Sample records for human platelet glycoprotein

  1. Purification and preliminary characterization of the glycoprotein Ib complex in the human platelet membrane. (United States)

    Berndt, M C; Gregory, C; Kabral, A; Zola, H; Fournier, D; Castaldi, P A


    Human platelet glycoprotein Ib (GP Ib) is a major integral membrane protein that has been identified as the platelet-binding site mediating the factor VIII/von Willebrand-factor-dependent adhesion of platelets to vascular subendothelium. Recent evidence suggests that GP Ib is normally complexed with another platelet membrane protein, GP IX. In this study, human platelet plasma membranes were selectively solubilized with a buffer containing 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100. The GP Ib complex (GP Ib plus GP IX) was purified to homogeneity in approximately 30% yield by immunoaffinity chromatography of the membrane extract using the anti-(glycoprotein Ib complex) murine monoclonal antibody, WM 23, coupled to agarose. GP Ib and GP IX were subsequently isolated as purified components by immunoaffinity chromatography of the GP Ib complex using a second anti-(glycoprotein Ib complex) monoclonal antibody, FMC 25, coupled to agarose. As assessed by dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, purified GP Ib was identical to the molecule on intact platelets and had an apparent relative molecular mass of 170 000 under nonreducing conditions and 135 000 (alpha subunit) and 25 000 (beta subunit) under reducing conditions. GP IX had an apparent Mr of 22 000 under both nonreducing and reducing conditions. Purified Gb Ib complex and GP Ib inhibited the ristocetin-mediated, human factor VIII/von Willebrand-factor-dependent and bovine factor VIII/von Willebrand-factor-dependent agglutination of washed human platelets suggesting the proteins had been isolated in functionally active form. GP Ib alpha had a similar amino acid composition to that previously reported for its proteolytic degradation product, glycocalicin. The amino acid compositions of GP Ib beta and GP IX were similar but showed marked differences in the levels of glutamic acid, alanine, histidine and arginine. The N-termini of GP Ib alpha and GP IX were blocked; GP Ib beta had the N-terminal sequence, Ile-Pro-Ala-Pro-. On

  2. Glycoprotein Ib activation by thrombin stimulates the energy metabolism in human platelets. (United States)

    Corona de la Peña, Norma; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Álvaro; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara


    Thrombin-induced platelet activation requires substantial amounts of ATP. However, the specific contribution of each ATP-generating pathway i.e., oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) versus glycolysis and the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced activation of energy metabolism remain unclear. Here we report an integral analysis on the role of both energy pathways in human platelets activated by several agonists, and the signal transducing mechanisms associated with such activation. We found that thrombin, Trap-6, arachidonic acid, collagen, A23187, epinephrine and ADP significantly increased glycolytic flux (3-38 times vs. non-activated platelets) whereas ristocetin was ineffective. OxPhos (33 times) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (88%) were increased only by thrombin. OxPhos was the main source of ATP in thrombin-activated platelets, whereas in platelets activated by any of the other agonists, glycolysis was the principal ATP supplier. In order to establish the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced OxPhos activation in platelets, several signaling pathways associated with mitochondrial activation were analyzed. Wortmannin and LY294002 (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors), ristocetin and heparin (GPIb inhibitors) as well as resveratrol, ATP (calcium-release inhibitors) and PP1 (Tyr-phosphorylation inhibitor) prevented the thrombin-induced platelet activation. These results suggest that thrombin activates OxPhos and glycolysis through GPIb-dependent signaling involving PI3K and Akt activation, calcium mobilization and protein phosphorylation.

  3. Glycoprotein Ib activation by thrombin stimulates the energy metabolism in human platelets (United States)

    Corona de la Peña, Norma; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Álvaro


    Thrombin-induced platelet activation requires substantial amounts of ATP. However, the specific contribution of each ATP-generating pathway i.e., oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) versus glycolysis and the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced activation of energy metabolism remain unclear. Here we report an integral analysis on the role of both energy pathways in human platelets activated by several agonists, and the signal transducing mechanisms associated with such activation. We found that thrombin, Trap-6, arachidonic acid, collagen, A23187, epinephrine and ADP significantly increased glycolytic flux (3–38 times vs. non-activated platelets) whereas ristocetin was ineffective. OxPhos (33 times) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (88%) were increased only by thrombin. OxPhos was the main source of ATP in thrombin-activated platelets, whereas in platelets activated by any of the other agonists, glycolysis was the principal ATP supplier. In order to establish the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced OxPhos activation in platelets, several signaling pathways associated with mitochondrial activation were analyzed. Wortmannin and LY294002 (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors), ristocetin and heparin (GPIb inhibitors) as well as resveratrol, ATP (calcium-release inhibitors) and PP1 (Tyr-phosphorylation inhibitor) prevented the thrombin-induced platelet activation. These results suggest that thrombin activates OxPhos and glycolysis through GPIb-dependent signaling involving PI3K and Akt activation, calcium mobilization and protein phosphorylation. PMID:28817667

  4. Selective Inhibition of ADAM17 Efficiently Mediates Glycoprotein Ibα Retention During Ex Vivo Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Platelets. (United States)

    Hirata, Shinji; Murata, Takahiko; Suzuki, Daisuke; Nakamura, Sou; Jono-Ohnishi, Ryoko; Hirose, Hidenori; Sawaguchi, Akira; Nishimura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Naoshi; Eto, Koji


    : Donor-independent platelet concentrates for transfusion can be produced in vitro from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, culture at 37°C induces ectodomain shedding on platelets of glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα), the von Willebrand factor receptor critical for adhesive function and platelet lifetime in vivo, through temperature-dependent activation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). The shedding can be suppressed by using inhibitors of panmetalloproteinases and possibly of the upstream regulator p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), but residues of these inhibitors in the final platelet products may be accompanied by harmful risks that prevent clinical application. Here, we optimized the culture conditions for generating human iPSC-derived GPIbα(+) platelets, focusing on culture temperature and additives, by comparing a new and safe selective ADAM17 inhibitor, KP-457, with previous inhibitors. Because cultivation at 24°C (at which conventional platelet concentrates are stored) markedly diminished the yield of platelets with high expression of platelet receptors, 37°C was requisite for normal platelet production from iPSCs. KP-457 blocked GPIbα shedding from iPSC platelets at a lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration than panmetalloproteinase inhibitor GM-6001, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors did not. iPSC platelets generated in the presence of KP-457 exhibited improved GPIbα-dependent aggregation not inferior to human fresh platelets. A thrombus formation model using immunodeficient mice after platelet transfusion revealed that iPSC platelets generated with KP-457 exerted better hemostatic function in vivo. Our findings suggest that KP-457, unlike GM-6001 or p38 MAPK inhibitors, effectively enhances the production of functional human iPSC-derived platelets at 37°C, which is an important step toward their clinical application. This study is a tip for overcoming a practical but critical barrier for manufacturing human

  5. Platelet receptor expression and shedding: glycoprotein Ib-IX-V and glycoprotein VI. (United States)

    Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K


    Quantity, quality, and lifespan are 3 important factors in the physiology, pathology, and transfusion of human blood platelets. The aim of this review is to discuss the proteolytic regulation of key platelet-specific receptors, glycoprotein(GP)Ib and GPVI, involved in the function of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis, and nonimmune or immune thrombocytopenia. The scope of the review encompasses the basic science of platelet receptor shedding, practical aspects related to laboratory analysis of platelet receptor expression/shedding, and clinical implications of using the proteolytic fragments as platelet-specific biomarkers in vivo in terms of platelet function and clearance. These topics can be relevant to platelet transfusion regarding both changes in platelet receptor expression occurring ex vivo during platelet storage and/or clinical use of platelets for transfusion. In this regard, quantitative analysis of platelet receptor profiles on blood samples from individuals could ultimately enable stratification of bleeding risk, discrimination between causes of thrombocytopenia due to impaired production vs enhanced clearance, and monitoring of response to treatment prior to change in platelet count. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functionalized Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Selectively Binds to Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on Activated Human Platelets under Flow Conditions and Is Detectable at Clinically Relevant Field Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin von zur Mühlen


    Full Text Available Recent progress in molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides the opportunity to image cells and cellular receptors using microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs. However, imaging targets on vessel walls remains challenging owing to the quantity of contrast agents delivered to areas of interest under shear stress conditions. We evaluated ex vivo binding characteristics of a functional MRI contrast agent to ligand-induced binding sites (LIBSs on activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors of human platelets, which were lining rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques and could therefore facilitate detection of platelet-mediated pathology in atherothrombotic disease. MPIOs were conjugated to anti-LIBS single-chain antibodies (LIBS-MPIO or control antibodies (control MPIO. Ex vivo binding to human platelet-rich clots in a dose-dependent manner was confirmed on a 3 T clinical MRI scanner and by histology (p < .05 for LIBS-MPIO vs control MPIO. By using a flow chamber setup, significant binding of LIBS-MPIO to a platelet matrix was observed under venous and arterial flow conditions, but not for control MPIO (p < .001. A newly generated MRI contrast agent detects activated human platelets at clinically relevant magnetic field strengths and binds to platelets under venous and arterial flow conditions, conveying high payloads of contrast to specific molecular targets. This may provide the opportunity to identify vulnerable, rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques via noninvasive MRI.

  7. Glycoprotein Ibalpha signalling in platelet apoptosis and clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, E.


    Storage of platelets at low temperature reduces bacterial growth and might better preserve the haemostatic function of platelets than current procedures. Incubation at 0C is known to expose ?-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-residues on glycoprotein (GP)Ibalpha inducing receptor-clustering and platelet

  8. Association study of the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI gene with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michou, L.; Cornelis, F.; Baron, M.; Bombardieri, S.; Balsa, A.; Westhovens, R.; Barrera, P.; Alves, H.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Migliorini, P.; Bardin, T.; Petit-Teixeira, E.; Boilard, E.


    OBJECTIVES: Beyond their role in haemostasis, platelets can actively contribute to immunity. The activation of the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) promotes the release of small extracellular vesicles called microparticles. These microparticles are found in the joint bathing fluid

  9. Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Holmes


    Full Text Available Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36 (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3] is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate

  10. Modified expression of surface glyconjugates in stored human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, A.; Ganguly, P.


    Platelets are anucleated cells which play an important part in blood coagulation and thrombosis. These cells may be stored in the blood bank for only 4/5 days. In order to improve the storage of platelets, it is essential to first understand the changes in these cells due to storage. In this work, human platelets were stored in autologous plasma at 4/sup 0/ or 22/sup 0/ and their surface changes were monitored with three lectins - wheat germ afflutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (Con A) and lentil lectin (LL). Blood was drawn from healthy donors and platelet rich plasma (PRP) was collected by slow speed centrifugation. Platelets stored at either temperature for different times showed increased sensitivity to agglutination by WGA after 34-48 hrs. Lectins, Con A and LL, which were not agglutinating to fresh platelets readily caused agglutination after 48-72 hrs. The platelets stored for 25 hrs or longer period were insensitive to thrombin but showed enhanced aggregation with WGA. Labelling of surface glycoconjugates of stored platelets with /sup 3/H-boro-hydride revealed progressive loss of a glycoprotein of Mr 150,000 (GPIb infinity) together with the appearance of components of Mr 69,000; Mr 60,000; Mr 25,000. New high molecular weight glycoproteins were also detected only in stored platelets. The author studies clearly indicate that modification or altered expression of platelets surface glycoproteins may be one factor of storage related dysfunction of platelets.

  11. Gene mutations of platelet glycoproteins and response to tirofiban in acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Glycoprotein inhibitors (abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban are used in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction before percutaneous coronary intervention. Of these, tirofiban is the least effective. We hypothesized that the response to tirofiban might be associated with glycoprotein gene mutations. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at Emergency Unit, Heart Institute (InCor, University of São Paulo. METHOD: Intrahospital evolution and platelet aggregation in response to tirofiban were analyzed in relation to four glycoprotein mutations in 50 patients indicated for percutaneous coronary intervention: 17 (34% with unstable angina and 33 (66% with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation was analyzed using the Born method. Blood samples were obtained before and one hour after tirofiban infusion. Glycoproteins Ia (807C/T , Ib (Thr/Met , IIb (Ile/Ser and IIIa (PIA were the mutations selected. RESULTS: Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, previous coronary artery disease and stroke were similar between the groups. Mutant glycoprotein IIIa genotypes had lower platelet aggregation before tirofiban administration than that of the wild genotype (41.0% ± 22.1% versus 55.9% ± 20.8%; P = 0.035. Mutant glycoprotein IIIa genotypes correlated moderately with lower platelet inhibition (r = -0.31; P = 0.030. After tirofiban administration, platelet glycoprotein Ia, Ib, IIb and IIIa mutations did not influence the degree of inhibition of platelet aggregation or intrahospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations of glycoproteins Ia, Ib, IIb and IIIa did not influence platelet aggregation in response to tirofiban in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

  12. Flow cytometric analysis of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 and surface glycoproteins in patients with immune thrombocytopenia and healthy individuals. (United States)

    Rubak, Peter; Kristensen, Steen D; Hvas, Anne-Mette


    Immature platelets may contain more platelet enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 than mature platelets. Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) have a higher fraction of immature platelets and can therefore be utilized as a biological model for investigating COX-1 and COX-2 platelet expression. The aims were to develop flow cytometric assays for platelet COX-1 and COX-2 and to investigate the COX-1 and COX-2 platelet expression, platelet turnover, and platelet glycoproteins in ITP patients (n = 10) compared with healthy individuals (n = 30). Platelet count and platelet turnover parameters (mean platelet volume (MPV), immature platelet fraction (IPF), and immature platelet count (IPC)) were measured by flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-5000). Platelet COX-1, COX-2, and the glycoproteins (GP)IIb, IX, Ib, Ia, and IIIa were all analyzed by flow cytometry (Navios) and expressed as median fluorescence intensity. COX analyses were performed in both whole blood and platelet rich plasma (PRP), whereas platelet glycoproteins were analyzed in whole blood only. ITP patients had significantly lower platelet count (55 × 10(9)/L) than healthy individuals (240 × 10(9)/L, p healthy individuals using whole blood (pCOX-1 healthy individuals showed significant though weaker correlations between platelet turnover and COX-1 and COX-2 expressions (all p-values healthy individuals (all p-values healthy individuals (all p-values >0.14, rho = 0.11-0.28). In conclusion, ITP patients expressed higher COX-1 and platelet glycoprotein levels than healthy individuals. COX-1 and platelet glycoproteins demonstrated positive correlations with platelet turnover in ITP patients. In healthy individuals, COX-1 and COX-2 expression correlated positively with platelet turnover. PRP was more sensitive compared with whole blood as regards determination of COX. Therefore, PRP is the recommended matrix for investigating COX-1 and COX-2 in platelets.

  13. A serine-rich glycoprotein of Streptococcus sanguis mediates adhesion to platelets via GPIb. (United States)

    Plummer, Christopher; Wu, Hui; Kerrigan, Steven W; Meade, Gerardene; Cox, Dermot; Ian Douglas, C W


    Streptococcus sanguis is the most common oral bacterium causing infective endocarditis and its ability to adhere to platelets, leading to their activation and aggregation, is thought to be an important virulent factor. Previous work has shown that S. sanguis can bind directly to platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib but the nature of the adhesin was unknown. Here, we have shown that a high molecular weight glycoprotein of S. sanguis mediates adhesion to glycocalacin. The bacterial glycoprotein was purified from cell extracts by chromatography on GPIb- and wheatgerm agglutinin affinity matrices and its interaction with GPIb was shown to be sialic acid-dependent. We designated the glycoprotein serine-rich protein A (SrpA). An insertional inactivation mutant lacking the SrpA of S. sanguis showed significantly reduced binding to glycocalacin, reduced adherence to platelets and a prolonged lag time to platelet aggregation. In addition, under flow conditions, platelets rolled and subsequently adhered on films of wild-type S. sanguis cells at low shear (50/s) but did not bind to films of the SrpA mutant. Platelets did not bind to wild-type bacterial cells at high shear (1500/s). These findings help to understand the mechanisms by which the organism might colonize platelet-fibrin vegetations.

  14. Nerve growth factor inhibits metalloproteinase-disintegrins and blocks ectodomain shedding of platelet glycoprotein VI. (United States)

    Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Gladigau, Elsa L; Berndt, Michael C; Andrews, Robert K


    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in regulating mammalian neuronal/embryonic development, angiogenesis, and other physiological processes and has recently been investigated as a potential treatment for the neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer disease. In this study, we provide evidence that human NGF may also function as a metalloproteinase inhibitor, based on studies of NGF from snake venom. Originally, our aim was to isolate snake venom metalloproteinases targeting platelet receptors and/or ligands relevant to hemostasis and thrombosis, using Ni(2+)-agarose as a purification step based on the conserved metal ion-coordination motif in venom metalloproteinases. However, subsequent analysis of cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom led to the unexpected discovery that cobra venom NGF bound to Ni(2+)-agarose, eluting at approximately 15 mm imidazole, enabling a one-step purification. The identity of the purified protein was confirmed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequence analysis. Partial co-purification of NGF within metalloproteinase-enriched venom fractions led us to test whether NGF affected metalloproteinase activity. Venom NGF potently inhibited metalloproteinases isolated from the same or different venom and specifically bound to purified Nk metalloproteinase immobilized on agarose beads. Human NGF also interacted with human metalloproteinases because it blocked metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein (GP)VI, and associated with recombinant ADAM10 by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these results suggest that NGF can function as a metalloproteinase inhibitor.

  15. Nerve Growth Factor Inhibits Metalloproteinase-Disintegrins and Blocks Ectodomain Shedding of Platelet Glycoprotein VI* (United States)

    Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Gladigau, Elsa L.; Berndt, Michael C.; Andrews, Robert K.


    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in regulating mammalian neuronal/embryonic development, angiogenesis, and other physiological processes and has recently been investigated as a potential treatment for the neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer disease. In this study, we provide evidence that human NGF may also function as a metalloproteinase inhibitor, based on studies of NGF from snake venom. Originally, our aim was to isolate snake venom metalloproteinases targeting platelet receptors and/or ligands relevant to hemostasis and thrombosis, using Ni2+-agarose as a purification step based on the conserved metal ion-coordination motif in venom metalloproteinases. However, subsequent analysis of cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom led to the unexpected discovery that cobra venom NGF bound to Ni2+-agarose, eluting at ∼15 mm imidazole, enabling a one-step purification. The identity of the purified protein was confirmed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequence analysis. Partial co-purification of NGF within metalloproteinase-enriched venom fractions led us to test whether NGF affected metalloproteinase activity. Venom NGF potently inhibited metalloproteinases isolated from the same or different venom and specifically bound to purified Nk metalloproteinase immobilized on agarose beads. Human NGF also interacted with human metalloproteinases because it blocked metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein (GP)VI, and associated with recombinant ADAM10 by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these results suggest that NGF can function as a metalloproteinase inhibitor. PMID:20164177

  16. Calcium-binding proteins from human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogstad, G.O.; Krutnes, M.B.; Solum, N.O.


    Calcium-binding platelet proteins were examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis of solubilized platelets against antibodies to whole platelets followed by incubation of the immunoplates with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ and autoradiography. When the immunoplates had been pretreated with EDTA at pH 9.0 in order to remove divalent cations, three immunoprecipitates were markedly labelled with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. These corresponded to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, glycoprotein Ia and a presently unidentified antigen termed G18. These antigens were membrane-bound and surface-oriented. When an excess of EDTA was introduced in the incubation media the results revealed that the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex and antigen G18, but not glycoprotein Ia, contained sites with a stronger affinity for calcium than has EDTA at pH 7.4. Immunoprecipitates of the separate glycoproteins IIb and IIIa both bound calcium in the same manner as the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. As another approach, platelet-rich plasma was incubated with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ prior to crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the solubilized platelets. A single immunoprecipitate was weakly labelled. This did not correspond to any of the immunoprecipitates which were visible after staining with Coomassie blue. The labelling of this antigen was markedly increased when the platelet-rich plasma had been preincubated with EDTA and in this case a weak labelling of the glycoprotein IIB-IIIa precipitate also became apparent. No increased incorporation of calcium occured in any of these immunoprecipitates when the platelets were aggregated with ADP in the presence of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/.

  17. Collagen can selectively trigger a platelet secretory phenotype via glycoprotein VI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Ollivier

    Full Text Available Platelets are not only central actors of hemostasis and thrombosis but also of other processes including inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Accumulating evidence indicates that these "non classical" functions of platelets do not necessarily rely on their well-known ability to form thrombi upon activation. This suggests the existence of non-thrombotic alternative states of platelets activation. We investigated this possibility through dose-response analysis of thrombin- and collagen-induced changes in platelet phenotype, with regards to morphological and functional markers of platelet activation including shape change, aggregation, P-selectin and phosphatidylserine surface expression, integrin activation, and release of soluble factors. We show that collagen at low dose (0.25 µg/mL selectively triggers a platelet secretory phenotype characterized by the release of dense- and alpha granule-derived soluble factors without causing any of the other major platelet changes that usually accompany thrombus formation. Using a blocking antibody to glycoprotein VI (GPVI, we further show that this response is mediated by GPVI. Taken together, our results show that platelet activation goes beyond the mechanisms leading to platelet aggregation and also includes alternative platelet phenotypes that might contribute to their thrombus-independent functions.

  18. Identification of a tetrasialylated monofucosylated tetraantennary N-linked carbohydrate chain in human platelet glycocalicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Korrel, S.A.M.; Clemetson, K.J.; Halbeek, H. van; Kamerling, J.P.; Sixma, J.J.


    Glycocalicin (140 kDa), the main constituent of the glycoprotein Ib alpha-chain (150 kDa) of the human platelet membrane, contains 4 putative N-glycosylation sites. For the structural analysis of the N-glycosidic carbohydrate chains of glycocalicin, the glycoprotein has been subjected to the

  19. Acute thrombocytopenia in patients treated with amiodarone is caused by antibodies specific for platelet membrane glycoproteins (United States)

    Sahud, Mervyn A.; Caulfield, Michael; Clarke, Nigel; Koch, Robert; Bougie, Daniel; Aster, Richard


    Summary Amiodarone has been implicated as a cause of thrombocytopenia but the responsible mechanism is unknown. We performed studies in three patients to characterize the pathogenesis of this complication. No amiodarone-dependent, platelet-reactive antibodies were identified using conventional serological techniques. However, water-insoluble amiodarone solubilized in methanol and diluted to 1·0 mg/ml in aqueous buffer reproducibly promoted binding of IgG antibodies in patient serum to platelets. Solid phase assays identified drug-dependent antibodies specific for platelet gly coproteins (GP)Ia/IIa (integrin α2β1) in each patient and a second antibody specific for GPIIb/IIIa (αIIbβ3 integrin) in one patient. When studied by ion mobility analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the serologically active amiodarone preparation, a milky suspension, was found to consist of particles 2–30 nm in diameter, typical of a coacervate, a state characteristic of amiodarone in aqueous medium. The findings provide evidence that thrombocytopenia in the three patients studied was caused by drug-dependent antibodies specific for platelet glycoproteins GPIa/IIa and/or GPIIb/IIIa. We postulate that, in vivo, amiodarone may become incorporated into occult lipophilic domains in platelet glycoproteins, producing structural modifications that are immunogenic in some individuals, and that the resulting antibodies can cause platelet destruction in a person taking this drug. PMID:23952260

  20. Genetic deletion of platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha but not its extracellular domain protects from atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Koltsova, E K; Sundd, P; Zarpellon, A; Ouyang, H; Mikulski, Z; Zampolli, A; Ruggeri, Z M; Ley, K


    The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves the interplay of haematopoietic, stromal and endothelial cells. Platelet interactions with endothelium and leukocytes are pivotal for atherosclerosis promotion. Glycoprotein (GP) Ibα is the ligand-binding subunit of the platelet GPIb-IX-V receptor complex; its deficiency causes the Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS), characterised by absent platelet GPIb-IX-V, macrothrombocytopenia and bleeding. We designed this study to determine the role of platelet GPIbα in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis using two unique knockout models. Ldlr-/- mice were reconstituted with wild-type (wt), GPIbα-/- (lacks GPIbα) or chimeric IL-4R/GPIbα-Tg (lacks GPIbα extracellular domain) bone marrow and assayed for atherosclerosis development after feeding with pro-atherogenic "western diet". Here, we report that Ldlr-/-mice reconstituted with GPIbα-/- bone marrow developed less atherosclerosis compared to wt controls; accompanied by augmented accumulation of pro-inflammatory CD11b+ and CD11c+ myeloid cells, reduced oxLDL uptake and decreased TNF and IL 12p35 gene expression in the aortas. Flow cytometry and live cell imaging in whole blood-perfused microfluidic chambers revealed reduced platelet-monocyte aggregates in GPIbα-/- mice, which resulted in decreased monocyte activation. Interestingly, Ldlr-/-mice reconstituted with IL-4R/GPIbα-Tg bone marrow, producing less abnormal platelets, showed atherosclerotic lesions similar to wt mice. Platelet interaction with blood monocytes and accumulation of myeloid cells in the aortas were also essentially unaltered. Moreover, only complete GPIbα ablation altered platelet microparticles and CCL5 chemokine production. Thus, atherosclerosis reduction in mice lacking GPIbα may not result from the defective GPIbα-ligand binding, but more likely is a consequence of functional defects of GPIbα-/- platelets and reduced blood platelet counts.

  1. Pathologic shear triggers shedding of vascular receptors: a novel mechanism for down-regulation of platelet glycoprotein VI in stenosed coronary vessels. (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Tan, Chee Wee; Qiao, Jianlin; Pennings, Gabrielle J; Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Yong, Andy S C; Arthur, Jane F; Davis, Amanda K; Jing, Jing; Mu, Fi-Tjen; Hamilton, Justin R; Jackson, Shaun P; Ludwig, Andreas; Berndt, Michael C; Ward, Christopher M; Kritharides, Leonard; Andrews, Robert K; Gardiner, Elizabeth E


    Ligand-induced ectodomain shedding of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is a metalloproteinase-dependent event. We examined whether shear force, in the absence of GPVI ligand, was sufficient to induce shedding of GPVI. Human-citrated platelet-rich plasma or washed platelets were subjected to increasing shear rates in a cone-plate viscometer, and levels of intact and cleaved GPVI were examined by Western blot and ELISA. Pathophysiologic shear rates (3000-10 000 seconds(-1)) induced platelet aggregation and metalloproteinase-dependent appearance of soluble GPVI ectodomain, and GPVI platelet remnant. Shedding of GPVI continued after transient exposure to shear. Blockade of α(IIb)β(3), GPIbα, or intracellular signaling inhibited shear-induced platelet aggregation but minimally affected shear-induced shedding of GPVI. Shear-induced GPVI shedding also occurred in platelet-rich plasma or washed platelets isolated from a von Willebrand disease type 3 patient with no detectable VWF, implying that shear-induced activation of platelet metalloproteinases can occur in the absence of GPVI and GPIbα ligands. Significantly elevated levels of sGPVI were observed in 10 patients with stable angina pectoris, with well-defined single vessel coronary artery disease and mean intracoronary shear estimates at 2935 seconds(-1) (peak shear, 19 224 seconds(-1)). Loss of GPVI in platelets exposed to shear has potential implications for the stability of a forming thrombus at arterial shear rates.

  2. A role for glycoprotein Ib in Streptococcus sanguis-induced platelet aggregation. (United States)

    Kerrigan, Steven W; Douglas, Ian; Wray, Ann; Heath, Jason; Byrne, Michael F; Fitzgerald, Desmond; Cox, Dermot


    Numerous studies have implicated bacteria in cardiovascular disease, but there is a paucity of information on the mechanism involved. In this study we show how the common oral bacterium Streptococcus sanguis can directly interact with platelets, resulting in activation and aggregate formation. Platelet aggregation was dependent on glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) and thromboxane. Platelets could also directly bind to S sanguis, but this interaction was not inhibited by GPIIb/IIIa antagonists. Antibodies to GPIb could inhibit both platelet aggregation and platelet adhesion to bacteria. This suggested a direct interaction between GPIb and S sanguis; however, this interaction did not require von Willebrand factor, the normal ligand for GPIb. By use of a range of monoclonal antibodies to GPIb and the enzyme mocharagin, which cleaves GPIb at amino acid 282, the interaction was localized to a region within the N-terminal 1-225 portion of GPIbalpha. Furthermore S sanguis failed to induce aggregation of platelets from a patient with Bernard-Soulier disease, the organism bound to Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the GPIbalpha gene but did not bind to mock-transfected cells and biotin-labeled S sanguis cells bound to purified GPIb in ligand blots. It is suggested that the interaction between S sanguis and GPIb is important in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis and may also play a contributory role in some cases of myocardial infarction.

  3. Proteolysis of the major yolk glycoproteins is regulated by acidification of the yolk platelets in sea urchin embryos



    The precise function of the yolk platelets of sea urchin embryos during early development is unknown. We have shown previously that the chemical composition of the yolk platelets remains unchanged in terms of phospholipid, triglyceride, hexose, sialic acid, RNA, and total protein content after fertilization and early development. However, the platelet is not entirely static because the major 160-kD yolk glycoprotein YP-160 undergoes limited, step-wise proteolytic cleavage during early develop...

  4. Depression is associated with an increase in the expression of the platelet adhesion receptor glycoprotein Ib. (United States)

    Walsh, Marie-Thérèse; Dinan, Timothy G; Condren, Rita M; Ryan, Martina; Kenny, Dermot


    There is a significant association between cardiovascular disease and depression. Previous studies have documented changes in platelets in depression. It is unknown if depression causes functional changes in platelet surface receptors. Therefore, we analyzed (1) the surface expression of glycoprotein (GP)Ib and the integrin receptor alpha(IIb)beta(IIIa), receptors involved in platelet adhesion and aggregation, (2) CD62 (P-selectin) and CD63, integral granule proteins translocated during platelet activation, (3) platelet aggregation in response to ADP and (4) plasma levels of glycocalicin and von Willebrand factor (vWF), in depressed patients compared to healthy volunteers. Fifteen depressed patients with a Hamilton depression score of at least 22 and fifteen control subjects were studied. Platelets were assessed for surface expression levels of GPIb, alpha(IIb)beta(IIIa), CD62 and CD63 by flow cytometry. Genomic DNA was isolated to investigate a recently described polymorphism in the 5' untranslated region of the GPIbalpha gene. The number of GPIb receptors was significantly increased on the surface of platelets from patients with depression compared to control subjects. Surface expression of CD62 was also significantly increased in the depressed patients versus control subjects. There was no significant difference between depressed patients and healthy volunteers in the surface expression of alpha(IIb)beta(IIIa) or CD63, or in glycocalicin or vWF plasma concentration, or ADP-induced aggregation. There was no difference in allele frequency of the Kozak region polymorphism of the GPIbalpha gene, which can affect GPIb expression. The results of this study demonstrate that the number of GPIb receptors on platelets are increased in depression and suggest a novel risk factor for thrombosis in patients with depression.

  5. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P2Y12 Induction by Oligochitosan Accelerates Platelet Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Halleluyah Periayah


    Full Text Available Platelet membrane receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpiibiiia is a receptor detected on platelets. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP activates gpiibiiia and P2Y12, causing platelet aggregation and thrombus stabilization during blood loss. Chitosan biomaterials were found to promote surface induced hemostasis and were capable of activating blood coagulation cascades by enhancing platelet aggregation. Our current findings show that the activation of the gpiibiiia complex and the major ADP receptor P2Y12 is required for platelet aggregation to reach hemostasis following the adherence of various concentrations of chitosan biomaterials [7% N,O-carboxymethylchitosan (NO-CMC with 0.45 mL collagen, 8% NO-CMC, oligochitosan (O-C, and oligochitosan 53 (O-C 53]. We studied gpiibiiia and P2Y12 through flow cytometric analysis and western blotting techniques. The highest expression of gpiibiiia was observed with Lyostypt (74.3 ± 7.82%, followed by O-C (65.5 ± 7.17%. Lyostypt and O-C resulted in gpiibiiia expression increases of 29.2% and 13.9%, respectively, compared with blood alone. Western blot analysis revealed that only O-C 53 upregulated the expression of P2Y12 (1.12 ± 0.03-fold compared with blood alone. Our findings suggest that the regulation of gpiibiiia and P2Y12 levels could be clinically useful to activate platelets to reach hemostasis. Further, we show that the novel oligochitosan is able to induce the increased expression of gpiibiiia and P2Y12, thus accelerating platelet aggregation in vitro.

  6. Investigation of interaction of human platelet membrane components with anticoagulant drugs Abciximab and Eptifibatide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sankiewicz


    Full Text Available Abciximab (Abci and eptifibatide (Epti are antiaggregate drugs which may reduce thrombotic complications in acute coronary syndromes. The aim of this work was the investigation of the interaction between the phospholipid-GPIIb/IIIa glycoprotein complex and Abci or Epti, and the influence of these drugs on the phospholipid ratio in the platelet membrane. The interaction between the phospholipid-GPIIb/IIIa glycoprotein complex and antiaggregate drugs were investigated using the Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging technique (SPRI. Phospholipids phosphatidylinositol (PI, phosphatidylserine (PS, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM were first immobilized onto the gold chip surface. The phospholipid ratio in the platelet membrane was determined by the HPLC. Only PI, PS, PE and PC were determined. Human platelets treated 'in vitro' with Abci or Epti exhibit changes in the phospholipid ratio in the platelet membrane. The ratio of PS decreases and PC rises. The SPRI distinctly shows interactions between phospholipids and glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa, and between the phospholipid-glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex and Abci or Epti. The interaction between phospholipids and glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa is growing in the sequence: PIglycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex and Abci/Epti is growing in the sequence: PS

  7. Soluble fibrin causes an acquired platelet glycoprotein VI signaling defect: implications for coagulopathy. (United States)

    Lee, M Y; Verni, C C; Herbig, B A; Diamond, S L


    Essentials Collagen and thrombin when used simultaneously generate highly activated platelets. The effect of thrombin stimulation on subsequent glycoprotein VI (GPVI) function was observed. Soluble fibrin, but not protease activated receptor (PAR) activation, prevented GPVI activation. Circulating soluble fibrin in coagulopathic blood may cause an acquired GPVI signaling defect. Background In coagulopathic blood, circulating thrombin may drive platelet dysfunction. Methods/Results Using calcium dye-loaded platelets, the effect of thrombin exposure and soluble fibrin generation on subsequent platelet GPVI function was investigated. Exposure of apixaban-treated platelet-rich plasma (12% PRP) to thrombin (1-10 nm), but not ADP or thromboxane mimetic U46619 exposure, dramatically blocked subsequent GPVI activation by convulxin, collagen-related peptide or fibrillar collagen. Consistent with soluble fibrin multimerizing and binding GPVI, the onset of convulxin insensitivity required 200-500 s of thrombin exposure, was not mimicked by exposure to PAR-1/4 activating peptides, was not observed with washed platelets, and was blocked by fibrin polymerization inhibitor (GPRP) or factor XIIIa inhibitor (T101). PAR-1 signaling through Gαq was not required because vorapaxar blocked thrombin-induced calcium mobilization but had no effect on the ability of thrombin to impair GPVI-signaling. Convulxin insensitivity was unaffected by the metalloprotease inhibitor GM6001 or the αIIb β3 antagonist GR144053, indicating negligible roles for GPVI shedding or αIIb β3 binding of fibrin. Thrombin treatment of washed platelets resuspended in purified fibrinogen also produced convulxin insensitivity that was prevented by GPRP. Exposure of apixaban/PPACK-treated whole blood to thrombin-treated fibrinogen resulted in > 50% decrease in platelet deposition in a collagen microfluidic assay that required soluble fibrin assembly. Conclusions Conversion of only 1% plasma fibrinogen in

  8. Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins bind integrin αIIbβ3 and inhibit the platelet-fibrinogen interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Shanley

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs are immunoglobulin superfamily members encoded by multigene families in rodents and primates. In human pregnancy, PSGs are secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast, a fetal tissue, and reach a concentration of up to 400 ug/ml in the maternal bloodstream at term. Human and mouse PSGs induce release of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGFβ1 from monocytes, macrophages, and other cell types, suggesting an immunoregulatory function. RGD tri-peptide motifs in the majority of human PSGs suggest that they may function like snake venom disintegrins, which bind integrins and inhibit interactions with ligands. We noted that human PSG1 has a KGD, rather than an RGD motif. The presence of a KGD in barbourin, a platelet integrin αIIbβ3 antagonist found in snake venom, suggested that PSG1 may be a selective αIIbβ3 ligand. Here we show that human PSG1 binds αIIbβ3 and inhibits the platelet - fibrinogen interaction. Unexpectedly, however, the KGD is not critical as multiple PSG1 domains independently bind and inhibit αIIbβ3 function. Human PSG9 and mouse Psg23 are also inhibitory suggesting conservation of this function across primate and rodent PSG families. Our results suggest that in species with haemochorial placentation, in which maternal blood is in direct contact with fetal trophoblast, the high expression level of PSGs reflects a requirement to antagonise abundant (3 mg/ml fibrinogen in the maternal circulation, which may be necessary to prevent platelet aggregation and thrombosis in the prothrombotic maternal environment of pregnancy.

  9. Investigation of interaction of human platelet membrane components with anticoagulant drugs Abciximab and Eptifibatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gorodkiewicz


    Full Text Available Abciximab (Abci and eptifibatide (Epti are antiaggregate drugs which may reduce thrombotic complications inacute coronary syndromes. The aim of this work was the investigation of the interaction between the phospholipid-GPIIb/IIIa glycoprotein complex and Abci or Epti, and the influence of these drugs on the phospholipid ratio in the plateletmembrane. The interaction between the phospholipid-GPIIb/IIIa glycoprotein complex and antiaggregate drugs were investigatedusing the Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging technique (SPRI. Phospholipids phosphatidylinositol (PI, phosphatidylserine(PS, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM were first immobilizedonto the gold chip surface. The phospholipid ratio in the platelet membrane was determined by the HPLC. Only PI,PS, PE and PC were determined. Human platelets treated 'in vitro' with Abci or Epti exhibit changes in the phospholipidratio in the platelet membrane. The ratio of PS decreases and PC rises. The SPRI distinctly shows interactions between phospholipidsand glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa, and between the phospholipid-glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex and Abci or Epti.The interaction between phospholipids and glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa is growing in the sequence: PI<glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex and Abci/Epti is growing in the sequence:PS

  10. Variability of platelet aggregate dispersal with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antagonists eptifibatide and abciximab. (United States)

    Speich, H E; Earhart, A D; Hill, S N; Cholera, S; Kueter, T J; Smith, J N; White, M M; Jennings, L K


    Utilization of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIb-IIIa) inhibitors improves outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), including those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). These results may be related to the ability of the inhibitors to destabilize coronary thrombi, reduce microembolization, and restore vessel patency. To evaluate in vitro the ability of GPIIb-IIIa antagonists, abciximab and eptifibatide, to promote the disaggregation of platelet-rich thrombus. Antagonist-induced disaggregation was assayed in plasma by aggregometry, as well as in whole blood by point of care and capillary perfusion systems. Fibrinogen dissociation from the platelet surface was quantified by flow cytometry. Significant disaggregation of 5 microm ADP-induced aggregates was observed after addition of either agent. The maximum extent and rate of disaggregation were significantly higher with eptifibatide than with abciximab. Both antagonists also dispersed 2 microg mL(-1) collagen-induced aggregates, again with eptifibatide having a greater effect. Eptifibatide, but not abciximab (up to 10 microg mL(-1)), was efficient at dissociating aggregates to single platelets in whole blood and dispersing aggregates that had been aged for 30 min before treatment. Eptifibatide also reduced existing thrombus burden in the perfusion model under arterial flow conditions. A key mechanism of aggregate dispersal was antagonist-induced displacement of platelet-bound fibrinogen, which was greater with eptifibatide, a competitive inhibitor of fibrinogen binding, than with the noncompetitive inhibitor, abciximab. These results suggest that drug concentration and residence time, along with thrombus extent and age, may be critical determinants in promoting timely recanalization.

  11. Increased platelet expression of glycoprotein IIIa following aspirin treatment in aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects (United States)

    Floyd, Christopher N; Goodman, Timothy; Becker, Silke; Chen, Nan; Mustafa, Agnesa; Schofield, Emma; Campbell, James; Ward, Malcolm; Sharma, Pankaj; Ferro, Albert


    Aims Aspirin is widely used as an anti-platelet agent for cardiovascular prophylaxis. Despite aspirin treatment, many patients experience recurrent thrombotic events, and aspirin resistance may contribute to this. We examined the prevalence of aspirin resistance in a healthy population, and investigated whether the platelet proteome differed in aspirin-resistant subjects. Methods Ninety-three healthy subjects received aspirin 300 mg daily for 28 days. Before and at the end of treatment, urine was taken to determine 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and blood was taken to measure arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma and to interrogate the platelet proteome by mass spectrometric analysis with further confirmation of findings using Western blotting. Results In two of the 93 subjects, neither AA-induced aggregation nor urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 was effectively suppressed by aspirin, despite measurable plasma salicylate concentrations, suggesting the presence of true aspirin resistance. Despite no detectable differences in the platelet proteome at baseline, following aspirin a marked increase was seen in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in the aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects. An increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression with aspirin resistance was confirmed in a separate cohort of 17 patients with stable coronary artery disease on long term aspirin treatment, four of whom exhibited aspirin resistance. Conclusions In a healthy population, true aspirin resistance is uncommon but exists. Resistance is associated with an increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in response to aspirin. These data shed new light on the mechanism of aspirin resistance, and provide the potential to identify aspirin-resistant subjects using a novel biomarker. PMID:25099258

  12. Unravelling the mechanism and significance of thrombin binding to platelet glycoprotein Ib. (United States)

    Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Zarpellon, Alessandro; Roberts, James R; Mc Clintock, Richard A; Jing, Hua; Mendolicchio, G Loredana


    The main question concerning the mechanism of a-thrombin binding to platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP)Ib is whether it involves both thrombin exosite I and exosite II. The solution of two independent crystal structures suggests alternative explanations that may actually reflect different modes of binding with distinct pathophysiological significance. With respect to function, it is still unclear whether thrombin binding to GPIb promotes procoagulant and prothrombotic pathways of response to vascular injury or limits such responses by sequestering, at least temporarily, the active enzyme. We review here published information on these topics and touch upon ongoing studies aimed at finding definitive answers to outstanding questions relevant for a better understanding of thrombosis and haemostasis.

  13. A unique elastase in human blood platelets.


    James, H L; Wachtfogel, Y T; James, P L; Zimmerman, M; Colman, R W; Cohen, A. B.


    Previous investigations suggested that elastolytic activity found in platelets could be due to contamination by neutrophil elastase. In the present study, the lysate of blood platelets free of detectable neutrophils was examined for elastase-like activity using tertiary-butyloxycarbonyl (tBOC)-ala-ala-pro-ala-aminomethyl coumarin (I), tBOC-ala-ala-pro-val-aminomethyl coumarin (II), and succinyl-tri-ala-rho-nitroanilide (SAPNA), and for elastolytic activity using 3H-labeled dog and human lung ...

  14. platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Saluk


    Full Text Available Platelets are the smallest, depleted of nucleus blood cells which contain a typical cellular organelles including the mitochondria, so that have active metabolism. Platelets possess the highly organized cytoskeleton, specific secretory granules and unique membrane receptors system responsible for their high reactivity. The key role of blood platelets is to maintain normal hemostasis, but they also play important roles in inflammation, immune processes and the cancer progression. The anucleated, small platelets occur in representatives of all clusters of mammals, so it seems to be an adaptation feature. In other vertebrates similar hemostatic functions are played by large nucleated platelets, which are much more weakly reactive. Small, reactive platelets, appearing in the evolution of mammals, allowed the formation of clots faster and slower blood loss in case of injury, but also increased the risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular diseases. Daily the human body forms about 1x1011 platelets, which are produced by a process of differentiation, maturation and fragmentation of the cytoplasm of mature megakaryocytes. The emergence of platelets is the final stage of megakaryocyte differentiation and is followed by formation of the direct precursors called proplatelets. The anucleated platelets are regarded as terminally differentiated cells, which are not capable of further cell division. However, despite the absence of a nucleus, in blood platelets the synthesis and transcription of mitochondrial DNA and protein synthesis occurring on the basis of mRNA from megakaryocytes has been confirmed. However, recent studies published in 2012 show that the platelets are capable not only of the process of protein synthesis, but also of generation of new cells, which are functionally and structurally similar to the parent platelets.

  15. Antiplatelet activity of L-sulforaphane by regulation of platelet activation factors, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and thromboxane A2. (United States)

    Oh, Chung-Hun; Shin, Jang-In; Mo, Sang Joon; Yun, Sung-Jo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Rhee, Yun-Hee


    L-sulforaphane was identified as an anticarcinogen that could produce quinine reductase and a phase II detoxification enzyme. In recent decades, multi-effects of L-sulforaphane may have been investigated, but, to the authors' knowledge, the antiplatelet activation of L-sulforaphane has not been studied yet.In this study, 2 μg/ml of collagen, 50 μg/ml of ADP and 5 μg/ml of thrombin were used for platelet aggregations with or without L-sulforaphane. L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet aggregation dose-dependently. Among these platelet activators, collagen was most inhibited by L-sulforaphane, which markedly decreased collagen-induced glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) formation in vitro. L-sulforaphane also reduced the collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary embolism, but did not affect prothrombin time (PT) in vivo. This finding demonstrated that L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet activation through an intrinsic pathway.L-sulforaphane had a beneficial effect on various pathophysiological pathways of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thrombus formation as a selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist. Thus, we recommend L-sulforaphane as a potential antithrombotic drug.

  16. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.


    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with /sup 125/I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with /sup 125/I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with /sup 125/I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined.

  17. Nerve Growth Factor Inhibits Metalloproteinase-Disintegrins and Blocks Ectodomain Shedding of Platelet Glycoprotein VI*


    Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Gladigau, Elsa L.; Berndt, Michael C; Andrews, Robert K


    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in regulating mammalian neuronal/embryonic development, angiogenesis, and other physiological processes and has recently been investigated as a potential treatment for the neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer disease. In this study, we provide evidence that human NGF may also function as a metalloproteinase inhibitor, based on studies of NGF from snake venom. Originally, our aim was to isolate snake venom metalloproteinases targeting platelet...

  18. Proteolysis of the major yolk glycoproteins is regulated by acidification of the yolk platelets in sea urchin embryos. (United States)

    Mallya, S K; Partin, J S; Valdizan, M C; Lennarz, W J


    The precise function of the yolk platelets of sea urchin embryos during early development is unknown. We have shown previously that the chemical composition of the yolk platelets remains unchanged in terms of phospholipid, triglyceride, hexose, sialic acid, RNA, and total protein content after fertilization and early development. However, the platelet is not entirely static because the major 160-kD yolk glycoprotein YP-160 undergoes limited, step-wise proteolytic cleavage during early development. Based on previous studies by us and others, it has been postulated that yolk platelets become acidified during development, leading to the activation of a cathepsin B-like yolk proteinase that is believed to be responsible for the degradation of the major yolk glycoprotein. To investigate this possibility, we studied the effect of addition of chloroquine, which prevents acidification of lysosomes. Consistent with the postulated requirement for acidification, it was found that chloroquine blocked YP-160 breakdown but had no effect on embryonic development. To directly test the possibility that acidification of the yolk platelets over the course of development temporally correlated with YP-160 proteolysis, we added 3-(2,4-dinitroanilo)-3-amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP) to eggs or embryos. This compound localizes to acidic organelles and can be detected in these organelles by EM. The results of these studies revealed that yolk platelets did, in fact, become transiently acidified during development. This acidification occurred at the same time as yolk protein proteolysis, i.e., at 6 h after fertilization (64-cell stage) in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and at 48 h after fertilization (late gastrula) in L. pictus. Furthermore, the pH value at the point of maximal acidification of the yolk platelets in vivo was equal to the pH optimum of the enzyme measured in vitro, indicating that this acidification is sufficient to activate the enzyme. For both S. purpuratus and

  19. Exacerbation of Glycoprotein VI-Dependent Platelet Responses in a Rhesus Monkey Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Arthur


    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a life-threatening complication of diabetes. Platelet reactivity is crucial to thrombus formation, particularly in arterial vessels and in thrombotic complications causing myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke, but diabetic patients often respond poorly to current antiplatelet medication. In this study, we used a nonhuman primate model of Type 1 diabetes to measure early downstream signalling events following engagement of the major platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein (GPVI. Diabetic monkeys were given enough insulin to maintain their blood glucose levels either at ~8 mM (well-controlled diabetes or ~15 mM (poorly controlled diabetes. Flow cytometric analysis was used to measure platelet reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, calcium mobilisation, receptor surface expression, and immature platelet fraction. We observed exacerbated intracellular ROS and calcium flux associated with engagement of GPVI in monkeys with poorly controlled diabetes. GPVI surface levels did not differ between healthy monkeys or the two diabetic groups. Treatment of platelets with the specific Syk inhibitor BAY61-3606 inhibited GPVI-dependent ROS and, importantly, reduced ROS generation in the poorly controlled diabetes group to that observed in healthy monkeys. These data indicate that glycaemic control is important in reducing GPVI-dependent platelet hyperreactivity and point to a potential antithrombotic therapeutic benefit of Syk inhibition in hyperglycaemic diabetes.

  20. Soluble glycoprotein VI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased in the plasma of subjects with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Stack

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA have been shown to cause platelet activation in vitro, through the low-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG receptor (FcγRIIa on platelets. Platelet activation via engagement of FcγRIIa results in proteolytic cleavage and shedding of platelet specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI which can be detected in the plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI. We hypothesized that plasma levels of sGPVI would be increased among patients with seropositive RA as a consequence of antibody-induced platelet activation and GPVI shedding.Samples from 84 patients with RA (65 seropositive and 19 seronegative and 67 healthy controls were collected prospectively and analysed for sGPVI using a standardised ELISA.Patients with seropositive RA had significantly higher levels of sGPVI compared to seronegative RA and controls. Median (IQR sGPVI levels were 4.2 ng/ml (3.2, 8.0 in seropositve RA, 2.2 ng/ml (1.5, 3.5 in seronegative RA and 2.2 ng/ml (1.6, 3.4 in controls (p<0.0001. sGPVI levels correlated with ACPA titres (r = 0.32, p = 0.0026 and with RF titres (r = 0.48, p<0.0001.Plasma sGPVI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased among patients with seropositive RA.

  1. Magnetic Nanoparticle Labeling of Human Platelets from Platelet Concentrates for Recovery and Survival Studies. (United States)

    Aurich, Konstanze; Wesche, Jan; Palankar, Raghavendra; Schlüter, Rabea; Bakchoul, Tamam; Greinacher, Andreas


    Platelets are the smallest blood cells and important for hemostasis. Platelet concentrates (PC) are medicinal products transfused to prevent or treat bleeding. Typically, platelets in PCs are assessed by in vitro tests for their function. However, in vivo testing of these platelets is highly desirable. To distinguish transfused platelets from patients or probands own cells after PC transfusions within the scope of clinical studies, platelets need to be efficiently labeled with minimal preactivation prior to transfusion. Here we report on a method for improved cell uptake of ferucarbotran magnetic nanoparticles contained in Resovist, an FDA-approved MRI contrast agent, by modifying the nanoparticle shell with human serum albumin (HSA). Both HSA-ferucarbotran nanoparticles and magnetically labeled platelets were produced according to EU-GMP guidelines. Platelet function after labeling was evaluated by light transmission aggregometry and by determination of expression of CD62P as platelet activation marker. Magnetic labeling does not impair platelet function and platelets showed reasonable activation response to agonists. Platelet survival studies in NOD/SCID-mice resulted in comparable survival behavior of magnetically labeled and nonlabeled platelets. Additionally, labeled platelets can be recovered from whole blood by magnetic separation.

  2. Mapping paratope on antithrombotic antibody 6B4 to epitope on platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha via molecular dynamic simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Fang

    Full Text Available Binding of platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα to the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (vWF is a critical step in both physiologic hemostasis and pathologic thrombosis, for initiating platelet adhesion to subendothelium of blood vessels at sites of vascular injury. Gain-of-function mutations in GPIbα contribute to an abnormally high-affinity binding of platelets to vWF and can lead to thrombosis, an accurate complication causing heart attack and stroke. Of various antithrombotic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs targeting human GPIbα, 6B4 is a potent one to inhibit the interaction between GPIbα and vWF-A1 under static and flow conditions. Mapping paratope to epitope with mutagenesis experiments, a traditional route in researches of these antithrombotic mAbs, is usually expensive and time-consuming. Here, we suggested a novel computational procedure, which combines with homology modeling, rigid body docking, free and steered molecular dynamics (MD simulations, to identify key paratope residues on 6B4 and their partners on GPIbα, with hypothesis that the stable hydrogen bonds and salt bridges are the important linkers between paratope and epitope residues. Based on a best constructed model of 6B4 bound with GPIbα, the survival ratios and rupture times of all detected hydrogen bonds and salt bridges in binding site were examined via free and steered MD simulations and regarded as indices of thermal and mechanical stabilizations of the bonds, respectively. Five principal paratope residues with their partners were predicted with their high survival ratios and/or long rupture times of involved hydrogen bonds, or with their hydrogen bond stabilization indices ranked in top 5. Exciting, the present results were in good agreement with previous mutagenesis experiment data, meaning a wide application prospect of our novel computational procedure on researches of molecular of basis of ligand-receptor interactions, various antithrombotic mAbs and

  3. Role of zona pellucida glycoproteins during fertilization in humans. (United States)

    Gupta, Satish Kumar


    In the last decade, scientific investigations pertaining to the role of zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins during fertilization in humans have led to new insights. This has been achieved using purified native/recombinant human zona proteins and transgenic mice expressing human ZP glycoproteins. The proposed model in mice of ZP glycoprotein-3 (ZP3) acting as primary sperm receptor and ZP glycoprotein-2 (ZP2) as secondary sperm receptor has been modified for sperm-egg binding in humans. ZP glycoprotein-1 (ZP1), ZP3, and ZP glycoprotein-4 (ZP4) have been shown to bind to the capacitated human sperm. ZP2 binds to the acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa. Further, the eggs obtained from transgenic mice expressing human ZP2 alone or in conjunction with other human instead of mouse zona proteins showed binding of human sperm, suggesting that ZP2 might also play a role in sperm-egg binding. This function has been mapped to a domain corresponding to amino acid residues 51-144 of ZP2. In contrast to mice, where ZP3 is the primary agonist for inducing the acrosome reaction, in humans, the acrosome reaction can be mediated by ZP1, ZP3, and ZP4. The effect of mutations in the genes encoding zona proteins on the ZP morphology and infertility has not been established. Further, the role of autoantibodies against ZP in women with 'unexplained infertility' leading to poor outcome of in vitro fertilization is currently controversial and needs further investigations. Understanding the role of ZP glycoproteins during human fertilization facilitates the development of new contraceptives and strategies to overcome the problem of infertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. P2Y12 Receptor Blockade Augments Glycoprotein IIb‐IIIa Antagonist Inhibition of Platelet Activation, Aggregation, and Procoagulant Activity (United States)

    Berny‐Lang, Michelle A.; Jakubowski, Joseph A.; Sugidachi, Atsuhiro; Barnard, Marc R.; Michelson, Alan D.; Frelinger, Andrew L.


    Background New antiplatelet agents that provide greater, more consistent inhibition of the platelet ADP receptor P2Y12 may be used in combination with glycoprotein (GP) IIb‐IIIa antagonists, but their combined effect on platelet function and procoagulant activity is not well studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the independent and complementary effects of P2Y12 and GPIIb‐IIIa inhibition on platelet function and procoagulant activity. Methods and Results Healthy donor blood was treated with the active metabolite of prasugrel (R‐138727 5 μmol/L), GPIIb‐IIIa antagonists (abciximab 3 μg/mL or eptifibatide 0.9 μg/mL), and combinations thereof, exposed to physiologically relevant agonists (collagen and ADP) and then evaluated for markers of platelet activation and procoagulant activity. Significant interactions between R‐138727 and GPIIb‐IIIa antagonists were observed. R‐138727 and the GPIIb‐IIIa antagonists had additive inhibitory effects on collagen‐stimulated platelet aggregation and on the collagen plus ADP–stimulated level of activated platelet surface GPIIb‐IIIa. R‐138727 and abciximab each inhibited collagen plus ADP–stimulated platelet phosphatidylserine expression and prothrombin cleavage, and the combination produced greater inhibition than achieved with abciximab alone. In contrast, eptifibatide did not inhibit, but instead enhanced, collagen plus ADP–stimulated prothrombin cleavage. Addition of R‐138727 reduced prothrombin cleavage in eptifibatide‐treated samples, suggesting a novel mechanism for potential benefit from combined prasugrel and eptifibatide treatment. Conclusions The complementary effects of abciximab and R‐138727 on platelet activation, aggregation, and procoagulant activity suggest their combined use may, to a greater degree than with either agent alone, reduce thrombus formation in vivo. PMID:23676293

  5. In vitro effects of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists abciximab and eptifibatide on platelet aggregation in healthy cats. (United States)

    Magee, Aliya N; Hogan, Daniel F; Sederquist, Kimberly A; Durham, Jaylyn A


    To determine effects of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists abciximab and eptifibatide on in vitro inhibition of cat platelets. Venous blood samples from 10 healthy cats. Blood samples were anticoagulated with hirudin. Aliquots of whole blood from each cat were allocated to 5 treatments (baseline, 50 μg of abciximab/mL, abciximab volumetric control treatment, 4 μM eptifibatide, and eptifibatide volumetric control treatment). Impedance platelet aggregometry was performed with 6.5 μM ADP or 32 μM thrombin receptor activator peptide (TRAP). Magnitude of platelet aggregation was determined by measuring the area under the curve 15 minutes after addition of ADP or TRAP. Eptifibatide caused a significant reduction in platelet aggregation, compared with baseline values, for aggregometry with both ADP (median, 50.0; range, 8 to 122 [baseline median, 306.0; baseline range, 130 to 664]) and TRAP (median, 75.5; range, 3 to 148 [baseline median, 219.0; baseline range, 97 to 578]). There was no significant difference in platelet aggregation with abciximab, the abciximab volumetric control treatment, or the eptifibatide volumetric control treatment for aggregometry with ADP or TRAP. Eptifibatide caused a significant reduction in platelet aggregation in vitro, but there was no identifiable antiplatelet effect for abciximab. Eptifibatide and abciximab have different binding and inhibitory actions; therefore, it can be hypothesized that abciximab would be ineffective in cats because of a lack of receptor binding, reduced binding kinetics, or lack of downstream signaling. Eptifibatide may be useful in identifying hyperreactive platelets in cats in an in vitro platelet inhibitory assay.

  6. Intracoronary eptifibatide bolus administration during percutaneous coronary revascularization for acute coronary syndromes with evaluation of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy and platelet function: the Intracoronary Eptifibatide (ICE) Trial. (United States)

    Deibele, Albert J; Jennings, Lisa K; Tcheng, James E; Neva, Cathy; Earhart, Angela D; Gibson, C Michael


    Eptifibatide reduces major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intracoronary bolus administration of eptifibatide may result in higher levels of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy in the local coronary bed, disaggregate thrombus in the epicardial artery and microvasculature, and thereby improve coronary flow. Patients undergoing PCI for an acute coronary syndrome were randomized to either intracoronary or intravenous bolus administration of eptifibatide. The primary end point was the local glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy measured in the coronary sinus. There were no angiographic, electrophysiological, or other adverse findings attributable to intracoronary eptifibatide. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy was significantly greater with intracoronary versus intravenous administration: first bolus, 94+/-9% versus 51+/-15% (Peptifibatide during PCI in patients with acute coronary syndromes results in higher local platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy, which is associated with improved microvascular perfusion demonstrated by an improved cTFC.

  7. Genetic heterogeneity of platelet glycoproteins Ia and IIIa and the risk of spontaneous miscarriages. (United States)

    Vlachadis, Nikolaos; Tsamadias, Vasileios; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Kaparos, Georgios; Vitoratos, Nikolaos; Kouskouni, Evaggelia; Economou, Emmanuel


    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the genetic heterogeneity of platelet glycoproteins Ia (GpIa-C807T) and IIIa (GpIIIa-PlA1/PlA2) and spontaneous abortions. Two hundred and twenty two women with a history of unexplained spontaneous miscarriages and no successful pregnancy, and 60 fertile women serving as controls were genotyped for the GpIa-C807T and GpIIIa-PlA1/PlA2 polymorphisms by pyrosequencing. In comparison with the common alleles homozygotes, GpIa-807T and GpIIIa-PlA2 carriers had an increased risk of fetal loss (OR = 3.36, 95%CI: 1.85-6.11, p < 0.001, and OR = 2.58, 95%CI: 1.30-5.13, p = 0.006, respectively). For subjects who were combined carriers of the GpIa-807T and GpIIIa-PlA2 alleles, the risk increased further (OR = 9.13, 95%CI: 2.99-27.82, p < 0.001). The above ORs were highest for women who were younger than 30 years of age. The GpIa-C807T and GpIIIa-PlA1/PlA2 polymorphisms and more pronouncedly their combination are associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortions. The correlations were stronger for younger patients. Our results indicate that GpIa-807T and GpIIIa-PlA2 are susceptibility alleles for fetal loss in the Greek population.

  8. Human Milk Glycoproteins Protect Infants Against Human Pathogens (United States)

    Liu, Bo


    Abstract Breastfeeding protects the neonate against pathogen infection. Major mechanisms of protection include human milk glycoconjugates functioning as soluble receptor mimetics that inhibit pathogen binding to the mucosal cell surface, prebiotic stimulation of gut colonization by favorable microbiota, immunomodulation, and as a substrate for bacterial fermentation products in the gut. Human milk proteins are predominantly glycosylated, and some biological functions of these human milk glycoproteins (HMGPs) have been reported. HMGPs range in size from 14 kDa to 2,000 kDa and include mucins, secretory immunoglobulin A, bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin, butyrophilin, lactadherin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review summarizes known biological roles of HMGPs that may contribute to the ability of human milk to protect neonates from disease. PMID:23697737

  9. Humanizing recombinant glycoproteins from Chinese hamster ovary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Holmgaard; Amann, Thomas; Kol, Stefan

    hamster ovary (CHO) cells are making a very heterogeneous mixture of NGlycans. We speculate that the CHO pattern of N-Glycans would affect half-life and/or efficacy of the glycoprotein in the bloodstream making it unsuitable for human intravenous use, whereas our humanized version would be identical...

  10. Molecular typing of human platelet antigens in immune thrombocytopenia patients in northern Brazil. (United States)

    Carmo, Julia Cavalcante do; Klippel, Prissyla de Souza; Cordeiro, Sabrine da Costa; Fernandes, Ângela Maria Dos Santos; Pinto, Raquel Medeiros; Weber, Simone Schneider; Fantin, Cleiton

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an immune disease characterized by thrombocytopenia and bleeding due to platelet antibodies against platelet membrane glycoproteins. Human platelet antigens are derived from polymorphisms of these glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to investigate human platelet antigen frequencies in immune thrombocytopenia patients from the state of Amazonas, Brazil and investigate the potential association between specific antigens and risk for immune thrombocytopenia. Human platelet antigen typing was performed by BeadChip technology to determine allelic variants of 11 systems (HPA-1 to HPA-9, HPA-11 and HPA-15). Thirty-six patients (8 male and 28 female) with a median age of 34 years (range: 9-69 years) were evaluated and compared with data from Amazonas blood donors. Platelet counts varied from 3 to 98×109/L. The allele frequencies were 0.944 for HPA-1a, 0.056 for HPA-1b, 0.847 for HPA-2a, 0.153 for HPA-2b, 0.555 for HPA-3a, 0.444 for HPA-3b, 0.805 for HPA-5a, 0.222 for HPA-5b, 0.9975 for HPA-9a, 0.025 for HPA-9b, 0.486 for HPA-15a and 0.513 for HPA-15b. Among immune thrombocytopenia individuals, no b allele of the HPA-4, -6, -7, -8 and -11 were found. The results suggest HPA-1a, HPA-3b and HPA-5b are immune thrombocytopenia-specific autoepitopes. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Human blood platelets lack nitric oxide synthase activity. (United States)

    Böhmer, Anke; Gambaryan, Stepan; Tsikas, Dimitrios


    Reports on expression and functionality of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in human blood platelets and erythrocytes are contradictory. We used a specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect NOS activity in human platelets. The method measures simultaneously [(15)N]nitrite and [(15)N]nitrate formed from oxidized (15)N-labeled nitric oxide ((15)NO) upon its NOS-catalyzed formation from the substrate l-[guanidino-(15)N2]-arginine. Using this GC-MS assay, we did not detect functional NOS in non-stimulated platelets and in intact platelets activated by various agonists (adenosine diphosphate, collagen, thrombin, or von Willebrand factor) or lysed platelets. l-[guanidino-nitro]-Arginine-inhibitable NOS activity was measured after addition of recombinant human endothelial NOS to lysed platelets. Previous and recent studies from our group challenge expression and functionality of NOS in human platelets and erythrocytes.

  12. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the

  13. Case-control study of platelet glycoprotein receptor Ib and IIb/IIIa expression in patients with acute and chronic cerebrovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraft

    Full Text Available Animal models have been instrumental in defining thrombus formation, including the role of platelet surface glycoprotein (GP receptors, in acute ischemic stroke (AIS. However, the involvement of GP receptors in human ischemic stroke pathophysiology and their utility as biomarkers for ischemic stroke risk and severity requires elucidation.To determine whether platelet GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptors are differentially expressed in patients with AIS and chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD compared with healthy volunteers (HV and to identify predictors of GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa expression.This was a case-control study of 116 patients with AIS or transient ischemic attack (TIA, 117 patients with CCD, and 104 HV who were enrolled at our University hospital from 2010 to 2013. Blood sampling was performed once in the CCD and HV groups, and at several time points in patients with AIS or TIA. Linear regression and analysis of variance were used to analyze correlations between platelet GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers and demographic and clinical parameters.GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers did not significantly differ between the AIS, CCD, and HV groups. GPIb receptor expression level correlated significantly with the magnitude of GPIIb/IIIa receptor expression and the neutrophil count. In contrast, GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers were not associated with peripheral immune-cell sub-population counts. C-reactive protein was an independent predictor of GPIIb/IIIa (not GPIb receptor numbers.Platelet GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers did not distinguish between patient or control groups in this study, negating their potential use as a biomarker for predicting stroke risk.

  14. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. (Univ. of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))


    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  15. Role of 14-3-3ζ in Platelet Glycoprotein Ibα-von Willebrand Factor Interaction-Induced Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesheng Dai


    Full Text Available The interaction of platelet glycoprotein (GP Ib-IX with von Willebrand factor (VWF exposed at the injured vessel wall or atherosclerotic plaque rupture initiates platelet transient adhesion to the injured vessel wall, which triggers intracellular signaling cascades leading to platelet activation and thrombus formation. 14-3-3ζ has been verified to regulate the VWF binding function of GPIb-IX by interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of GPIb-IX. However, the data regarding the role of 14-3-3ζ in GPIb-IX-VWF interaction-induced signaling still remain controversial. In the present study, the data indicate that the S609A mutation replacing Ser609 of GPIbα with alanine (S609A significantly prevented the association of 14-3-3ζ with GPIbα before and after the VWF binding to GPIbα. GPIb-IX-VWF interaction-induced activations of Src family kinases and protein kinase C were clearly reduced in S609A mutation. Furthermore, S609A mutation significantly inhibited GPIb-IX-VWF interaction-induced elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels in flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, these data indicate that the association of 14-3-3ζ with the cytoplasmic domain of GPIbα plays an important role in GPIb-IX-VWF interaction-induced signaling.

  16. Artificial MiRNA Knockdown of Platelet Glycoprotein lbα: A Tool for Platelet Gene Silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Thijs

    Full Text Available In recent years, candidate genes and proteins implicated in platelet function have been identified by various genomic approaches. To elucidate their exact role, we aimed to develop a method to apply miRNA interference in platelet progenitor cells by using GPIbα as a proof-of-concept target protein. After in silico and in vitro screening of siRNAs targeting GPIbα (siGPIBAs, we developed artificial miRNAs (miGPIBAs, which were tested in CHO cells stably expressing GPIb-IX complex and megakaryoblastic DAMI cells. Introduction of siGPIBAs in CHO GPIb-IX cells resulted in 44 to 75% and up to 80% knockdown of GPIbα expression using single or combined siRNAs, respectively. Conversion of siGPIBAs to miGPIBAs resulted in reduced silencing efficiency, which could however be circumvented by tandem integration of two hairpins targeting different regions of GPIBA mRNA where 72% GPIbα knockdown was achieved. CHO GPIb-IX cells transfected with the miGPIBA construct displayed a significant decrease in their ability to aggregate characterized by lower aggregate numbers and size compared to control CHO GPIb-IX cells. More importantly, we successfully silenced GPIbα in differentiating megakaryoblastic DAMI cells that exhibited morphological changes associated with actin organization. In conclusion, we here report the successful use of miRNA technology to silence a platelet protein in megakaryoblastic cells and demonstrate its usefulness in functional assays. Hence, we believe that artificial miRNAs are suitable tools to unravel the role of a protein of interest in stem cells, megakaryocytes and platelets, thereby expanding their application to novel fields of basic and translational research.

  17. HPW-RX40 prevents human platelet activation by attenuating cell surface protein disulfide isomerases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsiung Kung


    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI present at platelet surfaces has been considered to play an important role in the conformational change and activation of the integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa and thus enhances platelet aggregation. Growing evidences indicated that platelet surface PDI may serve as a potential target for developing of a new class of antithrombotic agents. In the present study, we investigated the effects of HPW-RX40, a chemical derivative of β-nitrostyrene, on platelet activation and PDI activity. HPW-RX40 inhibited platelet aggregation, GPIIb/IIIa activation, and P-selectin expression in human platelets. Moreover, HPW-RX40 reduced thrombus formation in human whole blood under flow conditions, and protects mice from FeCl3-induced carotid artery occlusion. HPW-RX40 inhibited the activity of recombinant PDI family proteins (PDI, ERp57, and ERp5 as well as suppressed cell surface PDI activity of platelets in a reversible manner. Exogenous addition of PDI attenuated the inhibitory effect of HPW-RX40 on GPIIb/IIIa activation. Structure-based molecular docking simulations indicated that HPW-RX40 binds to the active site of PDI by forming hydrogen bonds. In addition, HPW-RX40 neither affected the cell viability nor induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in human cancer A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that HPW-RX40 is a reversible and non-cytotoxic PDI inhibitor with antiplatelet effects, and it may have a potential for development of novel antithrombotic agents.

  18. A serine-rich glycoprotein of Streptococcus sanguis mediates adhesion to platelets via GPIb

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plummer Christopher; Wu Hui; Kerrigan Steven W; Meade Gerardene; Cox Dermot; Ian Douglas C. W


    Summary Streptococcus sanguis is the most common oral bacterium causing infective endocarditis and its ability to adhere to platelets, leading to their activation and aggregation, is thought to be an...

  19. A Cdc42/RhoA regulatory circuit downstream of glycoprotein Ib guides transendothelial platelet biogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dütting, Sebastian; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frederique; Stegner, David


    Blood platelets are produced by large bone marrow (BM) precursor cells, megakaryocytes (MKs), which extend cytoplasmic protrusions (proplatelets) into BM sinusoids. The molecular cues that control MK polarization towards sinusoids and limit transendothelial crossing to proplatelets remain unknown....... Our results may open new avenues for the treatment of platelet production disorders and help to explain the thrombocytopenia in patients with Bernard-Soulier syndrome, a bleeding disorder caused by defects in GPIb-IX-V....

  20. Role of Siglec-7 in apoptosis in human platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Anh Nguyen

    Full Text Available Platelets participate in tissue repair and innate immune responses. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs are well-characterized I-type lectins, which control apoptosis.We characterized the expression of Siglec-7 in human platelets isolated from healthy volunteers using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Siglec-7 is primarily expressed on α granular membranes and colocalized with CD62P. Siglec-7 expression was increased upon platelet activation and correlated closely with CD62P expression. Cross-linking Siglec-7 with its ligand, ganglioside, resulted in platelet apoptosis without any significant effects on activation, aggregation, cell morphology by electron microscopy analysis or secretion. We show that ganglioside triggered four key pathways leading to apoptosis in human platelets: (i mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (ΔΨm depolarization; (ii elevated expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak proteins with reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein; (iii phosphatidylserine exposure and (iv, microparticle formation. Inhibition of NAPDH oxidase, PI3K, or PKC rescued platelets from apoptosis induced by Siglec-7 recruitment, suggesting that the platelet receptors P2Y1 and GPIIbIIIa are essential for ganglioside-induced platelet apoptosis.The present work characterizes the role of Siglec-7 and platelet receptors in regulating apoptosis and death. Because some platelet pathology involves apoptosis (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and possibly storage lesions, Siglec-7 might be a molecular target for therapeutic intervention/prevention.

  1. Aggregation of human platelets and adhesion of Streptococcus sanguis. (United States)

    Herzberg, M C; Brintzenhofe, K L; Clawson, C C


    Platelet vegetations or thrombi are common findings in subacute bacterial endocarditis. We investigated the hypothesis that human platelets selectively bind or adhere strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans and aggregate, as a result, into an in vitro thrombus. Earlier ultrastructural studies suggested that aggregation of platelets over time by Staphylococcus aureus was preceded in order by adhesion and platelet activation. We uncoupled the adhesion step from activation and aggregation in our studies by incubating streptococci with platelet ghosts in a simple, quantitative assay. Adhesion was shown to be mediated by protease-sensitive components on the streptococci and platelet ghosts rather than cell surface carbohydrates or dextrans, plasma components, or divalent cations. The same streptococci were also studied by standard aggregometry techniques. Platelet-rich plasma was activated and aggregated by certain isolates of S. sanguis. Platelet ghosts bound the same strains selectively under Ca2+- and plasma-depleted conditions. Fresh platelets could activate after washing, but Ca2+ had to be restored. Aggregation required fresh platelets in Ca2+-restored plasma and was inducible by washed streptococcal cell walls. These reactions in the binding and aggregometry assays were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Surface microfibrils on intact S. sanguis were identified. These appendages appeared to bind S. sanguis to platelets. The selectivity of adhesion of the various S. sanguis strains to platelet ghosts or Ca2+- and plasma-depleted fresh washed platelets was similar for all donors. Thus, the platelet binding site was expressed widely in the population and was unlikely to be an artifact of membrane aging or preparation. Since selective adhesion of S. sanguis to platelets was apparently required for aggregation, it is suggested that functionally defined receptors for ligands on certain strains of S. sanguis may be present on human

  2. A critical role for the regulation of Syk from agglutination to aggregation in human platelets. (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jeng


    Agglucetin, a tetrameric glycoprotein (GP) Ibα agonist from Formosan Agkistrodon acutus venom, has been characterized as an agglutination inducer in human washed platelets (WPs). In platelet-rich plasma (PRP), agglucetin dramatically elicits a biphasic response of agglutination and subsequent aggregation. For clarifying the intracellular signaling events from agglutination to aggregation in human platelets, we examined the essential signaling molecules involved through the detection of protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP). In WPs, an anti-GPIbα monoclonal antibody (mAb) AP1, but not a Src kinase inhibitor PP1, completely inhibited agglucetin-induced agglutination. However, PP1 but not AP1 had a potent suppression on platelet aggregation by a GPVI activator convulxin. The PTP analyses showed agglucetin alone can cause a weak pattern involving sequential phosphorylation of Lyn/Fyn, Syk, SLP-76 and phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2). Furthermore, a Syk-selective kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, significantly suppressed the aggregating response in agglucetin-activated PRP. Analyzed by flow cytometry, the binding capacity of fluorophore-conjugated PAC-1, a mAb recognizing activated integrin αIIbβ3, was shown to increase in agglucetin-stimulated platelets. Again, piceatannol but not PP1 had a concentration-dependent suppression on agglucetin-induced αIIbβ3 exposure. Moreover, the formation of signalosome, including Syk, SLP-76, VAV, adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) and PLCγ2, are required for platelet aggregation in agglucetin/fibrinogen-activated platelets. In addition, GPIbα-ligation via agglucetin can substantially promote the interactions between αIIbβ3 and fibrinogen. Therefore, the signal pathway of Lyn/Fyn/Syk/SLP-76/ADAP/VAV/PLCγ2/PKC is sufficient to trigger platelet aggregation in agglucetin/fibrinogen-pretreated platelets. Importantly, Syk may function as a major regulator for the response from GPIbα-initiated agglutination to

  3. Comprehensive comparison of neonate and adult human platelet transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Caparrós-Pérez

    Full Text Available Understanding the underlying mechanisms of the well-substantiated platelet hyporeactivity in neonates is of interest given their implications for the clinical management of newborns, a population at higher bleeding risk than adults (especially sick and preterm infants, as well as for gaining insight into the regulatory mechanisms of platelet biology. Transcriptome analysis is useful in identifying mRNA signatures affecting platelet function. However, human fetal/neonatal platelet transcriptome analysis has never before been reported. We have used mRNA expression array for the first time to compare platelet transcriptome changes during development. Microarray analysis was performed in pure platelet RNA obtained from adult and cord blood, using the same platform in two independent laboratories. A high correlation was obtained between array results for both adult and neonate platelet samples. There was also good agreement between results in our adult samples and outcomes previously reported in three different studies. Gene enrichment analysis showed that immunity- and platelet function-related genes are highly expressed at both developmental stages. Remarkably, 201 genes were found to be differentially expressed throughout development. In particular, neonatal platelets contain higher levels of mRNA that are associated with protein synthesis and processing, while carrying significantly lower levels of genes involved in calcium transport/metabolism and cell signaling (including GNAZ. Overall, our results point to variations in platelet transcriptome as possibly underlining the hypo-functional phenotype of neonatal platelets and provide further support for the role of platelets in cellular immune response. Better characterization of the platelet transcriptome throughout development can contribute to elucidate how transcriptome changes impact different pathological conditions.

  4. Isoforms of purified methyltransferase from human blood platelets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A membrane-bound protein with N-methyltransferase activity, associated with phospholipid metabolism, has been isolated from purified human blood platelet plasma membranes. The activity of this enzyme has been detected in crude platelet preparations. However, the nature and properties of this enzyme and its ...

  5. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus, Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ming Lee


    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.. Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 formation, hydroxyl radical (OH● formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. In vitro effect of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies on P-selectin expression, a marker of platelet activation


    Hoxha, A.; M. Tonello; E. Falcinelli; Giannini, S.; A. Ruffatti; A. Bontadi; P. Gresele; L. Punzi


    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) associated with thromboembolic events and/or pregnancy morbidity characterize the so-called antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Beta2glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is the main target antigen for aPL, but the pathogenic role of anti-β2GPI antibodies (aβ2GPI) is still unclear. Some authors assume they play a role in activating platelets. We evaluated the effects of aβ2GPI antibodies on platelet P-selectin expression. Aβ2GPI antibodies in the plasma of a pregnant APS patie...

  7. Influence of genetic variations in platelet glycoproteins and eNOS in the development of arterial ischaemia of lower limbs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. (United States)

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Ruivães, Ema; Pina-Cabral, Luis Bernardo; Mesquita, Bárbara; Oliveira, Flávio; Monteiro, Maria Céu; Criado, Maria Begoña


    Endothelial and platelet dysfunction increase the atherothrombotic risk in diabetes mellitus patients. Therefore, arterial ischaemia of lower limbs is an important complication in diabetes mellitus. In the present work, type 2 diabetic patients were classified by a podiatrist into presence or absence of arterial ischaemia of lower limbs. Several polymorphisms in platelet glycoproteins and eNOS genes were evaluated. Our results suggest that the -5CC genotype in Kozak sequence of GPIbα may be associated with a higher risk of developing arterial ischaemia of lower limbs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of uptake of adenosine into human blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, J.P.M.; Sixma, J.J.; Trieschnigg, A.C.


    Adenosine transport into human blood platelets is mediated by two independent systems with different affinities. Both systems transport only purine nucleosides and no pyrimidine nucleosides. In experiments with differently substituted purine nucleosides, purines and analogues, differences in carrier

  9. Haemocompatibility testing of biomaterials using human platelets. (United States)

    Jung, F; Braune, S; Lendlein, A


    Cardiovascular implants are increasingly important in regenerative medicine. To improve the safety and function of blood-contacting implants a major need exists for new polymer-based biomaterials that avoid adverse reactions, particularly thrombotic events. This review is aimed to summarize the multi-stepped and interlinked processes leading to a thrombus growth on body foreign surfaces: protein adsorption, platelet adhesion accompanied by activation and spreading and the release of substances of various organelles activating other neighboured platelets (and the plasmatic coagulation) leading to the formation of a plug of platelets and, finally, to a thrombus.

  10. Inhibition of Glycoprotein VI Clustering by Collagen as a Mechanism of Inhibiting Collagen-Induced Platelet Responses: The Example of Losartan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    Full Text Available Exposure of platelets to collagen triggers the formation of a platelet clot. Pharmacological agents capable of inhibiting platelet activation by collagen are thus of potential therapeutic interest. Thrombus formation is initiated by the interaction of the GPIb-V-IX complex with collagen-bound vWF, while GPVI interaction with collagen triggers platelet activation that is reinforced by ADP and thromboxane A2. Losartan is an angiotensin II (Ang II type I receptor (AT1R antagonist proposed to have an antiplatelet activity via the inhibition of both the thromboxane A2 (TXA2 receptor (TP and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI. Here, we characterized in vitro the effects of losartan at different doses on platelet responses: losartan inhibited platelet aggregation and secretion induced by 1 μg . mL(-1 and 10 μg . mL(-1 of collagen with an IC50 of ~ 6 μM. Losartan inhibited platelet responses induced by the GPVI specific collagen related peptide but not by the α2β1 specific peptide. However, losartan did not inhibit the binding of recombinant GPVI to collagen, which is not in favor of a simple competition. Indeed, the clustering of GPVI observed in flow cytometry and using the Duolink methodology, was inhibited by losartan. The impact of a therapeutic dose of losartan (100 mg/day on platelet responses was analyzed ex vivo in a double blind study. No statistically significant differences were observed between losartan-treated (n=25 and non-treated (n=30 patients in terms of collagen and U46619-induced platelet activation. These data indicate that in treated patients, losartan does not achieve a measurable antiplatelet effect but provide the proof of concept that inhibiting collagen-induced GPVI clustering is of pharmacological interest to obtain an antithrombotic NCT00763893.

  11. Inhibition of Glycoprotein VI Clustering by Collagen as a Mechanism of Inhibiting Collagen-Induced Platelet Responses: The Example of Losartan (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Loyau, Stéphane; Tchitchinadze, Maria; Ropers, Jacques; Jondeau, Guillaume; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine


    Exposure of platelets to collagen triggers the formation of a platelet clot. Pharmacological agents capable of inhibiting platelet activation by collagen are thus of potential therapeutic interest. Thrombus formation is initiated by the interaction of the GPIb-V-IX complex with collagen-bound vWF, while GPVI interaction with collagen triggers platelet activation that is reinforced by ADP and thromboxane A2. Losartan is an angiotensin II (Ang II) type I receptor (AT1R) antagonist proposed to have an antiplatelet activity via the inhibition of both the thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP) and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Here, we characterized in vitro the effects of losartan at different doses on platelet responses: losartan inhibited platelet aggregation and secretion induced by 1 μg.mL-1 and 10 μg.mL-1 of collagen with an IC50 of ~ 6 μM. Losartan inhibited platelet responses induced by the GPVI specific collagen related peptide but not by the α2β1 specific peptide. However, losartan did not inhibit the binding of recombinant GPVI to collagen, which is not in favor of a simple competition. Indeed, the clustering of GPVI observed in flow cytometry and using the Duolink methodology, was inhibited by losartan. The impact of a therapeutic dose of losartan (100 mg/day) on platelet responses was analyzed ex vivo in a double blind study. No statistically significant differences were observed between losartan-treated (n=25) and non-treated (n=30) patients in terms of collagen and U46619-induced platelet activation. These data indicate that in treated patients, losartan does not achieve a measurable antiplatelet effect but provide the proof of concept that inhibiting collagen-induced GPVI clustering is of pharmacological interest to obtain an antithrombotic efficacy. Trial Registration NCT00763893 PMID:26052700

  12. In vitro effect of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies on P-selectin expression, a marker of platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoxha


    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL associated with thromboembolic events and/or pregnancy morbidity characterize the so-called antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. Beta2glycoprotein I (β2GPI is the main target antigen for aPL, but the pathogenic role of anti-β2GPI antibodies (aβ2GPI is still unclear. Some authors assume they play a role in activating platelets. We evaluated the effects of aβ2GPI antibodies on platelet P-selectin expression. Aβ2GPI antibodies in the plasma of a pregnant APS patient were isolated by affinity chromatography at two different stages (catastrophic and quiescent of the disease. Gel filtered platelets (100 x 109/L from healthy volunteers were incubated with β2-GPI (20 µg/mL and with different concentrations (5. 25 and 50 µg/mL of aβ2GPI antibodies. P-selectin surface expression on platelets was assessed by flow cytometry using a specific fluorescent antibody directed against P-selectin. Aβ2GPI antibodies induced platelet activation only in the presence of thrombin receptor activator for peptide 6 (TRAP-6, a platelet agonist, at a subthreshold concentration. Aβ2GPI antibody enhancement on platelet surface P-selectin expression was stronger in the catastrophic than in the quiescent phase of the disease (47 vs 15%. TRAP-6 dependent platelet activation by aβ2GPI antibodies is consistent with the “two hit” pathogenetic hypothesis for thrombosis. Aβ2GPI antibodies induce higher platelet P-selectin expression during the active rather than the acute phases.

  13. Platelet binding and biodistribution of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin in animal species and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)], E-mail:; Romano, Jan E. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Bright, Lewis T.; Agelan, Alexis [University Laboratory Animal Resources, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Kantor, Steven; Maurer, Alan H. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)


    Introduction: {sup 99m}Tc recombinant bitistatin (rBitistatin) is a radioligand for {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} (glycoproteins IIb/IIIa) receptor on platelets and is being developed as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for in vivo imaging of acute thrombi and emboli. Prior to the first administration of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin to human subjects, its biodistribution and effects on platelets were evaluated in animals. This paper reports findings in animal studies in comparison with initial findings in normal human subjects. Methods: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was administered to mice, guinea pigs and dogs to assess time-dependent organ distribution, urinary excretion and blood disappearance rates. Blood samples were analyzed to determine radioligand binding to circulating platelets and the extent of plasma protein binding. The effect of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin on circulating platelet count was determined. These factors were also determined in normal human subjects who received [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin as part of a Phase I clinical trial. Results: The main organs that accumulated [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin were kidneys, liver and spleen in all animal species and humans. The main organs seen on human images were the kidneys and spleen. Liver uptake was fainter, and soft-tissue background was low. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin bound to circulating platelets in blood, with a higher percentage of binding to platelets in guinea pigs and dogs compared to that in humans. Plasma protein binding was low and of little consequence in view of platelet binding. The main route of excretion was through the urine. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin did not affect platelet counts in humans or dogs. Conclusions: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin, when administered at low doses for imaging, has no adverse effects on platelets and has the qualitative biodistribution predicted by animal studies. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was found to bind to circulating platelets in humans, suggesting that it will be able to bind

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated conversion of human platelet alloantigen allotypes. (United States)

    Zhang, Nanyan; Zhi, Huiying; Curtis, Brian R; Rao, Sridhar; Jobaliya, Chintan; Poncz, Mortimer; French, Deborah L; Newman, Peter J


    Human platelet alloantigens (HPAs) reside on functionally important platelet membrane glycoproteins and are caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes that encode them. Antibodies that form against HPAs are responsible for several clinically important alloimmune bleeding disorders, including fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and posttransfusion purpura. The HPA-1a/HPA-1b alloantigen system, also known as the Pl(A1)/Pl(A2) polymorphism, is the most frequently implicated HPA among whites, and a single Leu33Pro amino acid polymorphism within the integrin β3 subunit is responsible for generating the HPA-1a/HPA-1b alloantigenic epitopes. HPA-1b/b platelets, like those bearing other low-frequency platelet-specific alloantigens, are relatively rare in the population and difficult to obtain for purposes of transfusion therapy and diagnostic testing. We used CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9) gene-editing technology to transform Leu33 (+) megakaryocytelike DAMI cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to the Pro33 allotype. CD41(+) megakaryocyte progenitors derived from these cells expressed the HPA-1b (Pl(A2)) alloantigenic epitope, as reported by diagnostic NciI restriction enzyme digestion, DNA sequencing, and western blot analysis using HPA-1b-specific human maternal alloantisera. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to genetically edit this and other clinically-important HPAs holds great potential for production of designer platelets for diagnostic, investigative, and, ultimately, therapeutic use. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. A three-base deletion removing a leucine residue in a leucine-rich repeat of platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha associated with a variant of Bernard-Soulier syndrome (Nancy I). (United States)

    de la Salle, C; Baas, M J; Lanza, F; Schwartz, A; Hanau, D; Chevalier, J; Gachet, C; Briquel, M E; Cazenave, J P


    Leucine-rich repeats are conserved structural motifs present in the four components of the human platelet glycoprotein Ib/IX/V complex receptor for the adhesive protein von Willebrand factor. The absence or abnormality of this complex is responsible for Bernard-Soulier disease, an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder. We report a deletion of leucine 179, located in a highly conserved position of the seventh leucine-rich repeat of GPIb alpha, found in a variant form of Bernard-Soulier disease (Bernard-Soulier Nancy I). Three affected siblings of a family were characterized by absence of ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, although ADP aggregation was normal. Flow cytometry studies showed detectable amounts of all four members of the GPIb/IX/V complex on the surface of the patients' platelets. Western blotting revealed normal levels of GPIX, decreased levels of GPIb beta and GPV, and < 1% of GPIb alpha. RT-PCR studies showed the presence of mRNA coding for GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, GPIX and GPV. Sequencing showed a three-base deletion which results in the absence of a leucine residue, highly conserved across the seven leucine-rich repeats of GPIb alpha and also within the other members of the leucine-rich glycoprotein family. The absence of the leucine 179 in a patient's GPIb alpha is believed to cause a conformational change in the protein which would account for the lack of binding of most of the MoAbs tested and would be responsible for the absence of von Willebrand factor binding. These results point to the leucine-rich region of GPIb alpha as being required for the correct exposure of the von Willebrand binding site as well as for the correct assembly and stability of the GPIb/IX/V complex on the platelet surface.

  16. Human Platelet Antigen Genotyping and Expression of CD109 (Human Platelet Antigen 15 mRNA in Various Human Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Mee Hwang


    Full Text Available CD109 gene encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein found in a subset of platelets and endothelial cell, and human platelet antigen (HPA 15 is found on CD109. We evaluated the HPA genotype and/or the CD109 mRNA expression on two peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, two peripheral bloods (PB, 12 granulocyte products, natural killer (NK-92, B-lymphocyte (CO88BV59-1, K-562 leukemia cell line, human embryonic stem cell (hESC, and human fibroblasts (HF. HPA genotyping was performed by SNaPshot assay and CD109 mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR with SYBR green and melting curve analysis. Genotype HPA-15a/-15a was found in PBSC#1 and two granulocyte products, and HPA-15a/-15b was found in PBSC#2, eight granulocyte products, NK-92, K-562, hESC, and HF, and HPA-15b/-15b was found in two granulocyte products. CD109 mRNA expression was highly increased in HF and increased in CD34+ and CD34− PBSCs and some granulocyte products, compared to the PB. However, the increase of expression level varied among the PBSC and granulocyte products. The CD109 mRNA expression of NK-92, K-562, hESC, and CO 88BV59-1 was not detected. HPA genotype was evaluated in various cells and the expression of CD109, which contains HPA 15, was different among cell lines and high in HF and PBSCs.

  17. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.


    The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay.

  18. Molecular evidence for human alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG) polymorphism. (United States)

    Osawa, M; Umetsu, K; Ohki, T; Nagasawa, T; Suzuki, T; Takeichi, S


    Alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG) is a human plasma glycoprotein that exhibits genetic polymorphism on isoelectric focusing (IEF). To identify the origin of two common alleles, AHSG*1 and *2, we examined nucleotide exchanges in the gene. AHSG cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR from poly(A) RNA of seven liver tissue samples and subcloned into a plasmid vector. After sequencing, we found six single nucleotide differences in comparison with the originally reported sequence. In particular, the nucleotide substitutions of C to T at amino acid position 230 and C to G at position 238 were common among the samples exhibiting phenotype 2-1 or 2. Since these substitutions might give rise to a NlaIII site and a SacI site, respectively, for the potential AHSG*2, we analyzed these substitutions by PCR-RFLP using genomic DNA of 68 individuals. The result was consistent with the IEF analysis of the corresponding serum, indicating that AHSG*1 was characterized by ACG (Thr) at position 230 in exon 6 and ACC (Thr) at position 238 in exon 7, and that AHSG*2 was characterized by ATG (Met) at position 230 and AGC (Ser) at position 238.

  19. The human platelet alloantigen profile in blood donors from Amazonas, Brazil. (United States)

    Portela, C N; Schriefer, A; Albuquerque, S R L; Perdomo, R T; Parente, A F A; Weber, S S


    Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are alloantigens derived from polymorphisms in platelet-surface glycoproteins. The occurrence of alloantibodies against HPAs can lead to platelet destruction and subsequent thrombocytopenia. Brazilians have a high rate of racial admixture, and the knowledge of HPA polymorphisms in particular donors from north Brazil, who have a large Amerindian influence, is a relevant strategy to prevent alloimmunisation. Our aim was investigate the HPA allele's frequencies in the Amazonas blood donors. We performed HPA genotyping among 200 Amazonas blood donors by microarray for 11 HPA biallelic systems, including six of the most clinically significant systems (HPA-1 to -5 and -15) and five others (HPA-6 to -9 and -11) that have been also associated with alloimmunisation, amounting to 22 HPA alleles. The obtained allele frequencies were compared with data of 38 populations worldwide to determine the hierarchical relationship and estimated the probability of mismatch platelets. The allele frequencies were 0·862 for HPA-1a, 0·137 for HPA-1b, 0·852 for HPA-2a, 0·147 for HPA-2b, 0·665 for HPA-3a, 0·335 for HPA-3b, 0·995 for HPA-4a, 0·005 for HPA-4b, 0·892 for HPA-5a, 0·107 for HPA-5b, 0·997 for HPA-9a, 0·005 for HPA-9b, 0·502 for HPA-15a and 0·497 for HPA-15b. The incompatibility risks are higher for HPA-15 and HPA-3, followed by HPA-1, -2 and -5. We found differences among populations worldwide, and it is interesting to note the indigenous and European influences in this region, reinforcing the heterogeneity in the ancestry of Brazilians. The results will be helpful in providing information for platelet transfusion to avoid alloimmunisation. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Aluminum induces lipid peroxidation and aggregation of human blood platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva T.J.C.


    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ intoxication is thought to play a major role in the development of Alzheimer's disease and in certain pathologic manifestations arising from long-term hemodialysis. Although the metal does not present redox capacity, it can stimulate tissue lipid peroxidation in animal models. Furthermore, in vitro studies have revealed that the fluoroaluminate complex induces diacylglycerol formation, 43-kDa protein phosphorylation and aggregation. Based on these observations, we postulated that Al3+-induced blood platelet aggregation was mediated by lipid peroxidation. Using chemiluminescence (CL of luminol as an index of total lipid peroxidation capacity, we established a correlation between lipid peroxidation capacity and platelet aggregation. Al3+ (20-100 µM stimulated CL production by human blood platelets as well as their aggregation. Incubation of the platelets with the antioxidants nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA (100 µM and n-propyl gallate (NPG (100 µM, inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, completely prevented CL and platelet aggregation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA (100 µM, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, was a weaker inhibitor of both events. These findings suggest that Al3+ stimulates lipid peroxidation and the lipoxygenase pathway in human blood platelets thereby causing their aggregation

  1. Cellular source of human platelet secretory phospholipase A2. (United States)

    Emadi, S; Mirshahi, M; Elalamy, I; Nicolas, C; Vargaftig, B B; Hatmi, M


    Platelets are one source of the group II extracellular form of phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) which is involved in the amplification of local and systemic inflammation. Although sPLA2 protein has been described in human platelets, its presence in human megakaryocytes has not been yet established. We demonstrated in this study that the human erythroleukaemia (HEL) cell line, which has megakaryoblastic features, constitutively expresses sPLA2. Using an anti-rhsPLA2 monoclonal antibody (mAb BA11) and dot-blot detection, we showed that HEL cells and platelets release sPLA2 into incubation medium upon stimulation by thrombin. Similar results were obtained for sPLA2 activity detected by a spectrofluorescence assay. Enzymatic activity was abolished by mAb BA11 and by protamine. In both cell types, although released, the major part of sPLA2 remained in the cell pellet, and was probably adsorbed at non-specific membrane sites. Double labelling experiments using mAb BA11 and an anti-GPIIb antiserum revealed the presence of sPLA2 in human bone-marrow megakaryocytes. The use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction conjugated with hybridization analysis demonstrated the presence of mRNA encoding for sPLA2 in platelets and HEL cells. Expression of sPLA2 in platelets and megakaryocytes at both transcriptional and post-translational levels strongly argues in favour of a megakaryocytic origin of platelet sPLA2 and rules out a role for endocytosis of the enzyme from plasma by circulating platelets.

  2. Crystal Structure of the Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi G Burke


    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, a dsDNA, enveloped virus, is a ubiquitous pathogen that establishes lifelong latent infections and caused disease in persons with compromised immune systems, e.g., organ transplant recipients or AIDS patients. HCMV is also a leading cause of congenital viral infections in newborns. Entry of HCMV into cells requires the conserved glycoprotein B (gB, thought to function as a fusogen and reported to bind signaling receptors. gB also elicits a strong immune response in humans and induces the production of neutralizing antibodies although most anti-gB Abs are non-neutralizing. Here, we report the crystal structure of the HCMV gB ectodomain determined to 3.6-Å resolution, which is the first atomic-level structure of any betaherpesvirus glycoprotein. The structure of HCMV gB resembles the postfusion structures of HSV-1 and EBV homologs, establishing it as a new member of the class III viral fusogens. Despite structural similarities, each gB has a unique domain arrangement, demonstrating structural plasticity of gB that may accommodate virus-specific functional requirements. The structure illustrates how extensive glycosylation of the gB ectodomain influences antibody recognition. Antigenic sites that elicit neutralizing antibodies are more heavily glycosylated than those that elicit non-neutralizing antibodies, which suggest that HCMV gB uses glycans to shield neutralizing epitopes while exposing non-neutralizing epitopes. This glycosylation pattern may have evolved to direct the immune response towards generation of non-neutralizing antibodies thus helping HCMV to avoid clearance. HCMV gB structure provides a starting point for elucidation of its antigenic and immunogenic properties and aid in the design of recombinant vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies.

  3. Ophioluxin, a convulxin-like C-type lectin from Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) is a powerful platelet activator via glycoprotein VI. (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Yan; Clemetson, Jeannine M; Navdaev, Alexei; Magnenat, Edith M; Wells, Timothy N C; Clemetson, Kenneth J


    Ophioluxin, a potent platelet agonist, was purified from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra). Under nonreducing conditions it has a mass of 85 kDa, similar to convulxin, and on reduction gives two subunits with masses of 16 and 17 kDa, slightly larger than those of convulxin. The N-terminal sequences of both subunits are very similar to those of convulxin and other C-type lectins. Ophioluxin induces a pattern of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in platelets like that caused by convulxin, when using appropriate concentrations based on aggregation response, because it is about 2-4 times more powerful as agonist than the latter. Ophioluxin and convulxin induce [Ca(2+)](i) elevation both in platelets and in Dami megakaryocytic cells, and each of these C-type lectins desensitizes responses to the other. Convulxin agglutinates fixed platelets at 2 microg/ml, whereas ophioluxin does not, even at 80 microg/ml. Ophioluxin resembles convulxin more than echicetin or alboaggregin B because polyclonal anti-ophioluxin antibodies recognize both ophioluxin and convulxin, but not echicetin, and platelets adhere to and spread on ophioluxin- or convulxin-precoated surfaces in the same way that is clearly different from their behavior on an alboaggregin B surface. Immobilized ophioluxin was used to isolate the glycoprotein VI-Fcgamma complex from resting platelets, which also contained Fyn, Lyn, Syk, LAT, and SLP76. Ophioluxin is the first multiheterodimeric, convulxin-like snake C-type lectin, as well as the first platelet agonist, to be described from the Elapidae snake family.

  4. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity. (United States)

    Torreggiani, E; Perut, F; Roncuzzi, L; Zini, N; Baglìo, S R; Baldini, N


    Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet lysate (PL) in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF) released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one of the effectors of PL activity. Exosomes were isolated from human PL by differential ultracentrifugation, and analysed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) treated with three different exosome concentrations (0.6 μg, 5 μg and 50 μg) showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control. In addition, osteogenic differentiation assays demonstrated that exosome concentration differently affected the ability of MSC to deposit mineralised matrix. Finally, the analysis of exosome protein content revealed a higher amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) as compared to PL. In regards to RNA content, an enrichment of small RNAs in exosomes as compared to donor platelets has been found. These results suggest that exosomes consistently contribute to PL activity and could represent an advantageous nanodelivery system for cell-free regeneration therapies.

  5. Rhodocytin (aggretin) activates platelets lacking alpha(2)beta(1) integrin, glycoprotein VI, and the ligand-binding domain of glycoprotein Ibalpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmeier, W; Bouvard, D; Eble, J A


    the venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma, induces platelet activation that can be blocked by monoclonal antibodies against alpha(2)beta(1) integrin. This finding suggested that clustering of alpha(2)beta(1) integrin by rhodocytin is sufficient to induce platelet activation and led to the hypothesis...... lacking both alpha(2)beta(1) integrin and the activating collagen receptor GPVI responded normally to rhodocytin. Finally, even after additional proteolytic removal of the 45-kDa N-terminal domain of GPIbalpha rhodocytin induced aggregation of these platelets. These results demonstrate that rhodocytin...

  6. Anti-platelet and anti-thrombosis characteristics of Z4A5, a novel selective platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, compared with eptifibatide under long-term infusion. (United States)

    Shi, X L; Shen, S; Guo, M M; Zhang, G J; Che, J; Wang, B; Zhou, J


    Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are approved for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary interventions due to their effects on the final common pathway of platelet aggregation. Z4A5 is a new hexapeptide IIb/IIIa inhibitor with antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects. This study was performed to assess the characteristics of Z4A5 compared with another IIb/IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide. Light-transmission aggregometry was used to measure platelet aggregation to assess the antiplatelet efficacy of Z4A5 in vitro and ex vivo in beagles. The time course of platelet inhibition and bleeding time prolongation during i.v. bolus plus infusion and after infusion of the Z4A5 were evaluated in beagles following two 2 x 2 Latin square designs. We also compared the antithrombotic activity of Z4A5 with eptifibatide in arterial thrombosis and arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in beagles. Our data showed that Z4A5 completely inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, thrombin- and arachidonic acid-induced in vitro platelet aggregation with values of IC50 of 260 nM, 128.6 and 56.4 n respectively. Z4A5 also markedly and stably prevented ADP-induced ex vivo platelet aggregation and prolonged the bleeding time throughout the 8-hour infusion. Both platelet function and bleeding time returned to normal sooner after cessation of Z4A5 infusion than after eptifibatide. Z4A5 inhibited thrombosis and had the same potent antithrombotic activity as eptifibatide. In conclusion, Z4A5 has the same potent antiplatelet effect and antithrombotic activity with the advantage of a faster on and off time compared to eptifibatide.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin in human cell culture. (United States)

    Gassling, Volker L W; Açil, Yahya; Springer, Ingo N; Hubert, Nina; Wiltfang, Jörg


    The clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for preprosthetic surgery has been a matter of controversy until now. Only recently, a new blood preparation has been developed which results in platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). The objective of the present investigation was to examine the growth factor release from PRP and PRF in vitro. Whole blood samples from healthy participants (n = 10) were drawn to generate PRP and PRF. Human osteoblasts (O), human fibroblasts (F), and human osteoblast-derived osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2) were used for the cell culture. Cells of each cell line were cultivated, and PRP- or PRF-preparations added for ten days. The drawn medium was pooled and the quantities of growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor isomers AB and BB, insulin-like growth factor I, and transforming growth factor (TGF) isomers beta1 and beta2) analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In osteoblast and Saos-2 cultures, cytokine concentrations were significantly higher for PRP than for PRF (P < .05). In fibroblast cultures, results were the same with the exception of TGF-beta2 (P < .05). This study demonstrates that PRP application in cell cultures leads to higher levels of growth factors than PRF application.

  8. Human platelet lysate: Replacing fetal bovine serum as a gold standard for human cell propagation? (United States)

    Burnouf, Thierry; Strunk, Dirk; Koh, Mickey B C; Schallmoser, Katharina


    The essential physiological role of platelets in wound healing and tissue repair builds the rationale for the use of human platelet derivatives in regenerative medicine. Abundant growth factors and cytokines stored in platelet granules can be naturally released by thrombin activation and clotting or artificially by freeze/thaw-mediated platelet lysis, sonication or chemical treatment. Human platelet lysate prepared by the various release strategies has been established as a suitable alternative to fetal bovine serum as culture medium supplement, enabling efficient propagation of human cells under animal serum-free conditions for a multiplicity of applications in advanced somatic cell therapy and tissue engineering. The rapidly increasing number of studies using platelet derived products for inducing human cell proliferation and differentiation has also uncovered a considerable variability of human platelet lysate preparations which limits comparability of results. The main variations discussed herein encompass aspects of donor selection, preparation of the starting material, the possibility for pooling in plasma or additive solution, the implementation of pathogen inactivation and consideration of ABO blood groups, all of which can influence applicability. This review outlines the current knowledge about human platelet lysate as a powerful additive for human cell propagation and highlights its role as a prevailing supplement for human cell culture capable to replace animal serum in a growing spectrum of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lectin-based analysis of fucosylated glycoproteins of human skim milk during 47 days of lactation. (United States)

    Lis-Kuberka, Jolanta; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona; Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena


    Glycoproteins of human milk are multifunctional molecules, and their fucosylated variants are potentially active molecules in immunological events ensuring breastfed infants optimal development and protection against infection diseases. The expression of fucosylated glycotopes may correspond to milk maturation stages. The relative amounts of fucosylated glycotopes of human skim milk glycoproteins over the course of lactation from the 2(nd) day to the 47(th) day were analyzed in colostrums, transitional and mature milk samples of 43 healthy mothers by lectin-blotting using α1-2-, α1-6-, and α1-3-fucose specific biotinylated Ulex europaeus (UEA), Lens culinaris (LCA), and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA) lectins, respectively. The reactivities of UEA and LCA with the milk glycoproteins showed the highest expression of α1-2- and α1-6-fucosylated glycotopes on colostrum glycoproteins. The level of UEA-reactive glycoproteins from the beginning of lactation to the 14(th) day was high and relatively stable in contrast to LCA-reactive glycoproteins, the level of which significantly decreased from 2-3 to 7-8 days then remained almost unchanged until the 12(th)-14(th) days. Next, during the progression of lactation the reactivities with both lectins declined significantly. Eighty percent of α1-2- and/or α1-6-fucosylated glycoproteins showed a high negative correlation with milk maturation. In contrast, most of the analyzed milk glycoproteins were not recognized or weakly recognized by LTA and remained at a low unchanged level over lactation. Only a 30-kDa milk glycoprotein was evidently LTA-reactive, showing a negative correlation with milk maturation. The gradual decline of high expression of α1-2- and α1-6-, but not α1-3-, fucoses on human milk glycoproteins of healthy mothers over lactation was associated with milk maturation.

  10. Stent parameters predict major adverse clinical events and the response to platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade: findings of the ESPRIT trial. (United States)

    Tcheng, James E; Lim, Ing Haan; Srinivasan, Shankar; Jozic, Joseph; Gibson, C Michael; O'Shea, J Conor; Puma, Joseph A; Simon, Daniel I


    Only limited data describe relationships between stent parameters (length and diameter), adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention, and effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade by stent parameters. In this post hoc analysis of the 1983 patients receiving a stent in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy randomized percutaneous coronary intervention trial of eptifibatide versus placebo, rates of the major adverse cardiac event (MACE) end point (death, myocardial infarction, urgent target-vessel revascularization, or thrombotic bailout) at 48 hours and 1 year were correlated with stent parameters and then analyzed by randomization to eptifibatide versus placebo. In the placebo group, MACE increased with number of stents implanted, total stent length (by quartiles of or=30 mm), and total stented vessel area (by quartiles of area or=292 mm(2)). By stent parameters, MACE at 48 hours was reduced in the eptifibatide group at stent lengths of 18 to or=30 mm (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.75; P=0.003), stent diameters of >2.5 to <3.5 mm (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.82; P=0.002), and with 2 stents implanted (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.69; P=0.001). In the placebo group, near-linear relationships were observed between both increasing stent length and increasing stented vessel area and MACE at 48 hours and 1 year (all, P<0.001); these gradients were flattened in the eptifibatide group (P=0.005 for stent length). Stent parameters predict MACE after percutaneous coronary intervention. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade mitigates much of the hazard of increasing procedural complexity.

  11. Alterations of branching and differential expression of sialic acid on alpha-1-acid glycoprotein in human seminal plasma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratz, E; Poland, DC; Dijk, van W.; Katnik-Prastowska, I


    BACKGROUND: The degree of branching and types of fucosylation of glycans on alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) have been found to be associated with alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein concentrations in human seminal plasma. The glycosylation pattern of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein in seminal plasma obtained

  12. Characterization and N-terminal sequence of human platelet proteoglycan. (United States)

    Périn, J P; Bonnet, F; Maillet, P; Jollès, P


    Human platelet proteoglycan (P.PG) was prepared from a 4 M-guanidinium chloride platelet extract in the presence of proteinase inhibitors. The purification procedure included CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation, DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B ion-exchange chromatography and f.p.l.c. on a Mono Q HR 5/5 column. P.PG was recovered as a polydisperse molecule, but the protein core appeared to be at least 90% homogeneous. This observation could be due to partial proteolysis of the core protein during extraction. The N-terminal sequence of the human P.PG core protein was determined up to residue 66 and was shown to be highly homologous to the propeptide of an embryonic rat yolk-sac tumour proteoglycan (PG19); the significance of this homology is discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3214420

  13. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi (Osaka National Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Cardiovascular Medicine and Radiological Science); Kimura, Kazufumi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu (Osaka Univ. (Japan). 1. Dept. of Internal Medicine)


    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using {sup 111}In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10{sup 6} platelets/{mu}l. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 {mu}M ADP but not in 5 {mu}M ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.).

  14. Platelet genomics and proteomics in human health and disease (United States)

    Macaulay, Iain C.; Carr, Philippa; Gusnanto, Arief; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Fitzgerald, Des; Watkins, Nicholas A.


    Proteomic and genomic technologies provide powerful tools for characterizing the multitude of events that occur in the anucleate platelet. These technologies are beginning to define the complete platelet transcriptome and proteome as well as the protein-protein interactions critical for platelet function. The integration of these results provides the opportunity to identify those proteins involved in discrete facets of platelet function. Here we summarize the findings of platelet proteome and transcriptome studies and their application to diseases of platelet function. PMID:16322782

  15. High-Mr glycoprotein profiles in human milk serum and fat-globule membrane. (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Yamauchi, K; Miyauchi, Y; Sakurai, T; Tokugawa, K; McIlhinney, R A


    Gradient-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of human milk serum separated three high-Mr glycoprotein bands. The properties of the components corresponding to the three bands (tentatively termed 'Components C, B and A' in their order of migration) were compared by staining with four monoclonal antibodies and lectins. Components B and C both reacted with the four antibodies, but Component A did not. Components B and C were stained with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA) and wheat (Triticum)-germ agglutinin (WGA), Component A being stained with soya-bean (Glycine max) agglutinin as well as PNA and WGA. These results suggest that Components B and C were related molecules, whereas Component A was markedly different from them. The reactivities of Components B and C were the same as those of PAS-0, a high-Mr periodate/Schiff (PAS)-positive glycoprotein previously isolated from human milk fat-globule membrane (MFGM). Component C, whose electrophoretic mobility was the same as PAS-0, could have been a soluble form of PAS-0. A high-Mr glycoprotein having the same properties as Component A was also observed in MFGM. The amino acid composition of the isolated Component A was significantly different from that of Component C and PAS-0, high threonine and serine contents being characteristic of Component A. The carbohydrate content of Component A was 65-80%, and was much higher than that of Component C and PAS-0. Fucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and sialic acid were each detected as constituent sugars of Component A. Component A represents, therefore, a new high-Mr glycoprotein species in human milk serum and MFGM. Since these glycoproteins were high-Mr mucin-like glycoproteins, the names 'HM glycoprotein-A' and 'HM glycoprotein-C' were proposed for Component A and Component C (PAS-O) respectively. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3707520

  16. Polyphosphate binds to human von Willebrand factor in vivo and modulates its interaction with glycoprotein Ib. (United States)

    Montilla, M; Hernández-Ruiz, L; García-Cozar, F J; Alvarez-Laderas, I; Rodríguez-Martorell, J; Ruiz, F A


    Polyphosphate, a phosphate polymer released by activated platelets, has recently been described as a potent modulator of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. In blood plasma, polyphosphate binds to and alters the biological functions of factor XII, fibrin(ogen), thrombin and factor VII activating protease. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether polyphosphate also binds to von Willebrand factor (VWF) and alters some of its activities. When studying patients with type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) and their healthy relatives, we discovered a significant correlation between von Willebrand factor (VWF) and platelet polyphosphate levels. We have also found polyphosphate in preparations of VWF isolated from normal platelets and plasma. Surface plasmon resonance and electrophoretic mobility assays indicated that polyphosphate interacts with VWF in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of normal plasma with active exopolyphosphatase decreased the VWF ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) activity, a functional measure of VWF binding to platelet glycoprotein receptor Ib. VWF collagen binding and multimerization were unaltered after polyphosphate depletion. Moreover, addition of polyphosphate increased the deficient VWF:RCo activity presented by plasma from patients with type 1 VWD. Our results reveal that a new role is played by polyphosphate in hemostasis by its interaction with VWF, and suggest that this polymer may be effective in the treatment of some types of VWD. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Whey N-Glycoproteins in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk Using Quantitative Glycoproteomics. (United States)

    Cao, Xueyan; Song, Dahe; Yang, Mei; Yang, Ning; Ye, Qing; Tao, Dongbing; Liu, Biao; Wu, Rina; Yue, Xiqing


    Glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational protein modification that plays a substantial role in various processes. However, whey glycoproteins in human milk have not been completely profiled. Herein, we used quantitative glycoproteomics to quantify whey N-glycosylation sites and their alteration in human milk during lactation; 110 N-glycosylation sites on 63 proteins and 91 N-glycosylation sites on 53 proteins were quantified in colostrum and mature milk whey, respectively. Among these, 68 glycosylation sites on 38 proteins were differentially expressed in human colostrum and mature milk whey. These differentially expressed N-glycoproteins were highly enriched in "localization", "extracellular region part", and "modified amino acid binding" according to gene ontology annotation and mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades pathway. These results shed light on the glycosylation sites, composition and biological functions of whey N-glycoproteins in human colostrum and mature milk, and provide substantial insight into the role of protein glycosylation during infant development.

  18. Interaction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with platelets in vitro: Influence of platelet concentration and reactivity. (United States)

    Krüger, A; Mrowietz, C; Lendlein, A; Jung, F


    Endothelialisation of polymer-based cardiovascular implants is one strategy to render biomaterials hemocompatible. The evaluation of the functionality and the confluence of an endothelial cell (EC) monolayer in vitro is therefore of crucial importance, because a non-functional or non-confluent EC monolayer can contribute to the failure of vascular grafts. Moreover, the comparison of different potential biomaterials regarding their ability to induce the formation of a functional confluent EC monolayer is of great value. Most of the currently reported in vitro studies focus on direct or indirect markers of EC behaviour. However, these studies still lack the final proof that the EC monolayer, which can be developed on polymers is confluent and functional. In this study, we investigated the suitability of an in vitro co-culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with platelets to predict the functionality of an EC monolayer. The interaction of platelets with HUVEC was evaluated depending on the concentration of the platelets in the added plasma and of the reactivity of the platelets to pharmacological stimuli. For this purpose, HUVEC were seeded in a 24 well plate. After three days of cultivation, platelets were added to the HUVEC cell culture medium to final concentrations of 200, 2,000 or 20,000 platelets/μl (n = 7 each). The platelets were processed immediately after blood collection and added to the HUVEC culture after a 30 minutes resting period. As a first control, an EC monolayer just cultured with EC medium was used. As a second control EC supplemented with plasma without platelets were applied. The HUVEC monolayer was investigated microscopically after 1 hour of platelet exposition. The addition of thrombocytes to EC affected the EC adherence dependent on the initial cell seeding number of HUVEC, the platelet concentration and also on the reactivity of platelets added. In both controls no significant EC detachment was detected. The results

  19. Platelet genomics and proteomics in human health and disease


    Macaulay, Iain C.; Carr, Philippa; Gusnanto, Arief; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Fitzgerald, Des; Watkins, Nicholas A.


    Proteomic and genomic technologies provide powerful tools for characterizing the multitude of events that occur in the anucleate platelet. These technologies are beginning to define the complete platelet transcriptome and proteome as well as the protein-protein interactions critical for platelet function. The integration of these results provides the opportunity to identify those proteins involved in discrete facets of platelet function. Here we summarize the findings of platelet proteome and...

  20. Synthesis of platelet-activating factor by human blood platelets and leucocytes. Evidence against selective utilization of cellular ether-linked phospholipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturk, A.; Schaap, M. C.; Prins, A.; ten Cate, J. W.; van den Bosch, H.


    Synthesis of platelet activating factor (PAF) in blood platelet suspensions may be due to leucocyte contamination. We therefore investigated PAF synthesis in human blood platelet suspensions and granulocyte- (PMN)-enriched leucocyte suspensions upon stimulation by thrombin and Ca2+-ionophore A23187,

  1. Sweating the small stuff: Glycoproteins in human sweat and their unexplored potential for microbial adhesion. (United States)

    Peterson, Robyn A; Gueniche, Audrey; Adam de Beaumais, Ségolène; Breton, Lionel; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Packer, Nicolle H


    There is increasing evidence that secretory fluids such as tears, saliva and milk play an important role in protecting the human body from infection via a washing mechanism involving glycan-mediated adhesion of potential pathogens to secretory glycoproteins. Interaction of sweat with bacteria is well established as the cause of sweat-associated malodor. However, the role of sweat glycoproteins in microbial attachment has received little, if any, research interest in the past. In this review, we demonstrate how recent published studies involving high-throughput proteomic analysis have inadvertently, and fortuitously, exposed an abundance of glycoproteins in sweat, many of which have also been identified in other secretory fluids. We bring together research demonstrating microbial adhesion to these secretory glycoproteins in tears, saliva and milk and suggest a similar role of the sweat glycoproteins in mediating microbial attachment to sweat and/or skin. The contribution of glycan-mediated microbial adhesion to sweat glycoproteins, and the associated impact on sweat derived malodor and pathogenic skin infections are unchartered new research areas that we are beginning to explore. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. In vitro shear stress-induced platelet activation: sensitivity of human and bovine blood. (United States)

    Lu, Qijin; Hofferbert, Bryan V; Koo, Grace; Malinauskas, Richard A


    As platelet activation plays a critical role in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, it is important in the overall hemocompatibility evaluation of new medical devices and biomaterials to assess their effects on platelet function. However, there are currently no widely accepted in vitro test methods to perform this assessment. In an effort to develop effective platelet tests for potential use in medical device evaluation, this study compared the sensitivity of platelet responses to shear stress stimulation of human and bovine blood using multiple platelet activation markers. Fresh whole blood samples anticoagulated with heparin or anticoagulant citrate dextrose, solution A (ACDA) were exposed to shear stresses up to 40 Pa for 2 min using a cone-and-plate rheometer model. Platelet activation was characterized by platelet counts, platelet surface P-selectin expression, and serotonin release into blood plasma. The results indicated that exposure to shear stresses above 20 Pa caused significant changes in all three of the platelet markers for human blood and that the changes were usually greater with ACDA anticoagulation than with heparin. In contrast, for bovine blood, the markers did not change with shear stress stimulation except for plasma serotonin in heparin anticoagulated blood. The differences observed between human and bovine platelet responses suggest that the value of using bovine blood for in vitro platelet testing to evaluate devices may be limited. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Myeloperoxidase modulates human platelet aggregation via actin cytoskeleton reorganization and store-operated calcium entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Gorudko


    Myeloperoxidase (MPO is a heme-containing enzyme released from activated leukocytes into the extracellular space during inflammation. Its main function is the production of hypohalous acids that are potent oxidants. MPO can also modulate cell signaling and inflammatory responses independently of its enzymatic activity. Because MPO is regarded as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases associated with increased platelet activity, we studied the effects of MPO on human platelet functional properties. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to reveal carbohydrate-independent MPO binding to human platelet membrane. Adding MPO to platelets did not activate their aggregation under basal conditions (without agonist. In contrast, MPO augmented agonist-induced platelet aggregation, which was not prevented by MPO enzymatic activity inhibitors. It was found that exposure of platelets to MPO leads to actin cytoskeleton reorganization and an increase in their elasticity. Furthermore, MPO evoked a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ through enhancement of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. Together, these findings indicate that MPO is not a direct agonist but rather a mediator that binds to human platelets, induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization and affects the mechanical stiffness of human platelets, resulting in potentiating SOCE and agonist-induced human platelet aggregation. Therefore, an increased activity of platelets in vascular disease can, at least partly, be provided by MPO elevated concentrations.

  4. 'ZP domain' of human zona pellucida glycoprotein-1 binds to human spermatozoa and induces acrosomal exocytosis. (United States)

    Ganguly, Anasua; Bansal, Pankaj; Gupta, Tripti; Gupta, Satish K


    The human egg coat, zona pellucida (ZP), is composed of four glycoproteins designated as zona pellucida glycoprotein-1 (ZP1), -2 (ZP2), -3 (ZP3) and -4 (ZP4) respectively. The zona proteins possess the archetypal 'ZP domain', a signature domain comprised of approximately 260 amino acid (aa) residues. In the present manuscript, attempts have been made to delineate the functional significance of the 'ZP domain' module of human ZP1, corresponding to 273-551 aa fragment of human ZP1. Baculovirus-expressed, nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography purified 'ZP domain' of human ZP1 was employed to assess its capability to bind and subsequently induce acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated human spermatozoa using tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate conjugated Pisum sativum Agglutinin in absence or presence of various pharmacological inhibitors. Binding characteristics of ZP1 'ZP domain' were assessed employing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelled recombinant protein. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot characterization of the purified recombinant protein (both from cell lysate as well as culture supernatant) revealed a doublet ranging from ~35-40 kDa. FITC- labelled 'ZP domain' of ZP1 binds primarily to the acrosomal cap of the capacitated human spermatozoa. A dose dependent increase in acrosomal exocytosis was observed when capacitated sperm were incubated with recombinant 'ZP domain' of human ZP1. The acrosome reaction mediated by recombinant protein was independent of Gi protein-coupled receptor pathway, required extra cellular calcium and involved both T- and L-type voltage operated calcium channels. Results described in the present study suggest that the 'ZP domain' module of human ZP1 has functional activity and may have a role during fertilization in humans.

  5. Electrophoretic demonstration of glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and phosphoproteins in human and bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Bøg-Hansen, T C


    Enamel proteins from fully mineralized human molars and from bovine tooth germs were separated by electrophoresis. The gels were stained for detection of glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and phosphoproteins. Glycoproteins were shown by periodic acid-Schiff staining and lectin blotting. In mature human...... enamel a number of high molecular weight proteins could be demonstrated after ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid demineralization and subsequent Triton X-100 extraction. These proteins are suggested to be lipoproteins. Phosphoproteins could only be visualized in enamel matrix from the tooth germs....

  6. Human Platelets Express Functional Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Receptors: a Potential Role in Platelet Activation in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyuan Wang


    Full Text Available Background: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP has been shown to be expressed in various inflammatory tissues, such as human atherosclerotic plaques. Many types of myeloid cells involved in atherosclerosis, including mast cells, lymphocytes, dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages, present TSLP receptors (TSLPR. However, it is unknown whether platelets, which also play important roles in atherothrombosis, express TSLPR. Methods and Results: We applied flow cytometry and western blotting to show that TSLPR was expressed on the surface of human platelets. Following the addition of TSLP to platelets, the expression of CD62P, CD63, PAC-1 and p-Akt as well as aggregation and ATP release were increased significantly. A TSLPR antibody and a PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enzyme inhibitor (LY294002 significantly inhibited the platelet activation induced by TSLP. The expression of TSLPR, CD62P and CD63 and the increment of the expression of CD62P and CD63 induced by TSLP in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS group were markedly higher than those in the control group and the stable angina pectoris (SAP group. The expression and the increment of the expression of CD62P and CD63 induced by TSLP were positively correlated with the expression of TSLPR. Conclusion: Human platelets express functional TSLPR, which can be activated by TSLP to promote platelet activation. TSLP/TSLPR functions via activating the PI3K/AKT pathway, and this signalling pathway may be one of the mechanisms involved in thrombosis in ACS. In coronary disease patients, the determination of TSLPR in platelets may help to identify the risk of ACS.

  7. Production platforms for biotherapeutic glycoproteins. Occurrence, impact, and challenges of non-human sialylation. (United States)

    Ghaderi, Darius; Zhang, Mai; Hurtado-Ziola, Nancy; Varki, Ajit


    One of the fastest growing fields in the pharmaceutical industry is the market for therapeutic glycoproteins. Today, these molecules play a major role in the treatment of various diseases, and include several protein classes, i.e., clotting factors, hormones, cytokines, antisera, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, Ig-Fc-Fusion proteins, and monoclonal antibodies. Optimal glycosylation is critical for therapeutic glycoproteins, as glycans can influence their yield, immunogenicity and efficacy, which impact the costs and success of such treatments. While several mammalian cell expression systems currently used can produce therapeutic glycoproteins that are mostly decorated with human-like glycans, they can differ from human glycans by presenting two structures at the terminal and therefore most exposed position. First, natural human N-glycans are lacking the terminal Gal 1-3Gal (alpha-Gal) modification; and second, they do not contain the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). All humans spontaneously express antibodies against both of these glycan structures, risking increased immunogenicity of biotherapeutics carrying such non-human glycan epitopes. However, in striking contrast to the alpha-Gal epitope, exogenous Neu5Gc can be metabolically incorporated into human cells and presented on expressed glycoproteins in several possible epitopes. Recent work has demonstrated that this non-human sialic acid is found in widely varying amounts on biotherapeutic glycoproteins approved for treatment of various medical conditions. Neu5Gc on glycans of these medical agents likely originates from the production process involving the non-human mammalian cell lines and/or the addition of animal-derived tissue culture supplements. Further studies are needed to fully understand the impact of Neu5Gc in biotherapeutic agents. Similar concerns apply to human cells prepared for allo- or auto-transplantation, that have been grown in animal-derived tissue culture supplements.

  8. CD24, a mucin-type glycoprotein, is a ligand for P-selectin on human tumor cells. (United States)

    Aigner, S; Sthoeger, Z M; Fogel, M; Weber, E; Zarn, J; Ruppert, M; Zeller, Y; Vestweber, D; Stahel, R; Sammar, M; Altevogt, P


    P-selectin (CD62P) is a Ca2+-dependent endogenous lectin that can be expressed by vascular endothelium and platelets. The major ligand for P-selectin on leukocytes is P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). P-selectin can also bind to carcinoma cells, but the nature of the ligand(s) on these cells is unknown. Here we investigated the P-selectin binding to a breast and a small cell lung carcinoma cell line that are negative for PSGL-1. We report that CD24, a mucin-type glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface molecule on human neutrophils, pre B lymphocytes, and many tumors can promote binding to P-selectin. Latex beads coated with purified CD24 from the two carcinoma cell lines but also neutrophils could bind specifically to P-selectin-IgG. The binding was dependent on divalent cations and was abolished by treatment with O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase but not endoglycosidase F or sialidase. The beads were stained with a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to CD57 (HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope) but did not react with MoAbs against the sialylLe(x/a) epitope. The carcinoma cells and CD24-beads derived from these cells could bind to activated platelets or P-selectin transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (P-CHO) in a P-selectin-dependent manner and this binding was blocked by soluble CD24. Transfection of human adenocarcinoma cells with CD24 enhanced the P-selectin-dependent binding to activated platelets. Treatment of the carcinoma cells or the CD24 transfectant with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C reduced CD24 expression and P-selectin-IgG binding concomitantly. These results establish a role of CD24 as a novel ligand for P-selectin on tumor cells. The CD24/P-selectin binding pathway could be important in the dissimination of tumor cells by facilitating the interaction with platelets or endothelial cells.

  9. The in vitro effect of eptifibatide, a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist, on various responses of porcine blood platelets. (United States)

    Ciborowski, Michał; Tomasiak, Marian


    The current study systematically evaluates the in vitro effect of eptifibatide, a GPIIb/IIIa blocker, on various responses of porcine platelets evoked by principal physiological stimulators. Eptifibatide at concentrations up to 40 mg/mL did not affect the calcium signal produced by thrombin, partly reduced the procoagulant response evoked by collagen, and strongly inhibited (IC50 approximately 11 mg/mL) adhesion of these cells to fibrinogen coated surfaces. Eptifibatide in a concentration-dependent manner reduced ADP, collagen, and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (IC50 = 16-27 mg/mL), dense granule secretion (IC50 = 22-31 mg/mL) and lysosome secretion (IC50 = 25-50 mg/mL). Substantial (up to 30-40%) collagen or thrombin-evoked platelet aggregation still occurred at high (52 mg/mL) eptifibatide concentrations. Direct comparison of the susceptibility of platelet aggregation and dense granule secretion to the inhibitory action of eptifibatide indicates that aggregation is appreciably more sensitive than secretion. Eptifibatide (8 mg/mL) added together with a low (70 ng/mL) concentration of bivalirudin (a direct thrombin inhibitor) effectively (approximately 90%) reduced platelet aggregation induced by thrombin (0.2 U/mL). Based on these results, eptifibatide is not expected to reduce efficiently thrombus formation initiated by rapid local production of large amounts of thrombin. One practical consequence of our in vitro studies is the suggestion that the anti-thrombotic efficacy of eptifibatide, especially in preventing acute thrombotic events, may be largely improved by its combination with direct thrombin inhibitors.

  10. Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin-2-binding glycoprotein as a novel carbohydrate antigen of human colonic carcinoma. (United States)

    Nakayama, J; Okano, A; Maeda, H; Miyachi, M; Ota, H; Katsuyama, T; Kanai, M


    Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin-2-binding glycoprotein (GBG) in human colonic carcinoma was examined immunochemically and histochemically, GBG was extracted from colonic carcinoma as a serum-type glycoprotein of 160 kilodaltons. GBG was not identical with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), since its molecular weight and localization in tissue sections were different from those of CEA. The non-reducing terminals of GBG probably carry N-acetylglucosamine, but not blood group determinants. Furthermore, GBG was released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from cell membrane. GBG was suggested to be anchored to the membrane via linkage to a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol molecule. Among colonic carcinoma-associated antigens, serum-type glycoproteins having N-acetylglucosamine at non-reducing terminals have not previously been reported. GBG is a novel carbohydrate antigen of human colonic carcinoma.

  11. Platelet signaling-a primer. (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Poole, Alastair W


    To review the receptors and signal transduction pathways involved in platelet plug formation and to highlight links between platelets, leukocytes, endothelium, and the coagulation system. Original studies, review articles, and book chapters in the human and veterinary medical fields. Platelets express numerous surface receptors. Critical among these are glycoprotein VI, the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex, integrin α(IIb) β(3) , and the G-protein-coupled receptors for thrombin, ADP, and thromboxane. Activation of these receptors leads to various important functional events, in particular activation of the principal adhesion receptor α(IIb) β(3) . Integrin activation allows binding of ligands such as fibrinogen, mediating platelet-platelet interaction in the process of aggregation. Signals activated by these receptors also couple to 3 other important functional events, secretion of granule contents, change in cell shape through cytoskeletal rearrangement, and procoagulant membrane expression. These processes generate a stable thrombus to limit blood loss and promote restoration of endothelial integrity. Improvements in our understanding of how platelets operate through their signaling networks are critical for diagnosis of unusual primary hemostatic disorders and for rational antithrombotic drug design. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  12. Moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets* (United States)

    Xu, Meng-jie; Chen, Guang-ming; Fan, Ju-li; Liu, Jin-hui; Xu, Xian-guo; Zhang, Shao-zhi


    Freeze-drying is a promising method for a long-term storage of human platelets. The moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets (FDHPs) were studied in this paper. The moisture sorption isotherms of FDHPs and freeze-dried lyophilization buffer (FDLB) were measured at 4, 25, and 37 °C. The experimental data were fitted to Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equations. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between the sorption characteristics of FDHPs and FDLB at 4 and 25 °C, while FDHPs absorbed more water at 37 °C. The net isosteric heat of sorption was derived. The heat for FDHPs showed an abnormal negative value at low moisture contents when 25 and 37 °C data were used. Dynamic sorption experiments were carried out at 25 °C with environmental water activity controlled at 0.75, 0.85, and 0.90. The moisture diffusion coefficient was fitted to be 8.24×10−12 m2/s when experimental data at initial time were used. These results would be helpful in choosing prehydration and storage condition for FDHPs. PMID:21370506

  13. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torreggiani, E; Perut, F; Roncuzzi, L; Zini, N; Baglìo, S R; Baldini, N


    Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet lysate (PL) in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial...

  14. Human CRISP-3 binds serum alpha(1)B-glycoprotein across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, Lene; Johnsen, Anders H; Borregaard, Niels


    CRISP-3 was previously shown to be bound to alpha(1)B-glycoprotein (A1BG) in human serum/plasma. All mammalian sera are supposed to contain A1BG, although its presence in rodent sera is not well-documented. Since animal sera are often used to supplement buffers in experiments, in particular...

  15. Dengue Virus and Its Relation to Human Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Revealed by Fluorescence Microscopy and Flow Cytometry. (United States)

    Attatippaholkun, Nattapol; U-Pratya, Yaowalak; Supraditaporn, Panthipa; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Issaragrisil, Surapol


    Understanding dengue virus (DENV)-induced hemorrhage remains a challenging jigsaw puzzle with many pieces missing to understand the complex interactions between DENV and blood coagulation system. To use flow cytometry studying the interactions between DENV and human platelet aggregation receptor, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpIIb/IIIa), directly conjugated fluorochrome monoclonal antibody (mAb) is essential to facilitate multifluorochrome immunostaining. However, the obstacle was that no directly conjugated fluorochrome-anti-DENV mAb had been commercially available. To overcome, we directly conjugated fluorochrome to a primary anti-DENV mAb using a LYNX rapid conjugation kit. Flow cytometry analysis showed that this conjugated antibody and anti-gpIIb/IIIa mAb were able to detect DENV and CD41a simultaneously. Fluorescence microscopy analysis further demonstrated CD41a superficially and DENV intracellularly. Potentially, this strategy can facilitate virologists for directly conjugating any virus-specific primary antibodies, which are not commercially available with fluorochrome, to study the infectivity in any surface marker-specific hosts through flow cytometry. Together, DENV can interact with both human gpIIb/IIIa(-) and gpIIb/IIIa(+) cells revealed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy for the first time.

  16. Biochemical investigation of the effects of human platelet releasates on human articular chondrocytes. (United States)

    Spreafico, Adriano; Chellini, Federico; Frediani, Bruno; Bernardini, Giulia; Niccolini, Silvia; Serchi, Tommaso; Collodel, Giulia; Paffetti, Alessandro; Fossombroni, Vittorio; Galeazzi, Mauro; Marcolongo, Roberto; Santucci, Annalisa


    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the mitogenic and differentiating properties of platelet-rich plasma releasates (PRPr) on human chondrocytes in mono- and three-dimensional cultures. In order to assess if PRPr supplementation could maintain the chondrocyte phenotype or at least inhibit the cell de-differentiation even after several days in culture, we performed a proteomic study on several cell cultures independently grown, for different periods of time, in culture medium with FCS, human serum (HS), and releasates obtained from PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP). We found that PRP treatment actually induced in chondrocytes the expression of proteins (some of which novel) involved in differentiation.

  17. Platelet inhibitors in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention: glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, clopidogrel or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Silva


    of abciximab when 600 mg of clopidogrel concurrently administered during PCI. The CLEAR-PLATELETS (Clopidogrel loading with eptifibatide to arrest the reactivity of platelets and PEACE (Platelet activity extinction in non-Q-wave MI with ASA, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide trials suggest more durable platelet inhibition when Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors are used with higher doses clopidogrel. The ISAR-COOL (ISAR: Cooling off strategy trial found no difference in ischemic outcomes when Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors were excluded and ARMYDA-2 (Antiplatelet therapy for reduction of myocardial damage during angioplasty suggested higher doses of clopidogrel are more appropriate during PCI when Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors are not utilized. This constellation of new trials forces reconsideration of current recommendations in regards to patient risk stratification, choice of antithrombotic therapy, doses, and timing. These new data will impact emerging guidelines and updates are currently in progress.Keywords: acute coronary syndromes, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, tirofiban, abciximab, eptifibatide, clopidogrel

  18. Differences in Growth Properties among Two Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein O Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kalser


    Full Text Available Glycoprotein O (gO of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the critical subunit of the envelope trimer gH/gL/gO as it interacts with platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor upon fibroblast entry, and triggers gB-mediated fusion for fibroblast and epithelial cell infection. Eight genotypes (GT of the highly polymorphic gO gene are described, yet it is unclear whether the distinct GTs differ in their function. Thus, we aimed to elucidate potential functional differences between two highly diverse gO GTs in an otherwise genomically identical HCMV strain. Therefore, resident gO GT1c sequence of strain TB40-BAC4-luc was entirely replaced by gO GT4 of strain Towne and both, GT1c and GT4 viruses, were investigated for their growth properties in fibroblasts and epithelial cells. In addition, two conserved gO cysteines involved in gH/gL/gO stabilization were mutated to serine either in GT1c (C218S and C343S or GT4 (C216S and C336S and their effects on cell-free infectivity were assessed. GT4 viruses displayed a significantly enhanced epithelial cell tropism and this resulted in higher virus release upon replication in epithelial cells when compared to GT1c viruses. Further, when the two cysteines were individually mutated in gO GT1c no impairment in cell-free infectivity was observed. This, however, was in sharp contrast to gO GT4, in which both of the corresponding cysteine mutations led to a substantial reduction in cell-free infectivity which was even more pronounced upon mutation of GT4-C336 than of GT4-C216. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that the two highly diverse gO genotypes, GT1c and GT4, differ in their functional properties as revealed by their different infection capacities for epithelial cells and by their different responsiveness to mutation of strictly conserved cysteine residues. Thus, it is likely that the gO heterogeneity influences cell-free infectivity of HCMV also in vivo which may have important implications for

  19. Immunoreactivity of glycoproteins isolated from human peripheral nerve and Campylobacter jejuni (O:19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Brezovska


    Full Text Available Objective: Antibodies to ganglioside GM1 are associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS in patients with serologic evidence of a preceding infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Molecular mimicry between C. jejuni Lipopolysaccharide (LPS and ganglioside GM1 has been proven to be the immunopathogenic mechanism of the disease in the axonal variant of GBS. GM1-positive sera cross-react with several Gal-GalNAc-bearing glycoproteins from the human peripheral nerve and C. jejuni (O:19. This study aimed to examine the immunoreactivity of the digested cross-reactive glycoproteins isolated from the human peripheral nerve and C. jejuni (O:19 with Peanut Agglutinin (PNA as a marker for the Gal-GalNAc determinant, and with sera from patients with GBS. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the cross-reactive glycoproteins from peripheral nerve and C. jejuni (O:19 were enzymatically digested with trypsin and the obtained peptides were incubated with PNA and GBS sera. Results: Western blot analysis of the separated peptides revealed several bands showing positive reactivity to PNA and to sera from patients with GBS, present in both digests from peripheral nerve and C. jejuni (O:19. Conclusions: These data indicate the possible molecular mimicry between the cross-reactive glycoproteins present in C. jejuni and human peripheral nerve and its potential role in the development of GBS following infection with C. jejuni (O:19.

  20. Most neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies target novel epitopes requiring both Lassa virus glycoprotein subunits (United States)

    Robinson, James E.; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Cross, Robert W.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Elliott, Deborah H.; Rouelle, Julie A.; Kannadka, Chandrika B.; Smira, Ashley A.; Garry, Courtney E.; Bradley, Benjamin T.; Yu, Haini; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Boisen, Matt L.; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Zandonatti, Michelle A.; Rowland, Megan M.; Heinrich, Megan L.; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Cheng, Benson; de la Torre, Juan C.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Gbakie, Michael; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J.; Fonnie, Richard; Jalloh, Simbirie C.; Kargbo, Brima; Vandi, Mohamed A.; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Ikponmwosa, Odia; Asogun, Danny A.; Okokhere, Peter O.; Follarin, Onikepe A.; Schieffelin, John S.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Kulakoski, Peter C.; Wilson, Russell B.; Happi, Christian T.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Gevao, Sahr M.; Khan, S. Humarr; Grant, Donald S.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.


    Lassa fever is a severe multisystem disease that often has haemorrhagic manifestations. The epitopes of the Lassa virus (LASV) surface glycoproteins recognized by naturally infected human hosts have not been identified or characterized. Here we have cloned 113 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for LASV glycoproteins from memory B cells of Lassa fever survivors from West Africa. One-half bind the GP2 fusion subunit, one-fourth recognize the GP1 receptor-binding subunit and the remaining fourth are specific for the assembled glycoprotein complex, requiring both GP1 and GP2 subunits for recognition. Notably, of the 16 mAbs that neutralize LASV, 13 require the assembled glycoprotein complex for binding, while the remaining 3 require GP1 only. Compared with non-neutralizing mAbs, neutralizing mAbs have higher binding affinities and greater divergence from germline progenitors. Some mAbs potently neutralize all four LASV lineages. These insights from LASV human mAb characterization will guide strategies for immunotherapeutic development and vaccine design. PMID:27161536

  1. Characterization of the Fusion and Attachment Glycoproteins of Human Metapneumovirus and Human Serosurvey to Determine Reinfection Rates (United States)


    Rhabdoviridae plant virus , replicate in the cytoplasm (66). The Paramyxoviridae are enveloped viruses and have been defined by the fusion glycoprotein...Examples of Paramyxoviridae Subfamily Genus Representative Viruses Rubulavirus Mumps virus Human parainfluenza virus type 2, 4a, 4b Avulavirus...Newcastle disease virus Respirovirus Human parainfluenza virus type 1, 3 Sendai virus Henipavirus Hendra virus Nipah virus Paramyxovirinae

  2. Complementary effects of thienopyridine pretreatment and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention; results from the ESPRIT trial. (United States)

    Dery, Jean-Pierre; Campbell, Mark E; Mathias, Jasmine; Pieper, Karen S; Harrington, Robert A; Madan, Mina; Gibson, C Michael; Tolleson, Thaddeus R; O'Shea, J Conor; Tcheng, James E


    This analysis sought to investigate the complementary effect of thienopyridine pretreatment and platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa integrin blockade in coronary stent intervention. Definitive evidence supporting combined antiplatelet therapy consisting of thienopyridine pretreatment and GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockade in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation is limited. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes by thienopyridine use in the 2,040 patients randomized to eptifibatide or placebo who underwent PCI in the ESPRIT trial. A total of 901 patients received a loading dose of thienopyridine before PCI (group 1), 123 received thienopyridine pretreatment without a loading dose (group 2), and 1,016 were not treated with thienopyridine before PCI (group 3). The composite incidence of death or myocardial infarction at 30 days was significantly lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 combined (OR, 0.71 [95%CI, 0.52-0.99]; P = 0.0417). A similar trend was seen for the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or urgent target vessel revascularization (unadjusted OR, 0.77 [0.57-1.05]; P = 0.1025). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, these differences were no longer significant. No interactions were identified with eptifibatide assignment for any of the group comparisons. Pretreatment with a loading dose of thienopyridine lowers the rate of ischemic complications regardless of treatment with a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor. Conversely, the efficacy of eptifibatide is maintained whether or not a loading dose of a thienopyridine is administered. Optimal outcomes are achieved in patients receiving thienopyridine pretreatment along with platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Binding of alpha-thrombin to surface-anchored platelet glycoprotein Ib(alpha) sulfotyrosines through a two-site mechanism involving exosite I. (United States)

    Zarpellon, Alessandro; Celikel, Reha; Roberts, James R; McClintock, Richard A; Mendolicchio, G Loredana; Moore, Kevin L; Jing, Hua; Varughese, Kottayil I; Ruggeri, Zaverio M


    The involvement of exosite I in α-thrombin (FIIa) binding to platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα), which could influence interactions with other substrates, remains undefined. To address the problem, we generated the GPIbα amino terminal domain (GPIbα-N) fully sulfated on three tyrosine residues and solved the structure of its complex with FIIa. We found that sulfotyrosine (Tys) 278 enhances the interaction mainly by establishing contacts with exosite I. We then evaluated how substituting tyrosine with phenylalanine, which cannot be sulfated, affects FIIa binding to soluble or surface-immobilized GPIbα-N. Mutating Tyr(276), which mostly contacts exosite II residues, markedly reduced FIIa interaction with both soluble and immobilized GPIbα-N; mutating Tyr(278) or Tyr(279), which mostly contact exosite I residues, reduced FIIa complexing in solution by 0-20% but affinity for immobilized GPIbα-N 2 to 6-fold, respectively. Moreover, three exosite I ligands--aptamer HD1, hirugen, and lepirudin--did not interfere with soluble FIIa complexing to GPIbα-N, excluding that their binding caused allosteric effects influencing the interaction; nonetheless, all impaired FIIa binding to immobilized GPIbα-N and platelet GPIb nearly as much as aptamer HD22 and heparin, both exosite II ligands. Bound HD1 and hirugen alter Trp(148) orientation in a loop near exosite I preventing contacts with the sulfate oxygen atoms of Tys(279). These results support a mechanism in which binding occurs when the two exosites of one FIIa molecule independently interact with two immobilized GPIbα molecules. Through exosite engagement, GPIbα may influence FIIa-dependent processes relevant to hemostasis and thrombosis.

  4. Binding of α-thrombin to surface-anchored platelet glycoprotein Ibα sulfotyrosines through a two-site mechanism involving exosite I (United States)

    Zarpellon, Alessandro; Celikel, Reha; Roberts, James R.; McClintock, Richard A.; Mendolicchio, G. Loredana; Moore, Kevin L.; Jing, Hua; Varughese, Kottayil I.; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.


    The involvement of exosite I in α-thrombin (FIIa) binding to platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα), which could influence interactions with other substrates, remains undefined. To address the problem, we generated the GPIbα amino terminal domain (GPIbα-N) fully sulfated on three tyrosine residues and solved the structure of its complex with FIIa. We found that sulfotyrosine (Tys) 278 enhances the interaction mainly by establishing contacts with exosite I. We then evaluated how substituting tyrosine with phenylalanine, which cannot be sulfated, affects FIIa binding to soluble or surface-immobilized GPIbα-N. Mutating Tyr276, which mostly contacts exosite II residues, markedly reduced FIIa interaction with both soluble and immobilized GPIbα-N; mutating Tyr278 or Tyr279, which mostly contact exosite I residues, reduced FIIa complexing in solution by 0–20% but affinity for immobilized GPIbα-N 2 to 6-fold, respectively. Moreover, three exosite I ligands—aptamer HD1, hirugen, and lepirudin—did not interfere with soluble FIIa complexing to GPIbα-N, excluding that their binding caused allosteric effects influencing the interaction; nonetheless, all impaired FIIa binding to immobilized GPIbα-N and platelet GPIb nearly as much as aptamer HD22 and heparin, both exosite II ligands. Bound HD1 and hirugen alter Trp148 orientation in a loop near exosite I preventing contacts with the sulfate oxygen atoms of Tys279. These results support a mechanism in which binding occurs when the two exosites of one FIIa molecule independently interact with two immobilized GPIbα molecules. Through exosite engagement, GPIbα may influence FIIa-dependent processes relevant to hemostasis and thrombosis. PMID:21555542

  5. Platelet alpha 2 adrenoceptors in human and canine narcolepsy. (United States)

    Valtier, D; Nishino, S; Guilleminault, C; Dement, W C; Mignot, E


    We have recently established that canine narcolepsy (an autosomal recessive genetic model of the human disorder) is dramatically improved by treatment with alpha 2 antagonists such as yohimbine (Nishino et al: J Pharmacol Exp Ther 253:1145-1152, 1990). To further investigate the role of alpha 2 adrenoceptors in narcolepsy, receptors labeled with [3H] yohimbine were examined on platelets from human and canine narcoleptic subjects. Twenty-eight Doberman pinschers were studied, 7 controls (C), 7 heterozygous (Hz), and 14 narcoleptics (N) (age and sex matched), including eight animals born in a backcross setting (narcoleptic x heterozygous; 5 narcoleptics and 3 heterozygous). The Kd and Bmax of each group respectively, were as follows: C, Kd = 2.86 +/- 0.76 nmol/L, Bmax = 295.78 +/- 31.89 fmol/mg protein; Hz, Kd = 2.06 +/- 0.23 nmol/L, Bmax = 307.02 +/- 22.21 fmol/mg protein; and N, Kd = 2.72 +/- 0.45 nmol/L, Bmax = 267.52 +/- 19.47 fmol/mg protein. No statistical differences were found between groups using nonparametric (Kruskall-Wallis) statistical procedures, and there were no correlations between any binding parameter and symptom severity within the narcoleptic group. Platelet alpha 2 receptor affinity and density also did not differ between narcoleptic and heterozygous dogs in the backcross litter (N [n = 5], Kd = 1.94 +/- 0.59 nmol/L, Bmax = 290.6 +/- 64.7 fmol/mg protein; Hz [n = 3], Kd = 2.83 +/- 0.47 nmol/L, Bmax = 294.2 +/- 42.9 fmol/mg protein). Fourteen human subjects, seven control and seven narcoleptic patients (age and sex matched), were included in the study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Affinity of low molecular weight fucoidan for P-selectin triggers its binding to activated human platelets. (United States)

    Bachelet, Laure; Bertholon, Isabelle; Lavigne, Damien; Vassy, Roger; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Chaubet, Frédéric; Letourneur, Didier


    P-selectin is an adhesion receptor expressed on activated platelets and endothelial cells. Its natural ligand, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, is expressed on leucocytes and the P-selectin/PSGL-1 interaction is involved in leukocyte rolling. We have compared the interaction of P-selectin with several low molecular weight polysaccharides: fucoidan, heparin and dextran sulfate. Binding assays were obtained from the interaction of the polysaccharides with Sialyl Lewis X and PSGL-1 based constructs onto microtiter plates coated with P-selectin. SELDI TOF mass spectrometry was performed with anionic chips arrays coated with P-selectin in the absence or in the presence of polysaccharides. Kd were obtained from surface plasmon resonance experiments with immobilized P-selectin constructs, polysaccharides being injected in the mobile phase. Human whole blood flow cytometry experiments were performed with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled polysaccharides with or without platelets activators. The fucoidan prevented P-selectin binding to Sialyl Lewis X with an IC(50) of 20 nM as compared to 400 nM for heparin and affinity for immobilized P-selectin with a KD of 1.2 nM, two orders of magnitude greater than the K(D) of the other polysaccharides. Mass spectrometry evidenced the formation of a complex between P-selectin and fucoidan. The intensity of the fucoidan binding to platelets was dependent on the level of platelet activation. Competition between fucoidan and an anti P-selectin antibody demonstrated the specificity of the interaction. Low molecular weight fucoidan is a promising therapeutic agent of natural origin for biomedical applications.

  7. Detection of platelet deposition in cases of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) using indium-111 platelets and Tc-99m human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo; Miyai, Motonobu; Etani, Hideki


    We evaluated platelet deposition in vivo in 10 patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) of the lower limbs and 8 normal subjects with a dual-tracer technique using indium-111 platelets and Tc-99m human serum albumin. Each patient with ASO showed intermittent claudication and angiographically occlusive vascular lesions in either the aorta, common iliac artery, external iliac artery, internal iliac artery or femoral artery. Of the 8 patients who were not under antiplatelet medication, 5 showed positive platelet deposition at angiographically occlusive vascular sites, whereas none of the normal subjects showed in vivo platelet deposition. In three patients who showed platelet deposition without antiplatelet medication and thereafter received aspirin therapy (650 mg/day), platelet deposition at all occlusive vascular sites was resolved after aspirin therapy. This preliminary study indicated that platelet scintigraphy might be useful in evaluating thrombogenicity and the effect of antiplatelet medication in vivo, in patients with ASO.

  8. Maresin 1 induces a novel pro-resolving phenotype in human platelets. (United States)

    Lannan, K L; Spinelli, S L; Blumberg, N; Phipps, R P


    Essentials Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) promote the resolution of inflammation. This study sought to investigate the effects of SPMs on human platelet function. The SPM, Maresin 1, enhanced hemostatic, but suppressed inflammatory functions of platelets. SPMs uniquely regulate platelet function and may represent a new class of antiplatelet agents. Background Antiplatelet therapy is a cornerstone of modern medical practice and is routinely employed to reduce the likelihood of myocardial infarction, thrombosis and stroke. However, current antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin, often have adverse side-effects, including increased risk of bleeding, and some patients are relatively 'aspirin-resistant'. Platelets are intimately involved in hemostasis and inflammation, and clinical consequences are associated with excessive or insufficient platelet activation. Objectives A major unmet need in the field of hematology is the development of new agents that safely prevent unwanted platelet activation in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease, while minimizing the risk of bleeding. Here, we investigate the potential of endogenously produced, specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) as novel antiplatelet agents. SPMs are a recently discovered class of lipid-derived molecules that drive the resolution of inflammation without being overtly immunosuppressive. Methods Human platelets were treated with lipoxin A4, resolvin D1, resolvin D2, 17-HDHA or maresin 1 for 15 min, then were subjected to platelet function tests, including spreading, aggregation and inflammatory mediator release. Results We show for the first time that human platelets express the SPM receptors, GPR32 and ALX. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that maresin 1 differentially regulates platelet hemostatic function by enhancing platelet aggregation and spreading, while suppressing release of proinflammatory and prothrombotic mediators. Conclusions These data support the concept that SPMs

  9. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of human milk fat globule membrane glycoprotein 70. (United States)

    Imam, A; Taylor, C R; Tökés, Z A


    Human milk fat globule membrane, which is said to derive from apical plasma membrane of secretory epithelial cells in breast, was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-two:dimensional gel electrophoresis. More than 35 components were detected in the gels. One of the major glycoproteins with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000, human milk fat globule membrane glycoprotein, was purified to homogeneity. The pattern of distribution of this glycoprotein in tissues was studied using polyclonal rabbit antibodies to the purified component. The localization of the antigen was accomplished by an indirect immunoperoxidase staining method. Normal mammary epithelial cells display this antigen mostly on the apical plasma membrane, whereas poorly differentiated breast carcinoma cells retained it predominantly in the cytoplasm. These observations suggest that the proper insertion of this glycoprotein into an apical membrane domain may be impaired in malignant tumor cells. In addition, a small population of tumor cells in each case examined failed to express detectable amounts of this component, indicating the presence of antigenic heterogeneity among the tumor cell population.

  10. Characterization of the Outer Domain of the gp120 Glycoprotein from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (United States)

    Yang, Xinzhen; Tomov, Vesko; Kurteva, Svetla; Wang, Liping; Ren, Xinping; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Sodroski, Joseph


    The core of the gp120 glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is comprised of three major structural domains: the outer domain, the inner domain, and the bridging sheet. The outer domain is exposed on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer and contains binding surfaces for neutralizing antibodies such as 2G12, immunoglobulin G1b12, and anti-V3 antibodies. We expressed the outer domain of HIV-1YU2 gp120 as an independent protein, termed OD1. OD1 efficiently bound 2G12 and a large number of anti-V3 antibodies, indicating its structural integrity. Immunochemical studies with OD1 indicated that antibody responses against the outer domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein are rare in HIV-1-infected human sera that potently neutralize the virus. Surprisingly, such outer-domain-directed antibody responses are commonly elicited by immunization with recombinant monomeric gp120. Immunization with soluble, stabilized HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers elicited antibody responses that more closely resembled those in the sera of HIV-1-infected individuals. These results underscore the qualitatively different humoral immune responses elicited during natural infection and after gp120 vaccination and help to explain the failure of gp120 as an effective vaccine. PMID:15542649

  11. Multiple Drug Transport Pathways through human P-Glycoprotein(†) (United States)

    McCormick, James W.; Vogel, Pia D.; Wise, John G.


    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that is commonly associated with therapy resistances in cancers and infectious diseases. P-gp can lower the intracellular concentrations of many drugs to subtherapeutic levels by translocating them out of the cell. Because of the broad range of substrates transported by P-gp, overexpression of P-gp causes multidrug resistance. We reported previously on dynamic transitions of P-gp as it moved through conformations based on crystal structures of homologous ABCB1 proteins using in silico targeted molecular dynamics techniques. We expanded these studies here by docking transport substrates to drug binding sites of P-gp in conformations open to the cytoplasm, followed by cycling the pump through conformations that opened to the extracellular space. We observed reproducible transport of two substrates, daunorubicin and verapamil, by an average of 11 to 12 Å through the plane of the membrane as P-gp progressed through a catalytic cycle. Methyl-pyrophosphate, a ligand that should not be transported by P-gp, did not show this movement through P-gp. Drug binding to either of two subsites on P-gp appeared to determine the initial pathway used for drug movement through the membrane. The specific side-chain interactions with drugs within each pathway seemed to be, at least in part, stochastic. The docking and transport properties of a P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, were also studied. A mechanism of inhibition by tariquidar is presented that involves stabilization of an outward open conformation with tariquidar bound in intracellular loops or at the drug binding domain of P-gp. PMID:26125482


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Makarov


    Full Text Available Apheresis and pooled platelet concentrates, stored at 22°C during 5 days, were studied with morho-functional platelet rate analysis, based on vital cell staining and registration with fluorescent microscope. It was revealed that apheresis and pooled PC had, on the average, normal values of morphological and functional parameters. On the other hand, both PC kept MFPR of cells only for 2 days storage. Longer PC storage caused the significant decay of morphological and functional platelet parameters.

  13. Sequential regulation of the small GTPase Rap1 in human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, B; van Triest, M; de Bruijn, KMT; van Willligen, G; Nieuwenhuis, HK; Negrier, C; Akkerman, JWN; Bos, JL

    Rap1, a small GTPase of the Ras family, is ubiquitously expressed and particularly abundant in platelets. Previously we have shown that Rap1 is rapidly activated after stimulation of human platelets with alpha-thrombin. For this activation, a phospholipase C-mediated increase in intracellular

  14. Golgi proteins in circulating human platelets are distributed across non-stacked, scattered structures. (United States)

    Yadav, Shilpi; Williamson, Jonathan K; Aronova, Maria A; Prince, Andrew A; Pokrovskaya, Irina D; Leapman, Richard D; Storrie, Brian


    Platelets are small, anucleate cell fragments that are central to hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. They are derived from megakaryocytes from which they inherit their organelles. As platelets can synthesize proteins and contain many of the enzymes of the secretory pathway, one might expect all mature human platelets to contain a stacked Golgi apparatus, the central organelle of the secretory pathway. By thin section electron microscopy, stacked membranes resembling the stacked Golgi compartment in megakaryocytes and other nucleated cells can be detected in both proplatelets and platelets. However, the incidence of such structures is low and whether each and every platelet contains such a structure remains an open question. By single-label, immunofluorescence staining, Golgi glycosyltransferases are found within each platelet and map to scattered structures. Whether these structures are positive for marker proteins from multiple Golgi subcompartments remains unknown. Here, we have applied state-of-the-art techniques to probe the organization state of the Golgi apparatus in resting human platelets. By the whole cell volume technique of serial-block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM), we failed to observe stacked, Golgi-like structures in any of the 65 platelets scored. When antibodies directed against Golgi proteins were tested against HeLa cells, labeling was restricted to an elongated juxtanuclear ribbon characteristic of a stacked Golgi apparatus. By multi-label immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that each and every resting human platelet was positive for cis, trans, and trans Golgi network (TGN) proteins. However, in each case, the proteins were found in small puncta scattered about the platelet. At the resolution of deconvolved, widefield fluorescence microscopy, these proteins had limited tendency to map adjacent to one another. When the results of 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D SIM), a super resolution technique, were scored

  15. Associations of combined polymorphisms of the platelet membrane glycoproteins Ia and IIIa and the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-Selectin genes with IVF implantation failures. (United States)

    Vlachadis, Nikolaos; Tsamadias, Vasileios; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Kaparos, Georgios; Vitoratos, Nikolaos; Kouskouni, Evaggelia; Economou, Emmanuel


    The aim of the study was to investigate the combined impact of the genetic heterogeneity of the glycoproteins Ia (GpIa) and IIIa (GpIIIa) and the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and P-Selectin genes on IVF embryo transfer implantation failures (IVF-ET failures). Sixty nulligravida women with previous IVF-ET failures and 60 fertile controls were genotyped for the GpIa-C807T, GpIIIa-PlA1/PA2, PECAM-1-C373G (Leu125Val) and P-Selectin-A37674C (Thr715Pro) polymorphisms by pyrosequencing. Compared with wild-type combined homozygotes, carriers of combinations of risk alleles in two gene loci were at significantly increased risk for IVF-ET failure, whereas carriers of the combination of GpIa-807T, GpIIIa-PlA2 and PECAM-1-373G alleles had OR = 52.50 (95%CI: 4.05-680.95, p IVF-ET failures especially for younger women and provided a genetic risk score with good diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of IVF-ET failures.

  16. Bailout use of platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibition during coronary stent implantation: observations from the ESPRIT trial. (United States)

    Cantor, Warren J; Madan, Mina; O'Shea, J Conor; Chisholm, Robert J; Lui, Henry K; Cohen, David J; Feldman, Robert L; Green, Robert; Hellkamp, Anne S; Kitt, Michael M; Tcheng, James E


    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors are often used as a rescue or bailout therapy to manage complications arising during percutaneous coronary intervention, rather than as prophylactic treatment. We sought to identify the characteristics and outcomes of patients requiring bailout treatment. The ESPRIT trial randomized 2,064 patients to receive eptifibatide or placebo starting immediately before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Bailout therapy was used in 77 patients: 43 (4.2%) randomized to placebo and 34 (3.3%) to eptifibatide (p = 0.3). Bailout therapy for thrombosis was used more often in the placebo group (2.1% versus 1.0%; p = 0.03). Multivariable predictors of bailout included a greater than or equal to 90% stenosis, or visible thrombus on the baseline angiogram, and no aspirin pre-treatment before PCI. However, overall the model predicted bailout poorly (c-index = 0.64). The need for bailout cannot be reliably predicted using baseline characteristics. Patients experiencing complications have poor clinical outcomes despite bailout use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

  17. Generation of a pool of human platelet lysate and efficient use in cell culture. (United States)

    Schallmoser, Katharina; Strunk, Dirk


    Human platelets represent a promising source of bioactive substances as growth factors not just for in vivo wound healing and tissue repair, but also for the expansion of human stem and progenitor cells in vitro. The replacement of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a standard culture supplement by human platelet-derived growth factors now allows for the GMP-compliant implementation of various cell therapeutics in the growing field of regenerative medicine.For this purpose a protocol for the preparation of human platelet lysate (HPL) by several freeze-thaw cycles has been developed, resulting in platelet fragmentation and the release of stored growth factors. By pooling up to 15 U of HPL derived from individual blood donors, a virtually standardized product is achieved. The depletion of platelet particles and fragments in a final centrifugation step reduces the risk of alloimmunization against platelet antigens and the formation of aggregates in cell culture.The successful application of pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) as a culture medium supplement for the ex vivo propagation of human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) and endothelial colony forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) indicates the feasibility of this animal serum-free source of growth factors. Further studies will evaluate efficacy and safety of pHPL.

  18. Platelets and platelet alloantigens: Lessons from human patients and animal models of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (United States)

    Vadasz, Brian; Chen, Pingguo; Yougbaré, Issaka; Zdravic, Darko; Li, June; Li, Conglei; Carrim, Naadiya; Ni, Heyu


    Platelets play critical roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. Emerging evidence indicates that they are versatile cells and also involved in many other physiological processes and disease states. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a life threatening bleeding disorder caused by fetal platelet destruction by maternal alloantibodies developed during pregnancy. Gene polymorphisms cause platelet surface protein incompatibilities between mother and fetus, and ultimately lead to maternal alloimmunization. FNAIT is the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in full-term infants and can also lead to intrauterine growth retardation and miscarriage. Proper diagnosis, prevention and treatment of FNAIT is challenging due to insufficient knowledge of the disease and a lack of routine screening as well as its frequent occurrence in first pregnancies. Given the ethical difficulties in performing basic research on human fetuses and neonates, animal models are essential to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of FNAIT. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on platelets, hemostasis and thrombocytopenia with a focus on the advancements made in FNAIT by utilizing animal models. PMID:28345015

  19. Platelets are a possible regulator of human endometrial re-epithelialization during menstruation. (United States)

    Suginami, Koh; Sato, Yukiyasu; Horie, Akihito; Matsumoto, Hisanori; Kyo, Satoru; Araki, Yoshihiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Fujiwara, Hiroshi


    The human endometrium periodically breaks down and regenerates. As platelets have been reported to contribute to the tissue remodeling process, we examined the possible involvement of platelets in endometrial regeneration. The distribution of extravasating platelets throughout the menstrual cycle was immunohistochemically examined using human endometrial tissues. EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells, a human endometrial epithelial cell-derived immortalized cell line, were co-cultured with platelets, and the effects of platelets on the epithelialization response of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells were investigated by attachment and permeability assays, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical study showed numerous extravasated platelets in the subluminar stroma during the menstrual phase. The platelets promoted the cell-to-matrigel attachment of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells concomitantly with the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. They also promoted cell-to-cell contact among EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells in parallel with E-cadherin expression. These results indicate the possible involvement of platelets in the endometrial epithelial re-epithelialization process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Allele frequencies of human platelet antigens in Banjar, Bugis, Champa, Jawa and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia. (United States)

    Wan Syafawati, W U; Norhalifah, H K; Zefarina, Z; Zafarina, Z; Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N; Chambers, G K; Edinur, H A


    The major aims of this study are to characterise and compile allelic data of human platelet antigen (HPA)-1 to -6 and -15 systems in five Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. HPAs are polymorphic glycoproteins expressed on the surface of platelet membranes and are genetically differentiated across ethnogeographically unrelated populations. Blood samples were obtained with informed consent from 192 volunteers: Banjar (n = 30), Bugis (n = 37), Champa (n = 51), Jawa (n = 39) and Kelantan (n = 35). Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method. In general, frequencies of HPAs in the Malay sub-ethnic groups are more similar to those in Asian populations compared with other more distinct populations such as Indians, Australian Aborigines and Europeans. This study provides the first HPA datasets for the selected Malay sub-ethnic groups. Subsequent analyses including previously reported HPA data of Malays, Chinese and Indians revealed details of the genetic relationships and ancestry of various sub-populations in Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, the comprehensive HPA allele frequency information from Peninsular Malaysia provided in this report has potential applications for future study of diseases, estimating risks associated with HPA alloimmunization and for developing an efficient HPA-typed donor recruitment strategy. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  1. Recombinant Glycoprotein Vaccines for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Their Effects on Viral Quasispecies


    Essajee, Shaffiq M; Yogev, Ram; Pollack, Henry; Greenhouse, Bryan; Krasinski, Keith; Borkowsky, William


    In individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), specific immunity is associated with a more diverse viral repertoire and slower disease progression. Attempts to enhance antiviral immunity with therapeutic vaccination have shown that recombinant glycoprotein (RGP) vaccines are safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic, but the effect of RGP vaccines on the viral repertoire is unknown. We evaluated diversification of the viral envelope in 12 HIV-infected children who recei...

  2. Molecular cloning and mammalian expression of human beta 2-glycoprotein I cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Schousboe, Inger; Boel, Espen


    Human β2-glycoprotein (β2gpI) cDNA was isolated from a liver cDNA library and sequenced. The cDNA encoded a 19-residue hydrophobic signal peptide followed by the mature β2gpI of 326 amino acid residues. In liver and in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 there are two mRNA species of about 1.4 and 4.3 kb...

  3. Effect of platelet lysate on human cells involved in different phases of wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Barsotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are rich in mediators able to positively affect cell activity in wound healing. Aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different concentrations of human pooled allogeneic platelet lysate on human cells involved in the different phases of wound healing (inflammatory phase, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix secretion and epithelialization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Platelet lysate effect was studied on endothelial cells, monocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in terms of viability and proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, tissue repair pathway activation (ERK1/2 and inflammatory response evaluation (NFκB. Results were compared both with basal medium and with a positive control containing serum and growth factors. Platelet lysate induced viability and proliferation at the highest concentrations tested (10% and 20% v/v. Whereas both platelet lysate concentrations increased cell migration, only 20% platelet lysate was able to significantly promote angiogenic activity (p<0.05 vs. control, comparably to the positive control. Both platelet lysate concentrations activated important inflammatory pathways such as ERK1/2 and NFκB with the same early kinetics, whereas the effect was different for later time-points. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest the possibility of using allogeneic platelet lysate as both an alternative to growth factors commonly used for cell culture and as a tool for clinical regenerative application for wound healing.

  4. 3,3′,4,4′,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl Inhibits Drug Efflux Through P-Glycoprotein in KB-3 Cells Expressing Mutant Human P-Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujise


    Full Text Available The effects on the drug efflux of 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126, the most toxic of all coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs, were examined in KB-3 cells expressing human wild-type and mutant P-glycoprotein in which the 61st amino acid was substituted for serine or phenylalanine (KB3-Phe61. In the cells expressing P-glycoproteins, accumulations of vinblastine and colchicine decreased form 85% to 92% and from 62% to 91%, respectively, and the drug tolerances for these chemicals were increased. In KB3-Phe61, the decreases in drug accumulation were inhibited by adding PCB-126 in a way similar to that with cyclosporine A: by adding 1 μM PCB-126, the accumulations of vinblastine and colchicine increased up to 3.3- and 2.3-fold, respectively. It is suggested that PCB-126 decreased the drug efflux by inhibiting the P-glycoprotein in KB3-Phe61. Since there were various P-glycoproteins and many congeners of Co-PCBs, this inhibition has to be considered a new cause of the toxic effects of Co-PCBs.

  5. Oral streptococci utilize a Siglec-like domain of serine-rich repeat adhesins to preferentially target platelet sialoglycans in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingquan Deng


    Full Text Available Damaged cardiac valves attract blood-borne bacteria, and infective endocarditis is often caused by viridans group streptococci. While such bacteria use multiple adhesins to maintain their normal oral commensal state, recognition of platelet sialoglycans provides an intermediary for binding to damaged valvular endocardium. We use a customized sialoglycan microarray to explore the varied binding properties of phylogenetically related serine-rich repeat adhesins, the GspB, Hsa, and SrpA homologs from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis species, which belong to a highly conserved family of glycoproteins that contribute to virulence for a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens. Binding profiles of recombinant soluble homologs containing novel sialic acid-recognizing Siglec-like domains correlate well with binding of corresponding whole bacteria to arrays. These bacteria show multiple modes of glycan, protein, or divalent cation-dependent binding to synthetic glycoconjugates and isolated glycoproteins in vitro. However, endogenous asialoglycan-recognizing clearance receptors are known to ensure that only fully sialylated glycans dominate in the endovascular system, wherein we find these particular streptococci become primarily dependent on their Siglec-like adhesins for glycan-mediated recognition events. Remarkably, despite an excess of alternate sialoglycan ligands in cellular and soluble blood components, these adhesins selectively target intact bacteria to sialylated ligands on platelets, within human whole blood. These preferred interactions are inhibited by corresponding recombinant soluble adhesins, which also preferentially recognize platelets. Our data indicate that circulating platelets may act as inadvertent Trojan horse carriers of oral streptococci to the site of damaged endocardium, and provide an explanation why it is that among innumerable microbes that gain occasional access to the bloodstream, certain viridans group

  6. Structure of the gene encoding human alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG). (United States)

    Osawa, M; Umetsu, K; Sato, M; Ohki, T; Yukawa, N; Suzuki, T; Takeichi, S


    Alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG) is a human plasma glycoprotein and fetuin is the homologue in the calf. In this report, we present the structure and organization of the AHSG gene. Introns and the 5' and 3'-flanking regions were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the inverted PCR, respectively, from genomic DNA using AHSG cDNA-specific oligonucleotide primers. The sequence of the PCR products shows that the coding region spans approximately 8.2 kb and is composed of seven exons interrupted by six introns. The exon-intron splice junctions agree with the consensus sequence, and the positions interrupted by introns are precisely identical to those of the rat insulin receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (fetuin) gene. The 5'-promoter region contains several characteristic sequences such as an A + T-rich sequence of TAAATAA, C/EBP-binding site, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-5 (HNF-5) and serum response factor (SRF) sites.

  7. The stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets by hydrodynamic stresses (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Sridhar; Mcintire, Larry V.; Hall, Elizabeth R.; Wu, Kenneth K.


    The effects of stimulating human platelets by thrombin and by hydrodynamic stresses on the platelets' arachidonic acid metabolism were investigated using (1-C-14)-arachidonic acid label and a specially designed viscometer that ensured laminar shear flow with a nearly uniform shear rate throughout the flow region. It was found that platelets activated by thrombin formed principally thromboxane A2, 12-hydroxy 5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid and 12-hydroxy 5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). On the other hand, platelets activated by shear, formed only 12-HETE (although arachidonic acid metabolism was stimulated); no cyclooxygenase metabolites were detected. Results indicate that platelets may greatly increase their 12-HETE production when activated by passage through a high-stress region of the circulation, such as an atherosclerotic stenosis.

  8. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention: the ESPRIT trial: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    O'Shea, J C; Hafley, G E; Greenberg, S; Hasselblad, V; Lorenz, T J; Kitt, M M; Strony, J; Tcheng, J E


    The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial showed the efficacy of adjunctive, double-bolus eptifibatide therapy in reducing ischemic complications of nonurgent coronary stent implantation at 48 hours and at 30 days. To determine whether the beneficial effects of eptifibatide persist at 6 months after treatment. Follow-up study of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-permitted trial conducted from June 1999 through February 2000. Ninety-two tertiary care centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 2064 patients scheduled to undergo nonurgent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or eptifibatide (two 180-microg/kg boluses 10 minutes apart and continuous infusion of 2.0 microg/kg per minute), started immediately before stent implantation and continued for 18 to 24 hours. Complete follow-up data were available for 988 (95.0%) of 1040 patients given eptifibatide and 977 (95.4%) of 1024 patients given placebo. Composite rates of death or myocardial infarction (MI); death, MI, or target vessel revascularization; and their individual components 6 months after enrollment, compared between the 2 groups. By 6 months, the composite end point of death or MI had occurred in 7.5% of eptifibatide-treated patients and in 11.5% of placebo-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-0.84; P =.002). The composite of death, MI, or target vessel revascularization was 14.2% in eptifibatide-treated patients vs 18.3% in placebo-treated patients (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.93; P =.008). Most of this benefit accrued early (<48 hours after initiation of therapy) and was maintained through 6 months. Six-month mortality in the eptifibatide group was 0.8% vs 1.4% in the placebo group (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.24-1.34; P =.19) and target vessel revascularization occurred in 8.6% of the eptifibatide group vs 9.4% of

  9. Purification and characterization of the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreeve, S.M.; Kerlavage, A.R.; Fraser, C.M.; Mariani, A.P.; Venter, J.C.


    The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor (..cap alpha../sub 2/-R) from human platelets has been purified to homogeneity using a four step process. An affinity column was prepared by coupling p-aminoclonidine to CH-Sepharose 4B via the p-NH/sub 2/ group. Digitonin solubilized ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R bound to the affinity matrix were eluted with 100 phentolamine and directly applied to a DEAE-Sepharose column. Bound receptors were eluted with a linear gradient of 0-500 mM NaCl, pooled and chromatographed on HPLC size exclusion columns. Three peaks of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding were eluted from HPLC columns (t = 33, 42, 47 min). Radioiodination of HPLC eluates and analysis by SDS-PAGE indicated that ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding was associated with a 75-85 kDa protein. These data suggest that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R may exist in monomeric and oligomeric forms in the purified state and support previous target size data which indicate that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R exists as a dimer in the native membrane. The pure radioiodinated ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R (77-85 kDa) is a glycoprotein with terminal sialic acid or N-acetylglucosamine residues and has a pI of 4.1 on column isoelectric focusing. These data are consistent with those previously reported on the partially purified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R. Electron micrographs confirm the oligomeric nature and size of the pure ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R.

  10. Affinity labeling of a human platelet membrane protein with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl adenosine. Concomitant inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation and fibrinogen receptor exposure. (United States)

    Figures, W R; Niewiarowski, S; Morinelli, T A; Colman, R F; Colman, R W


    Incubation of washed human blood platelets with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl [3H]adenosine (FSBA) covalently labels a single polypeptide of Mr = 100,000. Protection by ADP has suggested that an ADP receptor on the platelet surface membrane was modified. The modified cells, unlike native platelets, failed to aggregate in response to ADP (100 microM) and fibrinogen (1 mg/ml). The extent of binding of 125I-fibrinogen and aggregation was inhibited to a degree related to the incorporation of 5'-p-sulfonylbenzoyl adenosine (SBA) into platelets, indicating FSBA could inhibit the exposure of fibrinogen receptors by ADP necessary for aggregation. Incubation of SBA platelets with alpha-chymotrypsin cleaved the covalently labeled polypeptide and concomitantly reversed the inhibition of aggregation and fibrinogen binding. Platelets proteolytically digested by chymotrypsin prior to exposure to FSBA did not require ADP for aggregation and fibrinogen binding. Moreover, subsequent exposure to FSBA did not inhibit aggregation or fibrinogen binding. The affinity reagent FSBA can displace fibrinogen bound to platelets in the presence of ADP, as well as promote the rapid disaggregation of the platelets. The apparent initial pseudo-first order rate constant of dissociation of fibrinogen was linearly proportional to FSBA concentrations. These studies suggest that a single polypeptide can be altered either by ADP-induced conformational changes or proteolysis by chymotrypsin to reveal latent fibrinogen receptors and promote aggregation of platelets after fibrinogen binding.

  11. Structure and expression of the human MDR (P-glycoprotein) gene family.


    Chin, J E; Soffir, R; Noonan, K E; Choi, K.; Roninson, I B


    The human MDR (P-glycoprotein) gene family is known to include two members, MDR1 and MDR2. The product of the MDR1 gene, which is responsible for resistance to different cytotoxic drugs (multidrug resistance), appears to serve as an energy-dependent efflux pump for various lipophilic compounds. The function of the MDR2 gene remains unknown. We have examined the structure of the human MDR gene family by Southern hybridization of DNA from different multidrug-resistant cell lines with subfragmen...

  12. Tumor Biomarker Glycoproteins in the Seminal Plasma of Healthy Human Males Are Endogenous Ligands for DC-SIGN* (United States)

    Clark, Gary F.; Grassi, Paola; Pang, Poh-Choo; Panico, Maria; Lafrenz, David; Drobnis, Erma Z.; Baldwin, Michael R.; Morris, Howard R.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Sun, Wei; Dell, Anne


    DC-SIGN is an immune C-type lectin that is expressed on both immature and mature dendritic cells associated with peripheral and lymphoid tissues in humans. It is a pattern recognition receptor that binds to several pathogens including HIV-1, Ebola virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, and Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence is now mounting that DC-SIGN also recognizes endogenous glycoproteins, and that such interactions play a major role in maintaining immune homeostasis in humans and mice. Autoantigens (neoantigens) are produced for the first time in the human testes and other organs of the male urogenital tract under androgenic stimulus during puberty. Such antigens trigger autoimmune orchitis if the immune response is not tightly regulated within this system. Endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN could play a role in modulating such responses. Human seminal plasma glycoproteins express a high level of terminal Lewisx and Lewisy carbohydrate antigens. These epitopes react specifically with the lectin domains of DC-SIGN. However, because the expression of these sequences is necessary but not sufficient for interaction with DC-SIGN, this study was undertaken to determine if any seminal plasma glycoproteins are also endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN. Glycoproteins bearing terminal Lewisx and Lewisy sequences were initially isolated by lectin affinity chromatography. Protein sequencing established that three tumor biomarker glycoproteins (clusterin, galectin-3 binding glycoprotein, prostatic acid phosphatase) and protein C inhibitor were purified by using this affinity method. The binding of DC-SIGN to these seminal plasma glycoproteins was demonstrated in both Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies. These findings have confirmed that human seminal plasma contains endogenous glycoprotein ligands for DC-SIGN that could play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis both in the male urogenital tract and the vagina after coitus. PMID:21986992

  13. Effect of platelet lysate on human cells involved in different phases of wound healing. (United States)

    Barsotti, Maria Chiara; Chiara Barsotti, Maria; Losi, Paola; Briganti, Enrica; Sanguinetti, Elena; Magera, Angela; Al Kayal, Tamer; Feriani, Roberto; Di Stefano, Rossella; Soldani, Giorgio


    Platelets are rich in mediators able to positively affect cell activity in wound healing. Aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different concentrations of human pooled allogeneic platelet lysate on human cells involved in the different phases of wound healing (inflammatory phase, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix secretion and epithelialization). Platelet lysate effect was studied on endothelial cells, monocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in terms of viability and proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, tissue repair pathway activation (ERK1/2) and inflammatory response evaluation (NFκB). Results were compared both with basal medium and with a positive control containing serum and growth factors. Platelet lysate induced viability and proliferation at the highest concentrations tested (10% and 20% v/v). Whereas both platelet lysate concentrations increased cell migration, only 20% platelet lysate was able to significantly promote angiogenic activity (pplatelet lysate concentrations activated important inflammatory pathways such as ERK1/2 and NFκB with the same early kinetics, whereas the effect was different for later time-points. These data suggest the possibility of using allogeneic platelet lysate as both an alternative to growth factors commonly used for cell culture and as a tool for clinical regenerative application for wound healing.

  14. Statin-induced changes in mitochondrial respiration in blood platelets in rats and human with dyslipidemia. (United States)

    Vevera, J; Fišar, Z; Nekovářová, T; Vrablík, M; Zlatohlávek, L; Hroudová, J; Singh, N; Raboch, J; Valeš, K


    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely used drugs for lowering blood lipid levels and preventing cardiovascular diseases. However, statins can have serious adverse effects, which may be related to development of mitochondrial dysfunctions. The aim of study was to demonstrate the in vivo effect of high and therapeutic doses of statins on mitochondrial respiration in blood platelets. Model approach was used in the study. Simvastatin was administered to rats at a high dose for 4 weeks. Humans were treated with therapeutic doses of rosuvastatin or atorvastatin for 6 weeks. Platelet mitochondrial respiration was measured using high-resolution respirometry. In rats, a significantly lower physiological respiratory rate was found in intact platelets of simvastatin-treated rats compared to controls. In humans, no significant changes in mitochondrial respiration were detected in intact platelets; however, decreased complex I-linked respiration was observed after statin treatment in permeabilized platelets. We propose that the small in vivo effect of statins on platelet energy metabolism can be attributed to drug effects on complex I of the electron transport system. Both intact and permeabilized platelets can be used as a readily available biological model to study changes in cellular energy metabolism in patients treated with statins.

  15. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation in vitro by standardized extract of Wendtia calycina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Garcia Mesa


    Full Text Available Wendtia calycina (Griseb. Griseb., Vivianiaceae, is a Paraguayan herbaceous plant commonly known as burrito. Our previous study indicated that burrito leaves are a very good source of phenylpropanoid glycosides, principally verbascoside. From W. calycina leaves, a standardized, water-soluble extract rich in phenylpropanoid glycosides (WSE has been developed on an industrial scale to be used as a food supplement, cosmetic, phytomedicine, and ingredient of different formulations. In this study, we investigated the effect of the WSE on human platelet aggregation in vitro induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, epinephrine (EPN, collagen (COL or arachidonic acid (AA. WSE, concentration-dependently, inhibited ADP and EP-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 were 0.82±0.15 mg/mL and 0.41±0.02 mg/mL, respectively. It did not inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thus suggesting a selectivity for the ADP-induced platelet activation pathways.

  16. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation in vitro by standardized extract of Wendtia calycina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Garcia Mesa


    Full Text Available Wendtia calycina (Griseb. Griseb., Vivianiaceae, is a Paraguayan herbaceous plant commonly known as burrito. Our previous study indicated that burrito leaves are a very good source of phenylpropanoid glycosides, principally verbascoside. From W. calycina leaves, a standardized, water-soluble extract rich in phenylpropanoid glycosides (WSE has been developed on an industrial scale to be used as a food supplement, cosmetic, phytomedicine, and ingredient of different formulations. In this study, we investigated the effect of the WSE on human platelet aggregation in vitro induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, epinephrine (EPN, collagen (COL or arachidonic acid (AA. WSE, concentration-dependently, inhibited ADP and EP-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 were 0.82±0.15 mg/mL and 0.41±0.02 mg/mL, respectively. It did not inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thus suggesting a selectivity for the ADP-induced platelet activation pathways.

  17. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E


    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  18. Phorbol ester stimulates calcium sequestration in saponized human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Nachmias, V.T.


    When platelets are activated by agonists, calcium (Ca2+) is released from an intracellular storage site. Recent studies using fura-2 show that, after thrombin stimulation, the rise in free calcium is transient and returns to base-line levels in 2-3 min, while the transient following ADP stimulation lasts only 15-20 s. We reported previously that the phorbol ester 12,13-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), added at nanomolar levels after thrombin, immediately accelerated the rate of return of calcium to the base line severalfold. In the present study, we used both intact and saponized platelets to determine whether this is due to stimulation of calcium sequestration. Using fura-2 and intact platelets, we found 1) that PMA stimulated the restoration of free Ca2+ levels after ADP as well as after thrombin, and 2) that H-7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme), slowed the return of Ca2+ to baseline levels. Using saponized platelets, we also found 3) that pretreatment of platelets with PMA before saponin treatment increased the ATP-dependent /sup 45/Ca2+ uptake 2-fold, with a half-maximal effect at 5 nm; 4) that most of the Ca2+ released by ionomycin or by myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate; and 5) that a GTP-binding protein inhibitor, guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate), decreased basal or PMA-stimulated /sup 45/Ca2+ uptake in saponin-treated platelets. Our data suggest that activation of protein kinase C stimulates the sequestration of Ca2+ independently of cAMP or myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

  19. Elucidation of N-glycosites within human plasma glycoproteins for cancer biomarker discovery. (United States)

    Drake, Penelope; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Brad; Fisher, Susan


    Glycans are an important class of post-translational modifications that decorate a wide array of protein substrates. These cell-type specific molecules, which are modulated during developmental and disease processes, are attractive biomarker candidates as biology regarding altered glycosylation can be used to guide the experimental design. The mass spectrometry (MS)-based workflow described here incorporates chromatography on affinity matrices formed from lectins, proteins that bind specific glycan motifs. The goal was to design a relatively simple method for the rapid analysis of small plasma volumes (e.g., clinical specimens). As increases in sialylation and fucosylation are prominent among cancer-associated modifications, we focused on Sambucus nigra agglutinin and AAL, which bind sialic acid- and fucose-containing structures, respectively. Positive controls (fucosylated and sialylated human lactoferrin glycopeptides), and negative controls (high-mannose glycopeptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase) were used to monitor the specificity of lectin capture and optimize the workflow. Multiple Affinity Removal System 14-depleted, trypsin-digested human plasma from healthy donors served as the target analyte. Samples were loaded onto the lectin columns and separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into flow through and bound fractions, which were treated with PNGase F, an amidase that removes N-linked glycans and marks the underlying asparagine glycosite by a +1 Da mass shift. The deglycosylated peptide fractions were interrogated by HPLC ESI-MS/MS on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The method allowed identification of 122 human plasma glycoproteins containing 247 unique glycosites. Notably, glycoproteins that circulate at ng/mL levels (e.g., cadherin-5 at 0.3-4.9 ng/mL, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin which is present at ∼2.5 ng/mL) were routinely observed, suggesting that this method enables the detection of

  20. Response to platelet-activating factor in human platelets stored and aged in plasma. Decrease in aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and receptor affinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, S.D.; Morrison, W.J.; Klachko, D.M.


    Human platelet concentrates were stored in polyolefin bags at 22 to 24 degrees C on a horizontal shaker for up to 8 days. At different intervals, aliquots of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were removed aseptically and five variables, i.e., platelet counts, morphology, platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and (3H)PAF binding to platelet receptors, were studied. The number of platelets did not change during the 8 days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the platelets revealed a gradual morphologic change from biconcave flat discs to irregular, crenated forms. The PAF-induced aggregation of platelets declined with time of storage. A decrease to 50 percent of the Day 1 aggregatory response to PAF was evident on Day 2, and there was a further decline to about 20 percent by Day 6. Similarly, PAF receptor-coupled phosphoinositide turnover, as monitored by 32P incorporation into individual phosphoinositides, decreased dramatically with storage. After 2 to 3 days of storage, the phosphoinositide turnover was reduced to 50 percent of the original response, and it continued to decline to about 25 percent of original response by Day 5 or 6. The binding of (3H)PAF to washed human platelets indicated subtle changes between Days 2 and 4, which became more noticeable by Day 6. These results have raised the possibility of changes in the number of the receptors and/or their affinity for the ligand during storage. We conclude that although the number of platelets was maintained during storage for 8 days, a general deterioration of their responses to PAF occurred at the levels of cell surface receptor, transmembrane signaling (phosphoinositide turnover), and response (aggregation).

  1. Nanoparticle size and surface charge determine effects of PAMAM dendrimers on human platelets in vitro (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A.; Patri, Anil K.; Simak, Jan; Hall, Jennifer B.; Semberova, Jana; De Paoli Lacerda, Silvia H.; McNeil, Scott E.


    Blood platelets are essential in maintaining hemostasis. Various materials can activate platelets and cause them to aggregate. Platelet aggregation in vitro is often used as a marker for materials’ thrombogenic properties and studying nanomaterial interaction with platelets is an important step toward understanding their hematocompatibility. Here we report evaluation of 12 formulations of PAMAM dendrimers varying in size and surface charge. Using a cell counter based method, light transmission aggregometry and scanning electron microscopy, we show that only large cationic dendrimers, but not anionic, neutral or small cationic dendrimers, induce aggregation of human platelets in plasma in vitro. The aggregation caused by large cationic dendrimers was proportional to the number of surface amines. The observed aggregation was not associated with membrane microparticle release, and was insensitive to a variety of chemical and biological inhibitors known to interfere with various pathways of platelet activation. Taken in context with previously reported studies, our data suggest that large cationic PAMAM dendrimers induce platelet aggregation through disruption of membrane integrity. PMID:22026635

  2. Catabolism of exogenously supplied thymidine to thymine and dihydrothymine by platelets in human peripheral blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pero, R.W.; Johnson, D.; Olsson, A.


    The interference of platelets with the estimation of unscheduled DNA synthesis in human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes following genotoxic exposure was studied. A 96% reduction in the unscheduled DNA synthesis value was achieved by incubating (/sup 3/H)thymidine with platelet-rich plasma for 5 hr at 37 degrees. Using radioactive thymine-containing compounds, together with quantitative analyses based on thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatographies, we have shown that thymidine was converted to thymine which, in turn, was converted to dihydrothymine in platelet-rich plasma. The enzymes responsible were separated from platelet lysates by gel filtration and were identified as thymidine phosphorylase and dihydrothymine dehydrogenase. The phosphorylase reversibly catalyzed the formation of thymine from thymidine and converted bromodeoxyuridine to bromouracil. The dehydrogenase reversibly catalyzed the interconversion of thymine and dihydrothymine in a reaction dependent on NADP(H), and it was inhibited by diazouracil and by thymine. Nearly all the thymidine-catabolizing activity found in whole blood samples supplied exogenously with thymidine was accounted for by the platelets. Since most genetic toxicological tests that use blood samples do not involve removing platelets from the blood cell cultures, then it is concluded that precautions should be taken in the future to determine the influence of platelets on these test systems. This is particularly true for methods dependent on thymidine pulses such as unscheduled DNA synthesis, or those dependent on bromodeoxyuridine, such as sister chromatid exchanges, since this nucleoside is also a substrate for thymidine phosphorylase.

  3. Specific Inflammatory Stimuli Lead to Distinct Platelet Responses in Mice and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea M Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Diverse and multi-factorial processes contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. These processes affect cells involved in the development of this disease in varying ways, ultimately leading to atherothrombosis. The goal of our study was to compare the differential effects of specific stimuli--two bacterial infections and a Western diet--on platelet responses in ApoE-/- mice, specifically examining inflammatory function and gene expression. Results from murine studies were verified using platelets from participants of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS; n = 1819 participants.Blood and spleen samples were collected at weeks 1 and 9 from ApoE-/- mice infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis or Chlamydia pneumoniae and from mice fed a Western diet for 9 weeks. Transcripts based on data from a Western diet in ApoE-/- mice were measured in platelet samples from FHS using high throughput qRT-PCR.At week 1, both bacterial infections increased circulating platelet-neutrophil aggregates. At week 9, these cells individually localized to the spleen, while Western diet resulted in increased platelet-neutrophil aggregates in the spleen only. Microarray analysis of platelet RNA from infected or Western diet-fed mice at week 1 and 9 showed differential profiles. Genes, such as Serpina1a, Ttr, Fgg, Rpl21, and Alb, were uniquely affected by infection and diet. Results were reinforced in platelets obtained from participants of the FHS.Using both human studies and animal models, results demonstrate that variable sources of inflammatory stimuli have the ability to influence the platelet phenotype in distinct ways, indicative of the diverse function of platelets in thrombosis, hemostasis, and immunity.

  4. Pharmacodynamics and safety of lefradafiban, an oral platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist, in patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerhuis, KM; van den Brand, MJBM; van der Zwaan, C; Suryapranata, H; van der Wieken, LR; Stibbe, J; Hoffmann, J; Baardman, T; Deckers, JW

    Objective-Lefradafiban is the orally active prodrug of fradafiban, a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist. The present phase II study aimed to determine the dose of lefradafiban that provides 80% blockade of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors by fradafiban, and to study the pharmacodynamics

  5. Pharmacodynamics and safety of lefradafiban, an oral platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist, in patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Akkerhuis (Martijn); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); C. van der Zwaan (Coen); H. Suryapranata (Harry); J. Stibbe (Jeanne); J. Hoffmann; T. Baardman (Taco); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); L.R. van der Wieken (Ron); H.O.J. Peels


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Lefradafiban is the orally active prodrug of fradafiban, a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist. The present phase II study aimed to determine the dose of lefradafiban that provides 80% blockade of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors by fradafiban, and to study the

  6. Structural basis for the recognition of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B by a neutralizing human antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Spindler


    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections are life-threating to people with a compromised or immature immune system. Upon adhesion, fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell is initiated. In this step, the viral glycoprotein gB is considered to represent the major fusogen. Here, we present for the first time structural data on the binding of an anti-herpes virus antibody and describe the atomic interactions between the antigenic domain Dom-II of HCMV gB and the Fab fragment of the human antibody SM5-1. The crystal structure shows that SM5-1 binds Dom-II almost exclusively via only two CDRs, namely light chain CDR L1 and a 22-residue-long heavy chain CDR H3. Two contiguous segments of Dom-II are targeted by SM5-1, and the combining site includes a hydrophobic pocket on the Dom-II surface that is only partially filled by CDR H3 residues. SM5-1 belongs to a series of sequence-homologous anti-HCMV gB monoclonal antibodies that were isolated from the same donor at a single time point and that represent different maturation states. Analysis of amino acid substitutions in these antibodies in combination with molecular dynamics simulations show that key contributors to the picomolar affinity of SM5-1 do not directly interact with the antigen but significantly reduce the flexibility of CDR H3 in the bound and unbound state of SM5-1 through intramolecular side chain interactions. Thus, these residues most likely alleviate unfavorable binding entropies associated with extra-long CDR H3s, and this might represent a common strategy during antibody maturation. Models of entire HCMV gB in different conformational states hint that SM5-1 neutralizes HCMV either by blocking the pre- to postfusion transition of gB or by precluding the interaction with additional effectors such as the gH/gL complex.

  7. Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) subunit vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, L.O.; Pyle, S.W.; Nara, P.L.; Bess, J.W. Jr.; Gonda, M.A.; Kelliher, J.C.; Gilden, R.V.; Robey, W.G.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Gallo, R.C.


    The major envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been purified and was utilized as a prototype vaccine in chimpanzees. The 120,000-dalton glycoprotein (gp120) was purified from membranes of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-IIIB-infected cells and the final preparation contained low levels to no detectable HTLV-IIIB core antigen (p24) and low levels of endotoxin. Chimpanzees inoculated with gp120 responded by developing antibodies that precipitated radiolabeled gp120 and neutralized in vitro infection of HTLV-IIIB. Antibodies to HTLV-IIIB p24 were not detected in the gp120-immunized chimpanzees. Peripheral blood leukocytes from the vaccinated animals were examined for T4/sup +/ and T8/sup +/ cells, and no decrease in the T4/T8 ratio was found, indicating that immunization with a ligand (gp120) that binds to T4 has not detectable adverse effect on the population of T4/sup +/ cells. The only current animal model that can be reproducibly infected with HIV is the chimpanzee. Immunization of chimpanzees with HIV proteins will provide an experimental system for testing the effectiveness of prototype vaccines for preventing HIV infection in vivo.

  8. Impact of a human CMP-sialic acid transporter on recombinant glycoprotein sialylation in glycoengineered insect cells. (United States)

    Mabashi-Asazuma, Hideaki; Shi, Xianzong; Geisler, Christoph; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Jarvis, Donald L


    Insect cells are widely used for recombinant glycoprotein production, but they cannot provide the glycosylation patterns required for some biotechnological applications. This problem has been addressed by genetically engineering insect cells to express mammalian genes encoding various glycoprotein glycan processing functions. However, for various reasons, the impact of a mammalian cytosine-5'-monophospho (CMP)-sialic acid transporter has not yet been examined. Thus, we transformed Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells with six mammalian genes to generate a new cell line, SfSWT-4, that can produce sialylated glycoproteins when cultured with the sialic acid precursor, N-acetylmannosamine. We then super-transformed SfSWT-4 with a human CMP-sialic acid transporter (hCSAT) gene to isolate a daughter cell line, SfSWT-6, which expressed the hCSAT gene in addition to the other mammalian glycogenes. SfSWT-6 cells had higher levels of cell surface sialylation and also supported higher levels of recombinant glycoprotein sialylation, particularly when cultured with low concentrations of N-acetylmannosamine. Thus, hCSAT expression has an impact on glycoprotein sialylation, can reduce the cost of recombinant glycoprotein production and therefore should be included in ongoing efforts to glycoengineer the baculovirus-insect cell system. The results of this study also contributed new insights into the endogenous mechanism and potential mechanisms of CMP-sialic acid accumulation in the Golgi apparatus of lepidopteran insect cells.

  9. Mechanisms of aggregation inhibition by aspirin and nitrate-aspirin prodrugs in human platelets. (United States)

    Harmon, Shona; Inkielewicz-Stepniak, Iwona; Jones, Michael; Ledwidge, Mark; Santos-Martinez, Maria Jose; Medina, Carlos; Radomski, Marek W; Gilmer, John F


    Aspirin is the mainstay of anti-platelet therapy in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, problems with aspirin safety and resistance demand clinical strategies based on multiple pharmacological approaches. Prodrugs of aspirin may offer beneficial effects in terms of gastro-intestinal safety and multiple pharmacological approaches. However, the pharmacological profile of aspirin prodrugs in human platelets has not been completed yet. We aimed to compare the effects of aspirin and prodrugs of aspirin (1-5) on human platelet aggregation stimulated by ADP and collagen and associated receptor expression (GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and washed platelets (WP). As aspirin is released from prodrugs following esterase hydrolysis we studied the expression and activity of butyrylcholineterase (BuChE) and carboxyesterase (CE) in plasma and platelets. The mechanism of prodrug-induced platelet aggregation inhibition was explored by studying the effects of plasma and purified human BuChE on aggregation. Finally, the relative contribution of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity to nitrate-containing prodrugs of aspirin-induced inhibition of aggregation was determined using 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ,) a selective inhibitor of the soluble guanylyl cyclase. ST0702, 2, a nicotinic acid-aspirin codrug was equipotent with aspirin with respect to inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Compound 4, a NO releasing aspirin was the most potent inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, an effect partially reversed by ODQ. The platelet inhibitory effects of aspirin prodrugs were time-dependent as the maximal inhibitory effects against collagen-induced aggregation were achieved by aspirin at 2 min, 1 at 5 min and ST0702 at 15 min. The aspirin prodrugs were significantly less potent in WP than in PRP and the reverse was true of aspirin. In the presence of complete BuChE inhibition in PRP, there was almost

  10. Core Structure of S2 from the Human Coronavirus NL63 Spike Glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng,Q.; Deng, Y.; Liu, J.; van der Hoek, L.; Berkhout, B.; Lu, M.


    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has recently been identified as a causative agent of acute respiratory tract illnesses in infants and young children. The HCoV-NL63 spike (S) protein mediates virion attachment to cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This viral entry process is a primary target for vaccine and drug development. HCoV-NL63 S is expressed as a single-chain glycoprotein and consists of an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (S1) and a C-terminal transmembrane fusion domain (S2). The latter contains two highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) sequences that are each extended by 14 amino acids relative to those of the SARS coronavirus or the prototypic murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus. Limited proteolysis studies of the HCoV-NL63 S2 fusion core identify an {alpha}-helical domain composed of a trimer of the HR segments N57 and C42. The crystal structure of this complex reveals three C42 helices entwined in an oblique and antiparallel manner around a central triple-stranded coiled coil formed by three N57 helices. The overall geometry comprises distinctive high-affinity conformations of interacting cross-sectional layers of the six helices. As a result, this structure is unusually stable, with an apparent melting temperature of 78 {sup o}C in the presence of the denaturant guanidine hydrochloride at 5 M concentration. The extended HR regions may therefore be required to prime the group 1 S glycoproteins for their fusion-activating conformational changes during viral entry. Our results provide an initial basis for understanding an intriguing interplay between the presence or absence of proteolytic maturation among the coronavirus groups and the membrane fusion activity of their S glycoproteins. This study also suggests a potential strategy for the development of improved HCoV-NL63 fusion inhibitors.

  11. Platelets display potent antimicrobial activity and release human beta-defensin 2. (United States)

    Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Varoga, Deike; Wruck, Christoph Jan; Podschun, Rainer; Sachweh, Benita Hermanns; Bornemann, Jorg; Bovi, Manfred; Sönmez, Taha Tolga; Slowik, Alexander; Houben, Astrid; Seekamp, Andreas; Brandenburg, Lars Ove; Pufe, Thomas; Lippross, Sebastian


    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a potent agent that improves soft tissue and bone healing. By the release of growth factors and cytokines, PRP is believed to locally boost physiologic healing processes. Recently, antimicrobial activity of PRP has been demonstrated against S. aureus strains. Major scientific effort is being put into the understanding and prevention of infections i.e. by delivery of antimicrobial substances. In previous studies we showed the ideal antibacterial activity-profile of the human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) for orthopaedic infections and therefore hypothesized that hBD-2 may be the effector of antimicrobial platelet action. Platelet concentrates were produced from human platelet phresis obtained from a hospital blood bank. They were screened by immunohistochemistry, Western Blot and ELISA for the human beta defensin-2. In vitro susceptibility to PRP was investigated by a standard disc diffusion test with or without pre-incubation of PRP with anti-hBD-2 antibody. SPSS statistical software was used for statistical analysis. PRP contains hBD-2 470 pg/10(9) platelets or 1786 pg/ml, respectively, (ELISA), which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. In antimicrobial testing, PRP demonstrates effective inhibition of E. coli, B. megaterium, P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis and P. mirabilis. With this study we confirm the previously reported antimicrobial action of platelet concentrates i.e. PRP. In opposition to previously reported effects against gram positive bacteria our study focuses on gram negative and less common gram positive bacteria that do frequently cause clinical complications. We provide a possible molecular mechanism at least for E. coli and P. mirabilis for this effect by the detection of an antimicrobial peptide (hBD-2). This study may advocate the clinical use of PRP by highlighting a new aspect of platelet action.

  12. ARF6-dependent regulation of P2Y receptor traffic and function in human platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi

    Full Text Available Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6 in the internalization and function of P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1 or P2Y(12 purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function.

  13. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))


    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B{sup lt}/B{sup lt}) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B{sup lt} mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation.

  14. Characterization of human platelet binding of recombinant T cell receptor ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meza-Romero Roberto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs are bio-engineered molecules that may serve as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS. RTLs contain membrane distal α1 plus β1 domains of class II major histocompatibility complex linked covalently to specific peptides that can be used to regulate T cell responses and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. The mechanisms by which RTLs impede local recruitment and retention of inflammatory cells in the CNS, however, are not completely understood. Methods We have recently shown that RTLs bind strongly to B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, but not to T cells, in an antigenic-independent manner, raising the question whether peripheral blood cells express a distinct RTL-receptor. Our study was designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which RTLs bind human blood platelets, and the ability of RTL to modulate platelet function. Results Our data demonstrate that human blood platelets support binding of RTL. Immobilized RTL initiated platelet intracellular calcium mobilization and lamellipodia formation through a pathway dependent upon Src and PI3 kinases signaling. The presence of RTL in solution reduced platelet aggregation by collagen, while treatment of whole blood with RTL prolonged occlusive thrombus formation on collagen. Conclusions Platelets, well-known regulators of hemostasis and thrombosis, have been implicated in playing a major role in inflammation and immunity. This study provides the first evidence that blood platelets express a functional RTL-receptor with a putative role in modulating pathways of neuroinflammation.

  15. Novel TPO receptor agonist TA-316 contributes to platelet biogenesis from human iPS cells. (United States)

    Aihara, Ayako; Koike, Tomo; Abe, Natsuki; Nakamura, Sou; Sawaguchi, Akira; Nakamura, Takanori; Sugimoto, Naoshi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Nishino, Taito; Eto, Koji


    Signaling by thrombopoietin (TPO) in complex with its receptor, c-MPL, is critical for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis and platelet generation. Here we show that TA-316, a novel chemically synthesized c-MPL agonist (CMA), is useful for ex vivo platelet generation from human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived immortalized megakaryocyte progenitor cell lines (imMKCLs). Moreover, the generation is clinically applicable, because self-renewal expansion and platelet release is tightly controllable. TA-316 but not eltrombopag, another CMA, promoted both the self-renewal and maturation of imMKCLs, leading to more than a twofold higher platelet production than that achieved with recombinant human TPO (rhTPO). Interestingly, TA-316 seemed to favor MK-biased differentiation from bone marrow CD34 + HSC/progenitors and imMKCLs through the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A and fibroblast growth factor 2. This result suggests TA-316 could facilitate the development of an efficient and useful system to expand platelets from imMKCLs.

  16. Further insights into the anti-aggregating activity of NMDA in human platelets (United States)

    Franconi, Flavia; Miceli, Mauro; Alberti, Luisa; Seghieri, Giuseppe; De Montis, M Graziella; Tagliamonte, Alessandro


    In the present study the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on thromboxane B2 synthesis and on [Ca2+]i was studied in human platelets.NMDA (10−7 M) completely inhibited the synthesis of thromboxane B2 from exogenous arachidonic acid (AA), while it did not interfere with the aggregating effect of the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U-46619.NMDA (0.1 μM–10 μM) dose-dependently increased intracellular calcium in washed platelets pre-loaded with fura 2 AM, and this effect was not additive with that of AA.NMDA shifted the dose-response curve of AA to the right. At the highest AA concentrations platelet aggregation was not inhibited.The antiaggregating effect of NMDA was not antagonized by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor.Finally, NMDA (0.01 nM–100 nM) associated with either aspirin or indomethacin significantly potentiated the antiaggregating activity of both cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors.It was concluded that NMDA is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 synthesis in human platelet rich plasma (PRP). PMID:9630340

  17. Photochemical inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in human platelet concentrates. (United States)

    Lin, L; Londe, H; Janda, J M; Hanson, C V; Corash, L


    Platelet concentrates (PC) may be infrequently contaminated with low levels of bacteria that can cause septicemia and death in patients receiving transfusion therapy. We evaluated the efficacy of a photochemical decontamination (PCD) technique using 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long wavelength UV light (UVA) to inactivate bacteria in standard therapeutic PC. Twelve phylogenetically distinct pathogenic bacteria, 5 gram-positive and 7 gram-negative organisms, were seeded into PC to a final challenge dose ranging from 10(5) to 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Contaminated PC were treated with 8-MOP (5 micrograms/mL) and 5 J/cm2 of UVA, a PCD treatment regimen found to adequately preserve in vitro platelet function. Greater than 10(5) CFU/mL of all 5 gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Corynebacterium minutissimum) and 2 of the gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica) organisms were inactivated. The remaining 5 gram-negative organisms were more resistant, with less than 10(1) to 10(3.7) CFU/mL inactivated under these conditions. The inactivation efficiency for this resistant group of gram-negative organisms was improved when PC were resuspended in a synthetic storage medium with reduced plasma protein concentration (15%) and an increased 8-MOP concentration (23.4 micrograms/mL). Illumination with 3 J/cm2 of UVA in this system inactivated greater than 10(5) CFU/mL of 4 resistant gram-negative organisms (Salmonella choleraesuis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and 10(4.1) CFU/mL of the most resistant gram-negative organism (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). This level of PCD treatment did not adversely affect in vitro platelet function. These results demonstrate that PCD using 8-MOP (5 to 23.4 micrograms/mL) effectively inactivated high levels of pathogenic bacteria in PC with adequate preservation of in vitro platelet properties.

  18. Fish Oil Supplementation in Humans: Effects on Platelet Responses, Phospholipid Composition and Metabolism. (United States)

    Skeaff, Clark Murray

    Platelets are believed to play a significant role in the development of occlusive vascular diseases. Epidemiological reports have correlated the high intake of marine foods, rich in omega3 fatty acids, with diminished platelet responses and a low incidence of arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The activation of platelet responses is mediated by the accelerated metabolism of membrane phospholipid; therefore, it was of interest to examine, in human volunteers, the effect of a dietary fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA), enriched in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on platelet aggregation and phospholipid composition/metabolism. For the complete separation of cellular phospholipids, a one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography system using silica-gel pre-coated glass plates was developed. The solvent system consisted of CHCl_3/CH_3OH/CH _3COOH/H_2O (50/37.5/3.5/2.0, by vol), required approximately 90-120 minutes for full phospholipid separation, and was highly reproducible even under conditions of variable humidity and temperature. The consumption of a fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA) for 6 weeks (3.6 g of 20:5omega 3 and 2.4 g of 22:6omega3 per day) diminished both the collagen- and platelet activating factor-induced maximum aggregation responses in washed human platelet suspensions by 50.1% and 27.2%, respectively, as compared to initial unsupplemented baseline responses. Thrombin -induced aggregation remained unchanged. Thrombin stimulation of intact human platelets produced a significant decrease in the mass of phosphatidylinositol in plasma membrane. In platelets pre-labelled with (2-^3H) glycerol and stimulated with either thrombin or low-dose collagen, the loss of (^3H) phosphatidylinositol did not differ between those subjects consuming olive oil or fish oil. Likewise, the thrombin-stimulated accumulation of diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C, was unaffected by fish oil consumption. The ratio of collagen -induced increase in radioactivity

  19. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giang, Erick; Dorner, Marcus; Prentoe, Jannick C


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects ∼2% of the world's population. It is estimated that there are more than 500,000 new infections annually in Egypt, the country with the highest HCV prevalence. An effective vaccine would help control this expanding global health burden. HCV is highly variable......, and an effective vaccine should target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Conserved B-cell epitopes overlapping the CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) on the E2 viral envelope glycoprotein have been reported previously and provide promising vaccine targets. In this study, we isolated 73 human on the E1E2 complex, has an exceptionally broad neutralizing activity toward diverse HCV genotypes and protects against heterologous HCV challenge in a small animal model. The mAb panel will be useful for the design and development of vaccine candidates to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies...

  20. Identification of N-linked glycoproteins in human milk by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mamone, Gianfranco


    by Hydrophilic Interaction LC (HILIC) and MS analysis. Glycopeptides were selectively enriched from the protein tryptic digest of human milk samples. Oligosaccharide-free peptides obtained by peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) treatment were characterized by a shotgun MS-based approach, allowing...... the identification of N-glycosylated sites localized on proteins. Using this strategy, 32 different glycoproteins were identified and 63 N-glycosylated sites encrypted in them were located. The glycoproteins include immunocompetent factors, membrane fat globule-associated proteins, enzymes involved in lipid...

  1. Platelet serotonin level and impulsivity in human self-destructive behavior: A biological and psychological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Era Dutta


    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a disease and a global public health problem. Suicidology has come to become a topic of study for intervention and research. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT] system has remained a prime area of investigation. The neurons and platelets display structural and functional similarities. Ninety-nine percent of 5HT is contained in platelets, which shares similar 5HT uptake and release mechanisms with 5HT neurons. Aims: This study aims to study human self-destructive behavior (HSDB. Objectives: Exploring the biological (serotonin levels in platelets and psychological aspects (impulsivity of attempted suicide or HSDB. Settings and Design: Thirty-one patients, above the age of 18 years, with a recent history of HSDB, were studied and given an International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis, after a detailed interview. Subjects and Methods: For the platelet 5HT estimation, blood samples were collected, and enzyme immunometric assay carried out. Detailed assessment of the impulsivity was done by the 25-item structured diagnostic interview for borderlines by Zanarini et al. Statistical Analysis Used: We obtained both categorical and continuous data. Chi-square test, Fisher's test, Student's t-test, and Pearson's product moment correlation were used. Results: Female subjects outnumbered males by 2:1. Major depression, adjustment disorder, personality disorder were predominant diagnoses. The mean platelet serotonin concentration for males = 57.3 ng/ml, that of females = 56.05 ng/ml (P > 0.05. Platelet 5HT levels were found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity scores (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Platelet serotonin levels in our study sample were quite low when compared with those reported in published literature. Low serotonin levels were inversely related to impulsivity, but only in males.

  2. The human glycoprotein salivary agglutinin inhibits the interaction of dc-sign and langerin with oral micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, M.A.; Gunput, S.T.G.; Kosten, I.; Gibbs, S.; van Vliet, S.J.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; van Kooyk, Y.


    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), also known as gp340 or SALSA, is a glycoprotein encoded by the Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 gene and is abundantly present in human saliva. SAG aggregates bacteria and viruses, thereby promoting their clearance from the oral cavity. The mucosa lining the oral

  3. Profiling of Concanavalin A-Binding Glycoproteins in Human Hepatic Stellate Cells Activated with Transforming Growth Factor-β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Qin


    Full Text Available Glycoproteins play important roles in maintaining normal cell functions depending on their glycosylations. Our previous study indicated that the abundance of glycoproteins recognized by concanavalin A (ConA was increased in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs following activation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1; however, little is known about the ConA-binding glycoproteins (CBGs of HSCs. In this study, we employed a targeted glycoproteomics approach using lectin-magnetic particle conjugate-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare CBG profiles between LX-2 HSCs with and without activation by TGF-β1, with the aim of discovering novel CBGs and determining their possible roles in activated HSCs. A total of 54 and 77 proteins were identified in the quiescent and activated LX-2 cells, respectively. Of the proteins identified, 14.3% were glycoproteins and 73.3% were novel potential glycoproteins. Molecules involved in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (e.g., calreticulin and calcium signaling (e.g., 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase β-2 [PLCB2] were specifically identified in activated LX-2 cells. Additionally, PLCB2 expression was upregulated in the cytoplasm of the activated LX-2 cells, as well as in the hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells of liver cirrhosis tissues. In conclusion, the results of this study may aid future investigations to find new molecular mechanisms involved in HSC activation and antifibrotic therapeutic targets.

  4. Galectin Binding to Neo-Glycoproteins: LacDiNAc Conjugated BSA as Ligand for Human Galectin-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Böcker


    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-lectin interactions are relatively weak. As they play an important role in biological recognition processes, multivalent glycan ligands are designed to enhance binding affinity and inhibitory potency. We here report on novel neo-glycoproteins based on bovine serum albumin as scaffold for multivalent presentation of ligands for galectins. We prepared two kinds of tetrasaccharides (N-acetyllactosamine and N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated by multi-step chemo-enzymatic synthesis utilizing recombinant glycosyltransferases. Subsequent conjugation of these glycans to lysine groups of bovine serum albumin via squaric acid diethyl ester yielded a set of 22 different neo-glycoproteins with tuned ligand density. The neo-glycoproteins were analyzed by biochemical and chromatographic methods proving various modification degrees. The neo-glycoproteins were used for binding and inhibition studies with human galectin-3 showing high affinity. Binding strength and inhibition potency are closely related to modification density and show binding enhancement by multivalent ligand presentation. At galectin-3 concentrations comparable to serum levels of cancer patients, we detect the highest avidities. Selectivity of N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated structures towards galectin-3 in comparison to galectin-1 is demonstrated. Moreover, we also see strong inhibitory potency of our scaffolds towards galectin-3 binding. These novel neo-glycoproteins may therefore serve as selective and strong galectin-3 ligands in cancer related biomedical research.

  5. Galectin Binding to Neo-Glycoproteins: LacDiNAc Conjugated BSA as Ligand for Human Galectin-3. (United States)

    Böcker, Sophia; Laaf, Dominic; Elling, Lothar


    Carbohydrate-lectin interactions are relatively weak. As they play an important role in biological recognition processes, multivalent glycan ligands are designed to enhance binding affinity and inhibitory potency. We here report on novel neo-glycoproteins based on bovine serum albumin as scaffold for multivalent presentation of ligands for galectins. We prepared two kinds of tetrasaccharides (N-acetyllactosamine and N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated) by multi-step chemo-enzymatic synthesis utilizing recombinant glycosyltransferases. Subsequent conjugation of these glycans to lysine groups of bovine serum albumin via squaric acid diethyl ester yielded a set of 22 different neo-glycoproteins with tuned ligand density. The neo-glycoproteins were analyzed by biochemical and chromatographic methods proving various modification degrees. The neo-glycoproteins were used for binding and inhibition studies with human galectin-3 showing high affinity. Binding strength and inhibition potency are closely related to modification density and show binding enhancement by multivalent ligand presentation. At galectin-3 concentrations comparable to serum levels of cancer patients, we detect the highest avidities. Selectivity of N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated structures towards galectin-3 in comparison to galectin-1 is demonstrated. Moreover, we also see strong inhibitory potency of our scaffolds towards galectin-3 binding. These novel neo-glycoproteins may therefore serve as selective and strong galectin-3 ligands in cancer related biomedical research.

  6. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Shukla, Deepak, E-mail: [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)


    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  7. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van


    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  8. Relation between energy production and adenine nucleotide metabolism in human blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Jan Willem N.; Gorter, G.


    The relation between ATP production and adenine nucleotide metabolism was investigated in human platelets which were starved by incubation in glucose-free, CN−-containing medium and subsequently incubated with different amounts of glucose. In the absence of mitochondrial energy production (blocked

  9. Thrombocidins, microbicidal proteins from human blood platelets, are C-terminal deletion products of CXC chemokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, J.; Zaat, S. A.; Meeldijk, J.; van Veelen, P. A.; Fang, G.; Poolman, B.; Brandt, E.; Ehlert, J. E.; Kuijpers, A. J.; Engbers, G. H.; Feijen, J.; Dankert, J.


    Antibacterial proteins are components of the innate immune system found in many organisms and produced by a variety of cell types. Human blood platelets contain a number of antibacterial proteins in their alpha-granules that are released upon thrombin activation. The present study was designed to

  10. Human platelet-rich plasma improves the nesting and differentiation of human chondrocytes cultured in stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds. (United States)

    Sancho-Tello, Maria; Martorell, Sara; Mata Roig, Manuel; Milián, Lara; Gámiz-González, M A; Gómez Ribelles, Jose Luis; Carda, Carmen


    The clinical management of large-size cartilage lesions is difficult due to the limited regenerative ability of the cartilage. Different biomaterials have been used to develop tissue engineering substitutes for cartilage repair, including chitosan alone or in combination with growth factors to improve its chondrogenic properties. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the benefits of combining activated platelet-rich plasma with a stabilized porous chitosan scaffold for cartilage regeneration. To achieve this purpose, stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds were prepared using freeze gelation and combined with activated platelet-rich plasma. Human primary articular chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds with and without combination to activated platelet-rich plasma. Scanning electron microscopy was used for the morphological characterization of the resulting scaffolds. Cell counts were performed in hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, and type I and II collagen expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Significant increase in cell number in activated platelet-rich plasma/stabilized porous chitosan was found compared with stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds. Chondrocytes grown on stabilized porous chitosan expressed high levels of type I collagen but type II was not detectable, whereas cells grown on activated platelet rich plasma/stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds expressed high levels of type II collagen and type I was almost undetectable. In summary, activated platelet-rich plasma increases nesting and induces the differentiation of chondrocytes cultured on stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds.

  11. Inhibitory effect by new monocyclic 4-alkyliden-beta-lactam compounds on human platelet activation. (United States)

    Pavanetto, Martina; Zarpellon, Alessandro; Giacomini, Daria; Galletti, Paola; Quintavalla, Arianna; Cainelli, Gianfranco; Folda, Alessandra; Scutari, Guido; Deana, Renzo


    In the present study some new beta-lactam compounds were screened for their ability to inhibit human platelet activation. In particular four compounds differing in the group on the nitrogen atom of the azetidinone ring were investigated. A beta-lactam having an ethyl 2-carboxyethanoate N-bound group was demonstrated to inhibit, in the micromolar range, both the Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum, induced either by thrombin or by the ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, and the Ca(2+) entry in platelets driven by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum. The compound also inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by a variety of physiological agonists including ADP, collagen, thrombin and thrombin mimetic peptide TRAP. The beta-lactam reduced the phosphorylation of pleckstrin (apparent MW 47 kDa), elicited by thrombin but not by the protein kinase C activator phorbol ester. Accordingly it did not significantly affect the aggregation evoked by phorbol ester or Ca(2+) ionophore. It was concluded that the beta-lactam likely exerts its anti-platelet-activating action by hampering the agonist induced cellular Ca(2+) movements. The beta-lactam concentration, which significantly inhibited platelet activation, only negligibly affected the cellular viability. Even if it is still premature to draw definitive conclusions, the present results suggest that this new compound might constitute a tool of potential clinical interest and the starting-point for the synthesis of new more beneficial anti-thrombotic compounds.

  12. The identification of specific Rhesus-polypeptide-blood-group-ABH-active-glycoprotein complexes in the human red-cell membrane. (United States)

    Moore, S; Green, C


    1. RhD,c and E immune complexes isolated from 3H- and 125I-surface-radiolabelled and unlabelled intact human red cells were analysed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. Apparent Mr values of 31,900 for RhD polypeptide and 33,100 for Rhc,E polypeptide were obtained under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. Glycosylation of RhD,c and E polypeptides was not detected. 3. RhD,c and E immune complexes also contain a glycoprotein component. RhD glycoprotein (apparent Mr 45,000-100,000) is distinct from Rhc,E glycoprotein(s) (apparent Mr 35,000-65,000). Rh (Rhesus) glycoprotein carbohydrate moieties are susceptible to endo-beta-galactosidase digestion and carry blood-group-ABH determinants. This suggests the presence of polylactosaminoglycan-type structures. 4. Rh glycoproteins are not present in Rh immune complexes as a result of non-specific adsorption of membrane glycoproteins during the membrane-solubilization phase of immune-complex isolation because RhD immune complexes isolated from a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of Acde/cde and OcDE/cDE red cells do not contain blood-group-A-active glycoprotein. 5. Blood-group-A immune complexes isolated from group-A red cells of the appropriate Rh phenotypes contain the 31,900- and 33,100-apparent-Mr Rh polypeptides. 6. It was concluded from the above evidence that non-covalent Rh-glycoprotein-Rh-polypeptide complexes exist in the native red-cell membrane. 7. The 31,900- and 33,100-apparent-Mr Rh polypeptides are absent from blood-group-A immune complexes isolated from regulator type Rhnull cells (donor A.L.), but are replaced by a 33,800-apparent-Mr Rhnull-specific polypeptide (Rhnull polypeptide). It is suggested that Rhnull polypeptide is an aberrant product of the Rh gene complex.

  13. Combined genetic variants of human cytomegalovirus envelope glycoproteins as congenital infection markers. (United States)

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Vasile Simone, Rosita; Rodighiero, Isabella; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria-Cristina; Martorana, Davide; Chezzi, Carlo; Calderaro, Adriana


    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is still considered to be the main viral cause of birth defects and long-term neurological and sensory sequelae following congenital infection. Several Authors sustain a key role of HCMV envelope glycoproteins, such as gB, gN and gO - mainly involved in cell targeting, viral penetration and spread - as putative virulence factors. The genes coding for these glycoproteins possess hypervariable regions, resulting in a number of genetic variants in circulating clinical strains. Considering that the genetic polymorphisms underlying the specific differences between gB, gN and gO genotypes can influence the ability of HCMV to preferentially target specific host cells, it is very likely that they play an important role in defining HCMV infection outcome. In the present study, we analysed HCMV gB, gN and gO gene polymorphisms in viral strains isolated from paediatric patients with congenital or post-natal infection, to investigate whether specific genetic variants may be associated with congenital infection. The restriction fragment polymorphisms of genes coding for HCMV gB (UL55), gN (UL73) and gO (UL74) were investigated by analysing viral DNA extracted from 40 urine samples of as many paediatric patients with congenital or post-natal HCMV infection. Randomly selected samples were subjected to DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test to assess the significance of single and combined glycoprotein genotypes frequency distribution. Statistical significance was considered at a P <0.05. While gB genomic variants were quite homogeneously represented in both paediatric groups, the gN4 genotype significantly prevailed in congenitally infected children (89.5 %) vs post-natally infected children (47.6 %), with a predominance of the gN4c variant (47.4 %). A similar trend was observed for gO3 (52.6 % vs 19 %). Concerning genotypes association, a statistically significant (P = 0.037) gN4-gO3

  14. Platelet Donation (United States)

    ... body. I imagined the faces of many different strangers, taking time out of their day… their jobs… ... thing to do for another human being. A stranger. Someone’s platelets made their way to Phil that ...

  15. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate modulates accumulation of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors in human platelets. (United States)

    Bajraktari, Gzona; Burhenne, Jürgen; Bugert, Peter; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Weiss, Johanna


    Sildenafil and tadalafil are widely-used phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for which no clear dose-response relationship could be established. Using isolated and/or recombinant PDE5, it has been demonstrated that cGMP can increase the affinity of this enzyme for sildenafil and tadalafil. We thus hypothesized that in cells expressing the nitric oxide - soluble guanylyl cyclase - cyclic guanosine monophosphate - PDE5 (NO-sGC-cGMP-PDE5) pathway such as platelets, the presence of NO increases the intracellular cGMP content and thus promotes the intracellular accumulation of sildenafil or tadalafil. As a cell model, isolated and washed human platelets were used. Platelet suspensions were incubated with sildenafil or tadalafil at different concentrations and for various time intervals with or without an NO donor to increase intraplatelet cGMP concentrations. Intracellular sildenafil or tadalafil was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and intracellular cGMP by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sildenafil accumulated in platelets with an up to 4-fold higher accumulation when platelets were pretreated with an NO donor (p < .0001). Accumulation of tadalafil in platelets was even higher, whereas the increase was 2-fold when an NO donor was present (p < .001). This accumulation was time-dependent and happened concomitantly with a rise in intracellular cGMP. Our data demonstrate that intracellular cGMP increases intracellular PDE5 inhibitor concentrations most likely by raising the affinity of these compounds for PDE5. These findings suggest that PDE5 inhibitor action in humans is critically influenced by modulators of the activity of the NO pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tailor-made purified human platelet lysate concentrated in neurotrophins for treatment of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Li; Wu, Joe-Wei; Gouel, Flore; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Timmerman, Kelly; Renn, Ting-Yi; Laloux, Charlotte; Chang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Devedjian, Jean-Christophe; Devos, David; Burnouf, Thierry


    Human platelet lysates (PLs), which contain multiple neurotrophins, have been proposed for treating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, current PLs suspended in plasma have high protein content and contain fibrinogen/fibrin and, following activation, also proteolytic and thrombogenic enzymes. Upon brain administration, such PLs may saturate the cerebrospinal fluid and exert neurotoxicity. We assessed whether purified PLs, concentrated in neurotrophins, protected dopaminergic neurons in PD models. Platelet concentrates were collected by apheresis and centrifuged to eliminate plasma and recover the platelets. Platelets were lysed by freeze-thaw cycles, and the 10-fold concentrated platelet pellet lysates (PPLs) were heat-treated (at 56 °C for 30 min). The heat-treated PPLs were low in total proteins, depleted in both plasma and platelet fibrinogen, and devoid of thrombogenic and proteolytic activities. They exerted very high neuroprotective activity when non-oncogenic, Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells that had differentiated into dopaminergic neurons were exposed to the MPP(+) neurotoxin. Heat treatment improved the neuroprotection and inactivated the neurotoxic blood-borne hepatitis C virus. PPL did not induce inflammation in BV2 microglial cells and inhibited COX-2 expression upon lipopolysaccharide exposure. Intranasal administration in mice revealed (a) diffusion of neurotrophins in the striatum and cortex, and (b) MPTP intoxication neuroprotection in the substantia nigra and striatum and the absence of neuroinflammation. These dedicated heat-treated PPLs can be a safe and valuable candidate for a therapeutic strategy for PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrazolinone analgesics prevent the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and preserve human platelet thromboxane synthesis. (United States)

    Hohlfeld, T; Zimmermann, N; Weber, A-A; Jessen, G; Weber, H; Schrör, K; Höltje, H-D; Ebel, R


    Anti-inflammatory analgesics, including ibuprofen and naproxen, are known to interfere with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, presumably as a result of a drug-drug interaction at the level of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). We studied whether dipyrone, which has recently been reported to inhibit COX isoforms by a mechanism different from conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), also interferes with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin. Arachidonic acid- and collagen-induced aggregation, as well as thromboxane formation, were measured in human platelet-rich plasma. Platelet P-selectin expression was determined by flow cytometry and cell-free COX enzyme activity was quantified by luminol-enhanced luminescence of human platelet microsomes. In addition, computerized docking was performed based on the crystal structure of COX-1. 4-Methylaminoantipyrine (MAA), the active metabolite of dipyrone, largely attenuated or even completely abolished the inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, thromboxane formation and P-selectin expression by aspirin. Similar results were obtained for other pyrazolinones, as well as for the conventional NSAIDs ibuprofen and naproxen. Moreover, MAA attenuated the effect of aspirin on COX activity of platelet microsomes, suggesting a competition with aspirin at the COX-1 enzyme. This was confirmed by docking studies, which revealed that MAA forms a strong hydrogen bond with serine 530 within the COX-1, thereby preventing enzyme acetylation by aspirin. This study demonstrates for the first time that dipyrone and other pyrazolinones have a high potential to attenuate or prevent the antiplatelet effect of aspirin. This should be considered if pyrazolinone analgesics are administered to patients with cardiovascular disease requiring antiplatelet aspirin therapy.

  18. Secretory products from thrombin-stimulated human platelets exert an inhibitory effect on NK-cytotoxic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Madsen, P; Hokland, P; Hokland, M


    We have investigated the interaction between human platelets and the NK-system, with special emphasis on the action of secretory products from platelets in an NK assay with 51Cr-labelled K562 as target cells. Supernatants from thrombin-stimulated platelets added to the NK assay consistently...... with thrombin, are capable of secreting different, yet undefined factors, which significantly inhibit NK activity in vitro. The results also suggest that the role of products from contaminating in vitro activated platelets should be borne in mind when performing conventional NK assays. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Oct...

  19. Serum glycoproteins in the liver diseases. VII. Further studies on the properties of desialylated glycoprotein binding activity in particulate fraction of human liver homogenate. (United States)

    Arima, T


    Binding of desialylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein by human liver particulate fraction exhibited a dependence on the presence of calcium chloride whereas Cu+, Mn+, Zn+ Fe+ and Co+ inhibited the binding. The other cations such as K+, Na+, Ba+, Mg+ or Pb+ were determined to be non-effective on the binding activity. The pH of the assay for binding was not critical in the range of 6.5 to 9.5. The binding process required the presence of terminal sialic acid on the particulate protein. Fifty nine per cent of binding activity in the original liver paticulate fraction were recovered in acetone powder. Extraction of the acetone powder with a buffer containing EDTA resulted in an increased total binding activity. After extraction with 1--10% Triton X-100, 60% of the activity were still detected in insoluble fraction.

  20. The role of platelet and endothelial GARP in thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elien Vermeersch

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein-A Repetitions Predominant protein (GARP or LRRC32 is present on among others human platelets and endothelial cells. Evidence for its involvement in thrombus formation was suggested by full knockout of GARP in zebrafish.To evaluate the role of GARP in platelet physiology and in thrombus formation using platelet and endothelial conditional GARP knock out mice.Platelet and endothelial specific GARP knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP recombination system. The function of platelets without GARP was measured by flow cytometry, spreading analysis and aggregometry using PAR4-activating peptide and collagen related peptide. Additionally, clot retraction and collagen-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation under flow were analyzed. Finally, in vivo tail bleeding time, occlusion time of the mesenteric and carotid artery after FeCl3-induced thrombosis were determined in platelet and endothelial specific GARP knock out mice.Platelet specific GARP knockout mice had normal surface GPIb, GPVI and integrin αIIb glycoprotein expression. Although GARP expression was increased upon platelet activation, platelets without GARP displayed normal agonist induced activation, spreading on fibrinogen and aggregation responses. Furthermore, absence of GARP on platelets did not influence clot retraction and had no impact on thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under flow. In line with this, neither the tail bleeding time nor the occlusion time in the carotid- and mesenteric artery after FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in platelet or endothelial specific GARP knock out mice were affected.Evidence is provided that platelet and endothelial GARP are not important in hemostasis and thrombosis in mice.

  1. Use of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in diabetics undergoing PCI for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: impact of clinical status and procedural characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Bauer (Timm); H. Möllmann (Helge); F. Weidinger (Franz); U. Zeymer (Uwe); R. Seabra-Gomes (Ricardo); F.R. Eberli (Franz Robert); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A. Vahanian (Alec); S. Silber (Sigmund); W. Wijns (William); M. Hochadel (Matthias); H.M. Nef (Holger); C.W. Hamm (Christian); J. Marco (Jean); A.K. Gitt (Anselm)


    textabstractBackground: The most recent ESC guidelines for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) recommend the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) in high risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), particularly in diabetics. Little is known about

  2. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates the active transport of serotonin into human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosin, T.R. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))


    The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the active transport of serotonin (5-HT) by human platelets was investigated. Platelets were exposed to either a single dose of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated by the glucose/glucose oxidase or xanthine/xanthine oxidase enzyme systems. H{sub 2}{sub 2} produced a rapid, dose-dependent and time-dependent increase in 5-HT transport which was maximal after a 2 min incubation and decreased with continued incubation. Catalase completely prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced stimulation and fluoxetine totally blocked 5-HT uptake into stimulated platelets. The glucose/glucose oxidase and the xanthine/xanthine oxidase generating systems produced a similar response to that of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, superoxide dismutase failed to alter the stimulation, while catalase effectively prevented the response. The kinetics of 5-HT transport indicated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment did not alter the K{sub m} of 5-HT transport but significantly increased the maximal rate of 5-HT transport. These data demonstrated that exposure of human platelets to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in a stimulation of the active transport of 5-HT and suggested that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may function to regulate this process.

  3. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olas


    Full Text Available Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation and the generation of superoxide anion (O2-∙ in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals. The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5– 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2-∙ in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL. The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  4. Human antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein can cause complement-dependent demyelination. (United States)

    Peschl, Patrick; Schanda, Kathrin; Zeka, Bleranda; Given, Katherine; Böhm, Denise; Ruprecht, Klemens; Saiz, Albert; Lutterotti, Andreas; Rostásy, Kevin; Höftberger, Romana; Berger, Thomas; Macklin, Wendy; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Reindl, Markus


    Antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are associated with a subset of inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. However, whether human MOG antibodies are pathogenic or an epiphenomenon is still not completely clear. Although MOG is highly conserved within mammals, previous findings showed that not all human MOG antibodies bind to rodent MOG. We therefore hypothesized that human MOG antibody-mediated pathology in animal models may only be evident using species-specific MOG antibodies. We screened 80 human MOG antibody-positive samples for their reactivity to mouse and rat MOG using either a live cell-based assay or immunohistochemistry on murine, rat, and human brain tissue. Selected samples reactive to either human MOG or rodent MOG were subsequently tested for their ability to induce complement-mediated damage in murine organotypic brain slices or enhance demyelination in an experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) model in Lewis rats. The MOG monoclonal antibody 8-18-C5 was used as a positive control. Overall, we found that only a subset of human MOG antibodies are reactive to mouse (48/80, 60%) or rat (14/80, 18%) MOG. Purified serum antibodies from 10 human MOG antibody-positive patients (8/10 reactive to mouse MOG, 6/10 reactive to rat MOG), 3 human MOG-negative patients, and 3 healthy controls were tested on murine organotypic brain slices. Purified IgG from one patient with high titers of anti-human, mouse, and rat MOG antibodies and robust binding to myelin tissue produced significant, complement-mediated myelin loss in organotypic brain slices, but not in the EAE model. Monoclonal 8-18-C5 MOG antibody caused complement-mediated demyelination in both the organotypic brain slice model and in EAE. This study shows that a subset of human MOG antibodies can induce complement-dependent pathogenic effects in a murine ex vivo

  5. A Leu7Pro mutation in the signal peptide of platelet glycoprotein (GP)IX in a case of Bernard-Soulier syndrome abolishes surface expression of the GPIb-V-IX complex. (United States)

    Lanza, François; De La Salle, Corinne; Baas, Marie-Jeanne; Schwartz, Agnès; Boval, Bernadette; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Caen, Jacques P


    This paper describes the molecular defect of the second case of Bernard-Soulier syndrome, initially reported in 1957. Analysis of the patient's platelets by flow cytometry and Western blotting failed to detect surface expression of any of the four subunits of the glycoprotein (GP)Ib-V-IX complex and revealed small amounts of intracellular GPIbalpha, GPIbbeta and GPV but no GPIX. DNA sequencing revealed a novel missense mutation in the GPIX gene which replaced Leu (CTG) by Pro (CCG) at position 7 of the signal peptide. This mutation is, to date, the only known example of a leader sequence defect in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The change occurred in a prototypic alpha-helical hydrophobic core region, typically enriched in leucine and devoid of proline residues. Co-transfection of GPIXPro7 with normal GPIbalpha and GPIbbeta into Chinese hamster ovary cells reproduced the platelet phenotype, resulting in no detectable GPIX, low intracellular levels of GPIbalpha and GPIbbeta, and an absence of surface expression. This mutation presumably leads to an abnormal conformation and, hence, incorrect insertion of GPIX into the endoplasmic reticulum and/or to defective signal peptide cleavage, both of which are required for correct transport to the cell membrane. This provides further evidence for a critical role of GPIX in controlling biosynthesis of the GPIb-IX complex.

  6. Human CRISP-3 binds serum alpha(1)B-glycoprotein across species. (United States)

    Udby, Lene; Johnsen, Anders H; Borregaard, Niels


    CRISP-3 was previously shown to be bound to alpha(1)B-glycoprotein (A1BG) in human serum/plasma. All mammalian sera are supposed to contain A1BG, although its presence in rodent sera is not well-documented. Since animal sera are often used to supplement buffers in experiments, in particular such that involve cell cultures, binding proteins present in sera might interfere in the experiments. We examined sera from five different animal species for CRISP-3 binding proteins using gel filtration and ligand blotting. We developed a rapid method for isolation of proteins that bind to human CRISP-3 and identified the isolated proteins by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. We identified A1BG as a CRISP-3 binding protein in sera from cow, horse and rabbit. CRISP-3 bound kininogen 1 in mouse serum, whereas rat serum showed no CRISP-3 binding activity. In equine serum, we furthermore detected a possible CRISP, already bound to A1BG. It seems to be a common mechanism that A1BGs bind CRISPs, also across species. Apart from the possible physiological implications hereof, complex binding of CRISPs by A1BG (and other proteins) may interfere with the detection and function of CRISPs, when these are studied in the presence of animal sera. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Platelets alter gene expression profile in human brain endothelial cells in an in vitro model of cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Barbier

    Full Text Available Platelet adhesion to the brain microvasculature has been associated with cerebral malaria (CM in humans, suggesting that platelets play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In vitro co-cultures have shown that platelets can act as a bridge between Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBC and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBEC and potentiate HBEC apoptosis. Using cDNA microarray technology, we analyzed transcriptional changes of HBEC in response to platelets in the presence or the absence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF and pRBC, which have been reported to alter gene expression in endothelial cells. Using a rigorous statistical approach with multiple test corrections, we showed a significant effect of platelets on gene expression in HBEC. We also detected a strong effect of TNF, whereas there was no transcriptional change induced specifically by pRBC. Nevertheless, a global ANOVA and a two-way ANOVA suggested that pRBC acted in interaction with platelets and TNF to alter gene expression in HBEC. The expression of selected genes was validated by RT-qPCR. The analysis of gene functional annotation indicated that platelets induce the expression of genes involved in inflammation and apoptosis, such as genes involved in chemokine-, TREM1-, cytokine-, IL10-, TGFβ-, death-receptor-, and apoptosis-signaling. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that platelets play a pathogenic role in CM.

  8. Sulforaphane prevents human platelet aggregation through inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. (United States)

    Chuang, Wen-Ying; Kung, Po-Hsiung; Kuo, Chih-Yun; Wu, Chin-Chung


    Sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of cardiovascular diseases. However, its effect on platelet aggregation, which is a critical factor in arterial thrombosis, is still unclear. In the present study, we show that sulforaphane inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by different receptor agonists, including collagen, U46619 (a thromboxane A2 mimic), protease-activated receptor 1 agonist peptide (PAR1-AP), and an ADP P2Y12 receptor agonist. Moreover, sulforaphane significantly reduced thrombus formation on a collagen-coated surface under whole blood flow conditions. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we found that sulforaphane specifically prevented phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling, without markedly affecting other signlaling pathways involved in platelet aggregation, such as protein kinase C activation, calcium mobilisation, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Although sulforaphane did not directly inhibit the catalytic activity of PI3K, it caused ubiquitination of the regulatory p85 subunit of PI3K, and prevented PI3K translocation to membranes. In addition, sulforaphane caused ubiquitination and degradation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), which is required for Akt activation. Therefore, sulforaphane is able to inhibit the PI3K/Akt pathway at two distinct sites. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that sulforaphane prevented platelet aggregation and reduced thrombus formation in flow conditions; our data also support that the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway by sulforaphane contributes it antiplatelet effects.

  9. Platelet lysate induces in vitro wound healing of human keratinocytes associated with a strong proinflammatory response. (United States)

    El Backly, Rania; Ulivi, Valentina; Tonachini, Laura; Cancedda, Ranieri; Descalzi, Fiorella; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena


    Platelet lysates (PL), which are derived from platelets, are cocktails of growth factors and cytokines that can promote tissue regeneration. Until today, most studies have focused on growth factor content of platelets rather than on their potential as a reservoir of mediators and cytokines. Taking advantage of an in vitro scratch assay performed under both normal and inflammatory conditions, in the present work, we report that at physiologic concentrations, PL enhanced wound closure rates of NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes. This effect was clearly detectable 6 h after wounding. Moreover, PL induced a strong cell actin cytoskeletal re-organization that persisted up to 24 h. The accelerated wound closure promoted by PL, in either presence or absence of serum, was associated with a high expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8. Further, after 24 h PL treatment, confluent keratinocytes also expressed low amounts of interleukin-8 and of the antimicrobial peptide neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, which dramatically increased under inflammatory conditions. These effects were associated with activation of the inflammatory pathways, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-κB. Our findings support the concept that platelet-derived preparations could accelerate regeneration of difficult-to-heal wounds by triggering an inflammatory cascade and having an antimicrobial role.

  10. LC-MS Analysis of Human Platelets as a Platform for Studying Mitochondrial Metabolism. (United States)

    Worth, Andrew J; Marchione, Dylan M; Parry, Robert C; Wang, Qingqing; Gillespie, Kevin P; Saillant, Noelle N; Sims, Carrie; Mesaros, Clementina; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Blair, Ian A


    Perturbed mitochondrial metabolism has received renewed interest as playing a causative role in a range of diseases. Probing alterations to metabolic pathways requires a model in which external factors can be well controlled, allowing for reproducible and meaningful results. Many studies employ transformed cellular models for these purposes; however, metabolic reprogramming that occurs in many cancer cell lines may introduce confounding variables. For this reason primary cells are desirable, though attaining adequate biomass for metabolic studies can be challenging. Here we show that human platelets can be utilized as a platform to carry out metabolic studies in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. This approach is amenable to relative quantification and isotopic labeling to probe the activity of specific metabolic pathways. Availability of platelets from individual donors or from blood banks makes this model system applicable to clinical studies and feasible to scale up. Here we utilize isolated platelets to confirm previously identified compensatory metabolic shifts in response to the complex I inhibitor rotenone. More specifically, a decrease in glycolysis is accompanied by an increase in fatty acid oxidation to maintain acetyl-CoA levels. Our results show that platelets can be used as an easily accessible and medically relevant model to probe the effects of xenobiotics on cellular metabolism.

  11. Effects of ions on ADP-induced aggregation of bovine or human platelets. (United States)

    Waugh, D F; Lindon, J N


    Effects of divalent cations on ADP-induced aggregation response were examined. Bovine platelets were transferred by Sepharose 2B gel filtration from citrate-PRP into citrate free buffer (buffer-GFP). Response increases, reaches a maximum and decreases with increasing calcium and/or magnesium concentration. For either calcium or magnesium alone, increasing response is proportional to a rate coefficient and, through an apparent ion-platelet association constant, to the fraction of platelet critical sites bound to cation. With both ions present, bound magnesium appears to inhibit bound calcium in excess of that accounted for by competition and a lower rate coefficient for bound magnesium. With citrate present in buffer-GFP, apparent association constants increase, excess magnesium inhibition is present, but systems are path dependent. Initial conditions appear to establish a response which is thereafter immutable to environmental magnesium alteration. Citrate-PRP resembles buffer-GFP: response is sensitive to the selective removal of calcium and excess magnesium inhibition is present. With heparin-PRP, response is immutable to the selective removal of approximately 90% of initial calcium. The dependency of response inhibition observed at high divalent cation concentrations indicates that aggregation is not due to interplatelet cross linking by ions. Ion effects are similar for bovine and human platelets.

  12. Overexpression of human virus surface glycoprotein precursors induces cytosolic unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasnauskas Kęstutis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of human virus surface proteins, as well as other mammalian glycoproteins, is much more efficient in cells of higher eukaryotes rather than yeasts. The limitations to high-level expression of active viral surface glycoproteins in yeast are not well understood. To identify possible bottlenecks we performed a detailed study on overexpression of recombinant mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuHN and measles hemagglutinin (MeH in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, combining the analysis of recombinant proteins with a proteomic approach. Results Overexpressed recombinant MuHN and MeH proteins were present in large aggregates, were inactive and totally insoluble under native conditions. Moreover, the majority of recombinant protein was found in immature form of non-glycosylated precursors. Fractionation of yeast lysates revealed that the core of viral surface protein aggregates consists of MuHN or MeH disulfide-linked multimers involving eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A and is closely associated with small heat shock proteins (sHsps that can be removed only under denaturing conditions. Complexes of large Hsps seem to be bound to aggregate core peripherally as they can be easily removed at high salt concentrations. Proteomic analysis revealed that the accumulation of unglycosylated viral protein precursors results in specific cytosolic unfolded protein response (UPR-Cyto in yeast cells, characterized by different action and regulation of small Hsps versus large chaperones of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families. In contrast to most environmental stresses, in the response to synthesis of recombinant MuHN and MeH, only the large Hsps were upregulated whereas sHsps were not. Interestingly, the amount of eEF1A was also increased during this stress response. Conclusions Inefficient translocation of MuHN and MeH precursors through ER membrane is a bottleneck for high-level expression in yeast. Overexpression of

  13. Biliverdin is the endogenous ligand of human serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein. (United States)

    Zsila, Ferenc; Mády, György


    alpha(1)-Acid glycoprotein (AAG), an acute phase component of the human serum, is a prominent member of the lipocalin family of proteins showing inflammatory/immunomodulatory activities and promiscuous drug binding properties. Both three-dimensional structure of AAG and its precise biological function are still unknown and only a few endogenous AAG ligands have been described to date. CD spectroscopic studies performed with commercial AAG and the separated genetic variants revealed high-affinity binding of biliverdin (BV) and biliverdin dimethyl ester to the 'F1/S' fraction of the protein. The preferential accommodation of the right-handed, P-helicity conformers of the pigments by the protein matrix resulted in strong induced CD activity, which was utilized for estimation of the binding parameters and to locate the binding site. It was concluded that both pigments are bound in the central beta-barrel cavity of AAG, held principally by hydrophobic interactions. Possible biological implications of the BV binding ability of AAG with special emphasis on the heme oxygenase-1 pathway are discussed.

  14. Structure of the Ebola virus glycoprotein bound to a human survivor antibody (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Hessell, Ann J.; Oswald, Wendelien B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann


    Ebola virus (EBOV) entry requires the surface glycoprotein, GP, to initiate attachment and fusion of viral and host membranes. Here, we report the crystal structure of EBOV GP in its trimeric, pre-fusion conformation (GP1+GP2) bound to a neutralizing antibody, KZ52, derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak. Three GP1 viral attachment subunits assemble to form a chalice, cradled by the GP2 fusion subunits, while a novel glycan cap and projected mucin-like domain restrict access to the conserved receptor-binding site sequestered in the chalice bowl. The glycocalyx surrounding GP is likely central to immune evasion and may explain why survivors have insignificant neutralizing antibody titres. KZ52 recognizes a protein epitope at the chalice base where it clamps several regions of the pre-fusion GP2 to the N terminus of GP1. This structure now provides a template for unraveling the mechanism of EBOV GP-mediated fusion and for future immunotherapeutic development. PMID:18615077

  15. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers (United States)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.


    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  16. Genetic polymorphism of human alpha 2 HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) in the resident population of the Basque Country (northern Spain). (United States)

    García, O; Alonso, A


    The genetic polymorphism of human alpha 2 HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) was studied in a sample of 466 healthy unrelated individuals resident in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) by isoelectric focusing on micro-ultrathin polyacrylamide gels followed by immunoblotting. The allele frequencies obtained were AHSG*1 = 0.7253, AHSG*2 = 0.2683 and AHSG*3 = 0.0064. These allele frequencies were compared with those reported in other European populations.

  17. Stereoselective transport of hydrophilic quaternary drugs by human MDR1 and rat Mdr1b P-glycoproteins


    Guido J E J Hooiveld; Heegsma, Janette; van Montfoort, Jessica E; Jansen, Peter L M; Meijer, Dirk K.F; Müller, Michael


    The present study was performed to evaluate and compare the ability of human MDR1-, and rat Mdr1b- and Mdr2-P-glycoproteins to transport hydrophilic monoquaternary drugs. Transport studies were performed with plasma membrane vesicles isolated from MDR1-, Mdr1b-, or Mdr2-overexpressing insect cells.As model substrates we used the N-methylated derivatives of the diastereomers quinidine and quinine, the monoquaternary compounds N-methylquinidine and N-methylquinine. Vincristine, an established M...

  18. Evaluation of amotosalem treated platelets over 7 days of storage with an automated cytometry assay panel. (United States)

    Diquattro, M; De Francisci, G; Bonaccorso, R; Tagliavia, A M; Marcatti, M; Palma, B; Agliastro, R


    Pathogen Inactivation allows to overcome microbial contamination and growth related to storage of platelets concentrates (PC) at room temperature. The aim of our study was to evaluate the platelet storage lesion extending the storage period of pathogen inactivated platelet concentrates over 7 days using an automated cytometry assay panel. We analyzed 43 concentrates subjected to pathogen inactivation (CPPI) at 3, 5 and 7 days evaluating: platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelets at low optical density, platelets at high density, GPIIb-IIIa glycoprotein, platelet microparticles, lactate dehydrogenase. The collection bags (Fenwal) and the IBS kit made in PL2410/PL2411 are approved for the conservation of PC up to 7 days. Data analysis was performed with anova test. All the parameters except small platelets and PMP were statistically different among day 7 vs. 3 and day 7 vs. 5. Our study showed a progressive modification of pathogen inactivated platelet concentrates observed up to 7 days. The persistence of the secretory pool and the presence of the platelet membrane fibrinogen receptor suggest the persistence of a potential hemostatic efficacy. Clinical studies are necessary to directly correlate this type of analysis to 24 h recovery or survival of transfused platelets in humans. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment® Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Solchaga


    Full Text Available This article discusses nonclinical and clinical data regarding the safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB as a component of the Augment® Bone Graft (Augment. Augment is a bone graft substitute intended to be used as an alternative to autologous bone graft in the fusion of hindfoot and ankle joints. Nonclinical studies included assessment of the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenously administered recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in rat and dog, effects of intravenous administration of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in a reproductive and development toxicity study in rats, and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of Augment in a 12-month implantation model. These studies showed that systemic exposure was brief and clearance was rapid. No signs of toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion were observed even with doses far exceeding the maximum clinical dose. Results of clinical trials (605 participants and commercial use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB containing products indicate that these products are not associated with increased incidence of adverse events or cancer. The safety data presented provide evidence that recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB is a safe therapeutic when used in combination products as a single administration during surgical procedures for bone repair and fusion. There is no evidence associating use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment with chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion.

  20. Celastraceae sesquiterpenes as a new class of modulators that bind specifically to human P-glycoprotein and reverse cellular multidrug resistance. (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Lu, Peihua; Cortés-Selva, Fernando; Pérez-Victoria, José María; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Ravelo, Angel G; Sharom, Frances J; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago


    Overexpression of ABCB1 (MDR1) P-glycoprotein, a multidrug efflux pump, is one mechanism by which tumor cells may develop multidrug resistance (MDR), preventing the successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae family are natural compounds shown previously to reverse MDR in several human cancer cell lines and Leishmania strains. However, their molecular mechanism of reversion has not been characterized. In the present work, we have studied the ability of 28 dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes to reverse the P-glycoprotein-dependent MDR phenotype and elucidated their molecular mechanism of action. Cytotoxicity assays using human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells allowed us to select the most potent sesquiterpenes reversing the in vitro resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. Flow cytometry experiments showed that the above active compounds specifically inhibited drug transport activity of P-glycoprotein in a saturable, concentration-dependent manner (K(i) down to 0.24 +/- 0.01 micromol/L) but not that of ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1; MRP1), ABCC2 (MRP2), and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein; BCRP) transporters. Moreover, sesquiterpenes inhibited at submicromolar concentrations the P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of [(3)H]colchicine and tetramethylrosamine in plasma membrane from CH(R)B30 cells and P-glycoprotein-enriched proteoliposomes, supporting that P-glycoprotein is their molecular target. Photoaffinity labeling in plasma membrane and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments with purified protein suggested that sesquiterpenes interact with transmembrane domains of P-glycoprotein. Finally, sesquiterpenes modulated P-glycoprotein ATPase-activity in a biphasic, concentration-dependent manner: they stimulated at very low concentrations but inhibited ATPase activity as noncompetitive inhibitors at higher concentrations. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae are promising P-glycoprotein modulators with potential

  1. Deletion of human GP1BB and SEPT5 is associated with Bernard-Soulier syndrome, platelet secretion defect, polymicrogyria, and developmental delay. (United States)

    Bartsch, Ingrid; Sandrock, Kirstin; Lanza, Francois; Nurden, Paquita; Hainmann, Ina; Pavlova, Anna; Greinacher, Andreas; Tacke, Uta; Barth, Michael; Busse, Anja; Oldenburg, Johannes; Bommer, Martin; Strahm, Brigitte; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Zieger, Barbara


    The bleeding disorder Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) is caused by mutations in the genes coding for the platelet glycoprotein GPIb/IX receptor. The septin SEPT5 is important for active membrane movement such as vesicle trafficking and exocytosis in non-dividing cells (i.e. platelets, neurons). We report on a four-year-old boy with a homozygous deletion comprising not only glycoprotein Ibβ (GP1BB) but also the SEPT5 gene, located 5' to GP1BB. He presented with BSS, cortical dysplasia (polymicrogyria), developmental delay, and platelet secretion defect. The homozygous deletion of GP1BB and SEPT5, which had been identified by PCR analyses, was confirmed by Southern analyses and denaturing HPLC (DHPLC). The parents were heterozygous for this deletion. Absence of GPIbβ and SEPT5 proteins in the patient's platelets was illustrated using transmission electron microscopy. Besides decreased GPIb/IX expression, flow cytometry analyses revealed impaired platelet granule secretion. Because the bleeding disorder was extremely severe, the boy received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a HLA-identical unrelated donor. After successful engraftment of BMT, he had no more bleeding episodes. Interestingly, also his mental development improved strikingly after BMT. This report describes for the first time a patient with SEPT5 deficiency presenting with cortical dysplasia (polymicrogyria), developmental delay, and platelet secretion defect.

  2. Platelet lysate from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis-derived platelet concentrates for the isolation and expansion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells: production process, content and identification of active components. (United States)

    Fekete, Natalie; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Fürst, Daniel; Maurer, Caroline; Dausend, Julia; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine; Mailänder, Volker; Lotfi, Ramin; Ignatius, Anita; Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Rojewski, Markus Thomas


    The clinical use of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) requires ex vivo expansion in media containing supplements such as fetal bovine serum or, alternatively, human platelet lysate (PL). Platelet concentrates were frozen, quarantine stored, thawed and sterile filtered to obtain PL. PL content and its effect on fibroblast-colony-forming unit (CFU-F) formation, MSC proliferation and large-scale expansion were studied. PL contained high levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), soluble CD40L (sCD40L), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA), platelet-derived growth factor AB/BB (PDGF-AB/BB), chemokine (C-C) ligand 5 (CCL5; RANTES) transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1/2/3 (GRO), with low batch-to-batch variability, and most were stable for up to 14 days. Inhibition of PDGF-BB and bFGF decreased MSC proliferation by about 20% and 50%, respectively. The strongest inhibition (about 75%) was observed with a combination of anti-bFGF + anti-PDGF-BB and anti-bFGF + anti-TGF-β1 + anti-PDGF-BB. Interestingly, various combinations of recombinant PDGF-BB, bFGF and TGF-β1 were not sufficient to promote cell proliferation. PL from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis platelet concentrates did not differ significantly in their growth-promoting activity on MSC. PL enhances MSC proliferation and can be regarded as a safe tool for MSC expansion for clinical purposes. \\in particular, PDGF-BB and bFGF are essential components for the growth-promoting effect of PL, but are not sufficient for MSC proliferation.

  3. Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet Lysate as Serum Substitute in Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. (United States)

    Shirzad, Negin; Bordbar, Sima; Goodarzi, Alireza; Mohammad, Monire; Khosravani, Pardis; Sayahpour, Froughazam; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Ebrahimi, Marzieh


    The diverse clinical applications for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine warrant increased focus on developing adequate culture supplements devoid of animal-derived products. In the present study, we have investigated the feasibility of umbilical cord blood-platelet lysate (UCB-PL) as a standard substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) and human peripheral blood-PL (PB-PL). In this experimental study, platelet concentrates (PC) from UCB and human PB donors were frozen, melted, and sterilized to obtain PL. Quality control included platelet cell counts, sterility testing (viral and microbial), total protein concentrations, growth factor levels, and PL stability. The effects of UCB-PL and PB-PL on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes were studied and the results compared with FBS. UCB-PL contained high levels of protein content, platelet-derived growth factor- AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor (TGF) compared to PB-PL. All growth factors were stable for at least nine months post-storage at -70˚C. hMSCs proliferation enhanced following treatment with UCB-PL. With all three supplements, hMSCs could differentiate into all three lineages. PB-PL and UCB-PL both were potent in hMSCs proliferation. However, PB promoted osteoblastic differentiation and UCB-PL induced chondrogenic differentiation. Because of availability, ease of use and feasible standardization of UCB-PL, we have suggested that UCB-PL be used as an alternative to FBS and PB-PL for the cultivation and expansion of hMSCs in cellular therapy.

  4. Human platelets frozen with glycerol in liquid nitrogen: biological and clinical aspects. (United States)

    Herve, P; Potron, G; Droule, C; Beduchaud, M P; Masse, M; Coffe, C; Bosset, J F; Peters, A


    Platelets were frozen using glycerol (3% in plasma) as a cryoprotective agent, a rapid cooling rate, and liquid nitrogen for storage. The cryopreserved platelets were thawed at 42 C and infused without washing. The results indicate that the quality of the thawed platelets is equivalent to platelets stored for 24 to 48 hours at room temperature. The availability of HLA phenotyped leukocyte poor platelets can reduce the frequency of sensitization to strong antigens and provide clinically effective platelets for alloimmunized patients.

  5. Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and vinculin-talin-integrin system in human adult cardiac muscle. (United States)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Gaeta, Roberto; Di Mauro, Debora; Arco, Alba; Consolo, Angela; Santoro, Giuseppe; Trimarchi, Fabio; Favaloro, Angelo


    Costameres were identified, for the first time, in skeletal and cardiac muscle, as regions associated with the sarcolemma, consisting of densely clustered patches of vinculin; they have many characteristics common to the cell-extracellular matrix-type of adherens junctions. Costameres are considered 'proteic machinery' and they appear to comprise two protein complexes, the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) and the vinculin-talin-integrin system. In comparison to skeletal muscle, few studies have focused on cardiac muscle regarding these two complexes, and study is generally relative to dystrophin or to cardiac diseases, such as cardiomyopathies. However, insufficient data are available on these proteins in healthy human cardiomyocytes. For this reason, we performed an immunohistochemical study using human cardiac muscle fibers, in order to define the real distribution and the spatial relationship between the proteins in these two complexes. Our data showed a real costameric distribution of DGC and of the vinculin-talin-integrin system; all tested proteins were present in T-tubule and in intercalated disks. Moreover, our data demonstrated that all tested proteins of DGC colocalized with each other, as all tested components of the vinculin-talin-integrin system, and that all tested proteins of DGC colocalized with all tested proteins of the vinculin-talin-integrin system. Finally, all tested proteins of the two complexes were localized in the region of the sarcolemma over the I band, in 100% of our observations. The present study, for the first time, analyzed the majority of proteins of DGC and of the vinculin-talin-integrin system in cardiac muscle fibers, and it confirmed that DGC and the vinculin-talin-integrin system have a role in the transduction of mechanical force to the extracellular matrix. Finally it attributed a key role in the regulation of action potential duration to cardiac myocytes.

  6. Human Platelets Exhibit Chemotaxis using Functional N-Formyl Peptide Receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czapiga, Meggan; Gao, Ji-Liang; Kirk, Allen; Lekstrom-Himes, Julie


    Activated platelets participate in inflammatory and microbicidal processes by upregulation of surface selectins, shedding of CD40 ligand, and release of platelet microbicidal proteins and microparticles...

  7. Label-Free Detection of Human Glycoprotein (CgA) Using an Extended-Gated Organic Transistor-Based Immunosensor. (United States)

    Minamiki, Tsukuru; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Yui; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Kurita, Ryoji; Niwa, Osamu; Tokito, Shizuo


    Herein, we report on the fabrication of an extended-gated organic field-effect transistor (OFET)-based immunosensor and its application in the detection of human chromogranin A (hCgA). The fabricated OFET device possesses an extended-gate electrode immobilized with an anti-CgA antibody. The titration results of hCgA showed that the electrical changes in the OFET characteristics corresponded to the glycoprotein recognition ability of the monoclonal antibody (anti-CgA). The observed sensitivity (detection limit: 0.11 µg/mL) and selectivity indicate that the OFET-based immunosensor can be potentially applied to the rapid detection of the glycoprotein concentration without any labeling.

  8. Label-Free Detection of Human Glycoprotein (CgA Using an Extended-Gated Organic Transistor-Based Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukuru Minamiki


    Full Text Available Herein, we report on the fabrication of an extended-gated organic field-effect transistor (OFET-based immunosensor and its application in the detection of human chromogranin A (hCgA. The fabricated OFET device possesses an extended-gate electrode immobilized with an anti-CgA antibody. The titration results of hCgA showed that the electrical changes in the OFET characteristics corresponded to the glycoprotein recognition ability of the monoclonal antibody (anti-CgA. The observed sensitivity (detection limit: 0.11 µg/mL and selectivity indicate that the OFET-based immunosensor can be potentially applied to the rapid detection of the glycoprotein concentration without any labeling.

  9. Characterization of the microheterogeneity in glycoproteins by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of glycopeptide preparations : Application to a monofucosylated tetra-antennary glycopeptide fraction from human plasma α1-acid glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Halbeek, H. van; Dorland, L.; Montreuil, J.; Fournet, B.; Schmid, K.


    Five hundred-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy was employed to study a monofucosylated tetra-antennary glycopeptide fraction which was derived from human plasma α1-acid glycoprotein. This fraction was earlier judged to be homogeneous by 360-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopic analysis (Fournet, B., Montreuil, J.,

  10. Delayed inhibition of agonist-induced granulocyte-platelet aggregation after low-dose sevoflurane inhalation in humans. (United States)

    Wacker, Johannes; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Jamnicki, Marina; Aguirre, José; Härter, Luc; Keel, Marius; Zaugg, Michael


    Sevoflurane can be used as sedative-analgesic drug with endothelial protective properties. We tested whether low-dose sevoflurane inhalation provides sustained inhibition of detrimental granulocyte-platelet aggregation in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers were enrolled in this crossover study. Each subject inhaled sevoflurane for 1 h at 0.5-1 vol % end-tidal concentration in oxygen (50 vol %). Inhaling oxygen (50 vol %) alone served as control. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline before inhalation, immediately after inhalation, and 24 h thereafter, and were used for flow cytometry to determine platelet surface marker (CD41, CD42b, CD62P/P-selectin, and PAC-1) on platelets and granulocytes and for kaolin-induced clot formation, as assessed by thromboelastography. In flow cytometry experiments, platelets were stimulated with arachidonic acid (AA, 30 microM), adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 1 microM), and thrombin receptor agonist peptide-6 (TRAP-6, 6 microM). AA, ADP, and TRAP-6 markedly increased the expression of CD62P on platelets, whereas CD42b (shedding) and PAC-1 (heterotypic conjugates) expression decreased. The amount of granulocyte-platelet aggregates increased upon agonist stimulation. Low-dose sevoflurane inhalation reduced ADP-induced CD62P expression on platelets 24 h after inhalation, and inhibited the formation of granulocyte-platelet aggregates under stimulation with AA and ADP after 1 and 24 h, and with TRAP-6 after 24 h compared with control. Inhibition of granulocyte-platelet aggregates was accompanied by reduced clot firmness 24 h after sevoflurane inhalation compared with control. We demonstrated for the first time that inhaling low-dose sevoflurane (<1 vol % end-tidal) inhibits agonist-induced granulocyte-platelet interactions 24 h after administration and thus counteracts thromboinflammatory processes.

  11. Ex vivo human platelet aggregation induced by decompression during reduced barometric pressure, hydrostatic, and hydrodynamic (Bernoulli) effect. (United States)

    Murayama, M


    Decompression of human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in siliconized glass or plastic to 380 mm Hg for 3 hours at 38 degrees C produced platelet aggregation independent of pO2. Aggregation also took place when PRP was compressed to 8,000 PSI and then decompressed slowly to one atmosphere (14.7 PSI) without gas bubble formation. Platelets also aggregated when plasma was decompressed hydrodynamically (Bernoulli effect) at room temperature. It was also found that the drugs piracetam (2-oxypyrolidine acetamide) and pentoxifylline (1-(5-oxohexyl)-theobromine) at 0.5 and 1.0 mM prevent thrombocyte aggregation. Implications for mountain sickness are discussed.

  12. Organization of von Willebrand factor on surface-activated platelets. (United States)

    Escolar, G; White, J G


    The distribution and organization of von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers on platelets after surface activation have not been fully characterized. In the present study, washed human platelets were allowed to interact with Formvar-coated, electron microscope grids for 20 minutes at 37 degrees C and then fixed. After fixation, cells were washed and then incubated with buffer alone, human plasma, human plasma preincubated with ristocetin (1.2 mg/mL), purified human vWF plus ristocetin, or bovine plasma. Macromolecular complexes were revealed by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry employing a polyclonal antibody against vWF and protein A-gold (PAG) as the electron-dense probe. vWF multimers were not present in discoid platelets but appeared on the central zone of dendritic cells and over larger central areas of fully spread platelets. Exposure to human plasma alone did not affect the distribution of electron-dense probes for vWF in central regions of surface-activated cells. Incubation of spread platelets with ristocetin-activated human plasma or bovine plasma resulted in the appearance of randomly dispersed, mottled areas of increased density covering the surface from edge to edge. Exposure to vWF antibody and PAG resulted in specific labeling of the dense areas in a serpentine, linear array. The gold-probe distribution suggested that the vWF multimers were not superimposed and were distributed in a random, irregular manner from edge to edge with label-free, clear areas between them. The results extend previous observations demonstrating that glycoprotein Ib-IX receptors are not spontaneously cleared from the plasma membranes of surface-activated platelets by showing that the receptor function of glycoprotein Ib-IX complex remains unchanged.

  13. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of the major human metapneumovirus surface glycoproteins over a decade. (United States)

    Papenburg, Jesse; Carbonneau, Julie; Isabel, Sandra; Bergeron, Michel G; Williams, John V; De Serres, Gaston; Hamelin, Marie-Ève; Boivin, Guy


    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered paramyxovirus that is a major cause of respiratory infections worldwide. We aim to describe the molecular evolution of the HMPV F (fusion) and G (attachment) surface glycoproteins because they are targets for vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and antivirals currently in development. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected in children <3 years old with acute respiratory infection in Quebec City during 2001-2010. HMPV-positive samples (n = 163) underwent HMPV-F and -G gene sequencing. Furthermore, HMPV-F (n = 124) and -G (n = 217) sequences were obtained from GenBank and other studies. Evolutionary analyses (phylogenetic reconstruction, sequence identity, detection of recombination and adaptive evolution) were computed. Sequences clustered into 5 genetic lineages (A1, A2a, A2b, B1 and B2). Multiple lineages circulated each year in Quebec City. With the exception of B1, each of the 5 subgroups was the predominant lineage during ≥1 season. The A1 lineage was not detected since 2002-2003 in our local cohort. There was no evidence of inter- or intragenic recombination. HMPV-F was highly conserved, whereas HMPV-G exhibited greater diversity. HMPV-F demonstrated strong evidence of purifying selection, both overall and in an abundance of negatively selected amino acid sites. In contrast, sites under diversifying selection were detected in all HMPV-G lineages (range, 4-15), all of which were located in the ectodomain. Predominant circulating HMPV lineages vary by year. HMPV-F is highly constrained and undergoes significant purifying selection. Given its high genetic variability, we found a modest number of positively selected sites in HMPV-G. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. P-Glycoprotein Induction Ameliorates Colistin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Cultured Human Proximal Tubular Cells (United States)

    Lee, Sun-hyo; Kim, Jin-sun; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-yeon; Hong, Sae-yong


    The pathogenesis of colistin induced nephrotoxicity is poorly understood. Currently there are no effective therapeutic or prophylactic agents available. This study was aimed to determine the mechanism of colistin induced nephrotoxicity and to determine whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) induction could prevent colistin induced nephrotoxicity. Colistin induced cell toxicity in cultured human proximal tubular cells in both dose and time dependent manner. Colistin provoked ROS in a dose dependent manner as measured by DCF-DA. To investigate apoptosis, caspase 3/7 activity was determined. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased dose dependently (25, 50, 100 μg/ml) at 6 h. Autophagosome formation was assessed by measuring LC3- II/LC3-I ratio. The ratio of LC3-II to LC3- I was increased at 2 h (25 μg/ml). Suppression of autophagosome formation increased colistin induced nephrotoxicity. The expression of P-gp and the cell toxicity was determined in colistin with or without dexamethasone (P-gp inducer) and verapamil (selective P-gp inhibitor). Colistin itself suppressed the expression of P-gp. P-gp expression and activity decreased colistin induced nephrotoxicity with dexamethasone treatment. In addition induced P-gp transporter was shown to improve the efflux effect on colistin treated HK2 cell line, which was demonstrated by calcein-AM fluorescence accumulation assay. The increased activity could be blocked by N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, colistin induces nephrotoxicity by suppressing P-gp. Induction of P-gp could ameliorate colistin induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing apoptosis. PMID:26287374

  15. P-Glycoprotein Induction Ameliorates Colistin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Cultured Human Proximal Tubular Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-hyo Lee

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of colistin induced nephrotoxicity is poorly understood. Currently there are no effective therapeutic or prophylactic agents available. This study was aimed to determine the mechanism of colistin induced nephrotoxicity and to determine whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp induction could prevent colistin induced nephrotoxicity. Colistin induced cell toxicity in cultured human proximal tubular cells in both dose and time dependent manner. Colistin provoked ROS in a dose dependent manner as measured by DCF-DA. To investigate apoptosis, caspase 3/7 activity was determined. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased dose dependently (25, 50, 100 μg/ml at 6 h. Autophagosome formation was assessed by measuring LC3- II/LC3-I ratio. The ratio of LC3-II to LC3- I was increased at 2 h (25 μg/ml. Suppression of autophagosome formation increased colistin induced nephrotoxicity. The expression of P-gp and the cell toxicity was determined in colistin with or without dexamethasone (P-gp inducer and verapamil (selective P-gp inhibitor. Colistin itself suppressed the expression of P-gp. P-gp expression and activity decreased colistin induced nephrotoxicity with dexamethasone treatment. In addition induced P-gp transporter was shown to improve the efflux effect on colistin treated HK2 cell line, which was demonstrated by calcein-AM fluorescence accumulation assay. The increased activity could be blocked by N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, colistin induces nephrotoxicity by suppressing P-gp. Induction of P-gp could ameliorate colistin induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing apoptosis.

  16. Cytotoxicity and comparative binding mechanism of piperine with human serum albumin and α-1-acid glycoprotein. (United States)

    Yeggoni, Daniel Pushparaju; Rachamallu, Aparna; Kallubai, Monika; Subramanyam, Rajagopal


    Human serum albumin (HSA) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) (acute phase protein) are the plasma proteins in blood system which transports many drugs. To understand the pharmacological importance of piperine molecule, here, we studied the anti-inflammatory activity of piperine on mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) cell lines, which reveals that piperine caused an increase in inhibition growth of inflammated macrophages. Further, the fluorescence maximum quenching of proteins were observed upon binding of piperine to HSA and AGP through a static quenching mechanism. The binding constants obtained from fluorescence emission were found to be K(piperine) = 5.7 ± .2 × 10(5) M(-1) and K(piperine) = 9.3± .25 × 10(4) M(-1) which correspond to the free energy of -7.8 and -6.71 kcal M(-1)at 25 °C for HSA and AGP, respectively. Further, circular dichrosim studies revealed that there is a marginal change in the secondary structural content of HSA due to partial destabilization of HSA-piperine complexes. Consequently, inference drawn from the site-specific markers (phenylbutazone, site I marker) studies to identify the binding site of HSA noticed that piperine binds at site I (IIA), which was further authenticated by molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) studies. The binding constants and free energy corresponding to experimental and computational analysis suggest that there are hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions when piperine binds to HSA. Additionally, the MD studies have showed that HSA-piperine complex reaches equilibration state at around 3 ns, which prove that the HSA-piperine complex is stable in nature.

  17. Standard versus low-dose weight-adjusted heparin in patients treated with the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antibody fragment abciximab (c7E3 Fab) during percutaneous coronary revascularization. PROLOG Investigators. (United States)

    Lincoff, A M; Tcheng, J E; Califf, R M; Bass, T; Popma, J J; Teirstein, P S; Kleiman, N S; Hattel, L J; Anderson, H V; Ferguson, J J; Cabot, C F; Anderson, K M; Berdan, L G; Musco, M H; Weisman, H F; Topol, E J


    Blockade of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor by abciximab (c7E3 Fab) during coronary intervention reduces the incidence of ischemic complications, but has been associated with a doubling of the risk for bleeding complications. The present pilot study investigated whether modification of heparin dosing and/or early sheath removal would reduce the hemorrhagic complications associated with abciximab. One hundred three patients undergoing coronary intervention received abciximab (0.25 mg/kg bolus, 10 microg/min infusion for 12 hours) and aspirin and were randomized by a 2 x 2 factorial design to 1 of 2 weight-adjusted heparin doses and to 1 of 2 strategies for heparin discontinuation and vascular sheath removal. In the "standard-dose heparin" group, an initial bolus of 100 U/kg was administered to achieve a procedural activated clotting time (ACT) > or = 300 seconds; in the "low-dose heparin" group, an initial bolus of 70 U/kg was administered without adjustment for ACT. In the "late sheath removal" arm, heparin infusion was continued for the 12-hour duration of abciximab infusion, followed by sheath removal; in the "early sheath removal" group, heparin was stopped after the interventional procedure and sheaths were removed during the abciximab infusion. There were no apparent differences between patients randomized to the different treatment groups with regard to the occurrence of ischemic end points. Rates of bleeding and blood transfusion were reduced by low-dose heparin and early sheath removal and were lowest when both strategies were combined. Reduction and weight adjustment of heparin dose and early sheath removal in the setting of platelet inhibition with abciximab during coronary intervention may be useful in diminishing the incidence of hemorrhagic complications without loss of clinical efficacy.

  18. Preparation of pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) as an efficient supplement for animal serum-free human stem cell cultures. (United States)

    Schallmoser, Katharina; Strunk, Dirk


    Platelet derived growth factors have been shown to stimulate cell proliferation efficiently in vivo(1,2) and in vitro. This effect has been reported for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), fibroblasts and endothelial colony-forming cells with platelets activated by thrombin(3-5) or lysed by freeze/thaw cycles(6-14) before the platelet releasate is added to the cell culture medium. The trophic effect of platelet derived growth factors has already been tested in several trials for tissue engineering and regenerative therapy.(1,15-17) Varying efficiency is considered to be at least in part due to individually divergent concentrations of growth factors(18,19) and a current lack of standardized protocols for platelet preparation.(15,16) This protocol presents a practicable procedure to generate a pool of human platelet lysate (pHPL) derived from routinely produced platelet rich plasma (PRP) of forty to fifty single blood donations. By several freeze/thaw cycles the platelet membranes are damaged and growth factors are efficiently released into the plasma. Finally, the platelet fragments are removed by centrifugation to avoid extensive aggregate formation and deplete potential antigens. The implementation of pHPL into standard culture protocols represents a promising tool for further development of cell therapeutics propagated in an animal protein-free system.

  19. Influence of a preadsorbed terpolymer on human platelet accumulation, fibrinogen adsorption, and ex vivo blood activation in hemodialysis hollow fibers. (United States)

    Yan, F; Déjardin, P; Mulvihill, J N; Cazenave, J P; Crost, T; Thomas, M; Pusineri, C


    Results are presented on kinetics of platelet accumulation in charged polyacrylonitrile (AN69) hollow fibers by continuous data recording under flow conditions (wall shear rate 108-1050 s-1), using suspensions of washed 111In-labeled human platelets in Tyrode's-albumin buffer, containing washed red blood cells (0-40%). Preadsorption of a terpolymer of acrylonitrile, poly(ethyleneoxide) methacrylate and trimethylaminoethyl chloride methacrylate leads to very efficient passivation with respect to platelet accumulation and fibrinogen adsorption. In human ex vivo tests, evaluation of complement peptide C3a, platelet beta-thromboglobulin, leucocyte-polymorphonuclear neutrophile elastase and fibrinopeptide A shows no detectable activation. Furthermore, preadsorption appears to result in simultaneous improvement in hemocompatibility of the blood lines leading to and from the dialysis module. This single pretreatment of dialysis membranes should allow injection of lower doses of anticoagulant to patients submitted to hemodialysis.

  20. Signal-dependent splicing of tissue factor pre-mRNA modulates the thrombogenecity of human platelets (United States)

    Schwertz, Hansjörg; Tolley, Neal D.; Foulks, Jason M.; Denis, Melvin M.; Risenmay, Ben W.; Buerke, Michael; Tilley, Rachel E.; Rondina, Matthew T.; Harris, Estelle M.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Mackman, Nigel; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Weyrich, Andrew S.


    Tissue factor (TF) is an essential cofactor for the activation of blood coagulation in vivo. We now report that quiescent human platelets express TF pre-mRNA and, in response to activation, splice this intronic-rich message into mature mRNA. Splicing of TF pre-mRNA is associated with increased TF protein expression, procoagulant activity, and accelerated formation of clots. Pre-mRNA splicing is controlled by Cdc2-like kinase (Clk)1, and interruption of Clk1 signaling prevents TF from accumulating in activated platelets. Elevated intravascular TF has been reported in a variety of prothrombotic diseases, but there is debate as to whether anucleate platelets—the key cellular effector of thrombosis—express TF. Our studies demonstrate that human platelets use Clk1-dependent splicing pathways to generate TF protein in response to cellular activation. We propose that platelet-derived TF contributes to the propagation and stabilization of a thrombus. PMID:17060476

  1. Cell Surface and Secreted Protein Profiles of Human Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines Reveal Distinct Glycoprotein Patterns (United States)

    Arcinas, Arthur; Yen, Ten-Yang; Kebebew, Electron; Macher, Bruce A.


    Cell surface proteins have been shown to be effective therapeutic targets. In addition, shed forms of these proteins and secreted proteins can serve as biomarkers for diseases, including cancer. Thus, identification of cell surface and secreted proteins has been a prime area of interest in the proteomics field. Most cell surface and secreted proteins are known to be glycosylated and therefore, a proteomics strategy targeting these proteins was applied to obtain proteomic profiles from various thyroid cancer cell lines that represent the range of thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin. In this study, we oxidized the carbohydrates of secreted proteins and those on the cell surface with periodate and isolated them via covalent coupling to hydrazide resin. The glycoproteins obtained were identified from tryptic peptides and N-linked glycopeptides released from the hydrazide resin using 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with the gas phase fractionation. Thyroid cancer cell lines derived from papillary thyroid cancer (TPC-1), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC-133), Hürthle cell carcinoma (XTC-1), and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ARO and DRO-1) were evaluated. An average of 150 glycoproteins were identified per cell line, of which more than 57 percent are known cell surface or secreted glycoproteins. The usefulness of the approach for identifying thyroid cancer associated biomarkers was validated by the identification of glycoproteins (e.g. CD44, galectin 3 and metalloproteinase inhibitor 1) that have been found to be useful markers for thyroid cancer. In addition to glycoproteins that are commonly expressed by all of the cell lines, we identified others that are only expressed in the more well-differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines (follicular, Hürthle cell and papillary), or by cell lines derived from undifferentiated tumors that are uniformly fatal forms of thyroid cancer (i.e. anaplastic). Based on the results obtained, a

  2. A novel expression system of domain I of human beta2 glycoprotein I in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl Laurence H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, characterised by recurrent miscarriage and thrombosis, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Domain I (DI of human beta 2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI is thought to contain crucial antibody binding epitopes for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, which are critical to the pathogenesis of APS. Expressing this protein in bacteria could facilitate studies investigating how this molecule interacts with aPL. Methods Using a computer programme called Juniper, sequentially overlapping primers were designed to be used in a recursive polymerase chain reaction (PCR to produce a synthetic DI gene. Specifically Juniper incorporates 'major' codons preferred by bacteria altering 41 codons out of 61. This was cloned into the expression plasmid pET(26b and expressed in BL21(DE3 Escherichia coli (E. coli. By virtue of a pelB leader sequence, periplasmic localisation of DI aided disulphide bond formation and toxicity was addressed by tightly regulating expression through the high stringency T7lac promoter. Results Purified, soluble his-tagged DI in yields of 750 μg/L bacterial culture was obtained and confirmed on Western blot. Expression using the native human cDNA sequence of DI in the same construct under identical conditions yielded significantly less DI compared to the recombinant optimised sequence. This constitutes the first description of prokaryotic expression of soluble DI of β2GPI. Binding to murine monoclonal antibodies that recognise conformationally restricted epitopes on the surface of DI and pathogenic human monoclonal IgG aPL was confirmed by direct and indirect immunoassay. Recombinant DI also bound a series of 21 polyclonal IgG samples derived from patients with APS. Conclusion By producing a synthetic gene globally optimised for expression in E. coli, tightly regulating expression and utilising periplasmic product translocation, efficient, soluble E. coli expression of the

  3. A novel site-II directed glycoprotein estimation ELISA to aid rabies vaccine manufacture for veterinary and human use. (United States)

    Abhinay, Gontu; Dessain, Scott; Srikanth, Adabala; Senthilkumar, R L; Vidyasagar, Pitta; Praveen, Alagangula; Chandrasekhar Reddy, R V; Swapna Reddy, Erri; Rajendra, Lingala


    Although the World Health Organization recommends the use of in vitro techniques to qualify rabies vaccine lot release, very limited proposals have been made to arrive at a harmonized approach for wide scale usage. The present study proposed and evaluated the use of a novel avidin-biotin ELISA as an alternative to these in vivo tests in rabies vaccine manufacture. This assay utilized a neutralizing pan reactive monoclonal antibody (mAb) reactive with the conserved site-II of the natively folded rabies glycoprotein. Linear regression analysis of the in vitro glycoprotein estimates with the in vivo potency values, showed a good correlation (r(2)=0.8) with veterinary vaccines, but a poor correlation (r(2)=0.2) with human vaccines. However, we could qualitatively arrive at cut-off glycoprotein estimates from the ELISA, above which all the vaccines were declared to be protective by mouse challenge studies (>2.5IU/dose). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glyoxylate lowers metabolic ATP in human platelets without altering adenylate energy charge or aggregation. (United States)

    Dangelmaier, Carol A; Holmsen, Holm


    Human blood platelets adhere to exposed collagen at the site of vascular injury, initiating a signaling cascade leading to fibrinogen activation, secretion of granules and aggregation, thus producing a stable thrombus. All these steps require metabolic ATP. In this study we have labeled the metabolic pool of ATP with nucleotides, treated platelets with various inhibitors and have monitored their ability to be activated. Incubating platelets with glyoxylate dramatically reduced the ATP level without a change in the adenylate energy charge (AEC). This reduction of ATP did not affect ADP-induced primary or secondary aggregation, whereas glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, or the combination of antimycin plus deoxyglucose reduced both ATP and AEC and inhibited aggregation. The reduction of ATP by glyoxylate was almost quantitatively matched by an increase in hypoxanthine without elevation of ADP. AMP, IMP or inosine, acetoacetate, aspartate, or glutamate had no effect on glyoxylate-induced breakdown of ATP, while pyruvate stopped the ATP reduction fast and efficiently. Glyoxylate also lowered the citrate content. The glyoxylate-induced breakdown of ATP coincided with an increase in fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, indicating that the phosphofructokinase reaction was the main ATP-consuming step. Glyoxylate was a substrate for lactate dehydrogenase although with a Km almost 100 times higher than pyruvate. We suggest that glyoxylate primarily competes with pyruvate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction, thus lowering the citrate concentration, which in turn activates phosphofructokinase. Clearly, lowering of ATP in the cytosol by more than 50% does not affect platelet aggregation provided that the AEC is not reduced.

  5. Recombinant Human Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Promoter Drives Selective AAV-Mediated Transgene Expression in Oligodendrocytes. (United States)

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Fröhlich, Dominik; Klugmann, Claudia B; Wen, Xin; Harasta, Anne E; Ramkumar, Roshini; Spencer, Ziggy H T; Housley, Gary D; Klugmann, Matthias


    Leukodystrophies are hereditary central white matter disorders caused by oligodendrocyte dysfunction. Recent clinical trials for some of these devastating neurological conditions have employed an ex vivo gene therapy approach that showed improved endpoints because cross-correction of affected myelin-forming cells occurred following secretion of therapeutic proteins by transduced autologous grafts. However, direct gene transfer to oligodendrocytes is required for the majority of leukodystrophies with underlying mutations in genes encoding non-secreted oligodendroglial proteins. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are versatile tools for gene transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) and proof-of-concept studies in rodents have shown that the use of cellular promoters is sufficient to target AAV-mediated transgene expression to glia. The potential of this strategy has not been exploited. The major caveat of the AAV system is its limited packaging capacity of ~5 kb, providing the rationale for identifying small yet selective recombinant promoters. Here, we characterize the human myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) promoter for reliable targeting of AAV-mediated transgene expression to oligodendrocytes in vivo. A homology screen revealed highly conserved genomic regions among mammalian species upstream of the transcription start site. Recombinant AAV expression cassettes carrying the cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by truncated versions of the recombinant MAG promoter (2.2, 1.5 and 0.3 kb in size) were packaged as cy5 vectors and delivered into the dorsal striatum of mice. At 3 weeks post-injection, oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes expressing the reporter were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. Our results revealed that both 2.2 and 1.5 kb MAG promoters targeted more than 95% of transgene expression to oligodendrocytes. Even the short 0.3 kb fragment conveyed high oligodendroglial specific transgene

  6. Modification-specific proteomic analysis of glycoproteins in human body fluids by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Hägglund, Per; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard


    -glycosylated proteins in body fluids and other complex samples. An approach for identification of N-glycosylated proteins and mapping of their glycosylation sites is described. In this approach, glycoproteins are initially selectively purified by lectin chromatography. Following tryptic digestion, glycopeptides...

  7. Bacterial multidrug resistance mediated by a homologue of the human multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, WN; Poelarends, GJ


    Most ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporters known to date are of eukaryotic origin, such as the P-glycoproteins (Pgps) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs). Only one well-characterized ABC multidrug transporter, LmrA, is of bacterial origin. On the basis of its structural

  8. Human intestinal P-glycoprotein activity estimated by the model substrate digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, U L; Hyldahl Olesen, L; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg


    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) plays a part in the intestinal uptake of xenobiotics and has been associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to examine Pgp activity in relation to age, gender, medical treatment (rifampicin or ketoconazole) and the multidrug resistance (MDR...

  9. Potency testing of mesenchymal stromal cell growth expanded in human platelet lysate from different human tissues. (United States)

    Fazzina, R; Iudicone, P; Fioravanti, D; Bonanno, G; Totta, P; Zizzari, I G; Pierelli, L


    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been largely investigated, in the past decade, as potential therapeutic strategies for various acute and chronic pathological conditions. MSCs isolated from different sources, such as bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord tissue (UCT) and adipose tissue (AT), share many biological features, although they may show some differences on cumulative yield, proliferative ability and differentiation potential. The standardization of MSCs growth and their functional amplification is a mandatory objective of cell therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative yield and the ex vivo amplification potential of MSCs obtained from various sources and different subjects, using defined culture conditions with a standardized platelet lysate (PL) as growth stimulus. MSCs isolated from BM, UCT and AT and expanded in human PL were compared in terms of cumulative yield and growth potential per gram of starting tissue. MSCs morphology, phenotype, differentiation potential, and immunomodulatory properties were also investigated to evaluate their biological characteristics. The use of standardized PL-based culture conditions resulted in a very low variability of MSC growth. Our data showed that AT has the greater capacity to generate MSC per gram of initial tissue, compared to BM and UCT. However, UCT-MSCs replicated faster than AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs, revealing a greater proliferation capacity of this source irrespective of its lower MSC yield. All MSCs exhibited the typical MSC phenotype and the ability to differentiate into all mesodermal lineages, while BM-MSCs showed the most prominent immunosuppressive effect in vitro. The adoption of standardized culture conditions may help researchers and clinicians to reveal particular characteristics and inter-individual variability of MSCs sourced from different tissues. These data will be beneficial to set the standards for tissue collection and MSCs clinical-scale expansion both for cell banking

  10. Effect of operator and institutional volume on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions performed in Canada and the United States: a brief report from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) study. (United States)

    Madan, Mina; Nikhil, Janarthan; Hellkamp, Anne S; Pieper, Karen S; Labinaz, Marino; Cohen, E A; Buller, Christopher E; Cantor, Warren J; Seidelin, Peter; Ducas, John; Carere, Ronald G; Natarajan, Madhu K; O'Shea, J Conor; Tcheng, James E


    The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial compared the use of eptifibatide with placebo in 2064 coronary intervention patients. It was previously reported that Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, myocardial infarction (MI) or target vessel revascularization (TVR) compared with patients in the United States (US). To examine whether operator or institutional volume differences explain the regional variation in clinical outcome. Each site received an operator and institutional volume survey. Fifty-seven sites (62%) returned complete data on 1338 patients. In this smaller cohort, Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, MI or TVR compared with US patients (6.3% versus 10.3% and 14.9% versus 20.1%, respectively; PESPRIT study, institutional volume was associated with a modest reduction in risk of death, MI or TVR over short- and long-term follow-up periods. The Canadian and US investigators and institutions selected in ESPRIT had similar annual procedural volumes. Therefore, volume variables did not explain the differential risk of clinical events observed for patients enrolled in the two countries.

  11. Human Platelet Lysate as a Replacement for Fetal Bovine Serum in Limbal Stem Cell Therapy. (United States)

    Suri, Kunal; Gong, Hwee K; Yuan, Ching; Kaufman, Stephen C


    To evaluate the use of human platelet lysate (HPL) as an alternative supplement for limbal explant culture. Culture media were prepared using either 10% pooled HPL (PHPL), single donor HPL, or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Limbal tissues, obtained from the Minnesota Lions Eye Bank, were cultured in each medium on plastic plates or on denuded amniotic membrane (AM). Immunofluorescence staining was performed for ABCG2, tumor protein p63α, and cytokeratin 3 (K3). Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of ABCG2 and p63. Limbal explants grown in each medium were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to assess the proliferative capacity in each medium. Concentration of growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) in HPL and PHPL was compared to that in human serum (HS). Immunofluorescence staining on AM showed prominent expression of ABCG2, p63α but sparse expression of K3 in HPL and PHPL supplemented medium. Real time-PCR showed 1.7 fold higher expression of ABCG2 in PHPL supplemented medium (p = 0.03), and similar expression of p63 in HPL and PHPL supplemented medium compared to FBS medium. The proliferation assay showed that LSCs retained their proliferative potential in HPL supplemented medium. Higher concentration of growth factors were found in HPL, compared to HS. Human platelet lysate has higher concentration of grown factors and is effective in maintaining growth and stem cell phenotype of corneal limbal explant cultures.

  12. Evaluation of human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum for culture of mesenchymal stromal cells. (United States)

    Hemeda, Hatim; Giebel, Bernd; Wagner, Wolfgang


    Culture media for therapeutic cell preparations-such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-usually comprise serum additives. Traditionally, fetal bovine serum is supplemented in basic research and in most clinical trials. Within the past years, many laboratories adapted their culture conditions to human platelet lysate (hPL), which further stimulates proliferation and expansion of MSCs. Particularly with regard to clinical application, human alternatives for fetal bovine serum are clearly to be preferred. hPL is generated from human platelet units by disruption of the platelet membrane, which is commonly performed by repeated freeze and thaw cycles. Such culture supplements are notoriously ill-defined, and many parameters contribute to batch-to-batch variation in hPL such as different amounts of plasma, a broad range of growth factors and donor-specific effects. The plasma components of hPL necessitate addition of anticoagulants such as heparins to prevent gelatinization of hPL medium, and their concentration must be standardized. Labels for description of hPL-such as "xenogen-free," "animal-free" and "serum free"-are not used consistently in the literature and may be misleading if not critically assessed. Further analysis of the precise composition of relevant growth factors, attachment factors, microRNAs and exosomes will pave the way for optimized and defined culture conditions. The use of hPL has several advantages and disadvantages: they must be taken into account because the choice of cell culture additive has major impact on cell preparations. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Crystal structure of the Hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    Full Text Available The henipaviruses, represented by Hendra (HeV and Nipah (NiV viruses are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses with uniquely broad host tropisms responsible for repeated outbreaks in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection and lack of licensed antiviral therapies make the henipaviruses a potential biological threat to humans and livestock. Henipavirus entry is initiated by the attachment of the G envelope glycoprotein to host cell membrane receptors. Previously, henipavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (hmAb have been isolated using the HeV-G glycoprotein and a human naïve antibody library. One cross-reactive and receptor-blocking hmAb (m102.4 was recently demonstrated to be an effective post-exposure therapy in two animal models of NiV and HeV infection, has been used in several people on a compassionate use basis, and is currently in development for use in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of HeV-G with m102.3, an m102.4 derivative, and describe NiV and HeV escape mutants. This structure provides detailed insight into the mechanism of HeV and NiV neutralization by m102.4, and serves as a blueprint for further optimization of m102.4 as a therapeutic agent and for the development of entry inhibitors and vaccines.

  14. Crystal structure of the Hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody. (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Rockx, Barry; Xie, Yihu; DeBuysscher, Blair L; Fusco, Deborah L; Zhu, Zhongyu; Chan, Yee-Peng; Xu, Yan; Luu, Truong; Cer, Regina Z; Feldmann, Heinz; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Broder, Christopher C; Nikolov, Dimitar B


    The henipaviruses, represented by Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses with uniquely broad host tropisms responsible for repeated outbreaks in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection and lack of licensed antiviral therapies make the henipaviruses a potential biological threat to humans and livestock. Henipavirus entry is initiated by the attachment of the G envelope glycoprotein to host cell membrane receptors. Previously, henipavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (hmAb) have been isolated using the HeV-G glycoprotein and a human naïve antibody library. One cross-reactive and receptor-blocking hmAb (m102.4) was recently demonstrated to be an effective post-exposure therapy in two animal models of NiV and HeV infection, has been used in several people on a compassionate use basis, and is currently in development for use in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of HeV-G with m102.3, an m102.4 derivative, and describe NiV and HeV escape mutants. This structure provides detailed insight into the mechanism of HeV and NiV neutralization by m102.4, and serves as a blueprint for further optimization of m102.4 as a therapeutic agent and for the development of entry inhibitors and vaccines.

  15. Design and synthesis of glycoprotein-based multivalent glyco-ligands for influenza hemagglutinin and human galectin-3. (United States)

    Wang, Helen; Huang, Wei; Orwenyo, Jared; Banerjee, Aditi; Vasta, Gerardo R; Wang, Lai-Xi


    We report a facile synthesis of glycoprotein-based glyco-ligands and their binding with influenza hemagglutinin and human galectin-3. Human serum albumin (HSA) was used as the scaffold and an Asn-linked complex type N-glycan prepared from chicken eggs was used as the glycan building block. It was found that Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (click chemistry) between the alkyne-labeled glycan and the azide-tagged HSA led to an efficient formation of the glycoconjugates. The density of glycan ligands on the protein scaffold was readily varied by changing the molar ratios of the two reactants. Binding studies indicated that the sialylated and desialylated multivalent glycoligands could selectively bind to influenza hemagglutinin and human galectin-3, respectively, with high affinity. In the two glycan-lectin interactions, a clear multivalent effect was observed. Moreover, a cell-based assay showed that the synthetic multivalent glyco-ligands could efficiently inhibit the attachment of galectin-3 to human prostate cancer and lung cancer cell lines. This study suggests that the synthetic glycoprotein-based glyco-ligands can be useful for different applications, including blocking the function of galectin-3 in cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomics investigation of human platelets in healthy donors and cystic fibrosis patients by shotgun nUPLC-MSE and 2DE: a comparative study. (United States)

    Pieroni, Luisa; Finamore, Francesco; Ronci, Maurizio; Mattoscio, Domenico; Marzano, Valeria; Mortera, Stefano Levi; Quattrucci, Serena; Federici, Giorgio; Romano, Mario; Urbani, Andrea


    Platelets are of pathophysiological relevance in haemostasis, wound repair, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. We have shown that human platelets express a biologically active Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator, which is dysfunctional in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients, and regulate platelet responses related to inflammation and its resolution. In order to further elucidate platelet involvement in CF inflammation, we pursued a comparative proteomic analysis of cells from healthy donors and CF patients, in association with a non-supervised comparative analysis of the Gene Ontology. Our results, showing changes in the integrin signalling in CF, support a pro-inflammatory profile of CF platelets.

  17. Flavanols and Platelet Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A. Pearson


    Full Text Available Platelet activity and platelet-endothelial cell interactions are important in the acute development of thrombosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. An increasing number of foods have been reported to have platelet-inhibitory actions, and research with a number of flavanol-rich foods, including, grape juice, cocoa and chocolate, suggests that these foods may provide some protection against thrombosis. In the present report, we review a series of in vivo studies on the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and chocolate on platelet activation and platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa inhibited several measures of platelet activity including, epinephrine- and ADP-induced glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa and P-Selectin expression, platelet microparticle formation, and epinephrine-collagen and ADP-collagen induced primary hemostasis. The epinephrine-induced inhibitory effects on GP IIb/IIIa and primary hemostasis were similar to, though less robust than those associated with the use of low dose (81 mg aspirin. These data, coupled with information from other studies, support the concept that flavanols present in cocoa and chocolate can modulate platelet function through a multitude of pathways.

  18. Influence of platelet lysate on the recovery and metabolic performance of cryopreserved human hepatocytes upon thawing. (United States)

    Tolosa, Laia; Bonora-Centelles, Ana; Donato, M Teresa; Mirabet, Vicente; Pareja, Eugenia; Negro, Alejandro; López, Silvia; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, M José


    Storage of human hepatocytes is essential for their use in research and liver cell transplantation. However, cryopreservation and thawing (C/T) procedures have detrimental effects on the viability and functionality compared with fresh cells. The aim of this study was to upgrade the standard C/T methodology to obtain better quality hepatocytes for cell transplantation to improve the overall clinical outcome. Human hepatocytes isolated from donor livers were cryopreserved in University of Wisconsin solution with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (standard medium), which was supplemented with 10% or 20% of platelet lysate. Thawing media supplemented with up to 30 mM glucose was also investigated. The effects on cell viability, adhesion proteins (e-cadherin, β-catenin, and β1-integrin) expression, attachment efficiency, apoptotic indicators, Akt signaling, ATP levels, and cytochrome P450 activities have been evaluated. The results indicate that the hepatocytes cryopreserved in a medium supplemented with platelet lysate show better recovery than those preserved in the standard medium: higher expression of adhesion molecules, higher attachment efficiency and cell survival; decreased number of apoptotic nuclei and caspase-3 activation; maintenance of ATP levels; and drug biotransformation capability close to those in fresh hepatocytes. Supplementation of thawing media with glucose led to a significant decrease in caspase-3 activation and to increased adhesion molecules preservation and Akt signal transduction after C/T. Minor nonsignificant changes in cell viability and attachment efficiency were observed. These promising results could lead to a new cryopreservation procedure to improve human hepatocyte cryopreservation outcome.

  19. Mutations in the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic sequence of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B alter transport and protein chaperone binding.


    Zheng, Z.; Maidji, E; Tugizov, S; Pereira, L


    Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B (gB) plays a role in the fusion of the virion envelope with the host cell membrane and in syncytium formation in infected cells. Hydrophobic sequences at the carboxyl terminus, amino acids (aa) 714 to 771, anchor gB in the lipid bilayer, but the unusual length of this domain suggests that it may serve another role in gB structure. To explore the function(s) of this region, we deleted aa 717 to 747 (gB deltaI mutation), aa 751 to 771 (gB deltaII mutation), ...

  20. Antibodies to Glycoproteins Shared by Human Peripheral Nerve and Campylobacter jejuni in Patients with Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Suturkova


    Full Text Available We have tested serum samples from 24 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN for reactivity to ganglioside GM1 and to Gal(β1–3GalNAc-bearing glycoproteins isolated from human peripheral nerve and from Campylobacter jejuni (Cj serotype O:19. IgM anti-GM1 antibodies were detected by ELISA in 11 patients (45.8% with MMN and in only one subject (4% from the control group. Western blots showed positive reactivity of sera from 6 patients (25% with MMN to several Gal(β1–3GalNAc-bearing glycoproteins from human peripheral nerve and from Cj O:19 isolates. Sera from three patients (12.5% with MMN showed positively reactive bands with similar electrophoretic mobility in all isolates (60–62 kDa, 48–51 kDa, 42 kDa, and 38 kDa. All six patients showed positive reactivity to 48–52 kDa protein isolated from human peripheral nerve. Increased titer of IgG antibodies to 60–62 kDa protein isolated from Cj O:19 associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome was detected in three patients, and their serum showed also IgG positive reactivity to peripheral nerve antigen with the same electrophoretic mobility. One of these patients had a previous history of Cj infection which suggests the possibility that Cj may be also involved in the pathogenesis of MMN.

  1. Rhesus monkey platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbury, C.B.


    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  2. The human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO expresses functional platelet agonist signals mediated through GPVI and thromboxane receptor. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Yokota, Hiroshi


    We have demonstrated that a unique megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO could respond to one of the primary platelet signals through GP (glycoprotein) VI and a secondary signal of the AA (arachidonic acid) cascade. Unlike other megakaryocytic cell lines, UT-7/TPO was found to express GPVI and its associate signal molecule of FcRgamma (Fc receptor gamma chain). When UT-7/TPO was stimulated with the GPVI agonist convulxin, the [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+) was elevated in a convulxin concentration-dependent manner, and [Ca2+]i elevation was blocked by pretreatment with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 and the phospholipase inhibitor U73122. These results strongly indicate that endogenously expressed GPVI signal molecules are functional in UT-7/TPO. Concerning the AA cascade, the expression of COX (cyclooxygenase)-1 and TX (thromboxane) synthase was observed, and this cell line was able to produce TX by exogenous AA, followed by [Ca2+]i elevation mediated through the TX receptor. It is worth noting that convulxin stimulation did not cause TX generation, even through the GPVI pathway and the AA cascade are functional in this cell line. As there are many reports that convulxin-stimulated platelets failed to produce TX, it is suggested that UT-7/TPO has the same property as the platelets in regards to convulxin stimulation. Thus, UT-7/TPO is useful for the observation of both the GPVI pathway and AA cascade without requiring either the induction of differentiation or GPVI transfection. Furthermore, this cell line provides a new tool for research on platelet activation signals.

  3. The effect of protein corona composition on the interaction of carbon nanotubes with human blood platelets. (United States)

    De Paoli, Silvia H; Diduch, Lukas L; Tegegn, Tseday Z; Orecna, Martina; Strader, Michael B; Karnaukhova, Elena; Bonevich, John E; Holada, Karel; Simak, Jan


    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising nanomaterials for use in medicine. The blood biocompatibility of CNT is a critical safety issue. In the bloodstream, proteins bind to CNT through non-covalent interactions to form a protein corona, thereby largely defining the biological properties of the CNT. Here, we characterize the interactions of carboxylated-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTCOOH) with common human proteins and investigate the effect of the different protein coronas on the interaction of CNTCOOH with human blood platelets (PLT). Molecular modeling and different photophysical techniques were employed to characterize the binding of albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (FBG), γ-globulins (IgG) and histone H1 (H1) on CNTCOOH. We found that the identity of protein forming the corona greatly affects the outcome of CNTCOOH's interaction with blood PLT. Bare CNTCOOH-induced PLT aggregation and the release of platelet membrane microparticles (PMP). HSA corona attenuated the PLT aggregating activity of CNTCOOH, while FBG caused the agglomeration of CNTCOOH nanomaterial, thereby diminishing the effect of CNTCOOH on PLT. In contrast, the IgG corona caused PLT fragmentation, and the H1 corona induced a strong PLT aggregation, thus potentiating the release of PMP. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Approaches to Evaluate Next-Generation Tobacco and Non-Tobacco Products on Human Blood Platelets. (United States)

    Spinelli, Sherry L; Lannan, Katie L; Loelius, Shannon G; Phipps, Richard P


    Human blood platelets are major hemostatic regulators in the circulation and important in the mediation of chronic inflammation and immunomodulation. They are key elements that promote cardiovascular pathogenesis that leads to atherosclerosis, thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. New information on tobacco use and platelet dysregulation shows that these highly understudied vascular cells are dysregulated by tobacco smoke. Thus, platelet function studies should be an important consideration for the evaluation of existing and next-generation tobacco and non-tobacco products. Novel in vitro approaches are being sought to investigate these products and their influence on platelet function. Platelets are ideally suited for product assessment, as robust and novel in vitro translational methods are available to assess platelet function. Furthermore, the use of human biological systems has the advantage that risk predictions will better reflect the human condition.

  5. Platelet lysate favours in vitro expansion of human bone marrow stromal cells for bone and cartilage engineering. (United States)

    Zaky, S H; Ottonello, A; Strada, P; Cancedda, R; Mastrogiacomo, M


    The heterogeneous population of non-haematopoietic cells residing in the bone marrow (bone marrow stromal cells, BMSCs) and the different fractions and components obtained from platelet-rich plasma provide an invaluable source of autologous cells and growth factors for bone and other connective tissue reconstruction. In this study, we investigated the effect of an allogenic platelet lysate on human BMSCs proliferation and differentiation. Cell proliferation and number of performed cell doublings were enhanced in cultures supplemented with the platelet-derived growth factors (platelet lysate, PL), either with or without the concomitant addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS), compared to cultures performed in the presence of FBS and FGF2. Both in vitro and in vivo osteogenic differentiation were unaltered in cells maintained in medium supplemented with PL and not FBS (Only PL) and in cells maintained in medium containing FBS and FGF2. Interestingly, the in vitro cartilage formation was more effective in the pellet of BMSCs expanded in the Only PL medium. In particular, a chondrogenic differentiation was observed in pellets of some in vitro-expanded BMSCs in the Only PL medium, whereas pellets from parallel cell cultures in medium containing FBS did not respond to the chondrogenic induction. We conclude that the platelet lysate from human source is an effective and even more beneficial substitute for fetal bovine serum to support the in vitro expansion of human BMSCs for subsequent tissue-engineering applications. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of human platelet lysate and dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectants for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived stem cells. (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xiao, Ran; Cao, Yi-Lin; Yin, Hong-Yu


    Cryopreservation provides an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are frequently used as cryoprotectants for this purpose. However, the use of DMSO can result in adverse effects and toxic reactions and FBS can introduce risks of viral, prion, zoonose contaminations and evoke immune responses after injection. It is therefore crucial to reduce DMSO concentrations and use serum-free solution in the cryopreservation process. Human platelet lysate (PL) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative to DMSO and FBS. Therefore, in this study, with an aim to identify a cryoprotective agent for ASC cryopreservation, we determined the viability, proliferation potential, phenotype, and differentiation potential of fresh ASCs and ASCs cryopreserved using different combinations of three cryoprotective agents: fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and human platelet lysate (PL). The viability of the ASCs cryopreserved with 90% FBS and 10% DMSO, 95% FBS and 5% DMSO, and 97% PL and 3% DMSO was >80%, and the proliferation potentials, cell phenotypes, and differentiation potentials of these groups were similar to those of fresh ASCs. Together, our findings suggest that a combination of 97% PL and 3% DMSO is an ideal cryoprotective agent for the efficient cryopreservation of human ASCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Stokol

    Full Text Available Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. One of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. Platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHV-1 activates platelets. We found that two EHV-1 strains, RacL11 and Ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activate platelets within 10 minutes, causing α-granule secretion (surface P-selectin expression and platelet microvesiculation (increased small events double positive for CD41 and Annexin V. Microvesiculation was more pronounced with the RacL11 strain. Virus-induced P-selectin expression required plasma and 1.0 mM exogenous calcium. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced in factor VII- or X-deficient human plasma. Both P-selectin expression and microvesiculation were re-established in factor VII-deficient human plasma with added purified human factor VIIa (1 nM. A glycoprotein C-deficient mutant of the Ab4 strain activated platelets as effectively as non-mutated Ab4. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced by preincubation of virus with a goat polyclonal anti-rabbit tissue factor antibody. Infectious virus could be retrieved from washed EHV-1-exposed platelets, suggesting a direct platelet-virus interaction. Our results indicate that EHV-1 activates equine platelets and that α-granule secretion is a consequence of virus-associated tissue factor triggering factor X activation and thrombin generation. Microvesiculation was only partly tissue factor and thrombin-dependent, suggesting the virus causes microvesiculation through other mechanisms, potentially through direct binding. These findings suggest that EHV-1-induced platelet activation could contribute to the thrombosis

  8. Grifola frondosa Glycoprotein GFG-3a Arrests S phase, Alters Proteome, and Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Cui, Fengjie; Zan, Xinyi; Li, Yunhong; Sun, Wenjing; Yang, Yan; Ping, Lifeng


    GFG-3a is a novel glycoprotein previously purified from the fermented mycelia of Grifola frondosa with novel sugar compositions and protein sequencing. The present study aims to investigate its effects on the cell cycle, differential proteins expression, and apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Our findings revealed that GFG-3a induced the cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle at S phase. GFG-3a treatment resulted in the differential expression of 21 proteins in SGC-7901 cells by upregulating 10 proteins including RBBP4 associated with cell cycle arrest and downregulating 11 proteins including RUVBL1, NPM, HSP90AB1, and GRP78 involved in apoptosis and stress response. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis also suggested that GFG-3a could increase the expressions of Caspase-8/-3, p53, Bax, and Bad while decrease the expressions of Bcl2, Bcl-xl, PI3K, and Akt1. These results indicated that the stress response, p53-dependent mitochondrial-mediated, Caspase-8/-3-dependent, and PI3k/Akt pathways were involved in the GFG-3a-induced apoptosis process in SGC-7901 cells. These findings might provide a basis to prevent or treat human gastric cancer with GFG-3a and understand the tumor-inhibitory molecular mechanisms of mushroom glycoproteins.

  9. Further characterization of some heterophile agglutinins reacting with alkali-labile carbohydrate chains of human erythrocyte glycoproteins. (United States)

    Dahr, W; Uhlenbruck, G; Bird, G W


    The nature of the receptor sites for several agglutinins is characterized by hemagglutination inhibition assays. The inhibitory activity of human erythrocytes glycoproteins, from which sialic acid, sialic acid and galactose or alkali-labile oligosaccharides have been removed, is compared to the inhibitory effect of compounds with known structure. It is shown that the lectin from Arachis hypogea and anti-T bind to alkali-labile galactosyl-residues. Agglutinins from Bauhinia purpurea and variegata (non- or N-specific), Maclura aurantiaca, Iberis amara, sempervirens, umbellata hybrida and umbellata nana (M- or nonspecific), Moluccella laevis (A- plus N-specific), Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa, Helix lucorum and Caucasotachea atrolabiata interact with alkali-labile N-acetylgalactosamine. The results obtained with the anti-A agglutinins from various snails suggest that human erythrocyte glycoproteins contain, besides the alkali-labile tetrasaccharide, a peptide-linked sialyl-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-residue. The investigations do not allow a precise definition of the receptor sites for the lectins having M- or N-specificity.

  10. Synergism between thrombin and adrenaline (epinephrine) in human platelets. Marked potentiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. (United States)

    Steen, V M; Tysnes, O B; Holmsen, H


    We have studied synergism between adrenaline (epinephrine) and low concentrations of thrombin in gel-filtered human platelets prelabelled with [32P]Pi. Suspensions of platelets, which did not contain added fibrinogen, were incubated at 37 degrees C to measure changes in the levels of 32P-labelled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidate (PA), aggregation and dense-granule secretion after stimulation. Adrenaline alone (3.5-4.0 microM) did not cause a change in any parameter (phosphoinositide metabolism, aggregation and dense-granule secretion), but markedly enhanced the thrombin-induced responses over a narrow range of thrombin concentrations (0.03-0.08 units/ml). The thrombin-induced hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C, which was measured as the formation of [32P]PA, was potentiated by adrenaline, as was the increase in the levels of [32P]PIP2 and [32P]PIP. The presence of adrenaline caused a shift to the left for the thrombin-induced changes in the phosphoinositide metabolism, without affecting the maximal levels of 32P-labelled compounds obtained. A similar shift by adrenaline in the dose-response relationship was previously demonstrated for thrombin-induced aggregation and dense-granule secretion. Also, the narrow range of concentrations of thrombin over which adrenaline potentiates thrombin-induced platelet responses is the same for changes in phosphoinositide metabolism and physiological responses (aggregation and dense-granule secretion). Our observations clearly indicate that adrenaline directly or indirectly influences thrombin-induced changes in phosphoinositide metabolism. PMID:2845924

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of human platelet antigens-1 to -6, and -15 in the Malaysian population. (United States)

    Tan, Jia-Yi; Lian, Lay-Hoong; Nadarajan, Veera Sekaran


    Human platelet antigens (HPA) are determinant in several platelet-specific alloimmune disorders, such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura and platelet transfusion refractoriness. The distribution of HPA systems in the Malaysian population is not known. Defining the patterns of HPA systems provides a basis for risk assessment and management of the above complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HPA -1 to -6 and -15 in the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) in the Malaysian population. A total of 600 random donor samples, 200 from each of the three ethnic groups, were genotyped by means of real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with hydrolysis probes and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The most common genotype observed in this study was HPA-1a/1a-2a/2a-3a/3b-4a/4a-5a/5a-6a/6a-15a/15b (17%) followed by HPA-1a/1a-2a/2a-3a/3a-4a/4a-5a/5a-6a/6a-15a/15b (14.33%). The allele frequencies of HPA in Malays and Chinese were found to be similar those of other East and South-East Asian populations, while those of Indians were comparable to the frequencies found in Europeans. The results of this study have been useful for determining the distribution of HPA polymorphisms in this region and for potential clinical implications.

  12. Dietary α-linolenic acid increases the platelet count in ApoE-/- mice by reducing clearance. (United States)

    Stivala, Simona; Reiner, Martin F; Lohmann, Christine; Lüscher, Thomas F; Matter, Christian M; Beer, Juerg H


    Previously we reported that dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduces atherogenesis and inhibits arterial thrombosis. Here, we analyze the substantial increase in platelet count induced by ALA and the mechanisms of reduced platelet clearance. Eight-week-old male apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed a 0.21g% cholesterol diet complemented by either a high- (7.3g%) or low-ALA (0.03g%) content. Platelet counts doubled after 16 weeks of ALA feeding, whereas the bleeding time remained similar. Plasma glycocalicin and glycocalicin index were reduced, while reticulated platelets, thrombopoietin, and bone marrow megakaryocyte colony-forming units remained unchanged. Platelet contents of liver and spleen were substantially reduced, without affecting macrophage function and number. Glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) shedding, exposure of P-selectin, and activated integrin αIIbβ3 upon activation with thrombin were reduced. Dietary ALA increased the platelet count by reducing platelet clearance in the reticulo-endothelial system. The latter appears to be mediated by reduced cleavage of GPIb by tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme and reduced platelet activation/expression of procoagulant signaling. Ex vivo, there was less adhesion of human platelets to von Willebrand factor under high shear conditions after ALA treatment. Thus, ALA may be a promising tool in transfusion medicine and in high turnover/high activation platelet disorders.

  13. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against rat platelet GPIIb/IIIa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, H.; Tamura, S.; Sudo, T.; Suzuki, T. (Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., Gunma (Japan))


    Four murine monoclonal antibodies against rat platelets were produced by fusion of spleen cells from mice intravenously immunized with whole rat platelets. All four antibodies immunoprecipitated two major platelet membrane proteins with apparent molecular weights of 130,000 and 82,000 (nonreduced) and of 120,000 and 98,000 (reduced), which were structurally analogous to human glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, i.e. rat GPIIb/IIIa. Two of four antibodies, named P9 and P55, strongly inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation of washed rat platelets and caused approximately 50% inhibition of human fibrinogen binding to ADP-stimulated rat platelets, suggesting that rat GPIIb/IIIa serves as a fibrinogen receptor in ADP-induced aggregation. In contrast, two other antibodies, named P14 and P34, themselves caused aggregation of rat platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the secretion of 14C-serotonin from 14C-serotonin-labeled PRP. These results indicate that rat GPIIb/IIIa plays an important role in platelet aggregation.

  14. New analogues of 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid block human blood platelet aggregation and cyclooxygenase-1 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirz Taghreed


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thromboxane A2 is derived from arachidonic acid through the action of cyclooxygenases and thromboxane synthase. It is mainly formed in blood platelets upon activation and plays an important role in aggregation. Aspirin is effective in reducing the incidence of complications following acute coronary syndrome and stroke. The anti-thrombotic effect of aspirin is obtained through the irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenases. Analogues of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid were shown previously to modulate platelet activation and to block thromboxane receptors. Results and discussion We synthesized 10 compounds based on the structures of analogues of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid and evaluated their effect on platelet aggregation triggered by arachidonic acid. The structure activity relationship was evaluated. Five compounds showed a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation and highlighted the importance of the lipidic hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain and the phenol group. Their IC50 ranged from 7.5 ± 0.8 to 14.2 ± 5.7 μM (Mean ± S.E.M.. All five compounds decreased platelet aggregation and thromboxane synthesis in response to collagen whereas no modification of platelet aggregation in response to thromboxane receptor agonist, U46619, was observed. Using COS-7 cells overexpressing human cyclooxygenase-1, we showed that these compounds are specific inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 with IC50 ranging from 1.3 to 12 μM. Docking observation of human recombinant cyclooxygenase-1 supported a role of the phenol group in the fitting of cyclooxygenase-1, most likely related to hydrogen bonding with the Tyr 355 of cyclooxygenase-1. Conclusions In conclusion, the compounds we synthesized at first based on the structures of analogues of 12 lipoxygenase metabolites showed a role of the phenol group in the anti-platelet and anti-cyclooxygenase-1 activities

  15. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation by dihydropyrano- and dihydrofuranocoumarins, a new class of cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastrup, Ole; Knudsen, J B; Lemmich, J


    Certain esters of dihydropyranocoumarin and dihydrofuranocoumarin alcohols have previously been shown to inhibit the cAMP-phosphodiesterase from bovine heart. We now report that these naturally occurring coumarins inhibit the high affinity (Km = 1.1 microM) cAMP-phosphodiesterase from human plate...... correlation between these metabolic and functional activities indicates that there exist, besides cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibition, additional mechanisms of action for the platelet aggregation inhibitory effect of dihydropyrano- and dihydrofuranocoumarins....... platelets with activities that closely correlate with those obtained using phosphodiesterase from bovine heart tissue. Additionally the coumarins inhibit the aggregation of human platelets induced with ADP, adrenaline and collagen with activities comparable to those of dipyridamole. A lack of significant...

  16. Avian Influenza virus glycoproteins restrict virus replication and spread through human airway epithelium at temperatures of the proximal airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Scull


    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE, we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C, avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal airways (32 degrees C. These data support the hypothesis that avian influenza viruses, ordinarily adapted to the temperature of the avian enteric tract (40 degrees C, rarely infect humans, in part due to differences in host airway regional temperatures. Previously, a critical residue at position 627 in the avian influenza virus polymerase subunit, PB2, was identified as conferring temperature-dependency in mammalian cells. Here, we use reverse genetics to show that avianization of residue 627 attenuates a human virus, but does not account for the different infection between 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. To determine the mechanism of temperature restriction of avian influenza viruses in HAE at 32 degrees C, we generated recombinant human influenza viruses in either the A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2 or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 genetic background that contained avian or avian-like glycoproteins. Two of these viruses, A/Victoria/3/75 with L226Q and S228G mutations in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99 and A/PR/8/34 containing the H7 and N1 from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99, exhibited temperature restriction approaching that of wholly avian influenza viruses. These data suggest that influenza viruses bearing avian or avian-like surface glycoproteins have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection at the temperature of the human proximal airways. This temperature restriction may limit zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses and

  17. Platelet-rich plasma differs according to preparation method and human variability. (United States)

    Mazzocca, Augustus D; McCarthy, Mary Beth R; Chowaniec, David M; Cote, Mark P; Romeo, Anthony A; Bradley, James P; Arciero, Robert A; Beitzel, Knut


    Varying concentrations of blood components in platelet-rich plasma preparations may contribute to the variable results seen in recently published clinical studies. The purposes of this investigation were (1) to quantify the level of platelets, growth factors, red blood cells, and white blood cells in so-called one-step (clinically used commercial devices) and two-step separation systems and (2) to determine the influence of three separate blood draws on the resulting components of platelet-rich plasma. Three different platelet-rich plasma (PRP) separation methods (on blood samples from eight subjects with a mean age [and standard deviation] of 31.6 ± 10.9 years) were used: two single-spin processes (PRPLP and PRPHP) and a double-spin process (PRPDS) were evaluated for concentrations of platelets, red and white blood cells, and growth factors. Additionally, the effect of three repetitive blood draws on platelet-rich plasma components was evaluated. The content and concentrations of platelets, white blood cells, and growth factors for each method of separation differed significantly. All separation techniques resulted in a significant increase in platelet concentration compared with native blood. Platelet and white blood-cell concentrations of the PRPHP procedure were significantly higher than platelet and white blood-cell concentrations produced by the so-called single-step PRPLP and the so-called two-step PRPDS procedures, although significant differences between PRPLP and PRPDS were not observed. Comparing the results of the three blood draws with regard to the reliability of platelet number and cell counts, wide variations of intra-individual numbers were observed. Single-step procedures are capable of producing sufficient amounts of platelets for clinical usage. Within the evaluated procedures, platelet numbers and numbers of white blood cells differ significantly. The intra-individual results of platelet-rich plasma separations showed wide variations in

  18. Shedding of soluble glycoprotein 1 detected during acute Lassa virus infection in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoh Mambu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. With a high rate of infection that may lead to morbidity and mortality, understanding how the virus interacts with the host's immune system is of great importance for generating vaccines and therapeutics. Previous work by our group identified a soluble isoform of the Lassa virus (LASV GP1 (sGP1 in vitro resulting from the expression of the glycoprotein complex (GPC gene 12. Though no work has directly been done to demonstrate the function of this soluble isoform in arenaviral infections, evidence points to immunomodulatory effects against the host's immune system mediated by a secreted glycoprotein component in filoviruses, another class of hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses. A significant fraction of shed glycoprotein isoforms during viral infection and biogenesis may attenuate the host's inflammatory response, thereby enhancing viral replication and tissue damage. Such shed glycoprotein mediated effects were previously reported for Ebola virus (EBOV, a filovirus that also causes hemorrhagic fever with nearly 90% fatality rates 345. The identification of an analogous phenomenon in vivo could establish a new correlate of LHF infection leading to the development of sensitive diagnostics targeting the earliest molecular events of the disease. Additionally, the reversal of potentially untoward immunomodulatory functions mediated by sGP1 could potentiate the development of novel therapeutic intervention. To this end, we investigated the presence of sGP1 in the serum of suspected LASV patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH Lassa Fever Ward (LFW, in Kenema, Sierra Leone that tested positive for viral antigen or displayed classical signs of Lassa fever. Results It is reasonable to expect that a narrow window exists for

  19. Imaging characteristics of a novel technetium Tc 99m-labeled platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist in patients With acute deep vein thrombosis or a history of deep vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Bates, Shannon M; Lister-James, John; Julian, Jim A; Taillefer, Raymond; Moyer, Brian R; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S


    The diagnosis of recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is challenging. Imaging with radiolabeled peptides offers a new approach for detecting acute DVT. Technetium Tc 99m ((99m)Tc)-apcitide binds with high affinity and specificity to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors expressed on activated platelets and, therefore, (99m)Tc-apcitide scintigraphy should be negative with residual abnormalities caused by old, inactive thrombi and positive with new, active thrombi. In a prospective multicenter study, (99m)Tc-apcitide imaging was performed on 38 patients with a newly diagnosed first DVT (group 1) and 40 patients with previous DVT, symptoms of postthrombotic syndrome, and chronic intraluminal abnormalities on ultrasonography (group 2). Images were interpreted in a blinded fashion by 2 experts and by newly trained nuclear medicine physicians. The sensitivity and specificity of (99m)Tc-apcitide were determined by calculating the proportion of scans in group 1 patients that were read as "positive for acute DVT" and the proportion of scans in group 2 patients that were read as "negative for acute DVT," respectively. When read by 2 experts, ( 99m)Tc-apcitide had a sensitivity of 92% for both readers and specificities of 82% and 90%. Agreement between the experts was excellent. However, the accuracy and interreader agreement for newly trained nuclear medicine physicians were lower. Technetium Tc 99m-apcitide scintigraphy has potential utility in suspected recurrent DVT because it detects most acute thrombi and has few false-positive results in patients with previous DVT. However, the accuracy appears to depend on the training and experience of the interpreters.

  20. Human platelet-rich plasma promotes axon growth in brain-spinal cord coculture. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Michiko; Kamei, Naosuke; Shinomiya, Rikuo; Sunagawa, Toru; Suzuki, Osami; Kamoda, Hiroto; Ohtori, Seiji; Ochi, Mitsuo


    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains several growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), that are associated with repair processes after central nervous system injury. Although PRP have been applied to some regenerative therapies, the regeneration effects of PRP on spinal cord injury have not been reported. This study applied a rat organ coculture system to examine the ability of PRP to enhance axonal growth in spinal cord tissues and to identify the growth factors in PRP that contribute to the regulation of axon growth. PRP from human peripheral blood was added to organ cocultures. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies against PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, IGF-1, or VEGF were added to the cocultures with PRP. Axon growth from the brain cortex into the spinal cord was assessed quantitatively using anterograde axon tracing with DiI. Addition of PRP to the cocultures promoted axon growth, and the axon growth was significantly suppressed by the addition of neutralizing antibodies against IGF-1 and VEGF, but not PDGF-AB. In contrast, axon growth was promoted significantly by the addition of neutralizing antibodies against TGF-β1. These findings indicate that PRP promotes axon growth in spinal cord tissues through mechanisms associated with IGF-1 and VEGF, and that TGF-β1 in PRP exerts negative effects on axon growth.

  1. Pathogen-free, plasma-poor platelet lysate and expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Iudicone, Paola; Fioravanti, Daniela; Bonanno, Giuseppina; Miceli, Michelina; Lavorino, Claudio; Totta, Pierangela; Frati, Luigi; Nuti, Marianna; Pierelli, Luca


    Supplements to support clinical-grade cultures of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are required to promote growth and expansion of these cells. Platelet lysate (PL) is a human blood component which may replace animal serum in MSC cultures being rich in various growth factors. Here, we describe a plasma poor pathogen-free platelet lysate obtained by pooling 12 platelet (PLT) units, to produce a standardized and safe supplement for clinical-grade expansion of MSC. PL lots were obtained by combining 2 6-unit PLT pools in additive solution (AS) following a transfusional-based procedure including pathogen inactivation (PI) by Intercept technology and 3 cycles of freezing/thawing, followed by membrane removal. Three PI-PL and 3 control PL lots were produced to compare their ability to sustain bone marrow derived MSC selection and expansion. Moreover, two further PL, subjected to PI or not, were also produced starting from the same initial PLT pools to evaluate the impact of PI on growth factor concentration and capacity to sustain cell growth. Additional PI-PL lots were used for comparison with fetal bovine serum (FBS) on MSC expansion. Immunoregulatory properties of PI-PL-generated MSC were documented in vitro by mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) mitogen induced proliferation. PI-PL and PL control lots had similar concentrations of 4 well-described growth factors endowed with MSC stimulating ability. Initial growth and MSC expansion by PI-PL and PL controls were comparable either using different MSC populations or in head to head experiments. Moreover, PI-PL and PL control sustained similar MSC growth of frozen/thawed MSC. Multilineage differentiation of PI-derived and PI-PL-derived MSC were maintained in any MSC cultures as well as their immunoregulatory properties. Finally, no direct impact of PI on growth factor concentration and MSC growth support was observed, whereas the capacity of FBS to sustain MSC expansion in basic

  2. Characterization of a human glycoprotein with a potential role in sperm-egg fusion: cDNA cloning, immunohistochemical localization, and chromosomal assignment of the gene (AEGL1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [and others


    Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Endothelial cell-borne platelet bridges selectively recruit monocytes in human and mouse models of vascular inflammation. (United States)

    Kuckleburg, Christopher J; Yates, Clara M; Kalia, Neena; Zhao, Yan; Nash, Gerard B; Watson, Steve P; Rainger, George Ed


    Cells of the monocyte lineage are the most abundant inflammatory cells found in atherosclerotic lesions. Dominance of the inflammatory infiltrate by monocytes indicates that there is a disease-driven mechanism supporting their selective recruitment. Previous studies have demonstrated that interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and platelets may promote monocyte recruitment. In this study, we sought to expand on this knowledge using a complex coculture model of the diseased vessel wall. Using primary human cells in an in vitro flow-based adhesion assay, we found that secretory arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs), cocultured with ECs, promote preferential recruitment of monocytes from blood in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Approximately 85% of leucocytes recruited to the endothelium were CD14(+). Formation of adhesive platelet bridges on ECs was essential for monocyte recruitment as platelet removal or inhibition of adhesion to the ECs abolished monocyte recruitment. Monocytes were recruited from flow by platelet P-selectin and activated by EC-derived CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), although the presentation of CCL2 to adherent monocytes was dependent upon platelet activation and release of CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4). In an intravital model of TGF-β1-driven vascular inflammation in mice, platelets were also necessary for efficient leucocyte recruitment to vessels of the microcirculation in the cremaster muscle. In this study, we have demonstrated that stromal cells found within the diseased artery wall may promote the preferential recruitment of monocytes and this is achieved by establishing a cascade of interactions between SMCs, ECs, platelets, and monocytes.

  4. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+ and Negative (ER- Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Semaan, Xu Wang, Alan G. Marshall, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+ tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER- tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples.

  5. Effect of flunarizine and calcium on serotonin uptake in human and rat blood platelets and rat synaptosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P N; Smith, D F; Poulsen, J H


    Calcium and the calcium overload blocker flunarizine exert profound effects on mood. We therefore studied the effect of calcium and flunarizine on serotonin uptake in human and rat blood platelets and in rat synaptosomes. Calcium (1.3 mmol/L) had a weak inhibiting effect on serotonin uptake in bl...

  6. Integrin alphaIIbbeta3-specific synthetic human monoclonal antibodies and HCDR3 peptides that potently inhibit platelet aggregation. (United States)

    Chung, Junho; Rader, Christoph; Popkov, Mikhail; Hur, Young-Mi; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Young-Joon; Barbas, Carlos F


    The interaction of fibrinogen with integrin alphaIIbbeta3 (GPIIb/IIIa), in part mediated by an RGD tripeptide motif, is an essential step in platelet aggregation. Based on their inhibition of platelet aggregation, three integrin alphaIIbbeta3 inhibitors are clinically approved. The clinically most widely used integrin alphaIIbbeta3 inhibitor abciximab is a chimeric mouse/human antibody that induces thrombocytopenia, often severe, in 1-2% of patients due to a human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response. In addition, unlike other ligands mimicking small molecular drugs, abciximab cross-reacts with integrin alphavbeta3 and alphaMbeta2. Here we used phage display to select monoclonal antibodies specific to integrin alphaIIbbeta3 from a synthetic human antibody library based on the randomized HCDR3 sequence VGXXXRADXXXYAMDV. The selected antibodies revealed a strong consensus in HCDR3 (V(V/W)CRAD(K/R)RC) and high specificity toward integrin alphaIIbbeta3 but not to other RGD binding integrins such as alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, and alpha5beta1. The selected antibodies as well as three synthetic peptides (VWCRADRRC, VWCRADKRC, and VVCRADRRC) whose sequences were derived from the HCDR3 sequences of the selected antibodies strongly inhibited the interaction between integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and fibrinogen and platelet aggregation ex vivo. To our knowledge, these are the first fully human monoclonal antibodies that are specific to integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and can potently inhibit platelet aggregation.

  7. Partial Purification of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Reuptake System from Human Blood Platelets Using a Citalopram-Derived Affinity Resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessen, E.A.L.; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T.


    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and

  8. Regulation and kinetics of platelet-activating factor and leukotriene C-4 synthesis by activated human basophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, W. J.; Homburg, C. H. E.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Knol, E. F.; Mul, F. P. J.; Roos, D.; Tool, A. T. J.


    Background Allergic disease is the result of an interplay of many different cell types, including basophils and mast cells, in combination with various inflammatory lipid mediators, such as platelet-activating factor (PAF) and leukotrienes (LT). LTC4 synthesis by human basophils has been studied

  9. Effects of TRA-418, a novel TP-receptor antagonist, and IP-receptor agonist, on human platelet activation and aggregation. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Yamada, Naohiro; Ikezawa, Shiho; Ohno, Michihiro; Otake, Atsushi; Umemura, Kazuo; Matsushita, Teruo


    [4-[2-(1,1-Diphenylethylsulfanyl)-ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-8-yloxy]-acetic acid N-Methyl-d-glucamine salt (TRA-418) has both thromboxane A2 (TP)-receptor antagonist and prostacyclin (IP)-receptor agonist properties. The present study examined the advantageous effects of TRA-418 based on the dual activities, over an agent having either activity alone and also the difference in the effects of TRA-418 and a glycoprotein alphaIIb/beta3 integrin (GPIIb/IIIa) inhibitor. TRA-418 inhibited platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation as well as P-selectin expression induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate, thrombin receptor agonist peptide 1-6 (Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2), and U-46619 in the presence of epinephrine (U-46619+ epinephrine). TRA-418 also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by those platelet-stimulants in Ca2+ chelating anticoagulant, citrate and in nonchelating anticoagulant, d-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone (PPACK). The TP-receptor antagonist SQ-29548 inhibited only U-46619+epinephrine-induced GPIIb/IIIa activation, P-selectin expression, and platelet aggregation. The IP-receptor agonist beraprost sodium inhibited platelet activation. Beraprost also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by platelet stimulants we tested in citrate and in PPACK. The GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab blocked GPIIb/IIIa activation and platelet aggregation. However, abciximab showed slight inhibitory effects on P-selectin expression. TRA-418 is more advantageous as an antiplatelet agent than TP-receptor antagonists or IP-receptor agonists separately used. TRA-418 showed a different inhibitory profile from abciximab in the effects on P-selectin expression.

  10. Characterization of lipid rafts in human platelets using nuclear magnetic resonance: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua F. Ceñido


    Full Text Available Lipid microdomains (‘lipid rafts’ are plasma membrane subregions, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, which participate dynamically in cell signaling and molecular trafficking operations. One strategy for the study of the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts in model membrane systems has been the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, but until now this spectroscopic method has not been considered a clinically relevant tool. We performed a proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of using NMR to study lipid rafts in human tissues. Platelets were selected as a cost-effective and minimally invasive model system in which lipid rafts have previously been studied using other approaches. Platelets were isolated from plasma of medication-free adult research participants (n=13 and lysed with homogenization and sonication. Lipid-enriched fractions were obtained using a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Association of lipid fractions with GM1 ganglioside was tested using HRP-conjugated cholera toxin B subunit dot blot assays. 1H high resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR spectra obtained with single-pulse Bloch decay experiments yielded spectral linewidths and intensities as a function of temperature. Rates of lipid lateral diffusion that reported on raft size were measured with a two-dimensional stimulated echo longitudinal encode-decode NMR experiment. We found that lipid fractions at 10–35% sucrose density associated with GM1 ganglioside, a marker for lipid rafts. NMR spectra of the membrane phospholipids featured a prominent ‘centerband’ peak associated with the hydrocarbon chain methylene resonance at 1.3 ppm; the linewidth (full width at half-maximum intensity of this ‘centerband’ peak, together with the ratio of intensities between the centerband and ‘spinning sideband’ peaks, agreed well with values reported previously for lipid rafts in model membranes. Decreasing

  11. Human endothelial and platelet septin SEPT11: cloning of novel variants and characterisation of interaction partners. (United States)

    Bartsch, Ingrid; Bläser, Susanne; Röseler, Sabrina; Sandrock, Kirstin; Busse, Anja; Huber, Michael; Rempp, Hansjörg; Lieber, Mareike; Horn, Julia; Brendle, Cornelia; Zieger, Barbara


    Septins are cytoskeletal GTPases forming heteropolymeric complexes involved in processes characterised by active membrane movement such as cytokinesis, vesicle trafficking, and exocytosis. Septins are expressed in non-mitotic cells such as neurons and platelets. SEPT11 belongs to the SEPT6 group and was identified as interaction partner of SEPT5. We cloned and characterised novel SEPT11 variants and investigated interaction partners of SEPT11 in platelets and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. An endothelial cell library was used for cloning novel SEPT11 variants. Using Northern analysis the different SEPT11 transcripts were illustrated. Interaction studies were performed using yeast two-hybrid system, precipitation, FRET, and immunofluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that SEPT11 partners with SEPT2, SEPT4 and SEPT7 using yeast two-hybrid system and precipitation. The interaction of SEPT11 with SEPT7 is also demonstrated by FRET. In addition to the known SEPT11 transcript (SEPT11_v1) we identified a novel SEPT11 variant (SEPT11_v2) as interaction partner of SEPT4 and SEPT7. Library screening of an endothelial cell library also revealed the presence of this novel SEPT11_v2 transcript. In addition, a third SEPT11 variant (SEPT11_v3) was identified. Expression of SEPT11_v1 and of SEPT11_v2 and SEPT11_v3 in human brain regions was investigated by Northern analysis. Further interaction partners of SEPT11 are characterised using immunofluorescence. Co-localisation of SEPT2, SEPT4, SEPT7 and SEPT11 with tubulin and transferrin receptor (endocytotic marker) is demonstrated. In addition, co-localisation of SEPT4 and SEPT11 with the vesicle-associated protein synaptobrevin 1 (VAMP1), but not clearly with actin, was shown. Only SEPT2 and SEPT7 definitely co-localised with actin, but not clearly with VAMP1.

  12. In vivo quantitation of platelet deposition on human peripheral arterial bypass grafts using indium-111-labeled platelets. Effect of dipyridamole and aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumphrey, C.W.; Chesebro, J.H.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Wahner, H.W.; Hollier, L.H.; Pairolero, P.C.; Fuster, V.


    Indium-111-labeled autologous platelets, injected 48 hours after operation, were used to evaluate the thrombogenicity of prosthetic material and the effect of platelet inhibitor therapy in vivo. Dacron double-velour (Microvel) aortofemoral artery bifurcation grafts were placed in 16 patients and unilateral polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal grafts were placed in 10 patients. Half the patients in each group received platelet inhibitors before operation (dipyridamole, 100 mg 4 times a day) and after operation (dipyridamole, 75 mg, and acetylsalicylic acid, 325 mg 3 times a day); the rest of the patients served as control subjects. Five-minute scintigrams of the graft region were taken with a gamma camera interfaced with a computer 48, 72, and 96 hours after injection of the labeled platelets. Platelet deposition was estimated from the radioactivities of the grafts and expressed as counts per 100 pixels per microcurie injected. Dipyridamole and aspirin therapy significantly reduced the number of platelets deposited on Dacron grafts and prevented platelet accumulation over 3 days. With the small amount of platelet deposition on polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal artery grafts even in control patients, platelet inhibitor therapy had no demonstrable effect on platelet deposition on these grafts. It is concluded that (1) platelet deposition on vascular grafts in vivo can be quantitated by noninvasive methods, and (2) dipyridamole and aspirin therapy reduced platelet deposition on Dacron aortofemoral artery grafts.

  13. Pluripotent stem cells reveal the developmental biology of human megakaryocytes and provide a source of platelets for clinical application. (United States)

    Takayama, Naoya; Eto, Koji


    Human pluripotent stem cells [PSCs; including human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)] can infinitely proliferate in vitro and are easily accessible for gene manipulation. Megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets can be created from human ESCs and iPSCs in vitro and represent a potential source of blood cells for transfusion and a promising tool for studying the human thrombopoiesis. Moreover, disease-specific iPSCs are a powerful tool for elucidating the pathogenesis of hematological diseases and for drug screening. In that context, we and other groups have developed in vitro MK and platelet differentiation systems from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Combining this co-culture system with a drug-inducible gene expression system enabled us to clarify the novel role played by c-MYC during human thrombopoiesis. In the next decade, technical advances (e.g., high-throughput genomic sequencing) will likely enable the identification of numerous gene mutations associated with abnormal thrombopoiesis. Combined with such technology, an in vitro system for differentiating human PSCs into MKs and platelets could provide a novel platform for studying human gene function associated with thrombopoiesis.

  14. Comparison of (/sup 125/I)iodolysergic acid diethylamide binding in human frontal cortex and platelet tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.M.; Kent, A.


    The human platelet contains a functional 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor that appears to resemble the 5-HT2 subtype. In this study, we have used the iodinated derivative (125I)iodolysergic acid diethylamide ((125I)iodoLSD) in an attempt to label 5-HT receptors in human platelet and frontal cortex membranes under identical assay conditions to compare the sites labelled in these two tissues. In human frontal cortex, (125I)iodoLSD labelled a single high-affinity site (KD = 0.35 +/- 0.02 nM). Displacement of specific (125I)iodoLSD binding indicated a typical 5-HT2 receptor inhibition profile, which demonstrated a significant linear correlation (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001, n = 17) with that observed using (3H)ketanserin. However, (125I)iodoLSD (Bmax = 136 +/- 7 fmol/mg of protein) labelled significantly fewer sites than (3H)ketanserin (Bmax = 258 +/- 19 fmol/mg of protein) (p less than 0.001, n = 6). In human platelet membranes, (125I)iodoLSD labelled a single site with affinity (KD = 0.37 +/- 0.03 nM) similar to that in frontal cortex. The inhibition profile in the platelet showed significant correlation with that in frontal cortex (r = 0.96, p less than 0.001, n = 16). We conclude that the site labelled by (125I)iodoLSD in human platelet membranes is biochemically similar to that in frontal cortex and most closely resembles the 5-HT2 receptor subtype, although the discrepancy in binding capacities of (125I)iodoLSD and (3H)ketanserin raises a question about the absolute nature of this receptor.

  15. /sup 3/H-PAF-acether displacement and inhibition of binding in intact human platelets by BN 52021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korth, R.; Le Couedic, J.P.; Benveniste, J.


    Intact washed human platelets incubated at 20/sup 0/C in Tyrode's buffer containing 0.25% (w/v) bovine serum albumin bound /sup 3/H paf-acether in a concentration (0-6.5 nM) and time (0-60 min) dependent manner (n=3). BN 52021 (60 a chemically defined extract from Ginkgo biloba inhibited the binding of increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H paf-acether. Calculated differences between /sup 3/H paf-acether binding in the presence or absence of BN 52021 (60 reached nearly a plateau in concentrations higher than 0.65 nM /sup 3/H paf-acether. Increasing concentrations of BN 52021 (0-60 as well as of unlabelled paf-acether (0-50 nM) prevented within 15 min /sup 3/H paf-acether binding (0.65 nM) to platelets in a concentration-dependent way. Increasing BN 52021 concentrations (0-60 also displaced platelet-bound /sup 3/H paf-acether (0.65 nM) in a concentration-dependent way. Displacement increased with the time length of platelet incubation with BN 52021 and reached a plateau at 15 min. Platelet-bound /sup 3/H paf-acether displacement of 28.3 +/- 6.3%, 31.1 +/- 4.0% and 26.7 +/- 5.6% was observed using 50 nM unlabelled paf-acether, 60 BN 52021 or both substances together (vs 4.3 +/- 7.2% for vehicle alone). No degradation of /sup 3/H paf-acether occurred as assessed by high pressure liquid chromatography. These results demonstrate that BN 52021 competes directly with paf-acether binding sites on human platelets.

  16. Association between human alpha 2-Heremans Schmidt glycoprotein (AHSG) polymorphism and endometriosis in Korean women. (United States)

    Kim, Jung Gu; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min; Moon, Shin Yong


    To evaluate the relationship between the alpha 2-Heremans Schmidt glycoprotein (AHSG) gene polymorphism and endometriosis. Case-control study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. Seventy-nine women with endometriosis and 105 women without endometriosis. Determination of AHSG gene polymorphism. Prevalence of AHSG genotypes or alleles. The allele frequencies of AHSG 1 and AHSG 2 were found to be 0.69 and 0.31, respectively. The proportion of noncarriers of the AHSG 2 allele was significantly higher in women with endometriosis than in women without (55.7% vs. 39.0%). Women not carrying the AHSG 2 allele were found to have twice the risk of endometriosis than those carrying at least one copy of this allele. No significant difference was noted in the distribution of the AHSG alleles or AHSG genotypes between early stage endometriosis and late stage endometriosis. Endometriosis is associated with the AHSG gene polymorphism in Korean women.

  17. Strong and weak zinc binding sites in human zinc-α2-glycoprotein. (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya Arun; Hati, Debolina; Thaker, Thana'a Mohajer; Miah, Layeque; Cunningham, Phil; Domene, Carmen; Bui, Tam T T; Drake, Alex F; McDermott, Lindsay C


    Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is an adipokine with an MHC class I-like protein fold. Even though zinc causes ZAG to precipitate from plasma during protein purification, no zinc binding has been identified to date. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that ZAG contains one strongly bound zinc ion, predicted to lie close to the α1 and α2 helical groove. UV, CD and fluorescence spectroscopies detected weak zinc binding to holo-ZAG, which can bind up to 15 zinc ions. Zinc binding to 11-(dansylamino) undecanoic acid was enhanced by holo-ZAG. Zinc binding may be important for ZAG binding to fatty acids and the β-adrenergic receptor. © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Experimental research on the effects of different activators on the formation of platelet-rich gel and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma]. (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhang, W; Cheng, B


    Objective: To explore the effects of calcium gluconate and thrombin on the formation of platelet-rich gel (PRG) and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the clinical significance. Methods: Six healthy blood donors who met the inclusion criteria were recruited in our unit from May to August in 2016. Platelet samples of each donor were collected for preparation of PRP. (1) PRP in the volume of 10 mL was collected from each donor and divided into thrombin activation group (TA, added with 0.5 mL thrombin solution in dose of 100 U/mL) and calcium gluconate activation group (CGA, added with 0.5 mL calcium gluconate solution in dose of 100 g/L) according to the random number table, with 5 mL PRP in each group. Then the PRP of the two groups was activated in water bath at 37 ℃ for 1 h. The formation time of PRG was recorded, and the formation situation of PRG was observed within 1 hour of activation. After being activated for 1 h, one part of PRG was collected to observe the distribution of fibrous protein with HE staining, and another part of PRG was collected to observe platelet ultrastructure under transmission electron microscope (TEM). After being activated for 1 h, the supernatant was collected to determine the content of transforming growth factor β(1, )platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factorⅠby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (2) Another 10 mL PRP from each donor was collected and grouped as above, and the platelet suspension was obtained after two times of centrifugation and resuspension with phosphate buffered saline, respectively. And then they were treated with corresponding activator for 1 h as that in experiment (1). Nanoparticle tracking analyzer was used to detect the concentrations of microvesicles with different diameters and total microvesicles derived from platelet. Data

  19. High-throughput proteomics detection of novel splice isoforms in human platelets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Karen A


    Alternative splicing (AS) is an intrinsic regulatory mechanism of all metazoans. Recent findings suggest that 100% of multiexonic human genes give rise to splice isoforms. AS can be specific to tissue type, environment or developmentally regulated. Splice variants have also been implicated in various diseases including cancer. Detection of these variants will enhance our understanding of the complexity of the human genome and provide disease-specific and prognostic biomarkers. We adopted a proteomics approach to identify exon skip events - the most common form of AS. We constructed a database harboring the peptide sequences derived from all hypothetical exon skip junctions in the human genome. Searching tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) data against the database allows the detection of exon skip events, directly at the protein level. Here we describe the application of this approach to human platelets, including the mRNA-based verification of novel splice isoforms of ITGA2, NPEPPS and FH. This methodology is applicable to all new or existing MS\\/MS datasets.

  20. The major surface glycoprotein (gp63) from Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani cleaves CD4 molecules on human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, A S; Theander, T G; Hviid, L


    The effect of Leishmania major and L. donovani surface protease gp63 on surface markers on human T cells was studied using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry. Purified gp63 (63,000 m.w. glycoprotein) at concentrations above 10 micrograms/ml completely inhibited binding of six different anti-CD...

  1. The antibacterial activity of peptides derived from human beta-2 glycoprotein I is inhibited by protein H and M1 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, Maria; Wasylik, Sylwia; Mörgelin, Matthias; Olin, Anders I.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Derksen, Ronald H. W. M.; de Groot, Philip G.; Herwald, Heiko


    During the last years, the importance of antibacterial peptides has attracted considerable attention. We report here that peptides derived from the fifth domain of beta-2 glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI), a human heparin binding plasma protein, have antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and

  2. Typing of core and backbone domains of mucin-type oligosaccharides from human ovarian-cyst glycoproteins by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Mutsaers, J.H.G.M.; Halbeek, H. van; Wu, A.M.; Kabat, E.A.


    Human blood-group A active glycoproteins from ovarian-cyst fluid were subjected to Smith degradation and subsequent beta-elimination. The resulting oligosaccharide-alditols represent the core and backbone domains of the O-linked carbohydrate chains. Nine of these, ranging in size from disaccharides

  3. Studies on the biological effects of ozone: 10. Release of factors from ozonated human platelets.


    Valacchi, G.; Velio Bocci


    In a previous work we have shown that heparin, in the presence of ozone (O3), promotes a dose-dependent platelet aggregation, while after Ca2+ chelation with citrate, platelet aggregation is almost negligible. These results led us to think that aggregation may enhance the release of platelet components. We have here shown that indeed significantly higher amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are released in a dos...

  4. Extract of feverfew inhibits interactions of human platelets with collagen substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loesche, W.M.; Mazurov, A.V.; Heptinstall, S.; Groenewegen, W.A.; Repin, V.S.; Till, U.


    The interaction of platelets with surfaces coated with collagens of type III (C III) or IV (C IV) has been studied by measuring the deposition of /sup 51/Cr-labeled platelets and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experiments were performed using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and suspensions of gel-filtered platelets (GFP). Platelets were deposited on C III mainly as surface-bound aggregates. In contrast they were deposited on C IV mainly as spread forms of individual cells. Formation of aggregates on C III was more extensive for PRP than for GFP; in contrast platelet spreading on C IV was more extensive for GFP than for PRP. The effects of an extract of the plant feverfew on platelet-collagen interactions were determined. Feverfew extract inhibited the deposition of /sup 51/Cr-labeled platelets on both C III and C IV in a dose-dependent way. Similar concentrations of extract were needed to inhibit the formation of surface-bound aggregates and to inhibit platelet spreading in both PRP and GFP.

  5. Donor age of human platelet lysate affects proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lohmann

    Full Text Available The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1, but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years. Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal. HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1 or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3 were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.

  6. Donor age of human platelet lysate affects proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang


    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.

  7. Platelet gene therapy corrects the hemophilic phenotype in immunocompromised hemophilia A mice transplanted with genetically manipulated human cord blood stem cells. (United States)

    Shi, Qizhen; Kuether, Erin L; Chen, Yingyu; Schroeder, Jocelyn A; Fahs, Scot A; Montgomery, Robert R


    Our previous studies have demonstrated that platelet FVIII (2bF8) gene therapy can improve hemostasis in hemophilia A mice, even in the presence of inhibitory antibodies, but none of our studies has targeted human cells. Here, we evaluated the feasibility for lentivirus (LV)-mediated human platelet gene therapy of hemophilia A. Human platelet FVIII expression was introduced by 2bF8LV-mediated transduction of human cord blood (hCB) CD34(+) cells followed by xenotransplantation into immunocompromised NSG mice or NSG mice in an FVIII(null) background (NSGF8KO). Platelet FVIII was detected in all recipients that received 2bF8LV-transduced hCB cells as long as human platelet chimerism persisted. All NSGF8KO recipients (n = 7) that received 2bF8LV-transduced hCB cells survived tail clipping if animals had greater than 2% of platelets derived from 2bF8LV-transduced hCB cells, whereas 5 of 7 survived when human platelets were 0.3% to 2%. Whole blood clotting time analysis confirmed that hemostasis was improved in NSGF8KO mice that received 2bF8LV-transduced hCB cells. We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of 2bF8LV gene delivery to human hematopoietic stem cells to introduce FVIII expression in human platelets and that human platelet-derived FVIII can improve hemostasis in hemophilia A.

  8. A global proteomics approach identifies novel phosphorylated signaling proteins in GPVI-activated platelets: involvement of G6f, a novel platelet Grb2-binding membrane adapter. (United States)

    García, Angel; Senis, Yotis A; Antrobus, Robin; Hughes, Craig E; Dwek, Raymond A; Watson, Steve P; Zitzmann, Nicole


    Collagen-related peptide (CRP) stimulates powerful activation of platelets through the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-FcR gamma-chain complex. We have combined proteomics and traditional biochemistry approaches to study the proteome of CRP-activated platelets, focusing in detail on tyrosine phosphorylation. In two separate approaches, phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitations followed by 1-D-PAGE, and 2-DE, were used for protein separation. Proteins were identified by MS. By following these approaches, 96 proteins were found to undergo PTM in response to CRP in human platelets, including 11 novel platelet proteins such as Dok-1, SPIN90, osteoclast stimulating factor 1, and beta-Pix. Interestingly, the type I transmembrane protein G6f was found to be specifically phosphorylated on Tyr-281 in response to platelet activation by CRP, providing a docking site for the adapter Grb2. G6f tyrosine phoshporylation was also found to take place in response to collagen, although not in response to the G protein-coupled receptor agonists, thrombin and ADP. Further, we also demonstrate for the first time that Grb2 and its homolog Gads are tyrosine-phosphorylated in CRP-stimulated platelets. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of platelet activation through the GPVI collagen receptor, helping to build the basis for the development of new drug targets for thrombotic disease.

  9. Imatinib mesylate radiosensitizes human glioblastoma cells through inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor. (United States)

    Holdhoff, Matthias; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Appelt, Christine; Scholz, Regina; Na, Il-Kang; Hildebrandt, Bert; Riess, Hanno; Jordan, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian A; Van Etten, Richard A; Dörken, Bernd; le Coutre, Philipp


    Imatinib mesylate is a small molecule inhibitor of the c-Abl, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor and c-Kit tyrosine kinases that is approved for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly malignant primary brain tumor that is usually treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy. Previous studies implicate an autocrine loop caused by high expression of PDGF and its receptor, PDGFR, in the proliferation of some glioblastomas. Here, we demonstrate that pretreatment of a human glioblastoma cell line, RuSi RS1, with imatinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation. This effect was not seen in human breast cancer (BT20) and colon cancer (WiDr) cell lines. Whereas c-Abl and c-Kit were expressed about equally in the three cell lines, RuSi RS1 cells showed significantly higher expression of PDGFR-beta protein in comparison to BT20 and WiDr. Imatinib treatment of RuSi RS1 cells decreased overall levels of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation and specifically inhibited phosphorylation of PDGFR-beta, while c-Abl was not prominently activated in these cells. These results suggest that imatinib may have clinical utility as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of human glioblastoma, possibly through disruption of an autocrine PDGF/PDGFR loop.

  10. Influence of combined thrombin stimulation, surface activation, and receptor occupancy on organization of GPIb/IX receptors on human platelets. (United States)

    White, J G; Krumwiede, M; Cocking-Johnson, D; Escolar, G


    Down-regulation and clearance of as many as 60-80% of GPIb/IX receptors from exposed surfaces on thrombin-activated platelets to channels of the open canalicular system (OCS) is considered to be a fundamental mechanism regulating platelet adhesivity in vitro and in vivo. The present study has combined thrombin stimulation in suspension, surface activation on formvar grids, receptor occupancy by von Willebrand factor (vWF) and exposure to anti-vWF antibody in an effort to demonstrate the removal of GPIb/IX receptors from activated cells. Individually the stimuli failed to cause any change in the frequency of GPIb/IX receptors. Combined, the stimuli were no more effective than when each was used alone. The only way to cause GPIb/IX to move was to add anti-vWF to thrombin-activated platelets allowed to spread on formvar grids and covered with multimers of ristocetin-activated human or bovine vWF. Translocation of GPIb/IX-vWF-anti-vWF complexes from peripheral margins into caps over cell centres, however, did not clear the peripheral zone of vWF binding capacity. Exposure of capped platelets after fixation to a second incubation with vWF demonstrated as many multimers extending from the central cap to the peripheral margins as were seen on platelets exposed a single time to vWF. Antibodies to GPIb, but not to GPIIb/IIIA, prevented the second labelling by vWF. Down-regulation or clearance of GPIb/IX, in light of this study, does not appear to be a fundamental mechanism modulating platelet adhesivity.

  11. A review of the mitochondrial and glycolytic metabolism in human platelets and leukocytes: Implications for their use as bioenergetic biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Kramer


    Full Text Available The assessment of metabolic function in cells isolated from human blood for treatment and diagnosis of disease is a new and important area of translational research. It is now becoming clear that a broad range of pathologies which present clinically with symptoms predominantly in one organ, such as the brain or kidney, also modulate mitochondrial energetics in platelets and leukocytes allowing these cells to serve as “the canary in the coal mine” for bioenergetic dysfunction. This opens up the possibility that circulating platelets and leukocytes can sense metabolic stress in patients and serve as biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction in human pathologies such as diabetes, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. In this overview we will describe how the utilization of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation differs in platelets and leukocytes and discuss how they can be used in patient populations. Since it is clear that the metabolic programs between leukocytes and platelets are fundamentally distinct the measurement of mitochondrial function in distinct cell populations is necessary for translational research.

  12. A review of the mitochondrial and glycolytic metabolism in human platelets and leukocytes: implications for their use as bioenergetic biomarkers. (United States)

    Kramer, Philip A; Ravi, Saranya; Chacko, Balu; Johnson, Michelle S; Darley-Usmar, Victor M


    The assessment of metabolic function in cells isolated from human blood for treatment and diagnosis of disease is a new and important area of translational research. It is now becoming clear that a broad range of pathologies which present clinically with symptoms predominantly in one organ, such as the brain or kidney, also modulate mitochondrial energetics in platelets and leukocytes allowing these cells to serve as "the canary in the coal mine" for bioenergetic dysfunction. This opens up the possibility that circulating platelets and leukocytes can sense metabolic stress in patients and serve as biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction in human pathologies such as diabetes, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. In this overview we will describe how the utilization of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation differs in platelets and leukocytes and discuss how they can be used in patient populations. Since it is clear that the metabolic programs between leukocytes and platelets are fundamentally distinct the measurement of mitochondrial function in distinct cell populations is necessary for translational research.

  13. Purification and characterization of a heteromultimeric glycoprotein from Artocarpus heterophyllus latex with an inhibitory effect on human blood coagulation. (United States)

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Thammasirirak, Sompong


    Plant latex has many health benefits and has been used in folk medicine. In this study, the biological effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) latex on human blood coagulation was investigated. By a combination of heat precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, a heat stable heteromultimeric glycoprotein (HSGPL1) was purified from jackfruit milky latex. The apparent molecular masses of the monomeric proteins on SDS/PAGE were 33, 31 and 29 kDa. The isoelectric points (pIs) of the monomers were 6.63, 6.63 and 6.93, respectively. Glycosylation and deglycosylation tests confirmed that each subunit of HSGPL1 formed the native multimer by sugar-based interaction. Moreover, the multimer of HSGPL1 also resisted 2-mercaptoethanol action. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis indicated that HSGPL1 was a complex protein related to Hsps/chaperones. HSGPL1 has an effect on intrinsic pathways of the human blood coagulation system by significantly prolonging the activated partial thrombin time (APTT). In contrast, it has no effect on the human extrinsic blood coagulation system using the prothrombin time (PT) test. The prolonged APTT resulted from the serine protease inhibitor property of HSGPL1, since it reduced activity of human blood coagulation factors XI(a) and α-XII(a).

  14. Positive and negative elements modulate the promoter of the human liver-specific alpha2-HS-glycoprotein gene. (United States)

    Banine, F; Gangneux, C; Mercier, L; Le Cam, A; Salier, J P


    The human alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) and the 63-kDa rat phosphoprotein (pp63) are homologous plasma proteins that belong to the fetuin family. AHSG and pp63 are involved in important functions such as inhibition of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, inhibition of protease activities, and regulation of calcium metabolism and osteogenesis. Studies of the AHSG proximal promoter performed in vitro in rat and human cells indicate that several NF-1 and C/EBP binding sites exert a positive effect on its transcriptional activity. However, until now, no distal elements have been examined in this gene, in either species. We report that the human AHSG gene promoter acts in a liver-specific manner and is further controlled by three distal, 5'-flanking elements. The negative elements III and I are, respectively, located 5' and 3' of the positive element II. All three elements require the natural context of the human AHSG gene to fully exert their negative or positive effect. Element I harbours a single binding site for NF-1. This nuclear factor thus appears to be able to up- or downregulate the AHSG gene depending on the site it binds to. Elements I, II and possibly III are absent in the rodent Ahsg gene encoding pp63.

  15. Serum-converted platelet lysate can substitute for fetal bovine serum in human mesenchymal stromal cell cultures. (United States)

    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Jacobson, Pam; Morris, Julie; Kelley, Linda; Pierce, Jan; Boyer, Michael; Reems, Jo-Anna


    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used as a serum supplement for culturing human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, human cells grown in FBS, especially for extended periods, risk potential exposure to bovine immunogenic proteins and infectious agents. To address this issue, we investigated the ability of a novel human platelet serum supplement to substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Platelet lysate-serum (PL-serum) was converted from platelet lysate-plasma (PL-plasma) that was manufactured from pooled platelet-rich plasma (PRP) apheresis units. Growth factor levels and the number of residual intact platelets in PL-serum and PL-plasma were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Proliferation responses of hMSCs cultured in PL-serum, PL-plasma, or FBS were assessed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the immunophenotype of harvested hMSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry and tri-lineage differentiation potential was evaluated by assessing adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic development. Selected growth factor levels in PL-serum were not significantly different from PL-plasma (P > 0.05). hMSC cultures supplemented with PL-serum had comparable growth kinetics to PL-plasma, and hMSC yields were consistently greater than with FBS. hMSCs harvested from cultures supplemented with PL-serum, PL-plasma or FBS had similar cell surface phenotypes and maintained tri-lineage differentiation potential. PL-serum, similar to PL-plasma, can substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Use of PL-serum, in contrast to PL-plasma, has an added advantage of not requiring addition of a xenogeneic source of heparin, providing a completely xeno-free culture medium. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Binding of recombinant human proacrosin/acrosin to zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. I. Studies with recombinant human ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC. (United States)

    Furlong, Laura I; Harris, Jeffrey D; Vazquez-Levin, Mónica H


    To characterize proacrosin/acrosin interaction with isolated zona pellucida (ZP) components. Prospective study. Basic research laboratory. Recombinant proteins derived from human proacrosin (Rec-40, Rec-30, Rec-20, Rec-10, and Rec-6) and from human ZP glycoproteins (rec-hZPA, ZPB, and ZPC). In vitro binding assay developed to assess proacrosin/acrosin-ZP interaction. Zona pellucida glycoprotein binding to proacrosin/acrosin; estimation of binding affinity. Of all ZP proteins, rec-hZPA demonstrated the highest binding activity toward acrosin (Rec-30) (rec-hZPB: 42% of rec-hZPA; rec-hZPC: 39% of rec-hZPA; PZP components was observed (Kd: 34 nM for rec-hZPA, 38 nM for rec-hZPB, 63 nM for rec-hZPC). The rec-hZPA is the major ZP ligand for human proacrosin/acrosin. The interaction involves mannosyl, fucosyl, and sulfated glycans. Binding sites for rec-hZP would be located both at the N- and C-terminus of proacrosin, revealing a key role of the proenzyme in the interaction.

  17. Production of human platelet lysate by use of ultrasound for ex vivo expansion of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. (United States)

    Bernardi, Martina; Albiero, Elena; Alghisi, Alberta; Chieregato, Katia; Lievore, Chiara; Madeo, Domenico; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Astori, Giuseppe


    A medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) is of common use for the expansion of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, its use is discouraged by regulatory authorities because of the risk of zoonoses and immune reactions. Human platelet lysate (PL) obtained by freezing/thawing disruption of platelets has been proposed as a possible substitute of FBS. The process is time-consuming and not well standardized. A new method for obtaining PL that is based on the use of ultrasound is proposed. Platelet sonication was performed by submerging platelet-containing plastic bags in an ultrasonic bath. To evaluate platelet lysis we measured platelet-derived growth factor-AB release. PL efficiency was tested by expanding bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, measuring population doubling time, differentiation capacity and immunogenic properties. Safety was evaluated by karyotyping expanded cells. After 30 minutes of sonication, 74% of platelet derived growth factor-AB was released. PL enhanced BM-MSC proliferation rate compared with FBS. The mean cumulative population doubling (cPD) of cells growth in PL at 10%, 7.5% and 5% was better compared with cPD obtained with 10% FBS. PD time (hours) of MSCs with PL obtained by sonication was shorter than for cPD with PL obtained by freezing/thawing (18.9 versus 17.4, P < 0.01). BM mononucleated cells expressed MSC markers and were able to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. When BM-MSCs and T cells were co-cultured in close contact, immunosuppressive activity of BM-MSCs was maintained. Cell karyotype showed no genetic alterations. The proposed method for the production of PL by sonication could be a safe, efficient and fast substitute of FBS, without the potential risks of FBS. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TRA-418, a novel compound having both thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonistic and prostaglandin I(2) receptor agonistic activities: its antiplatelet effects in human and animal platelets. (United States)

    Yamada, N; Miyamoto, M; Isogaya, M; Suzuki, M; Ikezawa, S; Ohno, M; Otake, A; Umemura, K


    TRA-418 is a novel compound that has been found in our screening for compounds having both thromboxane A2 (TP) receptor antagonistic and prostaglandin I2 (IP) receptor agonistic activities. In the binding assays, TRA-418 showed a 10-fold higher affinity to TP-receptors than IP-receptors. TRA-418 inhibited platelet aggregation induced by the TP-receptor agonist, U-46619 and by arachidonic acid at concentrations lower than those required for inhibition of ADP-induced aggregations. Furthermore, TRA-418 inhibited not only platelet aggregation induced by ADP alone, but also that induced by ADP in the presence of the TP-receptor antagonist, SQ-29548. When the IC50 values of TRA-418 for platelet aggregation were estimated in platelet preparations from monkeys, dogs, cats, and rats using ADP and arachidonic acid as the platelet stimulating agents, it was found that the values estimated in monkey platelets were quite similar to those estimated in human platelets. In ex vivo platelet aggregation in monkeys, TRA-418 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid-induced aggregation in platelet preparations from monkeys treated at 3 micro g kg min-1 or higher doses, where neither a significant decrease in blood pressure nor a significant increase in heart rate was observed. These results are consistent with the fact that TRA-418 has a relatively potent TP-receptor antagonistic activity together with a relatively weak IP-receptor agonistic activity.

  19. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion by immunor (IM28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akoume Marie-Yvonne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunor (IM28, an analog of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 by inhibiting reverse transcriptase. We assessed the ability of IM28 to inhibit the cell-cell fusion mediated by HIV envelope glycoprotein in an in vitro system. For this purpose, we co-cultured TF228.1.16, a T-cell line expressing stably HIV-1 glycoprotein envelopes, with an equal number of 293/CD4+, another T cell line expressing CD4, and with the SupT1 cell line with or without IM28. Results In the absence of IM28, TF228.1.16 fused with 293/CD4+, inducing numerous large syncytia. Syncytia appeared more rapidly when TF228.1.16 was co-cultured with SupT1 cells than when it was co-cultured with the 293/CD4+ cell line. IM28 (1.6 – 45 μg/ml completely inhibits cell-cell fusion. IM28 also prevented the development of new syncytia in infected cells and protected naive SupT1 cells from HIV-1 infection. Evaluation of 50% inhibitory dose (IC50 of IM28 revealed a decrease in HIV-1 replication with an IC50 of 22 mM and 50% cytotoxicity dose (CC50 as determined on MT2 cells was 75 mM giving a selectivity index of 3.4 Conclusions These findings suggest that IM28 exerts an inhibitory action on the env proteins that mediate cell-cell fusion between infected and healthy cells. They also suggest that IM28 interferes with biochemical processes to stop the progression of existing syncytia. This property may lead to the development of a new class of therapeutic drug.

  20. Age-dependent changes of the immunohistochemical distribution of various collagen types and structural glycoproteins in the human uterine tube. (United States)

    Schultka, R; Göpel, C; Schuppan, D; Schmidt, T


    This immunohistochemical investigation deals with the age-dependent localization and distribution of types I, III, IV, V, and VI collagen and the structural glycoproteins undulin, fibronectin, laminin, tenascin, and vitronectin in the connective tissue of the human uterine tube. The stroma of this oviductal region consisted of all collagen types. Collagen types I and VI were distributed throughout the connective tissue of the mucosa reaching the basal membrane. The findings suggest that the amount of these collagen types and type III collagen increases in relation to age, since the coarser fibres of the mucosal stroma in the uterine tubes of older women were strongly labelled by immunohistochemistry. The pattern of undulin reactivity was similar to that of types I and VI collagen. The exact quantitative proportions of age-related oviductal changes for types I, III, and VI as well as of undulin are still unknown. Type V collagen was associated with a fine fibre meshwork in the mucosal stroma. The fibres reached the subepithelial zone which appeared membrane-like. The location of type V collagen-associated fibres and aldehyde fuchsin-positive fibres characterized in our previous studies appears to be identical. Moreover, the structural glycoproteins undulin, fibronectin, laminin, tenascin, and vitronectin were detected in the mucosal stroma. The staining of fibronectin was less pronounced than that of undulin. Laminin was located in the zone of the basal membrane, whereas tenascin was mainly found in the mucosal vessels. Contrary to these findings, tenascin showed a unique distribution in the region near the basis of the mucosal folds in the isthmic part. Vitronectin could be observed in the same region of the isthmic part of uterine tubes obtained from younger women. However, the zonal localization of vitronectin reactivity was absent in the isthmic part of older women.

  1. Comparison of Methods for the Purification of Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein from Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. McCurdy


    Full Text Available Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP is a highly glycosylated, negatively charged plasma protein suggested to have anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activities. Purification of AGP could be simplified if methods that exploit its high solubility under chemically harsh conditions could be demonstrated to leave the protein in its native conformation. Procedures involving exposure of AGP to hot phenol or sulphosalicylic acid (SSA were compared to solely chromatographic methods. Hot phenol-purified AGP was more rapidly cleared from mice in vivo following intravenous injection than chromatographically purified AGP. In contrast, SSA-purified AGP demonstrated an identical in vivo clearance profile and circular dichroism spectrum to chromatographically purified AGP. Similarly, no differences in susceptibility to enzymatic deglycosylation or reactivity with Sambucus nigra lectin were detected between AGP purified via the two methods. Incorporation of the SSA step in the purification scheme for AGP eliminated the need for a large (4 mL resin/mL of plasma initial chromatographic step and simplified its purification without causing any detectable distortion in the conformation of the protein. Confirmation that this procedure is nondenaturing will simplify AGP purification and investigation of its possible biological roles in laboratory animals.

  2. An HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer with an embedded IL-21 domain activates human B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Isik

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs that target the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env can prevent virus acquisition, but several Env properties limit its ability to induce an antibody response that is of sufficient quantity and quality. The immunogenicity of Env can be increased by fusion to co-stimulatory molecules and here we describe novel soluble Env trimers with embedded interleukin-4 (IL-4 or interleukin-21 (IL-21 domains, designed to activate B cells that recognize Env. In particular, the chimeric Env(IL-21 molecule activated B cells efficiently and induced the differentiation of antibody secreting plasmablast-like cells. We studied whether we could increase the activity of the embedded IL-21 by designing a chimeric IL-21/IL-4 (ChimIL-21/4 molecule and by introducing amino acid substitutions in the receptor binding domain of IL-21 that were predicted to enhance its binding. In addition, we incorporated IL-21 into a cleavable Env trimer and found that insertion of IL-21 did not impair Env cleavage, while Env cleavage did not impair IL-21 activity. These studies should guide the further design of chimeric proteins and Env(IL-21 may prove useful in improving antibody responses against HIV-1.

  3. Studies on the biological effects of ozone: 10. Release of factors from ozonated human platelets. (United States)

    Valacchi, G; Bocci, V


    In a previous work we have shown that heparin, in the presence of ozone (O3), promotes a dose-dependent platelet aggregation, while after Ca2+ chelation with citrate, platelet aggregation is almost negligible. These results led us to think that aggregation may enhance the release of platelet components. We have here shown that indeed significantly higher amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are released in a dose-dependent manner after ozonation of heparinised platelet-rich plasma samples. These findings may explain the enhanced healing of torpid ulcers in patients with chronic limb ischemia treated with O3 autohaemoteraphy (O3-AHT).

  4. Studies on the Biological Effects of Ozone: 10. Release of Factors from Ozonated Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valacchi


    Full Text Available In a previous work we have shown that heparin, in the presence of ozone (O3, promotes a dose-dependent platelet aggregation, while after Ca2+ chelation with citrate, platelet aggregation is almost negligible. These results led us to think that aggregation may enhance the release of platelet components. We have here shown that indeed significantly higher amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-8(IL-8 are released in a dose-dependent manner after ozonation of heparinised platelet-rich plasma samples. These findings may explain the enhanced healing of torpid ulcers in patients with chronic limbischemia treated with O3 autohaemoteraphy (O3-AHT.

  5. miR-326 targets antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and mediates apoptosis in human platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifang Yu

    Full Text Available Platelets play crucial roles in hemostasis, thrombosis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastases. Because they are anucleated blood cells, platelets lack nuclear DNA, but they do contain mitochondrial DNA, which plays a key role in regulating apoptosis. Recent evidence has suggested that miRNAs are also involved in regulating gene expression and apoptosis in platelets. Our previous study showed that the expression of miR-326 increased visibly when apheresis platelets were stored in vitro. The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family regulator Bcl-xL has been identified as a putative target of miR-326. In the present study, dual reporter luciferase assays were used to characterize the function of miR-326 in the regulation of the apoptosis of platelet cells. These assays demonstrated that miR-326 bound to the 3'-translated region of Bcl-xL. To directly assess the functional effects of miR-326 expression, levels of Bcl-xL and the apoptotic status of stored apheresis platelets were measured after transfection of miR-326 mimic or inhibitor. Results indicated that miR-326 inhibited Bcl-xL expression and induced apoptosis in stored platelets. Additionally, miR-326 inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression and enhanced Bak expression, possibly through an indirect mechanism, though there was no effect on the expression of Bax. The effect of miR-326 appeared to be limited to apoptosis, with no significant effect on platelet activation. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms affecting differential platelet gene regulation, which may increase understanding of the role of platelet apoptosis in multiple diseases.

  6. Zonal variation in the distribution of an alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform receptor in human adrenal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S


    specific receptor. The binding of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform B and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform C to the glycoform specific receptor is inhibited by the steroid hormones cortisone, aldosterone, estradiol and progesterone but not by testosterone. The pronounced changes in the distribution...

  7. Frequency of anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5b,-5a and anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (anti-HPA-1a,-3a,-4a alloantibodies in multiparous women of African descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccheaus A Jeremiah


    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Justina E Oburu2, Osaro Erhabor1, Fiekumo I Buseri1, Teddy C Adias31Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; 2Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 3Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Human platelet antibodies are often implicated in some disease conditions, such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP and platelet refractoriness. The frequencies of these alloantibodies have not been reported in Nigeria and West Africa.Methods: Screening for allontibodies to human platelet antigens (HPA was undertaken using the GTI PakPlus® qualitative solid phase ELISA reagent. Platelet count was done using the ICSH approved procedure using 1% ammonium oxalate reagent.Study design: A cross-section of apparently healthy adult Nigerian multiparous non-pregnant women, who were staff of a tertiary health facility in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were screened for alloantibodies to human platelet antigens.Results: Of the one hundred (100 women screened, the prevalence of anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (anti-HPA-Ia,-3a,-4a was zero percent (0%, anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5b accounted for 30% of results, while anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5a was 18%. Parity was found to exert significant influence on the development to HPA antibodies (Fisher’s Exact Test = 11.683, P < 0.05; 13.577, P < 0.01. The platelet count of the women did not appear to exert any influence on the development of the antibodies (P > 0.05.Conclusion: This study has observed a high prevalence of anti-HPA-5b in our sample population. The prevalence of alloantibodies to HPA antigens was found to associate strongly with parity. These results indicate that there is a

  8. Expansion of adipose mesenchymal stromal cells is affected by human platelet lysate and plating density. (United States)

    Cholewa, Dominik; Stiehl, Thomas; Schellenberg, Anne; Bokermann, Gudrun; Joussen, Sylvia; Koch, Carmen; Walenda, Thomas; Pallua, Norbert; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna; Suschek, Christoph V; Wagner, Wolfgang


    The composition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) changes in the course of in vitro culture expansion. Little is known how these cell preparations are influenced by culture media, plating density, or passaging. In this study, we have isolated MSCs from human adipose tissue in culture medium supplemented with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or human platelet lysate (HPL). In addition, culture expansion was simultaneously performed at plating densities of 10 or 10,000 cells/cm(2). The use of FCS resulted in larger cells, whereas HPL significantly enhanced proliferation. Notably, HPL also facilitated expansion for more population doublings than FCS (43 ± 3 vs. 22 ± 4 population doubling; p < 0.001), while plating density did not have a significant effect on long-term growth curves. To gain further insight into population dynamics, we conceived a cellular automaton model to simulate expansion of MSCS. It is based on the assumptions that the number of cell divisions is limited and that due to contact inhibition proliferation occurs only at the rim of colonies. The model predicts that low plating densities result in more heterogeneity with regard to cell division history, and favor subpopulations of higher migratory activity. In summary, HPL is a suitable serum supplement for isolation of MSC from adipose tissue and facilitates more population doublings than FCS. Cellular automaton computer simulations provided additional insights into how complex population dynamics during long-term expansion are affected by plating density and migration.

  9. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Lysate Can Ameliorate Dysfunction of Chronically UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts. (United States)

    Wirohadidjojo, Yohanes Widodo; Budiyanto, Arief; Soebono, Hardyanto


    To determine whether platelet-rich fibrin lysate (PRF-L) could restore the function of chronically ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we isolated and sub-cultured HDFs from six different human foreskins. HDFs were divided into two groups: those that received chronic UVA irradiation (total dosages of 10 J cm⁻²) and those that were not irradiated. We compared the proliferation rates, collagen deposition, and migration rates between the groups and between chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in control and PRF-L-treated media. Our experiment showed that chronic UVA irradiation significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition of HDFs, compared to controls. Compared to control media, chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L had significantly increased proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition (p<0.05), and the migration rates and collagen deposition of chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L were equal to those of normal fibroblasts. Based on this experiment, we concluded that PRF-L is a good candidate material for treating UVA-induced photoaging of skin, although the best method for its clinical application remains to be determined.

  10. Immunomodulative efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in human platelet lysate. (United States)

    Flemming, Antoinette; Schallmoser, Katharina; Strunk, Dirk; Stolk, Meaghan; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Seifert, Martina


    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are considered to be a promising tool for novel cell-based therapies. Clinical applications in solid organ transplantation were hampered by the dependence on animal serum for hMSCs clinical scale expansion until substitution with human platelet lysate (HPL) became a promising alternative. Therefore we focused on a direct comparison of immunomodulatory properties of hMSCs cultured in HPL or fetal calf serum (FCS). Phenotypic characterization, detection of cytokine secretion and effects on alloantigen- and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation as well as degranulation of cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T cells were applied in potency assays. We demonstrated that HPL-cultured MSCs have comparable immunomodulatory capacities to their FCS-cultured counterparts. The observed immunomodulatory properties include a beneficial inhibitory effect on immune cell proliferation and an unaffected viral T cell immunity. Thus, culturing hMSCs in HPL generates an efficient and safe expansion combined with intriguing immunomodulatory properties making these cells an attractive cell therapeutic tool.

  11. α-Synuclein Aggregated with Tau and β-Amyloid in Human Platelets from Healthy Subjects: Correlation with Physical Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Daniele


    Full Text Available The loss of protein homeostasis that has been associated with aging leads to altered levels and conformational instability of proteins, which tend to form toxic aggregates. In particular, brain aging presents characteristic patterns of misfolded oligomers, primarily constituted of β-amyloid (Aβ, tau, and α-synuclein (α-syn, which can accumulate in neuronal membranes or extracellular compartments. Such aging-related proteins can also reach peripheral compartments, thus suggesting the possibility to monitor their accumulation in more accessible fluids. In this respect, we have demonstrated that α-syn forms detectable hetero-aggregates with Aβ or tau in red blood cells (RBCs of healthy subjects. In particular, α-syn levels and its heteromeric interactions are modulated by plasma antioxidant capability (AOC, which increases in turn with physical activity. In order to understand if a specific distribution of misfolded proteins can occur in other blood cells, a cohort of human subjects was enrolled to establish a correlation among AOC, the level of physical exercise and the concentrations of aging-related proteins in platelets. The healthy subjects were divided depending on their level of physical exercise (i.e., athletes and sedentary subjects and their age (young and older subjects. Herein, aging-related proteins (i.e., α-syn, tau and Aβ were confirmed to be present in human platelets. Among such proteins, platelet tau concentration was demonstrated to decrease in athletes, while α-syn and Aβ did not correlate with physical exercise. For the first time, α-syn was shown to directly interact with Aβ and tau in platelets, forming detectable hetero-complexes. Interestingly, α-syn interaction with tau was inversely related to plasma AOC and to the level of physical activity. These results suggested that α-syn heterocomplexes, particularly with tau, could represent novel indicators to monitor aging-related proteins in platelets.

  12. Novel anti-bacterial activities of β-defensin 1 in human platelets: suppression of pathogen growth and signaling of neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern F Kraemer


    Full Text Available Human β-defensins (hBD are antimicrobial peptides that curb microbial activity. Although hBD's are primarily expressed by epithelial cells, we show that human platelets express hBD-1 that has both predicted and novel antibacterial activities. We observed that activated platelets surround Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, forcing the pathogens into clusters that have a reduced growth rate compared to S. aureus alone. Given the microbicidal activity of β-defensins, we determined whether hBD family members were present in platelets and found mRNA and protein for hBD-1. We also established that hBD-1 protein resided in extragranular cytoplasmic compartments of platelets. Consistent with this localization pattern, agonists that elicit granular secretion by platelets did not readily induce hBD-1 release. Nevertheless, platelets released hBD-1 when they were stimulated by α-toxin, a S. aureus product that permeabilizes target cells. Platelet-derived hBD-1 significantly impaired the growth of clinical strains of S. aureus. hBD-1 also induced robust neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation by target polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, which is a novel antimicrobial function of β-defensins that was not previously identified. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hBD-1 is a previously-unrecognized component of platelets that displays classic antimicrobial activity and, in addition, signals PMNs to extrude DNA lattices that capture and kill bacteria.

  13. Effects of dietary ingredients on function and expression of P-glycoprotein in human intestinal epithelial cells. (United States)

    Okura, Takashi; Ibe, Michiko; Umegaki, Keizo; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yamada, Shizuo


    The present study was conducted to investigate the functional and transcriptional modulation of P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) by several dietary ingredients (piperine, capsaicin, daidzein, genistein, sesamin, curcumin, taurine) in vinblastine-resistant colon carcinoma LS-180 cells (LS-180V cells). The amount of rhodamine 123 accumulated in LS-180V cells was significantly increased by capsaicin, piperine and sesamin, whereas it was significantly reduced by daidzein and genistein which stimulated the efflux of rhodamine 123. These results suggest that the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux is inhibited by piperine, capsaicin and sesamin and stimulated by daidzein and genistein. The concurrent addition of piperine and capsaicin seemed to inhibit synergistically the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. Pretreatment with sesamin for 48 h caused a significant increase in MDR1 mRNA expression without a significant effect on the expression of P-glycoprotein or accumulation of rhodamine 123. Similar pretreatment with other ingredients had little effect on the expression of MDR1 mRNA or P-glycoprotein, suggesting that they do not cause transcriptional modulation of P-glycoprotein. Piperine, genistein and curcumin have been suggested to stimulate P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux without increasing P-glycoprotein expression. In LS-180V cells, significant increases in mRNA levels of multi-drug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1) or MRP3 were observed on pretreatment with capsaicin, daidzein, piperine and sesamin. In conclusion, our results suggest that P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux is significantly affected by dietary ingredients. Also, capsaicin, daidzein, piperine and sesamin increased significantly the mRNA expression of MRP1 or MRP3. Thus, the present study provides further evidence that repeated exposure to dietary ingredients can cause drug-food interactions by affecting the function and mRNA expression of intestinal transporters such as P-glycoprotein.

  14. Preparation, quality criteria, and properties of human blood platelet lysate supplements for ex vivo stem cell expansion. (United States)

    Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi; Burnouf, Thierry


    Most clinical applications of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases require a phase of isolation and ex vivo expansion allowing a clinically meaningful cell number to be reached. Conditions used for cell isolation and expansion should meet strict quality and safety requirements. This is particularly true for the growth medium used for MSC isolation and expansion. Basal growth media used for MSC expansion are supplemented with multiple nutrients and growth factors. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has long been the gold standard medium supplement for laboratory-scale MSC culture. However, FBS has a poorly characterized composition and poses risk factors, as it may be a source of xenogenic antigens and zoonotic infections. FBS has therefore become undesirable as a growth medium supplement for isolating and expanding MSCs for human therapy protocols. In recent years, human blood materials, and most particularly lysates and releasates of platelet concentrates have emerged as efficient medium supplements for isolating and expanding MSCs from various origins. This review analyzes the advantages and limits of using human platelet materials as medium supplements for MSC isolation and expansion. We present the modes of production of allogeneic and autologous platelet concentrates, measures taken to ensure optimal pathogen safety profiles, and methods of preparing PLs for MSC expansion. We also discuss the supply of such blood preparations. Produced under optimal conditions of standardization and safety, human platelet materials can become the future 'gold standard' supplement for ex vivo production of MSCs for translational medicine and cell therapy applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotypic study of human gingival fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate. (United States)

    Naveau, Adrien; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Fournier, Benjamin Philippe; Couty, Ludovic; Prat, Marie; Ferre, François Côme; Gourven, Muriel; Durand, Eric; Coulomb, Bernard; Lafont, Antoine; Gogly, Bruno


    The modulation abilities of gingival fibroblasts open new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of vascular diseases (e.g., aneurism) and irradiation burns. Culture media are classically supplemented with animal sera to provide nutriments. Unfortunately, because of their potential for interspecies transmission of microorganisms, these media are not used for cells destined for human transplantation. This preliminary phenotypic study aims to test a serum-free (SF) culture medium for human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) supplemented with human platelet lysates (PLs) for rapid cell expansion. An SF medium was first elaborated to compete with hGF proliferation in a reference medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (BSmedium). Adhesion, proliferation, and doubling kinetics were run in the presence of PLs (SF+PL). Cytoskeletal proteins were analyzed and chromosomal abnormalities were evaluated by karyotype analyses. The SF+PL influence on secretion of molecules implied in tissue remodeling (i.e., matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs], their tissue inhibitors [TIMPs], and several growth factors) was studied. SF+PL increased the proliferation rate 1.5-fold in a week compared to BSmedium. Cytoskeleton protein expression was similar in BSmedium and in SF+PL. Chromosomal abnormalities were rare in SF+PL. MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and the growth factors interleukin-1β and -4 and transforming growth factor-β1 secretions were stable during the experiment. TIMP-2 and interleukin-6 were slightly decreased in SF+PL compared to BSmedium. While waiting confirmation from a proteomic approach, this SF culture medium could allow a secured faster hGF proliferation adapted for human cell transplant therapy.

  16. A short cross-linker activates human P-glycoprotein missing a catalytic carboxylate. (United States)

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M


    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent drug pump that protects us from toxic agents and confers multidrug resistance. It has a tweezer-like structure with each arm consisting of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates bind to sites within the TMDs to activate ATPase activity by promoting a tweezer-like closing of the gap between the NBDs. The catalytic carboxylates may be critical for NBD movements because the E556Q(NBD1) or E1201Q(NBD2) mutation inhibited drug-stimulated ATPase activity. If the catalytic carboxylates were components of the mechanism to bring the NBDs together, then we predicted that insertion of a flexible cross-linker between the arms would increase ATPase activity of the mutants. We found that cross-linking (between L175C(TMD1) and N820C(TMD2)) with a short flexible cross-linker (7.8Å maximum) restored high levels of drug-stimulated ATPase activity of the E556Q or E1201Q mutants. Cross-linking with a longer cross-linker (22Å maximum) however, did not restore activity. Cross-linking could not rescue all ATPase deficient mutants. For example, cross-linking L175C/N820C with short or long cross-linkers did not activate the H-loop mutants H587A or H1232A or the Walker A K433M or K1076M mutants. The results suggest that the E556 and E1201 catalytic carboxylates are part of a spring-like mechanism that is required to facilitate movements between the open and closed conformations of P-gp during ATP hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing Ebola Virus Glycoprotein GP Administered Intranasally Is Immunogenic in African Green Monkeys. (United States)

    Lingemann, Matthias; Liu, Xueqiao; Surman, Sonja; Liang, Bo; Herbert, Richard; Hackenberg, Ashley D; Buchholz, Ursula J; Collins, Peter L; Munir, Shirin


    The recent 2014-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak prompted increased efforts to develop vaccines against EBOV disease. We describe the development and preclinical evaluation of an attenuated recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) expressing the membrane-anchored form of EBOV glycoprotein GP, as an intranasal (i.n.) EBOV vaccine. GP was codon optimized and expressed either as a full-length protein or as an engineered chimeric form in which its transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail (TMCT) domains were replaced with those of the HPIV1 F protein in an effort to enhance packaging into the vector particle and immunogenicity. GP was inserted either preceding the N gene (pre-N) or between the N and P genes (N-P) of rHPIV1 bearing a stabilized attenuating mutation in the P/C gene (CΔ170). The constructs grew to high titers and efficiently and stably expressed GP. Viruses were attenuated, replicating at low titers over several days, in the respiratory tract of African green monkeys (AGMs). Two doses of candidates expressing GP from the pre-N position elicited higher GP neutralizing serum antibody titers than the N-P viruses, and unmodified GP induced higher levels than its TMCT counterpart. Unmodified EBOV GP was packaged into the HPIV1 particle, and the TMCT modification did not increase packaging or immunogenicity but rather reduced the stability of GP expression during in vivo replication. In conclusion, we identified an attenuated and immunogenic i.n. vaccine candidate expressing GP from the pre-N position. It is expected to be well tolerated in humans and is available for clinical evaluation.IMPORTANCE EBOV hemorrhagic fever is one of the most lethal viral infections and lacks a licensed vaccine. Contact of fluids from infected individuals, including droplets or aerosols, with mucosal surfaces is an important route of EBOV spread during a natural outbreak, and aerosols also might be exploited for intentional virus spread. Therefore, vaccines that protect

  18. Platelet deposition at angioplasty sites and its relation to restenosis in human iliac and femoropopliteal arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minar, E.; Ehringer, H.; Ahmadi, R.; Dudczak, R.; Leitha, T.; Koppensteiner, R.; Jung, M.; Stuempflen, A.


    The amount and time course of platelet accumulation at angioplasty sites and influence of these platelets on restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries were determined in 92 patients, who received either a high or low dose of aspirin. Platelet deposition was quantitated by means of dual-radiotracer scintigraphy and calculation of a platelet accumulation index (PAI). The PAI was higher (P less than .05) 4-6 hours after PTA compared with that on subsequent days. There was a trend toward greater platelet accumulation in vessels with extensive dissection. Platelet accumulation at the PTA site occurred with both doses of aspirin, with no differences between the two dosage groups. Twenty-one of 67 patients who underwent PTA in the femoropopliteal segment developed restenosis during a median follow-up of 14 months. The median PAI at 4-6 and 22-24 hours after PTA was significantly less in these 21 patients than in the 46 without restenosis. The data suggest that use of antiplatelet agents to prevent platelet deposition after PTA may not be useful for prevention of restenosis.

  19. Low-Level Laser Irradiation Exerts Antiaggregative Effect on Human Platelets Independently on the Nitric Oxide Metabolism and Release of Platelet Activation Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rola


    Full Text Available Aim. The goal of the study is to develop a model allowing to investigate precisely the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT on platelet aggregation and to verify the hypothesis regarding the role of the nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and platelet activation markers in modulating platelet aggregation. Methods. A total of 41 healthy volunteers at the age of 21–45 years were investigated. At first, platelet aggregation in response to three agonists (TRAP, ADP, and collagen was evaluated following previous exposure to different doses of laser radiation (λ = 662 nm to assess the dose-response effect. Subsequently, plasma levels of platelet activation markers (PF4—platelet factor-4 and sP-selectin as well as the substrate for nitric oxide synthase, L-arginine, and its competitive inhibitors (ADMA—asymmetric dimethylarginine and SDMA—symmetric dimethylarginine were measured. Results. All doses of laser irradiation significantly reduced the aggregation. However, the most pronounced effect was observed for 19.7 J/cm2. No significant differences in the levels of platelet activation markers nor in the nitric-oxide-metabolic-pathway compounds between analyzed groups were noted. Conclusions. We have demonstrated in the established in vitro experimental model that the LLLT in a reproducible manner decreases the whole blood platelet aggregation regardless of the NO bioavailability or changes in the platelet activation markers.

  20. Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy (United States)


    anticoag- ulant drugs are widely used in clinics to manage a vari- ety of vascular complications. Coumadin, heparin, aspirin , and LMWH are some of ectopic synthesis of coagulation factor VII. Cancer Res 2006;66:9453-60. 52. Langer F,Arnirkhosravi A, Ingersoll SB, Walker JM, Spath B, Eifrig B et...focuses on the management of the venous thromboembolism for the cancer patient. The most widely used anti-thrombotic agent, aspirin , targets

  1. Do Beta 2-Glycoprotein I Disulfide Bonds Protect the Human Retina in the Setting of Age-Related Macular Degeneration? (United States)

    Qi, Miao; Abdelatti, Mahmoud; Krilis, Matthew; Madigan, Michele C; Weaver, James; Guymer, Robyn H; McCluskey, Peter; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Saijun; Krilis, Steven A; Giannakopoulos, Bill


    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the region of the retina that is responsible for high-resolution vision. It is a major cause of blindness in the aging population. This is the first study that examines the association of redox-modified, cysteine-based, post-translational forms of beta 2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) in the plasma of individuals with early and late stages of patients with AMD compared with controls. Exploration is also undertaken to assess whether the free thiol form of β2GPI versus the oxidized disulfide form have distinct functional properties in the setting of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-mediated cell death of an immortalized human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line. We demonstrate β2GPI in the retina and choroid of patients with AMD. Free thiol β2GPI is shown to protect the immortalized human RPE cell line against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death, whereas the oxidized form of β2GPI and free thiol bovine serum albumin were not protective. Free thiol β2GPI levels were significantly decreased in patients with late AMD compared with early AMD and healthy controls. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that free thiol β2GPI may protect against oxidative stress injury to RPE cells in the early stages of AMD.

  2. TRA-418, a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist and prostacyclin receptor agonist, inhibits platelet-leukocyte interaction in human whole blood. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Ohno, Michihiro; Yamada, Naohiro; Ohtake, Atsushi; Matsushita, Teruo


    TRA-418, a compound with both thromboxane A2 receptor (TP receptor) antagonistic and prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonistic activities, was synthesised in our laboratory as a new antithrombotic agent. In this study, we examined the effects of TRA-418 on platelet-leukocyte interactions in human whole blood. Platelet-leukocyte interactions were induced by U-46619 in the presence of epinephrine (U-46619 + epinephrine) or with thrombin receptor agonist peptide 1-6 (TRAP). Platelet-leukocyte interactions were assessed by flow cytometry, with examination of both platelet-neutrophil and platelet-monocyte complexes. In a control experiment, the TP receptor antagonist SQ-29548 significantly inhibited the induction of platelet-leukocyte complexes by the combination of U-46619 and epinephrine, but not TRAP-induced formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes. Conversely, the IP receptor agonist beraprost sodium inhibited platelet-leukocyte complex formation induced by both methods, although the IC50 values of beraprost sodium for U-46619 + epinephrine were at least 10-fold greater than for TRAP. Under such conditions, TRA-418 inhibited both U-46619 + epinephrine-induced and TRAP-induced platelet-leukocyte complex formation in a concentration-dependent manner, in a similar range. These results suggest that TRA-418 exerts its inhibitory effects on platelet-leukocyte interactions by acting as a TP receptor antagonist as well as an IP receptor agonist in an additive or synergistic manner. These inhibitory effects of TRA-418 on formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes suggest the compound is beneficial effects as an antithrombotic agent.

  3. Innate immunity glycoprotein gp-340 variants may modulate human susceptibility to dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Ingegerd


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial adhesion is an important determinant of colonization and infection, including dental caries. The salivary scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein gp-340, which mediates adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (implicated in caries, harbours three major size variants, designated gp-340 I to III, each specific to an individual saliva. Here we have examined the association of the gp-340 I to III polymorphisms with caries experience and adhesion of S. mutans. Methods A case-referent study was performed in 12-year-old Swedish children with high (n = 19 or low (n = 19 caries experiences. We measured the gp-340 I to III saliva phenotypes and correlated those with multiple outcome measures for caries experience and saliva adhesion of S. mutans using the partial least squares (PLS multivariate projection technique. In addition, we used traditional statistics and 2-year caries increment to verify the established PLS associations, and bacterial adhesion to purified gp-340 I to III proteins to support possible mechanisms. Results All except one subject were typed as gp-340 I to III (10, 23 and 4, respectively. The gp-340 I phenotype correlated positively with caries experience (VIP = 1.37 and saliva adhesion of S. mutans Ingbritt (VIP = 1.47. The gp-340 II and III phenotypes tended to behave in the opposite way. Moreover, the gp-340 I phenotype tended to show an increased 2-year caries increment compared to phenotypes II/III. Purified gp-340 I protein mediated markedly higher adhesion of S. mutans strains Ingbritt and NG8 and Lactococcus lactis expressing AgI/II adhesins (SpaP or PAc compared to gp-340 II and III proteins. In addition, the gp-340 I protein appeared over represented in subjects positive for Db, an allelic acidic PRP variant associated with caries, and subjects positive for both gp-340 I and Db tended to experience more caries than those negative for both proteins. Conclusion Gp-340 I behaves as a caries

  4. Mechanical fibrinogen-depletion supports heparin-free mesenchymal stem cell propagation in human platelet lysate. (United States)

    Laner-Plamberger, Sandra; Lener, Thomas; Schmid, Doris; Streif, Doris A; Salzer, Tina; Öller, Michaela; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Fischer, Thorsten; Jacobs, Volker R; Schallmoser, Katharina; Gimona, Mario; Rohde, Eva


    Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) is an efficient alternative to xenogenic supplements for ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in clinical studies. Currently, porcine heparin is used in pHPL-supplemented medium to prevent clotting due to plasmatic coagulation factors. We therefore searched for an efficient and reproducible medium preparation method that avoids clot formation while omitting animal-derived heparin. We established a protocol to deplete fibrinogen by clotting of pHPL in medium, subsequent mechanical hydrogel disruption and removal of the fibrin pellet. After primary culture, bone-marrow and umbilical cord derived MSCs were tested for surface markers by flow cytometry and for trilineage differentiation capacity. Proliferation and clonogenicity were analyzed for three passages. The proposed clotting procedure reduced fibrinogen more than 1000-fold, while a volume recovery of 99.5 % was obtained. All MSC types were propagated in standard and fibrinogen-depleted medium. Flow cytometric phenotype profiles and adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential in vitro were independent of MSC-source or medium type. Enhanced proliferation of MSCs was observed in the absence of fibrinogen but presence of heparin compared to standard medium. Interestingly, this proliferative response to heparin was not detected after an initial contact with fibrinogen during the isolation procedure. Here, we present an efficient, reproducible and economical method in compliance to good manufacturing practice for the preparation of MSC media avoiding xenogenic components and suitable for clinical studies.

  5. Heparin concentration is critical for cell culture with human platelet lysate. (United States)

    Hemeda, Hatim; Kalz, Jana; Walenda, Gudrun; Lohmann, Michael; Wagner, Wolfgang


    Culture media for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are generally supplemented with fetal bovine serum. Human platelet lysate (hPL) has been proven to be a very effective alternative without the risk of xenogeneic infections or immune reactions. In contrast to fetal bovine serum, hPL comprises plasma, and anticoagulants-usually unfractionated heparin (UFH)-need to be added to prevent gel formation. Cultures of MSCs in hPL media with various concentrations of UFH and enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), were systematically compared with regard to proliferation, fibroblastoid colony-forming unit frequency, immunophenotype and in vitro differentiation. At least 0.61 IU/mL UFH or 0.024 mg/mL LMWH was necessary for reliable prevention of coagulation of hPL pools used in this study. Higher concentrations impaired cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner even without benzyl alcohol, which is commonly added to heparins as a bacteriostatic agent. Colony-forming unit frequency was also reduced at higher heparin concentrations, particularly with LMWH, whereas no significant effect was observed on cellular morphology or immunophenotype. High concentrations of heparins reduced the in vitro differentiation toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Heparin concentration is critical for culture of MSCs in hPL media; this is of particular relevance for cellular therapy where cell culture procedures need to be optimized and standardized. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Platelet lysate consisting of a natural repair proteome supports human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chromosomal stability. (United States)

    Crespo-Diaz, Ruben; Behfar, Atta; Butler, Greg W; Padley, Douglas J; Sarr, Michael G; Bartunek, Jozef; Dietz, Allan B; Terzic, Andre


    With favorable regenerative and immunotolerant profiles, patient-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are increasingly considered in cell therapy. Derived from bone marrow (BM) and standardized with culture in fetal bovine serum (FBS), translation of hMSC-based approaches is impeded by protracted expansion times, risk of xenogenic response, and exposure to zoonoses. Here, human platelet lysate adherent to good manufacturing practices (GMP-hPL) provided a nonzoonotic adjuvant that enhanced the capacity of BM-hMSC to proliferate. The nurturing benefit of GMP-hPL was generalized to hMSC from adipose tissue evaluated as an alternative to bone marrow. Long-term culture in GMP-hPL maintained the multipotency of hMSC, while protecting against clonal chromosomal instability detected in the FBS milieu. Proteomic dissection identified TGF-β, VEGF, PDGF, FGF, and EGF as highly ranked effectors of hPL activity, revealing a paradigm of healing that underlies platelet lysate adjuvancy. Thus, GMP-adherent human platelet lysate accelerates hMSC proliferation with no chromosomal aberrancy, through an innate repair paradigm.

  7. Identification and characterization of a putative human platelet thromboxane A/sub 2//prostaglandin H/sub 2/ receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saussy, D.L. Jr.


    The thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/) analog, 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16-(3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13,14-dihydro-13-aza-15..cap alpha beta..-omega-tetranor TXA/sub 2/ (I-PTA-OH) was characterized as a competitive antagonist of TXA/sub 2/ mimetic-induced platelet aggregation, with a K/sub d/ of 190 nM in platelet rich plasma. This antagonism was specific for the putative thromboxane A/sub 2//prostaglandin H/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/) receptor, since I-PTA-OH had no inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists which act independently of TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/, and did not inhibit platelet TXA/sub 2/ synthesis. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding to a particulate fraction from human platelets was saturable, displaceable, and linear with protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites, with a K/sub d/ of 30 +/- 4 nM and a B/sub max/ of 1.8 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein. Kinetic analysis yielded a k/sub 1/ of 1.35 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/ and a k..sqrt../sub 1/ of 0.032 min/sup -1/, K/sub d/ = k..sqrt../sub 1//k/sub 1/ = 24 nM. The subcellular localization of the putative TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/ receptor was determined using (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding, was coenriched with markers for plasma membranes and dense tubular system; but not with markers for cytoplasmic constituents, mitochondria, or granules.

  8. Proteomics investigation of human platelets by shotgun nUPLC-MSE and 2DE experimental strategies: a comparative study. (United States)

    Finamore, Francesco; Pieroni, Luisa; Ronci, Maurizio; Marzano, Valeria; Mortera, Stefano Levi; Romano, Mario; Cortese, Claudio; Federici, Giorgio; Urbani, Andrea


    Platelets, the smallest human blood cells component, have a key role in the control of haemostasis and thrombosis but they have also been shown to be implicated in a number of different pathological states because of their involvement also in the process of inflammation end its resolution. Their peculiar anucleated morphology render the proteomics an intriguing approach to understand their biology. Given the high impact of platelet in different diseases we have started a systematic investigation of protein repertoire in controlled platelet preparation. Platelets have been extracted from blood of healthy donors (n=6) collected by venipuncture in Vacutainer. The quality of the preparation was assessed by observation and enumeration in a Bürker chamber with a conventional tissue culture microscope. To characterize human platelets proteome we analysed the pool of purified platelets combining two proteomic approaches: 2-DE separation combined with Mass Spectrometry and nanoscale ultra performances LC-MS(E) shotgun proteomics experiments. The 2D gel analysis leads an average of 1900 protein spots, after the filtering of "noise" and "false positive" spots, over 500 were selected to be eligible for further analysis given their optimal spot quality value. To perform the analysis by ion accounting shotgun proteomic approach, based on nano ultra performance liquid chromatography (nUPLC) coupled to MS(E) processing of continuum LC-MS data, the same pool of samples was subject to liquid phase tryptic digestion and the peptide obtained used for the experiments. All the data obtained were analysed using ProteinLynx GlobalServer v2.3 (PLGS, Waters). Three analytical replicates run were acquire in high/low energy modes and associated to a human protein database returning the identification of 100 distinct genes. Comparative analysis of the Gene Ontology has been performed to evaluate the differential functional representation of the molecular repertoire investigated with these two

  9. Human platelet monoamine oxidase activity in health and disease: a review.


    Sandler, M; Reveley, M A; Glover, V


    The most readily available source of monoamine oxidase in man is the platelet, although only the B form of the enzyme is represented in this site. Platelet activity is higher in women than in men. The enzyme activity is generally stable and is partly under genetic control. There is some evidence that individuals with low activity have a higher psychiatric morbidity than those with high activity. Despite some negative studies, the consensus of publication dealing with schizophrenia, migraine, ...

  10. Reduction of indium-111 platelet deposition on Dacron vascular grafts in humans by aspirin plus dipyridamole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.


    Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduces platelet accumulation on short-term Dacron vascular grafts in man. To determine whether drug inhibition of platelet deposition is sustained on older grafts, we studied 18 men aged 41 to 87 years who had Dacron aortic bifurcation grafts in place a mean of 43.4 months (range 9.8 to 121.0) before and during short-term therapy with aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid). During both the baseline and drug studies, indium-111 (/sup 111/In) platelet deposition was quantitated by two techniques, standard planar imaging performed at 24, 48, and 72 hr after injection of platelets and single photon emission computed tomographic imaging performed at 24 and 72 hr after injection. All analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. On both the planar and tomographic images, platelet accumulation on the graft was quantitated by a graft/blood ratio that compared activity in the graft to simultaneously collected whole blood /sup 111/In platelet activity. Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduced the tomographic graft/blood ratio at 24 hr (20.6 +/- 3.5 vs 17.3 +/- 2.5) (+/-SEM) and at 72 hr (29.0 +/- 4.8 vs 25.0 +/- 4.1) after injection of platelets (p = .02). Dacron vascular grafts. Similarly, the planar graft/blood ratio was reduced at 24 hr (2.7 +/- 0.5 vs 2.4 +/- 0.5), 48 hr (3.7 +/- 0.9 vs 3.1 +/- 0.7), and 72 hr (4.0 +/- 0.9 vs 3.6 +/- 0.8) (p = .04). We conclude that aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid) reduces platelet accumulation on long-term Dacron vascular grafts.

  11. Human platelet monoamine oxidase activity in health and disease: a review. (United States)

    Sandler, M; Reveley, M A; Glover, V


    The most readily available source of monoamine oxidase in man is the platelet, although only the B form of the enzyme is represented in this site. Platelet activity is higher in women than in men. The enzyme activity is generally stable and is partly under genetic control. There is some evidence that individuals with low activity have a higher psychiatric morbidity than those with high activity. Despite some negative studies, the consensus of publication dealing with schizophrenia, migraine, and alcoholism find that mean platelet monoamine oxidase activity in the patient group is lower than in the controls. Values are raised in unipolar depression. Technical differences, or patient or control group heterogeneity, might well account for the absence of unanimity in the literature. A considerable degree of overlap between patient and control values, whatever the clinical diagnosis, appears to be the standard finding. Apart from these neuropsychiatric disturbances, platelet monoamine oxidase activity is raised in megaloblastic anaemia and reduced in iron deficiency anaemia. Although altered enzyme activity values may be linked to abnormal platelet populations in some of the haematological disorders discussed, in general the causes of abnormal platelet monoamine oxidase activity are unknown.

  12. Bubble-induced platelet aggregation in a rat model of decompression sickness. (United States)

    Pontier, Jean-Michel; Vallée, Nicolas; Bourdon, Lionel


    Previous studies have highlighted that bubble-induced platelet aggregation is a predictor index of decompression sickness (DCS) severity in animals and bubble formation after a single air dive in humans. The present study attempted to investigate plasmatic indexes of the coagulation system and platelet activation in our rat model of DCS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one experimental group with a hyperbaric exposure and one control group maintained at atmospheric pressure. Rats were compressed to 1,000 kPa (90 m saltwater) for 45 min while breathing air. The onset of death time and DCS symptoms were recorded during a 30-min observed period after rats had surfaced. Plasmatic indexes were platelet factor 4 (PF4) for platelet activation, soluble glycoprotein V (sGPV) for thrombin generation, and thrombin-antithrombin complexes for the coagulation system. Blood samples for a platelet count and markers were taken 3 wk before the experimental protocol and within the 30 min after rats had surfaced. We confirmed a correlation between the percent fall in platelet count and DCS severity. Plasmatic levels of sGPV and PF4 were significantly increased after the hyperbaric exposure, with no change in the control group. The present study confirms platelet consumption as a potential index for evaluating decompression stress and DCS severity. The results point to the participation of thrombin generation in the coagulation cascade and platelet activation in bubble-induced platelet aggregation. In our animal model of DCS, the results cannot prejudge the mechanisms of platelet activation between bubble-induced vessel wall injury and bubble-blood component interactions.

  13. Absence of cytotoxic antibody to human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in humans and its induction in animals after infection or immunization with purified envelope glycoprotein gp120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, P.L.; Robey, W.G.; Gonda, M.A.; Carter, S.G.; Fischinger, P.J.


    The presence of antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) was assessed in humans and chimpanzees, which are capable of infection with human immunodeficiency virus isolate HTLV-IIIb, and examined in the goat after immunization with the major viral glycoprotein (gp120) of HTLV-IIIb. In infected humans no antibody mediating ACC was observed regardless of the status of disease. Even healthy individuals with high-titer, broadly reactive, neutralizing antibodies has no ACC. In contrast, chimpanzees infected with HTLV-IIIb, from whom virus could be isolated, not only had neutralizing antibody but also antibodies broadly reactive in ACC, even against distantly related human immunodeficiency virus isolates, as well as against their own reisolated virus. In the goat, the gp120 of HTLV-IIIb induced a highly type-specific response as measured by both ACC and flow cytofluorometry of live infected H9 cells. Normal human cells were not subject to ACC by animal anti-HTLV-III gp120-specific sera. Induction of ACC and neutralizing antibody were closely correlated in the animal experimental models but not in humans. The presence of ACC in gp120-inoculated goats and HTLV-III-infected chimpanzees represent a qualitative difference that may be important in the quest for the elicitation of a protective immunity in humans.

  14. The effects of human platelet lysate on dental pulp stem cells derived from impacted human third molars. (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Sun, Hai-Hua; Wang, Han-Guo; Kong, Hui; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing


    Human platelet lysate (PL) has been suggested as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the large-scale expansion of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, the biological effects and the optimal concentrations of PL for the proliferation and differentiation of human DPSCs remain unexplored. We isolated and expanded stem cells from the dental pulp of extracted third molars and evaluated the effects of PL on the cells' proliferative capacity and differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo. Before testing, immunocytochemical staining and flow cytometry-based cell sorting showed that the cells derived from human dental pulp contained mesenchymal stem cell populations. Cells were grown on tissue culture plastic or on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) biomaterials and were incubated with either normal or odontogenic/osteogenic media in the presence or absence of various concentrations of human PL for further investigation. The proliferation of DPSCs was significantly increased when the cells were cultured in 5% PL under all testing conditions (P models. We conclude that the appropriate concentration of PL enhances the proliferation and mineralized differentiation of human DPSCs both in vitro and in vivo, which supports the use of PL as an alternative to FBS or a nonzoonotic adjuvant for cell culture in future clinical trials. However, the elucidation of the molecular complexity of PL products and the identification of both the essential growth factors that determine the fate of a specific stem cell and the criteria to establish dosing require further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 is involved in influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial (A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianwei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus mutates rapidly, rendering antiviral therapies and vaccines directed against virus-encoded targets ineffective. Knowledge of the host factors and molecular pathways exploited by influenza virus will provide further targets for novel antiviral strategies. However, the critical host factors involved in influenza virus infection have not been fully defined. Results We demonstrated that LAMP3, a member of lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP family, was significantly induced in human lung epithelial (A549 cells upon influenza A virus infection. Knockdown of LAMP3 expression by RNA interference attenuated production of viral nucleoprotein (NP as well as virus titers. Confocal microscopy results demonstrated that viral NP is colocalized within LAMP3 positive vesicles at early stages of virus infection. Furthermore, knockdown of LAMP3 expression led to a reduction in nuclear accumulation of viral NP and impeded virus replication. Conclusions LAMP3 is an influenza A virus inducible gene, and plays an important role in viral post-entry steps. Our observations may provide insights into the mechanism of influenza virus replication and potential targets for novel anti-influenza therapeutics.

  16. A Molecular Switch Abrogates Glycoprotein 100 (gp100) T-cell Receptor (TCR) Targeting of a Human Melanoma Antigen. (United States)

    Bianchi, Valentina; Bulek, Anna; Fuller, Anna; Lloyd, Angharad; Attaf, Meriem; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Dolton, Garry; Sewell, Andrew K; Cole, David K


    Human CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes can mediate tumor regression in melanoma through the specific recognition of HLA-restricted peptides. Because of the relatively weak affinity of most anti-cancer T-cell receptors (TCRs), there is growing emphasis on immunizing melanoma patients with altered peptide ligands in order to induce strong anti-tumor immunity capable of breaking tolerance toward these self-antigens. However, previous studies have shown that these immunogenic designer peptides are not always effective. The melanocyte differentiation protein, glycoprotein 100 (gp100), encodes a naturally processed epitope that is an attractive target for melanoma immunotherapies, in particular peptide-based vaccines. Previous studies have shown that substitutions at peptide residue Glu(3) have a broad negative impact on polyclonal T-cell responses. Here, we describe the first atomic structure of a natural cognate TCR in complex with this gp100 epitope and highlight the relatively high affinity of the interaction. Alanine scan mutagenesis performed across the gp100(280-288) peptide showed that Glu(3) was critically important for TCR binding. Unexpectedly, structural analysis demonstrated that the Glu(3) → Ala substitution resulted in a molecular switch that was transmitted to adjacent residues, abrogating TCR binding and T-cell recognition. These findings help to clarify the mechanism of T-cell recognition of gp100 during melanoma responses and could direct the development of altered peptides for vaccination. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Determination of human serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein and albumin binding of various marketed and preclinical kinase inhibitors. (United States)

    Zsila, Ferenc; Fitos, Ilona; Bencze, Gyula; Kéri, György; Orfi, László


    There are about 380 protein kinase inhibitors in drug development as of today and 15 drugs have been marketed already for the treatment of cancer. This time 139 validated kinase targets are in the focus of drug research of pharmaceutical companies and big efforts are made for the development of new, druglike kinase inhibitors. Plasma protein binding is an important factor of the ADME profiling of a drug compound. Human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AAG) are the most relevant drug carriers in blood plasma. Since previous literature data indicated that AAG is the principal plasma binding component of some kinase inhibitors the present work focuses on the comprehensive evaluation of AAG binding of a series of marketed and experimental kinase inhibitors by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy approach. HSA binding was also evaluated by affinity chromatography. Protein binding interactions of twenty-six kinase inhibitors are characterized. The contribution of AAG and HSA binding data to the pharmacokinetic profiles of the investigated therapeutic agents is discussed. Structural, biological and drug binding properties of AAG as well as the applicability of the CD method in studying drug-protein binding interactions are also briefly reviewed.

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 group M consensus and mosaic envelope glycoproteins (United States)

    Korber, Bette T.; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H.


    The disclosure relates to nucleic acids mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  19. CTA1-DD adjuvant promotes strong immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins following mucosal immunization. (United States)

    Sundling, Christopher; Schön, Karin; Mörner, Andreas; Forsell, Mattias N E; Wyatt, Richard T; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Lycke, Nils Y


    Strategies to induce potent and broad antibody responses against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) at both systemic and mucosal sites represent a central goal for HIV-1 vaccine development. Here, we show that the non-toxic CTA1-DD adjuvant promoted mucosal and systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following intranasal (i.n.) immunizations with trimeric or monomeric forms of HIV-1 Env in mice and in non-human primates. Env-specific IgG subclasses in the serum of immunized mice reflected a balanced Th1/Th2 type of response. Strikingly, i.n. immunizations with Env and the CTA1-DD adjuvant induced substantial levels of mucosal anti-Env IgA in bronchial alveolar lavage and also detectable levels in vaginal secretions. By contrast, parenteral immunizations of Env formulated in Ribi did not stimulate mucosal IgA responses, while the two adjuvants induced a similar distribution of Env-specific IgG-subclasses in serum. A single parenteral boost with Env in Ribi adjuvant into mice previously primed i.n. with Env and CTA1-DD, augmented the serum anti-Env IgG levels to similar magnitudes as those observed after three intraperitoneal immunizations with Env in Ribi. The augmenting potency of CTA1-DD was similar to that of LTK63 or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). However, in contrast to CpG ODN, the effect of CTA1-DD and LTK63 appeared to be independent of MyD88 and toll-like receptor signalling. This is the first demonstration that CTA1-DD augments specific immune responses also in non-human primates, suggesting that this adjuvant could be explored further as a clinically safe mucosal vaccine adjuvant for humoral and cell-mediated immunity against HIV-1 Env.

  20. Complementary DNA cloning of the alternatively expressed endothelial cell glycoprotein Ib beta (GPIb beta) and localization of the GPIb beta gene to chromosome 22. (United States)

    Kelly, M D; Essex, D W; Shapiro, S S; Meloni, F J; Druck, T; Huebner, K; Konkle, B A


    Glycoprotein Ib beta (GPIb beta) exists in platelets disulfide-linked to glycoprotein Ib alpha (GPIb alpha), a major receptor for von Willebrand factor. Both GPIb alpha and GPIb beta are expressed in endothelial cells (EC). While the GPIb alpha mRNA and protein appear similar in platelets and EC, EC GPIb beta mRNA is larger than platelet GPIb beta and encodes a larger protein. We have cloned and sequenced EC GPIb beta cDNA and report a 2793-nucleotide sequence which contains a 411-amino acid open reading frame. The EC sequence contains all of the platelet cDNA sequence and all but three amino acids of the primary translation product. Like the genes encoding GPIb alpha, GPIX, and GPV, the GPIb beta gene appears simple in structure. Using human hamster hybrids, we have localized the GPIb beta gene to chromosome 22pter-->22q11.2. When we examined poly (A)+ RNA from several human tissues for GPIb beta mRNA expression, we found that GPIb beta mRNA was expressed in a variety of tissues but was most abundant in heart and brain, while GPIb alpha and GPIX mRNA expression was found only in lung and placenta at very low levels. The broad distribution of GPIb beta mRNA suggests that it may be playing a role different than or additional to its function in platelets. Images PMID:8200976

  1. Silk biomaterials functionalized with recombinant domain V of human perlecan modulate endothelial cell and platelet interactions for vascular applications. (United States)

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Tang, Fengying; Whitelock, John M; Lord, Megan S


    Modulation of endothelial cell and platelet interactions is an essential feature of vascular materials. Silk biomaterials were functionalized with recombinantly expressed domain V of human perlecan, an essential vascular proteoglycan involved in vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing, using passive adsorption or covalent cross-linking via carbodiimide chemistry. The orientation of domain V on the surface of silk biomaterials was modulated by the immobilization technique and glycosaminoglycan chains played an essential role in the proteoglycan presentation on the material surface. Covalent immobilization supported improved integrin binding site presentation to endothelial cells compared to passive adsorption in the presence of glycosaminoglycan chains, but removal of glycosaminoglycan chains resulted in reduced integrin site availability and thus cell binding. Silk biomaterials covalently functionalized with domain V supported endothelial cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation and were anti-adhesive for platelets, making them promising surfaces for the development of the next-generation vascular grafts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of aspirin and dipyridamole on the interaction of human platelets with sub-endothelium: studies using citrated and native blood. (United States)

    Weiss, H J; Turitto, V T; Vicic, W J; Baumgartner, H R


    The effect of aspirin and dipyridamole ingestion on the interaction of platelets with the subendothelium was studied using both citrated blood and directly sampled (native) blood. After obtained control studies, normal human subjects ingested 0.6 g of aspirin, 150 mg of dipyridamole, or a placebo and studies were repeated 1 1/2 hrs later. Subjects continued on placebo, aspirin (0.6 g b.i.d.) or dipyridamole (100 mg q.i.d.) for 6 days and studies were obtained 1 1/2 hrs after the last dose. Blood was circulated through an annular chamber on whose inner core were mounted everted segments of de-endothelialized rabbit aorta. The wall shear rate was 2,600 sec(-1). Surface coverage with adherent platelets and platelet thrombi, as well as several parameters of thrombus dimensions, were evaluated morphometrically. Aspirin ingestion markedly reduced platelet thrombi in citrated blood,--but had a much lesser inhibitory effective in native blood. Platelet adhesion was unaffected in native blood, in contrast to previous findings in which a lower shear rate (800 sec (-1)) was used. Ingestion of dipyridamole did not inhibit platelet adhesion or thrombi in either citrated or native blood. The studies indicated that, with the flow conditions used, aspirin is a relatively weak inhibitor of platelet thrombus formation in directly sampled human blood.

  3. Human ClC-6 is a late endosomal glycoprotein that associates with detergent-resistant lipid domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Ignoul

    and ClC-7 when cotransfected in COS-1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that human ClC-6 is an endosomal glycoprotein that partitions in detergent resistant lipid domains. The differential sorting of endogenous (late endosomal versus overexpressed (early and recycling endosomal ClC-6 is reminiscent of that of other late endosomal/lysosomal membrane proteins (e.g. LIMP II, and is consistent with a rate-limiting sorting step for ClC-6 between early endosomes and its final destination in late endosomes.

  4. Gum resin of Boswellia serrata inhibited human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation and platelet aggregation. (United States)

    Kokkiripati, Praveen K; Bhakshu, Lepakshi Md; Marri, Swathi; Padmasree, K; Row, Anupama T; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Tetali, Sarada D


    Stem bark gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata is traditionally used in India for its hemostatic, antiinflammatory and cardiovascular health effects and it is named as Śallakī in Ayurvedic medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative and antithrombotic properties of stem bark gum resin extracts of Boswellia serrata (BS). The inhibitory activity of the BSWE and BSAE on FeCl(3) induced lipid peroxidation (in vitro) in rat liver and heart homogenates was measured spectrophotometrically. Their effect on H(2)O(2) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human monocytic (THP-1) cells was investigated by tracking intensity of a cell permeable fluorescent dye, H(2)DCFDA and subjecting the cell samples to confocal microscopy. Further, the effect of BSAE and BSWE on ADP-induced platelet aggregation was assessed using a multimode detection plate reader, plasma coagulation times using an automated blood coagulation analyzer and on human blood clotting factors Xa and XIa using chromogenic substrate. Phytomarker analysis of the water (BSWE) and hydroalcoholic (BSAE) extracts of BS-gum resin was done through HPLC using a standard compound AKβBA. BSAE and BSWE inhibited, to varied extents, the lipid peroxidation in liver (80%) and heart (50%) tissue homogenates of male Wistar rats. Further, BSAE (30 μg dwt/mL) and BSWE (300 μg dwt/mL) attenuated ≥ 60% of H(2)O(2) mediated ROS generation in THP-1 cells. In case of standard compounds, ascorbate (20 μg dwt/mL) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (10 μg dwt/mL) completely scavenged ROS in the cells. BSAE and BSWE at 3 mg dwt/mL completely inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation and activities were comparable to 20 μg/mL of heparin. The extracts also showed very high activity in prolonging coagulation time periods. Both types of extracts extended prothrombin time (PT) from ∼13 to >60s and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) from ∼32s to >90s. BSAE inhibited clotting factors Xa

  5. The human antibody repertoire specific for rabies virus glycoprotein as selected from immune libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, R. Arjen; Marissen, Wilfred E.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Visser, Therese J.; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; Bakker, Arjen Q.; de Jong, Maureen; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Thijsse, Sandra; Backus, Harold H. J.; Rice, Amy B.; Weldon, William C.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Bakker, Alexander B. H.; de Kruif, John


    Antibody phage display technology was used to identify human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize rabies virus (RV). A phage repertoire was constructed using antibody genes harvested from the blood of vaccinated donors. Selections using this repertoire and three different antigen formats of the RV

  6. The effects of the human MDR1 genotype on the expression of duodenal P-glycoprotein and disposition of the probe drug talinolol. (United States)

    Siegmund, Werner; Ludwig, Karen; Giessmann, Thomas; Dazert, Peter; Schroeder, Eike; Sperker, Bernhard; Warzok, Rolf; Kroemer, Heyo K; Cascorbi, Ingolf


    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the human multidrug-resistance gene in wobble position of exon 26 reportedly predicts expression and function of P-glycoprotein in human enterocytes and lymphocytes. Several other allelic variants of MDR1 have been identified, some of which lead to amino acid exchange with as yet unknown functional relevance. In healthy white volunteers, we investigated the influence of the hereditary variants C3435T in exon 26 and G2677T/A (Ala893Ser/Thr) in exon 21 and the influence of 7 frequent or putative functional SNPs on duodenal MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid (n = 32) and immunoreactive P-glycoprotein (n = 37) expression. Moreover, the disposition of the probe drug talinolol was evaluated in 55 subjects after oral administration (100 mg) and in 23 subjects after intravenous administration(30 mg). Duodenal MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid and P-glycoprotein, as assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan) and immunostaining, were not influenced by any MDR1 polymorphism studied. Talinolol disposition was not affected by the exon 26 mutation C3435T. In carriers of the TT/TA variants of G2677T/A, the area under the serum concentration-time curve values of oral talinolol were slightly but significantly elevated compared with those in carriers of at least 1 wild-type allele (P disposition. We did not identify any influence of MDR1 genotypes on duodenal expression of P-glycoprotein and disposition of talinolol in humans.

  7. In vitro transport profile of carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine acetate, and their active metabolites by human P-glycoprotein. (United States)

    Zhang, Chunbo; Zuo, Zhong; Kwan, Patrick; Baum, Larry


    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are widely used not only in the treatment of epilepsy but also as treatments for psychiatric disorders. Pharmacoresistance of AEDs in the treatment of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders is a serious problem. Transport of antiepileptic drugs by P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1, or MDR1), which is overexpressed in the blood-brain barrier, may be a mechanism for resistance of AEDs. For most AEDs, conflicting evidence precludes consensus on whether they are substrates of Pgp. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether analogs and metabolites of the AED carbamazepine are substrates of human Pgp. Polarized cell lines MDCKII and LLC transfected with the human MDR1 gene were used in the bidirectional transport assay and concentration equilibrium transport assay. The expression of Pgp was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescent staining. Rhodamine-123 uptake was also determined. Pgp did not transport carbamazepine, but it did transport its active metabolite carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. Pgp also pumped eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine, as well as their active metabolite (S)-licarbazepine. Transport of the drugs was in the order of ESL>OXC>S-LC>CBZ-E in concentration equilibrium conditions. The transport of these drugs was blocked by Pgp inhibitors tariquidar and verapamil. All carbamazepine analogs or metabolites tested are Pgp substrates, except for carbamazepine. These data suggest that resistance to carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, or eslicarbazepine acetate may be attributed to increased efflux function of Pgp because they or their active metabolites are Pgp substrates. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by HIV protease inhibitors increases intracellular accumulation of berberine in murine and human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Zha

    Full Text Available HIV protease inhibitor (PI-induced inflammatory response in macrophages is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported that berberine (BBR, a traditional herbal medicine, prevents HIV PI-induced inflammatory response through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in macrophages. We also found that HIV PIs significantly increased the intracellular concentrations of BBR in macrophages. However, the underlying mechanisms of HIV PI-induced BBR accumulation are unknown. This study examined the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp in HIV PI-mediated accumulation of BBR in macrophages.Cultured mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, human THP-1-derived macrophages, Wild type MDCK (MDCK/WT and human P-gp transfected (MDCK/P-gp cells were used in this study. The intracellular concentration of BBR was determined by HPLC. The activity of P-gp was assessed by measuring digoxin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123 efflux. The interaction between P-gp and BBR or HIV PIs was predicated by Glide docking using Schrodinger program. The results indicate that P-gp contributed to the efflux of BBR in macrophages. HIV PIs significantly increased BBR concentrations in macrophages; however, BBR did not alter cellular HIV PI concentrations. Although HIV PIs did not affect P-gp expression, P-gp transport activities were significantly inhibited in HIV PI-treated macrophages. Furthermore, the molecular docking study suggests that both HIV PIs and BBR fit the binding pocket of P-gp, and HIV PIs may compete with BBR to bind P-gp.HIV PIs increase the concentration of BBR by modulating the transport activity of P-gp in macrophages. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of potential drug-drug interactions is critical prior to applying successful combinational therapy in the clinic.

  9. NVP-TAE684 reverses multidrug resistance (MDR) in human osteosarcoma by inhibiting P-glycoprotein (PGP1) function. (United States)

    Ye, Shunan; Zhang, Jianming; Shen, Jacson; Gao, Yan; Li, Ying; Choy, Edwin; Cote, Gregory; Harmon, David; Mankin, Henry; Gray, Nathanael S; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng


    Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (PGP1) is one of the major causes of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer, including in osteosarcoma, which eventually leads to the failure of cancer chemotherapy. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapeutic strategies to override the expression and function of PGP1 to counter MDR in cancer patients. In an effort to search for new chemical entities targeting PGP1-associated MDR in osteosarcoma, we screened a 500+ compound library of known kinase inhibitors with established kinase selectivity profiles. We aimed to discover potential drug synergistic effects among kinase inhibitors and general chemotherapeutics by combining inhibitors with chemotherapy drugs such as doxorubicin and paclitaxel. The human osteosarcoma MDR cell lines U2OSR2 and KHOSR2 were used for the initial screen and secondary mechanistic studies. After screening 500+ kinase inhibitors, we identified NVP-TAE684 as the most effective MDR reversing agent. NVP-TAE684 significantly reversed chemoresistance when used in combination with doxorubicin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, vincristine, ET-743 or mitoxantrone. NVP-TAE684 itself is not a PGP1 substrate competitive inhibitor, but it can increase the intracellular accumulation of PGP1 substrates in PGP1-overexpressing cell lines. NVP-TAE684 was found to inhibit the function of PGP1 by stimulating PGP1 ATPase activity, a phenomenon reported for other PGP1 inhibitors. The application of NVP-TAE684 to restore sensitivity of osteosarcoma MDR cells to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutics will be useful for further study of PGP1-mediated MDR in human cancer and may ultimately benefit cancer patients. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Direct contact of platelets and their released products exert different effects on human dendritic cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delézay Olivier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen presenting cells capable of inducing innate and adaptive immune responses. According to the stimulus and their maturation state, DCs induce immunogenic or tolerogenic responses. Platelets (PLTs, which are involved in haemostasis and inflammation, can also interact with DCs. In this study, we examined the effect of PLTs on DC maturation in vitro. Human monocyte-derived DCs were co-cultured for 2 days with homologous PLTs either in the same well or in 0.4 μm-pore size filter-separated compartments. Results Confocal microscopy showed the attachment of PLTs to DC membranes. The DC receptor involved in this interactions was found to be CD162. In addition, we observed that DCs co-cultured with PLTs in filter-separated compartments acquired a mature phenotype (high CD80, CD86, and intermediate CD83 expression; IL-12(p70 production; efficient stimulation of autologous CD4+ T cell proliferation, while DCs co-cultured with PLTs in the same compartment did not undergo phenotypic maturation, did not secrete IL-12(p70 or IL-1β, but instead induced moderate Th2-polarized T cell proliferation. Conclusion These data indicate that (i PLTs secrete a soluble DC-activating factor that was demonstrated not to be soluble CD40-Ligand (CD154; as could have been expected from in vivo and previous in vitro work but to be nucleotide, and (ii that cell-to-cell contact did not induce DC maturation, possibly because nucleotide release by PLTs was prevented by direct contact with DCs. This work demonstrates that PLTs are active elements of the immune system that might play a role in balancing the ability of DCs to polarize T cell responses, therefore making them critical factors in transfusion processes.

  11. The effects of platelet gel on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Balagholi


    Full Text Available The positive role of platelet gel (PG in tissue regeneration is well known, however, other characteristics of PG still remain to be determined. We investigated cellular and molecular changes in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells when treated with different concentrations of PG named PG1, PG2, and PG3. hRPE cells were isolated from donor eyes of two newborn children, within 24 hours after their death. The cells were treated with three concentrations of PG for 7 days: 3 × 104/ml (PG1, 6 × 104/ml (PG2, and 9 × 104/ml (PG3. Fetal bovine serum was used as a control. Immunocytochemistry was performed with anti-RPE65 (H-85, anti-Cytokeratin 8/18 (NCL-5D3, and anti-PAX6 antibody. We used MTT assay to determine cell viability. Gene expressions of PAX6, MMP2, RPE65, ACTA2, MKI67, MMP9, and KDR were analyzed using real-time PCR. A significant increase in viability was observed for PG3-treated cells compared to control (p = 0.044 and compared to PG1 group (p = 0.027, on day 7. Cellular elongation together with dendritiform extensions were observed in PG-treated cells on days 1 and 3, while epithelioid morphology was observed on day 7. All cells were immunoreactive for RPE65, cytokeratin 8/18, and PAX6. No significant change was observed in the expression of MKI67 and PAX6, but the expressions of MMP2, MMP9, ACTA2, and KDR were significantly higher in PG2-treated cells compared to controls (p < 0.05. Our results indicate that increased concentration of PG and extended exposure time have positive effects on viability of hRPE cells. PG may be useful for hRPE cell encapsulation in retinal cell replacement therapy.

  12. Human platelet lysate permits scale-up of dental pulp stromal cells for clinical applications. (United States)

    Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Ronald, Veronica Sainik; Abdullah, Aimi Naim Binti; Ganesan Nathan, Kavitha R; Aziz, Zeti Adura Che Abdul; Abdullah, Mariam; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu; Musa, Sabri; Bhonde, Ramesh R


    BACKGROUND AIMS. Dental pulp stromal cells (DPSC) are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in the field of regenerative therapy. However, the usage of DPSC in transplantation requires large-scale expansion to cater for the need for clinical quantity without compromising current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Existing protocols for cell culturing make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement. Unfortunately, FBS is an undesirable additive to cells because it carries the risk of transmitting viral and prion diseases. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of human platelet lysate (HPL) as a substitute for FBS in a large-scale set-up. METHODS. We expanded the DPSC in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-knock-out (DMEM-KO) with either 10% FBS or 10% HPL, and studied the characteristics of DPSC at pre- (T25 culture flask) and post- (5-STACK chamber) large-scale expansion in terms of their identity, quality, functionality, molecular signatures and cytogenetic stability. RESULTS. In both pre- and post-large-scale expansion, DPSC expanded in HPL showed extensive proliferation of cells (c. 2-fold) compared with FBS; the purity, immune phenotype, colony-forming unit potential and differentiation were comparable. Furthermore, to understand the gene expression profiling, the transcriptomes and cytogenetics of DPSC expanded under HPL and FBS were compared, revealing similar expression profiles. CONCLUSIONS. We present a highly economized expansion of DPSC in HPL, yielding double the amount of cells while retaining their basic characteristics during a shorter time period under cGMP conditions, making it suitable for therapeutic applications.

  13. Amantadine inhibits platelet-activating factor induced clathrin-mediated endocytosis in human neutrophils (United States)

    Eckels, Phillip C.; Banerjee, Anirban; Moore, Ernest E.; McLaughlin, Nathan J. D.; Gries, Lynn M.; Kelher, Marguerite R.; England, Kelly M.; Gamboni-Robertson, Fabia; Khan, Samina Y.


    Receptor signaling is integral for adhesion, emigration, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species production in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Priming is an important part of PMN emigration, but it can also lead to PMN-mediated organ injury in the host. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) primes PMNs through activation of a specific G protein-coupled receptor. We hypothesize that PAF priming of PMNs requires clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of the PAF receptor (PAFr), and, therefore, amantadine, known to inhibit CME, significantly antagonizes PAF signaling. PMNs were isolated by standard techniques to >98% purity and tested for viability. Amantadine (1 mM) significantly inhibited the PAF-mediated changes in the cellular distribution of clathrin and the physical colocalization [fluorescence resonance energy transfer positive (FRET+)] of early endosome antigen-1 and Rab5a, known components of CME and similar to hypertonic saline, a known inhibitor of CME. Furthermore, amantadine had no effect on the PAF-induced cytosolic calcium flux; however, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was significantly decreased. Amantadine inhibited PAF-mediated changes in PMN physiology, including priming of the NADPH oxidase and shape change with lesser inhibition of increases in CD11b surface expression and elastase release. Furthermore, rimantadine, an amantadine analog, was a more potent inhibitor of PAF priming of the N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-activated oxidase. PAF priming of PMNs requires clathrin-mediated endocytosis that is inhibited when PMNs are pretreated with either amantadine or rimantadine. Thus, amantadine and rimantadine have the potential to ameliorate PMN-mediated tissue damage in humans. PMID:19295175

  14. Comparative evaluation of the role of the adhesion molecule CD177 in neutrophil interactions with platelets and endothelium. (United States)

    Pliyev, Boris K; Menshikov, Mikhail


    Neutrophil-specific glycoprotein CD177 is expressed on a subset of human neutrophils and has been shown to be a counter-receptor for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31). Previous studies have demonstrated that the interaction of CD177 with endothelial PECAM-1 supports neutrophil transendothelial migration resulting in preferential transmigration of the CD177-expressing neutrophil subset. As PECAM-1 is also abundantly expressed on platelets, we addressed a follow-up suggestion that CD177/PECAM-1 adhesive interaction may mediate platelet-neutrophil interactions and CD177-positive neutrophils may have a competitive advantage over CD177-negative neutrophils in binding platelets. Here, we report that CD177-positive and CD177-negative neutrophils do not differ significantly in their capacity to form platelet-neutrophil conjugates as assayed in whole blood and in mixed preparations of isolated platelets and neutrophils. Under flow conditions, neither platelet nor neutrophil activation resulted in preferential binding of platelets to CD177-expressing neutrophils. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in the ability of both neutrophil subsets to adhere to and migrate across surface-adherent activated platelets, whereas predominantly CD177-positive neutrophils migrated across HUVEC monolayers. In addition, we demonstrated that S(536) N dimorphism of PECAM-1, which affects CD177/PECAM-1 interaction, did not influence the equal capacity of the two neutrophil subsets to interact with platelets but influenced significantly the transendothelial migration of CD177-expressing neutrophils. Thus, CD177/PECAM-1 adhesive interaction, while contributing to neutrophil-endothelial cell interaction in neutrophil transendothelial migration, does not contribute to or is redundant in platelet-neutrophil interactions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Molecular Characterization of the Interactions between Vascular Selectins and Glycoprotein Ligands on Human Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Dina


    The human bone marrow vasculature constitutively expresses both E-selectin and P-selectin where they interact with the cell-surface glycan moiety, sialyl Lewis x, on circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to mediate the essential tethering/rolling step. Although several E-selectin glycoprotein ligands (E-selLs) have been identified, the importance of each E-selL on human HSPCs is debatable and requires additional methodologies to advance their specific involvement. The first objective was to fill the knowledge gap in the in vitro characterization of the mechanisms used by selectins to mediate the initial step in the HSPCs homing by developing a real time immunoprecipitation-based assay on a surface plasmon resonance chip. This novel assay bypass the difficulties of purifying ligands, enables the use of natively glycosylated forms of selectin ligands from any model cell of interest and study its binding affinities under flow. We provide the first comprehensive quantitative binding kinetics of two well-documented ligands, CD44 and PSGL-1, with E-selectin. Both ligands bind monomeric E-selectin transiently with fast on- and off-rates while they bind dimeric E-selectin with remarkably slow on- and off-rates with the on-rate, but not the off-rate, is dependent on salt concentration. Thus, suggest a mechanism through which monomeric selectins mediate initial fast-on and -off binding to capture the circulating cells out of shear-flow; subsequently, tight binding by dimeric/oligomeric selectins is enabled to slow rolling significantly. The second objective is to fully identify and characterize E/P-selectin ligand candidates expressed on CD34+ HSPCs which cause enhanced migration after intravenous transplantation compared to their CD34- counterparts. CD34 is widely recognized marker of human HSPCs but its natural ligand and function on these cells remain elusive. Proteomics identified CD34 as an E-selL candidate on human HSPCs, whose binding to E

  16. Human platelet lysate improves human cord blood derived ECFC survival and vasculogenesis in three dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Prasain, Nutan; Vemula, Sasidhar; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Yoder, Mervin C


    Human cord blood (CB) is enriched in circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) that display high proliferative potential and in vivo vessel forming ability. Since diminished ECFC survival is known to dampen the vasculogenic response in vivo, we tested how long implanted ECFC survive and generate vessels in three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen matrices in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that human platelet lysate (HPL) would promote cell survival and enhance vasculogenesis in the 3D collagen matrices. We report that the percentage of ECFC co-cultured with HPL that were alive was significantly enhanced on days 1 and 3 post-matrix formation, compared to ECFC alone containing matrices. Also, co-culture of ECFC with HPL displayed significantly more vasculogenic activity compared to ECFC alone and expressed significantly more pro-survival molecules (pAkt, p-Bad and Bcl-xL) in the 3D collagen matrices in vitro. Treatment with Akt1 inhibitor (A-674563), Akt2 inhibitor (CCT128930) and Bcl-xL inhibitor (ABT-263/Navitoclax) significantly decreased the cell survival and vasculogenesis of ECFC co-cultured with or without HPL and implicated activation of the Akt1 pathway as the critical mediator of the HPL effect on ECFC in vitro. A significantly greater average vessel number and total vascular area of human CD31(+) vessels were present in implants containing ECFC and HPL, compared to the ECFC alone implants in vivo. We conclude that implantation of ECFC with HPL in vivo promotes vasculogenesis and augments blood vessel formation via diminishing apoptosis of the implanted ECFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scintigraphic assessment of focal platelet accumulations following infrainguinal bypass surgery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Hesse, B; Eiberg, J


    Enothelial injury is assumed to be of pathogenetic significance in the development of graft stenoses, which remain a major cause of failure of peripheral bypasses. The aim of this study was to assess endothelial injury related to infrainguinal bypass surgery by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy...... of flow in the graft. Platelet deposition was assessed by gamma-camera images of thigh and crus obtained 4 and/or 24 h after surgery. Areas of focally increased activity were recorded and graded as moderate or intense. In the 24 vein bypasses, a median of two (range 0-5) areas of focally increased...... radioactivity were seen at the proximal anastomosis (n = 21), in the body of the graft (n = 20) or at the distal anastomosis (n = 9). The activity was moderate in 27 cases and intense in 23 cases. Scintigraphic evidence of focal platelet aggregation in vein grafts was not correlated with preoperative...

  18. Scintigraphic assessment of focal platelet accumulations following infrainguinal bypass surgery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Hesse, B; Eiberg, J


    Enothelial injury is assumed to be of pathogenetic significance in the development of graft stenoses, which remain a major cause of failure of peripheral bypasses. The aim of this study was to assess endothelial injury related to infrainguinal bypass surgery by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy....... In 28 patients undergoing in situ vein (n = 24), composite vein-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (n = 1) or PTFE (n = 3) bypass surgery, assumed vascular injuries were recorded intraoperatively. Autologous indium-111-labelled platelets were injected into the inflow artery immediately after restoration...... antiplatelet therapy or vein graft diameter. Only 2 of the 20 intragraft platelet depositions occurred in areas where intra-operative vascular injury was suspected. In the composite graft and the PTFE grafts, diffuse activity was observed throughout the entire bypass. In conclusion, focal activity...

  19. Platelet mimicry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Hunter, Alan Christy; Peer, Dan


    Here we critically examine whether coating of nanoparticles with platelet membranes can truly disguise them against recognition by elements of the innate immune system. We further assess whether the "cloaking technology" can sufficiently equip nanoparticles with platelet-mimicking functionalities...

  20. Human platelet lysate supports ex vivo expansion and enhances osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Li, Hui; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Ru; Fu, Yongshui; Zhang, Xiuming; Ye, Xin; Huang, Yingfeng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yu, Weihua


    MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) with their versatile growth and differentiation potential are ideal candidates for use in regenerative medicine and are currently making their way into clinical trials, which requires the development of xeno-free protocols for their culture. In this study, MSCs were cultured in 10% FCS or 7.5% HPL (human platelet lysate)-supplemented media. We found that both groups of MSCs showed a comparable morphology, phenotype and proliferation. The percentage of cells in the S- and G2-/M-phases, however, was slightly up-regulated (Pplatelet derived growth factor)-AB and IGF (insulin-like growth factor)-1. In addition, compared with FCS group, MSCs in HPL group showed an increase in osteogenic differentiation and a decrease in adipogenic differentiation. In conclusion, MSCs in HPL-supplemented media maintained similar growing potential and phenotype, while osteogenic potential was enhanced. HPL offers a promising alternative to FCS for MSC expansion for clinical application, especially in bone injury diseases.

  1. Anti-proliferative lichen compounds with inhibitory activity on 12(S)-HETE production in human platelets. (United States)

    Bucar, F; Schneider, I; Ogmundsdóttir, H; Ingólfsdóttir, K


    Several lichen compounds, i.e. lobaric acid (1), a beta-orcinol depsidone from Stereocaulon alpinum L., (+)-protolichesterinic acid (2), an aliphatic alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone from Cetraria islandica Laur. (Parmeliaceae), (+)-usnic acid (3), a dibenzofuran from Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Rabenh. (Cladoniaceae), parietin (4), an anthraquinone from Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. (Calaplacaceae) and baeomycesic acid (5), a beta-orcinol depside isolated from Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Schaer. var. subuliformis (Ehrh.) Schaer. were tested for inhibitory activity on platelet-type 12(S)-lipoxygenase using a cell-based in vitro system in human platelets. Lobaric acid (1) and (+)-protolichesterinic acid (2) proved to be pronounced inhibitors of platelet-type 12(S)-lipoxygenase, whereas baeomycesic acid (5) showed only weak activity (inhibitory activity at a concentration of 100 microg/ml: (1) 93.4+/-6.62%, (2) 98,5+/-1.19%, 5 14.7+/-2.76%). Usnic acid (3) and parietin (4) were not active at this concentration. 1 and 2 showed a clear dose-response relationship in the range of 3.33-100 microg/ml. According to the calculated IC50 values the highest inhibitory activity was observed for the depsidone 1 (IC50 = 28.5 microM) followed by 2 (IC50 = 77.0 microM). The activity of 1 was comparable to that of the flavone baicalein, which is known as a selective 12(S)-lipoxygenase inhibitor (IC50 = 24.6 microM).

  2. Analysis of glycoprotein E-selectin ligANDs on human and mouse marrow cells enriched for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    KAUST Repository

    Merzaban, Jasmeen S.


    Although well recognized that expression of E-selectin on marrow microvessels mediates osteotropism of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), our knowledge regarding the cognate E-selectin ligand(s) on HSPCs is incomplete. Flow cytometry using E-selectin-Ig chimera (E-Ig) shows that human marrow cells enriched for HSPCs (CD34+ cells) display greater E-selectin binding than those obtained from mouse (lin-/Sca-1+/c-kit+ [LSK] cells). To define the relevant glycoprotein E-selectin ligands, lysates from human CD34+ and KG1a cells and from mouse LSK cells were immunoprecipitated using E-Ig and resolved byWestern blot using E-Ig. In both human and mouse cells, E-selectin ligand reactivity was observed at ∼ 120- to 130-kDa region, which contained two E-selectin ligands, the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand- 1 glycoform "CLA," and CD43. Human, but not mouse, cells displayed a prominent ∼ 100-kDa band, exclusively comprising the CD44 glycoform "HCELL."E-Ig reactivity was most prominent on CLA in mouse cells and on HCELL in human cells. To further assess HCELL\\'s contribution to E-selectin adherence, complementary studies were performed to silence (via CD44 siRNA) or enforce its expression (via exoglycosylation). Under physiologic shear conditions, CD44/HCELL-silenced human cells showed striking decreases (> 50%) in E-selectin binding. Conversely, enforced HCELL expression of LSK cells profoundly increased E-selectin adherence, yielding > 3-fold more marrow homing in vivo. These data define the key glycoprotein E-selectin ligands of human and mouse HSPCs, unveiling critical species-intrinsic differences in both the identity and activity of these structures. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. Serotonin (5-HT) transport in human platelets is modulated by Src-catalysed Tyr-phosphorylation of the plasma membrane transporter SERT. (United States)

    Zarpellon, Alessandro; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Folda, Alessandra; Turetta, Loris; Pavanetto, Martina; Deana, Renzo


    platelets possess tightly regulated systems for serotonin (5-HT) transport. This study analysed whether the 5-HT transport mediated by the plasma-membrane transporter SERT is regulated by its Tyr-phosphorylation. 5-HT transport was determined by filtration techniques, while immunoblotting procedures were adopted for detecting the Tyr-phosphorylation of SERT in human platelet fractions. 5-HT accumulation in platelets pre-treated with reserpine, which prevents the neurotransmitter transport into the dense granules, decreased upon cellular exposure to PP2 and SU6656, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of Src-kinases. By contrast, the protein Tyr-phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate increased the 5-HT accumulation. Anti-SERT immunostaining of the platelet fractions showed a major band displaying an apparent molecular mass of 50 kappaDa, indicating that, during the analytical procedure, SERT underwent proteolysis, which was counteracted by addition of 4 M urea in the cellular disrupting medium. The Tyr-phosphorylation degree of SERT immunoprecipitated from membrane extracts decreased by platelet treatment with SU6656 or PP2, and enhanced upon pervanadate treatment. The anti-SERT immunoprecipitates displayed anti-Src immunostaining and in vitro kinase activity towards a Src-specific peptide-substrate. Platelet treatment with PP2 or SU6656 also caused a decrease in the imipramine binding to platelets. It was concluded that the Src-mediated SERT Tyr-phosphorylation regulates the 5-HT transport by affecting the neurotransmitter binding sites.

  4. Calpain Activator Dibucaine Induces Platelet Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu


    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent calpains are a family of cysteine proteases that have been demonstrated to play key roles in both platelet glycoprotein Ibα shedding and platelet activation and altered calpain activity is associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Calpain activators induce apoptosis in several types of nucleated cells. However, it is not clear whether calpain activators induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that the calpain activator dibucaine induced several platelet apoptotic events including depolarization of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, up-regulation of Bax and Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelet apoptosis elicited by dibucaine was not affected by the broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. Furthermore, dibucaine did not induce platelet activation as detected by P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding. However, platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin or α-thrombin, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor were significantly inhibited in platelets treated with dibucaine. Taken together, these data indicate that dibucaine induces platelet apoptosis and platelet dysfunction.

  5. Advanced glycation end products induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor release from human platelets through the Src-family kinase activation. (United States)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Fuse, Ichiro; Iwakura, Yuriko; Sotoyama, Hidekazu; Hanyu, Osamu; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Sone, Hirohito; Takei, Nobuyuki


    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts beneficial effects not only on diabetic neuropathies but also on cardiovascular injury. There is argument regarding the levels of serum BDNF in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Because BDNF in peripheral blood is rich in platelets, this may represent dysregulation of BDNF release from platelets. Here we focused on advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are elevated in patients with DM and have adverse effects on cardiovascular functions. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of AGEs in the regulation of BDNF release from human platelets. Platelets collected from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were incubated with various concentrations of AGE (glycated-BSA) at 37 °C for 5 min with or without BAPTA-AM, a cell permeable Ca(2+) chelator, or PP2, a potent inhibitor of Src family kinases (SFKs). Released and cellular BDNF were measured by ELISA and calculated. Phosphorylation of Src and Syk, a downstream kinase of SFKs, in stimulated platelets was examined by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. AGE induced BDNF release from human platelets in a dose-dependent manner, which was dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) and SFKs. We found that AGE induced phosphorylation of Src and Syk. AGE induces BDNF release from human platelets through the activation of the Src-Syk-(possibly phospholipase C)-Ca(2+) pathway. Considering the toxic action of AGEs and the protective roles of BDNF, it can be hypothesized that AGE-induced BDNF release is a biological defense system in the early phase of diabetes. Chronic elevation of AGEs may induce depletion or downregulation of BDNF in platelets during the progression of DM.

  6. Targeting antibody responses to the membrane proximal external region of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien Kamdem Toukam

    Full Text Available Although human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1 infection induces strong antibody responses to the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env only a few of these antibodies possess the capacity to neutralize a broad range of strains. The induction of such antibodies represents an important goal in the development of a preventive vaccine against the infection. Among the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies discovered so far, three (2F5, Z13 and 4E10 target the short and hidden membrane proximal external region (MPER of the gp41 transmembrane protein. Antibody responses to MPER are rarely observed in HIV-infected individuals or after immunization with Env immunogens. To initiate antibody responses to MPER in its membrane-embedded native conformation, we generated expression plasmids encoding the membrane-anchored ectodomain of gp41 with N-terminal deletions of various sizes. Following transfection of these plasmids, the MPER domains are displayed on the cell surface and incorporated into HIV virus like particles (VLP. Transfected cells displaying MPER mutants bound as efficiently to both 2F5 and 4E10 as cells transfected with a plasmid encoding full-length Env. Mice immunized with VLPs containing the MPER mutants produced MPER-specific antibodies, the levels of which could be increased by the trimerization of the displayed proteins as well as by a DNA prime-VLP boost immunization strategy. Although 2F5 competed for binding to MPER with antibodies in sera of some of the immunized mice, neutralizing activity could not be detected. Whether this is due to inefficient binding of the induced antibodies to MPER in the context of wild type Env or whether the overall MPER-specific antibody response induced by the MPER display mutants is too low to reveal neutralizing activity, remains to be determined.

  7. Linkage of two human pregnancy-specific. beta. sub 1 -glycoprotein genes: One is associated with hydatidiform mole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, K.K.; Watanabe, Shuichiro; Lei, Kejian; Chou, D.Y.; Plouzek, C.A.; Deng, Hweichuang; Torres, J.; Chou, J.Y. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))


    A genomic clone containing two linked human pregnancy-specific {beta}{sub 1}-glycoprotein (PS{beta}G) genes has been isolated and characterized. The two genes are arranged in the same 5{prime} {yields} 3{prime} orientation; the 3{prime} region (including the A2 and B-C exons) of the upstream gene, PSGGA, is linked to the 5{prime} region (including the 5{prime}/L and L/N exons) of PSGGB, the downstream gene. Depending upon the domains compared, PSGGA and PSGGB share 92-98% nucleotide and 86-95% amino acid sequence identity with PSG93, the most abundant PS{beta}G transcript. Northern blot hybridization performed with a PSGGB-specific oligonucleotide probe to the N domain revealed that PSGGB or a PSGGB-like gene encodes a major 1.7-kilobase mRNA in hydatidiform mole tissues and a major 2.0-kilobase mRNA in term placenta tissues. Moreover, the PSGGB-specific probe hybridized most strongly with mRNA from molar trophoblastic tissue, suggesting that the PSGGB-like species may be the gene preferentially expressed in gestational trophoblastic disease. Additionally, the sequence of a 2,315-base-pair PS{beta}G cDNA (PSG95) that contains an N-A1-A2-B2-C domain arrangement is reported. The coding region of PSG95 is identical to the previously reported cDNA clones PSG1d and FL-NCA, but PSG95 contains an additional 518 and 523 base pairs in the 3{prime} end as compared with PSG1d and FL-NCA, respectively.

  8. Cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein by airway proteases enhances virus entry into human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu-Wing Kam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of enveloped viruses into host cells requires the activation of viral envelope glycoproteins through cleavage by either intracellular or extracellular proteases. In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of protease cleavage and its impact on the efficiency of viral entry, we investigated the susceptibility of a recombinant native full-length S-protein trimer (triSpike of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV to cleavage by various airway proteases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PURIFIED TRISPIKE PROTEINS WERE READILY CLEAVED IN VITRO BY THREE DIFFERENT AIRWAY PROTEASES: trypsin, plasmin and TMPRSS11a. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and amino acid sequencing analyses identified two arginine residues (R667 and R797 as potential protease cleavage site(s. The effect of protease-dependent enhancement of SARS-CoV infection was demonstrated with ACE2 expressing human bronchial epithelial cells 16HBE. Airway proteases regulate the infectivity of SARS-CoV in a fashion dependent on previous receptor binding. The role of arginine residues was further shown with mutant constructs (R667A, R797A or R797AR667A. Mutation of R667 or R797 did not affect the expression of S-protein but resulted in a differential efficacy of pseudotyping into SARS-CoVpp. The R667A SARS-CoVpp mutant exhibited a lack of virus entry enhancement following protease treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that SARS S-protein is susceptible to airway protease cleavage and, furthermore, that protease mediated enhancement of virus entry depends on specific conformation of SARS S-protein upon ACE2 binding. These data have direct implications for the cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV along the respiratory system and, furthermore expand the possibility of identifying potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV.

  9. Novel agents for anti-platelet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xuebin


    Full Text Available Abstract Anti-platelet therapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with thrombotic diseases. The most commonly used anti-platelet drugs, namely, aspirin, ticlopidine, and clopidogrel, are effective in the prevention and treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists (e.g., abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban have demonstrated good clinical benefits and safety profiles in decreasing ischemic events in acute coronary syndrome. However, adverse events related to thrombosis or bleeding have been reported in cases of therapy with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. Cilostazol is an anti-platelet agent used in the treatment of patients with peripheral ischemia, such as intermittent claudication. Presently, platelet adenosine diphosphate P2Y(12 receptor antagonists (e.g., clopidogrel, prasugrel, cangrelor, and ticagrelor are being used in clinical settings for their pronounced protective effects. The new protease-activated receptor antagonists, vorapaxar and atopaxar, potentially decrease the risk of ischemic events without significantly increasing the rate of bleeding. Some other new anti-platelet drugs undergoing clinical trials have also been introduced. Indeed, the number of new anti-platelet drugs is increasing. Consequently, the efficacy of these anti-platelet agents in actual patients warrants scrutiny, especially in terms of the hemorrhagic risks. Hopefully, new selective platelet inhibitors with high anti-thrombotic efficiencies and low hemorrhagic side effects can be developed.

  10. Investigation of cyclooxygenase and signaling pathways involved in human platelet aggregation mediated by synergistic interaction of various agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan N


    Full Text Available Nadia Khan,1,2 Ahsana Dar Farooq,1 Bassem Sadek21Dr Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesAbstract: In the present study, the mechanism(s of synergistic interaction of various platelet mediators such as arachidonic acid (AA when combined with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or adenosine diphosphate (ADP on human platelet aggregation were examined. The results demonstrated that 5-HT had no or negligible effect on aggregation but it did potentiate the aggregation response of AA. Similarly, the combination of subeffective concentrations of ADP and AA exhibited noticeable rise in platelet aggregation. Moreover, the observed synergistic effect of AA with 5-HT on platelets was inhibited by different cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitors, namely ibuprofen and celecoxib, with half maximal inhibitory effect (IC50 values of 18.0±1.8 and 15.6±3.4 µmol/L, respectively. Interestingly, the synergistic effect observed for AA with 5-HT was, also, blocked by the 5-HT receptor blockers cyproheptadine (IC50=22.0±7 µmol/L, ketanserin (IC50=152±23 µmol/L, phospholipase C (PLC inhibitor (U73122; IC50=6.1±0.8 µmol/L, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor (PD98059; IC50=3.8±0.5 µmol/L. Likewise, the synergism of AA and ADP was, also, attenuated by COX inhibitors (ibuprofen; IC50=20±4 µmol/L and celecoxib; IC50=24±7 µmol/L, PLC inhibitor (U73122; IC50=3.7±0.3 µmol/L, and MAPK inhibitor (PD98059; IC50=2.8±1.1 µmol/L. Our observed data demonstrate that the combination of subthreshold concentrations of agonists amplifies platelet aggregation and that these synergistic effects largely depend on activation of COX/thromboxane A2, receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, Gq/PLC, and MAPK signaling

  11. Role of the serine-rich surface glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Seong Seo

    Full Text Available The binding of bacteria to fibrinogen and platelets are important events in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Srr1 is a serine-rich repeat glycoprotein of Streptococcus agalactiae that binds directly to the Aα chain of human fibrinogen. To assess the impact of Srr1 on the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, we first examined the binding of this organism to immobilized human platelets. Strains expressing Srr1 had significantly higher levels of binding to human platelets in vitro, as compared with isogenic Δsrr1 mutants. In addition, platelet binding was inhibited by pretreatment with anti-fibrinogen IgG or purified Srr1 binding region. To assess the contribution of Srr1 to pathogenicity, we compared the relative virulence of S. agalactiae NCTC 10/84 strain and its Δsrr1 mutant in a rat model of endocarditis, where animals were co-infected with the WT and the mutant strains at a 1:1 ratio. At 72 h post-infection, bacterial densities (CFU/g of the WT strain within vegetations, kidneys, and spleens were significantly higher, as compared with the Δsrr1 mutant. These results indicate that Srr1 contributes to the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, at least in part through its role in fibrinogen-mediated platelet binding.

  12. On the interaction of fluorophore-encapsulating PEGylated lecithin liposomes with hamster and human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heger, M.; Salles, I.I.; van Vuure, W.; Deckmyn, H.; Beek, J.F.


    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-grafted phosphatidylcholine liposomes are used as drug carriers due to their low immunogenicity and prolonged circulation time. The interaction between sterically stabilized lecithin liposomes and platelets has not been investigated before, and deserves to be subjected to

  13. Characterizing the O-glycosylation landscape of human plasma, platelets, and endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King-Smith, Sarah Louise; Joshi, Hiren Jitendra; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram


    The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis, and is critical to the maintenance of vascular integrity. Multiple studies indicate that glycans play important roles in the hemostatic system; however, most investigations have focused on N-glycans because of th...

  14. Niacin and biosynthesis of PGD₂ by platelet COX-1 in mice and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Stubbe, Jane; Ricciotti, Emanuela


    thromboxane (Tx) formation. However, in platelet-rich plasma, where formation of both Tx and PGD₂ was increased, spreading was not as pronounced and was inhibited by DP1 activation. Thus, PGD₂, like PGI₂, may function as a homeostatic response to thrombogenic and hypertensive stimuli and may have particular...

  15. Platelet - activating factor induces leukotriene C4 synthesis by purified human eosinophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.; Kok, P.T.M.; Hamelink, M.L.; Kijne, A.M.; Verhagen, J.

    Platelet-activating factor, at a concentration of 10 μM, was capable of inducing leukotriene C4 synthesis by eosinophils of healthy donors, i.e. (3.1 ± 0.3) × 106 molecules leukotriene C4 /cell (n = 31, mean ± SEM, cell purity 87 ± 2%). Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography analysis

  16. Regulation of serotonin transport in human platelets by tyrosine kinase Syk. (United States)

    Pavanetto, Martina; Zarpellon, Alessandro; Borgo, Christian; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Deana, Renzo


    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of numerous neuro-physiological processes. The circulating level of 5-HT is regulated by the membrane transporter SERT present both in the presynaptic nerve terminals and blood platelets. 5-HT transport is a process tightly regulated by a variety of factors including protein phosphorylation. Aim of this study was to ascertain if also the SERT Tyr-phosphorylation mediated by Syk-kinase concurs to the regulation of SERT activity. Indeed we found that 5-HT uptake decreased upon platelet exposure to piceatannol or Syk-inhibitor II, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of the tyrosine-kinase Syk. Tyr-phosphorylation of anti-SERT-immuno-stained proteins in membrane extracts and in anti-SERT-immuno-precipitates, decreased upon platelet treatment with piceatannol, in parallel with a reduction of Syk-activity. Syk was immuno-revealed in the anti-SERT immuno-precipitates, which displayed a piceatannol-sensitive kinase activity towards SERT itself and the Syk-substrate α-sinuclein. Syk inhibitors also caused a decrease of the monensin-induced 5-HT-efflux from platelets and of imipramine binding to them. It is concluded that, in addition to the phosphorylation of SERT mediated by various other kinases, also that catalyzed by Syk might play an important role in the 5-HT transport, likely favoring the transporter conformation exposing the neurotransmitter binding sites. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Human alpha 2-HS-glycoprotein: the A and B chains with a connecting sequence are encoded by a single mRNA transcript.


    Lee, C C; Bowman, B H; Yang, F M


    The alpha 2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) is a plasma protein reported to play roles in bone mineralization and in the immune response. It is composed of two subunits, the A and B chains. Recombinant plasmids containing human cDNA AHSG have been isolated by screening an adult human liver library with a mixed oligonucleotide probe. The cDNA clones containing AHSG inserts span approximately 1.5 kilobase pairs and include the entire AHSG coding sequence, demonstrating that the A and B chains are encode...

  18. Human endometrial stromal stem cells differentiate into megakaryocytes with the ability to produce functional platelets. (United States)

    Wang, Jinju; Chen, Shuzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Stegeman, Samantha; Pfaff-Amesse, Teresa; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Wenfeng; Amesse, Lawrence; Chen, Yanfang


    Human endometrium is a high dynamic tissue that contains endometrial stromal stem cells (hESSCs). The hESSCs have been differentiated into a number of cell lineages. However, differentiation of hESSCs into megakaryocytes (MKs) has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of MK generation from hESSCs and subsequent production of functional platelets (PLTs). In our study, hESSCs were cultured from endometrial stromal cells as confirmed by positive stromal cell specific markers (CD90 and CD29) and negative hematopoietic stem cell markers (CD45 and CD34) expression. Then, hESSCs were differentiated in a medium supplemented with thrombopoietin (TPO) for 18 days. The MK differentiation was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The differentiation medium was collected for PLT production analysis by flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and functional measurements. Our results show: 1) MKs were successfully generated from hESSCs as identified by expression of specific markers (CD41a: 1 ± 0.09% and 39 ± 3.0%; CD42b: 1.2 ± 0.06% and 28 ± 2.0%, control vs. differentiation) accompanied with reduction of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct4 and Sox2) expression; 2) The level of PLTs in the differentiation medium was 16 ± 1 number/µl as determined by size (2-4 µm) and CD41a expression (CD41a: 1 ± 0.4% and 90±2.0%, control vs. differentiation); 3) Generated PLTs were functional as evidenced by the up-regulation of CD62p expression and fibrinogen binding following thrombin stimulation; 4) Released PLTs showed similar ultra-structure characteristics (alpha granules, vacuoles and dense tubular system) as PLTs from peripheral blood determined by electron microscopic analysis. Data demonstrate the feasibility of generating MKs from hESSCs, and that the generated MKs release functional PLTs. Therefore, hESSCs could be a potential new stem cell source for in vitro MK/PLT production.

  19. Human endometrial stromal stem cells differentiate into megakaryocytes with the ability to produce functional platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Wang

    Full Text Available Human endometrium is a high dynamic tissue that contains endometrial stromal stem cells (hESSCs. The hESSCs have been differentiated into a number of cell lineages. However, differentiation of hESSCs into megakaryocytes (MKs has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of MK generation from hESSCs and subsequent production of functional platelets (PLTs. In our study, hESSCs were cultured from endometrial stromal cells as confirmed by positive stromal cell specific markers (CD90 and CD29 and negative hematopoietic stem cell markers (CD45 and CD34 expression. Then, hESSCs were differentiated in a medium supplemented with thrombopoietin (TPO for 18 days. The MK differentiation was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The differentiation medium was collected for PLT production analysis by flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and functional measurements. Our results show: 1 MKs were successfully generated from hESSCs as identified by expression of specific markers (CD41a: 1 ± 0.09% and 39 ± 3.0%; CD42b: 1.2 ± 0.06% and 28 ± 2.0%, control vs. differentiation accompanied with reduction of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct4 and Sox2 expression; 2 The level of PLTs in the differentiation medium was 16 ± 1 number/µl as determined by size (2-4 µm and CD41a expression (CD41a: 1 ± 0.4% and 90±2.0%, control vs. differentiation; 3 Generated PLTs were functional as evidenced by the up-regulation of CD62p expression and fibrinogen binding following thrombin stimulation; 4 Released PLTs showed similar ultra-structure characteristics (alpha granules, vacuoles and dense tubular system as PLTs from peripheral blood determined by electron microscopic analysis. Data demonstrate the feasibility of generating MKs from hESSCs, and that the generated MKs release functional PLTs. Therefore, hESSCs could be a potential new stem cell source for in vitro MK/PLT production.

  20. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways. (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali


    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (P<0.05). Apoptosis in DP cells was also meaningfully decreased by HPL treatment (P=0.014). In addition, Kras, Akt, Erk, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels were changed in response to minoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (P<0.05), but Kras and Akt mRNA levels were not considerably different in the HPL-treated cells. β-catenin mRNA level was also significantly increased in the bulge region by HPL. We also found that Shh mRNA level was considerably higher in HPL-treated bulge cells than in minoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Signaling in TRPV1-induced platelet activating factor (PAF) in human esophageal epithelial cells. (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Harnett, Karen M; Behar, Jose; Biancani, Piero; Cao, Weibiao


    Transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) receptors were identified in human esophageal squamous epithelial cell line HET-1A by RT-PCR and by Western blot. In fura-2 AM-loaded cells, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin caused a fourfold cytosolic calcium increase, supporting a role of TRPV1 as a capsaicin-activated cation channel. Capsaicin increased production of platelet activating factor (PAF), an important inflammatory mediator that acts as a chemoattractant and activator of immune cells. The increase was reduced by the p38 MAP kinase (p38) inhibitor SB203580, by the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA(2)) inhibitor AACOCF3, and by the lyso-PAF acetyltransferase inhibitor sanguinarin, indicating that capsaicin-induced PAF production may be mediated by activation of cPLA(2), p38, and lyso-PAF acetyltransferase. To establish a sequential signaling pathway, we examined the phosphorylation of p38 and cPLA(2) by Western blot. Capsaicin induced phosphorylation of p38 and cPLA(2). Capsaicin-induced p38 phosphorylation was not affected by AACOCF3. Conversely, capsaicin-induced cPLA(2) phosphorylation was blocked by SB203580, indicating that capsaicin-induced PAF production depends on sequential activation of p38 and cPLA(2). To investigate how p38 phosphorylation may result from TRPV1-mediated calcium influx, we examined a possible role of calmodulin kinase (CaM-K). p38 phosphorylation was stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187 and by capsaicin, and the response to both agonists was reduced by a CaM inhibitor and by CaM-KII inhibitors, indicating that calcium induced activation of CaM and CaM-KII results in P38 phosphorylation. Acetyl-CoA transferase activity increased in response to capsaicin and was inhibited by SB203580, indicating that p38 phosphorylation in turn causes activation of acetyl-CoA transferase to produce PAF. Thus epithelial cells produce PAF in response to TRPV1-mediated calcium elevation.

  2. Giant platelet disorder in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. (United States)

    Cowan, Sara M; Bartges, Joseph W; Gompf, Rebecca E; Hayes, Jimmy R; Moyers, Tamberlyn D; Snider, Carolyn C; Gerard, David A; Craft, Robert M; Muenchen, Robert A; Carroll, Roger C


    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, functional, and morphologic characteristics of platelets in Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs (Cavaliers). Blood from 69 clinically normal Cavaliers was collected and anticoagulated with ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate. Automated and manual platelet counts were obtained. Percent platelet aggregation in response to ADP (2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 microM) was determined. Electron microscopy was performed to examine platelet internal morphology and dense granule distribution. A cardiologist recorded the quality of murmurs. Thrombocytopenia (3 microm) were present in 33.33% (22/69). Mean manual platelet count was 118,770/microL. Manual (EDTA blood) and automated (EDTA and citrated blood) methods of platelet counting were correlated. Prevalence of cardiac murmurs was 38% (26/69). There was no association between affected dogs and murmur, signalment, or coat color. Mean percent platelet aggregation was significantly higher in controls than in Cavaliers (79% vs 38%, p=0.001). Response to ADP was unaffected by thrombocytopenia, macrothrombocytes, murmur, or any combination thereof. Platelet electron microscopy showed normal and giant sized platelets with normal internal morphology. A benign inherited giant platelet disorder affects approximately 50% of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. It is characterized by thrombocytopenia, macrothrombocytes, or decreased platelet aggregation in response to ADP. Platelet ultrastructure is normal. Citrated or EDTA blood provides accurate platelet counts. Further studies are indicated to determine platelet glycoprotein structure and any association with mitral endocardiosis. Cavaliers may be useful models of inherited giant platelet disorders.

  3. Post-transfusion purpura in an African-American man due to human platelet antigen-5b alloantibody: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynce Filipa


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-transfusion purpura is a rare immunohematological disorder characterized by severe thrombocytopenia following transfusion of blood components and induced by an alloantibody against a donor platelet antigen. It occurs primarily in women sensitized by pregnancy and is most commonly caused by anti-human platelet antigen-1a antibodies. Here, we describe what we believe to be the first documented case of an African-American man who developed post-transfusion purpura due to an anti-human platelet antigen-5b alloantibody after receiving multiple blood products. Case presentation A 68-year-old African-American man initially admitted with atrial flutter was started on anticoagulation treatment, which was complicated by severe hematemesis. On days 4 and 5 of hospitalization, he received six units of packed red blood cells, and on days 4, 13 and 14 he received plasma. His platelet count began to drop on day 25 and on day 32 reached a nadir of 7 × 109/L. His platelet count increased after receiving intravenous immune globulin. An antibody with reactivity to human platelet antigen-5b was detected by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassay. Our patient was homozygous for human platelet antigen-5a. Conclusion This case emphasizes the importance of including post-transfusion purpura in the differential diagnosis for both men and women with acute onset of thrombocytopenia following transfusion of blood products. The prompt recognition of this entity is crucial for initiation of the appropriate management.

  4. Expression of peanut agglutinin-binding mucin-type glycoprotein in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as a marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Ramathilakam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TF (Thomson – Friedenreich blood group antigen behaves as an onco-foetal carcinoma-associated antigen, showing increased expression in malignancies and its detection and quantification can be used in serologic diagnosis mainly in adenocarcinomas. This study was undertaken to analyze the sera and tissue level detectable mucin-type glycoprotein (TF-antigen by Peanut agglutinin (PNA and its diagnostic index in serum as well tissues of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as marker. Results We examined 100 patients for serological analysis by Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay (ELISA and demonstrated a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 90% and a positive predictive value of 95%. The immuno-histochemical localization of TF antigen by Fluorescence Antigen Technique (FAT in 25 specimens of normal esophageal squamous epithelium specimens and 92 specimens with different grades of, allowed a quicker and more precise identification of its increased expression and this did not correlate with gender and tumor size. There was a positive correlation between membrane bound TF antigen expression with different histological progression, from well differentiated to poorly differentiated, determined by PNA binding. Specimens showed morphological changes and a pronounced increase in PNA binding in Golgi apparatus, secretory granules of the cytosol of well differentiated and an increased cell membrane labeling in moderately and poorly differentiated, when compared with ESCC and normal tissues. Conclusion The authors propose that the expression of TF-antigen in human may play an important role during tumorigenesis establishing it as a chemically well-defined carcinoma-associated antigen. Identification of the circulating TF-antigen as a reactive form and as a cryptic form in the healthy individuals, using PNA-ELLA and Immunohistochemical analysis of TF antigen by FAT is positively correlated with the different histological grades as a simple

  5. Staphylococcal β-Toxin Modulates Human Aortic Endothelial Cell and Platelet Function through Sphingomyelinase and Biofilm Ligase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Herrera


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE. IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like “vegetations” composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism’s ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase and biofilm ligase. Although both activities have functions in a rabbit model of IE, the mechanism(s by which β-toxin directly affects human cells and is involved in the infectious process has not been elucidated. Here, we compared the in vitro effects of purified recombinant wild-type β-toxin, SMase-deficient β-toxin (H289N, and biofilm ligase-deficient β-toxin (H162A and/or D163A on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs and platelets. β-Toxin was cytotoxic to HAECs and inhibited the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8 from these cells by both SMase and biofilm ligase activities. β-Toxin altered HAEC surface expression of CD40 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1. HAECs treated with β-toxin displayed granular membrane morphology not seen in treatment with the SMase-deficient mutant. The altered morphology resulted in two possibly separable activities, cell rounding and redistribution of cell membranes into granules, which were not the result of endosome production from the Golgi apparatus or lysosomes. β-Toxin directly aggregated rabbit platelets via SMase activity.

  6. Antibodies against human platelet alloantigens and human leucocyte antigen class 1 in Saudi Arabian multiparous women and multi-transfused patients (United States)

    Al-Ouda, Sarah K.; Al-Banyan, Abdulmajeed A.; Al-Gahtani, Farjah H.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Al-Dakhil, Lateefa O.


    Objectives: To determine the frequency of alloimmunization against human platelet antigens (HPAs) and human leucocyte antigen class 1 (HLA1) in multiparous women and multi-transfused patients. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January and August 2013, on 50 multiparous women with no history of previous blood transfusion recruited from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, and 50 patients, who received multiple platelet transfusions, recruited from the Hematology/Oncology Ward, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: The frequency of alloimmunization among multiparous pregnant women was 76%, as follows: 16% against HLA1 only, 8% against HPAs only, 52% against both HPAs and HLA1 antigens. In multi-transfused patients, the rate of alloimmunization was 42% as follows: 2% against HLA1 only, 22% against HPAs only, 18% against both HPAs and HLA1 antigens. The frequency of alloimmunization increases with the number of pregnancies, but not with the number of platelet transfusions. Conclusion: Alloimmunization against HPAs and HLA1 is very common among Saudi multiparous women and multi-transfused patients, which encourages the search for the extent of the possible complications in the fetus and newborn and in multitransfused patients and how to prevent their occurrence. PMID:25987107

  7. Platelet activating factor: effects on bronchomotor tone and bronchial responsiveness in human beings. (United States)

    Chung, K F; Cuss, F M; Barnes, P J


    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a newly discovered lipid mediator of inflammation. When inhaled by normal volunteers, it induces bronchoconstriction associated with facial flushing and with a transient fall in circulating neutrophils. Of greater interest is its ability to induce prolonged increases in bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. These observations support an important role for PAF in asthama; the availability of specific PAF antagonists will allow us to test this hypothesis.

  8. Acetaminophen and Meloxicam Inhibit Platelet Aggregation and Coagulation in Blood Samples from Humans (United States)


    used for over 50 years to relieve pains associated with arthritis, headache, mus- cular aches, and to reduce fever in adults and children . As in most...of over-the- counter drugs such as aspirin , ibuprofen, herbal products, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs within 7 days. Preparation of platelet...tinal bleeding and hemostatic disturbances, as compared with aspirin . However, some adverse effects of ibuprofen on coagulation have been recognized in

  9. Factors Governing the Subcellular Distribution of Indium-111 in Human Platelets. (United States)


    Date Entered )__________________ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BFRE COMPLETINSOR NBRL, BUSM 82-18 4. TITLE (and Subtitte) 5’T O EOT&PRO OEE INDIM-11 I...tive phosphorylation (rotenone) and anaerobic glycolysis (2-deoxy-D-glucose) * dramatically decreases the adenylate energy change, a measure of the...the cell), the phosphorus moieties appear to be retained 󈧑,14 as inorganic phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate.13 ,1 The decreased platelet

  10. Cell-free released components of Streptococcus sanguis inhibit human platelet aggregation. (United States)

    Herzberg, M C; Brintzenhofe, K L; Clawson, C C


    To study the role of surface components in the selective binding and aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) by strains of viridans streptococci, we treated the binding, aggregation strain Streptococcus sanguis I 2017-78 by sonication or trypsinization. Morphologically identifiable electron-dense fibrils were released from the cell wall, apparently from an inner electron-dense layer, under conditions that left cells intact. These controlled conditions were determined to cause submaximal loss in adhesion to platelet ghosts and PRP aggregation by treated, washed S. sanguis. Soluble components were recovered from the controlled sonic or L-(tosylamido 2-phenyl)ethyl chloromethyl ketone-trypsin treatments. Each showed dose-response inhibition of aggregation when preincubated with PRP before challenge with fresh, untreated S. sanguis. The time to onset of PRP aggregation was inhibited by 50% with 0.2 mg of TPCK-trypsin peptides or 1.0 mg of the sonicate per ml per 2 X 10(8) platelets. Components of both preparations were immunologically cross-reactive, but lipoteichoic acid was not a major antigen of either. By weight, the TPCK-trypsin peptides were virtually all protein; the sonicate residues identified were about 50% protein and 7% hexose. Each was a complex mixture of components as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. More than 8 TPCK-trypsin peptides and 16 sonicate components were so identified. In contrast, at least four or five components from either preparation were recognized as surface determinants by a rabbit antiserum to whole homologous microbes. Platelet-binding ligands of S. sanguis could be among these determinants. Images PMID:6618669

  11. Cyclic nucleotide dependent dephosphorylation of regulator of G-protein signaling 18 in human platelets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gegenbauer, Kristina


    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets.

  12. Endothelial- and Platelet-Derived Microparticles Are Generated During Liver Resection in Humans. (United States)

    Banz, Yara; Item, Gian-Marco; Vogt, Andreas; Rieben, Robert; Candinas, Daniel; Beldi, Guido


    Cell-derived plasma microparticles (microparticles generated during hepatic surgery co-regulate postoperative procoagulant and proinflammatory events. In 30 patients undergoing liver resection, plasma microparticles were isolated, quantitated, and characterized as endothelial (CD31+, CD41-), platelet (CD41+), or leukocyte (CD11b+) origin by flow cytometry and their procoagulant and proinflammatory activity was measured by immunoassays. During liver resection, the total numbers of microparticles increased with significantly more Annexin V-positive, endothelial and platelet-derived microparticles following extended hepatectomy compared to standard and minor liver resections. After liver resection, microparticle tissue factor and procoagulant activity increased along with overall coagulation as assessed by thrombelastography. Levels of leukocyte-derived microparticles specifically increased in patients with systemic inflammation as assessed by C-reactive protein but are independent of the extent of liver resection. Endothelial and platelet-derived microparticles are specifically elevated during liver resection, accompanied by increased procoagulant activity. Leukocyte-derived microparticles are a potential marker for systemic inflammation. Plasma microparticles may represent a specific response to surgical stress and may be an important mediator of postoperative coagulation and inflammation.

  13. Purification of glycocalicin from human plasma. (United States)

    HadjKacem, Basma; Mkaouar, Héla; Ben Amor, Ikram; Gargouri, Jalel; Gargouri, Ali


    Glycocalicin (GC) is a large extracellular proteolytic fragment of glycoprotein Ib, a membrane platelet component playing an essential role in the physiological processes of platelet adhesion and aggregation. GC contains the binding sites for thrombin and von Willebrand factor. GC circulates normally in vivo in significant concentrations and the plasma level of this protein reflects a complex function of factors including platelet count or platelet turnover. It can therefore serve as a good indicator for many diseases like hypoplastic thrombocytopenia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. For this reason, several purification assays have been previously described. In this work, we describe a novel analytical method for GC purification from human platelets based on preparative HPLC gel filtration followed by immuno-affinity chromatography on NHS activated column conjugated with specific antibody. Pure GC was obtained from tiny amount of starting material. Our protocol of GC purification is simple, fast and provides a pure end product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface derivatization state of polystyrene latex nanoparticles determines both their potency and their mechanism of causing human platelet aggregation in vitro. (United States)

    McGuinnes, Catherine; Duffin, Rodger; Brown, Simon; L Mills, Nicholas; Megson, Ian L; Macnee, William; Johnston, Shonna; Lu, Sen Lin; Tran, Lang; Li, Rufia; Wang, Xue; Newby, David E; Donaldson, Ken


    There is evidence that nanoparticles (NP) can enter the bloodstream following deposition in the lungs, where they may interact with platelets. Polystyrene latex nanoparticles (PLNP) of the same size but with different surface charge-unmodified (umPLNP), aminated (aPLNP), and carboxylated (cPLNP)-were used as model NP to study interactions with human blood and platelets. Both the cPLNP and the aPLNP caused platelet aggregation, whereas the umPLNP did not. Whereas cPLNP caused aggregation by classical upregulation of adhesion receptors, aPLNP did not upregulate adhesion receptors and appeared to act by perturbation of the platelet membrane, revealing anionic phospholipids. Neither oxidative stress generation by particles nor metal contamination was responsible for these effects, which were a result of differential surface derivatization. The study reveals that NP composed of insoluble low-toxicity material are significantly altered in their potency in causing platelet aggregation by altering the surface chemistry. The two surface modifications, aminated and carboxylated, that did cause aggregation did so by different mechanisms. The study highlights the fundamental role of surface chemistry on bioactivity of NP in a platelet activation model.

  15. Fluorometric assay of oleate-activated phospholipase D isoenzyme in membranes of rat nervous tissue and human platelets. (United States)

    Krzystanek, Marek; Trzeciak, Henryk I; Krzystanek, Ewa; Małecki, Andrzej


    Phospholipase D plays a key role in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid, a second messenger involved in essential cellular processes. Oleate-activated phospholipase D was the first mammalian phospholipase D isoform to be discovered but is the least known. The study was aimed to test a fluorometric method of assessment of oleate-activated phospholipase D activity in different biological materials. The brain cortex of male Wistar rats, cultured rat brain astrocytes, and human platelets were processed to yield plasmatic membranes for experiments. To assess phospholipase D activity the modified fluorometric method was used. Previously, the method was used only to determine H₂O₂. In this enzyme-coupled assay phospholipase D activity is monitored indirectly using 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine. First, phospholipase D cleaves exogenous phosphatidylcholine to yield choline and phosphatidic acid. Second, choline is oxidized by choline oxidase to betaine and H₂O₂. Finally, in the presence of horseradish peroxidase, H₂O₂ reacts with 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine to generate the highly fluorescent product, resorufin. The concentration of resorufin was measured using excitation and emission at 560 nm and 590 nm, respectively. The proposed optimal parameters of the tested assay are 25 µg of rat brain cortex protein, 50 µg of rat brain astrocyte protein, and 50 µg of human platelet protein in a reaction volume of 200 µL, and 2 min enzymatic reaction at 37°C. The fluorometric method may be applied to assay phospholipase D in different biological materials.

  16. Pharmacology of functional endogenous IP prostanoid receptors in NCB-20 cells: comparison with binding data from human platelets. (United States)

    Crider, J Y; Xu, S X; Sharif, N A


    The objective of these studies was to characterize the effects of a broad range of prostanoid agonists upon the stimulation of cAMP production in National Cancer Bank (NCB-20; mouse neuroblastoma/hamster brain hybridoma) cells. The pharmacology of these functional responses in NCB-20 cells was compared with that of the classic endogenous IP receptor present on human platelets using [3H]-iloprost binding techniques. In both assay systems, agonists from the IP prostanoid class exhibited the highest affinities and functional potencies. Specific prostanoids exhibited the following rank order of potency (EC50 +/- SEM) in stimulating cAMP production in the NCB-20 cells: carbaprostacyclin (4.3 +/- 0.9 nM) = PGI2 (6.6 +/-1.5 nM) > iloprost (75+/-13 nM) > 11-deoxy PGE, (378+/-138 nM) > misoprostol (1,243+/-48) > PGE2 (3020+/-700 nM) > ZK-118182 (7265+/-455 nM). Iloprost wasthe most potent compound in the human platelet binding assay while prostanoidsfromthe DPand EP receptor classes showed modest affinity. These studies provide functional and binding information for a broad range of both natural and synthetic prostanoid receptor ligands at the endogenous IP receptor in two different cell types.

  17. Platelet-rich fibrin increases cell attachment, proliferation and collagen-related protein expression of human osteoblasts. (United States)

    Wu, C-L; Lee, S-S; Tsai, C-H; Lu, K-H; Zhao, J-H; Chang, Y-C


    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) prepared by Choukroun's technique is derived from an autogenous preparation of concentrated platelets without any manipulation. PRF was found to increase osteoblast growth and proliferation. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet completely understood. This study aimed to determine the effects of PRF on cell attachment, proliferation, phosphorylated Akt, heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression on human osteoblasts. Blood collection was carried out from 10 healthy volunteers. Cell attachment and proliferation were measured by colorimetric assay with WST-1 and alamar blue in human osteoblast cell line U2OS cells, respectively. Western blot was employed to evaluate the expression of p-Akt, HSP47 and LOX. PRF alone was found to stimulate U2OS cell attachment compared with untreated controls (p proliferation during a 5-day incubation period (p proliferation and simultaneously upregulating collagen-related protein production. These actions in combination would effectively promote bone regeneration. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Mechanism of action of novel NO-releasing furoxan derivatives of aspirin in human platelets. (United States)

    Turnbull, Catriona M; Cena, Clara; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Rossi, Adriano G; Megson, Ian L


    Incorporation of a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety in aspirin can overcome its gastric side effects. We investigated the NO-release patterns and antiplatelet effects of novel furoxan derivatives of aspirin (B8 and B7) in comparison to existing antiplatelet agents. Cyclooxygenase (COX) activity was investigated in purified enzyme using an electron paramagnetic resonance-based technique. Concentration-response curves for antiplatelet agents +/- the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (50 microM) were generated in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and washed platelets (WP) activated with collagen using turbidometric aggregometry. NO was detected using an isolated NO electrode. The furoxan derivatives of aspirin (B8, B7) and their NO-free furazan equivalents (B16, B15; all 100 microM) significantly inhibited COX activity (P aspirin-independent, cGMP-dependent inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in WP. B8 was more potent than B7 (PRP IC(50) = 0.62 +/- 0.1 microM for B8; 400 +/- 89 microM for B7; P aspirin hybrids was undetectable in buffer alone, but was accelerated in the presence of either plasma or plasma components, albumin (4%), glutathione (GSH; 3 microM) and ascorbate (50 microM), the effects of which were additive for B7 but not B8. NO generation from furoxans was greatly enhanced by platelet extract, an effect that could largely be explained by the synergistic effect of intracellular concentrations of GSH (3 mM) and ascorbate (1 mM). We conclude that the decomposition of furoxan-aspirin hybrids to generate biologically active NO is catalysed by endogenous agents which may instil a potential for primarily intracellular delivery of NO. The blunting of the aspirin effects of furoxan hybrids is likely to be due to loss of the acetyl moiety in plasma; the observed antiplatelet effects are thereby primarily mediated via NO release. Compounds of this class might represent a novel means of inhibiting platelet aggregation by a combination of NO

  19. Platelet interaction with activated endothelium: mechanistic insights from microfluidics. (United States)

    Coenen, Daniëlle M; Mastenbroek, Tom G; Cosemans, Judith M E M


    Traditionally, in vitro flow chamber experiments and in vivo arterial thrombosis studies have been proven to be of vital importance to elucidate the mechanisms of platelet thrombus formation after vessel wall injury. In recent years, it has become clear that platelets also act as modulators of inflammatory processes, such as atherosclerosis. A key element herein is the complex crosstalk between platelets, the coagulation system, leukocytes and the activated endothelium. This review provides insight into the platelet-endothelial interface, based on in vitro flow chamber studies and cross referenced with in vivo thrombosis studies. The main mechanisms of platelet interaction with the activated endothelium encompass i) platelet rolling via interaction of platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX-V with endothelial-released von Willebrand factor with a supporting role for the P-selectin - P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 axis, followed by ii) firm platelet adhesion to the endothelium via interaction of platelet αIIbβ3 with endothelial αvβ3 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and iii) a stimulatory role for thrombin, the thrombospondin-1 - CD36 axis and cyclooxygenase 1 in subsequent platelet activation and stable thrombus formation. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effect of platelets on leukocyte transendothelial migration, a key mediator of atheroprogression, are discussed. Throughout the review emphasis is placed on recommendations for setting up, reporting, interpreting and comparing endothelial-lined flow chamber studies and on suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hematology.

  20. Enhanced cellular responses of human bone marrow stromal cells cultured on pretreated surface with allogenic platelet-rich plasma. (United States)

    Shin, Seung Han; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Ha Na; Nam, Jinwoo; Kim, Hee Joong


    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface pretreatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the cellular functions of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). The surfaces of tissue culture plates (TCPs) were pretreated by adding PRP followed by centrifugation to bring platelets closer to the surface, followed by incubation for 60 min at 37°C. Then, hBMSCs were seeded onto TCP and TCP pretreated with PRP (TCP-PRP), followed by culture in osteogenic medium. Cell attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; JSM-7401F, JEOL Ltd., Japan) observations were conducted. The attachment of hBMSCs was significantly lower on TCP-PRP than on TCP. However, when the cell numbers were normalized with those observed on day 1 of culture, cellular proliferation on 5 days was significantly higher on TCP-PRP. Alkaline phosphatase activity, an index of early phase of osteoblastic differentiation, was significantly higher on TCP-PRP on day 14. Calcium deposition amount, an index of terminal osteoblastic differentiation, was also significantly higher on TCP-PRP on days 14 and 21. The results of von Kossa staining confirmed that, on day 21, the area of mineralized nodules was significantly larger on TCP-PRP. FE-SEM observation demonstrated that activated platelets and fibrin network covered the surface after PRP treatment. An increase in the number of hBMSCs and their cellular products was evident on the FE-SEM observation, and the fibrin network remained on day 21. Our results demonstrate that a PRP-treated surface enhanced early proliferation and late osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs.

  1. Bitistatin-functionalized fluorescent nanodiamond particles specifically bind to purified human platelet integrin receptor αIIbβ3 and activated platelets. (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A; Sternberg, Mark; Lelkes, Peter I; Feuerstein, Giora


    Thromboembolic events (TEE) underwrite key causes of death in developed countries. While advanced imaging technologies such as computed tomography scans serve to diagnose blood clots during acute cardiovascular events, no such technology is available in routine primary care for TEE risk assessment. Here, we describe an imaging platform technology based on bioengineered fluorescent nanodiamond particles (F-NDPs) functionalized with bitistatin (Bit), a disintegrin that specifically binds to the αIIbβ3 integrin, platelet fibrinogen receptor (PFR) on activated platelets. Covalent linkage of purified Bit to F-NDP was concentration-dependent and saturable, as validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using specific anti-Bit antibodies. F-NDP-Bit interacted with purified PFR, either in immobilized or soluble form. Lotrafiban, a nonpeptide, αIIbβ3 receptor antagonist, specifically blocked F-NDP-Bit-PFR complex formation. Moreover, F-NDP-Bit specifically binds to activated platelets incorporated into a clot generated by thrombin-activated rat platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Our results suggest that engineered F-NDP-Bit particles could serve as noninvasive, "real-time" optical diagnostics for clots present in blood vessels.

  2. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal J. Ali


    Full Text Available Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL. Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  3. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.


    Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  4. Polyphenols enhance platelet nitric oxide by inhibiting protein kinase C-dependent NADPH oxidase activation: effect on platelet recruitment. (United States)

    Pignatelli, P; Di Santo, S; Buchetti, B; Sanguigni, V; Brunelli, A; Violi, F


    Several studies demonstrated an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular events. Platelet recruitment is an important phase of platelet activation at the site of vascular injury, but it has never been investigated whether polyphenols influence platelet recruitment. The aim of the study was to analyze in vitro whether two polyphenols, quercetin and catechin, were able to affect platelet recruitment. Platelet recruitment was reduced by NO donors and by NADPH oxidase inhibitors and was enhanced by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase. Quercetin and catechin, but not single polyphenol, significantly inhibited platelet recruitment in a concentration-dependent fashion. The formation of superoxide anion was significantly inhibited in platelets incubated with quercetin and catechin but was unaffected by a single polyphenol. Incubation of platelets with quercetin and catechin resulted in inhibition of PKC and NADPH oxidase activation. Treatment of platelets with quercetin and catechin resulted in an increase of NO and also down-regulated the expression of GpIIb/IIIa glycoprotein. This study shows that the polyphenols quercetin and catechin synergistically act in reducing platelet recruitment via inhibition of PKC-dependent NADPH oxidase activation. This effect, resulting in NO-mediated platelet glycoprotein GpIIb/IIIa down-regulation, could provide a novel mechanism through which polyphenols reduce cardiovascular disease.

  5. The effect of human platelet-rich plasma on adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. (United States)

    Tavakolinejad, Sima; Khosravi, Mohsen; Mashkani, Baratali; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza; Sanjar Mossavi, Nasser; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza Seyyed; Hamidi Alamdari, Daryoush


    The cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used in many clinical trials; however, there are still some concerns about the cultural conditions. One concern is related to the use of FBS as a widely used xenogeneic supplement in the culture system. Human platelet-rich plasma (hPRP) is a candidate replacement for FBS. In this study, the effect of hPRP on MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation has been evaluated. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) were expanded. Cells from the third passage were characterized by flow cytometric analysis and used for in vitro experiments. Resazurin and alizarin red stains were used for cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation assays, respectively. Treatment with hPRP resulted in a statistically significant increase in cell proliferation compare to the negative control group (Pinvestigation.

  6. Allicin and disulfiram enhance platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3-fibrinogen binding. (United States)

    Manaster, Yoav; Shenkman, Boris; Rosenberg, Nurit; Savion, Naphtali


    Activation of the platelet receptor alphaIIbbeta3 (glycoprotein IIbIIIa) involves a change in the disulfide bonds pattern in the extra-cellular domain of the receptor. The disulfide-bond reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT), can increase integrin activity, and point mutations of specific cysteine residues of the integrin can cause its lockage at the high affinity state. The present study is aimed to support the hypothesis that prevention of specific alphaIIbbeta3 intra-molecular disulfide bond formation increases receptor-ligand binding activity. Platelet aggregation was induced by collagen or ADP and epinephrine. Integrin alphaIIbbeta3-fibrinogen binding was evaluated on prostaglandins E(1) (PGE(1))-treated washed platelets or baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells expressing human alphaIIbbeta3. Integrin was directly activated by an anti-ligand induced binding site (LIBS) PT25-2 antibody. The effect of sulfhydryl-reactive agents, such as allicin, glutathione, dithiobis nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) and disulfiram, was tested on alphaIIbbeta3 activity. Allicin (40 microM) completely inhibited washed platelets agonist-induced aggregation. Both allicin and disulfiram (40 microM) inhibited alphaIIbbeta3-fibrinogen binding and P-selectin expression in washed platelets. However, there was an increase in alphaIIbbeta3-fibrinogen binding but not P-selectin expression in PGE(1)-treated washed platelets activated by PT25-2 antibody. At a high concentration (400 microM) both inhibited alphaIIbbeta3-fibrinogen binding. Similarly, in BHK cells expressing alphaIIbbeta3 activated by PT25-2 antibody, allicin at a low concentration increased alphaIIbbeta3 activity. Allicin and disulfiram inhibit agonist-induced washed platelet activation probably via inhibition of platelet signaling, but enhance PT25-2 antibody-induced alphaIIbbeta3 integrin activity most likely by preventing reformation of disulfide bridges thereby stabilizing the active conformation of the integrin.

  7. Binding of (/sup 3/H)imipramine to human platelet membranes with compensation for saturable binding to filters and its implication for binding studies with brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, O.M.; Wood, K.M.; Williams, D.C.


    Apparent specific binding of (/sup 3/H)imipramine to human platelet membranes at high concentrations of imipramine showed deviation from that expected of a single binding site, a result consistent with a low-affinity binding site. The deviation was due to displaceable, saturable binding to the glass fibre filters used in the assays. Imipramine, chloripramine, desipramine, and fluoxetine inhibited binding to filters whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine and ethanol were ineffective. Experimental conditions were developed that eliminated filter binding, allowing assay of high- and low-affinity binding to membranes. Failure to correct for filter binding may lead to overestimation of binding parameters, Bmax and KD for high-affinity binding to membranes, and may also be misinterpreted as indicating a low-affinity binding component in both platelet and brain membranes. Low-affinity binding (KD less than 2 microM) of imipramine to human platelet membranes was demonstrated and its significance discussed.

  8. Prediction of exposed domains of envelope glycoprotein in Indian HIV-1 isolates and experimental confirmation of their immunogenicity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohabatkar H.


    Full Text Available We describe the impact of subtype differences on the seroreactivity of linear antigenic epitopes in envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 isolates from different geographical locations. By computer analysis, we predicted potential antigenic sites of envelope glycoprotein (gp120 and gp4l of this virus. For this purpose, after fetching sequences of proteins of interest from data banks, values of hydrophilicity, flexibility, accessibility, inverted hydrophobicity, and secondary structure were considered. We identified several potential antigenic epitopes in a B subtype strain of envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 (IIIB. Solid- phase peptide synthesis methods of Merrifield and Fmoc chemistry were used for synthesizing peptides. These synthetic peptides corresponded mainly to the C2, V3 and CD4 binding sites of gp120 and some parts of the ectodomain of gp41. The reactivity of these peptides was tested by ELISA against different HIV-1-positive sera from different locations in India. For two of these predicted epitopes, the corresponding Indian consensus sequences (LAIERYLKQQLLGWG and DIIGDIRQAHCNISEDKWNET (subtype C were also synthesized and their reactivity was tested by ELISA. These peptides also distinguished HIV-1-positive sera of Indians with C subtype infections from sera from HIV-negative subjects.

  9. Platelet proteome reveals novel pathways of platelet activation and platelet-mediated immunoregulation in dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ramos de Oliveira Trugilho


    Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Platelets are blood cells classically known as effectors of hemostasis which have been increasingly recognized to have major immune and inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the phenotype and effector functions of platelets in dengue pathogenesis are not completely understood. Here we used quantitative proteomics to investigate the protein content of platelets in clinical samples from patients with dengue compared to platelets from healthy donors. Our assays revealed a set of 252 differentially abundant proteins. In silico analyses associated these proteins with key molecular events including platelet activation and inflammatory responses, and with events not previously attributed to platelets during dengue infection including antigen processing and presentation, proteasome activity, and expression of histones. From these results, we conducted functional assays using samples from a larger cohort of patients and demonstrated evidence for platelet activation indicated by P-selectin (CD62P translocation and secretion of granule-stored chemokines by platelets. In addition, we found evidence that DENV infection triggers HLA class I synthesis and surface expression by a mechanism depending on functional proteasome activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell-free histone H2A released during dengue infection binds to platelets, increasing platelet activation. These findings are consistent with functional importance of HLA class I, proteasome subunits, and histones that we found exclusively in proteome analysis of platelets in samples from dengue patients. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of the platelet

  10. Platelet proteome reveals novel pathways of platelet activation and platelet-mediated immunoregulation in dengue. (United States)

    Trugilho, Monique Ramos de Oliveira; Hottz, Eugenio Damaceno; Brunoro, Giselle Villa Flor; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Salazar, Gustavo Adolfo; Zimmerman, Guy A; Bozza, Fernando A; Bozza, Patrícia T; Perales, Jonas


    Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Platelets are blood cells classically known as effectors of hemostasis which have been increasingly recognized to have major immune and inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the phenotype and effector functions of platelets in dengue pathogenesis are not completely understood. Here we used quantitative proteomics to investigate the protein content of platelets in clinical samples from patients with dengue compared to platelets from healthy donors. Our assays revealed a set of 252 differentially abundant proteins. In silico analyses associated these proteins with key molecular events including platelet activation and inflammatory responses, and with events not previously attributed to platelets during dengue infection including antigen processing and presentation, proteasome activity, and expression of histones. From these results, we conducted functional assays using samples from a larger cohort of patients and demonstrated evidence for platelet activation indicated by P-selectin (CD62P) translocation and secretion of granule-stored chemokines by platelets. In addition, we found evidence that DENV infection triggers HLA class I synthesis and surface expression by a mechanism depending on functional proteasome activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell-free histone H2A released during dengue infection binds to platelets, increasing platelet activation. These findings are consistent with functional importance of HLA class I, proteasome subunits, and histones that we found exclusively in proteome analysis of platelets in samples from dengue patients. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of the platelet proteome in dengue

  11. Characterization of the De Novo Biosynthetic Enzyme of Platelet Activating Factor, DDT-Insensitive Cholinephosphotransferase, of Human Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Basilios Tsoupras


    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF, a potent inflammatory mediator, is implicated in several proinflammatory/inflammatory diseases such as glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, atherosclerosis, cancer, allergy, and diabetes. PAF can be produced by several renal cells under appropriate stimuli and it is thought to be implicated in renal diseases. The aim of this study is the characterization of DTT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT of human mesangial cell (HMC, the main regulatory enzyme of PAF de novo biosynthetic pathway. Microsomal fractions of mesangial cells were isolated and enzymatic activity and kinetic parameters were determined by TLC and in vitro biological test in rabbit washed platelets. The effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA, dithiothreitol (DTT, divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+, EDTA, and various chemicals on the activity of PAF-CPT of HMC was also studied. Moreover, preliminary in vitro tests have been performed with several anti-inflammatory factors such as drugs (simvastatin, IFNa, rupatadine, tinzaparin, and salicylic acid and bioactive compounds of Mediterranean diet (resveratrol and lipids of olive oil, olive pomace, sea bass “Dicentrarchus labrax,” and gilthead sea bream “Sparus aurata”. The results indicated that the above compounds can influence PAF-CPT activity of HMC.

  12. Characterization of the De Novo Biosynthetic Enzyme of Platelet Activating Factor, DDT-Insensitive Cholinephosphotransferase, of Human Mesangial Cells (United States)

    Tsoupras, Alexandros Basilios; Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Iatrou, Christos; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos Alexandros


    Platelet activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, is implicated in several proinflammatory/inflammatory diseases such as glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, atherosclerosis, cancer, allergy, and diabetes. PAF can be produced by several renal cells under appropriate stimuli and it is thought to be implicated in renal diseases. The aim of this study is the characterization of DTT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT) of human mesangial cell (HMC), the main regulatory enzyme of PAF de novo biosynthetic pathway. Microsomal fractions of mesangial cells were isolated and enzymatic activity and kinetic parameters were determined by TLC and in vitro biological test in rabbit washed platelets. The effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA), dithiothreitol (DTT), divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+), EDTA, and various chemicals on the activity of PAF-CPT of HMC was also studied. Moreover, preliminary in vitro tests have been performed with several anti-inflammatory factors such as drugs (simvastatin, IFNa, rupatadine, tinzaparin, and salicylic acid) and bioactive compounds of Mediterranean diet (resveratrol and lipids of olive oil, olive pomace, sea bass “Dicentrarchus labrax,” and gilthead sea bream “Sparus aurata”). The results indicated that the above compounds can influence PAF-CPT activity of HMC. PMID:17710109

  13. Human platelet lysate as a promising growth-stimulating additive for culturing of stem cells and other cell types. (United States)

    Shanskii, Ya D; Sergeeva, N S; Sviridova, I K; Kirakozov, M S; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Antokhin, A I; Chissov, V I


    We compared the composition and biological activity of fetal calf serum and platelet lysate from donor platelet concentrate. In platelet lysate, the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and mineral metabolism parameters were lower, while parameters of lipid and protein metabolism were higher than in fetal calf serum. The concentrations of growth factors (platelet-derived (AA, AB, BB), vascular endothelial, insulin-like, and transforming growth factor β) in platelet lysate 1.7-148.7-fold surpassed the corresponding parameters in fetal calf serum. After replacement of fetal calf serum with platelet lysate in the culture medium (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%), the count of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells on day 7 (in comparison with day 1) increased by 154.8, 206.6, 228.2, 367.7, and 396.5%, respectively. Thus, platelet lysate can be an adequate non-xenogenic alternative for fetal calf serum.

  14. Comparison between human cord blood serum and platelet-rich plasma supplementation for Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells and dermal fibroblasts culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi SS


    Full Text Available We carried out a side-by-side comparison of the effects of Human cord blood serum (HcbS versus embryonic PRP on Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells(hWMSCand dermal fibroblasts proliferation. Human umbilical cord blood was collected to prepare activated serum (HCS and platelet-rich plasma (CPRP.Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells and dermal fibroblasts were cultured in complete medium with10% CPRP, 10%HCSor 10% fetal bovine serumand control (serum-free media.The efficiency of the protocols was evaluated in terms of the number of adherent cells and their expansion and Cell proliferation. We showed that proliferation of fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of cord blood serum and platelet-rich plasma significantly more than the control group (p≤0/05. As an alternative to FBS, cord blood serum has been proved as an effective component in cell tissue culture applications and embraced a vast future in clinical applications of regenerative medicine. However, there is still a need to explore the potential of HCS and its safe applications in humanized cell therapy or tissue engineering.

  15. The Role of Human Adult Peripheral and Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet-Rich Plasma on Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Fibroblasts. (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyedeh-Sara; Mahmoodi, Mahdokht; Rafati, Ali Reza; Manafi, Farzad; Mehrabani, Davood


    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process following damage in tissue structures. Due to extensive skin damage caused by burn injuries, this study determined the role of human adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood platelet-rich plasma on proliferation and migration in human skin fibroblasts. Platelet-rich plasma (5, 10, 15, 20 and 50% PRP) from human umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood were provided and added to fibroblasts cultured from a human skin sample. Migration and proliferation of fibroblasts were assessed in comparison to 10% FBS and by the fibroblast responses to a concentration gradient. All components of the umbilical cord blood PRP significantly stimulated the growth of fibroblasts when compared to the negative control. Fibroblast growth was enhanced in a dose dependent manner. All fibroblast cultures retained normal morphology. No significant difference was noted between umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood PRP preparations regarding cell proliferation and migration, but the difference to 10% FBS was significant. 1% and 50% PRP reduced cellular proliferation. The 20% umbilical cord blood PRP and 10% adult peripheral blood PRP had a significant stimulatory effect on the migration of the skin fibroblast cells in comparison with 10% FBS. As PRP could promote the migration and proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, it can be safely added in cultures when treatment of chronic wounds without triggering the immune response is needed.

  16. Isolation and Identification of Concanavalin A Binding Glycoproteins from Human Seminal Plasma: A Step Towards Identification of Male Infertility Marker Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Tomar


    Full Text Available Human seminal plasma contains a large array of proteins of clinical importance which are essentially needed to maintain the reproductive physiology of spermatozoa and for successful fertilization. Thus, isolation and identification of seminal plasma proteins is of paramount significance for their biophysical characterization and functional analysis in reproductive physiological processes. In this study, we have isolated Concanavalin-A binding glycoproteins from human seminal plasma and subsequently identified them by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. The major proteins, as identified in this study, are Aminopeptidase N, lactoferrin, prostatic acid phosphatase, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, prostate specific antigen, progestagen-associated endometrial protein, Izumo sperm-egg fusion protein and prolactin inducible protein. This paper also reports preliminary studies to identify altered expression of these proteins in oligospermia and azoospermia in comparison to normospermia. In oligospermia, five proteins were found to be downregulated while in azoospermia, four proteins were downregulated and two proteins were upregulated. Thus, this study is of immense biomedical interest towards identification of potential male infertility marker proteins in seminal plasma.

  17. Effect of carbon black nanomaterial on biological membranes revealed by shape of human erythrocytes, platelets and phospholipid vesicles. (United States)

    Pajnič, Manca; Drašler, Barbara; Šuštar, Vid; Krek, Judita Lea; Štukelj, Roman; Šimundić, Metka; Kononenko, Veno; Makovec, Darko; Hägerstrand, Henry; Drobne, Damjana; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika


    We studied the effect of carbon black (CB) agglomerated nanomaterial on biological membranes as revealed by shapes of human erythrocytes, platelets and giant phospholipid vesicles. Diluted human blood was incubated with CB nanomaterial and observed by different microscopic techniques. Giant unilamellar phospholipid vesicles (GUVs) created by electroformation were incubated with CB nanomaterial and observed by optical microscopy. Populations of erythrocytes and GUVs were analyzed: the effect of CB nanomaterial was assessed by the average number and distribution of erythrocyte shape types (discocytes, echinocytes, stomatocytes) and of vesicles in test suspensions, with respect to control suspensions. Ensembles of representative images were created and analyzed using computer aided image processing and statistical methods. In a population study, blood of 14 healthy human donors was incubated with CB nanomaterial. Blood cell parameters (concentration of different cell types, their volumes and distributions) were assessed. We found that CB nanomaterial formed micrometer-sized agglomerates in citrated and phosphate buffered saline, in diluted blood and in blood plasma. These agglomerates interacted with erythrocyte membranes but did not affect erythrocyte shape locally or globally. CB nanomaterial agglomerates were found to mediate attractive interaction between blood cells and to present seeds for formation of agglomerate - blood cells complexes. Distortion of disc shape of resting platelets due to incubation with CB nanomaterial was not observed. CB nanomaterial induced bursting of GUVs while the shape of the remaining vesicles was on the average more elongated than in control suspension, indicating indirect osmotic effects of CB nanomaterial. CB nanomaterial interacts with membranes of blood cells but does not have a direct effect on local or global membrane shape in physiological in vitro conditions. Blood cells and GUVs are convenient and ethically acceptable

  18. Effect of albumin-bound DHA on phosphoinositide phosphorylation in collagen stimulated human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudette, D.C.; Holub, B.J. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))


    The effect of exogenous albumin-bound docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) (AA), and eicosapendaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (EPA) on phosphoinositide metabolism following collagen stimulation was studied using (3H)inositol prelabelled platelets. Collagen stimulation (3 min, 1.8 micrograms/ml) increased the labelling of both phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2). Of the fatty acids tested, only pre-incubation (2 min) with DHA (20 microM) significantly attenuated the collagen-induced increased PIP and PIP2 labelling; EPA was without effect, while AA enhanced PIP labelling. Forty microM DHA was less effective at attenuating the increased PIP and PIP2 labelling even though this concentration of DHA resulted in greater inhibition of platelet aggregation. Neither concentration of DHA attenuated the increased polyphosphoinositide labelling resulting from stimulation by the endoperoxide analogue U46619, or the phorbol ester, PMA. These data suggest that the effect of DHA on attenuating the increased PIP and PIP2 labelling following collagen stimulation likely occurs before thromboxane receptor occupancy, may not occur at the level of protein kinase C activation, and could be mediated in part via a lessened synthesis of thromboxane A2.

  19. Oral antiplatelet efficacy and specificity of a novel nonpeptide platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist, DMP 802. (United States)

    Mousa, S A; Olson, R E; Bozarth, J M; Lorelli, W; Forsythe, M S; Racanelli, A; Gibbs, S; Schlingman, K; Bozarth, T; Kapil, R; Wityak, J; Sielecki, T M; Wexler, R R; Thoolen, M J; Slee, A; Reilly, T M; Anderson, P S; Friedman, P A


    This study was undertaken to define the platelet glycoprotein alphaIIb beta3 integrin (GPII/IIIa) affinity, specificity, and oral antiplatelet efficacy of DMP 802, a small-molecule nonpeptide antiplatelet agent. Platelet GPIIb/IIIa integrin binding affinity and specificity for DMP 802 were determined by using binding and adhesion assays with cells from various species, including human. DMP 802 demonstrated a potent antiplatelet efficacy [median inhibitory concentration (IC50), 0.029 +/- 0.0042 microM] in inhibiting human platelet aggregation induced by 10 microM adenosine diphosphate (ADP), as assessed by light-transmittance aggregometry. DMP 802 inhibited 125I-fibrinogen binding to activated (ADP, epinephrine, and arachidonic acid at 100 microM each) gel purified human platelets with an IC50 of 0.012 +/- 0.003 microM. DMP 802 demonstrated tight association with unactivated human, baboon, or canine platelets (t(1/2) of dissociation, 32 +/- 2, 32 +/- 13, and 11 +/- 1 min, respectively). DMP 802 binds with high affinity to both unactivated and activated human platelets (Kd = 0.61 +/- 0.17, 0.57 +/- 0.21 nM, respectively). DMP 802 demonstrated species specificity in inhibiting platelet aggregation with IC50 values ranging from 0.025 to 0.092 microM (human, guinea pig, dog, swine, hamster) and 0.88-1.0 microM (rabbit and rat) in platelets obtained from these various species. DMP 802 demonstrated a high degree of specificity for platelet GPIIb/IIIa (alphaIIb/beta3) as compared with other integrins including alpha(v)beta3 (IC50, >10 microM), alpha(v)beta5 (IC50, >100 microM), alpha4beta1 (IC50, >100 microM), and alpha5beta1 (IC50, >10 microM). Oral antiplatelet efficacy of DMP 802 was examined after single oral (0.05-0.20 mg/kg) and after repeated oral dosing at 0.05 mg/kg daily for 5 days in mongrel dogs. Dose-dependent antiplatelet efficacy with an extended duration of antiplatelet efficacy was demonstrated based on ex vivo inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by

  20. Interaction of purified bovine brain A1-adenosine receptors with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of human platelet membranes following reconstitution. (United States)

    Munshi, R; Linden, J


    A1-adenosine receptors and associated guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) have been co-purified from bovine cerebral cortex by agonist affinity chromatography [J. Biol. Chem. 264:14853-14859 (1989)]. In this study we have reconstituted purified bovine brain A1 receptors into human platelet membranes that contain A2- but no detectable A1-adenosine receptors. The recovery of reconstituted receptors was assessed from the binding of the antagonist radioligand [125I]3-(4-amino-3-iodo)phenethyl-1-propyl-8-cyclopentyl-xanthine and ranged from 32 to 84%. Coupling of reconstituted A1 receptors to platelet G proteins was evaluated by measurement of the high affinity binding of an agonist radioligand, 125I-aminobenzyladenosine, to receptor-G protein complexes and by stereospecific photoaffinity labeling of a 35,000-Da receptor polypeptide with the agonist photoaffinity label 125I-azidobenzyladenosine. Fifty percent of receptors reconstituted into platelet membranes bound agonists with high affinity, indicative of coupling to platelet G proteins. Reconstituted A1 receptors bound various ligands with affinities characteristic of A1 receptors of bovine brain. Although platelets contain both pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive G proteins, reconstituted high affinity agonist binding was almost completely abolished by treatment of platelet membranes with guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate, pertussis toxin, N-ethylmaleimide, or heparin. Following reconstitution, A1 receptors could be resolubilized in complexes with platelet G proteins. The data suggest that marked species differences in the binding affinity of ligands to adenosine receptors result from differences in the receptors rather than membrane structure or G proteins and, further, that A1 receptors couple selectively and tightly to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins.

  1. High glucose enhances transient receptor potential channel canonical type 6-dependent calcium influx in human platelets via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Maier, Alexandra; Scholze, Alexandra


    Transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channels mediating 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG)-induced calcium entry have been identified on human platelets. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that hyperglycemia increases the expression of TRPC6 channels....

  2. Influence of sulphate on effects of ADP, 3′,5′-cyclic amp and citrate on human platelet phosphofructokinase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Jan Willem N.; Gorter, G.; Sixma, J.J.; Staal, Gerard E.J.


    1. 1. Sulphate ions activate partially-purified human platelet phosphofructokinase. This is caused by suppression of the cooperativity of the enzyme with respect to fructose 6-phosphate. 2. 2. Sulphate therefore markedly affects the influences of allosteric modifiers such as ADP, 3′,5′-cyclic AMP

  3. The effect of lysolecithin on prostanoid and platelet-activating factor formation by human gall-bladder mucosal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Nag


    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that lysolecithin (lysophosphatidyl choline, LPC produces experimental cholecystitis in cats mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites. LPC is a cytolytic agent that has been postulated as a contributing factor in the development of cholecystitis in humans. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of LPC on human gall-bladder mucosal cell phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase activity. Gall-bladder mucosal cells were isolated from the gall-bladders of patients undergoing routine cholecystectomy. Fresh, isolated cells were maintained in tissue culture and stimulated with varying doses of LPC. Platelet-activating factor concentration was quantitated as an index of phospholipase A2 activity and prostanoids were measured as an index of cyclooxygenase activity. Also, the effect of LPC on cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 expression in microsomal protein was evaluated. LPC caused dose related increases in 6-keto-PGF1α and PAF produced by human gall-bladder mucosal cells. Exposure of human gall-bladder mucosal cells to LPC failed to elicit expression of constitutive cyclooxygenase-1, while the expression of inducible cyclooxygenase-2 was increased. The results of this study indicate that LPC induces the formation of prostanoids and PAF by human gall-bladder mucosal cells, suggesting that this substance may promote the development of gall-bladder inflammation.

  4. Expression of a splice variant of the platelet-activating factor receptor transcript 2 in various human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissam Youlyouz


    Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R transcripts were analysed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in five human cancer cell lines derived from the breast (BT20, SKBR3 and T47D cells, the pancreas (Miapaca cells and the bladder (5637 cells in order to confirm the existence of a splice variant of the PAF-R transcript 2. After cloning and sequencing, we confirmed its existence in all cell lines. It consisted of the PAF-R transcript 2 lengthening with 82 nucleotides from the 3' end of exon 1 of the PAF-R gene. The role of this elongated form of the tissue-type PAF-R transcript in cell physiology remains to be elucidated.

  5. Release of adenosine from human neutrophils stimulated by platelet activating factor, leukotriene B4 and opsonized zymosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sipka


    Full Text Available Isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL stimulated by platelet activating factor (PAF, leukotriene B4 (LTB4 or opsonized zymosan (OZ released adenosine measured by thermospray high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in the cell-free supernatants. Stimulation by PAF or LTB4 resulted in a bellshaped concentration-effect curve; 5 × 10−7 M PAF, 10−8 M LTB4 and 500 μg ml−1 OZ induced peak adenosine release, thus cytotoxic concentrations did not elevate adenosine level in the supernatants. Therefore adenosine release was characteristic of viable cells. As calculated from concentration-effect curves, the rank order of potency for adenosine release was PAF > LTB > OZ. These resuits suggest that adenosine, when bound specifically to membrane receptor sites, may initiate signal transduction, and, in co-operation with other inflammatory mediators, may modulate phagocyte function, e.g. production of chemoluminescence (CL.

  6. Engineering new bone via a minimally invasive route using human bone marrow-derived stromal cell aggregates, microceramic particles, and human platelet-rich plasma gel. (United States)

    Chatterjea, Anindita; Yuan, Huipin; Fennema, Eelco; Burer, Ruben; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Garritsen, Henk; Renard, Auke; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan


    There is a rise in the popularity of arthroscopic procedures in orthopedics. However, the majority of cell-based bone tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) rely on solid preformed scaffolding materials, which require large incisions and extensive dissections for placement at the defect site. Thus, they are not suitable for minimally invasive techniques. The aim of this study was to develop a clinically relevant, easily moldable, bone TEC, amenable to minimally invasive techniques, using human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and calcium phosphate microparticles in combination with an in situ forming platelet-rich plasma gel obtained from human platelets. Most conventional TECs rely on seeding and culturing single-cell suspensions of hMSCs on scaffolds. However, for generating TECs amenable to the minimally invasive approach, it was essential to aggregate the hMSCs in vitro before seeding them on the scaffolds as unaggregated MSCs did not generate any bone. Twenty four hours of in vitro aggregation was determined to be optimal for maintaining cell viability in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was observed in the amount of bone formed when the TECs were implanted via an open approach or a minimally invasive route. TECs generated using MSCs from three different human donors generated new bone through the minimally invasive route in a reproducible manner, suggesting that these TECs could be a viable alternative to preformed scaffolds employed through an open surgery for treating bone defects.

  7. Biochemical characterization and crystalization of human Zn-α2-glycoprotein, a soluble class I major histocompatibility complex homolog