and cocoa intake, and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in human studies. However, despite the growing evidence it remains uncertain whether tea, red wine and cocoa consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Testosterone-dependent sex differences in red blood cell hemolysis in storage, stress, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanias, Tamir; Sinchar, Derek; Osei-Hwedieh, David; Baust, Jeffrey J; Jordan, Andrew; Zimring, James C; Waterman, Hayley R; de Wolski, Karen S; Acker, Jason P; Gladwin, Mark T

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis represents an intrinsic mechanism for human vascular disease. Intravascular hemolysis releases hemoglobin and other metabolites that inhibit nitric oxide signaling and drive oxidative and inflammatory stress. Although these pathways are important in disease pathogenesis, genetic and population modifiers of hemolysis, including sex, have not been established. We studied sex differences in storage or stress-induced hemolysis in RBC units from the United States and Canada in 22 inbred mouse strains and in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) using measures of hemolysis in 315 patients who had homozygous SS hemoglobin from the Walk-PHASST cohort. A mouse model also was used to evaluate posttransfusion recovery of stored RBCs, and gonadectomy was used to determine the mechanisms related to sex hormones. An analysis of predisposition to hemolysis based on sex revealed that male RBCs consistently exhibit increased susceptibility to hemolysis compared with females in response to routine cold storage, under osmotic or oxidative stress, after transfusion in mice, and in patients with SCD. The sex difference is intrinsic to the RBC and is not mediated by plasmatic factors or female sex hormones. Importantly, orchiectomy in mice improves RBC storage stability and posttransfusion recovery, whereas testosterone repletion therapy exacerbates hemolytic response to osmotic or oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that testosterone increases susceptibility to hemolysis across human diseases, suggesting that male sex may modulate clinical outcomes in blood storage and SCD and establishing a role for donor genetic variables in the viability of stored RBCs and in human hemolytic diseases. © 2016 AABB.

  4. Detecting Newcastle disease virus in combination of RT-PCR with red blood cell absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chengqian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has limited sensitivity when treating complicated samples, such as feces, waste-water in farms, and nucleic acids, protein rich tissue samples, all the factors may interfere with the sensitivity of PCR test or generate false results. In this study, we developed a sensitive RT-PCR, combination of red blood cell adsorption, for detecting Newcastle disease virus (NDV. One pair of primers which was highly homologous to three NDV pathotypes was designed according to the consensus nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. To eliminate the interfere of microbes and toxic substances, we concentrated and purified NDV from varied samples utilizing the ability of NDV binding red blood cells (RBCs. The RT-PCR coupled with red blood cell adsorption was much more sensitive in comparison with regular RT-PCR. The approach could also be used to detect other viruses with the property of hemagglutination, such as influenza viruses.

  5. Computer Simulation Study of Collective Phenomena in Dense Suspensions of Red Blood Cells under Shear

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Timm

    2012-01-01

    The rheology of dense red blood cell suspensions is investigated via computer simulations based on the lattice Boltzmann, the immersed boundary, and the finite element methods. The red blood cells are treated as extended and deformable particles immersed in the ambient fluid. In the first part of the work, the numerical model and strategies for stress evaluation are discussed. In the second part, the behavior of the suspensions in simple shear flow is studied for different volume fractions, particle deformabilities, and shear rates. Shear thinning behavior is recovered. The existence of a shear-induced transition from a tumbling to a tank-treading motion is demonstrated. The transition can be parameterized by a single quantity, namely the effective capillary number. It is the ratio of the suspension stress and the characteristic particle membrane stress. At the transition point, a strong increase in the orientational order of the red blood cells and a significant decrease of the particle diffusivity are obser...

  6. High-speed video capillaroscopy method for imaging and evaluation of moving red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Igor; Volkov, Mikhail; Margaryants, Nikita; Pimenov, Aleksei; Potemkin, Andrey

    2018-05-01

    The video capillaroscopy system with high image recording rate to resolve moving red blood cells with velocity up to 5 mm/s into a capillary is considered. Proposed procedures of the recorded video sequence processing allow evaluating spatial capillary area, capillary diameter and central line with high accuracy and reliability independently on properties of individual capillary. Two-dimensional inter frame procedure is applied to find lateral shift of neighbor images in the blood flow area with moving red blood cells and to measure directly the blood flow velocity along a capillary central line. The developed method opens new opportunities for biomedical diagnostics, particularly, due to long-time continuous monitoring of red blood cells velocity into capillary. Spatio-temporal representation of capillary blood flow is considered. Experimental results of direct measurement of blood flow velocity into separate capillary as well as capillary net are presented and discussed.

  7. Screening hypochromism (sieve effect) in red blood cells: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi Naqvi, K

    2014-04-01

    Multiwavelength UV-visible spectroscopy, Kramers-Kronig analysis, and several other experimental and theoretical tools have been applied over the last several decades to fathom absorption and scattering of light by suspensions of micron-sized pigmented particles, including red blood cells, but a satisfactory quantitative analysis of the difference between the absorption spectra of suspension of intact and lysed red blood cells is still lacking. It is stressed that such a comparison is meaningful only if the pertinent spectra are free from, or have been corrected for, scattering losses, and it is shown that Duysens' theory can, whereas that of Vekshin cannot, account satisfactorily for the observed hypochromism of suspensions of red blood cells.

  8. Hyperkalemia caused by rapid red cell transfusion and the potassium absorption filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Imashuku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of transient hyperkalemia during hysterectomy after cesarean section, due to preoperatively undiagnosed placenta accreta that caused unforeseen massive hemorrhage and required rapid red cell transfusion. Hyperkalemia-induced by rapid red cell transfusion is a well-known severe complication of transfusion; however, in patients with sudden massive hemorrhage, rapid red cell transfusion is necessary to save their life. In such cases, it is extremely important to monitor serum potassium levels. For an emergency situation, a system should be developed to ensure sufficient preparation for immediate transfusion and laboratory tests. Furthermore, sufficient stock of preparations to treat hyperkalemia, such as calcium preparations, diuretics, glucose, and insulin is required. Moreover, a transfusion filter that absorbs potassium has been developed and is now available for clinical use in Japan. The filter is easy to use and beneficial, and should be prepared when it is available.

  9. Hyperkalemia caused by rapid red cell transfusion and the potassium absorption filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashuku, Yasuhiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Mizuno, Takayoshi; Fukushima, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of transient hyperkalemia during hysterectomy after cesarean section, due to preoperatively undiagnosed placenta accreta that caused unforeseen massive hemorrhage and required rapid red cell transfusion. Hyperkalemia-induced by rapid red cell transfusion is a well-known severe complication of transfusion; however, in patients with sudden massive hemorrhage, rapid red cell transfusion is necessary to save their life. In such cases, it is extremely important to monitor serum potassium levels. For an emergency situation, a system should be developed to ensure sufficient preparation for immediate transfusion and laboratory tests. Furthermore, sufficient stock of preparations to treat hyperkalemia, such as calcium preparations, diuretics, glucose, and insulin is required. Moreover, a transfusion filter that absorbs potassium has been developed and is now available for clinical use in Japan. The filter is easy to use and beneficial, and should be prepared when it is available. PMID:28217070

  10. Radionuclide assay of membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity of peserved red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusov, V.V.; Zelenin, A.A.; Marizin, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The radionuclide tests were used to investigate the influence of varying blood preservatives on erythrocylic membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity in samples of whole blood and packed red blood cells from normal donors prepared by standard methods. The tests were performed before and after seven days of preservation under standard conditions. It was found that blood preservations lowered membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity: its minimum reduction was recorded with citroglucopnosphate, while glugicir induced a significant drop in Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells regardless of the type of the blood transfusion solution. The assay of membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells with the use of 86 Rb could be recommended as an evaluation test for preserved blood and its components

  11. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-01-01

    Method using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen therefrom at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate.

  12. Assessing the photoprotective effects of red ochre on human skin by in vitro laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan F. Rifkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological indicators of cognitive complexity become increasingly prevalent during the African Middle Stone Age, with the habitual exploitation of red ochre widely viewed as a key feature of the emergence of modern human behaviour. Given that some of the uses of ochre remain ambiguous, we present the preliminary results of an ongoing study in which we explore the efficacy of red ochre as a photoprotective device or sunscreen. The capacity of ochre to inhibit the susceptibility of humans to the detrimental effects of ultraviolet radiation was confirmed through the in vitro calculation of the sun protection factor values of samples derived from the Kunene Region in Namibia and the Bokkeveld Group deposits, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Visible spectroscopy was employed to determine colourimetric parameters of samples and assess the correlation between ochre colour and sun protection factor. The possible role of ochre as a sunscreen agent for hominin populations, including modern humans, during the Middle Stone Age in Africa is explored. We conclude that the habitual use of red ochre as a photoprotective agent likely played a role in the ability of prehistoric humans to adapt to novel environmental circumstances.

  13. The permeability of red blood cells to chloride, urea and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahm, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This study extends permeability (P) data on chloride, urea and water in red blood cells (RBC), and concludes that the urea transporter (UT-B) does not transport water. P of chick, duck, Amphiuma means, dog and human RBC to (36)Cl(-), (14)C-urea and (3)H2O was determined under self....... Temperature dependence, as measured by apparent activation energy, EA, of PCl is 117.8 (duck), 74.9 (Amphiuma) and 89.6 kJ mol(-1) (dog). The EA of Purea is 69.6 (duck) and 53.3 kJ mol(-1) (Amphiuma), and that of Pd is 34.9 (duck) and 32.1 kJ mol(-1) (Amphiuma). The present and previous RBC studies indicate......-exchange conditions. At 25°C and pH 7.2-7.5, PCl is 0.94×10(-4)-2.15×10(-4) cm s(-1) for all RBC species at [Cl]=127-150 mmol l(-1). In chick and duck RBC, Purea is 0.84×10(-6) and 1.65×10(-6) cm s(-1), respectively, at [urea]=1-500 mmol l(-1). In Amphiuma, dog and human RBC, Purea is concentration dependent (1...

  14. The Effect of Polymeric Nanoparticles on Biocompatibility of Carrier Red Blood Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pan

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs can be used for vascular delivery of encapsulated or surface-bound drugs and carriers. Coupling to RBC prolongs circulation of nanoparticles (NP, 200 nm spheres, a conventional model of polymeric drug delivery carrier enabling their transfer to the pulmonary vasculature without provoking overt RBC elimination. However, little is known about more subtle and potentially harmful effects of drugs and drug carriers on RBCs. Here we devised high-throughput in vitro assays to determine the sensitivity of loaded RBCs to osmotic stress and other damaging insults that they may encounter in vivo (e.g. mechanical, oxidative and complement insults. Sensitivity of these tests is inversely proportional to RBC concentration in suspension and our results suggest that mouse RBCs are more sensitive to damaging factors than human RBCs. Loading RBCs by NP at 1:50 ratio did not affect RBCs, while 10-50 fold higher NP load accentuated RBC damage by mechanical, osmotic and oxidative stress. This extensive loading of RBC by NP also leads to RBCs agglutination in buffer; however, addition of albumin diminished this effect. These results provide a template for analyses of the effects of diverse cargoes loaded on carrier RBCs and indicate that: i RBCs can tolerate carriage of NP at doses providing loading of millions of nanoparticles per microliter of blood; ii tests using protein-free buffers and mouse RBCs may overestimate adversity that may be encountered in humans.

  15. Detection and quantification of Duffy antigen on bovine red blood cell membranes using a polyclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa B.F. Antonangelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is one of the most important diseases affecting livestock agriculture worldwide. Animals from the subspecies Bos taurus indicus are more resistant to babesiosis than those from Bos taurus taurus. The genera Babesia and Plasmodium are Apicomplexa hemoparasites and share features such as invasion of red blood cells (RBC. The glycoprotein Duffy is the only human erythrocyte receptor for Pasmodium vivax and a mutation which abolishes expression of this glycoprotein on erythrocyte surfaces is responsible for making the majority of people originating from the indigenous populations of West Africa resistant to P. vivax. The current work detected and quantified the Duffy antigen on Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus erythrocyte surfaces using a polyclonal antibody in order to investigate if differences in susceptibility to Babesia are due to different levels of Duffy antigen expression on the RBCs of these animals, as is known to be the case in human beings for interactions of Plasmodium vivax-Duffy antigen. ELISA tests showed that the antibody that was raised against Duffy antigens detected the presence of Duffy antigen in both subspecies and that the amount of this antigen on those erythrocyte membranes was similar. These results indicate that the greater resistance of B. taurus indicus to babesiosis cannot be explained by the absence or lower expression of Duffy antigen on RBC surfaces.

  16. Importance of methodological standardization for the ektacytometric measures of red blood cell deformability in sickle cell anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renoux, Céline; Parrow, Nermi; Faes, Camille; Joly, Philippe; Hardeman, Max; Tisdale, John; Levine, Mark; Garnier, Nathalie; Bertrand, Yves; Kebaili, Kamila; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Cannas, Giovanna; Martin, Cyril; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability is severely decreased in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), which plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, investigation of RBC deformability from SCA patients demands careful methodological considerations. We assessed RBC deformability by

  17. Evaluation of the effectiveness of packed red blood cell irradiation by a linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Ricardo Aparecido; da Silva, Marcus Vinícius; Garcia, Fernanda Bernadelli; Soares, Sheila; Rodrigues Junior, Virmondes; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of blood components with ionizing radiation generated by a specific device is recommended to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. However, a linear accelerator can also be used in the absence of such a device, which is the case of the blood bank facility studied herein. In order to evaluate the quality of the irradiated packed red blood cells, this study aimed to determine whether the procedure currently employed in the facility is effective in inhibiting the proliferation of T lymphocytes without damaging blood components. The proliferation of T lymphocytes, plasma potassium levels, and the degree of hemolysis were evaluated and compared to blood bags that received no irradiation. Packed red blood cell bags were irradiated at a dose of 25Gy in a linear accelerator. For this purpose, a container was designed to hold the bags and to ensure even distribution of irradiation as evaluated by computed tomography and dose-volume histogram. Irradiation was observed to inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes. The percentage of hemolysis in irradiated bags was slightly higher than in non-irradiated bags (p-value >0.05), but it was always less than 0.4% of the red cell mass. Although potassium increased in both groups, it was more pronounced in irradiated red blood cells, especially after seven days of storage, with a linear increase over storage time. The findings showed that, at an appropriate dosage and under validated conditions, the irradiation of packed red blood cells in a linear accelerator is effective, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation but without compromising the viability of the red cells. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Concise review: stem cell-based approaches to red blood cell production for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth; Huang, Xiaosong; Cheng, Linzhao

    2014-03-01

    Blood transfusion is a common procedure in modern medicine, and it is practiced throughout the world; however, many countries report a less than sufficient blood supply. Even in developed countries where the supply is currently adequate, projected demographics predict an insufficient supply as early as 2050. The blood supply is also strained during occasional widespread disasters and crises. Transfusion of blood components such as red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, or neutrophils is increasingly used from the same blood unit for multiple purposes and to reduce alloimmune responses. Even for RBCs and platelets lacking nuclei and many antigenic cell-surface molecules, alloimmunity could occur, especially in patients with chronic transfusion requirements. Once alloimmunization occurs, such patients require RBCs from donors with a different blood group antigen combination, making it a challenge to find donors after every successive episode of alloimmunization. Alternative blood substitutes such as synthetic oxygen carriers have so far proven unsuccessful. In this review, we focus on current research and technologies that permit RBC production ex vivo from hematopoietic stem cells, pluripotent stem cells, and immortalized erythroid precursors.

  19. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells and Platelet Concentrates: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Amabile, Giovanni

    2017-12-27

    Red blood cells and platelets are anucleate blood components indispensable for oxygen delivery and hemostasis, respectively. Derivation of these blood elements from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has the potential to develop blood donor-independent and genetic manipulation-prone products to complement or replace current transfusion banking, also minimizing the risk of alloimmunization. While the production of erythrocytes from iPS cells has challenges to overcome, such as differentiation into adult-type phenotype that functions properly after transfusion, platelet products are qualitatively and quantitatively approaching a clinically-applicable level owing to advances in expandable megakaryocyte (MK) lines, platelet-producing bioreactors, and novel reagents. Guidelines that assure the quality of iPS cells-derived blood products for clinical application represent a novel challenge for regulatory agencies. Considering the minimal risk of tumorigenicity and the expected significant demand of such products, ex vivo production of iPS-derived blood components can pave the way for iPS translation into the clinic.

  20. Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, N.; Buddhiwant, P.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast and accurate approach for simultaneous determination of both the mean diameter and refractive index of a collection of red blood cells (RBCs). The approach uses the peak frequency of the power spectrum and the corresponding phase angle obtained by performing Fourier transform on the measured angular distribution of scattered light to determine these parameters. Results on the measurement of two important clinical parameters, the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of a collection of RBCs, are presented

  1. Improved modification for in vitro labeling of red blood cells with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerson, B.; Ballinger, J.R.; Gulenchyn, K.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have tested a modification of Brookhaven method for in vitro labeling of red blood cells (RBCs) with technetium-99m by adding an initial centrifugation step and performing the labeling on packed RBCs. This results in reproducible, high labeling efficiencies (99.3% +/- 0.4%, n = 50) after 15 min of incubation. The use of packed RBCs also results in a higher concentration of labeled RBCs (smaller bolus for injection) and less radiation exposure to the technologist. This technique has proved useful for radionuclide angiography, venography, gastrointestinal bleeding studies, and red cell mass determinations. It is particularly advantageous for RBC labeling in patients receiving chemotherapy

  2. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cells...... of reptiles express a different NHE-1 that responds less to volume activation compared to other vertebrates or simply lack the Na+/H+ exchanger. Using various tissues from the ball python (Python regius), Cane toad (Bufo marinus) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis), cDNA libraries were created...

  3. Yersinia enterocolitica septicaemia from transfusion of red cell concentrate stored for 16 days.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, B L; Saw, M H; Hanson, M F; Mackie, M J; Scott, J; Murphy, W G

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of transfusion transmitted Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 3, serotype 09 infection occurred in south east Scotland within four months of each other. In one case, a 79 year old man died the day after receiving a unit of red cell concentrate that had been stored for 29 days after donation. In the second case a 78 year old man died three days after transfusion of a unit of red cell concentrate that had been collected 16 days before transfusion. The donors of both units had no symptoms...

  4. Electron probe study of human and red deer cementum and root dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toetdal, B. (Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, The Norwegian Institute of Technology); Hals, E. (Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology, University of Bergen, Norway)

    1985-01-01

    A topographical description of the concentration profiles of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, F, S, and K in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. The concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. A downward slope of the Ca, P, and Mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. Marked elevations of the Zn profiles, modest elevations of the F profiles, and in a few instances of the S profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavity were registered. In a couple of scans a slight elevation of the K profile toward the root surface was observed. A high degree of concordance in human and red deer teeth was ascertained.

  5. Interaction of cationic carbosilane dendrimers and their complexes with siRNA with erythrocytes and red blood cell ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Dominika; Kolanowska, Katarzyna; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Gomez-Ramirez, Rafael; de la Mata, Javier; Pedziwiatr-Werbicka, Elżbieta; Klajnert, Barbara; Waczulikova, Iveta; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the interactions between cationic NN16 and BDBR0011 carbosilane dendrimers with red blood cells or their cell membranes. The carbosilane dendrimers used possess 16 cationic functional groups. Both the dendrimers are made of water-stable carbon-silicon bonds, but NN16 possesses some oxygen-silicon bonds that are unstable in water. The nucleic acid used in the experiments was targeted against GAG-1 gene from the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1. By binding to the outer leaflet of the membrane, carbosilane dendrimers decreased the fluidity of the hydrophilic part of the membrane but increased the fluidity of the hydrophobic interior. They induced hemolysis, but did not change the morphology of the cells. Increasing concentrations of dendrimers induced erythrocyte aggregation. Binding of short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) to a dendrimer molecule decreased the availability of cationic groups and diminished their cytotoxicity. siRNA-dendrimer complexes changed neither the fluidity of biological membranes nor caused cell hemolysis. Addition of dendriplexes to red blood cell suspension induced echinocyte formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells as a Transfusion Product Using a Novel Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep N Shah

    Full Text Available Reliance on volunteer blood donors can lead to transfusion product shortages, and current liquid storage of red blood cells (RBCs is associated with biochemical changes over time, known as 'the storage lesion'. Thus, there is a need for alternative sources of transfusable RBCs to supplement conventional blood donations. Extracorporeal production of stem cell-derived RBCs (stemRBCs is a potential and yet untapped source of fresh, transfusable RBCs. A number of groups have attempted RBC differentiation from CD34+ cells. However, it is still unclear whether these stemRBCs could eventually be effective substitutes for traditional RBCs due to potential differences in oxygen carrying capacity, viability, deformability, and other critical parameters. We have generated ex vivo stemRBCs from primary human cord blood CD34+ cells and compared them to donor-derived RBCs based on a number of in vitro parameters. In vivo, we assessed stemRBC circulation kinetics in an animal model of transfusion and oxygen delivery in a mouse model of exercise performance. Our novel, chronically anemic, SCID mouse model can evaluate the potential of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen to tissues (muscle under resting and exercise-induced hypoxic conditions. Based on our data, stem cell-derived RBCs have a similar biochemical profile compared to donor-derived RBCs. While certain key differences remain between donor-derived RBCs and stemRBCs, the ability of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen in a living organism provides support for further development as a transfusion product.

  7. Human responses to Florida red tides: policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Scheller, Karen; Reich, Andrew; Hitchcock, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Ullmann, Steven; Hoagland, Porter

    2014-09-15

    To mitigate the damages of natural hazards, policy responses can be beneficial only if they are effective. Using a self-administered survey approach, this paper focuses on the adherence to local fertilizer ordinances (i.e., county or municipal rules regulating the application of fertilizer to private lawns or facilities such as golf courses) implemented in jurisdictions along the Southwest Florida coast in response to hazardous blooms of Florida red tides (Karenia brevis). These ordinances play a role in the context of evolving programs of water pollution control at federal, state, water basin, and local levels. With respect to policy effectiveness, while the strength of physical linkages is of critical importance, the extent to which humans affected are aware of and adhere to the relevant rules, is equally critical. We sought to understand the public's depth of understanding about the rationales for local fertilizer ordinances. Respondents in Sarasota, Florida, were asked about their fertilizer practices in an area that has experienced several major blooms of Florida red tides over the past two decades. A highly educated, older population of 305 residents and "snowbirds" reported relatively little knowledge about a local fertilizer ordinance, its purpose, or whether it would change the frequency, size, or duration of red tides. This finding held true even among subpopulations that were expected to have more interest in or to be more knowledgeable about harmful algal blooms. In the face of uncertain science and environmental outcomes, and with individual motivations at odds with evolving public policies, the effectiveness of local community efforts to decrease the impacts of red tides may be compromised. Targeted social-science research on human perceptions about the risks of Florida red tides and education about the rationales for potential policy responses are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating the adduct formation of organic mercury species with carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin from human red blood cell hemolysate by means of LC/ESI-TOF-MS and LC/ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeback, Jens; Schwarzer, Miriam; Wehe, Christoph A; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of mercury species with human erythrocytes is studied to investigate possible high molecular binding partners for mercury species. Human blood hemolysate was spiked with methylmercury and investigated by means of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-ToF-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Beside adduct formation of mercury species with hemoglobin, the main compound of the erythrocytes, mercury binding to the enzyme carbonic anhydrase was revealed. Due to an enzymatic digest of the protein-mercury adduct, the binding site at the free thiol group of the protein was identified. These results indicate that carbonic anhydrase might play a role in mercury toxicity.

  9. Protective effects of red wine flavonols on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Jin; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2009-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a moderate consumption of red wine has health benefits, such as the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases. Although this is generally attributed to resveratrol, the protective mechanisms and the active substance(s) remain unclear. We examined whether and how red wine extract (RWE) and red wine flavonols quercetin and myricetin inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-induced apoptosis of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. RWE attenuated HNE-induced PC12 cell death in a dose-dependent manner. HNE induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is involved in DNA repair in the nucleus, and this was inhibited by RWE treatment. Treatment with RWE also inhibited HNE-induced nuclear condensation in PC12 cells. Data of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate showed that RWE protected against apoptosis of PC12 cells by attenuating intracellular reactive oxygen species. The cytoprotective effects on HNE-induced cell death were stronger for quercetin and myricetin than for resveratrol. HNE-induced nuclear condensation was attenuated by quercetin and myricetin. These results suggest that the neuroprotective potential of red wine is attributable to flavonols rather than to resveratrol.

  10. Nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and nucleated red blood cells in term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalak, E Ebru; Dede, F Suat; Gelisen, Orhan; Dede, Hulya; Haberal, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns during labor and umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell counts. Nucleated red blood cell data was collected prospectively from 41 singleton term neonates presented with nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and/or meconium stained amniotic fluid during labor (study group) and from 45 term neonates without any evidence of nonreassuring fetal status (controls). Umbilical artery pH, blood gases and base excess were also determined to investigate the correlation between independent variables. The median nucleated red blood cells per 100 white blood cells were 13 (range 0-37) in the study group and 8 (range 0-21) in the control group. Stepwise regression analysis have identified meconium stained amniotic fluid (R(2) = 0.15, p patterns. Nucleated red blood cells in the cord blood of newborns were found to be elevated in patients with nonreassuring FHR patterns during labor. However, the wide range and the poor correlation of NRBC count with umbilical artery pH and blood gas values limit its clinical utility as a marker for fetal hypoxia.

  11. Laser ektacytometry and evaluation of statistical characteristics of inhomogeneous ensembles of red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. Yu.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Lugovtsov, A. E.; Ustinov, V. D.; Razgulin, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The paper is devoted to development of the laser ektacytometry technique for evaluation of the statistical characteristics of inhomogeneous ensembles of red blood cells (RBCs). We have analyzed theoretically laser beam scattering by the inhomogeneous ensembles of elliptical discs, modeling red blood cells in the ektacytometer. The analysis shows that the laser ektacytometry technique allows for quantitative evaluation of such population characteristics of RBCs as the cells mean shape, the cells deformability variance and asymmetry of the cells distribution in the deformability. Moreover, we show that the deformability distribution itself can be retrieved by solving a specific Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. At this stage we do not take into account the scatter in the RBC sizes.

  12. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, D. H.; Whitehead, R. H.; Foster, H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting f...

  13. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, K.S.; Guimaraes, O.R.; Geller, M.; Sergio, L.P.S.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out. (author)

  14. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canuto, K.S.; Guimaraes, O.R.; Geller, M. [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Sergio, L.P.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out. (author)

  15. Role of transfused red blood cells for shock and coagulopathy within remote damage control resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Philip C; Doctor, Allan

    2014-05-01

    The philosophy of damage control resuscitation (DCR) and remote damage control resuscitation (RDCR) can be summarized by stating that the goal is to prevent death from hemorrhagic shock by "staying out of trouble instead of getting out of trouble." In other words, it is preferred to arrest the progression of shock, rather than also having to reverse this condition after significant tissue damage and organ injury cascades are established. Moreover, to prevent death from exsanguination, a balanced approach to the treatment of both shock and coagulopathy is required. This was military doctrine during World War II, but seemed to be forgotten during the last half of the 20th century. Damage control resuscitation and RDCR have revitalized the approach, but there is still more to learn about the most effective and safe resuscitative strategies to simultaneously treat shock and hemorrhage. Current data suggest that our preconceived notions regarding the efficacy of standard issue red blood cells (RBCs) during the hours after transfusion may be false. Standard issue RBCs may not increase oxygen delivery and may in fact decrease it by disturbing control of regional blood flow distribution (impaired nitric oxide processing) and failing to release oxygen, even when perfusing hypoxic tissue (abnormal oxygen affinity). Standard issue RBCs may assist with hemostasis but appear to have competing effects on thrombin generation and platelet function. If standard issue or RBCs of increased storage age are not optimal, then are there alternatives that will allow for an efficacious and safe treatment of shock while also supporting hemostasis? Studies are required to determine if fresh RBCs less than 7 to 10 days provide an outcome advantage. A resurgence in the study of whole blood stored at 4°C for up to 10 days also holds promise. Two randomized controlled trials in humans have indicated that following transfusion with either whole blood stored at 4°C or platelets stored at 4

  16. FRET imaging of hemoglobin concentration in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Esposito

    Full Text Available During its intraerythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle Plasmodium falciparum consumes up to 80% of the host cell hemoglobin, in large excess over its metabolic needs. A model of the homeostasis of falciparum-infected red blood cells suggested an explanation based on the need to reduce the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host cell to prevent its premature lysis. Critical for this hypothesis was that the hemoglobin concentration within the host cell be progressively reduced from the trophozoite stage onwards.The experiments reported here were designed to test this hypothesis by direct measurements of the hemoglobin concentration in live, infected red cells. We developed a novel, non-invasive method to quantify the hemoglobin concentration in single cells, based on Förster resonance energy transfer between hemoglobin molecules and the fluorophore calcein. Fluorescence lifetime imaging allowed the quantitative mapping of the hemoglobin concentration within the cells. The average fluorescence lifetimes of uninfected cohorts was 270+/-30 ps (mean+/-SD; N = 45. In the cytoplasm of infected cells the fluorescence lifetime of calcein ranged from 290+/-20 ps for cells with ring stage parasites to 590+/-13 ps and 1050+/-60 ps for cells with young trophozoites and late stage trophozoite/early schizonts, respectively. This was equivalent to reductions in hemoglobin concentration spanning the range from 7.3 to 2.3 mM, in line with the model predictions. An unexpected ancillary finding was the existence of a microdomain under the host cell membrane with reduced calcein quenching by hemoglobin in cells with mature trophozoite stage parasites.The results support the predictions of the colloid-osmotic hypothesis and provide a better understanding of the homeostasis of malaria-infected red cells. In addition, they revealed the existence of a distinct peripheral microdomain in the host cell with limited access to hemoglobin molecules indicating the

  17. The effect of cyclosporin A on the primary immune response to allogeneic red cells in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G N

    1982-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CSA) has been used in an attempt to suppress the primary immune response of HgA(A)-negative rabbits to A-positive red cells. The immune response was assessed by measuring the survival of a small intravenous (i.v.) dose of 51Cr-labelled A-positive cells and by testing the serum of the immunized rabbits for anti-A. In one experiment, eight A-negative rabbits were given a first i.v. injection of A-positive red cells, and CSA (25 mg/kg/day) in olive oil was given by mouth for 17-34 days. There was no evidence of impaired alloimmunization compared with the responses in control animals treated with olive oil alone. In a second experiment, eight A-negative rabbits were given a first injection of A-positive muscularly (i.m.), and CSA (25 mg/kg/day) in miglyol was given by im.m. injection for 10 days. Six of these rabbits were rendered unresponsive, and the remaining two, who showed impaired survival of the monitoring red cells, produced only low anit-A titres. Seven out of eight controls given i.m. miglyol without CSA responded with good anti-A production. Rabbits that were unresponsive to A-positive red cells responded normally to sheep red blood cells 15 weeks after CSA treatment. Higher serum levels of CSA were found following i.m. administration of the drug but treatment by this route as associated with severe toxicity in some rabbits. PMID:7056563

  18. Historical time trends in red blood cell usage in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeven, Loan R; Koopman, Maria M W; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Roes, Kit C.B.; Janssen, Mart P

    2016-01-01

    Background: While the number of hospitalized patients in Dutch hospitals has increased since 1997, the demand for red blood cell units (RBCs) has simultaneously decreased. This implies a dramatic change in transfusion practice toward fewer blood transfusions on average per patient. Objectives: In

  19. Historical time trends in red blood cell usage in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeven, L.R.; Koopman, M.M.W.; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Roes, K.C.B.; Janssen, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: While the number of hospitalized patients in Dutch hospitals has increased since 1997, the demand for red blood cell units (RBCs) has simultaneously decreased. This implies a dramatic change in transfusion practice toward fewer blood transfusions on average per patient.Objectives: In

  20. A method for red blood cell biotinylation in a closed system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Back, Djuna Z.; Vlaar, Richard; Beuger, Boukje; Daal, Brunette; Lagerberg, Johan; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; de Korte, Dirk; van Kraaij, Marian; van Bruggen, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Several circumstances require the accurate measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival and clearance, such as determination of posttransfusion recovery of stored RBCs to investigate the effect of new additive solutions. To this end, biotin as a marker of RBCs to track donor RBCs in the blood of the

  1. Survival of the fittest?--survival of stored red blood cells after transfusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Bost, H.J.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 90 years many developments have taken place in the world of blood transfusion. Several anticoagulants and storage solutions have been developed. Also the blood processing has undergone many changes. At the moment, in The Netherlands, red blood cell (RBC) concentrates (prepared from a

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  3. Exercise performance, red blood cell deformability, and lipid peroxidation: effects of fish oil and vitamin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G. S.; Mensink, R. P.; Hardeman, M. R.; de Vries, T.; Brouns, F.; Hornstra, G.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell (RBC) deformability, which may improve exercise performance. Exercise alone, or in combination with an increase in fatty acid unsaturation, however, may enhance lipid peroxidation. Effects of a bicycle time trial

  4. Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Sprogøe-Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, C M

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC...

  5. Study on the relationship between red blood cell immunity and lipid peroxidation in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingxiu; Shi Shaohong; Wang Yuping; Xie Xueqin; Qin Jibao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between red blood cell immunity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in patients with endometriosis. Methods: The percentage of positive red blood cell c3b receptor rosette (RBC c3b -RR) and red blood cell immune complex rosette (RBC-ICR) were examined in 54 patients with endometriosis and 30 controls. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxidase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were measured by chemocolorimetry in these subjects. Results: Percentage of positive RBC-ICR and MDA levels were significantly higher in patients with endometriosis than those in controls (P c3b RR, SOD, GSH-PX, SOD/MDA ratio were significantly lower in patients with endometriosis than those in controls (P c3b -RR was negatively correlated with MDA levels (r= -0. 4428, P < 0.05) and RBC-ICRR was positively correlated with MDA(r=0.5488, P0.05). Conclusion: The lower red cell immune adhesion function was closely associated with the disturbance of metabolism of lipid peroxidation in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  6. The proteome of red cell membranes and vesicles during storage in blood bank conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Lasonder, E.; Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Novotny, V.M.J.; Bos, H.; Grip, W.J. de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During storage of red cells (RBCs) for transfusion, RBCs undergo a number of biochemical and morphologic changes. To be able to identify the mechanisms underlying these storage lesions, a proteomic analysis of the membranes of RBCs and their vesicles was performed during various periods

  7. First haemorheological experiment on NASA space shuttle 'Discovery' STS 51-C: aggregation of red cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintenfass, L; Osman, P D; Jedrzejczyk, H

    1985-01-01

    The 'secret' D.O.D. Mission on flight STS 51-C also carried nearly 100 kg of automated instrumentation of the Australian experiment on aggregation of red cells ("ARC"). The automated Slit-Capillary Photo Viscometer contained blood samples from subjects with history of coronary heart disease, cancer of the colon, insulin-dependent diabetes, etc., as well as normals. The experiment ran for nine hours, according to the program of its microcomputers. When shuttle landed and instrumentation recovered and opened in the presence of NASA quality control officers, it was obvious that experiment was a success. Tentative and preliminary results can be summarized as follows: red cells did not change shape under zero gravity; red cells do aggregate under zero gravity, although the size of aggregates is smaller than on the ground; the morphology of aggregates of red cells appears to be of rouleaux type under zero gravity, notwithstanding the fact that pathological blood was used. These results will have to be confirmed in the future flights. The background and history of development of the project are described, and put into context of our general haemorheological studies.

  8. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RED BLOOD CELLS OF Telestes metohiensis (Steindachner, 1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Dekić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the morphometric characteristics of red blood cells of endemic fish species of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Telestes metohiensis (Steindachner, 1901 inhabiting the Vrijeka river in the Dabar field. A total of 30 fish were sampled during August, 2010. Morphological measurements included the following parameters: axes of the red blood cells and nuclei, the surface of the red blood cells and nuclei and the thickness of the red blood cells. Morphometric characteristics of the erythrocyte maturation stages (acidophilic and polychromatic erythroblasts were also studied as well as their proportion in the peripheral blood. 100 mature forms were measured for each individual. The propotion of the immature forms was expressed per 1000 erythrocytes. Results showed that dimensions of the erythrocytes differed in systematic categories as well as fish types. Dimensions of mature erythrocytes and their maturation stages of the same species differed in shape and size of the nuclei. Proportion of the erythrocyte maturation stages was very low in comparison with the mature erythrocytes, indicating the optimal environmental conditions for the studied species.Key words: morphometric characteristics, erythrocytes, Telestes metohiensis, proportion of immature stages

  9. Mechanics of extracellular vesicles derived from malaria parasiteinfected Red Blood Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorkin, Raya; Vorselen, Daan; Ofir-Birin, Yifat; Roos, Wouter H.; MacKintosh, Fred C.; Regev-Rudzki, Neta; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) causing the most severe form of malaria (1). Very recently it was discovered that Pf infected red blood cells (iRBC) directly transfer information

  10. The dual roles of red blood cells in tissue oxygen delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate red blood cells (RBCs) seem to serve tissue oxygen delivery in two distinct ways. Firstly, RBCs enable the adequate transport of O2 between respiratory surfaces and metabolizing tissues by means of their high intracellular concentration of hemoglobin (Hb), appropriate allosteric...

  11. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  12. Women's attitude towards prenatal screening for red blood cell antibodies, other than RhesusD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, Joke M.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Haas, Masja; van der Schoot, C. E.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since July 1998 all Dutch women (+/- 200,000/y) are screened for red cell antibodies, other than anti-RhesusD (RhD) in the first trimester of pregnancy, to facilitate timely treatment of pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Evidence for

  13. Women's attitude towards prenatal screening for red blood cell antibodies, other than RhD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Koelewijn; T.G.M. Vrijkotte (Tanja); M. de Haas; C.E. van der Schoot (Ellen); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since July 1998 all Dutch women (± 200,000/y) are screened for red cell antibodies, other than anti-RhesusD (RhD) in the first trimester of pregnancy, to facilitate timely treatment of pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Evidence for

  14. Survival of Er(a+) red cells in a patient with allo-anti-Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.W.; Skradski, K.J.; Thoreson, J.R.; Polesky, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    51 Chromium-labeled Er(a+) red cells survived nearly normally (T1/2 of 21 days) in a patient with allo-anti-Era. Transfusion of Er(a+) blood was without significant reaction and did not affect the anti-Era titer

  15. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...

  16. Photometric measurements of red blood cell aggregation: light transmission versus light reflectance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskurt, O.K.; Uyuklu, M.; Hardeman, M.R.; Meiselman, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is the reversible and regular clumping in the presence of certain macromolecules. This is a clinically important phenomenon, being significantly enhanced in the presence of acute phase reactants (e. g., fibrinogen). Both light reflection (LR) and light transmission

  17. Photometric measurements of red blood cell aggregation: light transmission versus light reflectance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskurt, Oguz K.; Uyuklu, Mehmet; Hardeman, Max R.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2009-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is the reversible and regular clumping in the presence of certain macromolecules. This is a clinically important phenomenon, being significantly enhanced in the presence of acute phase reactants (e.g., fibrinogen). Both light reflection (LR) and light transmission

  18. Exome Genotyping Identifies Pleiotropic Variants Associated with Red Blood Cell Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, N. (Nathalie); M.-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); Slater, A.J. (Andrew J.); Eicher, J.D. (John D.); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Tajuddin, S.M. (Salman M.); Love-Gregory, L. (Latisha); T. Kacprowski (Tim); U.M. Schick (Ursula); Nomura, A. (Akihiro); Giri, A. (Ayush); Lessard, S. (Samuel); J. Brody (Jennifer); C. Schurmann (Claudia); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); A. Manichaikul (Ani); R. Pazoki (Raha); E. Mihailov (Evelin); W.D. Hill (W. David); Raffield, L.M. (Laura M.); A.D. Burt (Alastair); T.M. Bartz (Traci M.); D.M. Becker (Diane); L.C. Becker (Lewis); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J. Bork-Jensen (Jette); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); M.L. O'Donoghue (Michelle L.); D.R. Crosslin (David); de Denus, S. (Simon); Dubé, M.-P. (Marie-Pierre); P. Elliott (Paul); G. Engström; M. Evans (Michele); J. Floyd (James); M. Fornage (Myriam); Gao, H. (He); A. Greinacher (Andreas); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C. Hayward (Caroline); Hernesniemi, J. (Jussi); H. Highland (Heather); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); Hofman, A. (Albert); Irvin, M.R. (Marguerite R.); M. Kähönen (Mika); E.M. Lange (Ethan); Launer, L.J. (Lenore J.); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Li, J. (Jin); D.C. Liewald (David C.); A. Linneberg (Allan); Y. Liu (YongMei); Y. Lu (Yingchang); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); R. Mägi (Reedik); J. Mathias (Jasmine); O. Melander (Olle); A. Metspalu (Andres); K. Mononen (Kari); M.A. Nalls (Michael); D.A. Nickerson (Deborah); K. Nikus (Kjell); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); M. Orho-Melander (Marju); O. Pedersen (Oluf); A. Petersmann (Astrid); Polfus, L. (Linda); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); Raitoharju, E. (Emma); Richard, M. (Melissa); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); Schmidt, F. (Frank); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); J.M. Starr (John); K.D. Taylor (Kent); A. Teumer (Alexander); Thuesen, B.H. (Betina H.); Torstenson, E.S. (Eric S.); R.P. Tracy (Russell); I. Tzoulaki; N.A. Zakai (Neil); Vacchi-Suzzi, C. (Caterina); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M. Cushman (Mary Ann); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); Velez Edwards, D.R. (Digna R.); Vergnaud, A.-C. (Anne-Claire); L.C. Wallentin (Lars); D. Waterworth (Dawn); White, H.D. (Harvey D.); J.F. Wilson (James); A.B. Zonderman; S. Kathiresan (Sekar); N. Grarup (Niels); T. Esko (Tõnu); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Lange (Leslie); Faraday, N. (Nauder); Abumrad, N.A. (Nada A.); T.L. Edwards (Todd L.); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); P. Auer (Paul); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); A. Reiner (Alexander); G. Lettre (Guillaume)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractRed blood cell (RBC) traits are important heritable clinical biomarkers and modifiers of disease severity. To identify coding genetic variants associated with these traits, we conducted meta-analyses of seven RBC phenotypes in 130,273 multi-ethnic individuals from studies genotyped on an

  19. Cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia following irradiated packed red cells transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, Kazuharu [Yamamoto-kumiai General Hospital, Noshiro, Akita (Japan); Ohta, Sukejuurou; Kojima, Yukiko; Mizunuma, Takahide; Nishikawa, Toshiaki

    1998-11-01

    We describe two cases of cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia following transfusion of irradiated packed red cells. Case 1: Because sudden, rapid and massive hemorrage occurred in a 69-year-old male patient undergoing the left lobectomy of the liver, 8 units of irradiated packed red cells were rapidly transfused, the patient developed cardiac arrest. Serum kalium concentration after transfusion was 7.6 mEq/l. Case 2: A 7-month-old girl scheduled for closure of a ventricular septal defect, developed cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass. The extracorporeal circuit was primed with 6 units of irradiated packed red blood cells. Serum kalium concentration immediately after the start of cardiopulmonary bypass was 10.6 mEq/l. Analysis of kalium concentration in the pilot tubes of the same packs revealed 56-61 mEq/l. These case reports suggest that fresh irradiated packed red cells should be transfused during massive bleeding and for pediatric patients to prevent severe hyperkalemia. (author)

  20. Relation of mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution width with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Ozgur; Müderris, Togay; Sevil, Ergün; Kutlar, Gökhan

    2015-04-01

    Mean platelet volume is the measurement of the average size of platelets in the blood, and red blood cell distribution width is the variability of the size of red blood cells in circulation. This study aimed to investigate if there was any relationship between mean platelet volume, red blood cell distribution, and epistaxis. Prospective controlled trial. The study included 90 patients admitted to Ankara Atatürk Hospital and Samsun Medicana Hospital with complaints of recurrent epistaxis, and a control group of 90 healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from all patients and control group subjects. Mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution parameters were examined and compared between the two groups. The mean platelet volume levels were determined as 8.86 ± 0.1 in the control group and 8.36 ± 0.1 in the patient group. The difference between the two groups with respect to mean platelet volume was statistically significant (P epistaxis. These findings could be beneficial in new investigations into epistaxis mechanisms. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Physiological implications of seasonal variation in membrane-associated calcium in red spruce mesophyll cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. DeHayes; P.G. Schaberg; G.J. Hawley; C.H. Borer; J.R. Cumming; J.R. Strimbeck

    1997-01-01

    We examined the pattern of seasonal variation in total foliar calcium (Ca) pools and plasma membrane-associated Ca (mCa) in mesophyll cells of current-year and 1-year-old needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and the relationship between mCa and total foliar Ca on an individual plant and seasonal basis. Foliar samples were collected from...

  2. Anti·red cell activity of lymphocytotoxic antibodies: and in vitro and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to obtain non-toxic antilymphocyre sera (ALS) led to the in vitro and in vivo evaluarion of its crossreactivity for red cells. The findings showed thar the antibodies coating the erythrocytes in vitro are idenrical with the antibodies that sensitize lymphocytes by the cytotoxicity rest. It would appear that rhe observed ...

  3. Human glomerular epithelial cell proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.J.; Jenner, L.; Mason, R.M.; Davies, M.

    1990-01-01

    Proteoglycans synthesized by cultures of human glomerular epithelial cells have been isolated and characterized. Three types of heparan sulfate were detected. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan I (HSPG-I; Kav 6B 0.04) was found in the cell layer and medium and accounted for 12% of the total proteoglycans synthesized. HSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.25) accounted for 18% of the proteoglycans and was located in the medium and cell layer. A third population (9% of the proteoglycan population), heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG; Kav 6B 0.4-0.8), had properties consistent with single glycosaminoglycan chains or their fragments and was found only in the cell layer. HSPG-I and HSPG-II from the cell layer had hydrophobic properties; they were released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. HS-GAG lacked these properties, consisted of low-molecular-mass heparan sulfate oligosaccharides, and were intracellular. HSPG-I and -II released to the medium lacked hydrophobic properties. The cells also produced three distinct types of chondroitin sulfates. The major species, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan I (CSPG-I) eluted in the excluded volume of a Sepharose CL-6B column, accounted for 30% of the proteoglycans detected, and was found in both the cell layer and medium. Cell layer CSPG-I bound to octyl-Sepharose. It was released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. CSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.1-0.23) accounted for 10% of the total 35S-labeled macromolecules and was found predominantly in the culture medium. A small amount of CS-GAG (Kav 6B 0.25-0.6) is present in the cell extract and like HS-GAG is intracellular. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that HSPG-I and -II and CSPG-I and -II are lost from the cell layer either by direct release into the medium or by internalization where they are metabolized to single glycosaminoglycan chains and subsequently to inorganic sulfate

  4. Monitoring dynamic reactions of red blood cells to UHF electromagnetic waves radiation using a novel micro-imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ping; Yong, Junguang; Shen, Hongtao; Zheng, Xianrong

    2012-12-01

    Multiple state-of-the-art techniques, such as multi-dimensional micro-imaging, fast multi-channel micro-spetrophotometry, and dynamic micro-imaging analysis, were used to dynamically investigate various effects of cell under the 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Cell changes in shape, size, and parameters of Hb absorption spectrum under different power density electromagnetic waves radiation were presented in this article. Experimental results indicated that the isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) do not have obviously real-time responses to the ultra-low density (15 μW/cm(2), 31 μW/cm(2)) electromagnetic wave radiation when the radiation time is not more than 30 min; however, the cells do have significant reactions in shape, size, and the like, to the electromagnetic waves radiation with power densities of 1 mW/cm(2) and 5 mW/cm(2). The data also reveal the possible influences and statistical relationships among living human cell functions, radiation amount, and exposure time with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The results of this study may be significant on protection of human being and other living organisms against possible radiation affections of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.

  5. Relative deformability of red blood cells in sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia by trapping and dragging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Rance; Cooper, James; Welker, Gabriel; Aguilar, Elaura; Flanagan, Brooke; Pennycuff, Chelsey; Scott, David; Farone, Anthony; Farone, Mary; Erenso, Daniel; Mushi, Robert; del Pilar Aguinaga, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Genetic mutation of the β-globin gene or inheritance of this mutated gene changes the chemical composition of the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule that could lead to either the heterozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell trait (SCT), or the homozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell anemia (SCA). These mutations could affect the reversible elastic deformations of the red blood cells (RBCs) which are vital for biological functions. We have investigated this effect by studying the differences in the deformability of RBCs from blood samples of an individual with SCT and an untreated patient with SCA along with hemoglobin quantitation of each blood sample. Infrared 1064 nm laser trap force along with drag shear force are used to induce deformation in the RBCs. Ultra2-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is used for the hemoglobin quantitation.

  6. Transfusion rate and prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoestesen, Lisbeth M; Rasmussen, Kjeld L; Lauszus, Finn F

    2011-01-01

    To determine transfusion rates, risk factors for transfusion and the prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the necessity of the pretransfusion testing for red blood cell alloantibodies....

  7. Splenic red pulp macrophages are intrinsically superparamagnetic and contaminate magnetic cell isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Lars; Klein, Marika; Spasova, Marina; Elsukova, Anna; Wiedwald, Ulf; Welz, Meike; Knolle, Percy; Farle, Michael; Limmer, Andreas; Kurts, Christian

    2015-08-11

    A main function of splenic red pulp macrophages is the degradation of damaged or aged erythrocytes. Here we show that these macrophages accumulate ferrimagnetic iron oxides that render them intrinsically superparamagnetic. Consequently, these cells routinely contaminate splenic cell isolates obtained with the use of MCS, a technique that has been widely used in immunological research for decades. These contaminations can profoundly alter experimental results. In mice deficient for the transcription factor SpiC, which lack red pulp macrophages, liver Kupffer cells take over the task of erythrocyte degradation and become superparamagnetic. We describe a simple additional magnetic separation step that avoids this problem and substantially improves purity of magnetic cell isolates from the spleen.

  8. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Satoshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ, bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. Results RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis >> bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Conclusion Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases.

  9. Red blood cells serve as intravascular carriers of myeloperoxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, M.; Gajdová, Silvie; Kolářová, Hana; Kubala, Lukáš; Lau, D.; Geisler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 74, SEP (2014), s. 353-363 ISSN 0022-2828 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP305/12/J038 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Myeloperoxidase * Erythrocyte * Cell membranes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.655, year: 2014

  10. Changing practice: red blood cell typing by molecular methods for patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jessica; Friedman, David F; Jackson, Tannoa; Vege, Sunitha; Westhoff, Connie M; Chou, Stella T

    2015-06-01

    Extended red blood cell (RBC) antigen matching is recommended to limit alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). DNA-based testing to predict blood group phenotypes has enhanced availability of antigen-negative donor units and improved typing of transfused patients, but replacement of routine serologic typing for non-ABO antigens with molecular typing for patients has not been reported. This study compared the historical RBC antigen phenotypes obtained by hemagglutination methods with genotype predictions in 494 patients with SCD. For discrepant results, repeat serologic testing was performed and/or investigated by gene sequencing for silent or variant alleles. Seventy-one typing discrepancies were identified among 6360 antigen comparisons (1.1%). New specimens for repeat serologic testing were obtained for 66 discrepancies and retyping agreed with the genotype in 64 cases. One repeat Jk(b-) serologic phenotype, predicted Jk(b+) by genotype, was found by direct sequencing of JK to be a silenced allele, and one N typing discrepancy remains under investigation. Fifteen false-negative serologic results were associated with alleles encoding weak antigens or single-dose Fy(b) expression. DNA-based RBC typing provided improved accuracy and expanded information on RBC antigens compared to hemagglutination methods, leading to its implementation as the primary method for extended RBC typing for patients with SCD at our institution. © 2015 AABB.

  11. Converting sunlight into red light in fluorosilicate glass for amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Chengguo, E-mail: mingchengguo1978@163.com [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Feng [Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ren, Xiaobin [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Yuan, Fengying; Qin, Yueting [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); An, Liqun; Cai, Yuanxue [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Fluorosilicate glass was prepared by high-temperature melting method to explore highly efficient luminescence materials for amorphous silicon solar cells. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of the glass were measured. The optical characters of the glass were discussed in details. The glass can efficiently convert sunlight into red light. Our glass can be applied to amorphous silicon solar cells as a converter of solar spectrum.

  12. The Effect of Disinfection on Viability and Function of Baboon Red Blood Cells and Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-11

    blood cells was evaluated by their ability to transport oxygen as assessed by measurement of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (DPG)14 and red blood cell p50,15...Blood collected from the bleeding time site (referred to as "shed blood") had a significantly reduced thromboxane A2 level . The ability of the...preserved or treated platelets to increase the shed blood thromboxane A2 level and reduce the 8; extended bleeding time is the measure of their

  13. Use of polarization to separate on-axis scattered and unscattered light in red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Nemati, Babak; Barrera, Frederick J.

    1991-06-01

    The separation of on-axis scattered and unscattered transmission through turbid media has been a difficult experimental task in recent years. This study suggests the use of a polarimeter to filter out the contribution of scattered light to the net on-axis transmission. Red blood cells (RBC) were used to produce the scattering effect. The scattering level was varied by: (1) altering the distance of the detector from the sample, (2) using erythrocytes from three different species, e.g., the dog, goat, and human, which are know to have different RBC sizes, and (3) allowing the RBCs from each species to shrink and swell osmotically. An He-Ne laser was used as the source of the radiation so that data were obtained at a wavelength in the spectral region used in oximetry and hemoglobinometry. In each case, the difference in the scattering cross sections obtained for each sample, with and without polarization filtering, gave us a measure of the filtered scattered light. The results obtained were in close agreement with the expected contribution of scattered radiation to the net axial transmission. This method may be used effectively for all studies involving measurements of on-axis transmission through turbid media, such as biological tissue.

  14. Red blood cell distribution width: Genetic evidence for aging pathways in 116,666 volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Pilling

    Full Text Available Variability in red blood cell volumes (distribution width, RDW increases with age and is strongly predictive of mortality, incident coronary heart disease and cancer. We investigated inherited genetic variation associated with RDW in 116,666 UK Biobank human volunteers.A large proportion RDW is explained by genetic variants (29%, especially in the older group (60+ year olds, 33.8%, <50 year olds, 28.4%. RDW was associated with 194 independent genetic signals; 71 are known for conditions including autoimmune disease, certain cancers, BMI, Alzheimer's disease, longevity, age at menopause, bone density, myositis, Parkinson's disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Exclusion of anemic participants did not affect the overall findings. Pathways analysis showed enrichment for telomere maintenance, ribosomal RNA, and apoptosis. The majority of RDW-associated signals were intronic (119 of 194, including SNP rs6602909 located in an intron of oncogene GAS6, an eQTL in whole blood.Although increased RDW is predictive of cardiovascular outcomes, this was not explained by known CVD or related lipid genetic risks, and a RDW genetic score was not predictive of incident disease. The predictive value of RDW for a range of negative health outcomes may in part be due to variants influencing fundamental pathways of aging.

  15. Increased red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in haemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horina, J H; Schwaberger, G; Brussee, H; Sauseng-Fellegger, G; Holzer, H; Krejs, G J

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) for the treatment of renal anaemia is well established. To assess the effect of rHuEpo treatment on physical performance we evaluated physical working capacity, oxygen uptake and red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) values at rest and during and after exercise on a bicycle spiroergometer in eight chronically haemodialysed patients. Follow-up examination was carried out after a mean of 14 weeks (range 9-19 weeks), when mean haemoglobin had increased from 7.8 to a stable value of 13.0 g/dl in response to rHuEpo treatment (P level without rHuEpo treatment than after correction of anaemia. Therefore rHuEpo treatment results both in better oxygen transport capacity and reduced intraerythrocytic oxygen affinity, which is followed by improved oxygen delivery to tissues per unit of haemoglobin. These effects may explain the improvement of exercise capacity observed in dialysis patients after rHuEpo treatment.

  16. Inertia-dependent dynamics of three-dimensional vesicles and red blood cells in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Wang, Shu Qi; He, Long; Xu, Feng; Bai, Bo Feng

    2013-10-28

    A three-dimensional (3D) simulation study of the effect of inertia on the dynamics of vesicles and red blood cells (RBCs) has not been reported. Here, we developed a 3D model based on the front tracking method to investigate how inertia affects the dynamics of spherical/non-spherical vesicles and biconcave-shaped RBCs with the Reynolds number ranging from 0.1 to 10. The results showed that inertia induced non-spherical vesicles transitioned from tumbling to swinging, which was not observed in previous 2D models. The critical viscosity ratio of inner/outer fluids for the tumbling–swinging transition remarkably increased with an increasing Reynolds number. The deformation of vesicles was greatly enhanced by inertia, and the frequency of tumbling and tank-treading was significantly decreased by inertia. We also found that RBCs can transit from tumbling to steady tank-treading through the swinging regime when the Reynolds number increased from 0.1 to 10. These results indicate that inertia needs to be considered at moderate Reynolds number (Re ~ 1) in the study of blood flow in the human body and the flow of deformable particle suspension in inertial microfluidic devices. The developed 3D model provided new insights into the dynamics of RBCs under shear flow, thus holding great potential to better understand blood flow behaviors under normal/disease conditions.

  17. Men with Sickle Cell Anemia and Priapism Exhibit Increased Hemolytic Rate, Decreased Red Blood Cell Deformability and Increased Red Blood Cell Aggregate Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzy-Clara Cita

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between priapism in men with sickle cell anemia (SCA and hemorheological and hemolytical parameters.Fifty-eight men with SCA (median age: 38 years were included; 28 who had experienced priapism at least once during their life (priapism group and 30 who never experienced this complication (control group. Twenty-two patients were treated with hydroxycarbamide, 11 in each group. All patients were at steady state at the time of inclusion. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained through routine procedures. The Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer was used to measure red blood cell (RBC deformability at 30 Pa (ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties (laser backscatter versus time. Blood viscosity was measured at a shear rate of 225 s-1 using a cone/plate viscometer. A principal component analysis was performed on 4 hemolytic markers (i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, total bilirubin (BIL levels and reticulocyte (RET percentage to calculate a hemolytic index.Compared to the control group, patients with priapism exhibited higher ASAT (p = 0.01, LDH (p = 0.03, RET (p = 0.03 levels and hemolytic indices (p = 0.02. Higher RBC aggregates strength (p = 0.01 and lower RBC deformability (p = 0.005 were observed in patients with priapism compared to controls. After removing the hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, RBC deformability (p = 0.01 and RBC aggregate strength (p = 0.03 were still different between the two groups, and patients with priapism exhibited significantly higher hemolytic indices (p = 0.01 than controls.Our results confirm that priapism in SCA is associated with higher hemolytic rates and show for the first time that this complication is also associated with higher RBC aggregate strength and lower RBC deformability.

  18. Light spectrum regulates cell accumulation during daytime in the raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua causing noxious red tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Tomoyuki; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Iwahori, Sho; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka

    2016-07-01

    Most marine raphidophyte species cause noxious red tides in temperate coastal areas around the world. It is known that swimming abilities enable raphidophytes to accumulation of cells and to actively acquire light at surface layers and nutrients over a wide depth range. However, it remains unclear how the swimming behavior is affected by environmental conditions, especially light condition. In the present study, we observed the accumulation of the harmful red-tide raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua under various light conditions during the daytime in the laboratory. When exposed to ultraviolet-A/blue light (320-480nm) or red light (640-680nm) from above, cells moved downward. In the case of blue light (455nm), cells started to swim downward after 5-15min of irradiation at a photon flux density≥10μmolm(-2)s(-1). When exposed to monochromatic lights (400-680nm) from the side, cells moved away from the blue light source and then descended, but just moved downward under red light. However, mixing of green/orange light (520-630nm) diminished the effects of blue light. When exposed to a mixture of 30μmolm(-2)s(-1) of blue light (440nm) and ≥6μmolm(-2)s(-1) of yellow light (560nm) from above, cells did not move downward. These results indicate that blue light induces negative phototaxis and ultraviolet-A/blue and red lights induce descending, and green/orange light cancels out their effects in C. antiqua. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cholestasis in neonates with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease: incidence, risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E H J; Rath, Mirjam E A; Lindenburg, Irene T M; Oepkes, Dick; van Zwet, Erik W; Walther, Frans J; Lopriore, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Etiology of cholestatic liver disease in neonates with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) has been associated with iron overload due to intrauterine red cell transfusions (IUTs). Data on the incidence and severity of cholestasis in neonates with HDN are scarce, and little is known about pathogenesis, risk factors, neonatal management and outcome. To evaluate incidence, risk factors, management and outcome of cholestasis in neonates with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease. All (near-) term neonates with HDN due to red cell alloimmunization admitted to our center between January 2000 and July 2010 were included in this observational study. Liver function tests (including conjugated bilirubin) were routinely performed in the neonatal period. We recorded the presence of cholestasis, investigated several potential risk factors and evaluated the management and outcome in affected neonates. A total of 313 infants with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease treated with or without IUTs were included. The incidence of cholestasis was 13% (41/313). Two risk factors were independently associated with cholestasis: treatment with at least one IUT (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.70-19.80, p = 0.005) and rhesus D type of alloimmunization (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.05-20.57, p = 0.042). Additional diagnostic tests to investigate possible causes of cholestasis were all negative. In 5 infants (12%), supportive medical and nutritional therapy was started, and one neonate required iron chelation therapy. Cholestasis occurs in 13% of neonates with HDN due to red cell alloimmunization, and it is independently associated with IUT treatment and rhesus D type of alloimmunization. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. DNA repair in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Kusano, I.; Furuno-Fukushi, I.; Dunn, W.C. Jr.; Francis, A.A.; Lee, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Our primary objective is to elucidate the molecular events in human cells when cellular macromolecules such as DNA are damaged by radiation or chemical agents. We study and characterize (i) the sequence of DNA repair events, (ii) the various modalities of repair, (iii) the genetic inhibition of repair due to mutation, (iv) the physiological inhibition of repair due to mutation, (v) the physiological inhibition of repair due to biochemical inhibitors, and (vi) the genetic basis of repair. Our ultimate goals are to (i) isolate and analyze the repair component of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic event in human cells, and (ii) elucidate the magnitude and significance of this repair component as it impinges on the practical problems of human irradiation or exposure to actual or potential chemical mutagens and carcinogens. The significance of these studies lies in (i) the ubiquitousness of repair (most organisms, including man, have several complex repair systems), (ii) the belief that mutagenic and carcinogenic events may arise only from residual (nonrepaired) lesions or that error-prone repair systems may be the major induction mechanisms of the mutagenic or carcinogenic event, and (iii) the clear association of repair defects and highly carcinogenic disease states in man [xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)

  1. The use of 1H-NMR spectroscopy and refractometry for investigation of the distribution of nonelectrolytes of N-alcohol series between human red blood cells and extracellular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Y U; Moiseev, V A

    2000-01-01

    Comparative analysis of 1H NMR spectroscopy and refractometry with respect to their application for investigating the distribution of nonelectrolytes of n-alcohol series (ethanol, 1,2-propanediol, glycerol) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with molecular masses of 400, 600, 1500 between human erythrocytes and extracellular medium was performed. The distribution coefficients (Q) for solutions of ethanol, 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, PEG-400, PEG-600 and PEG-1500 were obtained. The Q values decreased with the increase in the nonelectrolyte molecular mass from 1.23+/-0.12 for ethanol to 0.40+/-0.08 for PEG-1500 (1H NMR spectroscopy) and from 2.6+/-0.12 for ethanol to 0.23+/-0.03 for PEG-1500 (refractometry). It was shown that 1H-NMR high-resolution spectroscopy ensures more precise determination of Q values for nonelectrolytes with low molecular masses; for PEGs with high molecular masses, the accuracy of Q value calculation by this method was about 20%. On the contrary, refractometry can be used for investigating substances with high molecular masses; the error of Q value determination for solution of low-refractive substances, such as ethanol, may be more than 50%.

  2. Morphological changes of the red blood cells treated with metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelskaya, A I; Panin, A V; Khlusov, I A; Mokrushnikov, P V; Zaitsev, B N; Kuzmenko, D I; Vasyukov, G Yu

    2016-12-01

    The toxic effect of Al 2 O 3 , SiО 2 and ZrО 2 nanoparticles on red blood cells of Wistar rats was studied in vitro using the atomic force microscopy and the fluorescence analysis. Transformation of discocytes into echinocytes and spherocytes caused by the metal oxide nanoparticles was revealed. It was shown that only extremely high concentration of the nanoparticles (2mg/ml) allows correct estimating of their effect on the cell morphology. Besides, it was found out that the microviscosity changes of red blood cell membranes treated with nanoparticles began long before morphological modifications of the cells. On the contrary, the negatively charged ZrO 2 and SiO 2 nanoparticles did not affect ghost microviscosity up to concentrations of 1μg/ml and 0.1mg/ml, correspondingly. In its turn, the positively charged Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles induced structural changes in the lipid bilayer of the red blood cells already at a concentration of 0.05μg/ml. A decrease in microviscosity of the erythrocyte ghosts treated with Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 nanoparticles was shown. It was detected that the interaction of ZrO 2 nanoparticles with the cells led to an increase in the membrane microviscosity and cracking of swollen erythrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural damage of chicken red blood cells exposed to platinum nanoparticles and cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    of platinum nanoparticles (NP-Pt) and cisplatin with blood compartments are important for future applications. This study investigated structural damage, cell membrane deformation and haemolysis of chicken embryo red blood cells (RBC) after treatment with cisplatin and NP-Pt. Cisplatin (4 μg/ml) and NP-Pt (2......,6 μg/ml), when incubated with chicken embryo RBC, were detrimental to cell structure and induced haemolysis. The level of haemolytic injury was increased after cisplatin and NP-Pt treatments compared to the control group. Treatment with cisplatin caused structural damage to cell membranes...

  4. Fc-Glycosylation in Human IgG1 and IgG3 Is Similar for Both Total and Anti-Red-Blood Cell Anti-K Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrthe E. Sonneveld

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG are the most abundant proteins in human serum, with IgG1 and IgG3 being the most abundant subclasses directed against protein antigens. The quality of the IgG-Fc-glycosylation has important functional consequences, which have been found to be skewed toward low fucosylation in some antigen-specific immune responses. This increases the affinity to IgG1-Fc-receptor (FcγRIIIa/b and thereby directly affects downstream effector functions and disease severity. To date, antigen-specific IgG-glycosylation have not been analyzed for IgG3. Here, we analyzed 30 pregnant women with anti-K alloantibodies from a prospective screening cohort and compared the type of Fc-tail glycosylation of total serum- and antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 using mass spectrometry. Total serum IgG1 and IgG3 Fc-glycoprofiles were highly similar. Fc glycosylation of antigen-specific IgG varied greatly between individuals, but correlated significantly with each other for IgG1 and IgG3, except for bisection. However, although the magnitude of changes in fucosylation and galactosylation were similar for both subclasses, this was not the case for sialylation levels, which were significantly higher for both total and anti-K IgG3. We found that the combination of relative IgG1 and IgG3 Fc-glycosylation levels did not improve the prediction of anti-K mediated disease over IgG1 alone. In conclusion, Fc-glycosylation profiles of serum- and antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 are highly similar.

  5. Oral lipid-based nanoformulation of tafenoquine enhanced bioavailability and blood stage antimalarial efficacy and led to a reduction in human red blood cell loss in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melariri P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Paula Melariri,1 Lonji Kalombo,2 Patric Nkuna,2 Admire Dube,2,3 Rose Hayeshi,2 Benhards Ogutu,4,5 Liezl Gibhard,6 Carmen deKock,6 Peter Smith,6 Lubbe Wiesner,6 Hulda Swai2 1Polymers and Composites, Material Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; 2Polymer and Composites, Material Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; 3School of Pharmacy, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa; 4Centre for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Division of Pharmacology, University of Cape Town Medical School, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Tafenoquine (TQ, a new synthetic analog of primaquine, has relatively poor bioavailability and associated toxicity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient individuals. A microemulsion formulation of TQ (MTQ with sizes <20 nm improved the solubility of TQ and enhanced the oral bioavailability from 55% to 99% in healthy mice (area under the curve 0 to infinity: 11,368±1,232 and 23,842±872 min·µmol/L for reference TQ and MTQ, respectively. Average parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was four- to tenfold lower in the MTQ-treated group. In vitro antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum indicated no change in half maximal inhibitory concentration, suggesting that the microemulsion did not affect the inherent activity of TQ. In a humanized mouse model of G6PD deficiency, we observed reduction in toxicity of TQ as delivered by MTQ at low but efficacious concentrations of TQ. We hereby report an enhancement in the solubility, bioavailibility, and efficacy of TQ against blood stages of Plasmodium parasites without a corresponding increase in toxicity

  6. Effect of ionic and non-ionic contrast media on aggregation of red blood cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raininko, R.; Ylinen, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Fresh human blood without additives, and contrast medium were mixed and examined immediately by light microscopy in a non-flowing state. Sodium meglumine diatrizoate, meglumine diatrizoate, meglumine iodamide, sodium meglumine ioxaglate, iopromide, iopamidol, iohexol, and metrizamide were tested in concentrations of 300 mgI/ml. Physiologic saline and 5% glucose were used as controls. All media were tested in a randomized order with blood samples from 23 volunteers. No aggregation was detected in physiologic saline, and few rouleaux were found in ionic contrast media. Irregular red cell aggregates were found in all low-osmolal contrast media: in 17% of the specimens in ioxaglate, in 52% in metrizamide, and in 78 to 100% in other non-ionic media. Irregular aggregates were seen in all specimens with glucose. It remains to be domonstrated whether or not the irregular aggregation of human red cells in non-ionic contrast media has clinical significance. Iohexol was also tested with blood samples from several laboratory animals, but in nearly every case no aggregates were found. Results of animal experiments or tests with animal blood seem to be poorly applicable to man. (orig.)

  7. Fluorescent reporter signals, EGFP and DsRed, encoded in HIV-1 facilitate the detection of productively infected cells and cell-associated viral replication levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka eTerahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometric analysis is a reliable and convenient method for investigating molecules at the single cell level. Previously, recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strains were constructed that express a fluorescent reporter, either enhanced green fluorescent protein or DsRed, which allow the monitoring of HIV-1-infected cells by flow cytometry. The present study further investigated the potential of these recombinant viruses in terms of whether the HIV-1 fluorescent reporters would be helpful in evaluating viral replication based on fluorescence intensity. When primary CD4+ T cells were infected with recombinant viruses, the fluorescent reporter intensity measured by flow cytometry was associated with the level of CD4 downmodulation and Gag p24 expression in infected cells. Interestingly, some HIV-1-infected cells, in which CD4 was only moderately downmodulated, were reporter-positive but Gag p24-negative. Furthermore, when the activation status of primary CD4+ T cells was modulated by T cell receptor-mediated stimulation, we confirmed the preferential viral production upon strong stimulation and showed that the intensity of the fluorescent reporter within a proportion of HIV-1-infected cells was correlated with the viral replication level. These findings indicate that a fluorescent reporter encoded within HIV-1 is useful for the sensitive detection of productively-infected cells at different stages of infection and for evaluating cell-associated viral replication at the single cell level.

  8. Insulin-producing cells generated from dedifferentiated human pancreatic beta cells expanded in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger A Russ

    Full Text Available Expansion of beta cells from the limited number of adult human islet donors is an attractive prospect for increasing cell availability for cell therapy of diabetes. However, attempts at expanding human islet cells in tissue culture result in loss of beta-cell phenotype. Using a lineage-tracing approach we provided evidence for massive proliferation of beta-cell-derived (BCD cells within these cultures. Expansion involves dedifferentiation resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Epigenetic analyses indicate that key beta-cell genes maintain open chromatin structure in expanded BCD cells, although they are not transcribed. Here we investigated whether BCD cells can be redifferentiated into beta-like cells.Redifferentiation conditions were screened by following activation of an insulin-DsRed2 reporter gene. Redifferentiated cells were characterized for gene expression, insulin content and secretion assays, and presence of secretory vesicles by electron microscopy. BCD cells were induced to redifferentiate by a combination of soluble factors. The redifferentiated cells expressed beta-cell genes, stored insulin in typical secretory vesicles, and released it in response to glucose. The redifferentiation process involved mesenchymal-epithelial transition, as judged by changes in gene expression. Moreover, inhibition of the EMT effector SLUG (SNAI2 using shRNA resulted in stimulation of redifferentiation. Lineage-traced cells also gave rise at a low rate to cells expressing other islet hormones, suggesting transition of BCD cells through an islet progenitor-like stage during redifferentiation.These findings demonstrate for the first time that expanded dedifferentiated beta cells can be induced to redifferentiate in culture. The findings suggest that ex-vivo expansion of adult human islet cells is a promising approach for generation of insulin-producing cells for transplantation, as well as basic research, toxicology studies, and drug

  9. A case of multiple squamous cell carcinomas arising from red tattoo pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maxim, BS, MS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental tattooing involves the administration of exogenous pigments into the skin to create a permanent design. Our case focuses on a 62-year-old woman who presented with an inflamed enlarging nodule on her right proximal calf, which arose within the red pigment of an ornamental tattoo. The nodule was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and subsequently excised. Over the course of the following year, the patient was diagnosed with a total of five additional SCCs that also arose within the red pigment of the tattoo. The increased popularity of tattooing and the lack of industry safety standards for tattoo ink production, especially metal-laden red pigments, may lead to more cases of skin cancer arising within tattoos among patients of all ages.

  10. Pepsin-solubilised collagen (PSC) from Red Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) regulates cell cycle and the fibronectin synthesis in HaCaT cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Yeong; Lim, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Seogjae; Hwang, Hyeong Cheol; Cho, Somi K; Cho, Moonjae

    2012-05-01

    Pepsin-solubilised collagen (PSC) from Red Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was studied with respect to its wound-healing effects on a human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. Disaggregated collagen fibres were treated with 0.1M NaOH for 24h and digested with pepsin for 72h to reach maximum yield of 26.6%. The results of an in vitro wound-healing test showed that migration of HaCaT cells was 1.5-fold faster on PSC-coated plates than on untreated plates. The migration rate of sea cucumber PSC was similar to that of rat PSC, but five times higher than that of bovine gelatin. HaCaT cells grown on PSC-coated plates revealed increased fibronectin synthesis (6-fold and 3-fold compared to gelatin and rat PSC, respectively). Additionally, sea cucumber PSCs induced HaCaT cell proliferation by decreasing the G1 phase by 5% and maintaining a larger population (8%) of cells in mitosis. Collagen from Red Sea cucumber might be useful as an alternative to mammalian collagen in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population.Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels.The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  12. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red...... cell function. The present study demonstrates that oxygenated RBCs in all major groups of reptiles exhibit no or a very reduced RVI upon ~ 25% calculated hyperosmotic shrinkage. Thus, RBCs from the snakes Crotalus durissus and Python regius, the turtle Trachemys scripta and the alligator Alligator...... was not characterized. It seems, therefore, that the RVI response based on NHE activation was lost among the early sauropsids that gave rise to modern reptiles and birds, while it was retained in mammals. An RVI response has then reappeared in birds, but based on activation of the NKCC. Alternatively, the absence...

  13. Packed red blood cells are an abundant and proximate potential source of nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Zwemer

    Full Text Available We determined, for packed red blood cells (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma, the maximum content, and ability to release the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and monomethylarginine (LNMMA.ADMA and LNMMA are near equipotent NOS inhibitors forming blood's total NOS inhibitory content. The balance between removal from, and addition to plasma determines their free concentrations. Removal from plasma is by well-characterized specific hydrolases while formation is restricted to posttranslational protein methylation. When released into plasma they can readily enter endothelial cells and inhibit NOS. Fresh rat and human whole blood contain substantial protein incorporated ADMA however; the maximum content of ADMA and LNMMA in PRBC and fresh frozen plasma has not been determined.We measured total (free and protein incorporated ADMA and LNMMA content in PRBCs and fresh frozen plasma, as well as their incubation induced release, using HPLC with fluorescence detection. We tested the hypothesis that PRBC and fresh frozen plasma contain substantial inhibitory methylarginines that can be released chemically by complete in vitro acid hydrolysis or physiologically at 37°C by enzymatic blood proteolysis.In vitro strong-acid-hydrolysis revealed a large PRBC reservoir of ADMA (54.5 ± 9.7 µM and LNMMA (58.9 ± 28.9 μM that persisted over 42-d at 6° or -80°C. In vitro 5h incubation at 37°C nearly doubled free ADMA and LNMMNA concentration from PRBCs while no change was detected in fresh frozen plasma.The compelling physiological ramifications are that regardless of storage age, 1 PRBCs can rapidly release pathologically relevant quantities of ADMA and LNMMA when incubated and 2 PRBCs have a protein-incorporated inhibitory methylarginines reservoir 100 times that of normal free inhibitory methylarginines in blood and thus could represent a clinically relevant and proximate risk for iatrogenic NOS inhibition upon

  14. The relationship between red blood cell deformability metrics and perfusion of an artificial microvascular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Jose M; Nielsen, Nathan D; Vignes, Seth M; Chen, Tanya G; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2014-01-01

    The ability of red blood cells (RBC) to undergo a wide range of deformations while traversing the microvasculature is crucial for adequate perfusion. Interpretation of RBC deformability measurements performed in vitro in the context of microvascular perfusion has been notoriously difficult. This study compares the measurements of RBC deformability performed using micropore filtration and ektacytometry with the RBC ability to perfuse an artificial microvascular network (AMVN). Human RBCs were collected from healthy consenting volunteers, leukoreduced, washed and exposed to graded concentrations (0-0.08%) of glutaraldehyde (a non-specific protein cross-linker) and diamide (a spectrin-specific protein cross-linker) to impair the deformability of RBCs. Samples comprising cells with two different levels of deformability were created by adding non-deformable RBCs (hardened by exposure to 0.08% glutaraldehyde) to the sample of normal healthy RBCs. Ektacytometry indicated a nearly linear decline in RBC deformability with increasing glutaraldehyde concentration. Micropore filtration showed a significant reduction only for concentrations of glutaraldehyde higher than 0.04%. Neither micropore filtration nor ektacytometry measurements could accurately predict the AMVN perfusion. Treatment with diamide reduced RBC deformability as indicated by ektacytometry, but had no significant effect on either micropore filtration or the AMVN perfusion. Both micropore filtration and ektacytometry showed a linear decline in effective RBC deformability with increasing fraction of non-deformable RBCs in the sample. The corresponding decline in the AMVN perfusion plateaued above 50%, reflecting the innate ability of blood flow in the microvasculature to bypass occluded capillaries. Our results suggest that in vitro measurements of RBC deformability performed using either micropore filtration or ektacytometry may not represent the ability of same RBCs to perfuse microvascular networks. Further

  15. Effect of lactoferrin protein on red blood cells and macrophages: mechanism of parasite–host interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Namrata Anand,1 Rupinder K Kanwar,2 Mohan Lal Dubey,1 R K Vahishta,3 Rakesh Sehgal,1,* Anita K Verma,4 Jagat R Kanwar2,*1Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research, School of Medicine, Molecular and Medical Research Strategic Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 4Nanobiotech Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Lactoferrin is a natural multifunctional protein known to have antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. Apart from its antimicrobial effects, lactoferrin is known to boost the immune response by enhancing antioxidants. Lactoferrin exists in various forms depending on its iron saturation. The present study was done to observe the effect of lactoferrin, isolated from bovine and buffalo colostrum, on red blood cells (RBCs and macrophages (human monocytic cell line-derived macrophages THP1 cells.Methods: Lactoferrin obtained from both species and in different iron saturation forms were used in the present study, and treatment of host cells were given with different forms of lactoferrin at different concentrations. These treated host cells were used for various studies, including morphometric analysis, viability by MTT assay, survivin gene expression, production of reactive oxygen species, phagocytic properties, invasion assay, and Toll-like receptor-4, Toll-like receptor-9, and MDR1 expression, to investigate the interaction between lactoferrin and host cells and the possible mechanism of action with regard to parasitic infections.Results: The mechanism of interaction between host cells and lactoferrin have shown various aspects of gene

  16. The effect of alpha-thalassemia on cord blood red cell indices and interaction with sickle cell gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadri, Mohammad I.; Islam, Sherief I.A.M.; Nasserullah, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-thalassemia is known to be prevalent in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. There are no large scale reports regarding the effect of alpha-thalassemia on red cell indices of cord blood from Saudi Arabia. Similarly, there are reports regarding the interaction of alpha-thalassemia and the sickle-cell gene in relation to red cell indices in cord blood. To address these issues, we undertook a study on neonatal cold blood samples. In a prospective study, cord blood samples from 504 neonates from the Qatif area of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were analyzed for complete blood counts (CBC) and cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis. Hb S was confirmed by citrate agar Hb electrophoresis. There were 243 case samples with normal Hb electrophoresis (Hb A 27.2+- 7% and Hb F 72.6+-7.7%). Their mean Hb (g/dL), RBC (x10/L), Hct (%), MCV (pg), MCHC (g/dL), RDW-SD (fl) and RDW-CV (%) were 15.05+-1.6, 4.5+-0.5, 47.4+-5.3, 106+-8, 33.6+-2.3, 31.8+-1.7, 69.2+-9.5 and 17.9+-1.7, respectively. There were 136 cases with alpha-thalassemia trait (alphaTT), 57 cases with sickle cell trait (SCT) and 50 cases of sickle cell trait with alplha-thalassemia trait (SCT/ alphaTT). There were ten cases of Hb H disease (6 definite), including one with sickle cell disease (SCD) and two with SCT, Hb Bart's 23.9%-43.6%; four probable with Hb Bart's 10.9%-16.1% and one with SCT. The effect on red cell parameters in Hb H disease were most pronounced. In addition, there seven cases of SCD, four of whom had coexistent alpha-thalassemia trait (SCD/alphaTT). The prevalence of alpha-thalassemia in this cohort of Saudi population was 39.99%. Hb H disease appeared as common as SCD. Sickle cell gene was seen in 23.4% of neonatal samples. Apha-thalassemia gene significantly reduces MCH, MCV, RDW-SD, Hct, Hb and increase RBC count in both normal or sickle cell trait neonates. Generally, the variation of red cell parameters is directly proportional to the amount of Hb Bart's in the cord blood. Sickle cell

  17. Determination of selenium in red blood cells by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggi, U.; Francis, R.; Shanin, M.; Scheelings, P.; Gianduzzo, T.; Nicol, D.

    2004-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and its levels in blood have been widely used for assessing Se status in humans. A suitable method for the determination of Se in red blood cells (RBC) using ICP-MS after microwave digestion was developed. The blood samples were obtained from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), who attended urology clinics at the Princess Alexandra hospital, Brisbane, Australia. No apparent polyatomic and matrix interferences were encountered when 82 Se isotope was used for the analysis of Se levels in RBC. Whole Blood Seronorm Trace Elements (SERO, Norway) and dogfish muscle (DORM-1, NRCC) were used as reference materials for method validation. The method was rapid and accurate, and ideal for routine analysis of Se in RBC, and in particular for assessing of Se status in humans. (author)

  18. Human regulatory B cells control the TFH cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Achouak; Simon, Quentin; Mohr, Audrey; Séité, Jean-François; Youinou, Pierre; Bendaoud, Boutahar; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Follicular helper T (T FH ) cells support terminal B-cell differentiation. Human regulatory B (Breg) cells modulate cellular responses, but their control of T FH cell-dependent humoral immune responses is unknown. We sought to assess the role of Breg cells on T FH cell development and function. Human T cells were polyclonally stimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IL-21 to generate T FH cells. They were cocultured with B cells to induce their terminal differentiation. Breg cells were included in these cultures, and their effects were evaluated by using flow cytometry and ELISA. B-cell lymphoma 6, IL-21, inducible costimulator, CXCR5, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions increased on stimulated human T cells, characterizing T FH cell maturation. In cocultures they differentiated B cells into CD138 + plasma and IgD - CD27 + memory cells and triggered immunoglobulin secretions. Breg cells obtained by Toll-like receptor 9 and CD40 activation of B cells prevented T FH cell development. Added to T FH cell and B-cell cocultures, they inhibited B-cell differentiation, impeded immunoglobulin secretions, and expanded Foxp3 + CXCR5 + PD-1 + follicular regulatory T cells. Breg cells modulated IL-21 receptor expressions on T FH cells and B cells, and their suppressive activities involved CD40, CD80, CD86, and intercellular adhesion molecule interactions and required production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Human Breg cells control T FH cell maturation, expand follicular regulatory T cells, and inhibit the T FH cell-mediated antibody secretion. These novel observations demonstrate a role for the Breg cell in germinal center reactions and suggest that deficient activities might impair the T FH cell-dependent control of humoral immunity and might lead to the development of aberrant autoimmune responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Capsaicin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human KB cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Han; Lu, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Che-Wei; Chan, Ya-Chi; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2013-02-25

    Capsaicin, a pungent phytochemical in a variety of red peppers of the genus Capsicum, has shown an anti-proliferative effect on various human cancer cell lines. In contrast, capsaicin has also been considered to promote the growth of cancer cells. Thus, the effects of capsaicin on various cell types need to be explored. The anti-proliferative effects of capsaicin on human KB cancer cells are still unknown. Therefore, we examined the viability, cell cycle progression, and factors associated with apoptosis in KB cells treated with capsaicin. The cell proliferation/viability and cytotoxicity of KB cells exposed to capsaicin were determined by a sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay and trypan blue exclusion. Apoptosis was detected by Hoechst staining and confirmed by western blot analysis of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Cell cycle distribution and changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of caspase 3, 8 and 9 was evaluated by immunoblotting. We found that treatment of KB cells with capsaicin significantly reduced cell proliferation/viability and induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner compared with that in the untreated control. Cell cycle analysis indicated that exposure of KB cells to capsaicin resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Capsaicin-induced growth inhibition of KB cells appeared to be associated with induction of apoptosis. Moreover, capsaicin induced disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as activation of caspase 9, 3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase in KB cells. Our data demonstrate that capsaicin modulates cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis in human KB cancer cells through mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and caspase activation. These observations suggest an anti-cancer activity of capsaicin.

  20. MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells exhibit augmented responses to human insulin on a collagen IV surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Listov-Saabye, Nicolai; Jensen, Marianne Blirup; Kiehr, Benedicte

    2009-01-01

    Human mammary cell lines are extensively used for preclinical safety assessment of insulin analogs. However, it is essentially unknown how mitogenic responses can be optimized in mammary cell-based systems. We developed an insulin mitogenicity assay in MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells......, under low serum (0.1% FCS) and phenol red-free conditions, with 3H thymidine incorporation as endpoint. Based on EC50 values determined from 10-fold dilution series, beta-estradiol was the most potent mitogen, followed by human IGF-1, human AspB10 insulin and native human insulin. AspB10 insulin...... was significantly more mitogenic than native insulin, validating the ability of the assay to identify hypermitogenic human insulin analogs. With MCF-7 cells on a collagen IV surface, the ranking of mitogens was maintained, but fold mitogenic responses and dynamic range and steepness of dose-response curves were...

  1. Distribution and Metabolism of Lipocurc™ (Liposomal Curcumin) in Dog and Human Blood Cells: Species Selectivity and Pharmacokinetic Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Gordon T; Licollari, Albert; Tan, Aimin; Greil, Richard; Vcelar, Brigitta; Majeed, Muhammad; Helson, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of curcumin (in the form of Lipocurc™) and its major metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) in Beagle dog and human red blood cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and hepatocytes. Lipocurc™ was used as the source of curcumin for the cell distribution assays. In vitro findings with red blood cells were also compared to in vivo pharmacokinetic data available from preclinical studies in dogs and phase I clinical studies in humans. High levels of curcumin were measured in PBMCs (625.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 7,297 pg/10 6 cells in dog and 353.7 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 6,809 pg/10 6 cells in human) and in hepatocytes (414.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 14,005 pg/10 6 cells in dog and 813.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 13,780 pg/10 6 cells in human). Lower curcumin levels were measured in red blood cells (dog: 78.4 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 7.2 pg/10 6 cells, human: 201.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 18.6 pg/10 6 cells). A decrease in the medium concentration of curcumin was observed in red blood cells and hepatocytes, but not in PBMCs. Red blood cell levels of THC were ~5-fold higher in dog compared to human and similar between dog and human for hepatocytes and PBMCs. The ratio of THC to curcumin found in the red blood cell medium following incubation was 6.3 for dog compared to 0.006 for human, while for PBMCs and hepatocytes the ratio of THC to curcumin in the medium did not display such marked species differences. There was an excellent correlation between the in vitro disposition of curcumin and THC following incubation with red blood cells and in vivo plasma levels of curcumin and THC in dog and human following intravenous infusion. The disposition of curcumin in blood cells is, therefore, species-dependent and of pharmacokinetic relevance. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Two-Dimensional Computational Flow Analysis and Frictional Characteristics Model for Red Blood Cell under Inclined Centrifuge Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi

    Simplified two-dimensional flow analysis is performed in order to simulate frictional characteristics measurement of red blood cells moving on a glass plate in a medium with an inclined centrifuge microscope. Computation under various conditions reveals the influences of parameters on lift, drag, and moment acting on a red blood cell. Among these forces, lift appears only when the cell is longitudinally asymmetric. By considering the balance of forces, the frictional characteristics of the red blood cell are modeled as the sum of Coulomb friction and viscous drag. The model describes the possibility that the red blood cell deforms to expand in the front side in response to the inclined centrifugal force. When velocity exceeds some critical value, the lift overcomes the normal centrifugal force component, and the thickness of the plasma layer between the cell and the glass plate increases from the initial value of the plasma protein thickness.

  3. Endocannabinoids and Human Sperm Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Zolese

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available N-acylethanolamides (NAEs are naturally occurring signaling lipids consisting of amides and esters of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Usually they are present in a very small amounts in many mammalian tissues and cells, including human reproductive tracts and fluids. Recently, the presence of N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA, the most characterised member of endocannabinoids, and its congeners palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and oleylethanolamide (OEA in seminal plasma, oviductal fluid, and follicular fluids was demonstrated. AEA has been shown to bind not only type-1 (CB1 and type-2 (CB2 cannabinoid receptors, but also type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1, while PEA and OEA are inactive with respect to classical cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 but activate TRPV1 or peroxisome proliferator activate receptors (PPARs. This review concerns the most recent experimental data on PEA and OEA, endocannabinoid-like molecules which appear to exert their action exclusively on sperm cells with altered features, such as membrane characteristics and kinematic parameters. Their beneficial effects on these cells could suggest a possible pharmacological use of PEA and OEA on patients affected by some forms of idiopathic infertility.

  4. Live cell imaging of in vitro human trophoblast syncytialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dang, Yan-Li; Zheng, Ru; Li, Yue; Li, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Hongmei

    2014-06-01

    Human trophoblast syncytialization, a process of cell-cell fusion, is one of the most important yet least understood events during placental development. Investigating the fusion process in a placenta in vivo is very challenging given the complexity of this process. Application of primary cultured cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placentas and BeWo cells derived from human choriocarcinoma formulates a biphasic strategy to achieve the mechanism of trophoblast cell fusion, as the former can spontaneously fuse to form the multinucleated syncytium and the latter is capable of fusing under the treatment of forskolin (FSK). Live-cell imaging is a powerful tool that is widely used to investigate many physiological or pathological processes in various animal models or humans; however, to our knowledge, the mechanism of trophoblast cell fusion has not been reported using a live- cell imaging manner. In this study, a live-cell imaging system was used to delineate the fusion process of primary term cytotrophoblast cells and BeWo cells. By using live staining with Hoechst 33342 or cytoplasmic dyes or by stably transfecting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and DsRed2-Nuc reporter plasmids, we observed finger-like protrusions on the cell membranes of fusion partners before fusion and the exchange of cytoplasmic contents during fusion. In summary, this study provides the first video recording of the process of trophoblast syncytialization. Furthermore, the various live-cell imaging systems used in this study will help to yield molecular insights into the syncytialization process during placental development. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Generation and Characterization of Erythroid Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hsin Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the imbalance in the supply and demand of red blood cells (RBCs, especially for alloimmunized patients or patients with rare blood phenotypes, extensive research has been done to generate therapeutic quantities of mature RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells of various sources, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cord blood. Since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be maintained indefinitely in vitro, they represent potentially inexhaustible sources of donor-free RBCs. In contrast to other ex vivo stem-cell-derived cellular therapeutics, tumorigenesis is not a concern, as RBCs can be irradiated without marked adverse effects on in vivo function. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent publications relevant to the generation and characterization of hESC- and iPSC-derived erythroid cells and discuss challenges to be met before the eventual realization of clinical usage of these cells.

  6. Reduction in unnecessary red blood cell folate testing by restricting computerized physician order entry in the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Thomas E; Gudgeon, Patrick; Yip, Paul M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2018-05-02

    Red blood cell folate is a laboratory test with limited clinical utility. Previous attempts to reduce physician ordering of unnecessary laboratory tests, including folate, have resulted in only modest success. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and impacts of restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record. This was a retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2016 at a large academic healthcare network in Toronto, Canada. All inpatients and outpatients who underwent at least 1 red blood cell folate or vitamin B12 test during the study period were included. Red blood cell folate ordering was restricted to clincians in gastroenterology and hematology and was removed from other physicians' computerized order entry screen in the electronic health record in June 2013. Red blood cell folate testing decreased by 94.4% during the study, from a mean of 493.0 (SD 48.0) tests/month before intervention to 27.6 (SD 10.3) tests/month after intervention (P<.001). Restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record resulted in a large and sustained reduction in red blood cell folate testing. Significant cost savings estimated at over a quarter-million dollars (CAD) over three years were achieved. There was no significant clinical impact of the intervention on the diagnosis of folate deficiency. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A modified method for the in vivo labeling of red blood cells with /sup 99m/Tc: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, R.J.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Leppo, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of incorporation of /sup 99m/Tc into red blood cells pretinned in vivo was measured by collecting blood samples in stannous DTPA solution, which served as a competing ligand for /sup 99m/Tc. This collection technique permitted a measurement of high-affinity red-cell labeling efficiency at the instant of sampling. At 0.5 min after injection only 62% of technetium is tightly bound to the red cell; this rises to 94.5% at 10 min. Based on the graded labeling of the red cells, the in vivo labeling procedure was modified by isolating pertechnetate and red blood cells tinned in vivo in a syringe during the first 10 min of labeling. The pertechnetate is thus prevented from distributing to extravascular compartments, and 90% of the injected /sup 99m/Tc is firmly bound to red blood cells at the time of injection. In a series of 23 patients, seven were tested with the in vivo method and seven with the modified in vivo method, and nine patients were tested with each method on separate occasions. A decrease in gastric activity and improved image quality were found with the modified method compared with the standard method of in vivo red-cell labeling