WorldWideScience

Sample records for human population pressure

  1. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  2. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Chapelain

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  3. Population pressures: threat to democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The desire for political freedom and representative government is spreading throughout the world. The stability of democratic bodies is dependent on wise leaders, foreign aid, and slowing population growth. Rapid population growth strains political institutions and increases pressure on services. A Population Crisis Committee study found that only a few democratic countries with serious demographic pressures remained stable. The most stable countries were ones with lower levels of population pressure. Most of the 31 unstable countries were in Africa and in a band stretching from the Middle East to South Asia, and almost all had serious demographic pressures. Only 5 stable countries had high or very high demographic pressures. Since countries in the world are interdependent, population pressures have adverse consequences everywhere. Population pressures in the developing world are considered enhanced by the rapid growth of cities. Both the developed and the developing world face the problems of clogged highways, loss of wilderness, polluted lakes and streams, and stifling smog and acid rain conditions. The sociopolitical implications of demographic changes vary from country to country, but rapid growth and maldistribution of population strains existing political, social, and economic structures and relations between nations. Urban areas are the arena for clashes of cultures, competition for scarce housing and jobs, the breakdown of traditional family and social structures, and juxtapositions of extreme wealth next to extreme poverty. The growth of independent nation states since the 1940s has not allowed much time for development of effective political institutions. There are many obstacles to national unity and popular political participation. The potential for political instability is correlated with a number of factors: large youth populations in overcrowded cities with too high expectations and limited opportunities, diverse and intense ethnic and religious

  4. Heterogeneous pattern of selective pressure for PRRT2 in human populations, but no association with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Huguet

    Full Text Available Inherited and de novo genomic imbalances at chromosome 16p11.2 are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, but the causative genes remain unknown. Among the genes located in this region, PRRT2 codes for a member of the synaptic SNARE complex that allows the release of synaptic vesicles. PRRT2 is a candidate gene for ASD since homozygote mutations are associated with intellectual disability and heterozygote mutations cause benign infantile seizures, paroxysmal dyskinesia, or hemiplegic migraine. Here, we explored the contribution of PRRT2 mutations in ASD by screening its coding part in a large sample of 1578 individuals including 431 individuals with ASD, 186 controls and 961 individuals from the human genome Diversity Panel. We detected 24 nonsynonymous variants, 1 frameshift (A217PfsX8 and 1 in-frame deletion of 6 bp (p.A361_P362del. The frameshift mutation was observed in a control with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. The p.A361_P362del was observed in two individuals with autism from sub-Saharan African origin. Overall, the frequency of PRRT2 deleterious variants was not different between individuals with ASD and controls. Remarkably, PRRT2 displays a highly significant excess of nonsynonymous (pN vs synonymous (pS mutations in Asia (pN/pS = 4.85 and Europe (pN/pS = 1.62 compared with Africa (pN/pS = 0.26; Asia vs Africa: P = 0.000087; Europe vs Africa P = 0.00035; Europe vs Asia P = P = 0.084. We also showed that whole genome amplification performed through rolling cycle amplification could artificially introduce the A217PfsX8 mutation indicating that this technology should not be performed prior to PRRT2 mutation screening. In summary, our results do not support a role for PRRT2 coding sequence variants in ASD, but provide an ascertainment of its genetic variability in worldwide populations that should help researchers and clinicians to better investigate the role of PRRT2 in human

  5. Catestatin Gly364Ser Variant Alters Systemic Blood Pressure and the Risk for Hypertension in Human Populations via Endothelial Nitric Oxide Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranmayi, Malapaka; Chirasani, Venkat R; Allu, Prasanna K R; Subramanian, Lakshmi; Martelli, Elizabeth E; Sahu, Bhavani S; Vishnuprabu, Durairajpandian; Kumaragurubaran, Rathnakumar; Sharma, Saurabh; Bodhini, Dhanasekaran; Dixit, Madhulika; Munirajan, Arasambattu K; Khullar, Madhu; Radha, Venkatesan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mullasari, Ajit S; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Senapati, Sanjib; Mahapatra, Nitish R

    2016-08-01

    Catestatin (CST), an endogenous antihypertensive/antiadrenergic peptide, is a novel regulator of cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report case-control studies in 2 geographically/ethnically distinct Indian populations (n≈4000) that showed association of the naturally-occurring human CST-Gly364Ser variant with increased risk for hypertension (age-adjusted odds ratios: 1.483; P=0.009 and 2.951; P=0.005). Consistently, 364Ser allele carriers displayed elevated systolic (up to ≈8 mm Hg; P=0.004) and diastolic (up to ≈6 mm Hg; P=0.001) blood pressure. The variant allele was also found to be in linkage disequilibrium with other functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CHGA promoter and nearby coding region. Functional characterization of the Gly364Ser variant was performed using cellular/molecular biological experiments (viz peptide-receptor binding assays, nitric oxide [NO], phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase, and phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase estimations) and computational approaches (molecular dynamics simulations for structural analysis of wild-type [CST-WT] and variant [CST-364Ser] peptides and docking of peptide/ligand with β-adrenergic receptors [ADRB1/2]). CST-WT and CST-364Ser peptides differed profoundly in their secondary structures and showed differential interactions with ADRB2; although CST-WT displaced the ligand bound to ADRB2, CST-364Ser failed to do the same. Furthermore, CST-WT significantly inhibited ADRB2-stimulated extracellular regulated kinase activation, suggesting an antagonistic role towards ADRB2 unlike CST-364Ser. Consequently, CST-WT was more potent in NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells as compared with CST-364Ser. This NO-producing ability of CST-WT was abrogated by ADRB2 antagonist ICI 118551. In conclusion, CST-364Ser allele enhanced the risk for hypertension in human populations, possibly via diminished endothelial NO production because of altered interactions of CST-364Ser

  6. Population Pressures Abroad and Immigration Pressures at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Crisis Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses population trends abroad and their relation to immigration pressures and policies in the United States. The following sections are included: (1) "Two Major Waves of Immigration"; (2) "The U.S.--A Major Host Nation for Permanent Immigrants"; (3) "Changing Sources of Immigrants to the United…

  7. Human Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  8. Human population and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed model of human population and carbon utilization is reviewed. Depending on parameter values, one of three possible long-term outcomes is obtained. (1) Atmospheric carbon, (CO 2 ) atm , and human populations equilibrate at positive values. (2) The human population stabilizes, while (CO 2 ) atm increases without bound. (3) The human population goes extinct and atmospheric carbon declines to 0. The final possibility is qualitatively compatible with both 'consensus' views of climate change and the opinions of those who are more impressed with the manifestly adverse consequences of carbon-mitigation to human reproduction and survival

  9. [Population pressure: a factor of political destabilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-04-01

    Political stability throughout the world appears to be greater in countries with slowly growing populations than in those with rapid growth. Population is not the only influence on political stability, however. The relationship between political stability and development is strong. The rich countries with the slowest growth are the most stable, while poor developing countries with rapid growth suffer from chronic instability. Demographic pressure and density are not the same thing and must be distinguished. A fragile environment like that of the Sahel will experience demographic pressure despite low density. Japan has a greater population density than Rwanda and little cultivable land, but the population has a high standard of living. demographic pressure is not comparable in Japan and Rwanda because Japan has slow population growth and stable democratic political institutions. The rate of growth seems to be a more important element in destabilization than density. Rapid growth creates enormous political tensions especially when profound ethnic divisions exist, and it complicates problems of government by encouraging rapid urbanization. The unbalanced age structures resulting from rapid growth hinder the satisfaction of employment, educational, and health care needs for the ever-increasing masses of young people. 49% of Rwanda's population is under 15 and 66% is under 25. Rwanda is already densely populated, with around 300 inhabitants/sq km, and its population is projected to double in 20 years. 95% of the population is dependent on agriculture, but by 1988 the average landholding per family was only 1.25 hectares and 58% of families did not grown sufficient food for household needs. Further reduction in the size of holdings or a growing landless population will have multiple consequences. Urban migration will inevitably increase, bringing with it all the problems so evident in other poor countries where the process is more advanced than in Rwanda. Chaotic

  10. Thermodynamics and Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses a Fermi-problem exercise through which I take students in several of my college courses. Students work in teams, determining the average daily Caloric needs per person. Then they use insolation values to determine the size of a collection area needed to absorb the previously determined daily energy requirements. Adjustments to the size of the collection area are made based on energy absorption per biological trophic level, as well as the consideration that most diets are a mixture of plant- and animal-derived elements. Finally, using the total amount of farmland available on the planet, students calculate a maximum population value. Although the maximum population values derived herewith should not be considered authoritative, the exercise has three beneficial purposes: 1) a chance to talk about the modeling process and extrapolations, 2) an unexpected application of physics to social contexts, and 3) raising student awareness of population and energy issues.

  11. Research on Normal Human Plantar Pressure Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FSR400 pressure sensor, nRF905 wireless transceiver and MSP40 SCM are used to design the insole pressure collection system, LabVIEW is used to make HMI of data acquisition, collecting a certain amount of normal human foot pressure data, statistical analysis of pressure distribution relations about five stages of swing phase during walking, using the grid closeness degree to identify plantar pressure distribution pattern recognition, and the algorithm simulation, experimental results demonstrated this method feasible.

  12. Human gallbladder pressure and volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Højgaard, L; Grønvall, S

    1996-01-01

    volume with only slight changes in intraluminal pressure (n = 4). Except for the zero drift, this piece of equipment seemed to fulfil the requirements of being able to measure pressure in the GB. In vivo measurements showed a good clinical reproducibility of the method, and also that respiration...... influenced by respiration (n = 8) and the pressure seems to be higher in the sitting position than in the supine position (n = 5). Cystic duct opening pressure was 10.4, 11.2 and 16.8 mmHg (n = 3). Pressure-volume responses showed that the GB up to a certain volume could accommodate increases in intraluminal...... and patient posture influenced the pressure measurements. Further, a GB pressure-volume relationship was demonstrated, and the possibility of a cystic duct opening pressure was described....

  13. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue

    2003-01-01

    Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking....

  14. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  15. Population pressure and agricultural productivity in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, R H

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between population pressure or density and agricultural productivity is examined by analyzing the changes in the land-man ratio and the changes in the level of land yield in the 17 districts of Bangladesh from 1961-64 and 1974-77. The earlier years were pre-Green Revolution, whereas in the later years new technology had been introduced in some parts of the country. Net sown area, value of total agricultural output, and number of male agricultural workers were the main variables. For the country as a whole, agricultural output grew by 1.2%/year during 1961-64 to 1974-77, while the number of male agricultural workers grew at 1.5%/year. The major source of agricultural growth during the 1960s was found to be increased land-yield associated with a higher ratio of labor to land. The findings imply that a more intensified pattern of land use, resulting in both higher yield and higher labor input/unit of land, is the main source of growth of output and employment in agriculture. There is very little scope for extending the arable area in Bangladesh; increased production must come from multiple cropping, especially through expansion of irrigation and drainage, and from increases in per acre yields, principly through adoption of high yield variants, which explained 87% of the variation in output per acre during the 1970s. Regional variation in output was also associated with variation in cropping intensity and proportion of land given to high yield variants. There is considerable room for modernizing agricultural technology in Bangladesh: in 1975-76 less than 9% of total crop land was irrigated and only 12% of total acreage was under high yield variants. The adoption of new food-grain technology and increased use of high yield variants in Bangladesh's predominantly subsistence-based agriculture would require far-reaching institutional and organizational changes and more capital. Without effective population control, expansion of area under high yield

  16. Population pressures in Latin America. [Updated reprint].

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    Merrick, T W

    1991-04-01

    This publication examines the main demographic changes in Latin America since World War II, and considers their social and economic impact on the region. The paper looks at the following demographic trends: population growth, fertility, death rate, internal migration, international migration, and age structure. It also examines other factors such as marriage and family structure, and employment and education. Furthermore, the publication provides a discussion of the relationship between population growth and economic development from both a neo-Malthusian and Structuralist view. Finally, the paper considers the region's current population policies and future population prospects. From 1950-65, annual population growth averaged 2.8%, which decreased moderately to 2.4% from 1965-85. The report identified 3 population growth patterns in the region: 1) countries which experienced early and gradual declines in birth and death rates and generally lower population growth rates (the group includes Argentina, Cuba, Uruguay, with Chile and Panama also closely fitting the description); 2) countries which underwent rapid declines in birth rate during the 1950s and which began experiencing declines in the birth rate after 1960 (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Paraguay, and Venezuela, with Ecuador and Peru as borderline cases); and 3) countries which didn't begin to experience declines in mortality rates until relatively late and which lag behind in fertility declines (Bolivia, Haiti, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua). Although population growth has slowed and will continue to fall, UN projections do not expect the population to stabilize until late in the 21st Century.

  17. Adventures in human population biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P T

    1996-01-01

    This article is a memoir of anthropologist Paul Baker's professional life. The introduction notes that the field of anthropology was altered by the impact of World War II when physical anthropologists provided vital information to the military. After the war, the GI bill supported the undergraduate and graduate studies of veterans, including Baker. After describing his academic training at the University of New Mexico and Harvard, Baker details his research training and field work in the desert for the US Climatic Research Laboratory and his work identifying the dead in Japan for the Quartermaster unit. Baker then traces his academic career at the Pennsylvania State University during which he directed two multidisciplinary research efforts for the International Biological Programme, one that sought to understand human adaptability at high altitude in Peru and another that studied migration and modernization in Samoa. Baker's last administrative positions were as staff consultant to the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program and as chair of the US MAB committee. Baker retired from academic life at age 60 in 1987 and has devoted his time to reading and to helping organize professional associations in anthropology, especially those devoted to furthering internationally organized scientific efforts. Baker concludes this memoir by acknowledging the growth and development of the discipline of human population biology.

  18. The dwindling role of population pressure in land use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Reenberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a contemporary coupled human-environmental system on a small island in the South West Pacific. It describes the historical change of the resource management strategies, notably the agricultural land use, in this former subsistence system. Our conceptual mindset draws on Boserup......’s classic theories of land use intensification as well as on her more recently proposed heuristic framework to describe development processes that underpin land use system change. We illustrate how land use has become partially disconnected from the local population pressure and therefore remains relatively...... stable while the larger livelihood portfolio has undergone significant diversification. At present, the agricultural system is a supplement to a range of strategies that support the increasing number of people on the island. This explains why land use patterns continue relatively unchanged while...

  19. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Rolevich, I.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.; Skurat, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of features of formation of the population irradiation doze; definition of collective irradiation dozes of the population of Belarus for 10 years after the Chernobyl accident and forecast of risk of radiation induced diseases; study of influence of the radioactive contamination on agricultural ecosystems; development of technologies of manufacture on the contaminated soils of plant and cattle-breeding production and food products with the permissible contents of radionuclides in according to the requirements of radiation protection; development and perfection of complex technologies, ways and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development and substantiation of actions for increase of radiation security of the population of Belarus; development of combined system of an estimation on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  20. Does the Pressure of Population and Poverty cause Deforestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Widiaryanto, Pungky

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation has created several negative impacts such as reducing biodiversity, decreasing life support system and increasing green house gases emission. Identifying the causes of deforestation is a key to tackle this problem. Various studies have been conducted to investigate the driver of deforestation in the world. Some experts believe that the pressure of population and poverty cause deforestation. On the other hand, the others argue that there is no relationship among the pressure of p...

  1. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevich, I.M.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Minenko, V.F.; Mrochek, A.G.; Rolevich, I.V.; Skurat, V.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of researches is development of methods and means of reduction of radiation risk caused by the Chernobyl accident consequences by means of decrease of both individual and collective dozes by realization of special protective measures. The reconstruction of average collective accumulated irradiation dozes of the inhabitants of the contaminated populated localities of Belarus is carried out; the forecast of development of radiation induced oncologic diseases is given. The laws of formation of annual irradiation dozes are investigated; the prevailing role of internal irradiation dozes in formation of total dose loadings is detected. On this basis a number of practical projects directed on creation of effective land tenure and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production, as well as decontamination technologies and radioactive waste management are executed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  2. Perspectives on Population in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Max; Keller, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    A study of human geography begins with the human population. In fact, demographic topics frequently relate to other units in the AP Human Geography course. The three main concepts elaborated upon in this article are (1) the demographic transition model, (2) Malthusian theory and its critics, and (3) pronatalist and antinatalist policies that might…

  3. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  4. The challenges of human population ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical...... of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20-21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create 'age-friendly' societies and promote 'ageing...

  5. Population pressure and health risks in urban market environment: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population pressure and health risks in urban market environment: a study of Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... This study was directed at permanent sellers in Bodija Market, (men and women) and people who frequent the market to make purchases.

  6. Sewage reflects the microbiomes of human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J; McLellan, Sandra L; Dila, Deborah K; Vineis, Joseph H; Morrison, Hilary G; Eren, A Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2015-02-24

    Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. The gut microbiota serves important functions in healthy humans. Numerous projects aim to define a healthy gut microbiome and its association with health states. However

  7. Evidence of Recent Intricate Adaptation in Human Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeyoung Park

    Full Text Available Recent human adaptations have shaped population differentiation in genomic regions containing putative functional variants, mostly located in predicted regulatory elements. However, their actual functionalities and the underlying mechanism of recent adaptation remain poorly understood. In the current study, regions of genes and repeats were investigated for functionality depending on the degree of population differentiation, FST or ΔDAF (a difference in derived allele frequency. The high FST in the 5´ or 3´ untranslated regions (UTRs, in particular, confirmed that population differences arose mainly from differences in regulation. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL analyses using lymphoblastoid cell lines indicated that the majority of the highly population-specific regions represented cis- and/or trans-eQTL. However, groups having the highest ΔDAFs did not necessarily have higher proportions of eQTL variants; in these groups, the patterns were complex, indicating recent intricate adaptations. The results indicated that East Asian (EAS and European populations (EUR experienced mutual selection pressures. The mean derived allele frequency of the high ΔDAF groups suggested that EAS and EUR underwent strong adaptation; however, the African population in Africa (AFR experienced slight, yet broad, adaptation. The DAF distributions of variants in the gene regions showed clear selective pressure in each population, which implies the existence of more recent regulatory adaptations in cells other than lymphoblastoid cell lines. In-depth analysis of population-differentiated regions indicated that the coding gene, RNF135, represented a trans-regulation hotspot via cis-regulation by the population-specific variants in the region of selective sweep. Together, the results provide strong evidence of actual intricate adaptation of human populations via regulatory manipulation.

  8. Population pressure on coral atolls: trends and approaching limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, M

    1990-09-01

    Trends and approaching limits of population pressure on coral atolls is discussed by examining the atoll environment in terms of the physical geography, the production systems, and resource distribution. Atoll populations are grouped as dependent and independent, and demographic trends in population growth, migraiton, urbanization, and political dependency are reviewed. Examination of the carrying capacity includes a dynamic model, the influences of the West, and philopsophical considerations. The carrying capacity is the "maximal population supportable in a given area". Traditional models are criticized because of a lack in accounting for external linkages. The proposed model is dynamic and considers perceived needs and overseas linkages. It also explains regional disparities in population distribution, and provides a continuing model for population movement from outer islands to district centers and mainland areas. Because of increased expectations and perceived needs, there is a lower carrying capacity for outlying areas, and expanded capacity in district centers. This leads to urbanization, emigration, and carrying capacity overshot in regional and mainland areas. Policy intervention is necessary at the regional and island community level. Atolls, which are islands surrounding deep lagoons, exist in archipelagoes across the oceans, and are rich in aquatic life. The balance in this small land area with a vulnerable ecosystem may be easily disturbed by scarce water supplies, barren soils, rising sea levels in the future, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Traditionally, fisheries and horticulture (pit-taro, coconuts, and breadfruit) have sustained populations, but modern influences such as blasting, reef mining, new industrial technologies, population pressure, and urbanization threaten the balance. Population pressure, which has lead to pollution, epidemics, malnutrition, crime, social disintegration, and foreign dependence, is evidenced in the areas of Tuvalu, Kiribati

  9. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S

    2006-06-01

    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  10. Human population in the biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, R P; Wisnewski, J; Engelman, R

    2000-04-27

    Biologists have identified 25 areas, called biodiversity hotspots, that are especially rich in endemic species and particularly threatened by human activities. The human population dynamics of these areas, however, are not well quantified. Here we report estimates of key demographic variables for each hotspot, and for three extensive tropical forest areas that are less immediately threatened. We estimate that in 1995 more than 1.1 billion people, nearly 20% of world population, were living within the hotspots, an area covering about 12% of Earth's terrestrial surface. We estimate that the population growth rate in the hotspots (1995-2000) is 1.8% yr(-1), substantially higher than the population growth rate of the world as a whole (1.3% yr(-1)) and above that of the developing countries (1.6% yr(-1)). These results suggest that substantial human-induced environmental changes are likely to continue in the hotspots and that demographic change remains an important factor in global biodiversity conservation. The results also underline the potential conservation significance of the continuing worldwide declines in human fertility and of policies and programs that influence human migration.

  11. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  12. Statistical Processing Algorithms for Human Population Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COLESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is describing some algoritms for statistic functions aplied to a human population database. The samples are specific for the most interesting periods, when the evolution of statistical datas has spectacolous value. The article describes the most usefull form of grafical prezentation of the results

  13. Genetical pressures and social organization in small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Inherited variation is often useful for detecting and measuring ecological pressures in natural populations. For example, changes in allele and genotypic frequencies at the gene locus controlling the haemoglobin β chain in Mus musculus samples trapped on an isolated Welsh island have provided information about different mechanisms of death at different times of year and about the influence of social structure on genetical constitution. Notwithstanding, considerable caution has to be exercised in interpreting genetical changes, since detectable varients are often no more than linked markers of physiologically important gene loci, while habitat, deme, or ageing differences may be obscured in pooled data, such as are represented by concepts like overall allozymic heterozygosity. For these reasons, genetical studies on wild populations are likely to be most profitable when the contribution of individual genes to physiological or behavioral traits can be analyzed; it is at this level that genetics and ecology properly complement each other

  14. Adaptations to local environments in modern human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Choongwon; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    After leaving sub-Saharan Africa around 50000-100000 years ago, anatomically modern humans have quickly occupied extremely diverse environments. Human populations were exposed to further environmental changes resulting from cultural innovations, such as the spread of farming, which gave rise to new selective pressures related to pathogen exposures and dietary shifts. In addition to changing the frequency of individual adaptive alleles, natural selection may also shape the overall genetic architecture of adaptive traits. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of adaptive human phenotypes based on insights from the studies of lactase persistence, skin pigmentation and high-altitude adaptation. These adaptations evolved in parallel in multiple human populations, providing a chance to investigate independent realizations of the evolutionary process. We suggest that the outcome of adaptive evolution is often highly variable even under similar selective pressures. Finally, we highlight a growing need for detecting adaptations that did not follow the classical sweep model and for incorporating new sources of genetic evidence such as information from ancient DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Population growth to put pressure on some food supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Continued high population growth in developing countries is likely to lead to intense pressure to produce more rice, according to estimates from the Manila-based International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Ms. Mercedita Sombilla, a research scientist with IRRI, said that the projected increase in Asia's population will be the major force in accelerating demand for rice. According to various issues of the ESCAP Population Data Sheet, the population of the region will have increased from 3.3 billion in 1995 to almost 4.6 billion in 2020. The greatest growth in demand is expected to come from the lower-income countries of Asia, such as Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Philippines, and Viet Nam, she said. However, in terms of overall food supplies, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) estimates that food supplies will be sufficient. "Expecting reasonably strong productivity growth to be sustainable, no global food crisis seems likely to occur" between now and 2020, the organization stated in its report entitled "The World in 2020: Towards a New Global Age". full text

  16. Innovation and the growth of human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, V P; Quiñinao, C; Marquet, P A

    2017-12-05

    Biodiversity is sustained by and is essential to the services that ecosystems provide. Different species would use these services in different ways, or adaptive strategies, which are sustained in time by continuous innovations. Using this framework, we postulate a model for a biological species ( Homo sapiens ) in a finite world where innovations, aimed at increasing the flux of ecosystem services (a measure of habitat quality), increase with population size, and have positive effects on the generation of new innovations (positive feedback) as well as costs in terms of negatively affecting the provision of ecosystem services. We applied this model to human populations, where technological innovations are driven by cumulative cultural evolution. Our model shows that depending on the net impact of a technology on the provision of ecosystem services ( θ ), and the strength of technological feedback ( ξ ), different regimes can result. Among them, the human population can fill the entire planet while maximizing their well-being, but not exhaust ecosystem services. However, this outcome requires positive or green technologies that increase the provision of ecosystem services with few negative externalities or environmental costs, and that have a strong positive feedback in generating new technologies of the same kind. If the feedback is small, then the technological stock can collapse together with the human population. Scenarios where technological innovations generate net negative impacts may be associated with a limited technological stock as well as a limited human population at equilibrium and the potential for collapse. The only way to fill the planet with humans under this scenario of negative technologies is by reducing the technological stock to a minimum. Otherwise, the only feasible equilibrium is associated with population collapse. Our model points out that technological innovations per se may not help humans to grow and dominate the planet. Instead

  17. Global human capital: integrating education and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; KC, Samir

    2011-07-29

    Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios--assuming identical education-specific fertility rates--result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can quantitatively integrate education into standard demographic analysis, thus adding the "quality" dimension.

  18. Integration of effects on human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Harwell, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    It seems possible that several hundred millions of humans could die from the direct effects of nuclear war. The indirect effects could result in the loss of one to several billions of humans. How close the latter projection would come to loss of all humans is problematical, but the current best estimation is that this result would not follow from the physical and societal perturbations currently projected to occur after a large-scale nuclear war. One important issue of scale to keep in mind is the difference between estimating that on a global scale the bases for human support would be undetermined for a particular fraction of the population (e.g., estimating insufficient food to support more than a certain fraction of the current population), and predicting the survival strategies of small groups of people. Projections of global-scale population losses do not mean that even in those areas in which humans would be expected to die, all would suffer the same fate. No analysis have been attempted here concerning the capability of selected humans on a relatively small scale (e.g., individual, family, community level) to find a successful strategy for survival. That a person or group in a combatant country might find a way to escape the effects of radiation, societal disruptions, climatic alterations, and the host of other potential disruptions, and still continue to survive seems possible, even in devastated areas. That billions of people could do so in the absence of a sufficient food support base is impossible. Thus, one needs to distinguish carefully between possible survival strategies on a small scale, and the physical limitations of support for massive numbers of people on a large scale

  19. Population issues surface at human settlements conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This news brief focuses on the debate about population issues at the UN Conference on Human Settlements, held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996. The Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements was adopted by world leaders at the conference. Leaders were committed to programs to improve standards of living, the right of citizens to adequate housing, and the mobilization of new financial resources. Dr. Sadik, as Executive Director of the UN Population Fund, stressed that natural increase accounts for 60% of urban population growth. Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, as UN Secretary General, stressed that over 50% of world population would live in urban centers by the year 2000, and almost 75% might do so by 2025. He indicated that all nations are interrelated; the poor and refugees from political conflict from one country travel to safer and richer countries. Dr. Sadik referred to the agreement at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) on stabilizing world population in the shortest time possible. This would require meeting the needs of men and women for health, education, and the power of personal decision making. The most important item was the satisfaction of women's need for reproductive health information and services and women's power to use services. Dr. Sadik urged that women be given the right to hold and inherit property and to obtain credit. It was pointed out that the language of Habitat's plan of action on population and development issues was frequently bracketed; consequently, the plan suffered from a lack of consensus. The debate between countries would end, if the language were not bracketed. Dr. Sadik recommended family planning for developing sustainable and liveable cities.

  20. The challenges of human population ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid; Krasnik, Allan; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical, social, public health and public policy challenges, whose full implications on a societal level are only just beginning to be fully appreciated. Some of these implications are discussed in this commentary, an outcome of Cultures of Health and Ageing, a conference co-sponsored by the University of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20–21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create ‘age-friendly’ societies and promote ‘ageing-in-community’? what tools will effectively promote social engagement and prevent social detachment among older individuals? is there a risk that further extension of human lifespan would be a greater burden to the individual and to society than is warranted by the potential benefit of longer life? PMID:25452294

  1. Will human populations be limited by food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, the Philippines, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are based on a logical fallacy in that they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary negative feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. The benign projections that have resulted from this assumption may have hindered efforts to make availability of birth-control a priority in development-aid. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations, because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food. Even if the fertility rate is maintained far in excess of 2, the population cannot grow if food is limiting. Without the agricultural advances of the 20thcentury, world population could not have grown as it did from 1.7 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. The food supply may be enhanced in the future by genetic engineering and other innovations, but it may be limited by water shortage, climate change, pollution, and energy

  2. Evolutionary forces shaping genomic islands of population differentiation in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofer Tamara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of differentiation among populations depend both on demographic and selective factors: genetic drift and local adaptation increase population differentiation, which is eroded by gene flow and balancing selection. We describe here the genomic distribution and the properties of genomic regions with unusually high and low levels of population differentiation in humans to assess the influence of selective and neutral processes on human genetic structure. Methods Individual SNPs of the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP showing significantly high or low levels of population differentiation were detected under a hierarchical-island model (HIM. A Hidden Markov Model allowed us to detect genomic regions or islands of high or low population differentiation. Results Under the HIM, only 1.5% of all SNPs are significant at the 1% level, but their genomic spatial distribution is significantly non-random. We find evidence that local adaptation shaped high-differentiation islands, as they are enriched for non-synonymous SNPs and overlap with previously identified candidate regions for positive selection. Moreover there is a negative relationship between the size of islands and recombination rate, which is stronger for islands overlapping with genes. Gene ontology analysis supports the role of diet as a major selective pressure in those highly differentiated islands. Low-differentiation islands are also enriched for non-synonymous SNPs, and contain an overly high proportion of genes belonging to the 'Oncogenesis' biological process. Conclusions Even though selection seems to be acting in shaping islands of high population differentiation, neutral demographic processes might have promoted the appearance of some genomic islands since i as much as 20% of islands are in non-genic regions ii these non-genic islands are on average two times shorter than genic islands, suggesting a more rapid erosion by recombination, and iii most loci are

  3. Human Population Influence on the Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, D.

    2004-12-01

    The continued expansion of the human population, now at 6.3 billion projected to reach 12 billion by 2050, is using, destroying, and polluting the very Earth's resources that support human life. Currently the World Health Organization reports that more than 3 billion people are malnourished - largest number ever. Contributing to the malnourishment problem is soil erosion that results in the loss of about 75 billion tons of soil from agriculture each year. More than 99% of all food for the world comes from the land - less than 1% from the oceans and other aquatic ecosystems. Yet agricultural cropland is being abandoned because of soil erosion and salinization and the rapid spread of human settlements. Water is essential for all life and agriculture is the major consumer accounting for more than 70% of freshwater used. Already water shortages are critical in the U.S. and worldwide. Thus far, abundant fossil fuels are supporting the expansion of agricultural productivity as well as industry and transport growth. Yet credible evidence suggests that the supplies of oil and natural gas especially are rapidly diminishing. The development of renewable energy is behind schedule and when developed will only supply only about half of current energy used. If we do not work towards a relative balance between human numbers and essential natural resources, humans will suffer. Human health, productivity and well being, now and for future generations, require the continued availability of our basic resources - soil, water, foods, and energy.

  4. Intraocular Pressure And Its Determinants In Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashi AH

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to provide data, on the distribution or intraocular pressure (IOP in Tehran population. Materials and Methods: Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 4565 Tehran citizens were studied in the Tehran Eye Study. The findings of the participants (n=3834 10 years and older free of glaucoma diagnosis or suspicion who had undergone applanation tonometry examination are presented. All participants received a standardized protocol included applanation tonometry, and some other ocular measurements, fundus examination, demographic data and an interview. IOP measurement was used to evaluate its distribution by age, sex, and some eye parameters. ‎ Results: Mean ± SO IOP was 14.5±2.6 in the total population, 14.4±2.7 in men, and 14.5±2.5 in women. Normal range (mean±2SD of IOP was determined to be 9.3 - 19.7 mmHg. IOP increased significantly with age and cup-disc ratio except for a fall in old ages. This relationship was also observed when we analyzed individuals without diabetes or hypertension history. IOP increased with darker eye pigmentation except for blue/gray eyes. There was a non-linear ‎increase of IOP from emmetropic to high myopic eyes. ‎ Conclusion: Mean and/or normal range of IOP and their associations have been reported with wide differences in various studies. It is wise that studies evaluate IOP distribution or associations in healthy people and glaucoma people separately and also report the prevalence of IOP risk factors in their population to allow for a logical comparison of studies.

  5. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.

  6. Sustainable Development under Population Pressure: Lessons from Developed Land Consumption in the Conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Population growth will result in a significant anthropogenic environmental change worldwide through increases in developed land (DL) consumption. DL consumption is an important environmental and socioeconomic process affecting humans and ecosystems. Attention has been given to DL modeling inside highly populated cities. However, modeling DL consumption should expand to non-metropolitan areas where arguably the environmental consequences are more significant. Here, we study all counties within the conterminous U.S. and based on satellite-derived product (National Land Cover Dataset 2001) we calculate the associated DL for each county. By using county population data from the 2000 census we present a comparative study on DL consumption and we propose a model linking population with expected DL consumption. Results indicate distinct geographic patterns of comparatively low and high consuming counties moving from east to west. We also demonstrate that the relationship of DL consumption with population is mostly linear, altering the notion that expected population growth will have lower DL consumption if added in counties with larger population. Added DL consumption is independent of a county’s starting population and only dependent on whether the county belongs to a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). In the overlapping MSA and non-MSA population range there is also a constant DL efficiency gain of approximately 20km2 for a given population for MSA counties which suggests that transitioning from rural to urban counties has significantly higher benefits in lower populations. In addition, we analyze the socioeconomic composition of counties with extremely high or low DL consumption. High DL consumption counties have statistically lower Black/African American population, higher poverty rate and lower income per capita than average in both NMSA and MSA counties. Our analysis offers a baseline to investigate further land consumption strategies in anticipation of growing

  7. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  8. A human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Frank C; Cooper, Dylan; Huffman, Gretchen; Bartkus, Edward; Wilbur, Lee

    2013-10-01

    Fresh human cadavers provide an effective model for procedural training. Currently, there are no realistic models to teach fascial compartment pressure measurement. We created a human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model and studied its feasibility with a pre-post design. Three faculty members, following instructions from a common procedure textbook, used a standard handheld intra-compartment pressure monitor (Stryker(®), Kalamazoo, MI) to measure baseline pressures ("unembalmed") in the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments of the lower legs of a fresh human cadaver. The right femoral artery was then identified by superficial dissection, cannulated distally towards the lower leg, and connected to a standard embalming machine. After a 5-min infusion, the same three faculty members re-measured pressures ("embalmed") of the same compartments on the cannulated right leg. Unembalmed and embalmed readings for each compartment, and baseline readings for each leg, were compared using a two-sided paired t-test. The mean baseline compartment pressures did not differ between the right and left legs. Using the embalming machine, compartment pressure readings increased significantly over baseline for three of four fascial compartments; all in mm Hg (±SD): anterior from 40 (±9) to 143 (±44) (p = 0.08); lateral from 22 (±2.5) to 160 (±4.3) (p cadaver using a standard embalming machine. Set-up is minimal and the model can be incorporated into teaching curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic Medication and Intraocular Pressure in a British Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between systemic medication use and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a population of older British men and women. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants We included 7093 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer–Norfolk Eye Study. Exclusion criteria were a history of glaucoma therapy (medical, laser, or surgical), IOP asymmetry between eyes of >5 mmHg, and missing data for any covariables. The mean age of participants was 68 years (range, 48–92) and 56% were women. Methods We measured IOP using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Three readings were taken per eye and the best signal value of the Goldmann-correlated IOP value considered. Participants were asked to bring all their medications and related documentation to the health examination, and these were recorded by the research nurse using an electronic case record form. The medication classes examined were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, α-blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, nitrates, statins, insulin, biguanides, sulfonylureas, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We examined associations between medication use and IOP using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Models containing diabetic medication were further adjusted for glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Main Outcome Measures Mean IOP of the right and left eyes. Results Use of systemic β-blockers (−0.92 mmHg; 95% CI, −1.19, −0.65; Pnitrates (−0.63 mmHg; 95% CI, −1.12, −0.14; P = 0.011) were independently associated with lower IOP. The observed associations between statin or aspirin use with IOP were no longer significant after adjustment for β-blocker use. Conclusions This is the first population-based study to demonstrate and quantify clinically significant differences in IOP among participants using systemic β-blockers or

  10. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself.

  11. Intermittent pressure decreases human keratinocyte proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Maria R; Shih, Alan T; West, Dennis P; Martinez, Wanda M; Micali, Giuseppe; Landsman, Adam S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure changes and keratinocyte proliferation by determining whether keratinocytes exposed to altered mechanical pressures would proliferate at different rates compared to control cells not subjected to pressure changes. Tissue culture flasks of human keratinocytes plated at an approximate density of 15,000 cells/cm(2) undergoing an intermittent cyclic pressure of 362 mm Hg at a frequency of 2.28 or 5.16 cycles/min (0.038 or 0.086 Hz) for 8 h were compared to control flasks grown at ambient room pressure. An in-line pressure transducer was used to monitor and adjust pressure within the cell chambers, using a solenoid valve. A thymidine incorporation assay assessed the amount of cell proliferation in each set of experiments. Differences in proliferation between keratinocytes subjected to cyclic pressure changes and control cells were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05) in 4 out of 5 proliferation assays. Also, a higher frequency of pressure changes consistently generated a reduced proliferation rate compared to that seen in cells exposed to a lower frequency of pressure changes. These data indicate that keratinocytes undergoing intermittent pressure changes exhibit decreased proliferation rates compared to controls. Furthermore, an increased frequency rate seems to have a greater effect on proliferation than low-frequency rate pressure changes, suggesting that the stress caused by frequently changed pressure may play a greater role in reducing keratinocyte proliferation than the actual magnitude of load applied to the cells. Our results support the current treatment protocol of reducing speed and duration of walking on the site of the wound to promote healing of foot ulcers. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Population Pressure and the Future of Saudi State Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristo, Matthew M; Kovalcik, Mark P

    2008-01-01

    .... However, Saudi Arabia is also characterized by one of the fastest growing population rates in the world, and its economic and political capacity to absorb such rapid population growth is not so...

  13. The pressure gradient in the human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Michaela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory airways cause resistance to air flow during inhalation and exhalation. The pressure gradient is necessary to transport the air from the mount (or nose to pulmonary alveoli. The knowledge of pressure gradient (i.e. respiratory airways resistance is also needed to solve the question of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for CFD simulations of aerosol transport. Understanding of aerosol transport in the human lungs can help us to determine the health hazard of harmful particles. On the other hand it can be used to set the conditions for transport of medication to the desirable place. This article deals with the description of the mathematical equations defining the pressure gradient and resistance in the bronchial three and describes the geometry used in the calculation.

  14. Salt, Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Changes in Human and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt, Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Changes in Human and Experimental Studies – A Review. ... Some of the pathophysiological changes include cardiac hypertrophy and enhanced cardiac contractility, enhanced contraction of blood vessels and veins in response to constrictor agonists and diminished relaxation of ...

  15. Variable high pressure processing sensitivities for GII human noroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. High pressure processing (HPP) is one of the most promising non-thermal technologies for decontamination of viral pathogens in foods. However, the survival of HuNoVs by HPP is poorly understood because these viruses cann...

  16. A novel model of human skin pressure ulcers in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés A Maldonado

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pressure ulcers are a prevalent health problem in today's society. The shortage of suitable animal models limits our understanding and our ability to develop new therapies. This study aims to report on the development of a novel and reproducible human skin pressure ulcer model in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male non-obese, diabetic, severe combined immunodeficiency mice (n = 22 were engrafted with human skin. A full-thickness skin graft was placed onto 4×3 cm wounds created on the dorsal skin of the mice. Two groups with permanent grafts were studied after 60 days. The control group (n = 6 was focused on the process of engraftment. Evaluations were conducted with photographic assessment, histological analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques. The pressure ulcer group (n = 12 was created using a compression device. A pressure of 150 mmHg for 8 h, with a total of three cycles of compression-release was exerted. Evaluations were conducted with photographic assessment and histological analysis. RESULTS: Skin grafts in the control group took successfully, as shown by visual assessment, FISH techniques and histological analysis. Pressure ulcers in the second group showed full-thickness skin loss with damage and necrosis of all the epidermal and dermal layers (ulcer stage III in all cases. Complete repair occurred after 40 days. CONCLUSIONS: An inexpensive, reproducible human skin pressure ulcer model has been developed. This novel model will facilitate the development of new clinically relevant therapeutic strategies that can be tested directly on human skin.

  17. Different level of population differentiation among human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Results Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  18. Different level of population differentiation among human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-14

    During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  19. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  20. Blood pressure and the contractility of a human leg muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Billy L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    These studies investigate the relationships between perfusion pressure, force output and pressor responses for the contracting human tibialis anterior muscle. Eight healthy adults were studied. Changing the height of tibialis anterior relative to the heart was used to control local perfusion pressure. Electrically stimulated tetanic force output was highly sensitive to physiological variations in perfusion pressure showing a proportionate change in force output of 6.5% per 10 mmHg. This perfusion-dependent change in contractility begins within seconds and is reversible with a 53 s time constant, demonstrating a steady-state equilibrium between contractility and perfusion pressure. These stimulated contractions did not produce significant cardiovascular responses, indicating that the muscle pressor response does not play a major role in cardiovascular regulation at these workloads. Voluntary contractions at forces that would require constant motor drive if perfusion pressure had remained constant generated a central pressor response when perfusion pressure was lowered. This is consistent with a larger cortical drive being required to compensate for the lost contractility with lower perfusion pressure. The relationship between contractility and perfusion for this large postural muscle was not different from that of a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis) and it responded similarly to passive peripheral and active central changes in arterial pressure, but extended over a wider operating range of pressures. If we consider that, in a goal-oriented motor task, muscle contractility determines central motor output and the central pressor response, these results indicate that muscle would fatigue twice as fast without a pressor response. From its extent, timing and reversibility we propose a testable hypothesis that this change in contractility arises through contraction- and perfusion-dependent changes in interstitial K(+) concentration.

  1. High pressure inactivation of human norovirus-like particles: evidence that the capsid of human norovirus is highly pressure resistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a promising non-thermal technology to inactivate foodborne viruses. However, the effectiveness of HPP on inactivating human norovirus (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, is unknown because it cannot be propagated in cell culture. Therefore, developi...

  2. Human Population Decline in North America during the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. G.; Goodyear, A. C.; Stafford, T. W., Jr.; Kennett, J.; West, A.

    2009-12-01

    There is ongoing debate about a possible human population decline or contraction at the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) at 12.9 ka. We used two methods to test whether the YD affected human population levels: (1) frequency analyses of Paleoindian projectile points, and (2) summed probability analyses of radiocarbon (14C) dates. The results suggest that a significant decline or reorganization of human populations occurred at 12.9 ka, continued through the initial centuries of the YD chronozone, then rebounded by the end of the YD. FREQUENCY ANALYSES: This method employed projectile point data from the Paleoindian Database of the Americas (PIDBA, http://pidba.utk.edu). We tallied diagnostic projectile points and obtained larger totals for Clovis points than for immediately post-Clovis points, which share an instrument-assisted fluting technique, typically using pressure or indirect percussion. Gainey, Vail, Debert, Redstone, and Cumberland point-styles utilized this method and are comparable to the Folsom style. For the SE U.S., the ratio of Clovis points (n=1993) to post-Clovis points (n=947) reveals a point decline of 52%. For the Great Plains, a comparison of Clovis and fluted points (n=4020) to Folsom points (n=2527) shows a point decline of 37%, which may translate into a population contraction of similar magnitude. In addition, eight major Clovis lithic quarry sites in the SE U.S. exhibit little to no evidence for immediate post-Clovis occupations, implying a major population decline. SUMMED PROBABILITIES: This method involved calibrating relevant 14C dates and combining the probabilities, after which major peaks and troughs in the trends are assumed to reflect changes in human demographics. Using 14C dates from Buchanan et al. (2008), we analyzed multiple regions, including the Southeast and Great Plains. Contrary to Buchanan et al., we found an abrupt, statistically significant decline at 12.9 ka, followed 200 to 900 years later by a rebound in the number of

  3. CAUSES OF UNCONTROLLED BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE OVER-65 POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khosravi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is a major cause of cardiovascular disease and the prevalence of hypertension shows a linear increase with aging so that it increases by 10 percent every 10 years. This study was conducted to investigate the causes of uncontrolled blood pressure in people aged over 65 years. methods: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at Isfahan Amin Hospital in 2003 on two-hundred over-65 subjects diagnosed with hypertension through a routine travel check-up for Mecca pilgrimage. After medical examinations and blood pressure measurement according to WHO standards, the subjects were divided into a case group (controlled blood pressure and a control group (uncontrolled blood pressure, respectively. A questionnaire was filled in for each subject and the data were analyzed with χ2 and t-student test. results: The case and control groups had mean ages of 70.7±5.2 and 69.5±4.9 years, respectively. In the case group, less than half of the subjects were taking their antihypertensive medications regularly and 12.5% engaged in self-therapy. Fifty-five percent of subjects in the case group expressed a lack of motivation as the reason for discontinuing therapy. Their knowledge and practice were also found to be significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05. Discussion: In comparison with other studies, it was observed that the most common causes of uncontrolled blood pressure are poor knowledge, inappropriate practice in avoiding risk factors, and the discontinuation of pharmaceutical antihypertensive therapy.Keywords . Hypertension . Cardiovascular diseases . Antihypertensive agents . Diet therapy

  4. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  5. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  6. Detection of human influence on sea-level pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Nathan P; Zwiers, Francis W; Weaver, Andrew J; Stott, Peter A

    2003-03-20

    Greenhouse gases and tropospheric sulphate aerosols--the main human influences on climate--have been shown to have had a detectable effect on surface air temperature, the temperature of the free troposphere and stratosphere and ocean temperature. Nevertheless, the question remains as to whether human influence is detectable in any variable other than temperature. Here we detect an influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols in observations of winter sea-level pressure (December to February), using combined simulations from four climate models. We find increases in sea-level pressure over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, southern Europe and North Africa, and decreases in the polar regions and the North Pacific Ocean, in response to human influence. Our analysis also indicates that the climate models substantially underestimate the magnitude of the sea-level pressure response. This discrepancy suggests that the upward trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation index (corresponding to strengthened westerlies in the North Atlantic region), as simulated in a number of global warming scenarios, may be too small, leading to an underestimation of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on European climate.

  7. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in the paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballah, Laila; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    A paucity of research related to the problem of pressure ulcers in paediatrics is found, with a variety of reported prevalence rates. To record the prevalence, location and categories of PU in the inpatient paediatric wards, and to identify the characteristics of pressure ulcer patients. A descriptive point prevalence study. All paediatric inpatient wards in two hospitals in Jordan. One of which is a university-affiliated hospital and the other a paediatric public hospital. Isolation, burn and emergency units, outpatients' clinics and psychiatric wards were excluded. One sixty six paediatric patients aged from one day up to 18 years from both hospitals. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were included and examined for the existence of pressure ulcers on one day in each hospital by the primary investigator. The European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification system was used to categorise each identified ulcer. The characteristics of ulcers were collected as well. Sixteen ulcers were identified in 11 patients, giving a prevalence rate of 6.6%.When Category I ulcers were excluded, the prevalence rate dropped to 2.4%. All except one of the PU patients were being treated in critical care units (n = 10, 90.9%), and most of the ulcers were category one (n = 7, 63.6%) and caused by devices (n = 7, 63.6). The face was the most frequently reported location of PUs (n = 6, 54.5%), followed by the occiput (n = 2, 18.2%). Most PU patients were male (n = 6, 54.5%), and less than 12 months old (n = 8, 72.7%). PU patients had experienced longer hospital stays than patients free from PU (U = 499.0, p = 0.02). Jordanian paediatric patients do have pressure ulcers, with a prevalence rate congruent with previously reported international rates. Most of the ulcers found were caused by devices used in critical care units. This should encourage nurses to pay extra attention to their paediatric patients when they are connected to medical devices. Copyright

  8. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  9. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1990-07-01

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  10. Transcriptome sequencing from diverse human populations reveals differentiated regulatory architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia R Martin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sequencing efforts have documented extensive genetic variation within the human genome. However, our understanding of the origins, global distribution, and functional consequences of this variation is far from complete. While regulatory variation influencing gene expression has been studied within a handful of populations, the breadth of transcriptome differences across diverse human populations has not been systematically analyzed. To better understand the spectrum of gene expression variation, alternative splicing, and the population genetics of regulatory variation in humans, we have sequenced the genomes, exomes, and transcriptomes of EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 45 individuals in the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP. The populations sampled span the geographic breadth of human migration history and include Namibian San, Mbuti Pygmies of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Algerian Mozabites, Pathan of Pakistan, Cambodians of East Asia, Yakut of Siberia, and Mayans of Mexico. We discover that approximately 25.0% of the variation in gene expression found amongst individuals can be attributed to population differences. However, we find few genes that are systematically differentially expressed among populations. Of this population-specific variation, 75.5% is due to expression rather than splicing variability, and we find few genes with strong evidence for differential splicing across populations. Allelic expression analyses indicate that previously mapped common regulatory variants identified in eight populations from the International Haplotype Map Phase 3 project have similar effects in our seven sampled HGDP populations, suggesting that the cellular effects of common variants are shared across diverse populations. Together, these results provide a resource for studies analyzing functional differences across populations by estimating the degree of shared gene expression, alternative splicing, and

  11. Chromosome surveys of human populations: between epidemiology and anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2014-09-01

    It is commonly held that after 1945 human genetics turned medical and focussed on the individual rather than on the study of human populations that had become discredited. However, a closer look at the research practices at the time quickly reveals that human population studies, using old and new tools, prospered in this period. The essay focuses on the rise of chromosome analysis as a new tool for the study of human populations. It reviews a broad array of population studies ranging from newborn screening programmes to studies of isolated or 'primitive' people. Throughout, it highlights the continuing role of concerns and opportunities raised by the propagation of atomic energy for civilian and military uses, the collection of large data bases and computers, and the role of international organisations like the World Health Organisation and the International Biological Programme in shaping research agendas and carving out a space for human heredity in the postwar era. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sub-Saharan Africa: population pressures on development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliber, T J

    1985-02-01

    The population of sub-Saharan Africa, estimated at 434 million in 1984, is expected to reach 1.4 billion by 2025. The birth rate, currently 48/1000 population, continues to increase, and the death rate, 17/1000, is declining. Rapid population growth has curtailed government efforts to provide adequate nutrition, preserve the land base essential for future development, meet the demand for jobs, education, and health services, and address overcrowding in urban areas. Low education, rural residence, and low incomes are key contributors to the area's high fertility. Other factors include women's restricted roles, early age at marriage, a need for children as a source of security and support in old age, and limited knowledge of and access to modern methods of contraception. Average desired family size, which is higher than actual family size in most countries, is 6-9 children. Although government leaders have expressed ambivalence toward development of population policies and family planning programs as a result of the identification of such programs with Western aid donors, the policy climat is gradually changing. By mid-1984, at least 13 of the 42 countries in the region had indicated that they consider current fertility rates too high and support government and/or private family planning programs to reduce fertility. In addition, 26 countries in the region provide some government family planning services, usually integrated with maternal and child health programs. However, 10 countries in the region do not support family planning services for any reason. Unfortunately, sub-Saharan Africa has not yet produced a family planning program with a measurable effect on fertility that could serve as a model for other countries in the region. Social and economic change is central to any hope of fertility reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. Lower infant and child mortality rates, rising incomes, higher education, greater economic and social opportunities for women, and increased

  13. Genetic evidence for a Paleolithic human population expansion in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David E.; Goldstein, David B.

    1998-01-01

    Human populations have undergone dramatic expansions in size, but other than the growth associated with agriculture, the dates and magnitudes of those expansions have never been resolved. Here, we introduce two new statistical tests for population expansion, which use variation at a number of unlinked genetic markers to study the demographic histories of natural populations. By analyzing genetic variation in various aboriginal populations from throughout the world, we show highly significant evidence for a major human population expansion in Africa, but no evidence of expansion outside of Africa. The inferred African expansion is estimated to have occurred between 49,000 and 640,000 years ago, certainly before the Neolithic expansions, and probably before the splitting of African and non-African populations. In showing a significant difference between African and non-African populations, our analysis supports the unique role of Africa in human evolutionary history, as has been suggested by most other genetic work. In addition, the missing signal in non-African populations may be the result of a population bottleneck associated with the emergence of these populations from Africa, as postulated in the “Out of Africa” model of modern human origins. PMID:9653150

  14. Home blood-pressure monitoring in a hypertensive pregnant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, H; Sheehan, E; Thilaganathan, B; Khalil, A

    2018-04-01

    The majority of patients with chronic or gestational hypertension do not develop pre-eclampsia. Home blood-pressure monitoring (HBPM) has the potential to offer a more accurate and acceptable means of monitoring hypertensive patients during pregnancy compared with traditional pathways of frequent outpatient monitoring. The aim of this study was to determine whether HBPM reduces visits to antenatal services and is safe in pregnancy. This was a case-control study of 166 hypertensive pregnant women, which took place at St George's Hospital, University of London. Inclusion criteria were: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension or high risk of developing pre-eclampsia, no significant proteinuria (≤ 1+ proteinuria on dipstick testing) and normal biochemical and hematological markers. Exclusion criteria were maternal age  155 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure > 100 mmHg, significant proteinuria (≥ 2+ proteinuria on dipstick testing or protein/creatinine ratio > 30 mg/mmol), evidence of small-for-gestational age (estimated fetal weight < 10 th centile), signs of severe pre-eclampsia, significant mental health concerns or insufficient understanding of the English language. Pregnant women in the HBPM group were taught how to measure and record their blood pressure using a validated machine at home and attended every 1-2 weeks for assessment depending on clinical need. The control group was managed as per the local protocol prior to the implementation of HBPM. The two groups were compared with respect to number of visits to antenatal services and outcome. There were 108 women in the HBPM group and 58 in the control group. There was no difference in maternal age, parity, body mass index, ethnicity or smoking status between the groups, but there were more women with chronic hypertension in the HBPM group compared with the control group (49.1% vs 25.9%, P = 0.004). The HBPM group had significantly fewer outpatient attendances per patient (6

  15. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.Keywords: animal products, polyunsaturated fatty acids, meat, milk, nutrients.

  16. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from 3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (-6 with relative “deficiency” of -3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the -6 / -3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  17. Decreasing systolic blood pressure and declining mortality rates in an untreated population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla O; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate developments in 30 years mortality risk that may be associated with developments in population systolic blood pressure (SBP) and to evaluate possible secular trends in BP-associated mortality risk in the untreated population....

  18. The population genomic landscape of human genetic structure, admixture history and local adaptation in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Phipps, Maude E; Li, Shilin; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Ismail, Endom; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Jin, Li; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration

  19. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  20. Human population exposure to cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Lowder, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Critical evaluations of existing data on cosmic radiation in the atmosphere and in interplanetary space have been carried out in order to estimate the exposure of the world's population to this important component of natural background radiation. Data on population distribution and mean terrain heights on a 1 x 1 degree grid have been folded in to estimate regional and global dose distributions. The per caput annual dose equivalent at ground altitudes is estimated to be 270 μSv from charged particles and 50 μSv from neutrons. More than 100 million people receive more than 1 mSv in a year, and two million in excess of 5 mSv. Aircraft flight crews and frequent flyers receive an additional annual dose equivalent in the order of 1 mSv, though the global per caput annual dose equivalent from airplane flights is only about 1 μSv. Future space travellers on extended missions are likely to receive dose equivalents in the range 0.11 Sv, with the possibility of higher doses at relatively high dose rates from unusually large solar flares. These results indicate a critical need for a better understanding of the biological significance of chronic neutron and heavy charged particle exposure. (author)

  1. Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.

  2. Human population genetics and “ancestrality” business

    OpenAIRE

    André Langaney

    2009-01-01

    Following the foundation of theoretical population genetics by Wright, Fischer, Haldane and Malécot, in the first half of the 20th century, applied human population genetics developed with great success with the improvement and accumulation of new technologies to measure genetic polymorphism, first through protein polymorphisms since the 1960’s, then through DNA typing and sequencing since the 1980’s. The field of population genetics and biological anthropology was developed by a handful of d...

  3. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John K., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    What many sincere environmentalists advocate: (severe restrictions on energy use, to reduce global warming), may actually end up being very harmful to the environment. Since 85 percent of the global energy use is derived from carbon based fossil fuels, this may seem to be a reasonable position. However, the proponents of energy use restrictions are ignoring some very important relationships. The greatest damage to the environment, in terms of species loss, is loss and/or human modification of habitat. The two greatest threats to habitat seem to be (1) population pressure and (2) logging. Logging does not necessarily permanently occupy the land, while either default squatter occupation or "colonization by policy" is often permanent. Increased population degrades the land by causing over- farming, and also creates an ever greater demand for raw materials and food resources. Poor people have no time nor money to think about or help save the environment. Therefore the greatest threat to species survival is human population growth and its frequent companion: poverty. There is an existing way to reduce population growth, and thus to reduce pressure on habitats, called "raising the standard of living". Wherever it succeeds, population growth slows rapidly. In many European countries, there would be a negative population growth if not for immigration. Personal energy use is closely correlated with living standards, and it is impossible to have a higher living standard without a higher degree of personal energy use. It would seem, however, that extending high living standards to the developing world would create an even greater demand for the use of fossil fuels. The solution to this dilemma can only be found in the use of very high capacity sources of non- fossil energy that do not significantly damage the environment. Are there sources of clean, economical energy with a large enough combined capacity to provide high living standards for the whole world, including those

  4. PGG.Population: a database for understanding the genomic diversity and genetic ancestry of human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Gao, Yang; Liu, Jiaojiao; Xue, Zhe; Lu, Yan; Deng, Lian; Tian, Lei; Feng, Qidi; Xu, Shuhua

    2018-01-04

    There are a growing number of studies focusing on delineating genetic variations that are associated with complex human traits and diseases due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. However, identifying and prioritizing disease-associated causal variants relies on understanding the distribution of genetic variations within and among populations. The PGG.Population database documents 7122 genomes representing 356 global populations from 107 countries and provides essential information for researchers to understand human genomic diversity and genetic ancestry. These data and information can facilitate the design of research studies and the interpretation of results of both evolutionary and medical studies involving human populations. The database is carefully maintained and constantly updated when new data are available. We included miscellaneous functions and a user-friendly graphical interface for visualization of genomic diversity, population relationships (genetic affinity), ancestral makeup, footprints of natural selection, and population history etc. Moreover, PGG.Population provides a useful feature for users to analyze data and visualize results in a dynamic style via online illustration. The long-term ambition of the PGG.Population, together with the joint efforts from other researchers who contribute their data to our database, is to create a comprehensive depository of geographic and ethnic variation of human genome, as well as a platform bringing influence on future practitioners of medicine and clinical investigators. PGG.Population is available at https://www.pggpopulation.org. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Freitas Rezende Bento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results: Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence.

  6. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D

    2016-10-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski . It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range.

  7. Climate variability, human wildlife conflict and population dynamics of lions Panthera leo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkel, Martina

    2013-04-01

    Large carnivores are threatened by habitat loss, declining prey populations and direct persecution. Pride dynamics of eight lion prides in the centre of the Etosha National Park, Namibia are described during a 16-year study. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the number of adult and subadult lions declined continuously to two third of its initial population size, and reached a new equilibrium in the 1990s. Pride sizes decreased from 6.3 adult females in 1989 to 2.8 lionesses in 1997. While the number of adult females declined continuously, the number of adult males, subadult females and subadult males remained constant over the years. A severe drought period, lasting for more than 20 years, led to declining prey populations inside the lions' territory. Besides declining prey populations, conflict with humans at the border of Etosha puts substantial pressure onto the lion population: 82 % of all known lion mortalities were caused by humans, and most of these consisted of adult females (28 %) and subadult males (29 %). I postulate that the considerable decline in the lion population is a response to declining prey populations, and although the human predator conflict is severe, it does not seem to limit the size of Etosha's lion population.

  8. Human heredity after 1945: moving populations centre stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny; de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2014-09-01

    The essays in this issue look at the contested history of human heredity after 1945 from a new analytical angle, that of populations and the ways in which they were constructed and studied. One consequence of this approach is that we do not limit our attention to the disciplinary study of genetics. After the Second World War, populations became a central topic for an array of fields, including demography, anthropology, epidemiology, and public health. Human heredity had a role in all of these: demographers carried out mental surveys in efforts to distinguish hereditary from environmental factors, doctors screened newborns and tested pregnant women for chromosome disorders; anthropologists collected blood from remote locations to gain insights into the evolutionary history of human populations; geneticists monitored people exposed to radiation. Through this work, populations were labelled as clinical, normal, primitive, pure, vulnerable or exotic. We ask: how were populations chosen, who qualified as members, and how was the study of human heredity shaped by technical, institutional and geopolitical conditions? By following the practical and conceptual work to define populations as objects of research, the essays trace the circulation of practices across different fields and contexts, bringing into view new actors, institutions, and geographies. By doing so the collection shows how human heredity research was linked to the broader politics of the postwar world, one profoundly conditioned by Cold War tensions, by nationalist concerns, by colonial and post-colonial struggles, by modernisation projects and by a new internationalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of cis regulatory variation in diverse human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of gene expression variation has long been studied with the aim to understand the landscape of regulatory variants, but also more recently to assist in the interpretation and elucidation of disease signals. To date, many studies have looked in specific tissues and population-based samples, but there has been limited assessment of the degree of inter-population variability in regulatory variation. We analyzed genome-wide gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a total of 726 individuals from 8 global populations from the HapMap3 project and correlated gene expression levels with HapMap3 SNPs located in cis to the genes. We describe the influence of ancestry on gene expression levels within and between these diverse human populations and uncover a non-negligible impact on global patterns of gene expression. We further dissect the specific functional pathways differentiated between populations. We also identify 5,691 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs after controlling for both non-genetic factors and population admixture and observe that half of the cis-eQTLs are replicated in one or more of the populations. We highlight patterns of eQTL-sharing between populations, which are partially determined by population genetic relatedness, and discover significant sharing of eQTL effects between Asians, European-admixed, and African subpopulations. Specifically, we observe that both the effect size and the direction of effect for eQTLs are highly conserved across populations. We observe an increasing proximity of eQTLs toward the transcription start site as sharing of eQTLs among populations increases, highlighting that variants close to TSS have stronger effects and therefore are more likely to be detected across a wider panel of populations. Together these results offer a unique picture and resource of the degree of differentiation among human populations in functional regulatory variation and provide an estimate for

  10. Neutral Theory: From Complex Population History to Natural Selection and Sociocultural Phenomena in Human Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerlitz, Frédéric; Heyer, Evelyne

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a synthetic view on how Kimura's Neutral theory has helped us gaining insight on the different evolutionary forces that shape human evolution. We put this perspective in the frame of recent emerging challenges: the use of whole genome data for reconstructing population histories, natural selection on complex polygenic traits, and integrating cultural processes in human evolution.

  11. Poor Reliability of Wrist Blood Pressure Self-Measurement at Home: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    The reliability of blood pressure measurement with wrist devices, which has not previously been assessed under real-life circumstances in general population, is dependent on correct positioning of the wrist device at heart level. We determined whether an error was present when blood pressure was self-measured at the wrist in 721 unselected subjects from the general population. After training, blood pressure was measured in the office and self-measured at home with an upper-arm device (the UA-767 Plus) and a wrist device (the UB-542, not provided with a position sensor). The upper-arm-wrist blood pressure difference detected in the office was used as the reference measurement. The discrepancy between office and home differences was the home measurement error. In the office, systolic blood pressure was 2.5% lower at wrist than at arm (P=0.002), whereas at home, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher at wrist than at arm (+5.6% and +5.4%, respectively; Pblood pressure values likely because of a poor memory and rendition of the instructions, leading to the wrong position of the wrist. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Effect of Sildenafil Citrate on Intraocular Pressure and Blood Pressure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerometta, Rosana; Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have suggested that the vasodilator, sildenafil citrate, which evokes its effect via a select inhibition of PDE5, has the potential to increase intraocular pressure (IOP) in some individuals. An ocular hypertensive effect by sildenafil was also recently described in a sheep animal model. In contrast, clinical studies have not found a direct association between sildenafil ingestion (commonly consumed as Viagra) and changes in IOP. However, some such studies also reported no effects of sildenafil on systemic blood pressure (BP) at the time of the IOP determination. Given this surprising result, our purpose was to repeat a study in human volunteers in the city of Corrientes, Argentina to corroborate the effects of sildenafil on human IOP and systemic BP. For the present study, 9 healthy volunteers (male and female, 18 to 74 years old) were selected as subjects after ophthalmic and cardiovascular evaluation indicated that they exhibited normal parameters for their age. In a masked, placebo-controlled study, the subjects ingested 100 mg sildenafil citrate (provided as Vorst from Laboratorios Bernabo, Argentina) in one session, and a placebo on a second separate occasion. IOP was measured with a Goldman applanation tonometer by an ophthalmologist, and BP by a second physician, neither of whom witnessed the tablet ingestion by the volunteers, nor provided with information on the nature of the test compounds. A third individual administered the tablets. The average baseline IOP of this group of 9 was 13.1 ± 0.6 mm Hg. Subsequent to sildenafil ingestion, IOP increased by 26% to 16.5 ± 0.8 mm Hg 60 min later (p< 0.005, as paired data), and returned to control values within 2 hrs. Both systolic and diastolic BP were significantly reduced by sildenafil ingestion. At the point of maximal systemic hypotension (90 min), the systolic and diastolic pressures declined by 15% and 13%, respectively. No significant changes in IOP or BP were recorded after ingestion

  13. Effect of sildenafil citrate on intraocular pressure and blood pressure in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerometta, Rosana; Alvarez, Lawrence J; Candia, Oscar A

    2011-07-01

    Anecdotal reports have suggested that the vasodilator, sildenafil citrate, which evokes its effect via a select inhibition of PDE5, has the potential to increase intraocular pressure (IOP) in some individuals. An ocular hypertensive effect by sildenafil was also recently described in a sheep animal model. In contrast, clinical studies have not found a direct association between sildenafil ingestion (commonly consumed as Viagra) and changes in IOP. However, some such studies also reported no effects of sildenafil on systemic blood pressure (BP) at the time of the IOP determination. Given this surprising result, our purpose was to repeat a study in human volunteers in the city of Corrientes, Argentina to corroborate the effects of sildenafil on human IOP and systemic BP. For the present study, 9 healthy volunteers (male and female, 18-74 years old) were selected as subjects after ophthalmic and cardiovascular evaluation indicated that they exhibited normal parameters for their age. In a masked, placebo-controlled study, the subjects ingested 100 mg sildenafil citrate (provided as Vorst from Laboratorios Bernabo, Argentina) in one session, and a placebo on a second separate occasion. IOP was measured with a Goldman applanation tonometer by an ophthalmologist, and BP by a second physician, neither of whom witnessed the tablet ingestion by the volunteers, nor provided with information on the nature of the test compounds. A third individual administered the tablets. The average baseline IOP of this group of 9 was 13.1 ± 0.6 mm Hg. Subsequent to sildenafil ingestion, IOP increased by 26% to 16.5 ± 0.8 mm Hg 60 min later (P < 0.005, as paired data), and returned to control values within 2 h. Both systolic and diastolic BP were significantly reduced by sildenafil ingestion. At the point of maximal systemic hypotension (90 min), the systolic and diastolic pressures declined by 15% and 13%, respectively. No significant changes in IOP or BP were recorded after

  14. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert

    2017-04-21

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women's education, and achieving gender equality. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Learning about human population history from ancient and modern genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Mark; Krause, Johannes

    2011-08-18

    Genome-wide data, both from SNP arrays and from complete genome sequencing, are becoming increasingly abundant and are now even available from extinct hominins. These data are providing new insights into population history; in particular, when combined with model-based analytical approaches, genome-wide data allow direct testing of hypotheses about population history. For example, genome-wide data from both contemporary populations and extinct hominins strongly support a single dispersal of modern humans from Africa, followed by two archaic admixture events: one with Neanderthals somewhere outside Africa and a second with Denisovans that (so far) has only been detected in New Guinea. These new developments promise to reveal new stories about human population history, without having to resort to storytelling.

  16. Allergic rhinitis and arterial blood pressure: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallioglu, O; Polat, C; Akyigit, A; Cetiner, H; Duzer, S

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the likelihood of allergic rhinitis and potential co-morbidities, and to assess whether allergic rhinitis is associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension. In this population-based study, 369 adults with allergic rhinitis and asthma were assessed via a questionnaire and immunoglobulin E levels. There were four groups: control (n = 90), allergic rhinitis (n = 99), asthma (n = 87) and hypertension (n = 93). Arterial blood pressure was measured in all groups. There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between males and females in any group. Pairwise comparisons revealed no significant differences between: the control and allergic rhinitis groups, the control and asthma groups, or the allergic rhinitis and asthma groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of males and females were significantly higher in the hypertension group than the allergic rhinitis group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure for seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis patients. Rhinitis was not associated with increased blood pressure. Allergic rhinitis can coincide with asthma and hypertension. The findings do not support the need for blood pressure follow up in allergic rhinitis patients.

  17. Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Elinor K.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology. PMID:24776769

  18. High blood pressure: prevalence and adherence to guidelines in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Diana; Curjuric, Ivan; Dratva, Julia; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Quinto, Carlos; Rochat, Thierry; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Burdet, Luc; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Pons, Marco; Gerbase, Margaret W; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure, the single leading health risk factor worldwide, contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to add to the understanding of diagnosed and undiagnosed high blood pressure in Switzerland and to evaluate adherence to hypertension guidelines. Included were 3962 participants from the first (2001-2003) and second (2010-2011) follow-ups of the population-based Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults. High blood pressure was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg and the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed hypertension was based on questionnaire information. High blood pressure was found in 34.9% of subjects, 49.1% of whom were unaware of this condition; 30.0% had doctor-diagnosed hypertension and, although 82.1% of these received drug treatments, in only 40.8% was blood pressure controlled (<140/90 mm Hg). Substantial first-line beta-blocker use and nonadherence to comorbidity-specific prescription guidelines were observed and remained mostly unexplained. Age-adjusted rates of unawareness and uncontrolled hypertension were more than 20% higher than in the USA. There is room for improvement in managing hypertension in Switzerland. Population-based observational studies are essential for identifying and evaluating unmet needs in healthcare; however, to pinpoint the underlying causes it is imperative to facilitate linkage of cohort data to medical records.

  19. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  20. Population and prehistory II: space-limited human populations in constant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleston, Cedric O; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2008-09-01

    We present a population model to examine the forces that determined the quality and quantity of human life in early agricultural societies where cultivable area is limited. The model is driven by the non-linear and interdependent relationships between the age distribution of a population, its behavior and technology, and the nature of its environment. The common currency in the model is the production of food, on which age-specific rates of birth and death depend. There is a single non-trivial equilibrium population at which productivity balances caloric needs. One of the most powerful controls on equilibrium hunger level is fertility control. Gains against hunger are accompanied by decreases in population size. Increasing worker productivity does increase equilibrium population size but does not improve welfare at equilibrium. As a case study we apply the model to the population of a Polynesian valley before European contact.

  1. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  2. DNA methylation-based variation between human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have proved that DNA methylation affects regulation of gene expression and development. Epigenome-wide studies have reported variation in methylation patterns between populations, including Caucasians, non-Caucasians (Blacks), Hispanics, Arabs, and numerous populations of the African continent. Not only has DNA methylation differences shown to impact externally visible characteristics, but is also a potential biomarker for underlying racial health disparities between human populations. Ethnicity-related methylation differences set their mark during early embryonic development. Genetic variations, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental factors, such as age, dietary folate, socioeconomic status, and smoking, impacts DNA methylation levels, which reciprocally impacts expression of phenotypes. Studies show that it is necessary to address these external influences when attempting to differentiate between populations since the relative impacts of these factors on the human methylome remain uncertain. The present review summarises several reported attempts to establish the contribution of differential DNA methylation to natural human variation, and shows that DNA methylation could represent new opportunities for risk stratification and prevention of several diseases amongst populations world-wide. Variation of methylation patterns between human populations is an exciting prospect which inspires further valuable research to apply the concept in routine medical and forensic casework. However, trans-generational inheritance needs to be quantified to decipher the proportion of variation contributed by DNA methylation. The future holds thorough evaluation of the epigenome to understand quantification, heritability, and the effect of DNA methylation on phenotypes. In addition, methylation profiling of the same ethnic groups across geographical locations will shed light on conserved methylation differences in populations.

  3. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Sobral

    Full Text Available Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i pollinator visitation rate and (ii escape from seed predation and (iii by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  4. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  5. The associations of diastolic blood pressure with the risk of stroke in Western and Eastern populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence from two overviews of prospective, observational studies of the association of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with the risk of stroke in populations from the US and Europe and populations from China and Japan. The Western overview included seven studies involving a total of 405,511 individuals. During a mean follow-up period of 11 years, 843 strokes were observed. The Eastern overview included 18 cohorts involving a total of 124,774 participants. During a mean follow-up duration of 9 years, 1,798 strokes were observed. The shape of the association between usual DBP and the risk of stroke was similar in Western and Eastern populations, but in Eastern populations the size of the association was about 50% steeper than that in Western populations. This may be due, at least in part, to cerebral haemorrhage comprising a greater proportion of total stroke in Eastern populations. This finding, together with the high stroke rates in many Eastern Asian populations, suggests that the potential benefits of blood pressure lowering may be greater in Eastern Asia.

  6. Biodiversity Areas under Threat: Overlap of Climate Change and Population Pressures on the World's Biodiversity Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukema, Juliann E; Pricope, Narcisa G; Husak, Gregory J; Lopez-Carr, David

    2017-01-01

    Humans and the ecosystem services they depend on are threatened by climate change. Places with high or growing human population as well as increasing climate variability, have a reduced ability to provide ecosystem services just as the need for these services is most critical. A spiral of vulnerability and ecosystem degradation often ensues in such places. We apply different global conservation schemes as proxies to examine the spatial relation between wet season precipitation, population change over three decades, and natural resource conservation. We pose two research questions: 1) Where are biodiversity and ecosystem services vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and population growth? 2) Where are human populations vulnerable to degraded ecosystem services? Results suggest that globally only about 20% of the area between 50 degrees latitude North and South has experienced significant change-largely wetting-in wet season precipitation. Approximately 40% of rangelands and 30% of rainfed agriculture lands have experienced significant precipitation changes, with important implications for food security. Over recent decades a number of critical conservation areas experienced high population growth concurrent with significant wetting or drying (e.g. the Horn of Africa, Himalaya, Western Ghats, and Sri Lanka), posing challenges not only for human adaptation but also to the protection and sustenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying areas of climate and population risk and their overlap with conservation priorities can help to target activities and resources that promote biodiversity and ecosystem services while improving human well-being.

  7. Biodiversity Areas under Threat: Overlap of Climate Change and Population Pressures on the World's Biodiversity Priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann E Aukema

    Full Text Available Humans and the ecosystem services they depend on are threatened by climate change. Places with high or growing human population as well as increasing climate variability, have a reduced ability to provide ecosystem services just as the need for these services is most critical. A spiral of vulnerability and ecosystem degradation often ensues in such places. We apply different global conservation schemes as proxies to examine the spatial relation between wet season precipitation, population change over three decades, and natural resource conservation. We pose two research questions: 1 Where are biodiversity and ecosystem services vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and population growth? 2 Where are human populations vulnerable to degraded ecosystem services? Results suggest that globally only about 20% of the area between 50 degrees latitude North and South has experienced significant change-largely wetting-in wet season precipitation. Approximately 40% of rangelands and 30% of rainfed agriculture lands have experienced significant precipitation changes, with important implications for food security. Over recent decades a number of critical conservation areas experienced high population growth concurrent with significant wetting or drying (e.g. the Horn of Africa, Himalaya, Western Ghats, and Sri Lanka, posing challenges not only for human adaptation but also to the protection and sustenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying areas of climate and population risk and their overlap with conservation priorities can help to target activities and resources that promote biodiversity and ecosystem services while improving human well-being.

  8. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Peter K.; Esko, Tonu; Mattsson, Hannele; Eklund, Niina; Gandin, Ilaria; Nutile, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U.; Schurmann, Claudia; Smith, Albert V.; Zhang, Weihua; Okada, Yukinori; Stancakova, Alena; Faul, Jessica D.; Zhao, Wei; Bartz, Traci M.; Concas, Maria Pina; Franceschini, Nora; Enroth, Stefan; Vitart, Veronique; Trompet, Stella; Guo, Xiuqing; Chasman, Daniel I.; O'Connel, Jeffrey R.; Corre, Tanguy; Nongmaithem, Suraj S.; Chen, Yuning; Mangino, Massimo; Ruggiero, Daniela; Traglia, Michela; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Kacprowski, Tim; Bjonnes, Andrew; van der Spek, Ashley; Wu, Ying; Giri, Anil K.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Wang, Lihua; Hofer, Edith; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; McLeod, Olga; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Pattaro, Cristian; Verweij, Niek; Baumbach, Clemens; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Warren, Helen R.; Vuckovic, Dragana; Mei, Hao; Bouchard, Claude; Perry, John R. B.; Cappellani, Stefania; Mirza, Saira S.; Benton, Miles C.; Broeckel, Ulrich; Medland, Sarah E.; Lind, PenelopeA.; Malerba, Giovanni; Drong, Alexander; Yengo, Loic; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhi, Degui; van der Most, Peter J.; Shriner, Daniel; Maegi, Reedik; Hemani, Gibran; Karaderi, Tugce; Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Tian; Demuth, Ilja; Zhao, Jing Hua; Meng, Weihua; Lataniotis, Lazaros; van der Laan, Sander W.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Wood, Andrew R.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Hall, LeanneM.; Salvi, Erika; Yazar, Seyhan; Carstensen, Lisbeth; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Abney, Mark; Afzal, Uzma; Allison, Matthew A.; Amin, Najaf; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Barr, R. Graham; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Campbell, Archie; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chan, Yingleong; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Constance; Chen, Y. -D. Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John; Correa, Adolfo; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; Doerr, Marcus; Ehret, Georg; Ellis, Stephen B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ford, Ian; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Friedrich, Nele; Geller, Frank; Scotland, Generation; Gillham-Nasenya, Irina; Gottesman, Omri; Graff, Misa; Grodstein, Francine; Gu, Charles; Haley, Chris; Hammond, Christopher J.; Harris, Sarah E.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heikkila, Kauko; Hocking, Lynne J.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Joensuu, Anni; Johansson, Asa; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahonen, Mika; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kerr, Shona M.; Khan, Nazir M.; Koellinger, Philipp; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Manraj K.; Kubo, Michiaki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lahti, Jari; Launer, Lenore J.; Lea, Rodney A.; Lehne, Benjamin; Lehtimaki, Terho; Liewald, David C. M.; Lind, Lars; Loh, Marie; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; London, Stephanie J.; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Loukola, Anu; Lu, Yingchang; Lumley, Thomas; Lundqvist, Annamari; Mannisto, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Masciullo, Corrado; Matchan, Angela; Mathias, Rasika A.; Matsuda, Koichi; Meigs, James B.; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Mentch, Frank D.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Montasser, May E.; Montgomery, GrantW.; Morrison, Alanna; Myers, Richard H.; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; Nieminen, Markku S.; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connor, George T.; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmas, Walter R.; Pankow, James S.; Patarcic, Inga; Pavani, Francesca; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pietilainen, Kirsi; Poulter, Neil; Prokopenko, Inga; Ralhan, Sarju; Redmond, Paul; Rich, Stephen S.; Rissanen, Harri; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rose, Richard; Sala, Cinzia; Salako, Babatunde; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Saxena, Richa; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Laura J.; Scott, William R.; Sennblad, Bengt; Seshadri, Sudha; Sever, Peter; Shrestha, Smeeta; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Soranzo, Nicole; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Southam, Lorraine; Stanton, Alice V.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Strauch, Konstantin; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Suderman, Matthew J.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tang, Sian-Tsun; Taylor, Kent D.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Toeglhofer, Anna Maria; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tsernikova, Natalia; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Vlieg, Astrid van Hylckama; van Setten, Jessica; Vasankari, Tuula; Vedantam, Sailaja; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Vozzi, Diego; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ware, Erin B.; Wentworth-Shields, William; Whitfield, John B.; Wild, Sarah; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Yao, Jie; Zaza, Gianluigi; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Salem, Rany M.; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Samani, Nilesh J.; Cusi, Daniele; Mackey, David A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Froguel, Philippe; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ferrucci, Luigi; Scott, Robert A.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Bertram, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Toenjes, Anke; Munroe, Patricia B.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Arnett, Donna K.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Balkau, Beverley; Gambaro, Giovanni; Morris, Andrew P.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Wright, Margie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hunt, Steven C.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Tiemeier, Henning; Pirastu, Nicola; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Perusse, Louis; Wilson, James G.; Girotto, Giorgia; Caulfield, Mark J.; Raitakari, Olli; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gieger, Christian; van der Harst, Pim; Hicks, Andrew A.; Kraft, Peter; Sinisalo, Juha; Knekt, Paul; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Hamsten, Anders; Schmidt, Reinhold; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Becker, Diane M.; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boehnke, Michael; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Teumer, Alexander; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Metspalu, Andres; Gasparini, Paolo; Ulivi, Sheila; Ober, Carole; Toniolo, Daniela; Rudan, Igor; Porteous, David J.; Ciullo, Marina; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Dupuis, Josee; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Wright, Alan F.; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Vollenweider, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sattar, Naveed; Gyllensten, Ulf; North, Kari E.; Pirastu, Mario; Psaty, Bruce M.; Weir, David R.; Laakso, Markku; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Takahashi, Atsushi; Chambers, John C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Strachan, David P.; Campbell, Harry; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Perola, Markus; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders(1), and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness(2). However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less

  9. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Joshi (Peter); T. Esko (Tõnu); H. Mattsson (Hannele); N. Eklund (Niina); I. Gandin (Ilaria); T. Nutile; A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Schurmann (Claudia); G.D. Smith; W. Zhang (Weihua); Y. Okada (Yukinori); A. Stancáková (Alena); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); W. Zhao (Wei); T.M. Bartz (Traci M.); M.P. Concas (Maria Pina); N. Franceschini (Nora); S. Enroth (Stefan); V. Vitart (Veronique); S. Trompet (Stella); X. Guo (Xiuqing); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); J.R. O'Connel (Jeffrey R.); T. Corre (Tanguy); S.S. Nongmaithem (Suraj S.); Y. Chen (Yuning); M. Mangino (Massimo); D. Ruggiero; M. Traglia (Michela); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); T. Kacprowski (Tim); A. Bjonnes (Andrew); A. van der Spek (Ashley); Y. Wu (Ying); A.K. Giri (Anil K.); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); L. Wang (Lihua); E. Hofer (Edith); C.A. Rietveld (Niels); O. McLeod (Olga); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); C. Pattaro (Cristian); N. Verweij (Niek); C. Baumbach (Clemens); A. Abdellaoui (Abdel); H. Warren (Helen); D. Vuckovic (Dragana); H. Mei (Hao); C. Bouchard (Claude); J.R.B. Perry (John); S. Cappellani (Stefania); S.S. Mirza (Saira); M.C. Benton (Miles C.); U. Broeckel (Ulrich); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); P.A. Lind (Penelope); G. Malerba (Giovanni); A. Drong (Alexander); L. Yengo (Loic); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); D. Zhi (Degui); P.J. van der Most (Peter); D. Shriner (Daniel); R. Mägi (Reedik); G. Hemani; T. Karaderi (Tugce); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); T. Liu (Tian); I. Demuth (Ilja); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); W. Meng (Weihua); L. Lataniotis (Lazaros); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); A.R. Wood (Andrew); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); L.M. Hall (Leanne M.); E. Salvi (Erika); S. Yazar (Seyhan); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); H.G. De Haan (Hugoline G.); M. Abney (Mark); U. Afzal (Uzma); M.A. Allison (Matthew); N. Amin (Najaf); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert W.); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); R.G. Barr (Graham); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); S. Bergmann (Sven); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin P.); A. Campbell (Archie); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Y. Chan (Yingleong); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); C. Chen (Constance); Y.-D.I. Chen (Y.-D. Ida); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); A. Correa (Adolfo); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); G.D. Smith; G. Davies (Gail); M. Dörr (Marcus); G.B. Ehret (Georg); S.B. Ellis (Stephen B.); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); I. Ford; C.S. Fox (Caroline); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); N. Friedrich (Nele); F. Geller (Frank); G. Scotland (Generation); I. Gillham-Nasenya (Irina); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); F. Grodstein (Francine); C. Gu (Charles); C. Haley (Chris); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); S.E. Harris (Sarah); T.B. Harris (Tamara); N. Hastie (Nick); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); E. Ingelsson (Erik); A. Joensuu (Anni); A. Johansson (Åsa); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); M. Kähönen (Mika); Y. Kamatani (Yoichiro); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); S.M. Kerr (Shona); N.M. Khan (Nazir M.); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); H.A. Koistinen (Heikki A.); M.K. Kooner (Manraj K.); M. Kubo (Michiaki); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Lahti (Jari); L.J. Launer (Lenore); R.A. Lea (Rodney A.); B. Lehne (Benjamin); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L. Lind (Lars); M. Loh (Marie); M.L. Lokki; S.J. London (Stephanie J.); S.J. Loomis (Stephanie J.); A. Loukola (Anu); Y. Lu (Yingchang); T. Lumley (Thomas); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); S. Männistö (Satu); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); C. Masciullo (Corrado); A. Matchan (Angela); J. Mathias (Jasmine); K. Matsuda (Koichi); J.B. Meigs (James); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Menni (Cristina); F.D. Mentch (Frank); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); M.E. Montasser (May E.); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); R.H. Myers (Richard); R. Nadukuru (Rajiv); P. Navarro (Pau); M. Nalis (Mari); M.S. Nieminen (Markku S.); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); G.T. O'Connor (George); A. Ogunniyi (Adesola); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); W. Palmas (Walter); J.S. Pankow (James); I. Patarcic (Inga); F. Pavani (Francesca); P.A. Peyser (Patricia A.); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); N.R. Poulter (Neil); I. Prokopenko (Inga); S. Ralhan (Sarju); P. Redmond (Paul); S.S. Rich (Stephen S.); H. Rissanen (Harri); A. Robino (Antonietta); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); R.J. Rose (Richard J.); C. Sala (Cinzia); B. Salako (Babatunde); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.-P. Sarin; R. Saxena (Richa); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); L.J. Scott (Laura); W.R. Scott (William R.); B. Sennblad (Bengt); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P. Sever (Peter); S. Shrestha (Smeeta); B.H. Smith (Blair); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); N. Soranzo (Nicole); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); L. Southam (Lorraine); A. Stanton (Alice); M.G. Stathopoulou (Maria G); K. Strauch (Konstantin); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); M.J. Suderman (Matthew J.); N. Tandon (Nikhil); S.-T. Tang (Sian-Tsun); K.D. Taylor (Kent D.); B. Tayo (Bamidele); A.M. Töglhofer (Anna Maria); M. Tomaszewski (Maciej); N. Tsernikova (Natalia); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); A. van Hylckama Vlieg (Astrid); J. van Setten (Jessica); T. Vasankari (Tuula); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); E. Vlachopoulou (Efthymia); D. Vozzi (Diego); E. Vuoksimaa (Eero); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); E.B. Ware (Erin B.); W. Wentworth-Shields (William); J. Whitfield (John); S. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); C.S. Yajnik (Chittaranjan S.); J. Yao (Jie); G. Zaza (Gianluigi); X. Zhu (Xiaofeng); R.M. Salem (Rany); M. Melbye (Mads); H. Bisgaard (Hans); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); D. Cusi (Daniele); D.A. Mackey (David A.); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); P. Froguel (Philippe); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); S.F.A. Grant (Struan F.A.); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); R.A. Scott (Robert); A.D. Morris (Andrew); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); G.V. Dedoussis (George V.); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Bertram (Lars); U. Lindenberger (Ulman); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); A. Tönjes (Anke); P. Munroe (Patricia); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); C. Rotimi (Charles); D.K. Arnett (Donna); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); B. Balkau (Beverley); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); A.P. Morris (Andrew); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); M.J. Wright (Margaret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); S.C. Hunt (Steven); J.M. Starr (John); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); L.R. Griffiths (Lyn R.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); N. Pirastu (Nicola); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); N.J. Wareham (Nick); L. Perusse (Louis); J.G. Wilson (James); S. Girotto; M. Caulfield (Mark); O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); C. Gieger (Christian); P. van der Harst; A.A. Hicks (Andrew); P. Kraft (Peter); J. Sinisalo (Juha); P. Knekt; M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.K.E. Magnusson (Patrik K. E.); A. Hamsten (Anders); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); D.M. Becker (Diane); D. Bharadwaj (Dwaipayan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); M. Boehnke (Michael); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); D.K. Sanghera (Dharambir); A. Teumer (Alexander); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); A. Metspalu (Andres); P. Gasparini (Paolo); S. Ulivi (Shelia); C. Ober (Carole); D. Toniolo (Daniela); I. Rudan (Igor); D.J. Porteous (David J.); M. Ciullo; T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Hayward (Caroline); J. Dupuis (Josée); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A. Wright (Alan); G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); P. Vollenweider (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); N. Sattar (Naveed); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); K.E. North (Kari); M. Pirastu (Mario); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); D.R. Weir (David); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Takahashi (Atsushi); J.C. Chambers (John C.); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); D.P. Strachan (David P.); H. Campbell (Harry); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M. Perola (Markus); O. Polasek (Ozren); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHomozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is

  10. Radiation exposure and radiation hazards of human population. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present Part I provides a survey on the various sources of natural and artificial radiation exposure of human population. Furthermore, biological radiation effects and radiation damages are surveyed. In an appendix, radiation types, radiation doses, and radiation dose units are explained. (orig./GSCH) [de

  11. Effects of interface pressure distribution on human sleep quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyong Chen

    Full Text Available High sleep quality promotes efficient performance in the following day. Sleep quality is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, sound and smell. Here, we investigated whether differences in the interface pressure distribution on healthy individuals during sleep influenced sleep quality. We defined four types of pressure models by differences in the area distribution and the subjective feelings that occurred when participants slept on the mattresses. One type of model was showed "over-concentrated" distribution of pressure; one was displayed "over-evenly" distributed interface pressure while the other two models were displayed intermediate distribution of pressure. A polysomnography analysis demonstrated an increase in duration and proportion of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep stages 3 and 4, as well as decreased number of micro-arousals, in subjects sleeping on models with pressure intermediately distributed compared to models with over-concentrated or over-even distribution of pressure. Similarly, higher scores of self-reported sleep quality were obtained in subjects sleeping on the two models with intermediate pressure distribution. Thus, pressure distribution, at least to some degree, influences sleep quality and self-reported feelings of sleep-related events, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The regulation of pressure models imposed by external sleep environment may be a new direction for improving sleep quality. Only an appropriate interface pressure distribution is beneficial for improving sleep quality, over-concentrated or -even distribution of pressure do not help for good sleep.

  12. Population blood pressure and low to moderate alcohol intake in an untreated population followed over 20years. Copenhagen City heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a changing population alcohol intake is capable of setting off a shift in the blood pressure distribution in the untreated part of a population. The focus is on subjects with an alcohol intake well below the limits of alcoholism because these subjects...... and an increasing self-reported alcohol intake. The population increase was based on an increasing proportion of light to moderate drinkers. There was no effect of a moderately increasing alcohol intake as a covariate in a multivariate analysis of population systolic BP. Conclusion: A moderately increasing...... population alcohol intake cannot explain the observed changes in population systolic blood pressure....

  13. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  14. Alu repeats as markers for human population genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bazan, H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 97.9% nucleotide identity with each other and an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence. HS Alu family members are thought to be derived from a single source ``master`` gene, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 in. and 3 in. unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allows the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of an Alu repeat. Individual HS Alu sequences were found to be either monomorphic or dimorphic for the presence or absence of each repeat. The monomorphic HS Alu family members inserted in the human genome after the human/great ape divergence (which is thought to have occurred 4--6 million years ago), but before the radiation of modem man. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem man (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project as well. HS Alu family member insertion dimorphism differs from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) because individuals share HS Alu family member insertions based upon identity by descent from a common ancestor as a result of a single event which occurred one time within the human population. The VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times within a population and are identical by state only.

  15. Population Dynamics of Early Human Migration in Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank N Vahia

    Full Text Available Early human migration is largely determined by geography and human needs. These are both deterministic parameters when small populations move into unoccupied areas where conflicts and large group dynamics are not important. The early period of human migration into the British Isles provides such a laboratory which, because of its relative geographical isolation, may allow some insights into the complex dynamics of early human migration and interaction.We developed a simulation code based on human affinity to habitable land, as defined by availability of water sources, altitude, and flatness of land, in choosing the path of migration. Movement of people on the British island over the prehistoric period from their initial entry points was simulated on the basis of data from the megalithic period. Topographical and hydro-shed data from satellite databases was used to define habitability, based on distance from water bodies, flatness of the terrain, and altitude above sea level. We simulated population movement based on assumptions of affinity for more habitable places, with the rate of movement tempered by existing populations. We compared results of our computer simulations with genetic data and show that our simulation can predict fairly accurately the points of contacts between different migratory paths. Such comparison also provides more detailed information about the path of peoples' movement over ~2000 years before the present era.We demonstrate an accurate method to simulate prehistoric movements of people based upon current topographical satellite data. Our findings are validated by recently-available genetic data. Our method may prove useful in determining early human population dynamics even when no genetic information is available.

  16. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  17. Disentangling the role of environmental and human pressures on biological invasions across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysek, Petr; Jarosík, Vojtech; Hulme, Philip E; Kühn, Ingolf; Wild, Jan; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bacher, Sven; Chiron, Francois; Didziulis, Viktoras; Essl, Franz; Genovesi, Piero; Gherardi, Francesca; Hejda, Martin; Kark, Salit; Lambdon, Philip W; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Pergl, Jan; Poboljsaj, Katja; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Roques, Alain; Roy, David B; Shirley, Susan; Solarz, Wojciech; Vilà, Montserrat; Winter, Marten

    2010-07-06

    The accelerating rates of international trade, travel, and transport in the latter half of the twentieth century have led to the progressive mixing of biota from across the world and the number of species introduced to new regions continues to increase. The importance of biogeographic, climatic, economic, and demographic factors as drivers of this trend is increasingly being realized but as yet there is no consensus regarding their relative importance. Whereas little may be done to mitigate the effects of geography and climate on invasions, a wider range of options may exist to moderate the impacts of economic and demographic drivers. Here we use the most recent data available from Europe to partition between macroecological, economic, and demographic variables the variation in alien species richness of bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, terrestrial insects, aquatic invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Only national wealth and human population density were statistically significant predictors in the majority of models when analyzed jointly with climate, geography, and land cover. The economic and demographic variables reflect the intensity of human activities and integrate the effect of factors that directly determine the outcome of invasion such as propagule pressure, pathways of introduction, eutrophication, and the intensity of anthropogenic disturbance. The strong influence of economic and demographic variables on the levels of invasion by alien species demonstrates that future solutions to the problem of biological invasions at a national scale lie in mitigating the negative environmental consequences of human activities that generate wealth and by promoting more sustainable population growth.

  18. Models of antimicrobial pressure on intestinal bacteria of the treated host populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, V V; Cazer, C L; Gröhn, Y T

    2017-07-01

    Antimicrobial drugs are used to treat pathogenic bacterial infections in animals and humans. The by-stander enteric bacteria of the treated host's intestine can become exposed to the drug or its metabolites reaching the intestine in antimicrobially active form. We consider which processes and variables need to be accounted for to project the antimicrobial concentrations in the host's intestine. Those include: the drug's fraction (inclusive of any active metabolites) excreted in bile; the drug's fractions and intestinal segments of excretion via other mechanisms; the rates and intestinal segments of the drug's absorption and re-absorption; the rates and intestinal segments of the drug's abiotic and biotic degradation in the intestine; the digesta passage time through the intestinal segments; the rates, mechanisms, and reversibility of the drug's sorption to the digesta and enteric microbiome; and the volume of luminal contents in the intestinal segments. For certain antimicrobials, the antimicrobial activity can further depend on the aeration and chemical conditions in the intestine. Model forms that incorporate the inter-individual variation in those relevant variables can support projections of the intestinal antimicrobial concentrations in populations of treated host, such as food animals. To illustrate the proposed modeling framework, we develop two examples of treatments of bovine respiratory disease in beef steers by oral chlortetracycline and injectable third-generation cephalosporin ceftiofur. The host's diet influences the digesta passage time, volume, and digesta and microbiome composition, and may influence the antimicrobial loss due to degradation and sorption in the intestine. We consider two diet compositions in the illustrative simulations. The examples highlight the extent of current ignorance and need for empirical data on the variables influencing the selective pressures imposed by antimicrobial treatments on the host's intestinal bacteria.

  19. Integrating common and rare genetic variation in diverse human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Schaffner, Stephen F; Yu, Fuli; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Bonnen, Penelope E; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Deloukas, Panos; Gabriel, Stacey B; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hunt, Sarah; Inouye, Michael; Jia, Xiaoming; Palotie, Aarno; Parkin, Melissa; Whittaker, Pamela; Yu, Fuli; Chang, Kyle; Hawes, Alicia; Lewis, Lora R; Ren, Yanru; Wheeler, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Muzny, Donna Marie; Barnes, Chris; Darvishi, Katayoon; Hurles, Matthew; Korn, Joshua M; Kristiansson, Kati; Lee, Charles; McCarrol, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Keinan, Alon; Montgomery, Stephen B; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Soranzo, Nicole; Bonnen, Penelope E; Gibbs, Richard A; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Keinan, Alon; Price, Alkes L; Yu, Fuli; Anttila, Verneri; Brodeur, Wendy; Daly, Mark J; Leslie, Stephen; McVean, Gil; Moutsianas, Loukas; Nguyen, Huy; Schaffner, Stephen F; Zhang, Qingrun; Ghori, Mohammed J R; McGinnis, Ralph; McLaren, William; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Schaffner, Stephen F; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Grossman, Sharon R; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Hostetter, Elizabeth B; Sabeti, Pardis C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Foster, Morris W; Gordon, Deborah R; Licinio, Julio; Manca, Maria Cristina; Marshall, Patricia A; Matsuda, Ichiro; Ngare, Duncan; Wang, Vivian Ota; Reddy, Deepa; Rotimi, Charles N; Royal, Charmaine D; Sharp, Richard R; Zeng, Changqing; Brooks, Lisa D; McEwen, Jean E

    2010-09-02

    Despite great progress in identifying genetic variants that influence human disease, most inherited risk remains unexplained. A more complete understanding requires genome-wide studies that fully examine less common alleles in populations with a wide range of ancestry. To inform the design and interpretation of such studies, we genotyped 1.6 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,184 reference individuals from 11 global populations, and sequenced ten 100-kilobase regions in 692 of these individuals. This integrated data set of common and rare alleles, called 'HapMap 3', includes both SNPs and copy number polymorphisms (CNPs). We characterized population-specific differences among low-frequency variants, measured the improvement in imputation accuracy afforded by the larger reference panel, especially in imputing SNPs with a minor allele frequency of populations supports deeper interrogation of genomic variation and its role in human disease, and serves as a step towards a high-resolution map of the landscape of human genetic variation.

  20. The development of old age human resource under the background of population ageing in china

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xin; Xu, Jian-pei

    2007-01-01

    China is the country that has the most population in quantity of the world. Rapidly growing population has brought about enormous pressure on the social and economic development. Thus population control is always one of the population policies focuses in our country. However, China has not succeed in escaping out from the pressure of population control, another challenge-population ageing is coming. This challenge also can bring the great impact on the whole social and economic development. M...

  1. Inter-Arm Difference in Brachial Blood Pressure in the General Population of Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo Mi; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Dong Phil

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the inter-arm difference in blood pressure of the general Korean population to identify associated factors. A total of 806 participants aged 30 to 64 years without history of major cardiovascular disease were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. They participated in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study that began in 2013. Brachial blood pressure was measured simultaneously for both arms using an automated oscillometric device equipped with two cuffs in seated position. After five minutes of rest, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured three times. The average of the three measurements was used for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with inter-arm differences in blood pressure. The mean inter-arm difference was 3.3 mmHg for SBP and 2.0 mmHg for DBP. Large inter-arm differences (≥10 mmHg) in SBP and in DBP were found in 3.7% and 0.9% of subjects, respectively. A large inter-arm difference in SBP was associated with mean SBP (p=0.002) and C-reactive protein (p=0.014) while a large inter-arm different in DBP was only associated with body mass index (p=0.015). Sex, age, and anti-hypertensive medication use were not associated with differences in inter-arm blood pressure. Large inter-arm difference in blood pressure is only present in a small portion of healthy Korean adults. Our findings suggest that high SBP, chronic inflammation, and obesity may be associated with larger difference in inter-arm blood pressure.

  2. [Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Loría, Alvar; Pardío, Jeannette; Laviada, Hugo; Vargas-Ancona, Lizardo; Ward, Ryk

    2007-01-01

    To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos) showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was intermediate between ENSANUT-2006 and mixtecos and hypertension was intermediate between ENEC and mixtecos. The Maya and mestizo population of Yucatan showed a high prevalence of obesity and abnormal waist circumference not accompanied by a comparable higher hypertension frequency. This finding requires further confirmation.

  3. Parallel selection on TRPV6 in human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Hughes

    Full Text Available We identified and examined a candidate gene for local directional selection in Europeans, TRPV6, and conclude that selection has acted on standing genetic variation at this locus, creating parallel soft sweep events in humans. A novel modification of the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH test was utilized, which compares EHH for a single allele across populations, to investigate the signature of selection at TRPV6 and neighboring linked loci in published data sets for Europeans, Asians and African-Americans, as well as in newly-obtained sequence data for additional populations. We find that all non-African populations carry a signature of selection on the same haplotype at the TRPV6 locus. The selective footprints, however, are significantly differentiated between non-African populations and estimated to be younger than an ancestral population of non-Africans. The possibility of a single selection event occurring in an ancestral population of non-Africans was tested by simulations and rejected. The putatively-selected TRPV6 haplotype contains three candidate sites for functional differences, namely derived non-synonymous substitutions C157R, M378V and M681T. Potential functional differences between the ancestral and derived TRPV6 proteins were investigated by cloning the ancestral and derived forms, transfecting cell lines, and carrying out electrophysiology experiments via patch clamp analysis. No statistically-significant differences in biophysical channel function were found, although one property of the protein, namely Ca(2+ dependent inactivation, may show functionally relevant differences between the ancestral and derived forms. Although the reason for selection on this locus remains elusive, this is the first demonstration of a widespread parallel selection event acting on standing genetic variation in humans, and highlights the utility of between population EHH statistics.

  4. Parallel selection on TRPV6 in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David A; Tang, Kun; Strotmann, Rainer; Schöneberg, Torsten; Prenen, Jean; Nilius, Bernd; Stoneking, Mark

    2008-02-27

    We identified and examined a candidate gene for local directional selection in Europeans, TRPV6, and conclude that selection has acted on standing genetic variation at this locus, creating parallel soft sweep events in humans. A novel modification of the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test was utilized, which compares EHH for a single allele across populations, to investigate the signature of selection at TRPV6 and neighboring linked loci in published data sets for Europeans, Asians and African-Americans, as well as in newly-obtained sequence data for additional populations. We find that all non-African populations carry a signature of selection on the same haplotype at the TRPV6 locus. The selective footprints, however, are significantly differentiated between non-African populations and estimated to be younger than an ancestral population of non-Africans. The possibility of a single selection event occurring in an ancestral population of non-Africans was tested by simulations and rejected. The putatively-selected TRPV6 haplotype contains three candidate sites for functional differences, namely derived non-synonymous substitutions C157R, M378V and M681T. Potential functional differences between the ancestral and derived TRPV6 proteins were investigated by cloning the ancestral and derived forms, transfecting cell lines, and carrying out electrophysiology experiments via patch clamp analysis. No statistically-significant differences in biophysical channel function were found, although one property of the protein, namely Ca(2+) dependent inactivation, may show functionally relevant differences between the ancestral and derived forms. Although the reason for selection on this locus remains elusive, this is the first demonstration of a widespread parallel selection event acting on standing genetic variation in humans, and highlights the utility of between population EHH statistics.

  5. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: → We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. → This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. → Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  6. Parallel selection on TRPV6 in human populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, David A; Tang, Kun; Strotmann, Rainer; Schöneberg, Torsten; Prenen, Jean; Nilius, Bernd; Stoneking, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We identified and examined a candidate gene for local directional selection in Europeans, TRPV6, and conclude that selection has acted on standing genetic variation at this locus, creating parallel soft sweep events in humans. A novel modification of the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test was utilized, which compares EHH for a single allele across populations, to investigate the signature of selection at TRPV6 and neighboring linked loci in published data sets for Europeans, Asians an...

  7. Imidacloprid-susceptible Nilaparvata lugens individuals exceeded resistant individuals in a mixture population with density pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Na; Tian, Jiahua; Zhang, Yixi; Li, Zhong; Liu, Zewen

    2018-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance in pest insects have mainly been studied under optimal laboratory conditions. However, resistant insects face more stressors than just insecticides in the field, and how the resistant population reacts to these stressors is of practical importance for the control of pest insects such as the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of population density on the competitiveness of resistant and susceptible individuals. Two isogenic N. lugens populations, a highly imidacloprid-resistant population (HZ-R) with a resistance ratio (RR) of 227.10 and a relatively susceptible population (HZ-S) with an RR of 2.99, were created from a field-resistant population (HZ; RR 62.51). The high resistance levels of HZ-R and HZ were mainly attributable to the overexpression of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes such as CYP6ER1, CYP6AY1, CYP6CW1 and CYP4CE1 compared with HZ-S, this being supported by piperonyl butoxide synergism. HZ-R was observed to be more resistant to thiacloprid and etofenprox compared with HZ and HZ-S. Most interestingly, in high population density treatments, HZ-S individuals were much more competitive than HZ-R individuals. Imidacloprid-resistant individuals of N. lugens are less competitive than their susceptible counterparts under density pressure. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Human population studies and the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    This essay draws attention to the role of the WHO in shaping research agendas in the biomedical sciences in the postwar era. It considers in particular the genetic studies of human populations that were pursued under the aegis of the WHO from the late 1950s to 1970s. The study provides insights into how human and medical genetics entered the agenda of the WHO. At the same time, the population studies become a focus for tracking changing notions of international relations, cooperation, and development and their impact on research in biology and medicine in the post-World War I era. After a brief discussion of the early history of the WHO and its position in Cold War politics, the essay considers the WHO program in radiation protection and heredity and how the genetic study of "vanishing" human populations and a world-wide genetic study of newborns fitted this broader agenda. It then considers in more detail the kind of support offered by the WHO for these projects. The essay highlights the role of single individuals in taking advantage of WHO support for pushing their research agendas while establishing a trend towards cooperative international projects in biology.

  9. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A; Mora, Camilo; Lotze, Heike K; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy; McClenachan, Loren; Arias-Castro, Ery; Myers, Ransom A

    2010-08-05

    In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.

  10. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Ward-Paige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.

  11. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D; Kennedy, Chris A

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai-the world's most densely populated megacity-at 6.5 W m -2 , surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m -2 ) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m -2 ). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  12. Reference man models based on normal data from human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro; Kawamura, Hisao

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative description of the physical, and metabolic parameters of the human body is the very basic for internal dosimetry. Compilation of anatomical and other types of data Asian populations for internal (and external) dosimetry is of grate significance because of the potential spread of nuclear energy use in the Asian region and the major contribution of the region to the world population (about 58%). It has been observed that some differences exist for habitat, race, body sizes and pattern of food consumption. In the early stage of revision of ICRP Reference man by the Task Group, Characteristics of the human body of non-European populations received considerable attention as well as those of the European populations of different sexes and ages. In this context, an IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program on Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man endorsed. In later stages of reference Man revision, anatomical data for Asians was discusses together with those of European populations, presumably due to ICRP's decision of unanimous use of the Reference Man for radiation protection. Reference man models for adults and 15, 10, 5, 1, 0 year-old males and females of Asian populations were developed for use in internal and external dosimetry. Based on the concept of ICRP Reference Man (Publication 23), the reference values were derived from the normal organ mass data for Japanese and statistical data on the physique and nutrition of Japanese and Chinese. Also incorporated were variations in physical measurements, as observed in the above mentioned IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program. The work was partly carried out within the activities of the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. The weight of the skeleton was adjusted following the revised values in Publication 70. This paper will report basic shared and non-shared characteristics of Reference Man' for Asians and ICRP Reference Man. (author)

  13. Utility of formulas predicting the optimal nasal continuous positive airway pressure in a Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiza, Sophia E; Bouloukaki, Izolde; Mermigkis, Charalampos; Panagou, Panagiotis; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Moniaki, Violeta; Tzortzaki, Eleni; Siafakas, Nikolaos M

    2011-09-01

    There have been reports that optimal CPAP pressure can be predicted from a previously derived formula, with the Hoffstein formula being the most accurate and accepted in the literature so far. However, the validation of this predictive model has not been applied in different clinical settings. Our aim was to compare both the Hoffstein prediction formula and a newly derived formula to the CPAP pressure setting assessed during a formal CPAP titration study. We prospectively studied 1,111 patients (871 males/240 females) with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) undergoing a CPAP titration procedure. In this large population sample, we tested the Hoffstein formula, utilizing body mass index (BMI), neck circumference and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), and we compared it with our new formula that included not only AHI and BMI but also smoking history and gender adjustment. We found that using the Hoffstein prediction formula, successful prediction (predicted CPAP pressure within ±2 cm H(2)O compared to the finally assessed optimum CPAP pressure during titration) was accomplished in 873 patients (79%), with significant correlation between CPAP predicted pressure (CPAPpred(1)) and the optimum CPAP pressure (CPAPopt) [r = 0.364, p history and gender adjustment, successful prediction was accomplished in 1,057 patients (95%), with significant correlation between CPAP predicted pressure (CPAPpred(2)) and the CPAPopt (r = 0.392, p titration. It may also be possible to shorten CPAP titration and perhaps in selected cases to combine it with the initial diagnostic study.

  14. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, J B A; Wittemyer, G; Rasmussen, H B; Arctander, P; Nyakaana, S; Douglas-Hamilton, I; Siegismund, H R

    2008-09-01

    Two hundred years of elephant hunting for ivory, peaking in 1970-1980s, caused local extirpations and massive population declines across Africa. The resulting genetic impacts on surviving populations have not been studied, despite the importance of understanding the evolutionary repercussions of such human-mediated events on this keystone species. Using Bayesian coalescent-based genetic methods to evaluate time-specific changes in effective population size, we analysed genetic variation in 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from 400 elephants inhabiting the greater Samburu-Laikipia region of northern Kenya. This area experienced a decline of between 80% and 90% in the last few decades when ivory harvesting was rampant. The most significant change in effective population size, however, occurred approximately 2500 years ago during a mid-Holocene period of climatic drying in tropical Africa. Contrary to expectations, detailed analyses of four contemporary age-based cohorts showed that the peak poaching epidemic in the 1970s caused detectable temporary genetic impacts, with genetic diversity rebounding as juveniles surviving the poaching era became reproductively mature. This study demonstrates the importance of climatic history in shaping the distribution and genetic history of a keystone species and highlights the utility of coalescent-based demographic approaches in unravelling ancestral demographic events despite a lack of ancient samples. Unique insights into the genetic signature of mid-Holocene climatic change in Africa and effects of recent poaching pressure on elephants are discussed.

  15. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  16. Influence of breast compression pressure on the performance of population-based mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Katharina; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Mann, Ritse M; den Heeten, Gerard J; van Gils, Carla H; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-11-28

    In mammography, breast compression is applied to reduce the thickness of the breast. While it is widely accepted that firm breast compression is needed to ensure acceptable image quality, guidelines remain vague about how much compression should be applied during mammogram acquisition. A quantitative parameter indicating the desirable amount of compression is not available. Consequently, little is known about the relationship between the amount of breast compression and breast cancer detectability. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of breast compression pressure in mammography on breast cancer screening outcomes. We used digital image analysis methods to determine breast volume, percent dense volume, and pressure from 132,776 examinations of 57,179 women participating in the Dutch population-based biennial breast cancer screening program. Pressure was estimated by dividing the compression force by the area of the contact surface between breast and compression paddle. The data was subdivided into quintiles of pressure and the number of screen-detected cancers, interval cancers, false positives, and true negatives were determined for each group. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlation between examinations of the same woman and for the effect of breast density and volume when estimating sensitivity, specificity, and other performance measures. Sensitivity was computed using interval cancers occurring between two screening rounds and using interval cancers within 12 months after screening. Pair-wise testing for significant differences was performed. Percent dense volume increased with increasing pressure, while breast volume decreased. Sensitivity in quintiles with increasing pressure was 82.0%, 77.1%, 79.8%, 71.1%, and 70.8%. Sensitivity based on interval cancers within 12 months was significantly lower in the highest pressure quintile compared to the third (84.3% vs 93.9%, p = 0.034). Specificity was lower in the

  17. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  18. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Joshi

    Full Text Available Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  19. Association between ambulatory blood pressure values and central aortic pressure in a large population of normotensive and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol-Dias, Ana; Araújo, Sara; Silva, José A; Barbosa, Loide; Polónia, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Our aim was to examine the association of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and central blood pressure (CBP) data in a large set of normotensive and hypertensive patients and its relation with pulse wave velocity (PWV). This cross-sectional study was carried out in a single centre and included 2864 individuals who carried out an ABPM, measurement of CBP from the aortic waveform (SphygmoCor) and carotid-femoral PWV (Complior). In our study, 26.6% of the normotensive individuals and 32.5% of controlled hypertensive patients had abnormal values of at least one or of both ABPM and CBP values, compared with 96.6% of uncontrolled hypertensive patients. In the overall population, normal ABPM and CBP occurred in 25.3% (group 1), abnormal ABPM and CBP occurred in 44.4% (group 4), abnormal ABPM and normal CBP occurred in 10.5% (group 3) and normal ABPM and abnormal CBP occurred in 19.8% (group 2). PWV was significantly superior in group 4 versus group 3; group 4 versus group 1 and group 3 versus group 2 and group 2 versus group 1 (Mann-Whitney U-test; PABPM or CBP associated with target organ damages. When abnormal values of ABPM and CBP coexist, target organ damage (aortic stiffness) is greater than that occurring when only one abnormal ABPM or CBP is present in the absence of the other. Isolated central hypertension entails greater organ damage than both normal ABPM and CBP. These patients may be at higher risk of further target organ damage because of unawareness of their central hypertension.

  20. Interarm blood pressure difference in a post-stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Eva; Brewer, Linda; Mellon, Lisa; Hall, Patricia; Horgan, Frances; Shelley, Emer; Dolan, Eamonn; Hickey, Anne; Bennett, Kathleen; Williams, David J

    2017-09-01

    An increased interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference of ≥10 mm Hg is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and a difference of ≥15 mm Hg with increased cerebrovascular risk. The stroke population presents a high-risk group for future cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and therefore estimation of interarm SBP difference as a predictive tool may assist with further secondary stroke prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of interarm SBP and diastolic blood pressure difference in a post-stroke population. A comprehensive assessment of secondary risk factors along with blood pressure measurements were taken 6-months' post-ischemic stroke from the Action on Secondary Prevention Interventions and Rehabilitation in Stroke cohort. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are presented. Two hundred thirty-eight (M: F,139:99; mean age, 68.4 years) of 256 patients followed up at 6 months post-stroke had suitable blood pressure readings from both arms. Ninety-six patients (40.3%) had an interarm SBP difference of ≥10 mm Hg and 49 (20.6%) had a difference of ≥15 mm Hg. A history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and obesity was not significantly associated with an increased risk of interarm SBP difference. After multivariate logistic analysis, a history of alcohol excess was associated with an increased IASBP ≥15 mm Hg (odds ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.03-5.22). We have demonstrated that interarm SBP difference is commonly seen in a post stroke population. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Framework for Assessing the Impact of Urbanization and Population Pressure on Garo Hills Landscape of North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar YADAV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The important factors influencing landscape changes could be climate, geology, topography, plant succession, species extinction and species evolution. Human, since time immemorial, have influenced the landscape they live in a variety of ways resulting in varied land use changes. Increase in population leads to the expansion in agriculture land, built-up areas, uncontrolled forest fires, mining of minerals, extraction of timber and permanent plantations, which in turn are responsible for habitat degradation and loss of biodiversity. Garo hills districts of Meghalaya are endowed with rich biodiversity both in terms of flora and fauna. With the increasing of population there is pressure exerted on these natural resources for the livelihood as there is hardly any alternative available. In the meantime small forest based urban centers were developed and with the expansion of these the requirement of the local people also changed. Due to urbanization and population pressure the traditional shifting cultivation (jhum, which is still the only livelihood of many areas of the Garo hills; have been converted into permanent cash crop areas. This conversion has a reverse impact on the environment. In the traditional jhumming method the native forests which were slushed and burned for agriculture purposes could revive in 18 to 20 years’ time (Jhum cycle. But due to the introduction of economically sound plantation crops like areca nut, cashew nut and tea the native diversity of the forest area is in the verse of extinction. The present study reveals that rapid population growth is the solely responsible factor for changes the landscape of Garo hills of Meghalaya.

  2. Biological effects of alpha radiation on a human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorleifson, E.M.; Marro, L.; Tracy, B.L.; Wilkinson, D.; Segura, T.M.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Leach, K.; Ford, B.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the environment, natural and man-made sources of radioactive material can become integrated into the food chain. Polonium-210 is a significant source of radiation exposure to caribou and to northern human populations who are dependent on caribou for a major portion of their meat supply. Previous work has shown that humans consuming caribou meat containing measurable quantities of polonium-210 can incorporate a substantial fraction of the radionuclide (Thomas et. al.). Conventional chromosome aberration analysis of blood samples collected from 40 individuals who routinely consumed caribou meat was performed to measure genetic damage from the ingested radioactive material. At least 500 metaphase spreads were analysed for each of 39 individuals. Radiation-specific chromosomal aberrations such as dicentrics and rings were scored and their frequencies were compared to the range of aberrations observed in non-caribou consuming populations. This study was designed to address the possible impact of environmental polonium-210 on background radiation health effects in humans

  3. Gene Frequency and Heritability of Rh Blood Group Gene in 44 Human Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of RhD and Rhd alleles of Rh blood group gene was estimated in 44 human populations distributed all over the world from the RhD phenotypic data. The average frequency of RhD and Rhd allele over these populations was 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. Higher frequency of RhD allele than the expected estimate (0.50 in all the populations, under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium condition assuming equal frequency of both alleles in the initial population, indicated inbreeding at RhD/d locus as well as natural selection for RhD allele. Very high heritability estimate (84.04% of Rh allele frequency revealed that this trait was under weak selection pressure and resulted in greater genetic variation in existing populations. It is consistent with Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection. The results from the present study suggest that inbreeding at RhD/d locus and some other factors (possibly mutation, migration and genetic drift other than natural selection alone played major roles in changing the Rh allele frequency in these populations.

  4. Stabilization process of human population: a descriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, A K; Krotki, K J

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to inquire into the process of stabilization of a human population. The same age distribution distorted by past variations in fertility is subjected to several fixed schedules of fertility. The schedules are different from each other monotonically over a narrow range. The primary concern is with the process, almost year by year, through which the populations become stable. There is particular interest in the differential impact in the same original age distribution of the narrowly different fixed fertility schedules. The exercise is prepared in 3 stages: general background of the process of stabilization; methodology and data used; and analysis and discussion of the stabilization process. Among the several approaches through which the analysis of stable population is possible, 2 are popular: the integral equation and the projection matrix. In this presentation the interest is in evaluating the effects of fertility on the stabilization process of a population. Therefore, only 1 initial age distribution and only 1 life table but a variety of narrowly different schedules of fertility have been used. Specifically, the U.S. 1963 female population is treated as the initial population. The process of stabilization is viewed in the light of the changes in the slopes between 2 successive age groups of an age distribution. A high fertility schedule with the given initial age distribution and mortality level overcomes the oscillations more quickly than the low fertility schedule. Simulation confirms the intuitively expected positive relationship between the mean of the slope and the level of fertility. The variance of the slope distribution is an indicator of the aging of the distribution.

  5. Learning-by-doing, population pressure, and the theory of demographic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strulik, H

    1997-01-01

    The long-term effects of two interdependent relations between economic growth and population growth are discussed. The empirical work of Boserup (1981) was utilized, which focused on rural, sparsely populated economies with low income per capita. According to the formulation of the population-push hypothesis, learning-by-doing effects in production lead to increasing returns to scale and, therefore, to a positive correlation between economic and population growth. In accordance with the theory of demographic transition, the population growth rate initially increases with rising income levels and then declines. The approach originating from Cigno (1984) modified the economic model, which allowed the establishment of two different stable equilibria. Regarding this relationship, the existence and stability of low-income and high-income equilibrium was shown in a neoclassical growth model. Under plausible conditions a demo-economic transition from the first to the second steady-state took place. The instability of the Malthusian steady-state is also possible when a country develops along a path of economic growth which is compatible with the demographic transition. In this context, learning means the application of new techniques of agrarian production. In developed economies with a stable population the learning-or-doing decision lead to accumulation of human capital and the invention of new technologies and goods. The interdependence of income-determined population growth and learning-by-doing may serve as an explanation for the weak and partly controversial empirical support for an overall correlation between income and population growth. The result yielded a meaningful interpretation of the population-push hypothesis, which is consistent with the empirical findings on the correlation between economic and population growth.

  6. High pressure treatment of human norovirus virus-like particles: factors affecting destruction efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) accounts for more than 90% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. To date, the efficacy of human NoV inactivation interventions cannot be accurately evaluated because the virus is nonculturable. In this study, we aimed to estimate inactivation of human NoV by high pressure processing...

  7. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Communities of broadleaved forest subject to strong pressure from large herbivores underwent degeneration. The relief of this pressure led to regeneration of the community, in which an important role was played by the sallow Salix caprea and other light-seeded pioneer species of tree (Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Regeneration involving Salix caprea proceeded following the conservatorial protection of the degenerate stands in a reserve and later in Białowieża National Park. The emergence and development of the population of Salix caprea proceeded following the invasion of spruce, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand arising as a result of the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915. It also appeared en masse on old, at that time unforested, clearings and felled areas. In these places, Salix caprea created very abundant populations, with particular trees being in good condition, with a habit typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50-60 years old at the time of death, although individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the sallow population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots and fixed trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of sallow for the forest communities of Białowieża National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the 4-9 last years of life. The extinction of the population is associated with the loss of its primary phenological differentiation and with a change in the sex structure of the population from a prevalence of female trees to a near even distribution of the two sexes. The development of the populations of permanent constituents of the forest

  8. Response of human populations to large-scale emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2010-03-01

    Until recently, little quantitative data regarding collective human behavior during dangerous events such as bombings and riots have been available, despite its importance for emergency management, safety and urban planning. Understanding how populations react to danger is critical for prediction, detection and intervention strategies. Using a large telecommunications dataset, we study for the first time the spatiotemporal, social and demographic response properties of people during several disasters, including a bombing, a city-wide power outage, and an earthquake. Call activity rapidly increases after an event and we find that, when faced with a truly life-threatening emergency, information rapidly propagates through a population's social network. Other events, such as sports games, do not exhibit this propagation.

  9. Distribution of intraocular pressure and its determinants in an Iranian adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its determinants in an Iranian population. METHODS In a cross-sectional survey, random cluster sampling was conducted from the 40-64 years old population of Shahroud, in the north of Iran. All participants had optometry and ophthalmic exams. IOP was determined using the Goldmann tonometry method and biometric components were measured. RESULTS Of the 6311 people selected for the study, 5190 (82.2%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 50.9±6.2y and 58.7% of them were female. Mean IOP was 12.87±2.27 mm Hg. In this study 0.3% of the participants had an IOP higher than 21 mm Hg. The multiple linear regression model revealed that sex (Coef=-0.30; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.17), diabetes (Coef=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67), high systolic blood pressure (Coef=0.02; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), high body mass index (BMI) (Coef=0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), higher education (Coef=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), thicker central corneal thickness (Coef=0.01; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), and myopic shift in spherical equivalent (Coef=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.10) significantly correlated with high IOP. CONCLUSION The IOP in this 40-64 years old population is low overall. In the north of Iran, average IOP is statistically significantly correlated with female sex, diabetes, higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, higher education, thicker cornea, and myopic refractive error. PMID:27588277

  10. Distribution of intraocular pressure and its determinants in an Iranian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its determinants in an Iranian population. In a cross-sectional survey, random cluster sampling was conducted from the 40-64 years old population of Shahroud, in the north of Iran. All participants had optometry and ophthalmic exams. IOP was determined using the Goldmann tonometry method and biometric components were measured. Of the 6311 people selected for the study, 5190 (82.2%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 50.9±6.2y and 58.7% of them were female. Mean IOP was 12.87±2.27 mm Hg. In this study 0.3% of the participants had an IOP higher than 21 mm Hg. The multiple linear regression model revealed that sex (Coef=-0.30; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.17), diabetes (Coef=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67), high systolic blood pressure (Coef=0.02; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), high body mass index (BMI) (Coef=0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), higher education (Coef=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), thicker central corneal thickness (Coef=0.01; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), and myopic shift in spherical equivalent (Coef=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.10) significantly correlated with high IOP. The IOP in this 40-64 years old population is low overall. In the north of Iran, average IOP is statistically significantly correlated with female sex, diabetes, higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, higher education, thicker cornea, and myopic refractive error.

  11. History of Smallpox and Its Spread in Human Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thèves, Catherine; Crubézy, Eric; Biagini, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. The disease was officially declared eradicated in 1979 following intensive vaccination campaigns.Paleomicrobiology dedicated to variola virus is restricted to few studies, most unsuccessful, involving ancient material. Only one recent approach allowed the identification of viral DNA fragments from lung tissue of a 300-year-old body excavated from permafrost in Eastern Siberia; phylogenetic analysis revealed that this ancient strain was distinct from those described during the 20th century.

  12. High pressure processing inactivates human norovirus within oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of raw bivalve mollusks can result in norovirus infection. One potential intervention for virus-contaminated shellfish is high pressure processing (HPP). Currently HPP is known to inactivate Vibrio bacteria, hepatitis A virus, and murine norovirus within oysters. To evaluate the potentia...

  13. Outcome-driven thresholds for ambulatory pulse pressure in 9938 participants recruited from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Yu-Mei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based thresholds for risk stratification based on pulse pressure (PP) are currently unavailable. To derive outcome-driven thresholds for the 24-hour ambulatory PP, we analyzed 9938 participants randomly recruited from 11 populations (47.3% women). After age stratification (... interval of the HRs associated with stepwise increasing PP levels crossed unity at 64 mm Hg. While accounting for all covariables, the top tenth of PP contributed less than 0.3% (generalized R(2) statistic) to the overall risk among the elderly. Thus, in randomly recruited people, ambulatory PP does...

  14. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure on human arterial pressure during the solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.; Levi, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    We performed a study of the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure (AtmP) and the horizontal geomagnetic field component (H). We worked with a sample of 304 healthy normotense volunteers, 152 men and 152 women, with ages between 18 and 84 years in Mexico City during the period 2008-2014, corresponding to the minimum, ascending and maximum phases of the solar cycle 24. The data was divided by gender, age and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: Correlations, bivariate and superposed epochs (within a window of three days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the SBP and DBP and the natural variables (AtmP and H). The correlation analysis indicated correlation between the SBP and DBP and AtmP and H, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analysis showed that the largest correlations are between the SBP and DBP and the AtmP. The superposed epoch analysis found that the largest number of significant SBP and DBP changes occurred for women. Finally, the blood pressure changes are larger during the solar minimum and ascending solar cycle phases than during the solar maximum; the storms of the minimum were more intense than those of the maximum and this could be the reason of behavior of the blood pressure changes along the solar cycle.

  15. Population dynamics and in vitro antibody pressure of porcine parvovirus indicate a decrease in variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, André Felipe; Homeier, Timo; Foerster, Tessa; Truyen, Uwe

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the impact of porcine parvovirus (PPV) vaccines on the emergence of new phenotypes, the population dynamic history of the virus was calculated using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method with a Bayesian skyline coalescent model. Additionally, an in vitro model was performed with consecutive passages of the 'Challenge' strain (a virulent field strain) and NADL2 strain (a vaccine strain) in a PK-15 cell line supplemented with polyclonal antibodies raised against the vaccine strain. A decrease in genetic diversity was observed in the presence of antibodies in vitro or after vaccination (as estimated by the in silico model). We hypothesized that the antibodies induced a selective pressure that may reduce the incidence of neutral selection, which should play a major role in the emergence of new mutations. In this scenario, vaccine failures and non-vaccinated populations (e.g. wild boars) may have an important impact in the emergence of new phenotypes.

  16. The signature of human pressure history on the biogeography of body mass in tetrapods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapacciuolo, Giovanni; Marin, Julie; Costa, Gabriel C.; Helmus, Matthew R.; Behm, Jocelyn E.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Hedges, S. Blair; Radeloff, Volker C.; Young, Bruce E.; Graham, Catherine H.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Examining the biogeography of body size is crucial for understanding how animal communities are assembled and maintained. In tetrapods, body size varies predictably with temperature, moisture, productivity seasonality and topographical complexity. Although millennial-scale human pressures are

  17. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  18. Epidemiology of human leukocyte antigens among omani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salmi, Issa; Metry, Abdul Massiah; Al Ismaili, Faisal; Hola, Alan; Shaheen, Faissal; Fakhoury, Hana; Hannawi, Suad

    2017-01-01

    Oman is located on the Southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and its population has high levels of consanguinity. Human leukocytic antigen (HLA) typing analysis in human population holds unexploited potential for elucidating the genetic causes of human disease and possibly leads to personalized medicine. This is a retrospective, descriptive study evaluating HLA frequencies of Omani individuals who underwent workup for kidney transplantation at the Royal Hospital (RH) from 2005 to 2016. Data on 870 subjects were collected from the Oman kidney transplant registry at RH as well from electronic medical record system. The mean age (standard deviation) years for the cohort were 33.2 (13.0). Males constituted 56.3% (490) while females constituted 43.7% (380). Seven HLA-A alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total alleles. Of which, HLA-A2 contributed the highest frequency (24%), followed by HLA A11 (9.4%), and A32 (8.1%). Ten alleles accounted for 70% of HLA-B alleles. Of which, HLA-B51 was the most common (18.9%), followed by HLA-B-35 (13.6%), and HLA-B8 (7.9%). Seven HLA-DRB1 alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total HLA DRB1 alleles, of which HLA- DRB1*16 contributed the highest frequency (29.56%). This was followed by HLA-DRB1*03 (14.57%) and HLA-DRB1*11 (9.48%). While three alleles accounted for more than 75% of the total HLA DQB1alleles. Of which, HLA-DQB1*05 contributed the highest frequency (37.56%). This was followed by allele HLA-DQB1*02 (26.48%) and HLA-DQB1*03 (17.18%). This study showed considerable heterogeneity in both HLA Class I and Class II antigens, which reflects admixture of our population with rest of old world countries. Despite the high levels of consanguinity, this population is genetically highly heterogeneous. These findings may be useful for transplantation programs, noncommunicable diseases, epidemiology of HLA linked diseases, pharmacogenomics, and anthropology.

  19. Epidemiology of human leukocyte antigens among omani population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Al Salmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oman is located on the Southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and its population has high levels of consanguinity. Human leukocytic antigen (HLA typing analysis in human population holds unexploited potential for elucidating the genetic causes of human disease and possibly leads to personalized medicine. This is a retrospective, descriptive study evaluating HLA frequencies of Omani individuals who underwent workup for kidney transplantation at the Royal Hospital (RH from 2005 to 2016. Data on 870 subjects were collected from the Oman kidney transplant registry at RH as well from electronic medical record system. The mean age (standard deviation years for the cohort were 33.2 (13.0. Males constituted 56.3% (490 while females constituted 43.7% (380. Seven HLA-A alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total alleles. Of which, HLA-A2 contributed the highest frequency (24%, followed by HLA A11 (9.4%, and A32 (8.1%. Ten alleles accounted for 70% of HLA-B alleles. Of which, HLA-B51 was the most common (18.9%, followed by HLA-B-35 (13.6%, and HLA-B8 (7.9%. Seven HLA-DRB1 alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total HLA DRB1 alleles, of which HLA- DRB1*16 contributed the highest frequency (29.56%. This was followed by HLA-DRB1*03 (14.57% and HLA-DRB1*11 (9.48%. While three alleles accounted for more than 75% of the total HLA DQB1alleles. Of which, HLA-DQB1*05 contributed the highest frequency (37.56%. This was followed by allele HLA-DQB1*02 (26.48% and HLA-DQB1*03 (17.18%. This study showed considerable heterogeneity in both HLA Class I and Class II antigens, which reflects admixture of our population with rest of old world countries. Despite the high levels of consanguinity, this population is genetically highly heterogeneous. These findings may be useful for transplantation programs, noncommunicable diseases, epidemiology of HLA linked diseases, pharmacogenomics, and anthropology.

  20. Insight of Human Stroke from blood flow and blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-03-01

    Stroke is is one of the leading cause of death and disability in the world. It is well believed that stroke is caused by the disturbance of cerebrovascular autoregulation. We investigate the blood flow on the left and right middle cerebral artery and beat-to-beat blood pressure simultaneously measured from the finger, for both subjects with stroke and healthy subjects. Synchronization technique is used to distinguish the difference between these two groups.

  1. High pressure inactivation of human norovirus virus-like particles: evidence that the capsid of human norovirus is highly pressure resistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis epidemics worldwide. High pressure processing (HPP) has been considered a promising non-thermal processing technology to inactivate food- and water-borne viral pathogens. Due to the lack of an effective cell culture fo...

  2. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomonitoring a human population inhabiting nearby a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, J.; Pereira, R.; Pinto, F.; Caetano, T.; Silva, A.; Carvalheiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human population environmentally exposed to uranium mining wastes. ► Significantly higher levels of manganese and uranium in peripheral blood samples. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts in exposed individuals. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas. - Abstract: Environmental exposure to uranium and its daughter radionuclides, has been linked to several negative effects such as those related with important physiological processes, like hematopoiesis, and may also be associated with genotoxicity effects. Herein, genotoxic effects, immunotoxicity, trace elements and C reactive protein (CRP) analyses, were performed in peripheral blood samples collected from individuals of a population living near a deactivated uranium mine. C reactive protein analysis was performed to exclude candidates with active inflammatory processes from further evaluations. DNA damage and immunotoxicity (immunophenotyping and immune cell counts) were evaluated by comet assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Significant DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood samples from volunteers living in the Cunha Baixa village. A significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts were observed in the individuals from the Cunha Baixa village, when compared with individuals from the reference site. Uranium and manganese levels were significantly higher in the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants. On the other hand, zinc levels were significantly lower in those individuals when compared with the volunteers from the control village. Results suggest that inhabitants from Cunha Baixa have a higher risk of suffering from serious diseases such as cancer, since high DNA damages were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes and also decreased levels of NK and T cells, which play an essential role in the defense against tumor growth

  4. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km{sup 2} near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the

  5. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km 2 near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the parish has been

  6. Association between plasma leptin and blood pressure in two population-based samples of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index...... in the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....

  7. Characteristic of intraocular pressure distribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Qin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze of characteristic of intraocular pressure(IOPdistribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more and its correlative factors such as ages, gender and anterior chamber depth in Tibetan plateau area. METHODS: A total of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County were divided into four age groups: ≥40~RESULTS: The mean IOP of 1115(2145 eyesTibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older was 12.9±2.7mmHg, 13.2±2.8mmHg in men and 12.7±2.5mmHg in women. The results showed that the participants with anterior chamber depth of 1/2 corneal thickness had 68.8% in 1115(2128 eyesTibetan permanent residents and anterior chamber depth decreases significantly with age(PPCONCLUSION: The mean IOP of plateau subjects was significantly lower from that of plain subjects by approximately 3 mmHg. There are lower pressure, deeper anterior chamber depth in this population of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents. The more attention should be paid to screening for glaucoma in high plateau.

  8. Dietary Sodium Consumption Predicts Future Blood Pressure and Incident Hypertension in the Japanese Normotensive General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Tomonori; Kimura, Genjiro; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2015-07-29

    Although there is a close relationship between dietary sodium and hypertension, the concept that persons with relatively high dietary sodium are at increased risk of developing hypertension compared with those with relatively low dietary sodium has not been studied intensively in a cohort. We conducted an observational study to investigate whether dietary sodium intake predicts future blood pressure and the onset of hypertension in the general population. Individual sodium intake was estimated by calculating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from spot urine in 4523 normotensive participants who visited our hospital for a health checkup. After a baseline examination, they were followed for a median of 1143 days, with the end point being development of hypertension. During the follow-up period, hypertension developed in 1027 participants (22.7%). The risk of developing hypertension was higher in those with higher rather than lower sodium intake (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.50). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, baseline sodium intake and the yearly change in sodium intake during the follow-up period (as continuous variables) correlated with the incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, both the yearly increase in sodium intake and baseline sodium intake showed significant correlations with the yearly increase in systolic blood pressure in multivariate regression analysis after adjustment for possible risk factors. Both relatively high levels of dietary sodium intake and gradual increases in dietary sodium are associated with future increases in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension in the Japanese general population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Signatures of natural selection at the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated locus in human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanshi Liu

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the first intron of FTO have been robustly replicated for associations with obesity. In the Sorbs, a Slavic population resident in Germany, the strongest effect on body mass index (BMI was found for a variant in the third intron of FTO (rs17818902. Since this may indicate population specific effects of FTO variants, we initiated studies testing FTO for signatures of selection in vertebrate species and human populations.First, we analyzed the coding region of 35 vertebrate FTO orthologs with Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML, ω = dN/dS to screen for signatures of selection among species. Second, we investigated human population (Europeans/CEU, Yoruba/YRI, Chinese/CHB, Japanese/JPT, Sorbs SNP data for footprints of selection using DnaSP version 4.5 and the Haplotter/PhaseII. Finally, using ConSite we compared transcription factor (TF binding sites at sequences harbouring FTO SNPs in intron three.PAML analyses revealed strong conservation in coding region of FTO (ω<1. Sliding-window results from population genetic analyses provided highly significant (p<0.001 signatures for balancing selection specifically in the third intron (e.g. Tajima's D in Sorbs = 2.77. We observed several alterations in TF binding sites, e.g. TCF3 binding site introduced by the rs17818902 minor allele.Population genetic analysis revealed signatures of balancing selection at the FTO locus with a prominent signal in intron three, a genomic region with strong association with BMI in the Sorbs. Our data support the hypothesis that genes associated with obesity may have been under evolutionary selective pressure.

  10. Assessing radiologic risk for population due to human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Al.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Hirica, O.

    2002-01-01

    The most important factor in assessing radiologic risk is ensuring scientific means for evaluation of the radioactive release impact upon humans and organisms. To evaluate quantitatively this impact not only knowledge of radioactivity distribution in these dynamical systems is necessary but also understanding the transfer mechanisms between ecosystem components is needed. Thus a complete radioecologic study appear to be very complex and needs defining the source term, dynamic description of radionuclides behavior in the ecosystem, estimation of radiation doses in the major components of the ecosystem and finally the effects of radiation doses upon different parts of the systems. A diagram of the steps implied in evaluation of the effects due to radioactive effluent release in the environment is presented and discussed. The following steps are described: - identification of radioactive sources, as well as their input rate. Presence of noxious materials such as heavy metals or some organic compounds should be taken into account to assess the synergetic or antagonistic interactions; - determination of space-time distribution of release radionuclides; - estimation of dose rates and radiation exposure of population; - estimation of radiation dose effects upon individuals, population and ecosystems. This fourth step implies: experimental field or laboratory studies to determine the somatic/genetic response to radiation as a function of the exposure dose; following-up and interpretation of the organism response to dose or dose rates in terms of radiation-induce changes in the population life cycles; forecasting the irradiation effects upon population or communities within environment. Finally, this evaluation is completed by the decision making process implying a society acceptance of the forecast and/or observed effects

  11. Correlation between the trajectory of systolic blood pressure and new renal damage in a nonhypertensive population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; Jia, Dao; Tian, Jun; Liu, Jie; Li, Li-Jie; Huang, Yu-Ling; Cao, Xin-Ying; Ning, Chun-Hong; Zhao, Quan-Hui; Yu, Jun-Xing; Zhang, Rui-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Gao, Jing-Sheng; Wu, Shou-Ling

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the correlation between the trajectory of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and new renal damage in a nonhypertensive population. This prospective cohort study included a total of 14 382 nonhypertensive individuals, employees of Kailuan Group of Companies, who took part in five healthy examinations in 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2010-2011, 2012-2013, and 2014-2015, and had complete data. These individuals were divided into four groups according to the different trajectories of SBP: low-low, low-stable, middle-high, and high-high groups. The correlation between the trajectory of SBP and new renal damage in a nonhypertensive population was analyzed using a multivariate Cox's proportional hazard regression model. (a) A total of 14 382 individuals had complete data and the average age of these individuals was 44.6±10.8 years. Among these, 10 888 (75.7%) individuals were men and 3494 (24.3%) individuals were women. (b) These individuals were divided into four groups according to different trajectories of blood pressure: low-low group, accounting for 13.15% (blood pressure was group, accounting for 53.91% (blood pressure was between 115 and 116 mmHg); middle-high group, accounting for 28.77% (blood pressure was between 125 and 131 mmHg); and high-high group, accounting for 4.6% (blood pressure was between 126 and 151 mmHg). (c) With the increase in the trajectory of SBP, the detection rate of renal damage increased gradually. From the low-low group to the high-high group, the detection rates of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m were 2.3, 2.4, 3.6, and 4.3%, respectively; the positive rates of urinary protein were 1.7, 2.9, 3.8, and 5.5%, respectively; and the detection rates of eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m or positive urinary protein were 4, 5.2, 7.3, and 9.3%, respectively (Pgroup, the risk of eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m increased by nearly 1.5 times in the high-high group and in

  12. Matching the results of a theoretical model with failure rates obtained from a population of non-nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, L.P.

    1982-02-01

    Failure rates for non-nuclear pressure vessel populations are often regarded as showing a decrease with time. Empirical evidence can be cited which supports this view. On the other hand theoretical predictions of PWR type reactor pressure vessel failure rates have shown an increasing failure rate with time. It is shown that these two situations are not necessarily incompatible. If adjustments are made to the input data of the theoretical model to treat a non-nuclear pressure vessel population, the model can produce a failure rate which decreases with time. These adjustments are explained and the results obtained are shown. (author)

  13. Building Public Pressure for Human Rights through Media Reporting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite the prevalence of human rights and international humanitarian law violations in Afghanistan, the Afghan media has generally not gone beyond reporting broad allegations. ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  14. The nine lives of a threatened felid in a human-dominated landscape: assessing population decline drivers of the guiña (Leopardus guigna)

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    The world's human population and an expanding agricultural frontier are exerting increasing pressure on the Earth's systems that sustain life resulting in unprecedented levels of biodiversity loss. Carnivores, which play a key role in ecosystem function and integrity, are also particularly threatened by habitat loss and killing by humans in response to livestock predation. At the same time carnivores, particularly felids show a paucity of studies that suggests population assessments and long-...

  15. A continuum model for pressure-flow relationship in human pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhou, Qinlian; Gao, Jian; Yen, R T

    2011-06-01

    A continuum model was introduced to analyze the pressure-flow relationship for steady flow in human pulmonary circulation. The continuum approach was based on the principles of continuum mechanics in conjunction with detailed measurement of vascular geometry, vascular elasticity and blood rheology. The pulmonary arteries and veins were considered as elastic tubes and the "fifth-power law" was used to describe the pressure-flow relationship. For pulmonary capillaries, the "sheet-flow" theory was employed and the pressure-flow relationship was represented by the "fourth-power law". In this paper, the pressure-flow relationship for the whole pulmonary circulation and the longitudinal pressure distribution along the streamlines were studied. Our computed data showed general agreement with the experimental data for the normal subjects and the patients with mitral stenosis and chronic bronchitis in the literature. In conclusion, our continuum model can be used to predict the changes of steady flow in human pulmonary circulation.

  16. Interarm blood pressure difference and target organ damage in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jouni K; Puukka, Pauli J; Jula, Antti M

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate interarm differences of blood pressure (BP) and its determinants, and to clarify whether both arms are equally good in assessing BP and target organ damage in the general population. We studied a representative sample of Finnish adult population with 484 study participants, ages 25-74 years. BP was measured twice by an oscillometric monitor simultaneously on both arms. Study participants underwent a clinical examination including measurements of serum lipids, glucose and indicators of target organ damage. BP was 2.3/0.2 mmHg higher on right than on left arm (P differences). SBP and DBP measured on right and left arms correlated equally with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), posterior wall thickness (PWT), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and albuminuria. Higher SBP level was an independent determinant of both greater systolic and diastolic interarm BP difference. Exaggerated absolute diastolic interarm BP difference (>5 mmHg) was associated with higher BMI, arm circumference, LVMI, IVST and PWT, whereas exaggerated absolute systolic interarm BP difference (>10 mmHg) was not associated with any clinical variables. There was only a small difference in BP between arms in a healthy general population. Both arms are equally good determinants of target organ damage. BP should be measured at least once on both arms and prefer the arm with higher BP readings in the future BP measurements.

  17. Effects of external pressure loading on human skin blood flow measured by 133Xe clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, G.A. Jr.; Daly, C.H.; Kennedy, D.; Chimoskey, J.

    1976-01-01

    Forearm skin blood flow was measured during external pressure loading in normal human subjects using 133 Xe washout from intracutaneous injection sites. Pressures ranging between 5 and 150 mmHg were applied through a 3-cm-diameter disc placed over the site of flow determination. The pressure was maintained constant by a servo-controlled loading mechanism. Flow decreased with pressures from 5 to 10 and 30 to 150 mmHg, but remained constant with pressures from 10 to 30 mmHg. Reactive hyperemia occurred following removal of pressures of 90 mmHg or greater, but did not occur following removal of lower pressures. The pressure-flow curve for parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects closely paralleled the pressure-flow curve of normal skin at pressures tested: 5 to 15 mmHg. These data are interpreted to demonstrate autoregulation of skin blood flow. Autoregulation in parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects suggests a peripheral mechanism. The occurrence of hyperemia at pressures which exceed the ability of skin to autoregulate suggests that both autoregulation and post occlusion hyperemia may have the same mechanism

  18. High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility

  19. Transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels and blood pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Baumunk, Daniel; Krause, Hans

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) cation channels are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, but this has not been studied using human renal tissue. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of TRPC3 in human renal tissue is associated with blood...

  20. The relationship between blood viscosity and blood pressure in a random sample of the population aged 55 to 74 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, F G; Lowe, G D; Rumley, A; Lennie, S E; Smith, F B; Donnan, P T

    1993-05-01

    Blood viscosity is elevated in hypertensive subjects, but the association of viscosity with arterial blood pressure in the general population, and the influence of social, lifestyle and disease characteristics on this association, are not established. In the Edinburgh Artery Study, 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years selected randomly from the general population attended a university clinic. A fasting blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood viscosity and its major determinants (haematocrit, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen). Systolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P index. Diastolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P viscosity and systolic pressure was confined to males. Blood viscosity was associated equally with systolic and diastolic pressures in males, and remained independently related on multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, social class, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, angina, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, and haematocrit.

  1. Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2006-09-05

    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality. Differential gender mortality has been a documented problem for decades and led to reports in the early 1990s of 100 million "missing women" across the developing world. Since that time, improved health care and conditions for women have resulted in reductions in female mortality, but these advances have now been offset by a huge increase in the use of sex-selective abortion, which became available in the mid-1980s. Largely as a result of this practice, there are now an estimated 80 million missing females in India and China alone. The large cohorts of "surplus" males now reaching adulthood are predominantly of low socioeconomic class, and concerns have been expressed that their lack of marriageability, and consequent marginalization in society, may lead to antisocial behavior and violence, threatening societal stability and security. Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for women, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of gender imbalance.

  2. Risk of Malnutrition and Pressure Ulcer in a mixed hospital population. Nutritional risk screening predicting pressure ulcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaug, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim Malnutrition and pressure ulcer represent significant health problems for hospital inpatients, in addition to having a considerable impact on local and national health care cost. Sufficient nutritional status is crucial for proper wound healing, and malnutrition is a prominent risk factor for pressure ulcer development. Risk of malnutrition can be identified using standardized screening tools, such as the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002. The objective of this...

  3. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km 2 near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km 2 , three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The demography statistics show

  4. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km{sup 2} near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km{sup 2}, three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The

  5. Interactions with human nutrition and other indices of population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The contamination of food is an important pathway involved in the internal combination of humans. The site-related critical foodstuffs can be grouped into three main categories: dairy products; aquatic animals, such as fish, molluscs and crustaceans; and other typical foods. The concentration factor plays a more important role than the amount of a certain food consumed. Semi-natural and natural ecosystems are of special interest in this content because they can provide critical pathways for radionuclide transfer to humans, and they can also act as temporary sinks or long-term sources for radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere. From the viewpoint of population health, another important role is played by the countermeasures. The reference values commonly adopted in radiation protection are conservative and they have been established for planning practices that could provide future sources of irradiation. After a large release of radionuclides, the evaluation of the problem must be as realistic as possible, otherwise the countermeasures will imply consequences worse than those produced by the accident itself (without any further intervention). This criterion was clearly stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but it was frequently neglected after the Chernobyl accident. The results of a survey on the number of induced abortions following this incident are reported. These suggest that moral and ethical problems are involved above and beyond any economical implications. (Author)

  6. Cross-population myelination covariance of human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Nanyin

    2017-09-01

    Cross-population covariance of brain morphometric quantities provides a measure of interareal connectivity, as it is believed to be determined by the coordinated neurodevelopment of connected brain regions. Although useful, structural covariance analysis predominantly employed bulky morphological measures with mixed compartments, whereas studies of the structural covariance of any specific subdivisions such as myelin are rare. Characterizing myelination covariance is of interest, as it will reveal connectivity patterns determined by coordinated development of myeloarchitecture between brain regions. Using myelin content MRI maps from the Human Connectome Project, here we showed that the cortical myelination covariance was highly reproducible, and exhibited a brain organization similar to that previously revealed by other connectivity measures. Additionally, the myelination covariance network shared common topological features of human brain networks such as small-worldness. Furthermore, we found that the correlation between myelination covariance and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was uniform within each resting-state network (RSN), but could considerably vary across RSNs. Interestingly, this myelination covariance-RSFC correlation was appreciably stronger in sensory and motor networks than cognitive and polymodal association networks, possibly due to their different circuitry structures. This study has established a new brain connectivity measure specifically related to axons, and this measure can be valuable to investigating coordinated myeloarchitecture development. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4730-4743, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics of Reactor Pressure Vessels with Populations of Flaws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Backman, Marie [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Williams, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dickson, Terry [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bass, B. Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Klasky, Hilda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report documents recent progress in developing a tool that uses the Grizzly and RAVEN codes to perform probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses of reactor pressure vessels in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The Grizzly code is being developed with the goal of creating a general tool that can be applied to study a variety of degradation mechanisms in nuclear power plant components. Because of the central role of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a nuclear power plant, particular emphasis is being placed on developing capabilities to model fracture in embrittled RPVs to aid in the process surrounding decision making relating to life extension of existing plants. A typical RPV contains a large population of pre-existing flaws introduced during the manufacturing process. The use of probabilistic techniques is necessary to assess the likelihood of crack initiation at one or more of these flaws during a transient event. This report documents development and initial testing of a capability to perform probabilistic fracture mechanics of large populations of flaws in RPVs using reduced order models to compute fracture parameters. The work documented here builds on prior efforts to perform probabilistic analyses of a single flaw with uncertain parameters, as well as earlier work to develop deterministic capabilities to model the thermo-mechanical response of the RPV under transient events, and compute fracture mechanics parameters at locations of pre-defined flaws. The capabilities developed as part of this work provide a foundation for future work, which will develop a platform that provides the flexibility needed to consider scenarios that cannot be addressed with the tools used in current practice.

  8. The association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hack-Lyoung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population. Methods A total of 115 healthy subjects without known cardiovascular risk factors or overt heart disease who underwent both transthoracic echocardiography and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV measurement at the same day during their routine check-ups were analyzed. Results The mean age of study subjects was 52.8 ± 8.4 years, and 78 (67.8% were men. The mean baPWV value was 1,325 ± 185 cm/s. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups according to E/E’ value: subjects with E/E’ p β = 0.371, p after controlling confounders including age, sex and body mass index. In receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of E/E’ ≥ 10 were 78.6% and 59.8%, respectively with mean baPWV of 1,282 cm/s as the cut off value. The discriminatory capacity for predicting E/E’ ≥ 10 was improved from an area under the ROC curve of 0.646 with age alone to 0.734 when baPWV was added (p Conclusions There is a significant association between baPWV and E/E’ in an apparently healthy Korean population. BaPWV is useful as a simple and non-invasive method for early detection of increased LV filling pressure among these people.

  9. Relationship of vitamin D levels to blood pressure in a biethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, R; Jaceldo-Siegl, K; Haddad, E; Oda, K; Fraser, G E; Tonstad, S

    2013-08-01

    Accumulating epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with hypertension. Blacks tend to have lower vitamin D levels than Whites, but it is unclear whether this difference explains the higher blood pressure (BP) observed in Blacks in a population with healthy lifestyle practices. We examined cross-sectional data in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a cohort of non-smoking, mostly non-drinking men and women following a range of diets from vegan to non-vegetarian. Each participant provided dietary, demographic, lifestyle and medical history data. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, percent body fat and blood pressure and fasting blood samples were obtained from a randomly selected non-diabetic sample of 284 Blacks and 284 Whites aged 30-95 years. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess independent relationships between blood pressure and 25(OH)D levels. Levels of 25(OH)D were inversely associated with systolic BP in Whites after control for age, gender, BMI, and use of BP-lowering medications (β-coefficient -0.23 [95% CI, -0.43, -0.03; p = 0.02]). This relationship was not seen in Blacks (β-coefficient 0.08 [95% CI, -0.14, 0.30; p = 0.4]). Results were similar when controlling for waist circumference or percentage body fat instead of BMI. No relationship between serum 25(OH)D and diastolic BP was seen. Systolic BP is inversely associated with 25(OH)D levels in Whites but not in Blacks. Vitamin D may not be a major contributor to the White-Black differential in BP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of human genetic diversity : inferences on population origin and history

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Marc, 1980-

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of human genetic diversity suggest that all modern humans originated from a small population in Africa that expanded rapidly 50,000 years ago to occupy the whole world. While moving into new environments, genetic drift and natural selection affected populations differently, creating genetic structure. By understanding the genetic structure of human populations, we can reconstruct human history and understand the genetic basis of diseases. The work presented here contributes to the on...

  11. Finger pressure adjustments to various object configurations during precision grip in humans and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaro, Riccardo; Tia, Banty; Coudé, Gino; Canto, Rosario; Oliynyk, Andriy; Salmas, Paola; Masia, Lorenzo; Sandini, Giulio; Fadiga, Luciano

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we recorded the pressure exerted onto an object by the index finger and the thumb of the preferred hand of 18 human subjects and either hand of two macaque monkeys during a precision grasping task. The to-be-grasped object was a custom-made device composed by two plates which could be variably oriented by a motorized system while keeping constant the size and thus grip dimension. The to-be-grasped plates were covered by an array of capacitive sensors to measure specific features of finger adaptation, namely pressure intensity and centroid location and displacement. Kinematic measurements demonstrated that for human subjects and for monkeys, different plate configurations did not affect wrist velocity and grip aperture during the reaching phase. Consistently, at the instant of fingers-plates contact, pressure centroids were clustered around the same point for all handle configurations. However, small pressure centroid displacements were specifically adopted for each configuration, indicating that both humans and monkeys can display finger adaptation during precision grip. Moreover, humans applied stronger thumb pressure intensity, performed less centroid displacement and required reduced adjustment time, as compared to monkeys. These pressure patterns remain similar when different load forces were required to pull the handle, as ascertained by additional measurements in humans. The present findings indicate that, although humans and monkeys share common features in motor control of grasping, they differ in the adjustment of fingertip pressure, probably because of skill and/or morphology divergences. Such a precision grip device may form the groundwork for future studies on prehension mechanisms. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Selection pressure on human STR loci and its relevance in repeat expansion disease

    KAUST Repository

    Shimada, Makoto K.

    2016-06-11

    Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) comprise repeats of one to several base pairs. Because of the high mutability due to strand slippage during DNA synthesis, rapid evolutionary change in the number of repeating units directly shapes the range of repeat-number variation according to selection pressure. However, the remaining questions include: Why are STRs causing repeat expansion diseases maintained in the human population; and why are these limited to neurodegenerative diseases? By evaluating the genome-wide selection pressure on STRs using the database we constructed, we identified two different patterns of relationship in repeat-number polymorphisms between DNA and amino-acid sequences, although both patterns are evolutionary consequences of avoiding the formation of harmful long STRs. First, a mixture of degenerate codons is represented in poly-proline (poly-P) repeats. Second, long poly-glutamine (poly-Q) repeats are favored at the protein level; however, at the DNA level, STRs encoding long poly-Qs are frequently divided by synonymous SNPs. Furthermore, significant enrichments of apoptosis and neurodevelopment were biological processes found specifically in genes encoding poly-Qs with repeat polymorphism. This suggests the existence of a specific molecular function for polymorphic and/or long poly-Q stretches. Given that the poly-Qs causing expansion diseases were longer than other poly-Qs, even in healthy subjects, our results indicate that the evolutionary benefits of long and/or polymorphic poly-Q stretches outweigh the risks of long CAG repeats predisposing to pathological hyper-expansions. Molecular pathways in neurodevelopment requiring long and polymorphic poly-Q stretches may provide a clue to understanding why poly-Q expansion diseases are limited to neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Dissecting historical changes of selective pressures in the evolution of human pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Sijia; Jin, Li; He, Yungang

    2018-01-01

    Human pigmentation is a highly diverse trait among populations, and has drawn particular attention from both academic and non-academic investigators for thousands of years. To explain the diversity of human pigmentation, researchers have proposed that human pigmentation is adapted for ultraviolet radiation and driven by natural selection. Although studies have detected signals of natural selection in several human pigmentation genes, none have quantitatively investigated the historical select...

  14. 21 century perspective in radiation protection of humans and human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 21 century ionizing radiation is applied in all field of human activities. In parallel, the radiobiology and radiation medicine are developing as separate branches for the purposes of the radiation protection: for risk estimation and regulation of the human irradiation. Main features of radiation protection at the beginning of the century are: 1.Well developed conservative theoretical background, based on the linear non-threshold concept 'dose-effect' towards the carcinogenesis and genetic effects; 2. Developed international and national structures, including organizations as ICRP, UNSCEAR, ICRU, IAEA, WHO, FAO, BEIR, OECD/NEA, ILO, NCRP, NRPB etc. 3. Detailed regulative legislation for all cases of human irradiation, combines with effective control structures. Ionizing radiation is the most strictly regulated factor affecting humans among the all adverse impacts of the living environment. The expectations for the radiation protection in 21 century are: 1. A radical reassessment of the concept for low doses and the linear non-threshold concept since data for existing of a threshold on the human population level. 2. Taking into consideration of the the adaptation to the irradiation, comparable with the natural radiation background. 3. Taking into consideration of the radiation hormesis, which are now ignored by the risk theory. 4. Clarification of the questions of the genetic effects, which are not yet determined for the human population. 5. Radical solutions of the radioactive waste problem, which will be crucial for the future of the nuclear energy production. 6. Gradual overcoming of the fear from ionizing radiation, which is an important social factor

  15. Human papilloma virus prevalence in a multiethnic screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K; Ghanem, Tamer; Stachler, Robert; Gardner, Glendon; Jones, Lamont; Schweitzer, Vanessa P; Hall, Francis; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J

    2013-03-01

    The goal was to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV16 using saliva in a screening population in Detroit, Michigan. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect HPV16 in saliva DNA from 349 screening subjects without head and neck cancer (HNC), 156 with HNC, and 19 controls. Cut points for human papilloma virus (HPV) positivity were >0 and >0.001 copy/cell. Proportions were compared between groups using exact χ(2) or Fisher exact tests (P 0, each group had an overall HPV prevalence of more than 5%, with a higher prevalence of 30.8% in the HNC patient group. At a cut point >0.001, the prevalence was lower: 0% in the control, 1.2% in the screening, and 16.7% in the HNC group. In the latter, for both cut points, HPV prevalence was different across sites (0, women in the screening group had a higher prevalence of HPV than did men (P = .010), and at >0.001, the prevalence was higher for men in the HNC group than for women (P = .035). In the screening group, at >0, only African Americans had a higher prevalence than Caucasian Americans (P = .025). In the screening group, a 6.9% and 1.2% screening rate was noted at cut points >0 and >0.001, respectively. The results provide data to inform public health considerations of the feasibility of saliva as a screening tool in at-risk populations with the long-term goal of prophylactic vaccination against oral HPV.

  16. Sixty years of anthropogenic pressure: a spatio-temporal genetic analysis of brown trout populations subject to stocking and population declines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Fraser, Dylan J.; Meier, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of historical samples can provide invaluable information on changes to the genetic composition of natural populations resulting from human activities. Here, we analyse 21 microsatellite loci in historical (archived scales from 1927 to 1956) and contemporary samples of brown trout (Salmo...... trutta) from six neighbouring rivers in Denmark, to compare the genetic structure of wild populations before and after population declines and stocking with nonlocal strains of hatchery trout. We show that all populations have been strongly affected by stocking, with admixture proportions ranging from 14...... differences among populations in hatchery trout admixture proportions. Despite significant changes to the genetic composition within populations over time, dispersal rates among populations were roughly similar before and after stocking. We also assessed whether population declines or introgression...

  17. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV and scala tympani (ST is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  18. Genotoxic thresholds, DNA repair, and susceptibility in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gareth J.S.; Zair, Zoulikha; Johnson, George E.; Doak, Shareen H.

    2010-01-01

    considered. In terms of industrial exposures to known mutagens, knowing the dose relationships and protective mechanisms involved, offers the possibility of screening workers for susceptibility to mutation through examining DNA repair gene polymorphisms. Hence, thresholds may exist for certain mutagens, but there will undoubtedly be human subpopulations who are more at risk from low dose exposures than others and who should not be exposed, if possible. By studying polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, susceptible individuals may be identified, and additional safety factors appropriately targeted to these populations.

  19. mtDNA variation predicts population size in humans and reveals a major Southern Asian chapter in human prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Gray, Russell D; Drummond, Alexei J

    2008-02-01

    The relative timing and size of regional human population growth following our expansion from Africa remain unknown. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity carries a legacy of our population history. Given a set of sequences, we can use coalescent theory to estimate past population size through time and draw inferences about human population history. However, recent work has challenged the validity of using mtDNA diversity to infer species population sizes. Here we use Bayesian coalescent inference methods, together with a global data set of 357 human mtDNA coding-region sequences, to infer human population sizes through time across 8 major geographic regions. Our estimates of relative population sizes show remarkable concordance with the contemporary regional distribution of humans across Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas, indicating that mtDNA diversity is a good predictor of population size in humans. Plots of population size through time show slow growth in sub-Saharan Africa beginning 143-193 kya, followed by a rapid expansion into Eurasia after the emergence of the first non-African mtDNA lineages 50-70 kya. Outside Africa, the earliest and fastest growth is inferred in Southern Asia approximately 52 kya, followed by a succession of growth phases in Northern and Central Asia (approximately 49 kya), Australia (approximately 48 kya), Europe (approximately 42 kya), the Middle East and North Africa (approximately 40 kya), New Guinea (approximately 39 kya), the Americas (approximately 18 kya), and a second expansion in Europe (approximately 10-15 kya). Comparisons of relative regional population sizes through time suggest that between approximately 45 and 20 kya most of humanity lived in Southern Asia. These findings not only support the use of mtDNA data for estimating human population size but also provide a unique picture of human prehistory and demonstrate the importance of Southern Asia to our recent evolutionary past.

  20. Potential US Population Impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Carey, Robert M; Gidding, Samuel; Jones, Daniel W; Taler, Sandra J; Wright, Jackson T; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-09

    The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for initiation of antihypertensive medication, and BP target goals. This study sought to determine the prevalence of hypertension, implications of recommendations for antihypertensive medication, and prevalence of BP above the treatment goal among US adults using criteria from the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline and the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). The authors analyzed data from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 9 623). BP was measured 3 times following a standardized protocol and averaged. Results were weighted to produce US population estimates. According to the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC7 guidelines, the crude prevalence of hypertension among US adults was 45.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.6% to 47.6%) and 31.9% (95% CI: 30.1% to 33.7%), respectively, and antihypertensive medication was recommended for 36.2% (95% CI: 34.2% to 38.2%) and 34.3% (95% CI: 32.5% to 36.2%) of US adults, respectively. Nonpharmacological intervention is advised for the 9.4% of US adults with hypertension who are not recommended for antihypertensive medication according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline. Among US adults taking antihypertensive medication, 53.4% (95% CI: 49.9% to 56.8%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 36.4% to 41.6%) had BP above the treatment goal according to the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC7 guidelines, respectively. Compared with the JNC7 guideline, the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline results in a substantial increase in the prevalence of hypertension, a small increase in the percentage of US adults recommended for antihypertensive medication, and more intensive BP lowering for many

  1. Nuclear genetic diversity in human lice (Pediculus humanus reveals continental differences and high inbreeding among worldwide populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina S Ascunce

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus. This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, and the clothing (body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus. Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long

  2. Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, James C; Wang, Zhangwei

    2010-04-01

    The current evolution toward greater image resolution from magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanners has prompted the exploration of higher strength magnetic fields and use of higher levels of radio frequencies (RFs). Auditory perception of RF pulses by humans has been reported during MRI with head coils. It has shown that the mechanism of interaction for the auditory effect is caused by an RF pulse-induced thermoelastic pressure wave inside the head. We report a computational study of the intensity and frequency of thermoelastic pressure waves generated by RF pulses in the human head inside high-field MRI and clinical scanners. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) guides limit the local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body-including the head-to 8 W kg(-1). We present results as functions of SAR and show that for a given SAR the peak acoustic pressures generated in the anatomic head model were essentially the same at 64, 300, and 400 MHz (1.5, 7.0, and 9.4 T). Pressures generated in the anatomic head are comparable to the threshold pressure of 20 mPa for sound perception by humans at the cochlea for 4 W kg(-1). Moreover, results indicate that the peak acoustic pressure in the brain is only 2 to 3 times the auditory threshold at the U.S. FDA guideline of 8 W kg(-1). Even at a high SAR of 20 W kg(-1), where the acoustic pressure in the brain could be more than 7 times the auditory threshold, the sound pressure levels would not be more than 17 db above threshold of perception at the cochlea.

  3. Infusion pressure and pain during microneedle injection into skin of human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti; Park, Sohyun; Bondy, Brian; Felner, Eric I.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusion into skin using hollow microneedles offers an attractive alternative to hypodermic needle injections. However, the fluid mechanics and pain associated with injection into skin using a microneedle have not been studied in detail before. Here, we report on the effect of microneedle insertion depth into skin, partial needle retraction, fluid infusion flow rate and the co-administration of hyaluronidase on infusion pressure during microneedle-based saline infusion, as well as on associated pain in human subjects. Infusion of up to a few hundred microliters of fluid required pressures of a few hundred mmHg, caused little to no pain, and showed weak dependence on infusion parameters. Infusion of larger volumes up to 1 mL required pressures up to a few thousand mmHg, but still usually caused little pain. In general, injection of larger volumes of fluid required larger pressures and application of larger pressures cause more pain, although other experimental parameters also played a significant role. Among the intradermal microneedle groups, microneedle length had little effect; microneedle retraction lowered infusion pressure but increased pain; lower flow rate reduced infusion pressure and kept pain low; and use of hyaluronidase also lowered infusion pressure and kept pain low. We conclude that microneedles offer a simple method to infuse fluid into the skin that can be carried out with little to no pain. PMID:21684001

  4. Epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human enterovirus 71 among Thai populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important pathogen caused large outbreaks in Asian-Pacific region with severe neurological complications and may lead to death in young children. Understanding of the etiological spectrum and epidemic changes of enterovirus and population’s immunity against EV71 are crucial for the implementation of future therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Results A total of 1,182 patients who presented with the symptoms of hand foot and mouth disease (67.3%) or herpangina (HA) (16.7%) and admitted to the hospitals during 2008-2013 were tested for enterovirus using pan-enterovirus PCR targeting 5′-untranslated region and specific PCR for viral capsid protein 1 gene. Overall, 59.7% were pan-enterovirus positive comprising 9.1% EV71 and 31.2% coxsackievirus species A (CV-A) including 70.5% CV-A6, 27.6% CV-A16, 1.1% CV-A10, and 0.8% CV-A5. HFMD and HA occurred endemically during 2008-2011. The number of cases increased dramatically in June 2012 with the percentage of the recently emerged CV-A6 significantly rose to 28.4%. Co-circulation between different EV71 genotypes was observed during the outbreak. Total of 161 sera obtained from healthy individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against EV71 subgenotype B5 (EV71-B5) using microneutralization assay. The seropositive rate of EV71-B5 was 65.8%. The age-adjusted seroprevalence for individuals was found to be lowest in children aged >6 months to 2 years (42.5%). The seropositive rate remained relatively low in preschool children aged > 2 years to 6 years (48.3%) and thereafter increased sharply to more than 80% in individuals aged > 6 years. Conclusions This study describes longitudinal data reflecting changing patterns of enterovirus prevalence over 6 years and demonstrates high seroprevalences of EV71-B5 NAb among Thai individuals. The rate of EV71 seropositive increased with age but without gender-specific significant difference. We identified

  5. Recombination gives a new insight in the effective population size and the history of the old world human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melé, Marta; Javed, Asif; Pybus, Marc; Zalloua, Pierre; Haber, Marc; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Jin, Li; Yang, Yajun; Pitchappan, R M; Arunkumar, G; Parida, Laxmi; Calafell, Francesc; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    The information left by recombination in our genomes can be used to make inferences on our recent evolutionary history. Specifically, the number of past recombination events in a population sample is a function of its effective population size (Ne). We have applied a method, Identifying Recombination in Sequences (IRiS), to detect specific past recombination events in 30 Old World populations to infer their Ne. We have found that sub-Saharan African populations have an Ne that is approximately four times greater than those of non-African populations and that outside of Africa, South Asian populations had the largest Ne. We also observe that the patterns of recombinational diversity of these populations correlate with distance out of Africa if that distance is measured along a path crossing South Arabia. No such correlation is found through a Sinai route, suggesting that anatomically modern humans first left Africa through the Bab-el-Mandeb strait rather than through present Egypt.

  6. Association of "Elevated Blood Pressure" and "Stage 1 Hypertension" With Cardiovascular Mortality Among an Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Hosseini, Naeimeh; Koh, Angela S; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2018-04-10

    The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association high blood pressure (BP) guidelines in the United States have lowered definition of hypertension by defining normal as systolic/diastolic BP hypertension as systolic between 130 and 139 mm Hg or diastolic between 80 and 89 mm Hg. We investigated the association between the new hypertension definition and cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese in Singapore. We used data from 30 636 participants of a population-based cohort, the SCHS (Singapore Chinese Health Study), who had BPs measured using a standard protocol at ages 46 to 85 years between 1994 and 2005. Information on lifestyle factors was collected at recruitment (1993-1998) and follow-up 1 interviews (1999 and 2004). Mortality was identified via nationwide registry linkage up to December 31, 2016. Neither elevated BP (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.07) nor stage 1 hypertension (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.11) was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with normal BP in the whole cohort. Stage 1 hypertension was associated with increased cardiovascular risk only in those hypertension may not be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality across all ages among Chinese in Singapore, but that the at-risk subpopulation is limited to those <65 years of age and without a prior cardiovascular disease. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. The average cost of pressure ulcer management in a community dwelling spinal cord injury population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian C; Nanwa, Natasha; Mittmann, Nicole; Bryant, Dianne; Coyte, Peter C; Houghton, Pamela E

    2013-08-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common secondary complication experienced by community dwelling individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). There is a paucity of literature on the health economic impact of PU in SCI population from a societal perspective. The objective of this study was to determine the resource use and costs in 2010 Canadian dollars of a community dwelling SCI individual experiencing a PU from a societal perspective. A non-comparative cost analysis was conducted on a cohort of community dwelling SCI individuals from Ontario, Canada. Medical resource use was recorded over the study period. Unit costs associated with these resources were collected from publicly available sources and published literature. Average monthly cost was calculated based on 7-month follow-up. Costs were stratified by age, PU history, severity level, location of SCI, duration of current PU and PU surface area. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Among the 12 study participants, total average monthly cost per community dwelling SCI individual with a PU was $4745. Hospital admission costs represented the greatest percentage of the total cost (62%). Sensitivity analysis showed that the total average monthly costs were most sensitive to variations in hospitalisation costs. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  8. Population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for high blood pressure in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hai-Jun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether eliminating overweight and obesity could effectively reduce the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in Chinese children. This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of contribution of overweight and obesity associated with HBP in Chinese children, and assess the theoretical HBP prevalence if overweight and obesity were eliminated. Data on 197,191 participants aged 7-17 years with complete records from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health conducted in 2010 were included. The population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for HBP was calculated. The prevalence of HBP was 6.8% and 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively. HBP in about 22.9% (95% CI 21.5, 24.2%) of boys and 14.7% (95% CI 13.5, 15.8%) of girls could be attributable to overweight and obesity. If both overweight and obesity were eliminated, the prevalence of HBP theoretically could be reduced to 5.2% in boys and 5.0% in girls. Similar results were found in different age and urban/rural area groups. Eliminating overweight and obesity could theoretically lead to a moderate reduction in the prevalence of HBP in Chinese children.

  9. Orthostatic changes in blood pressure and mortality in a nursing home population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Laura C.; Hendriks, Steven H.; Cimzar-Sweelssen, Mateja; Knipscheer, Astrid; Groenier, Klaas H.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bilo, Henk J. G.; van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.

    Objective: Hypertension, orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension (OHT) are highly prevalent in old age. The associations in the very elderly and frail patients between blood pressure, and especially orthostatic changes in blood pressure, and mortality are unclear. We aimed to

  10. Hydrostatic Pressure Does Not Cause Detectable Changes in Survival of Human Retinal Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Andrew; Aldarwesh, Amal; Rhodes, Jeremy D.; Broadway, David C.; Everitt, Claire; Sanderson, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for glaucoma. One consequence of raised IOP is that ocular tissues are subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure (HP). The effect of raised HP on stress pathway signaling and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in the human retina was investigated. Methods A chamber was designed to expose cells to increased HP (constant and fluctuating). Accurate pressure control (10-100mmHg) was achieved using mass flow controllers. Human organotypic retinal cultures (HORCs) from donor eyes (pressure for 24 or 48h caused no loss of structural integrity, LDH release, decrease in RGC marker expression (THY-1) or loss of RGCs compared with controls. In addition, there was no increase in TUNEL-positive NeuN-labelled cells at either time-point indicating no increase in apoptosis of RGCs. OGD increased apoptosis, reduced RGC marker expression and RGC number and caused elevated LDH release at 24h. p38 and JNK phosphorylation remained unchanged in HORCs exposed to fluctuating pressure (10-100mmHg; 1 cycle/min) for 15, 30, 60 and 90min durations, whereas OGD (3h) increased activation of p38 and JNK, remaining elevated for 90min post-OGD. Conclusions Directly applied HP had no detectable impact on RGC survival and stress-signalling in HORCs. Simulated ischemia, however, activated stress pathways and caused RGC death. These results show that direct HP does not cause degeneration of RGCs in the ex vivo human retina. PMID:25635827

  11. Systemic medication and intraocular pressure in a British population: the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Hayat, Shabina; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    To determine the association between systemic medication use and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a population of older British men and women. Population-based, cross-sectional study. We included 7093 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye Study. Exclusion criteria were a history of glaucoma therapy (medical, laser, or surgical), IOP asymmetry between eyes of >5 mmHg, and missing data for any covariables. The mean age of participants was 68 years (range, 48-92) and 56% were women. We measured IOP using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Three readings were taken per eye and the best signal value of the Goldmann-correlated IOP value considered. Participants were asked to bring all their medications and related documentation to the health examination, and these were recorded by the research nurse using an electronic case record form. The medication classes examined were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, α-blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, nitrates, statins, insulin, biguanides, sulfonylureas, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We examined associations between medication use and IOP using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Models containing diabetic medication were further adjusted for glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Mean IOP of the right and left eyes. Use of systemic β-blockers (-0.92 mmHg; 95% CI, -1.19, -0.65; Pnitrates (-0.63 mmHg; 95% CI, -1.12, -0.14; P = 0.011) were independently associated with lower IOP. The observed associations between statin or aspirin use with IOP were no longer significant after adjustment for β-blocker use. This is the first population-based study to demonstrate and quantify clinically significant differences in IOP among participants using systemic β-blockers or nitrates. Lower IOP observed in participants using statins or aspirin was explained by concurrent

  12. Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis for the Effect of a Pressure Wave in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce L., Ernesto; Ponce S., Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Brain injuries in people of all ages is a serious, world-wide health problem, with consequences as varied as attention or memory deficits, difficulties in problem-solving, aggressive social behavior, and neuro degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Brain injuries can be the result of a direct impact, but also pressure waves and direct impulses. The aim of this work is to develop a predictive method to calculate the stress generated in the human brain by pressure waves such as high power sounds. The finite element method is used, combined with elastic wave theory. The predictions of the generated stress levels are compared with the resistance of the arterioles that pervade the brain. The problem was focused to the Chilean mining where there are some accidents happen by detonations and high sound level. There are not formal medical investigation, however these pressure waves could produce human brain damage.

  13. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni.......0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  14. Friction of human skin against smooth and rough glass as a function of the contact pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derler, S.; Gerhardt, L.C.; Lenz, A.; Bertaux, E.; Hadad, M.

    2009-01-01

    The friction behaviour of human skin was studied by combining friction measurements using a tri-axial force plate with skin contact area measurements using a pressure sensitive film. Four subjects carried out friction measurement series, in which they rubbed the index finger pad and the edge of the

  15. High-pressure liquid chromatographic assay of Bay n 7133 in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasching, C E; Hughes, C E; Hector, R F; Peterson, L R

    1984-01-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method that includes a Sep-Pak (Waters Associates, Inc., Milford , Mass.) preparation of human serum was employed for the quantitative assay of Bay n 7133. Drug levels of 0.1 to 20 micrograms/ml could be detected. No interference from amphotericin B was found in the chromatographic analysis of Bay n 7133.

  16. Inactivation of human norovirus in contaminated oysters and clams by high-hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the most frequent causative agent of foodborne disease associated with shellfish consumption. In this study, the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of NoV was determined. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) NoV were inoculated into oyster ho...

  17. Human norovirus inactivation in oysters by high hydrostatic pressure processing: A randomized double-blinded study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial assessed the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on genogroup I.1 human norovirus (HuNoV) inactivation in virus-seeded oysters when ingested by subjects. The safety and efficacy of HPP treatments were assessed in three study phases wi...

  18. High pressure treatment of human norovirus-like particles: factors affecting destruction efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. High pressure processing (HPP) is considered a promising non-thermal technology to inactivate viral pathogens in foods. However, the effectiveness of HPP on inactivating HuNoV remains poorly understood because it cannot be...

  19. Trophic scaling and occupancy analysis reveals a lion population limited by top-down anthropogenic pressure in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everatt, Kristoffer T; Andresen, Leah; Somers, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The African lion (Panthera Leo) has suffered drastic population and range declines over the last few decades and is listed by the IUCN as vulnerable to extinction. Conservation management requires reliable population estimates, however these data are lacking for many of the continent's remaining populations. It is possible to estimate lion abundance using a trophic scaling approach. However, such inferences assume that a predator population is subject only to bottom-up regulation, and are thus likely to produce biased estimates in systems experiencing top-down anthropogenic pressures. Here we provide baseline data on the status of lions in a developing National Park in Mozambique that is impacted by humans and livestock. We compare a direct density estimate with an estimate derived from trophic scaling. We then use replicated detection/non-detection surveys to estimate the proportion of area occupied by lions, and hierarchical ranking of covariates to provide inferences on the relative contribution of prey resources and anthropogenic factors influencing lion occurrence. The direct density estimate was less than 1/3 of the estimate derived from prey resources (0.99 lions/100 km² vs. 3.05 lions/100 km²). The proportion of area occupied by lions was Ψ = 0.439 (SE = 0.121), or approximately 44% of a 2,400 km2 sample of potential habitat. Although lions were strongly predicted by a greater probability of encountering prey resources, the greatest contributing factor to lion occurrence was a strong negative association with settlements. Finally, our empirical abundance estimate is approximately 1/3 of a published abundance estimate derived from opinion surveys. Altogether, our results describe a lion population held below resource-based carrying capacity by anthropogenic factors and highlight the limitations of trophic scaling and opinion surveys for estimating predator populations exposed to anthropogenic pressures. Our study provides the first empirical

  20. Trophic scaling and occupancy analysis reveals a lion population limited by top-down anthropogenic pressure in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer T Everatt

    Full Text Available The African lion (Panthera Leo has suffered drastic population and range declines over the last few decades and is listed by the IUCN as vulnerable to extinction. Conservation management requires reliable population estimates, however these data are lacking for many of the continent's remaining populations. It is possible to estimate lion abundance using a trophic scaling approach. However, such inferences assume that a predator population is subject only to bottom-up regulation, and are thus likely to produce biased estimates in systems experiencing top-down anthropogenic pressures. Here we provide baseline data on the status of lions in a developing National Park in Mozambique that is impacted by humans and livestock. We compare a direct density estimate with an estimate derived from trophic scaling. We then use replicated detection/non-detection surveys to estimate the proportion of area occupied by lions, and hierarchical ranking of covariates to provide inferences on the relative contribution of prey resources and anthropogenic factors influencing lion occurrence. The direct density estimate was less than 1/3 of the estimate derived from prey resources (0.99 lions/100 km² vs. 3.05 lions/100 km². The proportion of area occupied by lions was Ψ = 0.439 (SE = 0.121, or approximately 44% of a 2,400 km2 sample of potential habitat. Although lions were strongly predicted by a greater probability of encountering prey resources, the greatest contributing factor to lion occurrence was a strong negative association with settlements. Finally, our empirical abundance estimate is approximately 1/3 of a published abundance estimate derived from opinion surveys. Altogether, our results describe a lion population held below resource-based carrying capacity by anthropogenic factors and highlight the limitations of trophic scaling and opinion surveys for estimating predator populations exposed to anthropogenic pressures. Our study provides the first

  1. Divergence With Age in Blood Pressure in African-Caribbean and White Populations in England: Implications for Screening for Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Humphry, Roger W.; Bhopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND We assessed when blood pressure (BP) and hypertension begin to rise in African-Caribbeans compared to the white population; and whether the change relates to body mass index (BMI). METHODS Secondary analysis of the cross-sectional Health Surveys for England among 22,723 participants

  2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 9357 subjects from 11 populations highlights missed opportunities for cardiovascular prevention in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W

    2011-01-01

    To analyze sex-specific relative and absolute risks associated with blood pressure (BP), we performed conventional and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in 9357 subjects (mean age, 52.8 years; 47% women) recruited from 11 populations. We computed standardized multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios...

  3. Passive heat therapy improves endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure in sedentary humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Vienna E; Howard, Matthew J; Francisco, Michael A; Ely, Brett R; Minson, Christopher T

    2016-09-15

    A recent 30 year prospective study showed that lifelong sauna use reduces cardiovascular-related and all-cause mortality; however, the specific cardiovascular adaptations that cause this chronic protection are currently unknown. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of repeated hot water immersion ('heat therapy') on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health in young, sedentary humans. We showed that, relative to a sham group which participated in thermoneutral water immersion, heat therapy increased flow-mediated dilatation, reduced arterial stiffness, reduced mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure, and reduced carotid intima media thickness, with changes all on par or greater than what is typically observed in sedentary subjects with exercise training. Our results show for the first time that heat therapy has widespread and robust effects on vascular function, and as such, could be a viable treatment option for improving cardiovascular health in a variety of patient populations, particularly those with limited exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. The majority of cardiovascular diseases are characterized by disorders of the arteries, predominantly caused by endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. Intermittent hot water immersion ('heat therapy') results in elevations in core temperature and changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics, such as cardiac output and vascular shear stress, that are similar to exercise, and thus may provide an alternative means of improving health which could be utilized by patients with low exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. We sought to comprehensively assess the effects of 8 weeks of heat therapy on biomarkers of vascular function in young, sedentary subjects. Twenty young, sedentary subjects were assigned to participate in 8 weeks (4-5 times per week) of heat therapy (n = 10; immersion in a 40.5°C bath sufficient to maintain rectal temperature ≥ 38.5°C for 60 min per session) or thermoneutral water

  4. Influence of probe pressure on diffuse reflectance spectra of human skin measured in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Alexey P.; Bykov, Alexander V.; Meglinski, Igor V.

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical pressure superficially applied on the human skin surface by a fiber-optic probe influences the spatial distribution of blood within the cutaneous tissues. Upon gradual load of weight on the probe, a stepwise increase in the skin reflectance spectra is observed. The decrease in the load follows the similar inverse staircase-like tendency. The observed stepwise reflectance spectra changes are due to, respectively, sequential extrusion of blood from the topical cutaneous vascular beds and their filling afterward. The obtained results are confirmed by Monte Carlo modeling. This implies that pressure-induced influence during the human skin diffuse reflectance spectra measurements in vivo should be taken into consideration, in particular, in the rapidly developing area of wearable gadgets for real-time monitoring of various human body parameters.

  5. Human population structure detection via multilocus genotype clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starmer Joshua

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe a hierarchical clustering algorithm for using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP genetic data to assign individuals to populations. The method does not assume Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage equilibrium among loci in sample population individuals. Results We show that the algorithm can assign sample individuals highly accurately to their corresponding ethnic groups in our tests using HapMap SNP data and it is also robust to admixed populations when tested with Perlegen SNP data. Moreover, it can detect fine-scale population structure as subtle as that between Chinese and Japanese by using genome-wide high-diversity SNP loci. Conclusion The algorithm provides an alternative approach to the popular STRUCTURE program, especially for fine-scale population structure detection in genome-wide association studies. This is the first successful separation of Chinese and Japanese samples using random SNP loci with high statistical support.

  6. Biodiversity Areas under Threat: Overlap of Climate Change and Population Pressures on the World’s Biodiversity Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, Narcisa G.; Husak, Gregory J.; Lopez-Carr, David

    2017-01-01

    Humans and the ecosystem services they depend on are threatened by climate change. Places with high or growing human population as well as increasing climate variability, have a reduced ability to provide ecosystem services just as the need for these services is most critical. A spiral of vulnerability and ecosystem degradation often ensues in such places. We apply different global conservation schemes as proxies to examine the spatial relation between wet season precipitation, population change over three decades, and natural resource conservation. We pose two research questions: 1) Where are biodiversity and ecosystem services vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and population growth? 2) Where are human populations vulnerable to degraded ecosystem services? Results suggest that globally only about 20% of the area between 50 degrees latitude North and South has experienced significant change–largely wetting–in wet season precipitation. Approximately 40% of rangelands and 30% of rainfed agriculture lands have experienced significant precipitation changes, with important implications for food security. Over recent decades a number of critical conservation areas experienced high population growth concurrent with significant wetting or drying (e.g. the Horn of Africa, Himalaya, Western Ghats, and Sri Lanka), posing challenges not only for human adaptation but also to the protection and sustenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying areas of climate and population risk and their overlap with conservation priorities can help to target activities and resources that promote biodiversity and ecosystem services while improving human well-being. PMID:28125659

  7. Deadline pressure and human error: a study of human failures on a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiagha, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The decline in industrial efficiency may be linked to decreased reliability of complex automatic systems. This decline threatens the viability of complex organizations in industrialized economies. Industrial engineering techniques that minimize system failure by increasing the reliability of systems hardware are well developed in comparison with those available to reduce human operator errors. The problem of system reliability and the associated costs of breakdown can be reduced if we understand how highly skilled technical personnel function in complex operations and systems. The purpose of this research is to investigate how human errors are affected by deadline pressures, technical communication and other socio-dynamic factors. Through the analysis of a technologically complex particle accelerator prototype at Brookhaven National Laboratory, two failure mechanisms: (1) physical defects in the production process and (2) human operator errors were identified. Two instruments were used to collect information on human failures: objective laboratory data and a human failure questionnaire. The results of human failures from the objective data were used to test for the deadline hypothesis and also to validate the human failure questionnaire. To explain why the human failures occurred, data were collected from a four-part, closed choice questionnaire administered to two groups of scientists, engineers, and technicians, working together against a deadline to produce an engineering prototype of a particle accelerator

  8. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia stabilizes mean arterial blood pressure at high-frequency interval in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Maja; Walløe, Lars; Holme, Nathalie L A; Maes, Elke; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Arterial blood pressure variations are an independent risk factor for end organ failure. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a sign of a healthy cardiovascular system. However, whether RSA counteracts arterial blood pressure variations during the respiratory cycle remains controversial. We restricted normal RSA with non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) to test the hypothesis that RSA normally functions to stabilize mean arterial blood pressure. Ten young volunteers were investigated during metronome-paced breathing and IPPV. Heart rate (ECG), mean arterial blood pressure and left stroke volume (finger arterial pressure curve) and right stroke volume (pulsed ultrasound Doppler) were recorded, while systemic and pulmonary blood flow were calculated beat-by-beat. Respiratory variations (high-frequency power, 0.15-0.40 Hz) in cardiovascular variables were estimated by spectral analysis. Phase angles and correlation were calculated by cross-spectral analysis. The magnitude of RSA was reduced from 4.9 bpm(2) (95% CI 3.0, 6.2) during metronome breathing to 2.8 bpm(2) (95% CI 1.1, 5.0) during IPPV (p = 0.03). Variations in mean arterial blood pressure were greater (2.3 mmHg(2) (95% CI 1.4, 3.9) during IPPV than during metronome breathing (1.0 mmHg(2) [95% CI 0.7, 1.3]) (p = 0.014). Respiratory variations in right and left stroke volumes were inversely related in the respiratory cycle during both metronome breathing and IPPV. RSA magnitude is lower and mean arterial blood pressure variability is greater during IPPV than during metronome breathing. We conclude that in healthy humans, RSA stabilizes mean arterial blood pressure at respiratory frequency.

  9. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Intraocular Pressure in Myopic Spanish Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. del Buey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine biomechanical parameters of the cornea in myopic eyes and their relationship with the degree of myopia in a western healthy population. Methods. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOP, and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc were measured using the ocular response analyzer (ORA in 312 eyes of 177 Spanish subjects aged between 20 and 56 years. Refraction was expressed as spherical equivalent (SE, which ranged from 0 to −16.50 diopters (D (mean: −3.88±2.90 D. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their refractive status: group 1 or control group: emmetropia (-0.50≤SE0.05; nevertheless, IOPcc was significantly higher in the moderately myopic (15.47±2.47 mmHg and highly myopic (16.14±2.59 mmHg groups than in the emmetropia (15.15±2.06 mmHg and low myopia groups (14.53±2.37 mmHg. No correlation between age and the measured parameters was found. CH and IOPcc were weakly but significantly correlated with SE (r=0.171, P=0.002 and r=-0.131, P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Present study showed only a very weak, but significant, correlation between CH and refractive error, with CH being lower in both moderately and highly myopic eyes than that in the emmetropic and low myopic eyes. These changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea may have an impact on IOP measurement, increasing the risk of glaucoma.

  10. Association of obesity categories and high blood pressure in a rural adult Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Zhang, M; Luo, X; Yin, L; Pang, C; Feng, T; Ren, Y; Wang, B; Zhang, L; Li, L; Zhang, H; Yang, X; Han, C; Wu, D; Zhou, J; Shen, Y; Wang, C; Zhao, J; Hu, D

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure (HBP) in rural China. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a rural adult Chinese population during July to August of 2007 and 2008. The relationship between various obesity categories and HBP was analysed by gender for 20 194 participants. Obesity categories were classified as general and central obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), respectively; cross-classification of BMI and WC created another four groups: both BMI and WC normal (BNWN), BMI obesity and WC normal (BOWN), BMI normal and WC obesity (BNWO), and both BMI and WC obesity (BOWO). The rates of HBP for BNWN, BOWN, BNWO and BOWO groups were 20.8, 63.3, 39.8 and 48.7%, respectively, for men and 20.1, 28.0, 34.7 and 54.2%, respectively, for women. As compared with BNWN group, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of BOWN and BOWO for having HBP in men were 6.227 (2.712-14.300) and 4.842 (4.036-5.808), respectively. As compared with BNWN women, BNWO and BOWO women showed increased risk of HBP (adjusted OR=1.342, 95%CI=1.139-1.581 and adjusted OR=4.530, 95%CI=4.004-5.124, respectively). The prevalence of general and central obesity was strongly related to HBP. Men with obese BMI but normal WC may be at increased risk of HBP. Women should pay more attention to changes in visceral adipose distribution and keep both BMI and WC values within normal ranges to reduce obesity-related health problems.

  11. Childhood obesity and elevated blood pressure in a rural population of northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrakanas, Thomas A; Konsoula, Georgia; Patsonis, Ioannis; Merkouris, Bodossakis P

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of childhood obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) in a rural population of northern Greece. In total, 572 schoolchildren between the age of 4 and 10 years were examined. Obesity was defined using three different standards: (1) body mass index (BMI) charts of the French society of Paediatrics (FR), selected because of the low cardiovascular risk profile and low prevalence of obesity in France; (2) United States BMI CDC charts (US), selected because of the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the USA; and the reference curves of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Children with elevated BP were defined as BP > or = 95th percentile for age, gender and height, according to the Greek national charts. The prevalence of obesity for boys was 13.6% (IOTF), 23.7% (US) and 31.7% (FR); for girls 14.4% (IOTF), 21.1% (US) and 35.1% (FR). The prevalence of elevated BP was 7.9% (45 children). It was 5 to 6 times more common for obese than non-obese children to have elevated BP (relative risk of 5.2 to 6.2 and odds ratio 6.3 to 7.7). The results confirm the high prevalence of childhood obesity in Greece, in this study found to be more prevalent in rural than urban Greece. The IOTF criteria tend to underestimate obesity and may not be optimal for use in a primary clinical care setting where the approach is for health education and patient treatment, rather than purely epidemiological. The study also confirms a strong relationship between high BP and increased BMI.

  12. Sources of dietary protein in relation to blood pressure in a general Dutch population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation of different dietary protein types with blood pressure (BP. We examined whether intake of total, plant, animal, dairy, meat, and grain protein was related to BP in a cross sectional cohort of 20,820 Dutch adults, aged 20-65 y and not using antihypertensive medication. DESIGN: Mean BP levels were calculated in quintiles of energy-adjusted protein with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and other nutrients including protein from other sources. In addition, mean BP difference after substitution of 3 en% carbohydrates or MUFA with protein was calculated. RESULTS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP (p(trend = 0.62 and 0.71 respectively, both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA. Systolic BP was 1.8 mmHg lower (p(trend36 g/d than in the lowest (<27 g/d quintile of plant protein. This inverse association was present both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA and more pronounced in individuals with untreated hypertension (-3.6 mmHg than in those with normal (+0.1 mmHg or prehypertensive BP (-0.3 mmHg; p(interaction<0.01. Meat and grain protein were not related to BP. Dairy protein was directly associated with systolic BP (+1.6 mmHg, p(trend<0.01, but not with diastolic BP (p(trend = 0.24. CONCLUSIONS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP in this general untreated Dutch population. Plant protein may be beneficial to BP, especially in people with elevated BP. However, because high intake of plant protein may be a marker of a healthy diet and lifestyle in general, confirmation from randomized controlled trials is warranted.

  13. Global variance in female population height: the influence of education, income, human development, life expectancy, mortality and gender inequality in 96 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Quentin J

    2014-01-01

    Human height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. Female population heights of 96 nations were culled from previously published sources and public access databases. Factor analysis with United Nations international data on education rates, life expectancy, incomes, maternal and childhood mortality rates, ratios of gender participation in education and politics, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) was run. Results indicate that population heights vary more closely with gender inequality than with population health, income or education.

  14. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  15. Colonization of a territory by a stochastic population under a strong Allee effect and a low immigration pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'er, Shay; Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2015-06-01

    We study the dynamics of colonization of a territory by a stochastic population at low immigration pressure. We assume a sufficiently strong Allee effect that introduces, in deterministic theory, a large critical population size for colonization. At low immigration rates, the average precolonization population size is small, thus invalidating the WKB approximation to the master equation. We circumvent this difficulty by deriving an exact zero-flux solution of the master equation and matching it with an approximate nonzero-flux solution of the pertinent Fokker-Planck equation in a small region around the critical population size. This procedure provides an accurate evaluation of the quasistationary probability distribution of population sizes in the precolonization state and of the mean time to colonization, for a wide range of immigration rates. At sufficiently high immigration rates our results agree with WKB results obtained previously. At low immigration rates the results can be very different.

  16. Using Population Data to Address the Human Dimensions of Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Mageean; J.G. Bartlett

    1999-01-01

    In recent years researchers and policy makers have identified population-environment interactions as crucial to issues of ecology, economic development, and human welfare. It seems clear that human populations and demands on the environment are driving ecological change in such areas as global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, biodiversity loss, land degradation...

  17. Comparing effects of perfusion and hydrostatic pressure on gene profiles of human chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ge; Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Blum, Helmut; Lavagi, Ilaria; Krebs, Stefan; Redeker, Julia I; Hölzer, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Betz, Oliver; Müller, Peter E

    2015-09-20

    Hydrostatic pressure and perfusion have been shown to regulate the chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes. In order to compare the effects of hydrostatic pressure plus perfusion (HPP) and perfusion (P) we investigated the complete gene expression profiles of human chondrocytes under HPP and P. A simplified bioreactor was constructed to apply loading (0.1 MPa for 2 h) and perfusion (2 ml) through the same piping by pressurizing the medium directly. High-density monolayer cultures of human chondrocytes were exposed to HPP or P for 4 days. Controls (C) were maintained in static cultures. Gene expression was evaluated by sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Both treatments changed gene expression levels of human chondrocytes significantly. Specifically, HPP and P increased COL2A1 expression and decreased COL1A1 and MMP-13 expression. Despite of these similarities, RNAseq revealed a list of cartilage genes including ACAN, ITGA10 and TNC, which were differentially expressed by HPP and P. Of these candidates, adhesion related molecules were found to be upregulated in HPP. Both HPP and P treatment had beneficial effects on chondrocyte differentiation and decreased catabolic enzyme expression. The study provides new insight into how hydrostatic pressure and perfusion enhance cartilage differentiation and inhibit catabolic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A real time study of the human equilibrium using an instrumented insole with 3 pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Ghaida, Hussein; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the study of the human equilibrium using an ambulatory e-health system. One of the point on which we focus is the fall risk, when losing equilibrium control. A specific postural learning model is presented, and an ambulatory instrumented insole is developed using 3 pressures sensors per foot, in order to determine the real-time displacement and the velocity of the centre of pressure (CoP). The increase of these parameters signals a loss of physiological sensation, usually of vision or of the inner ear. The results are compared to those obtained from classical more complex systems.

  19. CpG islands undermethylation in human genomic regions under selective pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cocozza

    Full Text Available DNA methylation at CpG islands (CGIs is one of the most intensively studied epigenetic mechanisms. It is fundamental for cellular differentiation and control of transcriptional potential. DNA methylation is involved also in several processes that are central to evolutionary biology, including phenotypic plasticity and evolvability. In this study, we explored the relationship between CpG islands methylation and signatures of selective pressure in Homo Sapiens, using a computational biology approach. By analyzing methylation data of 25 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE Consortium, we compared the DNA methylation of CpG islands in genomic regions under selective pressure with the methylation of CpG islands in the remaining part of the genome. To define genomic regions under selective pressure, we used three different methods, each oriented to provide distinct information about selective events. Independently of the method and of the cell type used, we found evidences of undermethylation of CGIs in human genomic regions under selective pressure. Additionally, by analyzing SNP frequency in CpG islands, we demonstrated that CpG islands in regions under selective pressure show lower genetic variation. Our findings suggest that the CpG islands in regions under selective pressure seem to be somehow more "protected" from methylation when compared with other regions of the genome.

  20. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Practical, sensitive, effective, human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. When available, such assays should allow us to fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. We will be able to validate the role of somatic mutations in carcinogenesis, to identify environmental factors that affect human germ cells, to integrate the effects of complex mixtures and the environment in the human subject, and to identify people who are hypersusceptible to genetic injury. Human cellular mutational assays, particularly when combined with cytogenetic and heritable mutational tests, promise to play pivotal roles in estimating the risk from low-dose radiation and chemical exposures. These combined methods avoid extrapolations of dose and from species to species, and may be sensitive enough and credible enough to permit politically, socially and scientifically acceptable risk management. 16 references

  1. The influence of population mobility on human settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleophas Lado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some of the characteristics of world's population mobility, cultural environment and changing societies. Some of the national and international problems associated with population data collection and enumeration are explored including transient and temporary population movements. In analyzing population mobility and demographic transition, Zelinky's hypothesis is used as a conceptual framework applicable in both Developed and Developing countries. The findings of the study focused mainly on some of government policies and implications essential for rural-orientated and urban-orientated development programmes. It is emphasized that to achieve some of the socio-economic development objectives in any nation, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all the processes of mobility to match the various government policies of the redistribution.

  2. Job strain and blood pressure in employed men and women: a pooled analysis of four northern italian population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, Giancarlo; Sega, Roberto; Ferrario, Marco; Chiodini, Paolo; Corrao, Giovanni; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The extent to which psychosocial stress concurs to raise blood pressure is still uncertain. Here the association between job strain and office blood pressure in a pooled analysis of four population samples from northern Italy is assessed. Four surveys assessing prevalence of major coronary risk factors were performed in 1986, 1990, 1991, and 1993 in area "Brianza" (Milan), a World Health Organization-MONItoring cardiovascular disease (WHO-MONICA) Project collaborating center. Ten year age- and gender-stratified independent samples were randomly recruited from the 25- to 64-year-old residents. The methods used to assess coronary risk factors strictly adhered to the MONICA manual, were kept constant, and underwent internal and external quality controls. Job strain was investigated through the administration to employed participants of a questionnaire derived from the Karasek model, assessing job demand/control latitude. Analysis was restricted to 25- to 54-year-old participants, untreated for hypertension (1799 men and 1010 women). Among men, there was a 3 mm Hg increase of systolic blood pressure (pjob categories. This difference was independent from age, education, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking habits, leisure time physical activity, and survey. No relevant differences among job strain categories were found in women and for diastolic blood pressure in both gender groups. These results carried out on a large population-based sample confirm previous findings obtained adopting ambulatory blood pressure measurements in more restricted samples of population or patients. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between perceived work stress and blood pressure in women.

  3. Population specific biomarkers of human aging: a big data study using South Korean, Canadian and Eastern European patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Kochetov, Kirill; Putin, Evgeny; Cortese, Franco; Aliper, Alexander; Lee, Won-Suk; Ahn, Sung-Min; Uhn, Lee; Skjodt, Neil; Kovalchuk, Olga; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-11

    Accurate and physiologically meaningful biomarkers for human aging are key to assessing anti-aging therapies. Given ethnic differences in health, diet, lifestyle, behaviour, environmental exposures and even average rate of biological aging, it stands to reason that aging clocks trained on datasets obtained from specific ethnic populations are more likely to account for these potential confounding factors, resulting in an enhanced capacity to predict chronological age and quantify biological age. Here we present a deep learning-based hematological aging clock modeled using the large combined dataset of Canadian, South Korean and Eastern European population blood samples that show increased predictive accuracy in individual populations compared to population-specific hematologic aging clocks. The performance of models was also evaluated on publicly-available samples of the American population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition, we explored the association between age predicted by both population-specific and combined hematological clocks and all-cause mortality. Overall, this study suggests a) the population-specificity of aging patterns and b) hematologic clocks predicts all-cause mortality. Proposed models added to the freely available Aging.AI system allowing improved ability to assess human aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  4. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references

  5. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-06-29

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references.

  6. Population dynamics of American horseshoe crabs—historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby, Søren; King, Tim L.; Obst, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    with Bayesian coalescent-based methods. The analysis showed strong declines in population sizes throughout the species’ distribution except in the geographically isolated southern-most population in Mexico, where a strong increase in population size was inferred. Analyses suggested that demographic changes....... This study highlights the importance of considering both climatic changes and anthropogenic effects in efforts to understand population dynamics—a topic which is highly relevant in the ongoing assessments of the effects of climate change and overharvest....

  7. The effects of extra-low-frequency atmospheric pressure oscillations on human mental activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyukov, A. A.; Didyk, L.

    Slight atmospheric pressure oscillations (APO) in the extra-low-frequency range below 0.1 Hz, which frequently occur naturally, can influence human mental activity. This phenomenon has been observed in experiments with a group of 12 healthy volunteers exposed to experimentally created APO with amplitudes 30-50 Pa in the frequency band 0.011-0.17 Hz. Exposure of the subjects to APO for 15-30 min caused significant changes in attention and short-term memory functions, performance rate, and mental processing flexibility. The character of the response depended on the APO frequency and coherence. Periodic APO promoted purposeful mental activity, accompanied by an increase in breath-holding duration and a slower heart rate. On the other hand, quasi-chaotic APO, similar to the natural perturbations of atmospheric pressure, disrupted mental activity. These observations suggest that APO could be partly responsible for meteorosensitivity in humans.

  8. Population genetic analysis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cama, Vitaliano; Feng, Yaoyu; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Zhang, Xichen; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Genotyping based on sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer has revealed significant genetic diversity in Enterocytozoonbieneusi. Thus far, the population genetics of E. bieneusi and its significance in the epidemiology of microsporidiosis have not been examined. In this study, a multilocus sequence typing of E. bieneusi in AIDS patients in Lima, Peru was conducted, using 72 specimens previously genotyped as A, D, IV, EbpC, WL11, Peru7, Peru8, Peru10 and Peru11 at the internal transcribed spacer locus. Altogether, 39 multilocus genotypes were identified among the 72 specimens. The observation of strong intragenic linkage disequilibria and limited genetic recombination among markers were indicative of an overall clonal population structure of E. bieneusi. Measures of pair-wise intergenic linkage disequilibria and a standardised index of association (IAS) based on allelic profile data further supported this conclusion. Both sequence-based and allelic profile-based phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of two genetically isolated groups in the study population, one (group 1) containing isolates of the anthroponotic internal transcribed spacer genotype A, and the other (group 2) containing isolates of multiple internal transcribed spacer genotypes (mainly genotypes D and IV) with zoonotic potential. The measurement of linkage disequilibria and recombination indicated group 2 had a clonal population structure, whereas group 1 had an epidemic population structure. The formation of the two sub-populations was confirmed by STRUCTURE and Wright's fixation index (FST) analyses. The data highlight the power of MLST in understanding the epidemiology of E. bieneusi. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. [Impact of sperm capacitation on various populations of human spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Díaz, C; Suárez Juárez, M; Díaz, M A; Ayala Ruiz, A

    1989-02-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the impact of spermatic capacitation on different spermatozooa populations, 49 samples of semen, before and after in vitro spermatic capacitation with Ham F-10 medium, were studied; motility of cells was evaluated according to WHO criteria. There was diminution of percentage of immobile cells, 27.8 to 20.0, as well as increase in population of cells with more mobility, 28.6% to 39.1%. Both difference were statistically significant (p = less than 0.05 and p = less than 0.005, respectively). These data suggest that spermatic capacitacion activates "in cascade" all groups of gametes.

  10. Does human pressure affect the community structure of surf zone fish in sandy beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Landmann, Júlia G.; Gaelzer, Luiz R.; Zalmon, Ilana R.

    2017-01-01

    Intense tourism and human activities have resulted in habitat destruction in sandy beach ecosystems with negative impacts on the associated communities. To investigate whether urbanized beaches affect surf zone fish communities, fish and their benthic macrofaunal prey were collected during periods of low and high human pressure at two beaches on the Southeastern Brazilian coast. A BACI experimental design (Before-After-Control-Impact) was adapted for comparisons of tourism impact on fish community composition and structure in urbanized, intermediate and non-urbanized sectors of each beach. At the end of the summer season, we observed a significant reduction in fish richness, abundance, and diversity in the high tourist pressure areas. The negative association between visitors' abundance and the macrofaunal density suggests that urbanized beaches are avoided by surf zone fish due to higher human pressure and the reduction of food availability. Our results indicate that surf zone fish should be included in environmental impact studies in sandy beaches, including commercial species, e.g., the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. The comparative results from the less urbanized areas suggest that environmental zoning and visitation limits should be used as effective management and preservation strategies on beaches with high conservation potential.

  11. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and native microflora in human milk by high pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windyga, Bożena; Rutkowska, Małgorzata; Sokołowska, Barbara; Skąpska, Sylwia; Wesołowska, Aleksandra; Wilińska, Maria; Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Rzoska, Sylwester J.

    2015-04-01

    The storage of unpreserved food, including breast milk, is associated with the growth of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria. It is therefore necessary to use suitable processes to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the total microbial count in order to ensure product safety for consumers. In the present study, samples of milk obtained from volunteers donating to the human milk bank were artificially contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. This bacteria was the model microorganism of choice, being relatively resistant to high pressure as well as posing the most serious risk to infant health. The results obtained show that high pressure processing can reduce the count of S. aureus by about 5 log units at 4°C and about 8 log units at 50°C, and totally eliminate Enterobacteriaceae after 5 min of treatment, and result in a total microbial count reduction after 10 min treatment at 500 MPa at 20°C and 50°C. This suggests the possibility of this technology being applied to ensure the adequate safety and quality of human breast milk in human milk banks. This paper was presented at the LIIth European High Pressure Research Group (EHPRG 52) Meeting in Lyon (France), 7-12 September 2014.

  12. Conditioned Pain Modulation and Pressure Pain Sensitivity in the Adult Danish General Population: The DanFunD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Jørgensen, Torben; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    with cold pressor pain (hand) for 2 minutes. Conditioning pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale and questionnaire data were collected. Female sex (P stress......Increased pressure pain sensitivity and impaired descending pain control have been associated with chronic pain, but knowledge on the variability in the adult general population is lacking. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and descending pain control assessed using conditioned pain modulation (CPM...... (P ≤ .02), and high visual analog scale score (P ≤ .02) were associated with a larger CPM response. PERSPECTIVE: Data from this large population-based study provide new insight into the gender and age variation in pain sensitivity and CPM response. Decreased CPM potency and increased pain sensitivity...

  13. Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: forward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

    2014-12-01

    This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2 mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16 kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC.

  14. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  15. The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr T. M. Saeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the molecular evolution of human genome has paved the way to understand genetic adaptation of humans to the environmental changes and corresponding complex diseases. In this review, we discussed the historical origin of genetic diversity among human populations, the evolutionary driving forces that can affect genetic diversity among populations, and the effects of human movement into new environments and gene flow on population genetic diversity. Furthermore, we presented the role of natural selection on genetic diversity and complex diseases. Then we reviewed the disadvantageous consequences of historical selection events in modern time and their relation to the development of complex diseases. In addition, we discussed the effect of consanguinity on the incidence of complex diseases in human populations. Finally, we presented the latest information about the role of ancient genes acquired from interbreeding with ancient hominids in the development of complex diseases.

  16. Independent association of resting energy expenditure with blood pressure: confirmation in populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creber, Chloe; Cooper, Richard S; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Lambert, Estelle V; Forrester, Terrence E; Schoeller, Dale; Riesen, Walter; Korte, Wolfgang; Cao, Guichan; Luke, Amy; Dugas, Lara R

    2018-01-10

    Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, however, the physiologic mechanisms linking increased adiposity to elevations in blood pressure are not well described. An increase in resting energy expenditure (REE) is an obligatory consequence of obesity. Previous survey research has demonstrated that REE is an independent predictor of blood pressure, and eliminates the co-linear association of body mass index. This observation has received little attention and there have been no attempts to provide a causal explanation. At baseline in an international comparative study on obesity, 289 participants aged 25-44 were recruited from communities in the US, the Seychelles, Ghana and South Africa and had REE measured with indirect calorimetry. All participants were thought to be free of major illness. In multivariate regression models, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with REE (p < 0.01), while body mass index and fat mass were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01, and p < 0.05 respectively), but not diastolic blood pressure. These data confirm previous reports and suggest that a common physiologic abnormality links REE and blood pressure. Elevated catecholamines, a putative metabolic characteristic of obesity, is a possible candidate to explain this association. The direct role of excess adipose tissue is open to question.

  17. Pressure Ulcers in the United States' Inpatient Population From 2008 to 2012: Results of a Retrospective Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karen; Rock, Kathryn; Nazzal, Munier; Jones, Olivia; Qu, Weikai

    2016-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are common, increase patient morbidity and mortality, and costly for patients, their families, and the health care system. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the impact of pressure ulcers on short-term outcomes in United States inpatient populations and to identify patient characteristics associated with having 1 or more pressure ulcers. The US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was analyzed using the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9 CM) diagnosis codes as the screening tool for all inpatient pressure ulcers recorded from 2008 to 2012. Patient demographics and comorbid conditions, as identified by ICD-9 code, were extracted, along with primary outcomes of length of stay (LOS), total hospital charge (TC), inhospital mortality, and discharge disposition. Continuous variables with normal distribution were expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation. Group comparisons were performed using t-test or ANOVA test. Continuous nonnormal distributed variables such as LOS and TC were expressed in terms of median, and nonparametric tests were used to compare the differences between groups. Categorical data were presented in terms of percentages of the number of cases within each group. Chi-squared tests were used to compare categorical data in different groups. For multivariate analysis, linear regressions (for continuous variable) and logistic regression (for categorical variables) were used to analyze the possible risk factors for the investigated outcomes of LOS, TC, inhospital mortality, and patient disposition. Coefficients were calculated with multivariate regression with all included patients versus patients with pressure ulcers alone. The 5-year average number of admitted patients with at least 1 pressure ulcer was determined to be 670 767 (average overall rate: 1.8%). Statistically significant differences between patients with and without pressure ulcers were observed for

  18. Sampling populations of humans across the world: ELSI issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma'n H; Kirby, Emily S

    2012-01-01

    There are an increasing number of population studies collecting data and samples to illuminate gene-environment contributions to disease risk and health. The rising affordability of innovative technologies capable of generating large amounts of data helps achieve statistical power and has paved the way for new international research collaborations. Most data and sample collections can be grouped into longitudinal, disease-specific, or residual tissue biobanks, with accompanying ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI). Issues pertaining to consent, confidentiality, and oversight cannot be examined using a one-size-fits-all approach-the particularities of each biobank must be taken into account. It remains to be seen whether current governance approaches will be adequate to handle the impact of next-generation sequencing technologies on communication with participants in population biobanking studies.

  19. Challenges in standardization of blood pressure measurement at the population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Broda, Grazyna; Palosaari, Tarja; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2015-04-10

    Accurate blood pressure measurements are needed in clinical practice, intervention studies and health examination surveys. Blood pressure measurements are sensitive: their accuracy can be affected by measurement environment, behaviour of the subject, measurement procedures, devices used for the measurement and the observer. To minimize errors in blood pressure measurement, a standardized measurement protocol is needed. The European Health Examination Survey (EHES) Pilot project was conducted in 2009-2012. A pilot health examination survey was conducted in 12 countries using a standardized protocol. The measurement protocols used in each survey, training provided for the measurers, measurement data, and observations during site visits were collected and evaluated to assess the level of standardization. The EHES measurement protocol for blood pressure was followed accurately in all 12 pilot surveys. Most of the surveys succeeded in organizing a quiet and comfortable measurement environment, and staff instructed survey participants appropriately before examination visits. In all surveys, blood pressure was measured three times, from the right arm in a sitting posture. The biggest variation was in the device used for the blood pressure measurement. It is possible to reach a high level of standardization for blood pressure measurements across countries and over time. A detailed, standardized measurement protocol, and adequate training and monitoring during the fieldwork and centrally organized quality assessment of the data are needed. The recent EU regulation banning the sale of mercury sphygmomanometer in European Union Member States has set new challenges for the standardization of measurement devices since the validity of oscillometric measurements is device-specific and performance of aneroid devices depends very much on calibration.

  20. Time pressure among parents in the Nordic countries: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of time pressure experienced by parents in the Nordic countries and examine potential gender disparities as well as associations to parents' family and/or living conditions. 5949 parents of children aged 2-17 years from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, reported their experience of time pressure when keeping up with duties of everyday life. A postal questionnaire addressed to the most active caretaker of the child, was used for data gathering and logistic regression analysis applied. The mother was regarded as the primary caregiver in 83.9% of the cases. Of the mothers, 14.2% reported that they experienced time pressure "most often", 54.7 % reported "sometimes" and 31.1 % reported they did "not" experience time pressure at all. Time pressure was experienced by 22.2 % of mothers in Sweden, 18.4% in Finland, 13.7% in Norway and 3.9% in Denmark, and could be associated to lack of support, high educational level, financial stress, young child age and working overtime. The mother is regarded as the child's primary caregiver among the vast majority of families in spite of living in societies with gender-equal family policies. The results indicate that time pressure is embedded in everyday life of mainly highly-educated mothers and those experiencing financial stress and/or lack of social support. No conclusion could be made about time pressure from the "normbreaking" fathers participating in the study, but associations were found to financial stress and lack of support.

  1. Local extinction and recolonization, species effective population size, and modern human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Elise; Hawks, John; Relethford, John H

    2004-10-01

    A primary objection from a population genetics perspective to a multiregional model of modern human origins is that the model posits a large census size, whereas genetic data suggest a small effective population size. The relationship between census size and effective size is complex, but arguments based on an island model of migration show that if the effective population size reflects the number of breeding individuals and the effects of population subdivision, then an effective population size of 10,000 is inconsistent with the census size of 500,000 to 1,000,000 that has been suggested by archeological evidence. However, these models have ignored the effects of population extinction and recolonization, which increase the expected variance among demes and reduce the inbreeding effective population size. Using models developed for population extinction and recolonization, we show that a large census size consistent with the multiregional model can be reconciled with an effective population size of 10,000, but genetic variation among demes must be high, reflecting low interdeme migration rates and a colonization process that involves a small number of colonists or kin-structured colonization. Ethnographic and archeological evidence is insufficient to determine whether such demographic conditions existed among Pleistocene human populations, and further work needs to be done. More realistic models that incorporate isolation by distance and heterogeneity in extinction rates and effective deme sizes also need to be developed. However, if true, a process of population extinction and recolonization has interesting implications for human demographic history.

  2. Arsenic and diabetes and hypertension in human populations: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-J.; Wang, S.-L.; Chiou, J.-M.; Tseng, C.-H.; Chiou, H.-Y.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Chen, S.-Y.; Wu, M.-M.; Lai, M.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term exposure to ingested arsenic from drinking water has been well documented to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in a dose-response relationship among residents of arseniasis-endemic areas in southwestern Taiwan and Bangladesh. An increased risk of self-reported hypertension but not diabetes was reported in a community-based study of residents who consumed drinking water with a low level of arsenic. Increased glycosylated hemoglobin level and systolic blood pressure were observed in workers occupationally exposed to arsenic. Inconsistent findings of arsenic and diabetes in occupational studies may result from the healthy worker effect and the variation in exposure measurement, age composition, number of patients, accuracy in diagnosis and classification of underlying causes of death, competing causes of death, and method to detect diabetes. The dose-response relationship and toxicological mechanisms of arsenic-induced diabetes and hypertension need further elucidation

  3. After The Tsunami: Human Rights of Vulnerable Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Laurel; Stover, Eric; Weinstein, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    The tsunami of December 26, 2004 devastated thousands of communities along the coastline of the Indian Ocean. More than 240,000 people were killed, with tens of thousands missing and presumed dead, and more than a million people displaced. Immediately following the tsunami, international aid agencies feared that human traffickers might seize the opportunity to compel those most vulnerable (women, children, and migrant workers) into situations of forced labor. Fortunately, few incidents of tra...

  4. Movement prediction using accelerometers in a human population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, L.; He, Bing; Koster, A

    2016-01-01

    We introduce statistical methods for predicting the types of human activity at sub-second resolution using triaxial accelerometry data. The major innovation is that we use labeled activity data from some subjects to predict the activity labels of other subjects. To achieve this, we normalize the ...... as those obtained using their own labeled dictionaries. These findings indicate that prediction of activity types for data collected during natural activities of daily living may actually be possible. © 2015, The International Biometric Society...

  5. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction frequency in human detrusor strips correlates with phasic intravesical pressure waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colhoun, Andrew F; Speich, John E; Cooley, Lauren F; Bell, Eugene D; Barbee, R Wayne; Guruli, Georgi; Ratz, Paul H; Klausner, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    Low amplitude rhythmic contractions (LARC) occur in detrusor smooth muscle and may play a role in storage disorders such as overactive bladder and detrusor overactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LARC frequencies identified in vitro from strips of human urinary bladder tissue correlate with in vivo LARC frequencies, visualized as phasic intravesical pressure (p ves ) waves during urodynamics (UD). After IRB approval, fresh strips of human urinary bladder were obtained from patients. LARC was recorded with tissue strips at low tension (rhythmic frequency similar to the in vitro LARC frequency quantified in human urinary bladder tissue strips. Further refinements of this technique may help identify subsets of individuals with LARC-mediated storage disorders.

  6. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-08-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. delta(15)N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-01-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. δ 15 N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis.

  8. PX-18 Protects Human Saphenous Vein Endothelial Cells under Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupreishvili, Koba; Stooker, Wim; Emmens, Reindert W; Vonk, Alexander B A; Sipkens, Jessica A; van Dijk, Annemieke; Eijsman, Leon; Quax, Paul H; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Krijnen, Paul A J; Niessen, Hans W M

    2017-07-01

    Arterial blood pressure-induced shear stress causes endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammation in vein grafts after coronary artery bypass grafting. As the inflammatory protein type IIA secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 -IIA) has been shown to progress atherosclerosis, we hypothesized a role for sPLA 2 -IIA herein. The effects of PX-18, an inhibitor of both sPLA 2 -IIA and apoptosis, on residual endothelium and the presence of sPLA 2 -IIA were studied in human saphenous vein segments (n = 6) perfused at arterial blood pressure with autologous blood for 6 hrs. The presence of PX-18 in the perfusion blood induced a significant 20% reduction in endothelial cell loss compared to veins perfused without PX18, coinciding with significantly reduced sPLA 2 -IIA levels in the media of the vein graft wall. In addition, PX-18 significantly attenuated caspase-3 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to shear stress via mechanical stretch independent of sPLA 2 -IIA. In conclusion, PX-18 protects saphenous vein endothelial cells from arterial blood pressure-induced death, possibly also independent of sPLA 2 -IIA inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation between cerebral hemodynamic and perfusion pressure changes in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesch, A.; Smith, M. A.; Wollstein, G.; Sigal, I. A.; Nelson, S.; Kainerstorfer, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    The mechanism that maintains a stable blood flow in the brain despite changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and therefore guaranties a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to the neurons, is known as cerebral auto-regulation (CA). In a certain range of CPP, blood flow is mediated by a vasomotor adjustment in vascular resistance through dilation of blood vessels. CA is known to be impaired in diseases like traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hydrocephalus and others. If CA is impaired, blood flow and pressure changes are coupled and thee oxygen supply might be unstable. Lassen's blood flow auto-regulation curve describes this mechanism, where a plateau of stable blood flow in a specific range of CPP corresponds to intact auto-regulation. Knowing the limits of this plateau and maintaining CPP within these limits can improve patient outcome. Since CPP is influenced by both intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure, long term changes in either can lead to auto-regulation impairment. Non-invasive methods for monitoring blood flow auto-regulation are therefore needed. We propose too use Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) too fill this need. NIRS is an optical technique, which measures microvascular changes in cerebral hemoglobin concentration. We performed experiments on non-human primates during exsanguination to demonstrate that thee limits of blood flow auto-regulation can be accessed with NIRS.

  10. Healthcare performance and the effects of the binaural beats on human blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beats are the differences in two different frequencies (in the range of 30-1000 Hz). Binaural beats are played through headphones and are perceived by the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere of the brain. The brain perceives the binaural beat and resonates to its frequency (frequency following response). Once the brain is in tune with the binaural beat it produces brainwaves of that frequency altering the listener's state of mind. In this experiment, the effects of the beta and theta binaural beat on human blood pressure and pulse were studied. Using headphones, three sounds were played for 7 minutes each to 12 participants: the control,- the sound of a babbling brook (the background sound to the two binaural beats), the beta binaural beat (20 Hz), and the theta binaural beat (7 Hz). Blood pressure and pulse were recorded before and after each sound was played. Each participant was given 2 minutes in-between each sound. The results showed that the control and the two binaural beats did not affect the 12 participant's blood pressure or pulse (p > 0.05). One reason for this may be that the sounds were not played long enough for the brain to either perceive and/or resonate to the frequency. Another reason why the sounds did not affect blood pressure and pulse may be due to the participant's age since older brains may not perceive the binaural beats as well as younger brains.

  11. Elided Populations: A Baseline Survey on Human Trafficking in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael

    2017-01-01

    -regional, as well as inter-regional trafficking, is available. This study seeks to build synergy in the counter-trafficking efforts in Kenya. In so doing it aims to in the overall identify gaps in combating and responding to human trafficking and offer programmatic recommendations/suggestions particularly for IRC......Trafficking in persons is a crime. It is gaining momentum in the continent and particularly in Kenya and also attracting the attention of actors who are working to combat it. This focus shows the multiplicity of actors working together to prosecute, prevent and protect. Evidence of both intra...

  12. Finite element modeling for predicting the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wookjin; Won, Byeong Hee; Cho, Seong Wook

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we generated finite element (FE) models to predict the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position. Twenty-year-old males were used for three-dimensional scanning to produce the FE human models, which was composed of skin and muscle tissue. A linear elastic isotropic material model was used for the skin, and the Mooney-Rivlin model was used for the muscle tissue because it can effectively represent the nonlinear behavior of muscle. The contact pressure between the human model and the mattress was predicted by numerical simulation. The human models were validated by comparing the body pressure distribution obtained from the same human subject when he was lying on two different mattress types. The experimental results showed that the slope of the lower part of the mattress caused a decrease in the contact pressure at the heels, and the effect of bone structure was most pronounced in the scapula. After inserting a simple structure to function as the scapula, the contact pressure predicted by the FE human models was consistent with the experimental body pressure distribution for all body parts. These results suggest that the models proposed in this paper will be useful to researchers and designers of products related to the prevention of pressure ulcers.

  13. Sources of dietary protein in relation to blood pressure in a general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Vedder, M.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Little is known about the relation of different dietary protein types with blood pressure (BP). We examined whether intake of total, plant, animal, dairy, meat, and grain protein was related to BP in a cross sectional cohort of 20,820 Dutch adults, aged 20–65 y and not using

  14. SCI Survey to Determine Pressure Ulcer Vulnerability in the Outpatient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    veterans as a pressure ulcer prevention strategy. 6 References: Bates-Jensen BM, Guihan M, Garber SL, Chin AS, Burns SP. Characteristics of...ANEMIA AUTONOMIC DYSREFLEXIA DIABETES1 DIABETES2 HETEROTOPIC OSSIFICATION HYPERTHYROID HYPOTHYROID OSTEOMYELITIS PAIN LEVEL 1-10 TOBACCO USE PAST

  15. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999

  16. Dairy Intake, Blood Pressure, and Incident Hypertension in a General Dutch Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Jong, N.; Smit, H.A.; Kok, F.J.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Diet and lifestyle are important for maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). The role of dairy in the prevention of hypertension, however, is not yet clear. We studied the relation of dairy intake with BP in 21,553 Dutch participants aged 20¿65 y who did not use antihypertensive medication. In

  17. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana predates human agricultural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Murray P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene.

  18. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  19. Population level evidence for seasonality of the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korownyk, Christina; Liu, Fangwei; Garrison, Scott

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether human body odors undergo seasonal modulation. We utilized google trends search volume from the United States of America from January 1, 2010 to June 24, 2017 for a number of predetermined body odors. Regression modeling of time series data was completed. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of the variability in Internet searches for each unpleasant odor (about the mean) that is explained by a seasonal model. We determined that the seasonal (sinusoidal) model provided a significantly better fit than the null model (best straight line fit) for all searches relating to human body odors (P odor, 60% of the variability in search volume for foot odor, and 58% of the variability in search volume for bad breath. Flatulence and bad breath tended to peak in January, foot odor in February, and Axillary odor in July. We conclude that searching by the general public for information on unpleasant body odors undergoes substantial seasonal variation, with the timing of peaks and troughs varying with the body part involved. The symptom burden of such smells may have a similar seasonal variation, as might the composition of the commensal bacterial microflora that play a role in creating them.

  20. Gut bifidobacteria populations in human health and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arboleya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from the childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum are generally dominant in infants whereas Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more dominant in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effect of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria can be associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria composition changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence in commonly known disease states.

  1. Biomarkers of genetic damage in human populations exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiassa, Delia; Manas, Fernando; Bosch, Beatriz; Gentile, Natalia; Bernardi, Natali; Gorla, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pesticides on human, animal and environmental health has been cause of concern in the scientific community for a long time. Numerous studies have reported that pesticides are not harmless and that their use can lead to harmful biological effects in the medium and long term, in exposed human and animals, and their offspring. The importance of early detection of genetic damage is that it allows us to take the necessary measures to reduce or eliminate the exposure to the deleterious agent when damage is still reversible, and thus to prevent and to diminish the risk of developing tumors or other alterations. In this paper we reviewed the main concepts in the field, the usefulness of genotoxicity studies and we compiled studies performed during the last twenty years on genetic monitoring of people occupationally exposed to pesticides. we think that genotoxicity tests, including that include chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchanges and comet assays, should be considered as essential tools in the implementation of complete medical supervision for people exposed to potential environmental pollutants, particularly for those living in the same place as others who were others have already developed some type of malignancy. This action is particularly important at early stages to prevent the occurrence of tumors, especially from environmental origins.

  2. Metabolomics applied to diabetes-lessons from human population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggi, Sonia; Griffin, Julian L

    2017-12-01

    The 'classical' distribution of type 2 diabetes (T2D) across the globe is rapidly changing and it is no longer predominantly a disease of middle-aged/elderly adults of western countries, but it is becoming more common through Asia and the Middle East, as well as increasingly found in younger individuals. This global altered incidence of T2D is most likely associated with the spread of western diets and sedentary lifestyles, although there is still much debate as to whether the increased incidence rates are due to an overconsumption of fats, sugars or more generally high-calorie foods. In this context, understanding the interactions between genes of risk and diet and how they influence the incidence of T2D will help define the causative pathways of the disease. This review focuses on the use of metabolomics in large cohort studies to follow the incidence of type 2 diabetes in different populations. Such approaches have been used to identify new biomarkers of pre-diabetes, such as branch chain amino acids, and associate metabolomic profiles with genes of known risk in T2D from large scale GWAS studies. As the field develops, there are also examples of meta-analysis across metabolomics cohort studies and cross-comparisons with different populations to allow us to understand how genes and diet contribute to disease risk. Such approaches demonstrate that insulin resistance and T2D have far reaching metabolic effects beyond raised blood glucose and how the disease impacts systemic metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New Regions of the Human Genome Linked to Skin Color Variation in Some African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the first study of its kind, an international team of genomics researchers has identified new regions of the human genome that are associated with skin color variation in some African populations, opening new avenues for research on skin diseases and cancer in all populations.

  4. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould

    2017-01-01

    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  5. Day-to-Day Blood Pressure Variability and Risk of Dementia in a General Japanese Elderly Population: The Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Emi; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Sakata, Satoko; Fukuhara, Masayo; Hata, Jun; Yoshida, Daigo; Shibata, Mao; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2017-08-08

    Several observational studies have reported that higher visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, no studies have investigated the association of day-to-day blood pressure variability assessed by home blood pressure measurement with the development of dementia. A total of 1674 community-dwelling Japanese elderly without dementia, ≥60 years of age, were followed up for 5 years (2007-2012). Home blood pressure was measured 3 times every morning for a median of 28 days. Day-to-day systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure variabilities, calculated as coefficients of variation (CoV) of home SBP and diastolic blood pressure, were categorized into quartiles. The hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of the CoV levels of home blood pressure on the development of all-cause dementia, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer disease (AD) were computed with a Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up, 194 subjects developed all-cause dementia; of these, 47 had VaD and 134 had AD. The age- and sex-adjusted incidences of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD increased significantly with increasing CoV levels of home SBP (all P for trend dementia, VaD, and AD were significantly higher in those in the fourth quartile (hazard ratio=2.27, 95% confidence interval=1.45-3.55, P dementia; hazard ratio=2.79, 95% confidence interval=1.04-7.51, P =0.03 for VaD; hazard ratio=2.22, 95% confidence interval=1.31-3.75, P dementia and AD. There was no interaction between home SBP levels and CoV levels of home SBP on the risk of each subtype of dementia. Our findings suggest that increased day-to-day blood pressure variability is, independently of average home blood pressure, a significant risk factor for the development of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD in the general elderly Japanese population. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Nocturnal blood pressure dipping is similar in rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay Yildirim, O; Gonullu, E; Aydin, F; Aksit, E; Huseyinoglu Aydin, A; Dagtekin, E

    2018-04-12

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder which further doubles the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that in RA patients, the prevalence of hypertension increases due to prednisolone use, clinical status, genetic factors, and physical inactivity. On the other hand, dipper and non-dipper status in RA patients compared to non-RA subjects has not been investigated to our knowledge. Purpose of the study is to investigate whether non-dipper status is more deteriorated in RA patients. Sixty-five RA patients and 61 age-sex-matched control patients were evaluated in this cross-sectional study. Patients were classified according to 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring results. Patients with previous hypertension diagnosis, coronary artery disease, and abnormal kidney function were excluded. Mean age of the study sample was 53.7 ± 12.3 years and 40.5% were male. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of basic demographic characteristics. Leukocyte counts (p = 0.001), neutrophil counts (p = 0.001), and red cell distribution width (p = 0.000) were significantly higher in the RA group. ABPM results indicate no significant difference between RA patients and the control group in terms of daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure, nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and average systolic and diastolic blood pressure results (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference regarding the non-dipper status of patient groups (p = 0.412). Nocturnal blood pressure dipping was significantly similar between groups (p = 0.980). In conclusion, RA patients have similar values in terms of nocturnal blood pressure dipping and hypertension diagnosis as compared to normal population.

  7. The evolution of wealth transmission in human populations: a stochastic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustins, G; Etienne, L; Ferrer, R; Godelle, B; Rousset, F; Ferdy, J-B; Pitard, E

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive success and survival are influenced by wealth in human populations. Wealth is transmitted to offsprings and strategies of transmission vary over time and among populations, the main variation being how equally wealth is transmitted to children. Here we propose a model where we simulate both the dynamics of wealth in a population and the evolution of a trait that determines how wealth is transmitted from parents to offspring, in a darwinian context

  8. Arterial Blood Pressure Induces Transient C4b-Binding Protein in Human Saphenous Vein Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupreishvili, Koba; Meischl, Christof; Vonk, Alexander B A; Stooker, Wim; Eijsman, Leon; Blom, Anna M; Quax, Paul H A; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2017-05-01

    Complement is an important mediator in arterial blood pressure-induced vein graft failure. Previously, we noted activation of cell protective mechanisms in human saphenous veins too. Here we have analyzed whether C4b-binding protein (C4bp), an endogenous complement inhibitor, is present in the vein wall. Human saphenous vein segments obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 55) were perfused in vitro at arterial blood pressure with either autologous blood for 1, 2, 4, or 6 hr or with autologous blood supplemented with reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine. The segments were subsequently analyzed quantitatively for presence of C4bp and complement activation product C3d using immunohistochemistry. Perfusion induced deposition of C3d and C4bp within the media of the vessel wall, which increased reproducibly and significantly over a period of 4 hr up to 3.8% for C3d and 81% for C4bp of the total vessel area. Remarkably after 6 hr of perfusion, the C3d-positive area decreased significantly to 1.3% and the C4bp-positive area to 19% of the total area of the vein. The areas positive for both C4bp and C3d were increased in the presence of N-acetylcysteine. Exposure to arterial blood pressure leads to a transient presence of C4bp in the vein wall. This may be part of a cell-protective mechanism to counteract arterial blood pressure-induced cellular stress and inflammation in grafted veins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A highly variable segment of human subterminal 16p reveals a history of population growth for modern humans outside Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Santos; Armour, John A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We have sequenced a highly polymorphic subterminal noncoding region from human chromosome 16p13.3, flanking the 5′ end of the hypervariable minisatellite MS205, in 100 chromosomes sampled from different African and Euroasiatic populations. Coalescence analysis indicates that the time to the most recent common ancestor (approximately 1 million years) predates the appearance of anatomically modern human forms. The root of the network describing this variability lies in Africa. African populations show a greater level of diversity and deeper branches. Most Euroasiatic variability seems to have been generated after a recent out-of-Africa range expansion. A history of population growth is the most likely scenario for the Euroasiatic populations. This pattern of nuclear variability can be reconciled with inferences based on mitochondrial DNA. PMID:11158547

  10. Strategies to work with HLA data in human populations for histocompatibility, clinical transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A; Vidan-Jeras, B; Nunes, J M

    2012-01-01

    QUESTIONNAIRE' has been finalized and is available for the whole HLA community. WG2 (HLA typing standards for population genetics analyses) recommends retaining maximal information when reporting HLA typing results. Rather than using the National Marrow Donor Program coding system, all ambiguities should...... and fundamental research. Such improvements involve finding consensual strategies to characterize human populations and samples and report HLA molecular typings and ambiguities; proposing user-friendly access to databases and computer tools and defining minimal requirements related to ethical aspects. The overall......-Weinberg equilibrium and selective neutrality on data containing any number and kind of ambiguities. WG4 (Ethical issues) proposes to adopt thorough general principles for any HLA population study to ensure that it conforms to (inter)national legislation or recommendations/guidelines. All HLA-NET guidelines and tools...

  11. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okello, J B A; Wittemyer, G; Rasmussen, Henrik Barner

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred years of elephant hunting for ivory, peaking in 1970-1980s, caused local extirpations and massive population declines across Africa. The resulting genetic impacts on surviving populations have not been studied, despite the importance of understanding the evolutionary repercussions...... of such human-mediated events on this keystone species. Using Bayesian coalescent-based genetic methods to evaluate time-specific changes in effective population size, we analysed genetic variation in 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from 400 elephants inhabiting the greater Samburu-Laikipia region...... of northern Kenya. This area experienced a decline of between 80% and 90% in the last few decades when ivory harvesting was rampant. The most significant change in effective population size, however, occurred approximately 2500 years ago during a mid-Holocene period of climatic drying in tropical Africa...

  12. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrostatic pressure does not cause detectable changes in survival of human retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osborne

    Full Text Available Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a major risk factor for glaucoma. One consequence of raised IOP is that ocular tissues are subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure (HP. The effect of raised HP on stress pathway signaling and retinal ganglion cell (RGC survival in the human retina was investigated.A chamber was designed to expose cells to increased HP (constant and fluctuating. Accurate pressure control (10-100 mmHg was achieved using mass flow controllers. Human organotypic retinal cultures (HORCs from donor eyes (<24 h post mortem were cultured in serum-free DMEM/HamF12. Increased HP was compared to simulated ischemia (oxygen glucose deprivation, OGD. Cell death and apoptosis were measured by LDH and TUNEL assays, RGC marker expression by qRT-PCR (THY-1 and RGC number by immunohistochemistry (NeuN. Activated p38 and JNK were detected by Western blot.Exposure of HORCs to constant (60 mmHg or fluctuating (10-100 mmHg; 1 cycle/min pressure for 24 or 48 h caused no loss of structural integrity, LDH release, decrease in RGC marker expression (THY-1 or loss of RGCs compared with controls. In addition, there was no increase in TUNEL-positive NeuN-labelled cells at either time-point indicating no increase in apoptosis of RGCs. OGD increased apoptosis, reduced RGC marker expression and RGC number and caused elevated LDH release at 24 h. p38 and JNK phosphorylation remained unchanged in HORCs exposed to fluctuating pressure (10-100 mmHg; 1 cycle/min for 15, 30, 60 and 90 min durations, whereas OGD (3 h increased activation of p38 and JNK, remaining elevated for 90 min post-OGD.Directly applied HP had no detectable impact on RGC survival and stress-signalling in HORCs. Simulated ischemia, however, activated stress pathways and caused RGC death. These results show that direct HP does not cause degeneration of RGCs in the ex vivo human retina.

  14. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  15. Anthropogenics: Human influence on global and genetic homogenization of parasite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution, abundance, and diversity of life on Earth have been greatly shaped by human activities. This is no truer than in the geographic expansion of parasites; however, measuring the extent to which humans have influenced the dissemination and population structure of parasites has been cha...

  16. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  17. Spatial relationship between human population density, land use intensity and biodiversity in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vačkář, David; Chobot, K.; Orlitová, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 9 (2012), s. 1279-1290 ISSN 0921-2973 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : species richness * landscape diversity * human population density * human appropriation of net primary production * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2012

  18. Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: A comparative study in an adult Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K Deb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the relationship between blood pressure (BP, intraocular pressure (IOP, mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG in patients with hypertension and compare it to a control group of normotensives. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 subjects with primary hypertension and 100 age-matched controls without hypertension were enrolled for the study. IOP measurement using Noncontact Tonometer and dilated fundus evaluation using + 90 D lens were done for all cases. Single recording of BP was taken. Gonioscopy, Humphrey′s central visual fields, optical coherence tomography and pachymetry were done for all subjects with IOP > 21 mm Hg or C: D ratio ≥ 0.5 or asymmetry of > 0.2. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression models were used to determine the association between covariates and risk of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect. Results: There was no difference in the glaucoma status between subjects with and without hypertension. Subjects on antihypertensive medications were 1΍ times more likely to have suspicious glaucoma (odds ratio [OR] =1.56] and nearly twice as likely to have POAG (OR = 1.85. In addition, we found a 31% and 12% reduction in risk of having POAG (95% confidence interval [CI] =13-45%, P = 0.001 and glaucoma suspect (95% CI = 2-21%, P = 0.03 respectively with every 1 mm Hg increment in MOPP. Conclusion: Subjects on antihypertensive medications are more likely to have either glaucoma or glaucoma suspect, and higher ocular perfusion pressure offers relative protection from glaucomatous damage.

  19. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  20. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  1. Influence of geomagnetic activity and earth weather changes on heart rate and blood pressure in young and healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozheredov, V A; Chibisov, S M; Blagonravov, M L; Khodorovich, N A; Demurov, E A; Goryachev, V A; Kharlitskaya, E V; Eremina, I S; Meladze, Z A

    2017-05-01

    There are many references in the literature related to connection between the space weather and the state of human organism. The search of external factors influence on humans is a multi-factor problem and it is well known that humans have a meteo-sensitivity. A direct problem of finding the earth weather conditions, under which the space weather manifests itself most strongly, is discussed in the present work for the first time in the helio-biology. From a formal point of view, this problem requires identification of subset (magnetobiotropic region) in three-dimensional earth's weather parameters such as pressure, temperature, and humidity, corresponding to the days when the human body is the most sensitive to changes in the geomagnetic field variations and when it reacts by statistically significant increase (or decrease) of a particular physiological parameter. This formulation defines the optimization of the problem, and the solution of the latter is not possible without the involvement of powerful metaheuristic methods of searching. Using the algorithm of differential evolution, we prove the existence of magnetobiotropic regions in the earth's weather parameters, which exhibit magneto-sensitivity of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy young subjects for three weather areas (combinations of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity). The maximum value of the correlation confidence for the measurements attributable to the days of the weather conditions that fall into each of three magnetobiotropic areas is an order of 0.006, that is almost 10 times less than the confidence, equal to 0.05, accepted in many helio-biological researches.

  2. Association of Neck Circumference and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban and Rural Population in North Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Balaji, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Since a few studies exist on the association of neck circumference (NC) and obesity with blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in India, we found it highly relevant to measure the NC and body mass index (BMI) using them as indicators of upper body subcutaneous fat and obesity and relate them to BP in a rural and urban adolescent population in North Tamil Nadu. This is a community-based cross-sectional study of descriptive design where 500 students from urban and rural areas were selected, and their BMI, NC, and BP were measured using standardized instruments. Among urban and rural population high and normal NC positively correlated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), indicating that the data clearly reflects increase in BMI, SBP, and DBP values with increase in NC or vice versa. The correlation was statistically significant ( P < 0.001) significantly higher BMI ( P < 0.01), SBP ( P < 0.05), and NC ( P < 0.001) was observed in urban population than rural. DBP was not significantly different in rural and urban population. 95 th percentile values are significantly higher than rest in both urban and rural population. Only the 95 th percentile values correlate and reflect similar changes in BMI, SBP, and DBP. Our studies indicate a strong association of elevation in BP with high NC and increase in BMI. Overweight and obesity were positively correlated with increase in SBP and DBP.

  3. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  4. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective nonlethal population control method but is limited in scope due to expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. Method of study This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Results Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. Conclusion The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multi-year contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats. PMID:21501281

  5. Electrical admittance for filling of the heart during lower body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yujia; Holm, S; Jenstrup, M

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate whether electrical admittance of intracellular water is applicable for monitoring filling of the heart, we determined the difference in intracellular water in the thorax (Thorax(ICW)), measured as the reciprocal value of the electrical impedance for the thorax at 1.5 and 100 kHz during...... lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in humans. Changes in Thorax(ICW) were compared with positron emission tomography-determined C(15)O-labeled erythrocytes over the heart. During -40 mmHg LBNP, the blood volume of the heart decreased by 21 +/- 3% as the erythrocyte volume was reduced by 20 +/- 2.......6 to 40.9 +/- 5.0 S. 10(-4); P = 0.08). The correlation between Thorax(ICW) and heart erythrocyte volume was 0.84 (P electrical admittance of intracellular water can be applied to evaluate changes in blood volume of the heart during LBNP in humans....

  6. Human Walking Pattern Recognition Based on KPCA and SVM with Ground Reflex Pressure Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms based on the ground reflex pressure (GRF signal obtained from a pair of sensing shoes for human walking pattern recognition were investigated. The dimensionality reduction algorithms based on principal component analysis (PCA and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA for walking pattern data compression were studied in order to obtain higher recognition speed. Classifiers based on support vector machine (SVM, SVM-PCA, and SVM-KPCA were designed, and the classification performances of these three kinds of algorithms were compared using data collected from a person who was wearing the sensing shoes. Experimental results showed that the algorithm fusing SVM and KPCA had better recognition performance than the other two methods. Experimental outcomes also confirmed that the sensing shoes developed in this paper can be employed for automatically recognizing human walking pattern in unlimited environments which demonstrated the potential application in the control of exoskeleton robots.

  7. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K

    2004-01-01

    and central venous pressure (CVP) on the distribution of cerebral outflow over the internal jugular veins and the vertebral plexus, using a mathematical model. Input to the model was a data set of beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity and CVP measurements in 10 healthy subjects, during baseline rest......Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture...... and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position...

  8. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  9. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-19

    Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in

  10. Demographics of an ornate box turtle population experiencing minimal human-induced disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, S.J.; Iverson, J.B.; Savidge, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Human-induced disturbances may threaten the viability of many turtle populations, including populations of North American box turtles. Evaluation of the potential impacts of these disturbances can be aided by long-term studies of populations subject to minimal human activity. In such a population of ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata) in western Nebraska, we examined survival rates and population growth rates from 1981-2000 based on mark-recapture data. The average annual apparent survival rate of adult males was 0.883 (SE = 0.021) and of adult females was 0.932 (SE = 0.014). Minimum winter temperature was the best of five climate variables as a predictor of adult survival. Survival rates were highest in years with low minimum winter temperatures, suggesting that global warming may result in declining survival. We estimated an average adult population growth rate (????) of 1.006 (SE = 0.065), with an estimated temporal process variance (????2) of 0.029 (95% CI = 0.005-0.176). Stochastic simulations suggest that this mean and temporal process variance would result in a 58% probability of a population decrease over a 20-year period. This research provides evidence that, unless unknown density-dependent mechanisms are operating in the adult age class, significant human disturbances, such as commercial harvest or turtle mortality on roads, represent a potential risk to box turtle populations. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Anthropogenics: human influence on global and genetic homogenization of parasite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlenga, Dante S; Hoberg, Eric; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, abundance, and diversity of life on Earth have been greatly shaped by human activities. This includes the geographic expansion of parasites; however, measuring the extent to which humans have influenced the dissemination and population structure of parasites has been challenging. In-depth comparisons among parasite populations extending to landscape-level processes affecting disease emergence have remained elusive. New research methods have enhanced our capacity to discern human impact, where the tools of population genetics and molecular epidemiology have begun to shed light on our historical and ongoing influence. Only since the 1990s have parasitologists coupled morphological diagnosis, long considered the basis of surveillance and biodiversity studies, with state-of-the-art tools enabling variation to be examined among, and within, parasite populations. Prior to this time, populations were characterized only by phenotypic attributes such as virulence, infectivity, host range, and geographical location. The advent of genetic/molecular methodologies (multilocus allozyme electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction-DNA [PCR-DNA] fragments analysis, DNA sequencing, DNA microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, etc.) have transformed our abilities to reveal variation among, and within, populations at local, regional, landscape, and global scales, and thereby enhanced our understanding of the biosphere. Numerous factors can affect population structure among parasites, e.g., evolutionary and ecological history, mode of reproduction and transmission, host dispersal, and life-cycle complexity. Although such influences can vary considerably among parasite taxa, anthropogenic factors are demonstrably perturbing parasite fauna. Minimal genetic structure among many geographically distinct (isolated) populations is a hallmark of human activity, hastened by geographic introductions, environmental perturbation, and global warming. Accelerating

  12. Risk factors for human-directed canine aggression in a referral level clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, M; Casey, R A; Loftus, B A; Blackwell, E J

    2017-07-07

    Risk factors for human-directed aggression were investigated using retrospective analysis of data from a referral-level clinical behaviour population in the UK. A sample of 200 cases involving human-directed canine aggression and 200 control cases involving no instance of human-directed aggression were selected at random from a population of 746 cases. The final model suggested that clinical cases with human-directed aggression were significantly younger than those presenting with other undesired behaviours (P=0.008) and that male dogs were 1.4 times more likely to be aggressive towards human beings than female dogs (P=0.019). Dogs were 1.7 times more likely to be aggressive towards people if they had attended more than five puppy classes than if they had never attended puppy class (P=0.015) and that dogs were 2.8 times more likely to be aggressive towards human beings if there was another dog between 0 months and 24 months of age in the home (P=0.004). These factors only account for 7 per cent to 10 per cent of the variance between the human-directed aggression population and the control population, but factors such as attendance at puppy classes and numbers of dogs in the household suggest the need for longitudinal studies to investigate temporal relationships.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study of Orthostatic Hypotension and Supine-Standing Blood Pressure Changes in Two Korean Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Hong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orthostatic hypotension (OH is defined by a 20-mm Hg difference of systolic blood pressure (dtSBP and/or a 10-mm Hg difference of diastolic blood pressure (dtDBP between supine and standing, and OH is associated with a failure of the cardiovascular reflex to maintain blood pressure on standing from a supine position. To understand the underlying genetic factors for OH traits (OH, dtSBP, and dtDBP, genome-wide association studies (GWASs using 333,651 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were conducted separately for two population-based cohorts, Ansung (n = 3,173 and Ansan (n = 3,255. We identified 8 SNPs (5 SNPs for dtSBP and 3 SNPs for dtDBP that were repeatedly associated in both the Ansung and Ansan cohorts and had p-values of <1 × 10-5 in the meta-analysis. Unfortunately, the SNPs of the OH case control GWAS did not pass our p-value criteria. Four of 8 SNPs were located in the intergenic region of chromosome 2, and the nearest gene (CTNNA2 was located at 1 Mb of distance. CTNNA2 is a linker between cadherin adhesion receptors and the actin cytoskeleton and is essential for stabilizing dendritic spines in rodent hippocampal neurons. Although there is no report about the function in blood pressure regulation, hippocampal neurons interact primarily with the autonomic nervous system and might be related to OH. The remaining SNPs, rs7098785 of dtSBP trait and rs6892553, rs16887217, and rs4959677 of dtDBP trait were located in the PIK3AP1 intron, ACTBL2-3' flanking, STAR intron, and intergenic region, respectively, but there was no clear functional link to blood pressure regulation.

  14. Biocultural research in global mental health: mapping idioms of distress onto blood pressure in a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancilio, Amelia; Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Biocultural research remains a challenge in the field of global mental health. We sought to test associations between blood pressure and idioms of distress in a population survey. We drew on a randomly selected sample of 991 adults (498 men, 493 women) in Afghanistan, for whom physiological and psychosocial data were systematically collected. Assessment of mental health (Self-Reported Questionnaire, Afghan Symptom Checklist) included conceptualizations of distress related to pressure (fishar), anxiety, and dysphoria, as well as dimensions of negative affect and aggression. We used principal component analysis to map survey responses to fishar, and multiple regressions to examine associations with systolic/diastolic blood pressure, controlling for age, body mass index, and wealth, and differentiating by gender, mental health, and medication. The Afghan sample averaged 129/80 mmHg, with 27.14% of hypertensive individuals. SBP showed inverse associations with reports of low fishar (β = -4.58, P < .001) and high fishar (β = 6.90, P < .001), as did DPB with low fishar (β = -1.55, P < .001) and high fishar (β = 3.77, P < .001). Low and high fishar responses accounted for substantial proportions of SBP data variation (R 2  = 20% and R 2  = 24%), especially in adults on blood pressure medication (R 2  = 58% and R 2  = 49%). Subjective reports of fishar map onto physiological blood pressure more robustly than other conceptualizations of mental distress related to anxiety, dysphoria, negative affect, or aggression. Our results point to the utility of mapping biological and cultural measures of stress and distress, advancing biopsychosocial understandings of wellbeing in global mental health surveys. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Signatures of environmental genetic adaptation pinpoint pathogens as the main selective pressure through human evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous genome-wide scans of positive natural selection in humans have identified a number of non-neutrally evolving genes that play important roles in skin pigmentation, metabolism, or immune function. Recent studies have also shown that a genome-wide pattern of local adaptation can be detected by identifying correlations between patterns of allele frequencies and environmental variables. Despite these observations, the degree to which natural selection is primarily driven by adaptation to local environments, and the role of pathogens or other ecological factors as selective agents, is still under debate. To address this issue, we correlated the spatial allele frequency distribution of a large sample of SNPs from 55 distinct human populations to a set of environmental factors that describe local geographical features such as climate, diet regimes, and pathogen loads. In concordance with previous studies, we detected a significant enrichment of genic SNPs, and particularly non-synonymous SNPs associated with local adaptation. Furthermore, we show that the diversity of the local pathogenic environment is the predominant driver of local adaptation, and that climate, at least as measured here, only plays a relatively minor role. While background demography by far makes the strongest contribution in explaining the genetic variance among populations, we detected about 100 genes which show an unexpectedly strong correlation between allele frequencies and pathogenic environment, after correcting for demography. Conversely, for diet regimes and climatic conditions, no genes show a similar correlation between the environmental factor and allele frequencies. This result is validated using low-coverage sequencing data for multiple populations. Among the loci targeted by pathogen-driven selection, we found an enrichment of genes associated to autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and multiples sclerosis, which lends credence to the

  16. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark....... One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent...... a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660....

  17. Optimising land use and consumption of livestock products in the human diet with an increasing human population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Land use related to food production is generally quantified using product-based life cycle assessments. We, however, quantified land use of diet scenarios with a land use optimization model. Energy and protein requirement of human populations, varying from 15 to 30 mil-lion people, were met with the

  18. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S.; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G.; Owings, Amanda C.; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R.; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R. Spencer; Acosta, Oscar; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Hui; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Merchant, Nirav C.; Mitchell, John R.; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Sandoval, Jose Raul; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans’ place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000–130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS’s accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

  19. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on bacterial growth on human ossicles explanted from cholesteatoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Dommerich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment can eliminate cholesteatoma cells from explanted human ossicles prior to re-insertion. We analyzed the effects of HHP treatment on the microbial flora on ossicles and on the planktonic and biofilm states of selected isolates. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-six ossicles were explanted from cholesteatoma patients. Five ossicles were directly analyzed for microbial growth without further treatment. Fifteen ossicles were cut into two pieces. One piece was exposed to HHP of 350 MPa for 10 minutes. Both the treated and untreated (control pieces were then assessed semi-quantitatively. Three ossicles were cut into two pieces and exposed to identical pressure conditions with or without the addition of one of two different combinations of antibiotics to the medium. Differential effects of 10-minute in vitro exposure of planktonic and biofilm bacteria to pressures of 100 MPa, 250 MPa, 400 MPa and 540 MPa in isotonic and hypotonic media were analyzed using two patient isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Neisseria subflava. Bacterial cell inactivation and biofilm destruction were assessed by colony counting and electron microscopy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A variety of microorganisms were isolated from the ossicles. Irrespective of the medium, HHP treatment at 350 MPa for 10 minutes led to satisfying but incomplete inactivation especially of gram-negative bacteria. The addition of antibiotics increased the efficacy of elimination. A comparison of HHP treatment of planktonic and biofilm cells showed that the effects of HPP were reduced by about one decadic logarithmic unit when HPP was applied to biofilms. High hydrostatic pressure conditions that are suitable to inactivate cholesteatoma cells fail to completely sterilize ossicles even if antibiotics are added. As a result of the reduced microbial load and the viability loss of surviving bacteria, however, there is a lower risk of re-infection after re-insertion.

  20. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Bacterial Growth on Human Ossicles Explanted from Cholesteatoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Jürgen; Lindner, Tobias; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Arndt, Kathleen; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Podbielski, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment can eliminate cholesteatoma cells from explanted human ossicles prior to re-insertion. We analyzed the effects of HHP treatment on the microbial flora on ossicles and on the planktonic and biofilm states of selected isolates. Methodology Twenty-six ossicles were explanted from cholesteatoma patients. Five ossicles were directly analyzed for microbial growth without further treatment. Fifteen ossicles were cut into two pieces. One piece was exposed to HHP of 350 MPa for 10 minutes. Both the treated and untreated (control) pieces were then assessed semi-quantitatively. Three ossicles were cut into two pieces and exposed to identical pressure conditions with or without the addition of one of two different combinations of antibiotics to the medium. Differential effects of 10-minute in vitro exposure of planktonic and biofilm bacteria to pressures of 100 MPa, 250 MPa, 400 MPa and 540 MPa in isotonic and hypotonic media were analyzed using two patient isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Neisseria subflava. Bacterial cell inactivation and biofilm destruction were assessed by colony counting and electron microscopy. Principal Findings A variety of microorganisms were isolated from the ossicles. Irrespective of the medium, HHP treatment at 350 MPa for 10 minutes led to satisfying but incomplete inactivation especially of Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of antibiotics increased the efficacy of elimination. A comparison of HHP treatment of planktonic and biofilm cells showed that the effects of HPP were reduced by about one decadic logarithmic unit when HPP was applied to biofilms. High hydrostatic pressure conditions that are suitable to inactivate cholesteatoma cells fail to completely sterilize ossicles even if antibiotics are added. As a result of the reduced microbial load and the viability loss of surviving bacteria, however, there is a lower risk of re-infection after re-insertion. PMID:22291908

  1. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherina Josephine Goenadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods: Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon. Results: Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52 were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40. The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p < 0.05 to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337, gender (r = –0.174, p = 0.283 or CCT (r = –0.123, p = 0.445. Conclusion: There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery.

  2. [Serum lipids and blood pressure levels in the +Mapuche population living in the Chilean region of Araucanía].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockins, B; Larenas, G; Charles, M; Standen, D; Espinoza, O; Illesca, M; Opazo, J A; Carrasco, B; Lanas, F; Davis, M

    1998-11-01

    Chilean aboriginal populations (Mapuche) predominantly live in the region of Araucanía, in the southern part of the country. Their cardiovascular risk factors have not been systematically assessed. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Mapuche population. Blood pressure, weight, height, dietary habits, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 1.948 adults living in 28 Mapuche communities. Thirteen percent of males and 16% of females had high blood pressure. Body mass index was 25.5 kg/m2 in males and 28.1 kg/m2 in females. Forty five percent of women and 24% of men were classified as obese. Mean serum total cholesterol was 186.7 +/- 9.6 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol was 58.7 +/- 30.7 mg/dl, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol was 3.4 +/- 2 and triglycerides were 155.2 +/- 91.2 mg/dl. Twenty eight percent of males and 9.6% of females smoked. Mapuche individuals have higher levels of HDL cholesterol a better total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and lower frequency of smoking than non aboriginal Chileans subjects.

  3. Reconstructing human pancreatic differentiation by mapping specific cell populations during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramond, Cyrille; Glaser, Nicolas; Berthault, Claire

    2017-01-01

    . Endocrine maturation progresses by up-regulating SUSD2 and lowering ECAD levels. Finally, in vitro differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells mimics key in vivo events. Our work paves the way to extend our understanding of the origin of mature human pancreatic......Information remains scarce on human development compared to animal models. Here, we reconstructed human fetal pancreatic differentiation using cell surface markers. We demonstrate that at 7weeks of development, the glycoprotein 2 (GP2) marks a multipotent cell population that will differentiate...... cell types and how such lineage decisions are regulated....

  4. Dynamic genetic linkage of intermediate blood pressure phenotypes during postural adaptations in a founder population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, I. A.; Tremblay, J.; Deslauriers, B.; Sandoval, J.; Šeda, O.; Gaudet, D.; Merlo, E.; Kotchen, T.; Cowley, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a dynamic phenotype that varies rapidly to adjust to changing environmental conditions. Standing upright is a recent evolutionary trait, and genetic factors that influence postural adaptations may contribute to BP variability. We studied the effect of posture on the genetics of BP and intermediate BP phenotypes. We included 384 sib-pairs in 64 sib-ships from families ascertained by early-onset hypertension and dyslipidemia. Blood pressure, three hemodynamic and seven neuroendocrine intermediate BP phenotypes were measured with subjects lying supine and standing upright. The effect of posture on estimates of heritability and genetic covariance was investigated in full pedigrees. Linkage was conducted on 196 candidate genes by sib-pair analyses, and empirical estimates of significance were obtained. A permutation algorithm was implemented to study the postural effect on linkage. ADRA1A, APO, CAST, CORIN, CRHR1, EDNRB, FGF2, GC, GJA1, KCNB2, MMP3, NPY, NR3C2, PLN, TGFBR2, TNFRSF6, and TRHR showed evidence of linkage with any phenotype in the supine position and not upon standing, whereas AKR1B1, CD36, EDNRA, F5, MMP9, PKD2, PON1, PPARG, PPARGC1A, PRKCA, and RET were specifically linked to standing phenotypes. Genetic profiling was undertaken to show genetic interactions among intermediate BP phenotypes and genes specific to each posture. When investigators perform genetic studies exclusively on a single posture, important genetic components of BP are missed. Supine and standing BPs have distinct genetic signatures. Standardized maneuvers influence the results of genetic investigations into BP, thus reflecting its dynamic regulation. PMID:23269701

  5. Population pressure and migration: implications for upland development in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M C; Zosa-feranil, I; Goce, C L

    1988-01-01

    The identification of Philippine upland sites using topographic maps and photographs, the estimation of population from the 1980 census, and the verification of major migration streams was carried out. The upland population numbered 14.4 million persons according to the 1980 Census. After 1948 up to 1960 the movement of people from the Visayas regions to the frontier lands of Mindanao occurred. The 2nd wave of predominantly urbanward migration occurred after 1960, although in the early 1970s some 47,000 migrants moved to the uplands from Metropolitan Manila. The early-period migrants tended to be young males between 20 and 34 years of age. Migrants tended to be 45-54 years old in the period after 1960. The results of 3 macro-migration econometric models indicated that the availability of land in the uplands was the decisive determinant of movement, and in the long distance interregional flows, the actual length of distance traveled emerged as significant. Factors such as population and education at the areas of destination were significant for the shorter, interprovincial flows. At the municipality level land-related variables were more significant than demographic factors. The factors of distance and demographic size accounted for the large variability in migration. 3 villages in the Mount Makiling watershed were used to evaluate circumstances of movement, frequency, and mode of travel, and the socioeconomic correlates such as income, occupation, ownership status, and education. The average age of migrants was 26 years, about 1/2 of them were married, and the rest were single males in 1960-1970. According to a multiple regression model the determinants of migrant incomes were: 1) acquisition of lands of good quality, 2) access to credit for purchase of inputs, 3) increased commercialization of farming activities, 4) promotion of diversified cropping patterns, and 5) planting of perennials.

  6. Key populations and human rights in the context of HIV services rendition in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; DeBruin, Debra

    2017-08-02

    In line with its half century old penal code, Ghana currently criminalizes and penalizes behaviors of some key populations - populations deemed to be at higher risk of acquiring or transmitting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers (SWs) fit into this categorization. This paper provides an analysis of how enactment and implementation of rights-limiting laws not only limit rights, but also amplify risk and vulnerability to HIV in key and general populations. The paper derives from a project that assessed the ethics sensitivity of key documents guiding Ghana's response to its HIV epidemic. Assessment was guided by leading frameworks from public health ethics, and relevant articles from the international bill of rights. Ghana's response to her HIV epidemic does not adequately address the rights and needs of key populations. Even though the national response has achieved some public health successes, palpable efforts to address rights issues remain nascent. Ghana's guiding documents for HIV response include no advocacy for decriminalization, depenalization or harm reduction approaches for these key populations. The impact of rights-restricting codes on the nation's HIV epidemic is real: criminalization impedes key populations' access to HIV prevention and treatment services. Given that they are bridging populations, whatever affects the Ghanaian key populations directly, affects the general population indirectly. The right to the highest attainable standard of health, without qualification, is generally acknowledged as a fundamental human right. Unfortunately, this right currently eludes the Ghanaian SW and MSM. The paper endorses decriminalization as a means of promoting this right. In the face of opposition to decriminalization, the paper proposes specific harm reduction strategies as approaches to promote health and uplift the diminished rights of key populations. Thus the authors call on Ghana to remove impediments to

  7. Connectivity analysis of suggestive brain areas involved in middle ear pressure regulation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SA, Sami; Gaihede, Michael

    2010-01-01

    , MEP counter-regulation presented as Eustachian tube openings with steep and fast pressure changes toward 0 Pa, whereas in others, gradual and slow pressure changes presented related to the mastoid; these changes sometimes crossed 0 Pa into opposite pressures. In many cases, combinations...... to continuous regulation of smaller pressures, whereas the tube was related to intermittent regulation of higher pressures....

  8. Long-Term Bird Assemblage Trends in Areas of High and Low Human Population Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, K.; Romagosa, C.M.; Williams, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding globally, and the impact of high human population density (HHPD) on bird species richness remains unresolved. Studies primarily focus on species richness along an urban-to-rural gradient; however, some studies have analyzed larger-scale patterns and found results that contrast with those obtained at smaller scales. To move the discussion beyond static species richness patterns, we analyzed the effect of HHPD on bird assemblage dynamics (year-to-year extinction probability, turnover, changes in species richness) across the United States over a 25-year period. We found that bird assemblages in both high and low human population density areas changed significantly over the period of record. Specifically, bird assemblages increased in species richness on average. Assemblage change in areas of HHPD was not significantly different from assemblage change in areas with LHPD. These results suggest that human population density alone does not alter the persistence of avian assemblage patterns.

  9. Genetic diversity and natural selection footprints of the glycine amidinotransferase gene in various human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asifullah; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Yuan, Kai; Xu, Shuhua

    2016-01-05

    The glycine amidinotransferase gene (GATM) plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues and is associated with multiple clinically important phenotypes. However, the genetic diversity of the GATM gene remains poorly understood within and between human populations. Here we analyzed the 1,000 Genomes Project data through population genetics approaches and observed significant genetic diversity across the GATM gene among various continental human populations. We observed considerable variations in GATM allele frequencies and haplotype composition among different populations. Substantial genetic differences were observed between East Asian and European populations (FST = 0.56). In addition, the frequency of a distinct major GATM haplotype in these groups was congruent with population-wide diversity at this locus. Furthermore, we identified GATM as the top differentiated gene compared to the other statin drug response-associated genes. Composite multiple analyses identified signatures of positive selection at the GATM locus, which was estimated to have occurred around 850 generations ago in European populations. As GATM catalyzes the key step of creatine biosynthesis involved in energy metabolism, we speculate that the European prehistorical demographic transition from hunter-gatherer to farming cultures was the driving force of selection that fulfilled creatine-based metabolic requirement of the populations.

  10. Home blood-pressure monitoring in a hypertensive pregnant population: cost minimisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xydopoulos, G; Perry, H; Sheehan, E; Thilaganathan, B; Fordham, R; Khalil, A

    2018-03-08

    Traditional monitoring of blood pressure in hypertensive pregnant women requires frequent visits to the maternity outpatient services. Home blood-pressure monitoring (HBPM) could offer a cost-saving alternative that is acceptable to patients. The main objective of this study was to undertake a health economic analysis of HBPM compared with traditional monitoring in hypertensive pregnant women. This was a case-control study. Cases were pregnant women with hypertension who had HBPM with or without the adjunct of a smartphone app, via a specially designed pathway. The control group were managed as per existing hospital guidelines. Specific outcome measures were the number of outpatient visits, inpatient bed stays and investigations performed. Maternal, fetal and neonatal adverse outcomes were also recorded. Health economic analysis was performed using two methods: direct cost comparison of the study dataset and process scenario modelling. There were 108 women in the HBPM group, of whom 29 recorded their results on the smartphone app (App-HBPM) and 79 in their notes (Non-app HBPM). The control group comprised of 58 patients. There were significantly more women with chronic hypertension in the HBPM group (49.1% vs 25.9%, P = 0.004). The HBPM group had significantly longer duration of monitoring (9 weeks vs 5 weeks P = 0.004) and started monitoring from an earlier gestation (30 weeks vs 33.6 weeks, P = 0.001). Despite these differences, the mean saving per week for HBPM compared with the control group was £200.69. For the App-HBPM cohort, the saving per week compared with the control group was £286.53. The process modelling method predicted savings of between £98.32 and £245.80 per week using HBPM compared to the traditional monitoring. HBPM in hypertensive pregnancies appears to be cost-saving compared with traditional monitoring, without compromising maternal, fetal or neonatal safety. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings. This article is

  11. Population genetic inference from personal genome data: impact of ancestry and admixture on human genomic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jeffrey M; Gravel, Simon; Byrnes, Jake; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Musharoff, Shaila; Bryc, Katarzyna; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Brisbin, Abra; Sheth, Vrunda; Chen, Rong; McLaughlin, Stephen F; Peckham, Heather E; Omberg, Larsson; Bormann Chung, Christina A; Stanley, Sarah; Pearlstein, Kevin; Levandowsky, Elizabeth; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Auton, Adam; Keinan, Alon; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Russell, Archie; Reynolds, Andy; Clark, Andrew G; Reese, Martin G; Lincoln, Stephen E; Butte, Atul J; De La Vega, Francisco M; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2012-10-05

    Full sequencing of individual human genomes has greatly expanded our understanding of human genetic variation and population history. Here, we present a systematic analysis of 50 human genomes from 11 diverse global populations sequenced at high coverage. Our sample includes 12 individuals who have admixed ancestry and who have varying degrees of recent (within the last 500 years) African, Native American, and European ancestry. We found over 21 million single-nucleotide variants that contribute to a 1.75-fold range in nucleotide heterozygosity across diverse human genomes. This heterozygosity ranged from a high of one heterozygous site per kilobase in west African genomes to a low of 0.57 heterozygous sites per kilobase in segments inferred to have diploid Native American ancestry from the genomes of Mexican and Puerto Rican individuals. We show evidence of all three continental ancestries in the genomes of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and African American populations, and the genome-wide statistics are highly consistent across individuals from a population once ancestry proportions have been accounted for. Using a generalized linear model, we identified subtle variations across populations in the proportion of neutral versus deleterious variation and found that genome-wide statistics vary in admixed populations even once ancestry proportions have been factored in. We further infer that multiple periods of gene flow shaped the diversity of admixed populations in the Americas-70% of the European ancestry in today's African Americans dates back to European gene flow happening only 7-8 generations ago. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughton, Christian G., E-mail: daughton.christian@epa.gov

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to

  13. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughton, Christian G.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to account for

  14. Thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs

  15. Population Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients Taking Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jullien, Vincent; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Rey, Elisabeth; Jaffray, Patrick; Krivine, Anne; Moachon, Laurence; Lillo-Le Louet, Agnès; Lescoat, Anne; Dupin, Nicolas; Salmon, Dominique; Pons, Gérard; Urien, Saïk

    2005-01-01

    The influence of renal function on tenofovir pharmacokinetics was investigated in 193 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients by the use of a population approach performed with the nonlinear mixed effects modeling program NONMEM. Tenofovir pharmacokinetics was well described by a two-compartment open model in which the absorption and the distribution rate constants are equal. Typical population estimates of apparent central distribution volume (Vc/F), peripheral distribution volu...

  16. Prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus in the elderly population of a Japanese rural community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kotaro; Meguro, Kenichi; Mori, Etsuro

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) in a community was investigated by retrospective analysis of data from a previous community-based study of 170 randomly selected elderly residents aged 65 years or older. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the subjects were reviewed for the specific structural features of idiopathic NPH, i.e. ventricular enlargement and narrow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space at high convexity and high midline areas. The clinical features of idiopathic NPH, gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and cognitive impairment, were evaluated on the basis of records of the subjects' neurological examinations, a health questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and Clinical Dementia Rating. Thirteen of the 170 subjects showed lateral ventricular enlargement greater than 0.3 on Evans' index. Five subjects (2.9%) demonstrated both ventricular enlargement and narrow CSF space at the high convexity/midline. All five subjects with these MR imaging signs had cognitive impairment, one had gait disturbance, and one had urinary incontinence. The present study found 2.9% of community-dwelling elderly subjects showed radiological and clinical features consistent with idiopathic NPH. (author)

  17. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Device Time to Procurement in a Disadvantaged Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes M. DelRosso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in patients who cannot afford a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP device is challenging. In this study we compare time to CPAP procurement in three groups of patients diagnosed with OSA: uninsured subsidized by a humanitarian grant (Group 1, uninsured unsubsidized (Group 2, and those with Medicare or Medicaid (Group 3. We evaluate follow-up and adherence in Group 1. We hypothesize that additional factors, rather than just the ability to obtain CPAP, may uniquely affect follow-up and adherence in uninsured patients. Methods. 30 patients were in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. 12 patients were in Group 3. Time of CPAP procurement from OSA diagnosis to CPAP initiation was assessed in all groups. CPAP adherence data was collected for Group 1 patients at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results. There were no significant differences between groups in gender, age, body mass index, or apnea hypopnea index. The mean time to procurement in Group 1 was shorter compared to Group 2 but not significant. Compared to both Group 1 and Group 2, Group 3 patients had significantly shorter times to device procurement. Conclusion. Time to procurement of CPAP was significantly shorter in those with Medicaid/Medicare insurance compared to the uninsured.

  18. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  19. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Fay

    Full Text Available This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both, and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity, but harder to learn (identification accuracy for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  1. Detection and characterization of polymorphisms in XRCC DNA repair genes in human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staynova, A.; Hadjidekova, V.; Savov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Human population is continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. The main contribution gives the exposure due to medical applications. Nevertheless, most of the damage induced is repaired shortly after exposure by cellular repair systems. The review is focused on the development and application of methods to estimate the character of polymorphisms in repair genes (XRCC1, APE1), involved in single strand breaks repair which is corresponding mainly to the repair of X-ray induced DNA damage. Since, DSB are major factor for chromosomal aberrations formation, the assays described in this review might be useful for the assessment of the radiation risk for human population. (authors)

  2. The effects of family income on the relationship of various anthropometric parameters with blood pressure in male population of Multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.H.; Rana, S.A.; Mahmud, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A randomly selected sample of 497 human males, ageing from 18 to 90 years and representing different ethnic and socio-economic groups of Multan was taken. Income (Rs.), height (cm), weight(kg), BMI (kg m/sup -2), circumferences and blood pres one of the six different income groups i.e., 25000.Mean values plus minus SEM of income, weight, height, BMI, arm, neck, waist, hips and total circumferences, were 13881.6 plus minus 1835.6, 64.0 plus minus 0.5, 171.6 plus minus 2.9, 21.5 plus minus 0.2, 26.5 plus minus 0.1, 36.2 plus minus 0.1, 81.4 plus minus 0.5, 93.0 plus minus 0.4 and 237.2 plus minus 0.9 respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were 122.2 plus minus 0.5, 80.7 plus minus 0.4, 41.5 plus minus 0.5 and 94.5 plus minus 0.4 respectively. All these parameters were also recorded and analysed in different income groups. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension was found to be 3.6% and 11.4% in the total sample. The correlation and regression coefficients between different independent (income, weight, height, BMI, circumferences) and dependent (SBP, DBP, PP and MAP) parameters were calculated and it was observed that there was a strong association between different parameters (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The regression coefficients of BMI with SBP, DBP, PP and MAP were 0.744 mmHg, 0.449 mmHg, 0.296 mmHg and 0.551 per unit of BMI, respectively (P<0.001). The arm, neck, waist, hip and total circumference had regression coefficients with SBP, DBP, and MAP as, arm 0.879, 0.547, 0.667, neck 1.020, 0.660, 0.788, waist 0.244, 0.162, 0.149, hip 0.348, 0.181, 0.238 and total 0.142, 0.855, 0.105 (P<0.01) respectively. It was found that weight and BMI are more important for the prediction of blood pressure whereas all the circumferences had weak association with blood pressure. (author)

  3. Genetic population structure accounts for contemporary ecogeographic patterns in tropic and subtropic-dwelling humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Hadley, Craig; Brewis, Alexandra A; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary human populations conform to ecogeographic predictions that animals will become more compact in cooler climates and less compact in warmer ones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this pattern reflects plastic responses to current environments or genetic differences among populations. Analyzing anthropometric surveys of 232,684 children and adults from across 80 ethnolinguistic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Americas, we confirm that body surface-to-volume correlates with contemporary temperature at magnitudes found in more latitudinally diverse samples (Adj. R2 = 0.14-0.28). However, far more variation in body surface-to-volume is attributable to genetic population structure (Adj. R2 = 0.50-0.74). Moreover, genetic population structure accounts for nearly all of the observed relationship between contemporary temperature and body surface-to-volume among children and adults. Indeed, after controlling for population structure, contemporary temperature accounts for no more than 4% of the variance in body form in these groups. This effect of genetic affinity on body form is also independent of other ecological variables, such as dominant mode of subsistence and household wealth per capita. These findings suggest that the observed fit of human body surface-to-volume with current climate in this sample reflects relatively large effects of existing genetic population structure of contemporary humans compared to plastic response to current environments.

  4. Genetic population structure accounts for contemporary ecogeographic patterns in tropic and subtropic-dwelling humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hruschka

    Full Text Available Contemporary human populations conform to ecogeographic predictions that animals will become more compact in cooler climates and less compact in warmer ones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this pattern reflects plastic responses to current environments or genetic differences among populations. Analyzing anthropometric surveys of 232,684 children and adults from across 80 ethnolinguistic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Americas, we confirm that body surface-to-volume correlates with contemporary temperature at magnitudes found in more latitudinally diverse samples (Adj. R2 = 0.14-0.28. However, far more variation in body surface-to-volume is attributable to genetic population structure (Adj. R2 = 0.50-0.74. Moreover, genetic population structure accounts for nearly all of the observed relationship between contemporary temperature and body surface-to-volume among children and adults. Indeed, after controlling for population structure, contemporary temperature accounts for no more than 4% of the variance in body form in these groups. This effect of genetic affinity on body form is also independent of other ecological variables, such as dominant mode of subsistence and household wealth per capita. These findings suggest that the observed fit of human body surface-to-volume with current climate in this sample reflects relatively large effects of existing genetic population structure of contemporary humans compared to plastic response to current environments.

  5. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Hongjie; Ning, Chao; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Hagelberg, Erika; Zhou, Hui

    2013-09-30

    The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations.

  6. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J

    2010-10-05

    Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  7. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P DeLong

    Full Text Available Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  8. [Cardiovascular hyperreactivity to physical stress predicts high blood pressure in working populations: 4 years follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana López, Sandra; Perdomo Hernández, María del Carmen; Montero Díaz, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is a disease, and as well as a risk factor for other diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity (CVHR) is a predictor for this disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate if CVHR to physical stress predicts HBP in working populations. A four year (2008-2012) cohort study was conducted on two population groups: CVHR (48), and normal cardiovascular reactivity (40) after applying the Sustained Weight test. A survival analysis was used to predict HBP, and the χ(2) test and hazard ratio, with a confidence interval of 95%, were used for the statistical analysis. The CVHR is a predictor of HBP, determined by the Sustained Weight test. The working populations can be stratified according to cardiovascular reactivity in order to introduce preventive health actions on the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of future hypertensives in the workplace. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of corn silk aqueous extract on intraocular pressure of ocular hypertensive human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma/style of Zea mays L (Corn silk has been documented to have hypotensive effect on blood pressure and to relieve oedema. However we are not aware of any literature on its hypotensive effect on intraocular pressure (IOP of humans or animals. We studied the effects of water only, masked doses of corn silk aqueous extract (60 mg/kg, 130 mg/kg, 192.5 mg/kg and 260 mg/kg body weight on the IOP and blood pressure (BP of twenty normotensives and twenty ocular hypertensive subjects. Also we compared the effects of the varied doses of corn silk aqueous extract (CSAE with masked doses (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg body weight of acetazolamide on IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects only. The results showed that the last three doses of CSAE lowered IOP and BP significantly (p<0.001 within eight hours of administration. The peak effect on IOP was observed after four hours while the peak effect on BP was observed after three hours of administration in the normotensives and ocular hypertensive subjects likewise the hypotensive effect was dose-dependent. The results also showed that 130 mg/kg body weight of CSAE produced the same hypotensive effect on IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects as 5 mg/kg body weight of acetazolamide. Therefore CSAE may have some IOP lowering effects that require further investigation in the management of ocular hypertension. (S Afr Optom 2013 72(3 133-143

  10. Digitalis-like activity in human plasma: Relation to blood pressure and sodium balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, A.; Yamada, K.; Ishii, M.; Sugimoto, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    PURPOSE: On the assumption that renal tubular cells are more important as the target cells for a natriuretic factor than blood cells, we used a well-characterized cultured renal tubular cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), cells to monitor the circulating digitalis-like factor in human plasma and examine its role in the regulation of blood pressure and sodium balance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of plasma on binding of radioactive ouabain to monolayered MDCK cells in order to determine the level of a circulating digitalis-like factor. First, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding to MDCK cells in the presence of plasma from 71 outpatients (34 normotensive subjects and 37 hypertensive patients) after incubation for 4 hours. Second, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding after incubation of cells with plasma from 16 hospitalized subjects (eight normotensive subjects and eight hypertensive patients) receiving low and high sodium diets. RESULTS: In Study 1, ouabain binding was lower by 30% with plasma from hypertensive patients than with plasma from normotensive subjects (p less than 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between individual subject's systolic or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.34, p less than 0.01 or r = -0.29, p less than 0.01). In Study 2, ouabain binding was also significantly reduced by 25% in the presence of plasma from hypertensive subjects as compared with plasma from normotensive subjects irrespective of sodium intake (p less than 0.01). A significant negative correlation was also found for all subjects between either systolic, diastolic, or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.58, p less than 0.01, r = -0.51, p less than 0.01, or r = -0.55, p less than 0.01, respectively).

  11. High blood pressure, overweight and obesity among rural scholars from the Vela Project: a population-based study from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringler, Matías; Rodriguez, Edgardo M; Aguera, Darío; Molina, John D; Canziani, Gabriela A; Diaz, Alejandro

    2012-03-01

    Many studies have shown that high blood pressure and overweight begins in childhood. Consequently, it is useful to know blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) values from an early age. There are few data about blood pressure control in children and adolescents from rural populations in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and its association with sedentary habits and overweight/obesity in scholars from a rural population in Argentina. The study population for this cross-sectional study was composed of rural children and adolescent scholars from Maria Ignacia Vela. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined on the basis of percentiles from the average of three blood pressure measurements taken on a single occasion. In patients with three blood pressure measurements above the 90th percentile, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed to confirm hypertension or pre-hypertension. BMI was categorized by using the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. We studied 334 scholars (aged 5-18 years). Mean age was 11.4 years. In 70% of the subjects, blood pressure had never been measured. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 4.4%. Students with sedentary habits were 3.67-fold more likely to develop high blood pressure than their physically active counterparts (odds ratio [OR] 3.67; 95% CI 1.08, 12.46; p = 0.037). Obese students were more likely to develop hypertension than the students with normal weight (OR = 5.17; 95% CI 1.52, 17.60; p = 0.02). Male students had a 3.4-fold higher risk of developing high blood pressure than females. In our rural population, the evaluation of blood pressure in children and adolescents is not a routine measure. Our data indicate a low prevalence of high blood pressure. These data could argue differences between rural and urban scholars. Our data demonstrate a close relationship between increased overweight, obesity and sedentary lifestyle

  12. The association of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) diet with blood pressure, glucose and lipid profiles in Malaysian and Philippines populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, X T; Nursara Shahirah, A; Pun, V C; Wong, K Y; Fong, A Y Y; Sy, R G; Castillo-Carandang, N T; Nang, E E K; Woodward, M; van Dam, R M; Tai, E S; Venkataraman, K

    2018-05-07

    Despite a growing body of evidence from Western populations on the health benefits of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, their applicability in South East Asian settings is not clear. We examined cross-sectional associations between DASH diet and cardio-metabolic risk factors among 1837 Malaysian and 2898 Philippines participants in a multi-national cohort. Blood pressures, fasting lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured, and DASH score was computed based on a 22-item food frequency questionnaire. Older individuals, women, those not consuming alcohol and those undertaking regular physical activity were more likely to have higher DASH scores. In the Malaysian cohort, while total DASH score was not significantly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors after adjusting for confounders, significant associations were observed for intake of green vegetable [0.011, standard error (SE): 0.004], and red and processed meat (-0.009, SE: 0.004) with total cholesterol. In the Philippines cohort, a 5-unit increase in total DASH score was significantly and inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (-1.41, SE: 0.40), diastolic blood pressure (-1.09, SE: 0.28), total cholesterol (-0.015, SE: 0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.025, SE: 0.008), and triglyceride (-0.034, SE: 0.012) after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle groups. Intake of milk and dairy products, red and processed meat, and sugared drinks were found to significantly associated with most risk factors. Differential associations of DASH diet and dietary components with cardio-metabolic risk factors by country suggest the need for country-specific tailoring of dietary interventions to improve cardio-metabolic risk profiles. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by

  13. Assessing cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure to predict incident hypertension in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbeer, Roberto; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    Cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure (BP) are not established in hypertension guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess optimal cutoff values for increased exercise BP to predict incident hypertension. Data of 661 normotensive participants (386 women) aged 25-77 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) with a 5-year follow-up were used. Exercise BP was measured at a submaximal level of 100 W and at maximum level of a symptom-limited cycle ergometry test. Cutoff values for increased exercise BP were defined at the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of incident hypertension. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification index (NRI) were calculated to investigate whether increased exercise BP adds predictive value for incident hypertension beyond established cardiovascular risk factors. In men, values of 160  mmHg (100  W level; AUC = 0.7837; NRI = 0.534, P AUC = 0.7677; NRI = 0.340, P = 0.003) were detected as optimal cutoff values for the definition of increased exercise SBP. A value of 190  mmHg (AUC = 0.8347; NRI = 0.519, P < 0.001) showed relevance for the definition of increased exercise SBP in women at the maximum level. According to our analyses, 190 and 210  mmHg are clinically relevant cutoff values for increased exercise SBP at the maximum exercise level of cycle ergometry test for women and men, respectively. In addition, for men, our analyses provided a cutoff value of 160  mmHg for increased exercise SBP at the 100  W level.

  14. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  15. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; Hubacek, Klaus; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Ruth, Matthias; Sagdeev, Roald; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Shukla, Jagadish; Srebric, Jelena; Yakovenko, Victor M.; Zeng, Ning

    2016-12-11

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  16. Digital Cellular Solid Pressure Vessels: A Novel Approach for Human Habitation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellucci, Daniel; Jenett, Benjamin; Cheung, Kenneth C.

    2017-01-01

    It is widely assumed that human exploration beyond Earth's orbit will require vehicles capable of providing long duration habitats that simulate an Earth-like environment - consistent artificial gravity, breathable atmosphere, and sufficient living space- while requiring the minimum possible launch mass. This paper examines how the qualities of digital cellular solids - high-performance, repairability, reconfigurability, tunable mechanical response - allow the accomplishment of long-duration habitat objectives at a fraction of the mass required for traditional structural technologies. To illustrate the impact digital cellular solids could make as a replacement to conventional habitat subsystems, we compare recent proposed deep space habitat structural systems with a digital cellular solids pressure vessel design that consists of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) digital cellular solid cylindrical framework that is lined with an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) skin. We use the analytical treatment of a linear specific modulus scaling cellular solid to find the minimum mass pressure vessel for a structure and find that, for equivalent habitable volume and appropriate safety factors, the use of digital cellular solids provides clear methods for producing structures that are not only repairable and reconfigurable, but also higher performance than their conventionally manufactured counterparts.

  17. Application of a system for measuring foot plantar pressure for evaluation of human mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimiec, Ewa; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Zaraska, Krzysztof; Piekarski, Jacek; Guzdek, Piotr; Kołaszczyński, Grzegorz

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents evaluation of human mobility by gait analysis, carried out in natural conditions (outside laboratory). Foot plantar pressure is measured using a shoe insole with 8 sensors placed in different anatomical zones of the foot, and placed inside a sports footwear. Polarized PVDF foil is used as a sensor material. A wireless transmission system is used to transmit voltage values to the computer. Due to linear relationship between force and transducer voltage, energy released during walking in arbitrary units can be calculated as integral of the square of transducer voltage over time. Gait measurements have been done over the next few days on healthy person during normal walking and slow walking. Performed measurements allow determination of walking speed (number of steps per second), gait rhythm and manner of walking (applying force to inside versus outside part of the sole). It is found that switching from normal to slow walk increases gait energy by 25% while the pressure distribution across the anatomical regions of the foot remains unchanged. The results will be used for developing a programme for evaluation of patients with cardiac failure and future integration of actimetry with pulse and spirometry measurements.

  18. A human model of restricted upper esophageal sphincter opening and its pharyngeal and UES deglutitive pressure phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hongmei; Mei, Ling; Sharma, Tarun; Kern, Mark; Sanvanson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia due to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction is commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Selective experimental perturbation of various components of the deglutitive apparatus can provide an opportunity to improve our understanding of the swallowing physiology and pathophysiology. The aim is to characterize the pharyngeal and UES deglutitive pressure phenomena in an experimentally induced restriction of UES opening in humans. We studied 14 volunteers without any dysphagic symptoms (7 men, 66 ± 11 yr) but with various supraesophageal reflux symptoms. To induce UES restriction, we used a handmade device that with adjustment could selectively apply 0, 20, 30, or 40 mmHg pressure perpendicularly to the cricoid cartilage. Deglutitive pharyngeal and UES pressure phenomena were determined during dry and 5- and 10-ml water swallows × 3 for each of the UES perturbations. External cricoid pressure against the UES resulted in a significant increase in hypopharyngeal intrabolus pressure and UES nadir deglutitive relaxation pressure for all tested swallowed volumes (P < 0.05). Application of external cricoid pressure increased the length of the UES high pressure zone from 2.5 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2, 3.5 ± 0.1, and 3.7 ± 0.1 cm for 20, 30, and 40 mmHg cricoid pressure, respectively (P < 0.05). External cricoid pressure had no significant effect on pharyngeal peristalsis. On the other hand, irrespective of external cricoid pressure deglutitive velopharyngeal contractile integral progressively increased with increased swallowed volumes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, acute experimental restriction of UES opening by external cricoid pressure manifests the pressure characteristics of increased resistance to UES transsphincteric flow observed clinically without affecting the pharyngeal peristaltic contractile function. PMID:27198193

  19. Characterization of the human DNA gut virome across populations with different subsistence strategies and geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelli, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Barone, Monica; Castagnetti, Andrea; Biagi, Elena; Gallinella, Giorgio; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    It is a matter of fact that the human gut microbiome also includes a non-bacterial fraction represented by eukaryotic cells and viruses. To further explore the gut microbiome variation in human populations, here we characterized the human DNA viral community from publicly available gut metagenome data sets from human populations with different geographical origin and lifestyle. In particular, such data sets encompass microbiome information from two western urban societies (USA and Italy), as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer communities (the Hadza from Tanzania and Matses from Peru) and one pre-agricultural tribe (Tunapuco from Peru). Our results allowed for the first taxonomic reconstruction of the complex viral metacommunities within the human gut. The core virome structure included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, adenoviruses and anelloviruses. Using Random Forests and a co-occurrence analysis approach, we identified the viruses that distinguished populations according to their geographical origin and/or lifestyle. This paves the way for new research aimed at investigating the biological role of the gut virome in human physiology, and the importance of our viral counterpart in the microbiome-host co-evolutionary process. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of subsidized predators, resource variability, and human population density on desert tortoise populations in the Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Drake, K. Kristina; Walde, Andrew D.; Berry, Kristin H.; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Woodman, A. Peter; Boarman, William I.; Medica, Phil A.; Mack, Jeremy S.; Heaton, Jill S.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding predator–prey relationships can be pivotal in the conservation of species. For 2 decades, desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii populations have declined, yet quantitative evidence regarding the causes of declines is scarce. In 2005, Ft. Irwin National Training Center, California, USA, implemented a translocation project including 2 yr of baseline monitoring of desert tortoises. Unusually high predation on tortoises was observed after translocation occurred. We conducted a retrospective analysis of predation and found that translocation did not affect the probability of predation: translocated, resident, and control tortoises all had similar levels of predation. However, predation rates were higher near human population concentrations, at lower elevation sites, and for smaller tortoises and females. Furthermore, high mortality rates were not limited to the National Training Center. In 2008, elevated mortality (as high as 43%) occurred throughout the listed range of the desert tortoise. Although no temporal prey base data are available for analysis from any of the study sites, we hypothesize that low population levels of typical coyote Canis latrans prey (i.e. jackrabbits Lepus californicus and other small animals) due to drought conditions influenced high predation rates in previous years. Predation may have been exacerbated in areas with high levels of subsidized predators. Many historical reports of increased predation, and our observation of a range-wide pattern, may indicate that high predation rates are more common than generally considered and may impact recovery of the desert tortoise throughout its range.

  1. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Discussion Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar, we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations.

  2. Generation of Human Immunosuppressive Myeloid Cell Populations in Human Interleukin-6 Transgenic NOG Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Hanazawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment contains unique immune cells, termed myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs that suppress host anti-tumor immunity and promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Although these cells are considered a key target of cancer immune therapy, in vivo animal models allowing differentiation of human immunosuppressive myeloid cells have yet to be established, hampering the development of novel cancer therapies. In this study, we established a novel humanized transgenic (Tg mouse strain, human interleukin (hIL-6-expressing NOG mice (NOG-hIL-6 transgenic mice. After transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, the HSC-transplanted NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice (HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice showed enhanced human monocyte/macrophage differentiation. A significant number of human monocytes were negative for HLA-DR expression and resembled immature myeloid cells in the spleen and peripheral blood from HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice, but not from HSC-NOG non-Tg mice. Engraftment of HSC4 cells, a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma-derived cell line producing various factors including IL-6, IL-1β, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, into HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice induced a significant number of TAM-like cells, but few were induced in HSC-NOG non-Tg mice. The tumor-infiltrating macrophages in HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice expressed a high level of CD163, a marker of immunoregulatory myeloid cells, and produced immunosuppressive molecules such as arginase-1 (Arg-1, IL-10, and VEGF. Such cells from HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice, but not HSC-NOG non-Tg mice, suppressed human T cell proliferation in response to antigen stimulation in in vitro cultures. These results suggest that functional human TAMs can be developed in NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice. This mouse model will contribute to the development of novel cancer immune therapies targeting immunoregulatory

  3. Effects of human population density and proximity to markets on coral reef fishes vulnerable to extinction by fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, T D; Cinner, J E; Green, A; Pressey, R L

    2013-06-01

    Coral reef fisheries are crucial to the livelihoods of tens of millions of people; yet, widespread habitat degradation and unsustainable fishing are causing severe depletion of stocks of reef fish. Understanding how social and economic factors, such as human population density, access to external markets, and modernization interact with fishing and habitat degradation to affect fish stocks is vital to sustainable management of coral reef fisheries. We used fish survey data, national social and economic data, and path analyses to assess whether these factors explain variation in biomass of coral reef fishes among 25 sites in Solomon Islands. We categorized fishes into 3 groups on the basis of life-history characteristics associated with vulnerability to extinction by fishing (high, medium, and low vulnerability). The biomass of fish with low vulnerability was positively related to habitat condition. The biomass of fishes with high vulnerability was negatively related to fishing conducted with efficient gear. Use of efficient gear, in turn, was strongly and positively related to both population density and market proximity. This result suggests local population pressure and external markets have additive negative effects on vulnerable reef fish. Biomass of the fish of medium vulnerability was not explained by fishing intensity or habitat condition, which suggests these species may be relatively resilient to both habitat degradation and fishing. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter; Gregers Petersen, Hans; Benee Olsen, David; Berg, Ronan M G; Abrahamsen, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels

    2018-01-17

    To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark. One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent home blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Mean day- and night-time systolic and diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Change in systolic and diastolic office blood pressure and change in cardiovascular risk profile. Of the patients, 515 (49%) were allocated to the usual group, and 533 (51%) to the intensive group. The reductions in day- and night-time 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were similar (usual group: 4.6 ± 13.5/2.8 ± 82 mmHg; intensive group: 5.6 ± 13.0/3.5 ± 8.2 mmHg; P = 0.27/P = 0.20). Cardiovascular risk scores were reduced in both groups at follow-up, but more so in the intensive than in the usual group (P = 0.02). An intensive blood pressure monitoring strategy led to a similar blood pressure reduction to conventional monitoring. However, the intensive strategy appeared to improve patients' cardiovascular risk profile through other effects than a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Application of driving force- Pressure- State- Impact- Response (DPSIR Framework for Analyzing the Human habitat in City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Salehi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human habitat change is a complicated issue that many factors play different roles in its formation and distribution. Considering this complication, a more comprehensive and holistic approach is needed for a better understanding and management of those factors. The causal frameworks are among systemic and integrated methods for addressing the causes of environmental problems and the relationships that exist between the environmental systems for proposing proper solutions. The DPSIR model is a functional analysis framework to depict the cause-effect relationships that exist in creating environmental problems. Tehran is one of the major megacities in the Middle East that faces environmental consequences of over population and unplanned urban sprawl, and because of its location in arid region, its vulnerable to rise of environmental problem. In this research, by using the DPSIR framework, different aspects of habitat condition of Tehran are analyzed and later with the help of this conceptual framework, strategies for controlling urban environment. The results show that urbanization is the major driving force that is induced by overpopulation and the need for further urban sprawl, which cause pressure on natural resources. The state of housing and rapid land use changes have brought about unfavorable living conditions that result in unfavorable impacts on public health and safety, which are the results of ineffective policies and solutions.

  6. MEMS Technology Sensors as a More Advantageous Technique for Measuring Foot Plantar Pressure and Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sanz Morère

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of interest. Sensors with improved sensing techniques can be applied to a variety of research problems: diagnosing limb problems, footwear design, or injury prevention. This paper reviews commercially available sensors used in foot plantar pressure measurements and proposes the utilization of pressure sensors based on the MEMS (microelectromechanical systems technique. Pressure sensors based on this technique have the capacity to measure pressure with high accuracy and linearity up to high pressure levels. Moreover, being small in size, they are highly suitable for this type of measurement. We present two MEMS sensor models and study their suitability for the intended purpose by performing several experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the sensors are indeed suitable for measuring foot plantar pressure. Importantly, by measuring pressure continuously, they can also be utilized for body balance measurements.

  7. MEMS technology sensors as a more advantageous technique for measuring foot plantar pressure and balance in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Morère, C. (Clara); Surażyński, Ł. (Łukasz); Rodrigo Pérez-Tabernero, A. (Ana); Vihriälä, E. (Erkki); Myllylä, T. (Teemu)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of i...

  8. Identification and clonal characterisation of a progenitor cell sub-population in normal human articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage displays a poor repair capacity. The aim of cell-based therapies for cartilage defects is to repair damaged joint surfaces with a functional replacement tissue. Currently, chondrocytes removed from a healthy region of the cartilage are used but they are unable to retain their phenotype in expanded culture. The resulting repair tissue is fibrocartilaginous rather than hyaline, potentially compromising long-term repair. Mesenchymal stem cells, particularly bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC, are of interest for cartilage repair due to their inherent replicative potential. However, chondrocyte differentiated BMSCs display an endochondral phenotype, that is, can terminally differentiate and form a calcified matrix, leading to failure in long-term defect repair. Here, we investigate the isolation and characterisation of a human cartilage progenitor population that is resident within permanent adult articular cartilage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Human articular cartilage samples were digested and clonal populations isolated using a differential adhesion assay to fibronectin. Clonal cell lines were expanded in growth media to high population doublings and karyotype analysis performed. We present data to show that this cell population demonstrates a restricted differential potential during chondrogenic induction in a 3D pellet culture system. Furthermore, evidence of high telomerase activity and maintenance of telomere length, characteristic of a mesenchymal stem cell population, were observed in this clonal cell population. Lastly, as proof of principle, we carried out a pilot repair study in a goat in vivo model demonstrating the ability of goat cartilage progenitors to form a cartilage-like repair tissue in a chondral defect. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we propose that we have identified and characterised a novel cartilage progenitor population resident in human articular cartilage which will greatly benefit future cell

  9. High-throughput telomere length quantification by FISH and its application to human population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Vera, Elsa; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-03-27

    A major limitation of studies of the relevance of telomere length to cancer and age-related diseases in human populations and to the development of telomere-based therapies has been the lack of suitable high-throughput (HT) assays to measure telomere length. We have developed an automated HT quantitative telomere FISH platform, HT quantitative FISH (Q-FISH), which allows the quantification of telomere length as well as percentage of short telomeres in large human sample sets. We show here that this technique provides the accuracy and sensitivity to uncover associations between telomere length and human disease.

  10. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP(24)) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models......, which included both ABP(24) and eGFR, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.008) both total (513 deaths) and cardiovascular (206) mortality; eGFR only predicted cardiovascular mortality (P=0.012). Furthermore, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.0056) fatal combined with nonfatal events as a result of all cardiovascular causes...... (555 events), cardiac disease (335 events), or stroke (218 events), whereas eGFR only predicted the composite cardiovascular end point and stroke (P≤0.035). The interaction terms between ABP(24) and eGFR were all nonsignificant (P≥0.082). For cardiovascular mortality, the composite cardiovascular end...

  11. Modulation of invasive phenotype by interstitial pressure-driven convection in aggregates of human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Tien

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of elevated pressure on the invasive phenotype of patterned three-dimensional (3D aggregates of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. We found that the directionality of the interstitial pressure profile altered the frequency of invasion by cells located at the surface of an aggregate. In particular, application of pressure at one end of an aggregate suppressed invasion at the opposite end. Experimental alteration of the configuration of cell aggregates and computational modeling of the resulting flow and solute concentration profiles revealed that elevated pressure inhibited invasion by altering the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid near the surface of the aggregate. Our data reveal a link between hydrostatic pressure, interstitial convection, and invasion.

  12. Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2015-02-01

    The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (Pfructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clinic and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in a Population-Based Sample of African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. Justin; Booth, John N.; Bromfield, Samantha G.; Seals, Samantha R.; Spruill, Tanya M.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Kidambi, Srividya; Shimbo, Daichi; Calhoun, David; Muntner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) can differ substantially when measured in the clinic versus outside of the clinic setting. Few population-based studies with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) include African Americans. We calculated the prevalence of clinic hypertension and ABPM phenotypes among 1,016 participants in the population-based Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African-American cohort. Mean daytime systolic BP was higher than mean clinic systolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (127.1[standard deviation 12.8] versus 124.5[15.7] mmHg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (131.2[13.6] versus 130.0[15.6] mmHg, respectively). Mean daytime diastolic BP was higher than clinic diastolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (78.2[standard deviation 8.9] versus 74.6[8.4] mmHg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (77.6[9.4] versus 74.3[8.5] mmHg, respectively). The prevalence of daytime hypertension was higher than clinic hypertension for participants not taking antihypertensive medication (31.8% versus 14.3%) and taking antihypertensive medication (43.0% versus 23.1%). A high percentage of participants not taking and taking antihypertensive medication had nocturnal hypertension (49.4% and 61.7%, respectively), white coat hypertension (30.2% and 29.3%, respectively), masked hypertension (25.4% and 34.6%, respectively), and a non-dipping BP pattern (62.4% and 69.6%, respectively). In conclusion, these data suggest hypertension may be misdiagnosed among African Americans without using ABPM. PMID:28285829

  14. Implementing a Novel Guideline to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers in a Trauma Population: A Patient-Safety Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Crystal; Elkbuli, Adel; Benson, Brenda; Young, Elizabeth; Morejon, Orlando; Boneva, Dessy; Hai, Shaikh; McKenney, Mark

    2018-03-26

    The development of hospital acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) is a common complication associated with immobilization and prolonged hospitalization in trauma patients. Our semi-annual Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) report identified HAPUs as an outlier complication. We employed a hospital-wide initiative to reduce the incidence of HAPUs among our trauma patient population. Our study aimed to determine if the implemented measures would decrease HAPUs incidence rates. We reviewed adult trauma patients over a 3 year period. The novel care-based platform and preventive measures on reducing HAPUs included 7 components. 1) Pressure reducing beds, 2) Improved and protocolized nutritional support, 3) Mandatory 2-hour change of posture, 4) Turning clocks, 5) Early surgical intervention, 6) Spot checks by our wound care nurse and 7) Education to patients and care givers. Paired-sample t-test and Chi Squared analyses were used with significance defined as ppatients were admitted to our trauma services in the study period. Of these, 89 patients developed HAPUs, had an average age of 57.9 years and 48(54%) were female. The Injury Severity Score ranged from 1 to 75 with a mean of 20 in patients with HAPUs compared to 8 in patients without HAPUs during the same study period. The incidence of HAPUs at our institution was initially 1.36%, decreased to 0.98% in year 2, and 0.39% in year 3 (p-value=0.002). The novel seven-step care- based process changes, acquisition of specialized equipment and educational initiatives implemented was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence rates of Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication profile in a multiethnic Asian population of stable chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus

    2016-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  16. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  17. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundModelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-a...

  18. Human Populations and the World Conservation Strategy. Commission on Ecology Paper Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J.

    This document serves as a supplement to the World Conservation Strategy (WCS) and outlines some of the critical aspects of the interaction between human populations, natural resources, and social and economic conditions. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of planning with people, and on packaging conservation programs so they are more…

  19. Human population intake fractions and environmental fate factors of toxic pollutants in life cycle impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Struijs, Jaap; Goedkoop, Mark; Heijungs, Reinout; Jan Hendriks, A.; Van De Meent, Dik

    2005-01-01

    The present paper outlines an update of the fate and exposure part of the fate, exposure and effects model USES-LCA. The new fate and exposure module of USES-LCA was applied to calculate human population intake fractions and fate factors of the freshwater, marine and terrestrial environment for 3393

  20. Determination of combined sibship indices "gray zone" using 15 STR loci for central Bosnian human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musanovic, Jasmin; Filipovska-Musanovic, Marijana; Kovacevic, Lejla; Buljugic, Dzenisa; Dzehverovic, Mirela; Avdic, Jasna; Marjanovic, Damir

    2012-05-01

    In our previous population studies of Bosnia and Herzegovina human population, we have used autosomal STR, Y-STR, and X-STR loci, as well as Y-chromosome NRY biallelic markers. All obtained results were included in Bosnian referent database. In order of future development of applied population molecular genetics researches of Bosnia and Herzegovina human population, we have examined the effectiveness of 15 STR loci system in determination of sibship by using 15 STR loci and calculating different cut-off points of combined sibship indices (CSI) and distribution of sharing alleles. From the perspective of its application, it is very difficult and complicated to establish strict CSI cut-off values for determination of the doubtless sibship. High statistically significant difference between the means of CSI values and in distribution of alleles sharing in siblings and non-siblings was noticed (P < 0.0001). After constructing the "gray zone", only one false positive result was found in three CSI cut-off levels with the highest percent of determined sibship/non-sibship at the CSI = 0.067, confirming its practical benefit. Concerning the distribution of sharing alleles, it is recommended as an informative estimator for its usage within Bosnia and Herzegovina human population.

  1. Human capital of the child population and its selected determinants: Case study of Lviv city, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantyley Viktoriya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of modern economic and political destabilisation in Ukraine, human capital of the child population is considered as the most reliable indicator of socioeconomic development of the country and its regions. The primary goal of the study is the analysis of health status as the main element of human capital among the child population aged 0-14, and external and family environmental factors influencing this population group in the city of Lviv (in the light of available statistics and materials of the author’s own sociological research. Research results show a potential crisis of human capital among the child population in Lviv city. Results of own field research show a statistically important correlation between the willingness of parents to have more children and the following independent variables: number of members in the household, and the household’s income. The state of health among the child population showed a significant correlation between the following variables: household’s income, life satisfaction among parents, availability of healthcare in the place of residence, financial affordability of healthcare, physical activity among children, influence of noise and unpleasant scents.

  2. Geographic distribution of methyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori: evidence of human host population isolation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Jorge MB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. This ubiquitous association between H. pylori and humans is thought to be present since the origin of modern humans. The H. pylori genome encodes for an exceptional number of restriction and modifications (R-M systems. To evaluate if R-M systems are an adequate tool to determine the geographic distribution of H. pylori strains, we typed 221 strains from Africa, America, Asia, and Europe, and evaluated the expression of different 29 methyltransferases. Results Independence tests and logistic regression models revealed that ten R-M systems correlate with geographical localization. The distribution pattern of these methyltransferases may have been originated by co-divergence of regional H. pylori after its human host migrated out of Africa. The expression of specific methyltransferases in the H. pylori population may also reflect the genetic and cultural background of its human host. Methyltransferases common to all strains, M. HhaI and M. NaeI, are likely conserved in H. pylori, and may have been present in the bacteria genome since the human diaspora out of Africa. Conclusion This study indicates that some methyltransferases are useful geomarkers, which allow discrimination of bacterial populations, and that can be added to our tools to investigate human migrations.

  3. Human heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer lowers blood pressure and promotes growth in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaawy, H E; Zhang, F; Nguyen, X; ElHosseiny, A; Nasjletti, A; Schwartzman, M; Dennery, P; Kappas, A; Abraham, N G

    2001-08-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the conversion of heme to biliverdin, with release of free iron and carbon monoxide. Both heme and carbon monoxide have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone. A retroviral vector containing human HO-1 cDNA (LSN-HHO-1) was constructed and subjected to purification and concentration of the viral particles to achieve 5x10(9) to 1x10(10) colony-forming units per milliliter. The ability of concentrated infectious viral particles to express human HO-1 (HHO-1) in vivo was tested. A single intracardiac injection of the concentrated infectious viral particles (expressing HHO-1) to 5-day-old spontaneously hypertensive rats resulted in functional expression of the HHO-1 gene and attenuation of the development of hypertension. Rats expressing HHO-1 showed a significant decrease in urinary excretion of a vasoconstrictor arachidonic acid metabolite and a reduction in myogenic responses to increased intraluminal pressure in isolated arterioles. Unexpectedly, HHO-1 chimeric rats showed a simultaneous significant proportionate increase in somatic growth. Thus, delivery of HHO-1 gene by retroviral vector attenuates the development of hypertension and promotes body growth in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  4. Holocene fluctuations in human population demonstrate repeated links to food production and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Andrew; Colledge, Sue; Fuller, Dorian; Fyfe, Ralph; Shennan, Stephen; Stevens, Chris

    2017-12-05

    We consider the long-term relationship between human demography, food production, and Holocene climate via an archaeological radiocarbon date series of unprecedented sampling density and detail. There is striking consistency in the inferred human population dynamics across different regions of Britain and Ireland during the middle and later Holocene. Major cross-regional population downturns in population coincide with episodes of more abrupt change in North Atlantic climate and witness societal responses in food procurement as visible in directly dated plants and animals, often with moves toward hardier cereals, increased pastoralism, and/or gathered resources. For the Neolithic, this evidence questions existing models of wholly endogenous demographic boom-bust. For the wider Holocene, it demonstrates that climate-related disruptions have been quasi-periodic drivers of societal and subsistence change. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. CD146/MCAM defines functionality of human bone marrow stromal stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Zaher, Walid; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of surface markers for prospective isolation of functionally homogenous populations of human skeletal (stromal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) is highly relevant for cell therapy protocols. Thus, we examined the possible use of CD146 to subtype a heterogeneous hMSC...... population. METHODS: Using flow cytometry and cell sorting, we isolated two distinct hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cell populations from the telomerized human bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (hMSC-TERT). Cells were examined for differences in their size, shape and texture by using high...... and adipocytes on the basis of gene expression and protein production of lineage-specific markers. In vivo, hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cells formed bone and bone marrow organ when implanted subcutaneously in immune-deficient mice. Bone was enriched in hMSC-CD146(-) cells (12.6 % versus 8.1 %) and bone...

  6. HIV epidemiology. The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Nuno R; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Baele, Guy; Bedford, Trevor; Ward, Melissa J; Tatem, Andrew J; Sousa, João D; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Pépin, Jacques; Posada, David; Peeters, Martine; Pybus, Oliver G; Lemey, Philippe

    2014-10-03

    Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination, and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa (in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo) was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere. Location and dating estimates were validated using the earliest HIV-1 archival sample, also from Kinshasa. The epidemic histories of HIV-1 group M and nonpandemic group O were similar until ~1960, after which group M underwent an epidemiological transition and outpaced regional population growth. Our results reconstruct the early dynamics of HIV-1 and emphasize the role of social changes and transport networks in the establishment of this virus in human populations. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Influence of physical activity in length of life of the human population in the context of changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmetović Zlatko; Romanov Romana; Dimitrić Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Since the middle of the last century, the human population has increased exponentially. This trend is evident today. Human population has, for more than half a century been undergoing the period of its intensive development, increasing in number and the average length of life, creating the impression of a better life standard. Looking at the man as a bio-psycho-social being and the interactions it ones through the human population growth is brought in connection with its impact on the environ...

  8. Fine-Scale Human Population Structure in Southern Africa Reflects Ecogeographic Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Caitlin; Kim, Minju; Martin, Alicia R; Bobo, Dean; Gignoux, Christopher R; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Hoal, Eileen G; Henn, Brenna M

    2016-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have established that the KhoeSan populations of southern Africa are distinct from all other African populations and have remained largely isolated during human prehistory until ∼2000 years ago. Dozens of different KhoeSan groups exist, belonging to three different language families, but very little is known about their population history. We examine new genome-wide polymorphism data and whole mitochondrial genomes for >100 South Africans from the ≠Khomani San and Nama populations of the Northern Cape, analyzed in conjunction with 19 additional southern African populations. Our analyses reveal fine-scale population structure in and around the Kalahari Desert. Surprisingly, this structure does not always correspond to linguistic or subsistence categories as previously suggested, but rather reflects the role of geographic barriers and the ecology of the greater Kalahari Basin. Regardless of subsistence strategy, the indigenous Khoe-speaking Nama pastoralists and the N|u-speaking ≠Khomani (formerly hunter-gatherers) share ancestry with other Khoe-speaking forager populations that form a rim around the Kalahari Desert. We reconstruct earlier migration patterns and estimate that the southern Kalahari populations were among the last to experience gene flow from Bantu speakers, ∼14 generations ago. We conclude that local adoption of pastoralism, at least by the Nama, appears to have been primarily a cultural process with limited genetic impact from eastern Africa. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K; Pott, F; Stok, W J; Karemaker, J M

    2004-01-01

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture and central venous pressure (CVP) on the distribution of cerebral outflow over the internal jugular veins and the vertebral plexus, using a mathematical model. Input to the model was a data set of beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity and CVP measurements in 10 healthy subjects, during baseline rest and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position, but mainly through the vertebral plexus in the upright position. A Valsalva manoeuvre while standing completely re-opened the jugular veins. Results of ultrasound imaging of the right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area at the level of the laryngeal prominence in six healthy subjects, before and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R2 = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway. The internal jugular veins are collapsed in the standing position and blood is shunted to an alternative venous pathway, but a marked increase in CVP while standing completely re-opens the jugular veins. PMID:15284348

  10. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distance from Africa, not climate, explains within-population phenotypic diversity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Lia; Balloux, François; Amos, William; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Manica, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of ancient demography and climate in determining worldwide patterns of human within-population phenotypic diversity is still open to debate. Several morphometric traits have been argued to be under selection by climatic factors, but it is unclear whether climate affects the global decline in morphological diversity with increasing geographical distance from sub-Saharan Africa. Using a large database of male and female skull measurements, we apply an explicit framework to quantify the relative role of climate and distance from Africa. We show that distance from sub-Saharan Africa is the sole determinant of human within-population phenotypic diversity, while climate plays no role. By selecting the most informative set of traits, it was possible to explain over half of the worldwide variation in phenotypic diversity. These results mirror those previously obtained for genetic markers and show that ‘bones and molecules’ are in perfect agreement for humans. PMID:19129123

  12. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  13. A mathematical model of interaction among humans, vampires and werewolves populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarti, Novriana; Nurrizky, Insan; Nuraini, Nuning

    2018-03-01

    In every country there are many fictional creatures depicting evil. In the western world, fictional creatures who often appear in horror stories are vampires and werewolves. Many released movies expose the conflict between humans with one or both creatures. In this paper, the interaction among humans, vampires and werewolves is modeled using a system of differential equations. We consider the stability of equilibrium points of the system that represent four situations; only humans remain or a disease-free condition, either vampires or werewolves are going to extinction, and no population goes extinct. The derived model is implemented for depicting some scenarios in the movie series of Underworld. The model can describe the fluctuation of vampires and werewolves population from the beginning to their extinction at 1500 years since the story started.

  14. Final report on effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Kim, J.B.; Chung, K.H.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, S.R.; Yang, S.Y.

    1980-01-01

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, human life habits, expected individual exposure dose, frequencies of chromosomal aberration, gene frequencies and karyotypes in amphibia, fauna, and radiation sensitivities in microorganisms which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. Kilchonri population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2 km distance from the power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of x-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows: Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana nigromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  15. Mechanism of blood pressure and R-R variability: insights from ganglion blockade in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Behbehani, Khosrow; Crandall, Craig G.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous blood pressure (BP) and R-R variability are used frequently as 'windows' into cardiovascular control mechanisms. However, the origin of these rhythmic fluctuations is not completely understood. In this study, with ganglion blockade, we evaluated the role of autonomic neural activity versus other 'non-neural' factors in the origin of BP and R-R variability in humans. Beat-to-beat BP, R-R interval and respiratory excursions were recorded in ten healthy subjects (aged 30 +/- 6 years) before and after ganglion blockade with trimethaphan. The spectral power of these variables was calculated in the very low (0.0078-0.05 Hz), low (0.05-0.15 Hz) and high (0.15-0.35 Hz) frequency ranges. The relationship between systolic BP and R-R variability was examined by cross-spectral analysis. After blockade, R-R variability was virtually abolished at all frequencies; however, respiration and high frequency BP variability remained unchanged. Very low and low frequency BP variability was reduced substantially by 84 and 69 %, respectively, but still persisted. Transfer function gain between systolic BP and R-R interval variability decreased by 92 and 88 % at low and high frequencies, respectively, while the phase changed from negative to positive values at the high frequencies. These data suggest that under supine resting conditions with spontaneous breathing: (1) R-R variability at all measured frequencies is predominantly controlled by autonomic neural activity; (2) BP variability at high frequencies (> 0.15 Hz) is mediated largely, if not exclusively, by mechanical effects of respiration on intrathoracic pressure and/or cardiac filling; (3) BP variability at very low and low frequencies (rhythmicity; and (4) the dynamic relationship between BP and R-R variability as quantified by transfer function analysis is determined predominantly by autonomic neural activity rather than other, non-neural factors.

  16. Burden of high blood pressure as a contributing factor to stroke in the Japanese community-based diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Omama, Shinichi; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Tanno, Kozo; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Ohsawa, Masaki; Tanaka, Kentaro; Okayama, Akira; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2018-04-13

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by alterations in blood glucose (BG) metabolism, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1 c) has been widely used as a marker of the BG concentration. Diabetes often coexists with high blood pressure (BP). High BP and hyperglycemia are well-known risk factors of stroke. We examined the extent to which the increased risk of stroke in diabetic individuals is attributable to BP and BG using prospectively collected data from the Japanese general population. During an average 8.3 ± 2.2 years of follow-up, out 1606 diabetic individuals aged ≥40 years who were free of cardiovascular disease, 119 participants (7.4%) developed stroke. In multivariable analysis, a significant difference in the risk of incident stroke was noted among the BP categories, including normotension (BP1), prehypertension (BP2), and hypertension (BP3; P for trend = 0.001). By contrast, no difference was noted among the BG categories, including HbA 1 c levels <7.0% (HB1), 7.0-7.9% (HB2), and ≥8.0% (HB3; P for trend = 0.430). Compared with the category that included both BP1 and HB1, the population-attributable fraction (PAF) for stroke incidence was 52.0% from the BP2 and BP3 categories and 24.1% from the HB2 and HB3 categories, and the increased incidence from the HB2 and HB3 categories was mostly caused from coexistent BP2 and BP3 categories. In conclusion, in the Japanese community-based diabetic population, concomitant BP elevation largely contributes to the increased incidence of stroke and links BG elevation, as indicated by HbA 1 c, to the increased risk of stroke.

  17. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of High Blood Pressure: A Population-Based Survey in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Anh Ha

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam and hypertension (HTN is an important and prevalent risk factor for CVD in the adult Vietnamese population. Despite an increasing prevalence of HTN in this country, information about the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, and factors associated with these endpoints, in residents of a mountainous province in Vietnam.Data from 2,368 adults (age≥25 years participating in a population-based survey conducted in 2011 in Thai Nguyen province were analyzed. All eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and were examined by community health workers using a standardized protocol.The overall prevalence of HTN in this population was 23%. Older age, male sex, and being overweight were associated with a higher odds of having HTN, while higher educational level was associated with a lower odds of having HTN. Among those with HTN, only 34% were aware of their condition, 43% of those who were aware they had HTN received treatment and, of these, 39% had their HTN controlled.Nearly one in four adults in Thai Nguyen is hypertensive, but far fewer are aware of this condition and even fewer have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Public health strategies increasing awareness of HTN in the community, as well as improvements in the treatment and control of HTN, remain needed to reduce the prevalence of HTN and related morbidity and mortality.

  18. Survival and inactivation of human norovirus surrogates in blueberry juice by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horm, Katie Marie; Davidson, P Michael; Harte, Federico M; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2012-11-01

    Human noroviruses (HNoV) have been implicated in gastrointestinal outbreaks associated with fresh produce, juices, and ready-to-eat foods. In order to determine the risk of HNoV transmission by contaminated blueberry juice, survival characteristics of cultivable HNoV surrogates (murine norovirus, MNV-1; feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; and bacteriophage MS2) in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77) after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 days at refrigeration temperatures (4°C) were studied. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) was studied as a novel processing method for noroviral surrogate inactivation in blueberry juice. Blueberry juice or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2 as control) was inoculated with each virus, stored over 21 days at 4°C or subjected to HPH, and plaque assayed. FCV-F9 (∼5 log(10) PFU/mL) was undetectable after 1 day in blueberry juice at 4°C. MNV-1 (∼4 log(10) PFU/ml) showed minimal reduction (1 log(10) PFU/mL) after 14 days, with greater reduction (1.95 log(10) PFU/mL; p PFU/mL) showed significant reduction (1.93 log(10) PFU/mL; p PFU/mL reduction), while MNV-1 and MS2 survived after 21 days (1.08 and 0.56 log(10) PFU/mL reduction, respectively). Intriguingly, FCV-F9 and bacteriophage MS2 showed reduction after minimal homogenization pressures in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77), possibly due to the combination of juice pH, juice components, and mechanical effects. MNV-1 in blueberry juice was only slightly reduced at 250 (0.33 log(10) PFU/mL) and 300 MPa (0.71 log(10) PFU/mL). Virus surrogate survival in blueberry juice at 4°C correlates well with the ease of HNoV transmission via juices. HPH for viral inactivation in juices is dependent on virus type, and higher homogenization pressures may be needed for MNV-1 inactivation.

  19. The Driving Forces of Cultural Complexity : Neanderthals, Modern Humans, and the Question of Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Laurel; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    The forces driving cultural accumulation in human populations, both modern and ancient, are hotly debated. Did genetic, demographic, or cognitive features of behaviorally modern humans (as opposed to, say, early modern humans or Neanderthals) allow culture to accumulate to its current, unprecedented levels of complexity? Theoretical explanations for patterns of accumulation often invoke demographic factors such as population size or density, whereas statistical analyses of variation in cultural complexity often point to the importance of environmental factors such as food stability, in determining cultural complexity. Here we use both an analytical model and an agent-based simulation model to show that a full understanding of the emergence of behavioral modernity, and the cultural evolution that has followed, depends on understanding and untangling the complex relationships among culture, genetically determined cognitive ability, and demographic history. For example, we show that a small but growing population could have a different number of cultural traits from a shrinking population with the same absolute number of individuals in some circumstances.

  20. The genome of a Mongolian individual reveals the genetic imprints of Mongolians on modern human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haihua; Guo, Xiaosen; Zhang, Dong; Narisu, Narisu; Bu, Junjie; Jirimutu, Jirimutu; Liang, Fan; Zhao, Xiang; Xing, Yanping; Wang, Dingzhu; Li, Tongda; Zhang, Yanru; Guan, Baozhu; Yang, Xukui; Yang, Zili; Shuangshan, Shuangshan; Su, Zhe; Wu, Huiguang; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Shilin; Bayinnamula, Bayinnamula; Chang, Yuqi; Gao, Ying; Lan, Tianming; Suyalatu, Suyalatu; Huang, Hui; Su, Yan; Chen, Yujie; Li, Wenqi; Yang, Xu; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Wu, Qizhu; Yin, Ye; Zhou, Huanmin

    2014-11-05

    Mongolians have played a significant role in modern human evolution, especially after the rise of Genghis Khan (1162[?]-1227). Although the social cultural impacts of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian population have been well documented, explorations of their genome structure and genetic imprints on other human populations have been lacking. We here present the genome of a Mongolian male individual. The genome was de novo assembled using a total of 130.8-fold genomic data produced from massively parallel whole-genome sequencing. We identified high-confidence variation sets, including 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 756,234 short insertions and deletions. Functional SNP analysis predicted that the individual has a pathogenic risk for carnitine deficiency. We located the patrilineal inheritance of the Mongolian genome to the lineage D3a through Y haplogroup analysis and inferred that the individual has a common patrilineal ancestor with Tibeto-Burman populations and is likely to be the progeny of the earliest settlers in East Asia. We finally investigated the genetic imprints of Mongolians on other human populations using different approaches. We found varying degrees of gene flows between Mongolians and populations living in Europe, South/Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. The analyses demonstrate that the genetic impacts of Mongolians likely resulted from the expansion of the Mongolian Empire in the 13th century. The genome will be of great help in further explorations of modern human evolution and genetic causes of diseases/traits specific to Mongolians. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. The interplay between human population dynamics and flooding in Bangladesh: a spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Baldassarre, G.; Yan, K.; Ferdous, MD. R.; Brandimarte, L.

    2014-09-01

    In Bangladesh, socio-economic and hydrological processes are both extremely dynamic and inter-related. Human population patterns are often explained as a response, or adaptation strategy, to physical events, e.g. flooding, salt-water intrusion, and erosion. Meanwhile, these physical processes are exacerbated, or mitigated, by diverse human interventions, e.g. river diversion, levees and polders. In this context, this paper describes an attempt to explore the complex interplay between floods and societies in Bangladeshi floodplains. In particular, we performed a spatially-distributed analysis of the interactions between the dynamics of human settlements and flood inundation patterns. To this end, we used flooding simulation results from inundation modelling, LISFLOOD-FP, as well as global datasets of population distribution data, such as the Gridded Population of the World (20 years, from 1990 to 2010) and HYDE datasets (310 years, from 1700 to 2010). The outcomes of this work highlight the behaviour of Bangladeshi floodplains as complex human-water systems and indicate the need to go beyond the traditional narratives based on one-way cause-effects, e.g. climate change leading to migrations.

  2. Common features of sexual dimorphism in the cranial airways of different human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; Godoy, Paula; Rosas, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial system is an important feature of intraspecific variation in recent and fossil humans. Although several studies have reported different morphological patterns of sexual dimorphism in different populations, this study searches for common morphological aspects related to functional anatomy of the respiratory apparatus. 3D geometric morphometrics were used to test the hypothesis that due to higher daily energy expenditure and associated greater respiratory air consumption as well as differences in body composition, males should have absolutely and relatively greater air passages in the bony cranial airways than females. We measured 25 3D landmarks in five populations (N = 212) of adult humans from different geographic regions. Male average cranial airways were larger in centroid sizes than female ones. Males tended to show relatively taller piriform apertures and, more consistently, relatively taller internal nasal cavities and choanae than females. Multivariate regressions and residual analysis further indicated that after standardizing to the same size, males still show relatively larger airway passages than females. Because the dimensions of the choanae are limiting factors for air transmission towards the noncranial part of the respiratory system, the identified sex-specific differences in cranial airways, possibly shared among human populations, may be linked with sex-specific differences in body size, composition, and energetics. These findings may be important to understanding trends in hominin facial evolution. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Human migration is important in the international spread of exotic Salmonella serovars in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Bradshaw, S D; How, R A; Smith, D W

    2014-11-01

    The exposure of indigenous humans and native fauna in Australia and the Wallacea zoogeographical region of Indonesia to exotic Salmonella serovars commenced during the colonial period and has accelerated with urbanization and international travel. In this study, the distribution and prevalence of exotic Salmonella serovars are mapped to assess the extent to which introduced infections are invading native wildlife in areas of high natural biodiversity under threat from expanding human activity. The major exotic Salmonella serovars, Bovismorbificans, Derby, Javiana, Newport, Panama, Saintpaul and Typhimurium, isolated from wildlife on populated coastal islands in southern temperate areas of Western Australia, were mostly absent from reptiles and native mammals in less populated tropical areas of the state. They were also not recorded on the uninhabited Mitchell Plateau or islands of the Bonaparte Archipelago, adjacent to south-eastern Indonesia. Exotic serovars were, however, isolated in wildlife on 14/17 islands sampled in the Wallacea region of Indonesia and several islands off the west coast of Perth. Increases in international tourism, involving islands such as Bali, have resulted in the isolation of a high proportion of exotic serovar infections suggesting that densely populated island resorts in the Asian region are acting as staging posts for the interchange of Salmonella infections between tropical and temperate regions.

  4. HOX and TALE signatures specify human stromal stem cell populations from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, Jacopo; Trombi, Luisa; Spugnesi, Laura; Barachini, Serena; Maroni, Giorgia; Brodano, Giovanni Barbanti; Boriani, Stefano; Valtieri, Mauro; Petrini, Mario; Magli, Maria Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Human stromal stem cell populations reside in different tissues and anatomical sites, however a critical question related to their efficient use in regenerative medicine is whether they exhibit equivalent biological properties. Here, we compared cellular and molecular characteristics of stromal stem cells derived from the bone marrow, at different body sites (iliac crest, sternum, and vertebrae) and other tissues (dental pulp and colon). In particular, we investigated whether homeobox genes of the HOX and TALE subfamilies might provide suitable markers to identify distinct stromal cell populations, as HOX proteins control cell positional identity and, together with their co-factors TALE, are involved in orchestrating differentiation of adult tissues. Our results show that stromal populations from different sources, although immunophenotypically similar, display distinct HOX and TALE signatures, as well as different growth and differentiation abilities. Stromal stem cells from different tissues are characterized by specific HOX profiles, differing in the number and type of active genes, as well as in their level of expression. Conversely, bone marrow-derived cell populations can be essentially distinguished for the expression levels of specific HOX members, strongly suggesting that quantitative differences in HOX activity may be crucial. Taken together, our data indicate that the HOX and TALE profiles provide positional, embryological and hierarchical identity of human stromal stem cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that cell populations derived from different body sites may not represent equivalent cell sources for cell-based therapeutical strategies for regeneration and repair of specific tissues. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Distribution of the 3' VNTR polymorphism in the human dopamine transporter gene in world populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R J; Howlett, S; Earl, L; White, N G; McComb, J; Schanfield, M S; Briceno, I; Papiha, S S; Osipova, L; Livshits, G; Leonard, W R; Crawford, M H

    2000-04-01

    A polymorphism with a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) found in the 3' untranslated region of the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) was scored in unrelated individuals drawn from 10 geographically widely dispersed populations in order to assess this marker's usefulness in human population genetics. The populations that were analyzed in this study included 4 indigenous groups of Siberia, natives of North and South America, as well as Caucasian and Oceanic groups, most of which represented small-scale societies. A total of 5 DAT1 alleles were seen overall, but only in one Siberian population, the Altai-Kizhi, were all 5 present, and in the Native Americans of Colombia the locus was monomorphic. The most common allele, DAT1*10, ranged in frequency from 52% in Greeks to 100% in South Americans. The high frequency of the DAT1*10 allele (approximately 90%) among Mongoloid groups of north and east Asia distinguishes them from most Caucasian groups. The presence of the rare DAT1*7 allele in relatively high frequency (approximately 5%) among all Siberian groups suggests a close affinity with north Asian groups, especially Mongolians. The presence of the even rarer DAT1*13 allele in one Siberian population, the Altai-Kizhi, reflects this group's long historical contact with Mongolians. The results demonstrated that the DAT1 VNTR polymorphism is useful in investigating population relationships, and that rare alleles at this locus may be particularly valuable in understanding the extent of genetic affinity between neighboring groups and in situations where admixture is suspected. However, because of both the association and linkage of this VNTR locus with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, and its highly restricted polymorphism (usually 3 alleles) in most human groups, the possibility of selection constraints on the DAT1 gene cannot be ignored.

  6. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-07

    Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19·1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127·0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125·7-128·3) in men and 122·3 mm Hg (121·0-123·6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78·7 mm Hg (77·9-79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9-77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4-27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8-22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast

  7. The variation field of the radiosensitivity in the human population: hypersensitivity and hypo sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffler, S.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally admitted in the radiotherapy practice that 5% of patients will present serious reactions of normal tissues. Studies made on human population confirm it exists variations of cell radiosensitivity and genetic factors contribute in a significant manner to the observed variations. The researches of markers able to predict the reactions of normal tissues to the therapy focussed on the identification of sensitive sub-group. It is however obvious that exists also a part of the population relatively hypo sensitive. It would be interesting to make studies on the genome to find genes associated to serious reactions of normal tissues to radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  8. Testing human sperm chemotaxis: how to detect biased motion in population assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Armon

    Full Text Available Biased motion of motile cells in a concentration gradient of a chemoattractant is frequently studied on the population level. This approach has been particularly employed in human sperm chemotactic assays, where the fraction of responsive cells is low and detection of biased motion depends on subtle differences. In these assays, statistical measures such as population odds ratios of swimming directions can be employed to infer chemotactic performance. Here, we report on an improved method to assess statistical significance of experimentally determined odds ratios and discuss the strong impact of data correlations that arise from the directional persistence of sperm swimming.

  9. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Induces Transcriptional Changes in Ex Vivo Human Corneas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Rosani

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP might be considered a novel tool for tissue disinfection in medicine since the active chemical species produced by low plasma doses, generated by ionizing helium gas in air, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS that kill microorganisms without substantially affecting human cells.In this study, we evaluated morphological and functional changes in human corneas exposed for 2 minutes (min to APCP and tested if the antioxidant n-acetyl l-cysteine (NAC was able to inhibit or prevent damage and cell death.Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses of corneal tissues collected at 6 hours (h post-APCP treatment demonstrated no morphological tissue changes, but a transient increased expression of OGG1 glycosylase that returned to control levels in 24 h. Transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real time PCR performed on different corneas revealed in the treated corneas many differentially expressed genes: namely, 256 and 304 genes showing expression changes greater than ± 2 folds in the absence and presence of NAC, respectively. At 6 h post-treatment, the most over-expressed gene categories suggested an active or enhanced cell functioning, with only a minority of genes specifically concerning oxidative DNA damage and repair showing slight over-expression values (<2 folds. Moreover, time-related expression analysis of eight genes up-regulated in the APCP-treated corneas overall demonstrated the return to control expression levels after 24 h.These findings of transient oxidative stress accompanied by wide-range transcriptome adjustments support the further development of APCP as an ocular disinfectant.

  10. Lactotripeptides Show No Effect on Human Blood Pressure: Results from a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.; Mierlo, van L.A.J.; Brouwer, I.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Milk-derived peptides with ACE-inhibiting properties may have antihypertensive effects in humans. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to examine the blood pressure lowering potential of 2 ACE-inhibiting lactotripeptides, ie, Isoleucine-Proline-Proline and

  11. Landscape requirements of a primate population in a human-dominated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Tali S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction As urban and rural land development become widespread features of the global landscape so an understanding of the landscape requirements of displaced and isolated wildlife species becomes increasingly important for conservation planning. In the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, rapid human population growth, and the associated urban and rural land transformation, threatens the sustainability of the local chacma baboon population. Here we analyse spatial data collected from nine of the 12 extant troops to determine their population-level landscape requirements. We use hurdle models to ascertain the key landscape features influencing baboon occurrence and abundance patterns on two hierarchical spatial scales. Results Both spatial scales produced similar results that were ecologically reliable and interpretable. The models indicated that baboons were more likely to occur, and be more abundant, at low altitudes, on steep slopes and in human-modified habitats. The combination of these landscape variables provides baboons with access to the best quality natural and anthropogenic food sources in close proximity to one another and suitable sleeping sites. Surface water did not emerge as an influential landscape feature presumably as the area is not water stressed. Conclusions The model results indicate that land development in the Cape Peninsula has pushed baboons into increasingly marginal natural habitat while simultaneously providing them with predictable and easily accessible food sources in human-modified habitats. The resultant spatial competition between humans and baboons explains the high levels of human-baboon conflict and further erosion of the remaining land fragments is predicted to exacerbate competition. This study demonstrates how the quantification of animal landscape requirements can provide a mechanism for identifying priority conservation areas at the human-wildlife interface.

  12. Inter-chromosomal variation in the pattern of human population genetic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baye Tesfaye M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emerging technologies now make it possible to genotype hundreds of thousands of genetic variations in individuals, across the genome. The study of loci at finer scales will facilitate the understanding of genetic variation at genomic and geographic levels. We examined global and chromosomal variations across HapMap populations using 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms to search for the most stratified genomic regions of human populations and linked these regions to ontological annotation and functional network analysis. To achieve this, we used five complementary statistical and genetic network procedures: principal component (PC, cluster, discriminant, fixation index (FST and network/pathway analyses. At the global level, the first two PC scores were sufficient to account for major population structure; however, chromosomal level analysis detected subtle forms of population structure within continental populations, and as many as 31 PCs were required to classify individuals into homogeneous groups. Using recommended population ancestry differentiation measures, a total of 126 regions of the genome were catalogued. Gene ontology and networks analyses revealed that these regions included the genes encoding oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2, hect domain and RLD 2 (HERC2, ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR and solute carrier family 45, member 2 (SLC45A2. These genes are associated with melanin production, which is involved in the development of skin and hair colour, skin cancer and eye pigmentation. We also identified the genes encoding interferon-γ (IFNG and death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1, which are associated with cell death, inflammatory and immunological diseases. An in-depth understanding of these genomic regions may help to explain variations in adaptation to different environments. Our approach offers a comprehensive strategy for analysing chromosome-based population structure and differentiation, and demonstrates the

  13. Effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.

    1979-01-01

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, the fauna of land nocturnal insects, and the karyotypes of amphibian species which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. ''Kilchunri'' population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2km distance from power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of X-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna of nocturnal land insects were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows; Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana migromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, and Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  14. Circadian analysis of large human populations: inferences from the power grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowie, Adam C; Amicarelli, Mario J; Crosier, Caitlin J; Mymko, Ryan; Glass, J David

    2015-03-01

    Few, if any studies have focused on the daily rhythmic nature of modern industrialized populations. The present study utilized real-time load data from the U.S. Pacific Northwest electrical power grid as a reflection of human operative household activity. This approach involved actigraphic analyses of continuously streaming internet data (provided in 5 min bins) from a human subject pool of approximately 43 million primarily residential users. Rhythm analyses reveal striking seasonal and intra-week differences in human activity patterns, largely devoid of manufacturing and automated load interference. Length of the diurnal activity period (alpha) is longer during the spring than the summer (16.64 h versus 15.98 h, respectively; p job-related or other weekday morning arousal cues, substantiating a preference or need to sleep longer on weekends. Finally, a shift in onset time can be seen during the transition to Day Light Saving Time, but not the transition back to Standard Time. The use of grid power load as a means for human actimetry assessment thus offers new insights into the collective diurnal activity patterns of large human populations.

  15. Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Kurisaki, Ikuo; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2014-04-08

    Protein allostery is essential for vital activities. Allosteric regulation of human hemoglobin (HbA) with two quaternary states T and R has been a paradigm of allosteric structural regulation of proteins. It is widely accepted that oxygen molecules (O2) act as a "site-specific" homotropic effector, or the successive O2 binding to the heme brings about the quaternary regulation. However, here we show that the site-specific allosteric effect is not necessarily only a unique mechanism of O2 allostery. Our simulation results revealed that the solution environment of high O2 partial pressure enhances the quaternary change from T to R without binding to the heme, suggesting an additional "non-site-specific" allosteric effect of O2. The latter effect should play a complementary role in the quaternary change by affecting the intersubunit contacts. This analysis must become a milestone in comprehensive understanding of the allosteric regulation of HbA from the molecular point of view.

  16. Impact of chemical peeling combined with negative pressure on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Kang, I J; Shin, M K; Jeong, K H; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Lee, S J

    2016-10-01

    In vivo changes in skin barrier function after chemical peeling with alpha hydroxyacids (AHAs) have been previously reported. However, the additional effects of physical treatment with chemical agents on skin barrier function have not been adequately studied. This study measured the degree of acute skin damage and the time required for skin barrier repair using non-invasive bioengineering methods in vivo with human skin to investigate the additional effect of a 4% AHA chemical jet accelerated at supersonic velocities. Thirteen female subjects (average age: 29.54 ± 4.86 years) participated in this study. The faces of the subjects were divided into half according to the block randomization design and were then assigned to receive AHA peeling alone or AHA peeling combined with pneumatic pressure on each side of the face. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin colour and skin blood flow were evaluated at baseline and at 30 min, 2, 5 and 7 days after treatment. The TEWL and skin blood flow were significantly increased after 30 min in chemodermabrasion compared with chemical peeling alone (P peeling alone (P < 0.05). Chemodermabrasion can temporarily impair skin barriers, but it is estimated that it can enhance the skin barrier function after 7 days compared to the use of a chemical agent alone. In addition, chemodermabrasion has a more effective impact in the dermis and relatively preserves the skin barrier. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. The Relationship between Hardness of Drinking Water with High Blood Pressure Over 30 Years in Rural Population of Divandarreh City in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zahraei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available drinking water and the reduction in the risk of blood pressure (P value<0.05. Also, the results showed that the degree of correlation (R between the two variables for drinking water hardness levels and the percentage of high blood pressure in men was (-0.496 and in women was (-0.512 and in the total population over 30 years was (-0.61. Conclusion: Use of  water with medium to high degree of  hardness can reduce the risk of high blood pressure and consequently the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Coral reef degradation is not correlated with local human population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F.; Valdivia, Abel

    2016-07-01

    The global decline of reef-building corals is understood to be due to a combination of local and global stressors. However, many reef scientists assume that local factors predominate and that isolated reefs, far from human activities, are generally healthier and more resilient. Here we show that coral reef degradation is not correlated with human population density. This suggests that local factors such as fishing and pollution are having minimal effects or that their impacts are masked by global drivers such as ocean warming. Our results also suggest that the effects of local and global stressors are antagonistic, rather than synergistic as widely assumed. These findings indicate that local management alone cannot restore coral populations or increase the resilience of reefs to large-scale impacts. They also highlight the truly global reach of anthropogenic warming and the immediate need for drastic and sustained cuts in carbon emissions.

  19. Biodiversity, Extinction, and Humanity’s Future: The Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Human Population and Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Hindmarsh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human actions have altered global environments and reduced biodiversity by causing extinctions and reducing the population sizes of surviving species. Increasing human population size and per capita resource use will continue to have direct and indirect ecological and evolutionary consequences. As a result, future generations will inhabit a planet with significantly less wildlife, reduced evolutionary potential, diminished ecosystem services, and an increased likelihood of contracting infectious disease. The magnitude of these effects will depend on the rate at which global human population and/or per capita resource use decline to sustainable levels and the degree to which population reductions result from increased death rates rather than decreased birth rates.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, M Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; André, François-Xavier; Denis, Olivier; Coenye, Tom; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-07-09

    While Staphylococcus epidermidis, as part of the commensal flora, is a well-known human opportunistic pathogen, only little is known about the genetic relatedness of S. epidermidis carriage isolates from animal and human origin. This study aimed to compare S. epidermidis recovered from livestock, livestock-farmers and humans associated with the hospital environment. A total of 193 S. epidermidis isolates from three populations [animals (n=33), farmers (n=86) and hospital-associated (n=74)] were characterized by broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The overall S. epidermidis nasal colonization rate was low in animals (1-9%) but high among farmers (75%). High levels of multi-resistance were found in all populations. Tetracycline resistance was high in animal and farmer isolates; resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim was high in animal and hospital-associated isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis - MRSE isolates were found in all collections, with 22 (67%) MRSE in animals, 44 (51%) MRSE in farmers and 42 (57%) MRSE associated with the hospital-setting. Known SCCmec types and variants were detected in 79% of MRSE; the rest were non-typeable cassettes. In total 79 PFGE-types were found, of which 22 were shared between livestock, farmers and the hospital settings. Clonal complex 2 was predominant in all three populations and most STs corresponded to types previously observed in community and nosocomial S. epidermidis populations. S. epidermidis isolates from livestock, farmers and hospital-setting showed a high level of diversity, but some clones can be found in humans as well as in animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-wide and paternal diversity reveal a recent origin of human populations in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Haber, Marc, 1980-; Martínez Cruz, Begoña; Zalloua, Pierre A; Elgaaied, Amel Benammar; Comas, David, 1969-

    2013-01-01

    The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete descr...

  2. Genetic radiation effects and natural radioactivity of human population in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1972-01-01

    A study on areas of natural radioactivity is done, covering the genetic effects on human population. The study is done in depth dealing with aspecto such as radioactive area involved, discussion of materials and methods, errors and fallacies, influential factors, models, buildup and natural radioactivity, hypotheses, results and perspectives, etc. It covers 24 localites, 8.572 couples and 43.930 pregnancy cases [pt

  3. Human population and atmospheric carbon dioxide growth dynamics: Diagnostics for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsler, A. D.; Sornette, D.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze the growth rates of human population and of atmospheric carbon dioxide by comparing the relative merits of two benchmark models, the exponential law and the finite-time-singular (FTS) power law. The later results from positive feedbacks, either direct or mediated by other dynamical variables, as shown in our presentation of a simple endogenous macroeconomic dynamical growth model describing the growth dynamics of coupled processes involving human population (labor in economic terms), capital and technology (proxies by CO2 emissions). Human population in the context of our energy intensive economies constitutes arguably the most important underlying driving variable of the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Using some of the best databases available, we perform empirical analyses confirming that the human population on Earth has been growing super-exponentially until the mid-1960s, followed by a decelerated sub-exponential growth, with a tendency to plateau at just an exponential growth in the last decade with an average growth rate of 1.0% per year. In contrast, we find that the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has continued to accelerate super-exponentially until 1990, with a transition to a progressive deceleration since then, with an average growth rate of approximately 2% per year in the last decade. To go back to CO2 atmosphere contents equal to or smaller than the level of 1990 as has been the broadly advertised goals of international treaties since 1990 requires herculean changes: from a dynamical point of view, the approximately exponential growth must not only turn to negative acceleration but also negative velocity to reverse the trend.

  4. A Quantitative Comparison of the Similarity between Genes and Geography in Worldwide Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure. PMID:22927824

  5. A quantitative comparison of the similarity between genes and geography in worldwide human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2012-08-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure.

  6. Remote sensing applications in African agriculture and natural resources: Highlighting and managing the stress of increasing population pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah-Arthur, Abigail; Balstad Miller, Roberta

    Given current population trends and projections in sub-Saharan Africa, it is anticipated that substantial intensification of agricultural cropland is certain within the next decades. In the absence of adoption of improved technologies poor rural populations in this region will continue to degrade and mine the natural resources to ensure their survival. All these actions will have far-reaching implications for environmental quality and human health. However, only through the integration of environment and development concerns with greater attention to these link can we achieve the goal of fulfilling the basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed eco-systems and a safer, more prosperous future. The paper reviews case studies and provides examples of the integration, analysis, and visualization of information from remotely sensed, biophysical and socioeconomic information to assess the present situation hindering agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies show the interactions between socio-economic and environmental factors that can help governments and policy-makers assess the scope of the problems, examine alternatives and decide on a course of action. Sound decisions depend on accurate information, yet most African countries face severe competing demands for the financial and human commitments necessary to staff an information system equal to its policy-making requirements. The role of international data centers is reviewed in terms of their abilities to develop and maintain information systems that bring together available accumulated knowledge and data. This permits comparative studies, which make it possible to develop a better understanding of the relationships among demographic dynamics, technology, cultural behavioral norms, and land resources and hence better decision making for sustainable development.

  7. Identification of the UBP1 locus as a critical blood pressure determinant using a combination of mouse and human genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutnikova, Hana; Laakso, Markku; Lu, Lu

    2009-01-01

    complementarities of mouse and human genetic approaches, identifies the UBP1 locus as a critical blood pressure determinant. UBP1 plays a role in cholesterol and steroid metabolism via the transcriptional activation of CYP11A, the rate-limiting enzyme in pregnenolone and aldosterone biosynthesis. We suggest......Hypertension is a major health problem of largely unknown genetic origins. To identify new genes responsible for hypertension, genetic analysis of recombinant inbred strains of mice followed by human association studies might prove powerful and was exploited in our current study. Using a set of 27...... recombinant BXD strains of mice we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure (BP) on distal chromosome 9. The association analysis of markers encompassing the syntenic region on human chromosome 3 gave in an additive genetic model the strongest association for rs17030583 C/T and rs2291897...

  8. Population crises and population cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  9. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Peter K; Esko, Tonu; Mattsson, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been....... confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance...

  10. Discovery of rare, diagnostic AluYb8/9 elements in diverse human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feusier, Julie; Witherspoon, David J; Scott Watkins, W; Goubert, Clément; Sasani, Thomas A; Jorde, Lynn B

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic human Alu elements are excellent tools for assessing population structure, and new retrotransposition events can contribute to disease. Next-generation sequencing has greatly increased the potential to discover Alu elements in human populations, and various sequencing and bioinformatics methods have been designed to tackle the problem of detecting these highly repetitive elements. However, current techniques for Alu discovery may miss rare, polymorphic Alu elements. Combining multiple discovery approaches may provide a better profile of the polymorphic Alu mobilome. Alu Yb8/9 elements have been a focus of our recent studies as they are young subfamilies (~2.3 million years old) that contribute ~30% of recent polymorphic Alu retrotransposition events. Here, we update our ME-Scan methods for detecting Alu elements and apply these methods to discover new insertions in a large set of individuals with diverse ancestral backgrounds. We identified 5,288 putative Alu insertion events, including several hundred novel Alu Yb8/9 elements from 213 individuals from 18 diverse human populations. Hundreds of these loci were specific to continental populations, and 23 non-reference population-specific loci were validated by PCR. We provide high-quality sequence information for 68 rare Alu Yb8/9 elements, of which 11 have hallmarks of an active source element. Our subfamily distribution of rare Alu Yb8/9 elements is consistent with previous datasets, and may be representative of rare loci. We also find that while ME-Scan and low-coverage, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) detect different Alu elements in 41 1000 Genomes individuals, the two methods yield similar population structure results. Current in-silico methods for Alu discovery may miss rare, polymorphic Alu elements. Therefore, using multiple techniques can provide a more accurate profile of Alu elements in individuals and populations. We improved our false-negative rate as an indicator of sample quality for future

  11. Human population growth offsets climate-driven increase in woody vegetation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody...... an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km2), mostly in humid zones. Increases in woody cover were associated with low population growth, and were driven by increases in CO2 in the humid zones and by increases in precipitation in drylands, whereas decreases in woody...... cover were associated with high population growth. The spatially distinct pattern of these opposing trends reflects, first, the natural response of vegetation to precipitation and atmospheric CO2, and second, deforestation in humid areas, minor in size but important for ecosystem services...

  12. [The awareness and attitude of population of Kazakhstan to inoculation against human papilloma virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasritdinova, N Yu; Reznik, V L; Kuatbaieva, A M; Kairbaiev, M R

    2016-01-01

    The vaccines against human papilloma virus are a potential tool for prevention of cervix cancer and particular other types of cancer. The high inclusion of target group in applied vaccination program is economically effective and successful activity depending in many instances on reliable knowledge and positive attitude of population to inoculation. The cross-sectional study was carried out using previously developed anonymous questionnaires for various groups of population in four pilot regions of Kazakhstan where national ministry of health proposes for inoculation of girls aged 9-13 years two vaccines against human papilloma virus (four- and two-valence) The data base was organized using software Microsoft Access. The materials were integrated and processed using variation statistics techniques in software IBM SPSS Statistics 19 and applying Student criterion and calculating correlation dependences. Out of all respondents, 66% were aware about existence of human papilloma virus/ the main portion of parents 'female adolescents learned about vaccination against human papilloma virus from Internet and medical workers. The most significant factor preventing implementation of vaccination and the proper perception by respondents was absence of confidence in safety of vaccine. About 54% of parents of female adolescents and 75% of teachers consider vaccine as unsafe. And only 72% of medical workers consider vaccine as safe. Despite known effectiveness of vaccination against human papilloma virus, number of problems exist related to implementation of program. The level of awareness and understanding of different groups of population concerning the role of vaccination in development of oncologic pathology and possibility of prevention of cancer at the expense of vaccination. The intersectoral relationships are to be developed between medicine and education system. The significance of information activities of medical control organs and organizations is to be enhanced.

  13. Demography and dog-human relationships of the dog population in Zimbabwean communal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R; Bingham, J

    2000-10-14

    Dogs are Zimbabwe's primary vector for rabies, and the majority live in communal lands (traditional agropastoralist rural areas). In 1994, a household questionnaire survey was conducted to provide baseline data on the demography and dog-human relationships of the dogs in the communal lands. The survey showed that all the dogs were owned, and there was no evidence of a feral population. They were unrestricted and semi-dependent on people. The numbers of dogs per capita varied little in each communal land, resulting in higher dog densities in communal lands with higher human densities, and indicating that people were not intolerant of dogs at higher densities. The population turnover was rapid: the life expectancy of the dogs was 1.1 years, the mean age 2.0 years, and 71.8 per cent died in their first year. The population was heavily skewed towards juveniles, with 40.8 per cent aged less than 12 months. Despite the high juvenile mortality, the population was growing by 6.52 per cent per annum. It was estimated that in 1994 there were 1.36 million dogs in communal lands.

  14. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-03-01

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world’s largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990-2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005-2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales.

  15. Genome-wide detection and characterization of positive selection in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Pardis C; Varilly, Patrick; Fry, Ben; Lohmueller, Jason; Hostetter, Elizabeth; Cotsapas, Chris; Xie, Xiaohui; Byrne, Elizabeth H; McCarroll, Steven A; Gaudet, Rachelle; Schaffner, Stephen F; Lander, Eric S; Frazer, Kelly A; Ballinger, Dennis G; Cox, David R; Hinds, David A; Stuve, Laura L; Gibbs, Richard A; Belmont, John W; Boudreau, Andrew; Hardenbol, Paul; Leal, Suzanne M; Pasternak, Shiran; Wheeler, David A; Willis, Thomas D; Yu, Fuli; Yang, Huanming; Zeng, Changqing; Gao, Yang; Hu, Haoran; Hu, Weitao; Li, Chaohua; Lin, Wei; Liu, Siqi; Pan, Hao; Tang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Qingrun; Zhao, Hongbin; Zhao, Hui; Zhou, Jun; Gabriel, Stacey B; Barry, Rachel; Blumenstiel, Brendan; Camargo, Amy; Defelice, Matthew; Faggart, Maura; Goyette, Mary; Gupta, Supriya; Moore, Jamie; Nguyen, Huy; Onofrio, Robert C; Parkin, Melissa; Roy, Jessica; Stahl, Erich; Winchester, Ellen; Ziaugra, Liuda; Altshuler, David; Shen, Yan; Yao, Zhijian; Huang, Wei; Chu, Xun; He, Yungang; Jin, Li; Liu, Yangfan; Shen, Yayun; Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Yi; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Xiaoyan; Xu, Liang; Waye, Mary M Y; Tsui, Stephen K W; Xue, Hong; Wong, J Tze-Fei; Galver, Luana M; Fan, Jian-Bing; Gunderson, Kevin; Murray, Sarah S; Oliphant, Arnold R; Chee, Mark S; Montpetit, Alexandre; Chagnon, Fanny; Ferretti, Vincent; Leboeuf, Martin; Olivier, Jean-François; Phillips, Michael S; Roumy, Stéphanie; Sallée, Clémentine; Verner, Andrei; Hudson, Thomas J; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Cai, Dongmei; Koboldt, Daniel C; Miller, Raymond D; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Taillon-Miller, Patricia; Xiao, Ming; Tsui, Lap-Chee; Mak, William; Song, You Qiang; Tam, Paul K H; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kitamoto, Takuya; Morizono, Takashi; Nagashima, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Yozo; Sekine, Akihiro; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Deloukas, Panos; Bird, Christine P; Delgado, Marcos; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hunt, Sarah; Morrison, Jonathan; Powell, Don; Stranger, Barbara E; Whittaker, Pamela; Bentley, David R; Daly, Mark J; de Bakker, Paul I W; Barrett, Jeff; Chretien, Yves R; Maller, Julian; McCarroll, Steve; Patterson, Nick; Pe'er, Itsik; Price, Alkes; Purcell, Shaun; Richter, Daniel J; Sabeti, Pardis; Saxena, Richa; Schaffner, Stephen F; Sham, Pak C; Varilly, Patrick; Altshuler, David; Stein, Lincoln D; Krishnan, Lalitha; Smith, Albert Vernon; Tello-Ruiz, Marcela K; Thorisson, Gudmundur A; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chen, Peter E; Cutler, David J; Kashuk, Carl S; Lin, Shin; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Guan, Weihua; Li, Yun; Munro, Heather M; Qin, Zhaohui Steve; Thomas, Daryl J; McVean, Gilean; Auton, Adam; Bottolo, Leonardo; Cardin, Niall; Eyheramendy, Susana; Freeman, Colin; Marchini, Jonathan; Myers, Simon; Spencer, Chris; Stephens, Matthew; Donnelly, Peter; Cardon, Lon R; Clarke, Geraldine; Evans, David M; Morris, Andrew P; Weir, Bruce S; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Johnson, Todd A; Mullikin, James C; Sherry, Stephen T; Feolo, Michael; Skol, Andrew; Zhang, Houcan; Zeng, Changqing; Zhao, Hui; Matsuda, Ichiro; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Macer, Darryl R; Suda, Eiko; Rotimi, Charles N; Adebamowo, Clement A; Ajayi, Ike; Aniagwu, Toyin; Marshall, Patricia A; Nkwodimmah, Chibuzor; Royal, Charmaine D M; Leppert, Mark F; Dixon, Missy; Peiffer, Andy; Qiu, Renzong; Kent, Alastair; Kato, Kazuto; Niikawa, Norio; Adewole, Isaac F; Knoppers, Bartha M; Foster, Morris W; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Watkin, Jessica; Gibbs, Richard A; Belmont, John W; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Wheeler, David A; Yakub, Imtaz; Gabriel, Stacey B; Onofrio, Robert C; Richter, Daniel J; Ziaugra, Liuda; Birren, Bruce W; Daly, Mark J; Altshuler, David; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Lucinda L; Rogers, Jane; Burton, John; Carter, Nigel P; Clee, Christopher M; Griffiths, Mark; Jones, Matthew C; McLay, Kirsten; Plumb, Robert W; Ross, Mark T; Sims, Sarah K; Willey, David L; Chen, Zhu; Han, Hua; Kang, Le; Godbout, Martin; Wallenburg, John C; L'Archevêque, Paul; Bellemare, Guy; Saeki, Koji; Wang, Hongguang; An, Daochang; Fu, Hongbo; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Renwu; Holden, Arthur L; Brooks, Lisa D; McEwen, Jean E; Guyer, Mark S; Wang, Vivian Ota; Peterson, Jane L; Shi, Michael; Spiegel, Jack; Sung, Lawrence M; Zacharia, Lynn F; Collins, Francis S; Kennedy, Karen; Jamieson, Ruth; Stewart, John

    2007-10-18

    With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a population that have undergone recent selection, and we also developed new methods that are based on cross-population comparisons to discover alleles that have swept to near-fixation within a population. The analysis reveals more than 300 strong candidate regions. Focusing on the strongest 22 regions, we develop a heuristic for scrutinizing these regions to identify candidate targets of selection. In a complementary analysis, we identify 26 non-synonymous, coding, single nucleotide polymorphisms showing regional evidence of positive selection. Examination of these candidates highlights three cases in which two genes in a common biological process have apparently undergone positive selection in the same population:LARGE and DMD, both related to infection by the Lassa virus, in West Africa;SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, both involved in skin pigmentation, in Europe; and EDAR and EDA2R, both involved in development of hair follicles, in Asia.

  16. Quantifying the demographic cost of human-related mortality to a raptor population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, W. Grainger; Wiens, David; Law, Peter R.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, Teresa L.; Driscoll, Daniel E.; Jackman, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to a wide variety of human-related mortality agents, and yet population-level effects are rarely quantified. Doing so requires modeling vital rates in the context of species life-history, behavior, and population dynamics theory. In this paper, we explore the details of such an analysis by focusing on the demography of a resident, tree-nesting population of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of an extensive (142 km2) windfarm in California. During 1994–2000, we tracked the fates of >250 radio-marked individuals of four life-stages and conducted five annual surveys of territory occupancy and reproduction. Collisions with wind turbines accounted for 41% of 88 uncensored fatalities, most of which were subadults and nonbreeding adults (floaters). A consistent overall male preponderance in the population meant that females were the limiting sex in this territorial, monogamous species. Estimates of potential population growth rate and associated variance indicated a stable breeding population, but one for which any further decrease in vital rates would require immigrant floaters to fill territory vacancies. Occupancy surveys 5 and 13 years later (2005 and 2013) showed that the nesting population remained intact, and no upward trend was apparent in the proportion of subadult eagles as pair members, a condition that would have suggested a deficit of adult replacements. However, the number of golden eagle pairs required to support windfarm mortality was large. We estimated that the entire annual reproductive output of 216–255 breeding pairs would have been necessary to support published estimates of 55–65 turbine blade-strike fatalities per year. Although the vital rates forming the basis for these calculations may have changed since the data were collected, our approach should be useful for gaining a clearer understanding of how anthropogenic mortality affects the health of raptor populations, particularly those species with delayed

  17. The Philippine Parliamentarians Conference on Human Survival, Population and Development. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Proceedings of the 1st Philippine Parliamentarians' Conference on Human Survival, Population and Development (PARLCON '88) are summarized in this report. Conference participants included the House and Senate, government officials, representatives of nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, the diplomatic corps and the media. A message from the President was read, referring the "silent emergency" of malnutrition and infant mortality of over 100,000 yearly. The events taking place were a statement of objectives, a Senate Resolution welcoming the convening of the conference, an opening ceremony, a posthumous award to R. M. Sales, executive director of the UNFPA, and a final a plan of action. Much of the content of the above events was duplicated in the final plan, which was formulated in 17 points. Some of these key points were: recognition of the need for quality of life, the detrimental effect of rapid population growth on development, the right of spouses to plan family size within their ethical beliefs, and the need for political will to address development concerns. The conference recommended that parliament and local governments strive for a consensus on national policy regarding population; ensure that economic gains are not decimated by population growth, protect the environment, develop social and industrial infrastructure in outlying areas, pursue national self-reliance, promote the human right of choosing desired family size, endorse the small family norm, empower women by educational and income generating opportunities, gather national data on population, strengthen the Population Commission, support nongovernmental agencies that provide family planning services, and promote education on family planning.

  18. Hydrostatic pressure and muscarinic receptors are involved in the release of inflammatory cytokines in human bladder smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhou; Xin, Wei; Qiang, Liu; Xiang, Cai; Bang-Hua, Liao; Jin, Yang; De-Yi, Luo; Hong, Li; Kun-Jie, Wang

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal intravesical pressure results in a series of pathological changes. We investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure and muscarinic receptors on the release of inflammatory cytokines in rat and human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). Animal model of bladder outlet obstruction was induced by urethra ligation. HBSMCs were subjected to elevated hydrostatic pressure and/or acetylcholine (Ach). Macrophage infiltration in the bladder wall was determined by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of inflammatory genes was measured by RT-PCR, ELISA and immunofluorescence. In obstructed bladder, inflammatory genes and macrophage infiltration were remarkably induced. When HBSMCs were subjected to 200-300 cm H 2 O pressure for 2-24 h in vitro, the expressions of IL-6 and RANTES were significantly increased. Hydrostatic pressure promoted the protein levels of phospho-NFκB p65 and phospho-ERK1/2 as well as muscarinic receptors. Moreover, NFκB or ERK1/2 inhibitors suppressed pressure-induced inflammatory genes mRNA. When cells were treated with 1 μM acetylcholine for 6 h, a significant increase in IL-6 mRNA expression was detected. Acetylcholine also enhanced pressure-induced phospho-NFκB p65 and IL-6 protein expression. Additionally, pressure-induced IL-6 was partially suppressed by muscarinic receptors antagonists. Hydrostatic pressure and muscarinic receptors were involved in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in HBSMCs, indicating a pro-inflammatory effect of the two factors in the pathological process of BOO. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Characteristics Associated With Antihypertensive Treatment and Blood Pressure Control: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Loayza, J Alfredo; Benziger, Catherine Pastorius; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Over one-quarter of the world's adult population has hypertension, yet achieving adequate treatment or control targets remains a challenge. This study sought to identify, longitudinally, characteristics associated with antihypertensive treatment and blood pressure (BP) control among individuals with hypertension. Data from individuals enrolled in the population-based CRONICAS Cohort Study (adults ≥35 years, living in 4 different rural/urban and coastal/high-altitude Peruvian settings) with hypertension at baseline were used. Antihypertensive treatment and BP control were assessed at baseline and at 15 months. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of factors associated with antihypertensive treatment and BP control at follow-up. At baseline, among 717 individuals with hypertension (53% women, mean age 61.5 ± 12.4 years), 28% were unaware of their hypertension status, 30% were aware but untreated, 16% were treated but uncontrolled, and 26% were treated and controlled. At follow-up, 89% of unaware and 82% of untreated individuals persisted untreated, and only 58% of controlled individuals remained controlled. Positive predictors of receiving treatment and being controlled at follow-up included age (RRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91 for every 5 years) and family history of a chronic disease (RRR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.92 vs. no history); whereas Puno rural site (RRR: 16.51; 95% CI: 1.90 to 143.56 vs. Lima) and male sex (RRR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.54 to 4.36) were risk factors. Systolic BP at baseline (RRR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.39 for every 5 mm Hg) and male sex (RRR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.98) were risk factors for being treated but uncontrolled at follow-up. Large gaps in treatment of hypertension were observed. Targeting specific populations such as men, younger individuals, or those without family history of disease may increase coverage of antihypertensive treatment. Also, targeting

  20. Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaria Caroline W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. Methods First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Results Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed

  1. Insights into Ancient Human Populations and their Environment through Stable Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artifacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information concerning incidence of disease, population interactions, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopes have long been used to interpret diet and trophic interactions in modern ecosystems. We suggest that the isotope compositions of a commonly overlooked material, human hair, is an ideal tool to be used in gleaning information, especially on human diets, about ancient civilizations. Hair can be well-preserved and is amenable to routine measurements of 13C, 15N and 34S isotope analyses and distinguishing sources of nutrition. We have isotopically characterized hair from both modern and ancient individuals. There is a wide diversity in isotope values owing, at least partially, to the levels of seafood, corn-fed animals and other grains in diet. Using these isotope tracers, new information regarding historical figures (George Washington, 1799 AD) to perhaps the most ancient of mummies, the Chinchorro of Chile (more than 7000 BP) as well as the Moche of Peru (1500 BP) and the best preserved mummy, the Neolithic Ice Man of the Oetztaler Alps (5200 BP), have been deciphered. It appears that the often-overlooked hair in archaeological sites represents a significant approach for understanding ancient human communities and their environments, as well as new perspectives on our use of our own modern nutritional sources.

  2. Derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu; Huimin Dai; Lei Qian; Qing Tian; Lei Xiao; Xiaojun Tan; Hui Li; Lingjun Rao; Lixiazi He; Lei Bao; Jing Liao; Chun Cui; Zhenyu Zuo; Qiao Li

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all cell types in the human body. Therefore, they are valuable in regenerative medicine, human developmental biology and drug discovery. A number of hESC lines have been derived from the Chinese population,but limited of them are available for research purposes. Here we report the derivation and characterization of two hESC lines derived from human blastocysts of Chinese origin. These hESCs express alkaline phosphatase and hESC-specific markers, including Oct4, Nanog, SSEA-3, SSEA-4,TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. They also have high levels of telomerase activity and normal karyotypes. These cells can form embryoid body in vitro and can be differentiated into all three germ layers in vivo by teratoma formation. The newly established hESCs will be distributed for research purposes.The availability of hESC lines from the Chinese population will facilitate studies on the differences in hESCs from different ethnic groups.

  3. Variations in alveolar partial pressure for carbon dioxide and oxygen have additive not synergistic acute effects on human pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Quentin P P; Formenti, Federico; Talbot, Nick P; Lunn, Daniel; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood vessels independently of each other or whether they act synergistically, such that the combination of hypercapnia and hypoxia is more effective than the sum of the responses to each stimulus on its own. We independently controlled the alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco 2) and oxygen (Pao 2) to examine their possible interaction on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. Nine volunteers each experienced sixteen possible combinations of four levels of Paco 2 (+6, +1, -4 and -9 mmHg, relative to baseline) with four levels of Pao 2 (175, 100, 75 and 50 mmHg). During each of these sixteen protocols Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac output and systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, an index of pulmonary vasoconstriction. The degree of constriction varied linearly with both Paco 2 and the calculated haemoglobin oxygen desaturation (1-So2). Mixed effects modelling delivered coefficients defining the interdependence of cardiac output, systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, ventilation, Paco 2 and So2. No interaction was observed in the effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction of carbon dioxide and oxygen (p>0.64). Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output.

  4. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice, to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in

  5. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the characteristics of human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepiana, Jenifer; Meijide, Susana; Navarro, Rosaura; Hernández, M Luisa; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2017-08-01

    Most of the in vitro studies using liver cell lines have been performed under atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (21% O 2 ). However, the oxygen concentrations in the liver and cancer cells are far from this value. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of oxygen on 1) the tumor cell lines features (growth, steady-state ROS levels, GSH content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, p66 Shc and SOD expressions, metalloproteinases secretion, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, and b) the response of the cells to an oxidant stimulus (aqueous leaf extract of the V. baccifera plant species). For this purpose, three hepatocarcinoma cell lines with different p53 status, HepG2 (wild-type), Huh7 (mutated), and Hep3B (deleted), were cultured (6-30 days) under atmospheric (21%) and more physiological (8%) pO 2 . Results showed that after long-term culturing at 8% versus 21% O 2 , the cellular proliferation rate and the steady-state levels of mitochondrial O 2 - were unaffected. However, the intracellular basal ROS levels were higher independently of the characteristics of the cell line. Moreover, the lower pO 2 was associated with lower glutathione content, the induction of p66 Shc and Mn-SOD proteins, and increased SOD activity only in HepG2. This cell line also showed a higher migration rate, secretion of active metalloproteinases, and a faster invasion. HepG2 cells were more resistant to the oxidative stress induced by V. baccifera. Results suggest that the long-term culturing of human hepatoma cells at a low, more physiological pO 2 induces antioxidant adaptations that could be mediated by p53, and may alter the cellular response to a subsequent oxidant challenge. Data support the necessity of validating outcomes from studies performed with hepatoma cell cultures under ambient O 2 . Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Human norovirus surrogate reduction in milk and juice blends by high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horm, Katie Marie; Harte, Federico Miguel; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2012-11-01

    Novel processing technologies such as high pressure homogenization (HPH) for the inactivation of foodborne viruses in fluids that retain nutritional attributes are in high demand. The objectives of this research were (i) to determine the effects of HPH alone or with an emulsifier (lecithin) on human norovirus surrogates-murine norovirus (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV-F9)-in skim milk and orange juice, and (ii) to determine HPH effects on FCV-F9 and MNV-1 in orange and pomegranate juice blends. Experiments were conducted in duplicate at 0, 100, 200, 250, and 300 MPa for PFU/ml at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively, and ≥4- and ∼1-log PFU/ml reductions were obtained in orange juice at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. In orange juice or milk combined with lecithin, FCV-F9 was reduced to nondetectable levels at 300 MPa, and by 1.77 and 0.78 log PFU/ml at 250 MPa. MNV-1 in milk was reduced by ∼1.3 log PFU/ml only at 300 MPa, and by ∼0.8 and ∼0.4 log PFU/ml in orange juice at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. MNV-1 in milk or orange juice containing lecithin at 300 MPa showed 1.32- and 2.5-log PFU/ml reductions, respectively. In the pomegranate-orange juice blend, FCV-F9 was completely reduced, and MNV-1 was reduced by 1.04 and 1.78 log PFU/ml at 250 and 300 MPa, respectively. These results show that HPH has potential for commercial use to inactivate foodborne virus surrogates in juices.

  7. Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Aude; Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra El; Matejuk, Agata; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen supply and diffusion into tissues are necessary for survival. The oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which is a key component of the physiological state of an organ, results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. In mammals, oxygen is transported by red blood cells circulating in a well-organized vasculature. Oxygen delivery is dependent on the metabolic requirements and functional status of each organ. Consequently, in a physiological condition, organ and tissue are characterized by their own unique ‘tissue normoxia’ or ‘physioxia’ status. Tissue oxygenation is severely disturbed during pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, etc., which are associated with decrease in pO2, i.e. ‘hypoxia’. In this review, we present an array of methods currently used for assessing tissue oxygenation. We show that hypoxia is marked during tumour development and has strong consequences for oxygenation and its influence upon chemotherapy efficiency. Then we compare this to physiological pO2 values of human organs. Finally we evaluate consequences of physioxia on cell activity and its molecular modulations. More importantly we emphasize the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro tissue and cells oxygen status which can have detrimental effects on experimental outcome. It appears that the values corresponding to the physioxia are ranging between 11% and 1% O2 whereas current in vitro experimentations are usually performed in 19.95% O2, an artificial context as far as oxygen balance is concerned. It is important to realize that most of the experiments performed in so-called normoxia might be dangerously misleading. PMID:21251211

  8. Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Aude; El Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra; Matejuk, Agata; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-06-01

    Oxygen supply and diffusion into tissues are necessary for survival. The oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), which is a key component of the physiological state of an organ, results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. In mammals, oxygen is transported by red blood cells circulating in a well-organized vasculature. Oxygen delivery is dependent on the metabolic requirements and functional status of each organ. Consequently, in a physiological condition, organ and tissue are characterized by their own unique 'tissue normoxia' or 'physioxia' status. Tissue oxygenation is severely disturbed during pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, etc., which are associated with decrease in pO(2), i.e. 'hypoxia'. In this review, we present an array of methods currently used for assessing tissue oxygenation. We show that hypoxia is marked during tumour development and has strong consequences for oxygenation and its influence upon chemotherapy efficiency. Then we compare this to physiological pO(2) values of human organs. Finally we evaluate consequences of physioxia on cell activity and its molecular modulations. More importantly we emphasize the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro tissue and cells oxygen status which can have detrimental effects on experimental outcome. It appears that the values corresponding to the physioxia are ranging between 11% and 1% O(2) whereas current in vitro experimentations are usually performed in 19.95% O(2), an artificial context as far as oxygen balance is concerned. It is important to realize that most of the experiments performed in so-called normoxia might be dangerously misleading. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Non-Metric Dental Traits in Human Skeletal Remains from Transcaucasian Populations: Phylogenetic and Diachronic Evidence