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Sample records for human platelet glycoprotein

  1. Glycoprotein biosynthesis by human normal platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Bello, O.; Apitz-Castro, R.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporation of radioactive Man, Gal, Fuc, Glc-N, and NANA into washed human normal platelets and endogenous glycoproteins has been found. Both parameters were time dependent. Analysis of hydrolyzed labeled glycoproteins by paper chromatography revealed that the radioactive monosaccharide incubated with the platelets had not been converted into other sugars. Acid hydrolysis demonstrates the presence of a glycosidic linkage. All the effort directed to the demonstration of the existence of a lipid-sugar intermediate in intact human platelets yielded negative results for Man and Glc-N used as precursors. The incorporation of these sugars into glycoproteins is insensitive to bacitracin, suggesting no involvement of lipid-linked saccharides in the synthesis of glycoproteins in human blood platelets. The absence of inhibition of the glycosylation process in the presence of cycloheximide suggests that the sugars are added to proteins present in the intact platelets. These results support the contention that glycoprotein biosynthesis in human blood platelets observed under our experimental conditions is effected through direct sugar nucleotide glycosylation

  2. Human platelet glycoprotein IX: An adhesive prototype of leucine-rich glycoproteins with flank-center-flank structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, M.J.; Williams, S.A.; Roth, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex on the surface of human platelets functions as the von Willebrand factor receptor and mediates von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion to blood vessels. GPIX is a relatively small (M r , 17,000) protein that may provide for membrane insertion and orientation of the larger component of the complex. GPIb (M r , 165,000). Using antibody screening, the authors cloned a cDNA encoding GPIX from a human erythroleukemia cell cDNA library constructed in phage λgt11. Lacking a 5' untranslated region and start codon, the cDNA sequence includes 604 nucleotides, beginning with 495 bases at the 5' end coding for 165 amino acids, followed by a stop codon and 106 noncoding bases at the 3' end. By Northern blot analysis, the GPIX cDNA hybridizes with a single 1.0-kilobase species of platelet poly(A) + RNA. Translation of the cDNA sequence gives a predicted protein sequence beginning with a truncated putative signal sequence of 5 amino acids followed by a sequence of 17 amino acids matching that determined directly by Edman degradation of intact GPIX. GPIX contains a leucine-rich glycoprotein (LRG) sequence of 24 amino acids similar to conserved LRG sequences in GPIb and other proteins from humans, Drosophila, and yeast. The role of the flank-LRG center-flank structure in the evolution and function of the LRG proteins remains to be defined

  3. Human platelet glycoprotein Ia. One component is only expressed on the surface of activated platelets and may be a granule constituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienz, D.; Clemetson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glycoprotein Ia (GP Ia) is a relatively minor component of human blood platelets thought to be a receptor involved in collagen-induced platelet activation. However, some difficulties exist with the definition of this glycoprotein. The expression of GP Ia on resting (prostacyclin analogue-treated) and thrombin-activated platelets was compared by surface labeling with 125 I-lactoperoxidase. Intact platelets or platelets solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate were labeled with periodate/[ 3 H]NaBH 4 . Analysis on two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels showed that GP Ia is very poorly labeled in resting platelets. After activation a new spot (GP Ia*) appears with the same relative molecular mass as GP Ia under reducing conditions. GP Ia and Ia* can be clearly separated by two-dimensional nonreduced/reduced gel electrophoresis. Therefore, two glycoproteins which have been termed GP Ia exist in platelets with similar molecular weight and pI under reducing conditions. One of these (GP Ia*) is only surface-labeled when platelets are activated, indicating that it is only exposed on the surface of activated platelets. Supernatant from activated platelets contains this glycoprotein as well as other granule components. This glycoprotein is missing in platelets from two patients with collagen-response defects

  4. N-terminal sequence of human leukocyte glycoprotein Mo1: conservation across species and homology to platelet IIb/IIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, M W; Remold-O'Donnell, E; Todd, R F; Arnaout, M A

    1986-12-12

    Mo1 and gp160-gp93 are two surface membrane glycoprotein heterodimers present on granulocytes and monocytes derived from humans and guinea pigs, respectively. We purified both antigens and found that their alpha subunits had identical N-termini which were significantly homologous to the alpha subunit of the human adhesion platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.

  5. Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    provide a unique microenvironment supporting the accumulation of more platelets and the elaboration of a fibrin - rich network produced by coagulation...process and can initiate the formation of a platelet - rich thrombus by tethering the platelet to a thrombogenic surface. Several ligands binding to GP Ib... Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jerry Ware, Ph.D

  6. Glycoprotein Ib activation by thrombin stimulates the energy metabolism in human platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona de la Peña, Norma; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Thrombin-induced platelet activation requires substantial amounts of ATP. However, the specific contribution of each ATP-generating pathway i.e., oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) versus glycolysis and the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced activation of energy metabolism remain unclear. Here we report an integral analysis on the role of both energy pathways in human platelets activated by several agonists, and the signal transducing mechanisms associated with such activation. We found that thrombin, Trap-6, arachidonic acid, collagen, A23187, epinephrine and ADP significantly increased glycolytic flux (3–38 times vs. non-activated platelets) whereas ristocetin was ineffective. OxPhos (33 times) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (88%) were increased only by thrombin. OxPhos was the main source of ATP in thrombin-activated platelets, whereas in platelets activated by any of the other agonists, glycolysis was the principal ATP supplier. In order to establish the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced OxPhos activation in platelets, several signaling pathways associated with mitochondrial activation were analyzed. Wortmannin and LY294002 (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors), ristocetin and heparin (GPIb inhibitors) as well as resveratrol, ATP (calcium-release inhibitors) and PP1 (Tyr-phosphorylation inhibitor) prevented the thrombin-induced platelet activation. These results suggest that thrombin activates OxPhos and glycolysis through GPIb-dependent signaling involving PI3K and Akt activation, calcium mobilization and protein phosphorylation. PMID:28817667

  7. Functionalized Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Selectively Binds to Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on Activated Human Platelets under Flow Conditions and Is Detectable at Clinically Relevant Field Strengths

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    Constantin von zur Mühlen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides the opportunity to image cells and cellular receptors using microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs. However, imaging targets on vessel walls remains challenging owing to the quantity of contrast agents delivered to areas of interest under shear stress conditions. We evaluated ex vivo binding characteristics of a functional MRI contrast agent to ligand-induced binding sites (LIBSs on activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors of human platelets, which were lining rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques and could therefore facilitate detection of platelet-mediated pathology in atherothrombotic disease. MPIOs were conjugated to anti-LIBS single-chain antibodies (LIBS-MPIO or control antibodies (control MPIO. Ex vivo binding to human platelet-rich clots in a dose-dependent manner was confirmed on a 3 T clinical MRI scanner and by histology (p < .05 for LIBS-MPIO vs control MPIO. By using a flow chamber setup, significant binding of LIBS-MPIO to a platelet matrix was observed under venous and arterial flow conditions, but not for control MPIO (p < .001. A newly generated MRI contrast agent detects activated human platelets at clinically relevant magnetic field strengths and binds to platelets under venous and arterial flow conditions, conveying high payloads of contrast to specific molecular targets. This may provide the opportunity to identify vulnerable, rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques via noninvasive MRI.

  8. A Taq 1 polymorphism for the human platelet glycoprotein IIIa gene (GP3A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burk, C; Ingram, C; Weiner, M; Rappaport, E F; Schwartz, E; Poncz, M [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA)

    1988-07-25

    A cDNA clone containing a 4.0 kb GPIIIa insert was isolated from a human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell cDNA library. A 2.3 kb Eco RI fragment, representing the 5{prime} portion of this insert, was used as a probe for these Southern blot experiments. Taq I (T/CGA) identifies invariant bands of 5.0, 3.5, 1.3, 1.1, and 0.8 kb and a simple polymorphism with a band(s) at 8.0 kb or 4.8 and 3.2 kb. The frequency of the gene was studied in 17 persons (11 Caucasians, 3 Asians, and 3 blacks). The GPIIIa gene has been localized to the region 17q21{r arrow}22 by somatic cell hybrid and in situ hybridization studies. Mendelian inheritance was demonstrated in one family. The father is homozygous for the 8.0 kb band, and the mother is heterozygous for the 8.0/4.8 and 3.2 kb bands.

  9. Glycoprotein Ibalpha signalling in platelet apoptosis and clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, E.

    2010-01-01

    Storage of platelets at low temperature reduces bacterial growth and might better preserve the haemostatic function of platelets than current procedures. Incubation at 0C is known to expose ?-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-residues on glycoprotein (GP)Ibalpha inducing receptor-clustering and platelet

  10. Glycoprotein Ibα clustering in platelet storage and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gitz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are anucleated, discoid-shaped cells that play an essential role in the formation of a hemostatic plug to prevent blood loss from injured vessels. Initial platelet arrest at the damaged arterial vessel wall is mediated through the interaction between the platelet receptor glycoprotein (GP)

  11. Comparison of cDNA-derived protein sequences of the human fibronectin and vitronectin receptor α-subunits and platelet glycoprotein IIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, L.A.; Poncz, M.; Steiner, B.; Rall, S.C. Jr.; Bennett, J.S.; Phillips, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The fibronectin receptor (FnR), the vitronectin receptor (VnR), and the platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex are members of a family of cell adhesion receptors, which consist of noncovalently associated α- and β-subunits. The present study was designed to compare the cDNA-derived protein sequences of the α-subunits of human FnR, VnR, and platelet GP IIb. cDNA clones for the α-subunit of the FnR (FnR/sub α/) were obtained from a human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cell library by using an oligonucleotide probe designed from a peptide sequence of platelet GP IIb. cDNA clones for platelet GP IIb were isolated from a cDNA expression library of human erythroleukemia cells by using antibodies. cDNA clones of the VnR α-subunit (VnR/sub α/) were obtained from the HUVE cell library by using an oligonucleotide probe from the partial cDNA sequence for the VnR/sub α/. Translation of these sequences showed that the FNR/sub α/, the VnR/sub α/, and GP IIb are composed of disulfide-linked large (858-871 amino acids) and small (137-158 amino acids) chains that are posttranslationally processed from a single mRNA. A single hydrophobic segment located near the carboxyl terminus of each small chain appears to be a transmembrane domain. The large chains appear to be entirely extracellular, and each contains four repeated putative Ca 2+ -binding domains of about 30 amino acids that have sequence similarities to other Ca 2+ -binding proteins. The identity among the protein sequences of the three receptor α-subunits ranges from 36.1% to 44.5%, with the Ca 2+ -binding domains having the greatest homology. These proteins apparently evolved by a process of gene duplication

  12. Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    initiate coagulation, resulting in the formation of a fibrin - rich tumor cell- platelet emboli (Figure 1). Many of these coagulation factor-tumor cell...the tumor cell in a fibrin - rich web. (13;23;24) During this process, the platelet integrin receptor, aIIb 3, serves as a receptor linking fibrin ... platelets , and tumor cells into a fibrin rich clot normally associated with a thrombus. (25;25) Indeed, it can be speculated the fibrin - rich clot

  13. The value of flow cytometric analysis of platelet glycoprotein expression of CD34+ cells measured under conditions that prevent P-selectin-mediated binding of platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercksen, M. W.; Weimar, I. S.; Richel, D. J.; Breton-Gorius, J.; Vainchenker, W.; Slaper-Cortenbach, C. M.; Pinedo, H. M.; von dem Borne, A. E.; Gerritsen, W. R.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we show by adhesion assays and ultrastructural studies that platelets can bind to CD34+ cells from human blood and bone marrow and that this interaction interferes with the accurate detection of endogenously expressed platelet glycoproteins (GPs). The interaction between these

  14. Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36

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    Roger S. Holmes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36 (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3] is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate

  15. Modified expression of surface glyconjugates in stored human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, A.; Ganguly, P.

    1987-01-01

    Platelets are anucleated cells which play an important part in blood coagulation and thrombosis. These cells may be stored in the blood bank for only 4/5 days. In order to improve the storage of platelets, it is essential to first understand the changes in these cells due to storage. In this work, human platelets were stored in autologous plasma at 4 0 or 22 0 and their surface changes were monitored with three lectins - wheat germ afflutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (Con A) and lentil lectin (LL). Blood was drawn from healthy donors and platelet rich plasma (PRP) was collected by slow speed centrifugation. Platelets stored at either temperature for different times showed increased sensitivity to agglutination by WGA after 34-48 hrs. Lectins, Con A and LL, which were not agglutinating to fresh platelets readily caused agglutination after 48-72 hrs. The platelets stored for 25 hrs or longer period were insensitive to thrombin but showed enhanced aggregation with WGA. Labelling of surface glycoconjugates of stored platelets with 3 H-boro-hydride revealed progressive loss of a glycoprotein of Mr 150,000 (GPIb infinity) together with the appearance of components of Mr 69,000; Mr 60,000; Mr 25,000. New high molecular weight glycoproteins were also detected only in stored platelets. The author studies clearly indicate that modification or altered expression of platelets surface glycoproteins may be one factor of storage related dysfunction of platelets

  16. Modified expression of surface glyconjugates in stored human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, A.; Ganguly, P.

    1987-05-01

    Platelets are anucleated cells which play an important part in blood coagulation and thrombosis. These cells may be stored in the blood bank for only 4/5 days. In order to improve the storage of platelets, it is essential to first understand the changes in these cells due to storage. In this work, human platelets were stored in autologous plasma at 4/sup 0/ or 22/sup 0/ and their surface changes were monitored with three lectins - wheat germ afflutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (Con A) and lentil lectin (LL). Blood was drawn from healthy donors and platelet rich plasma (PRP) was collected by slow speed centrifugation. Platelets stored at either temperature for different times showed increased sensitivity to agglutination by WGA after 34-48 hrs. Lectins, Con A and LL, which were not agglutinating to fresh platelets readily caused agglutination after 48-72 hrs. The platelets stored for 25 hrs or longer period were insensitive to thrombin but showed enhanced aggregation with WGA. Labelling of surface glycoconjugates of stored platelets with /sup 3/H-boro-hydride revealed progressive loss of a glycoprotein of Mr 150,000 (GPIb infinity) together with the appearance of components of Mr 69,000; Mr 60,000; Mr 25,000. New high molecular weight glycoproteins were also detected only in stored platelets. The author studies clearly indicate that modification or altered expression of platelets surface glycoproteins may be one factor of storage related dysfunction of platelets.

  17. Flow cytometric analysis of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 and surface glycoproteins in patients with immune thrombocytopenia and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubak, Peter; Kristensen, Steen D; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-06-01

    Immature platelets may contain more platelet enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 than mature platelets. Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) have a higher fraction of immature platelets and can therefore be utilized as a biological model for investigating COX-1 and COX-2 platelet expression. The aims were to develop flow cytometric assays for platelet COX-1 and COX-2 and to investigate the COX-1 and COX-2 platelet expression, platelet turnover, and platelet glycoproteins in ITP patients (n = 10) compared with healthy individuals (n = 30). Platelet count and platelet turnover parameters (mean platelet volume (MPV), immature platelet fraction (IPF), and immature platelet count (IPC)) were measured by flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-5000). Platelet COX-1, COX-2, and the glycoproteins (GP)IIb, IX, Ib, Ia, and IIIa were all analyzed by flow cytometry (Navios) and expressed as median fluorescence intensity. COX analyses were performed in both whole blood and platelet rich plasma (PRP), whereas platelet glycoproteins were analyzed in whole blood only. ITP patients had significantly lower platelet count (55 × 10 9 /L) than healthy individuals (240 × 10 9 /L, p platelet count and IPC (both p-values Platelet COX-1 expression was higher in ITP patients than healthy individuals using whole blood (p COX-1 platelet turnover and COX-1 expression (all p-values platelet turnover and COX-1 and COX-2 expressions (all p-values platelet turnover in ITP patients (all p-values 0.14, rho = 0.11-0.28). In conclusion, ITP patients expressed higher COX-1 and platelet glycoprotein levels than healthy individuals. COX-1 and platelet glycoproteins demonstrated positive correlations with platelet turnover in ITP patients. In healthy individuals, COX-1 and COX-2 expression correlated positively with platelet turnover. PRP was more sensitive compared with whole blood as regards determination of COX. Therefore, PRP is the recommended matrix for investigating COX-1 and COX-2 in

  18. Mechanical circulatory support is associated with loss of platelet receptors glycoprotein Ibα and glycoprotein VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukito, P; Wong, A; Jing, J; Arthur, J F; Marasco, S F; Murphy, D A; Bergin, P J; Shaw, J A; Collecutt, M; Andrews, R K; Gardiner, E E; Davis, A K

    2016-11-01

    Essentials Relationship of acquired von Willebrand disease (VWD) and platelet dysfunction is explored. Patients with ventricular assist devices and on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are investigated. Acquired VWD and platelet receptor shedding is demonstrated in the majority of patients. Loss of platelet adhesion receptors glycoprotein (GP) Ibα and GPVI may increase bleeding risk. Background Ventricular assist devices (VADs) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are associated with bleeding that is not fully explained by anticoagulant or antiplatelet use. Exposure of platelets to elevated shear in vitro leads to increased shedding. Objectives To investigate whether loss of platelet receptors occurs in vivo, and the relationship with acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). Methods Platelet counts, coagulation tests and von Willebrand factor (VWF) analyses were performed on samples from 21 continuous flow VAD (CF-VAD), 20 ECMO, 12 heart failure and seven aortic stenosis patients. Levels of platelet receptors were measured by flow cytometry or ELISA. Results The loss of high molecular weight VWF multimers was observed in 18 of 19 CF-VAD and 14 of 20 ECMO patients, consistent with AVWS. Platelet receptor shedding was demonstrated by elevated soluble glycoprotein (GP) VI levels in plasma and significantly reduced surface GPIbα and GPVI levels in CF-VAD and ECMO patients as compared with healthy donors. Platelet receptor levels were also significantly reduced in heart failure patients. Conclusions These data link AVWS and increased platelet receptor shedding in patients with CF-VADs or ECMO for the first time. Loss of the platelet surface receptors GPIbα and GPVI in heart failure, CF-VAD and ECMO patients may contribute to ablated platelet adhesion/activation, and limit thrombus formation under high/pathologic shear conditions. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Superoxide dismutase of human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akiro; Fujimura, Kingo; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1979-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (S.O.D.) is the enzyme to protect from destructive effect of superoxide (O 2 -) produced in many metabolic pathways related to oxygen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that S.O.D. may play an important role in the platelet function. The cytoplasmic and mitochondrial S.O.D. has been investigated spectrophotometrically and gel electrophoretically in human platelets from eleven patients of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and three patients of primary thrombocythemia (P.Th.). Neither deficiency nor abnormality of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial S.O.D. has been found electrophoretically in any case compared to normal platelets. However, the total activity from three of the CML patients and one of the P.Th. patients were above 3 unit/mg platelet protein (normal subject: 2.11 - 2.70 unit/mg protein), suggesting the possibility either that more O 2 -production occurs in the platelets or that rather little O 2 -production due to much O 2 -deprivation by the increased S.O.D. The S.O.D. activity of human platelets has been also investigated in several conditions, where much O 2 -generation might occur in platelets. Sodium fluoride (2 mM), which increases platelet O 2 -production about 3 fold, had no effect on platelet S.O.D. The aggregated platelets induced by ADP (10 -5 M), epinephrin (50 μg/ml), ristocetin (1.5 mg/ml) or collagen (1 - 20 μg/ml) had no increase of S.O.D. activity compared to that from non aggregated platelets. X-ray irradiation (1,000 - 20,000R) had not induced its activity increase or decrease. These findings indicated the induction of platelet S.O.D. was not brought about under these conditions. (author)

  20. Platelets Drive Thrombus Propagation in a Hematocrit and Glycoprotein VI-Dependent Manner in an In Vitro Venous Thrombosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marcus; Schoeman, Rogier M; Krohl, Patrick J; Wallbank, Alison M; Samaniuk, Joseph R; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Neeves, Keith B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the role of platelets and red blood cells on thrombus propagation in an in vitro model of venous valvular stasis. A microfluidic model with dimensional similarity to human venous valves consists of a sinus distal to a sudden expansion, where for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, 2 countercurrent vortices arise because of flow separation. The primary vortex is defined by the points of flow separation and reattachment. A secondary vortex forms in the deepest recess of the valve pocket characterized by low shear rates. An initial fibrin gel formed within the secondary vortex of a tissue factor-coated valve sinus. Platelets accumulated at the interface of the fibrin gel and the primary vortex. Red blood cells at physiological hematocrits were necessary to provide an adequate flux of platelets to support thrombus growth out of the valve sinus. A subpopulation of platelets that adhered to fibrin expose phosphatidylserine. Platelet-dependent thrombus growth was attenuated by inhibition of glycoprotein VI with a blocking Fab fragment or D-dimer. A 3-step process regulated by hemodynamics was necessary for robust thrombus propagation: First, immobilized tissue factor initiates coagulation and fibrin deposition within a low flow niche defined by a secondary vortex in the pocket of a model venous valve. Second, a primary vortex delivers platelets to the fibrin interface in a red blood cell-dependent manner. Third, platelets adhere to fibrin, activate through glycoprotein VI, express phosphatidylserine, and subsequently promote thrombus growth beyond the valve sinus and into the bulk flow. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of rhesus monkey platelet glycoprotein Ibα, a major ligand-binding subunit of GPIb-IX-V complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianlin; Shen, Yang; Shi, Meimei; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2014-05-01

    Through binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF), platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, the major ligand-binding subunit of the GPIb-IX-V complex, initiates platelet adhesion and aggregation in response to exposed VWF or elevated fluid-shear stress. There is little data regarding non-human primate platelet GPIbα. This study cloned and characterized rhesus monkey (Macaca Mullatta) platelet GPIbα. DNAMAN software was used for sequence analysis and alignment. N/O-glycosylation sites and 3-D structure modelling were predicted by online OGPET v1.0, NetOGlyc 1.0 Server and SWISS-MODEL, respectively. Platelet function was evaluated by ADP- or ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Rhesus monkey GPIbα contains 2,268 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 755 amino acids. Rhesus monkey GPIbα nucleotide and protein sequences share 93.27% and 89.20% homology respectively, with human. Sequences encoding the leucine-rich repeats of rhesus monkey GPIbα share strong similarity with human, whereas PEST sequences and N/O-glycosylated residues vary. The GPIbα-binding residues for thrombin, filamin A and 14-3-3ζ are highly conserved between rhesus monkey and human. Platelet function analysis revealed monkey and human platelets respond similarly to ADP, but rhesus monkey platelets failed to respond to low doses of ristocetin where human platelets achieved 76% aggregation. However, monkey platelets aggregated in response to higher ristocetin doses. Monkey GPIbα shares strong homology with human GPIbα, however there are some differences in rhesus monkey platelet activation through GPIbα engagement, which need to be considered when using rhesus monkey platelet to investigate platelet GPIbα function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Collagen can selectively trigger a platelet secretory phenotype via glycoprotein VI.

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    Véronique Ollivier

    Full Text Available Platelets are not only central actors of hemostasis and thrombosis but also of other processes including inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Accumulating evidence indicates that these "non classical" functions of platelets do not necessarily rely on their well-known ability to form thrombi upon activation. This suggests the existence of non-thrombotic alternative states of platelets activation. We investigated this possibility through dose-response analysis of thrombin- and collagen-induced changes in platelet phenotype, with regards to morphological and functional markers of platelet activation including shape change, aggregation, P-selectin and phosphatidylserine surface expression, integrin activation, and release of soluble factors. We show that collagen at low dose (0.25 µg/mL selectively triggers a platelet secretory phenotype characterized by the release of dense- and alpha granule-derived soluble factors without causing any of the other major platelet changes that usually accompany thrombus formation. Using a blocking antibody to glycoprotein VI (GPVI, we further show that this response is mediated by GPVI. Taken together, our results show that platelet activation goes beyond the mechanisms leading to platelet aggregation and also includes alternative platelet phenotypes that might contribute to their thrombus-independent functions.

  3. Calcium-binding proteins from human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogstad, G.O.; Krutnes, M.B.; Solum, N.O.

    1983-01-01

    Calcium-binding platelet proteins were examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis of solubilized platelets against antibodies to whole platelets followed by incubation of the immunoplates with 45 Ca 2 + and autoradiography. When the immunoplates had been pretreated with EDTA at pH 9.0 in order to remove divalent cations, three immunoprecipitates were markedly labelled with 45 Ca 2 + . These corresponded to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, glycoprotein Ia and a presently unidentified antigen termed G18. These antigens were membrane-bound and surface-oriented. When an excess of EDTA was introduced in the incubation media the results revealed that the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex and antigen G18, but not glycoprotein Ia, contained sites with a stronger affinity for calcium than has EDTA at pH 7.4 Immunoprecipitates of the separate glycoproteins IIb and IIIa both bound calcium in the same manner as the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. As another approach, platelet-rich plasma was incubated with 45 Ca 2 + prior to crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the solubilized platelets. A single immunoprecipitate was wekly labelled. This did not correspond to any of the immunoprecipitates which were visible after staining with Coomassie blue. The labelling of this antigen was markedly increased when the platelt-rich plasma had been preincubated with EDTA and in this case a weak labelling of the glycoprotein IIB-IIIa precipitate also became apparent. No increased incorporation of calcium occured in any of these immunoprecipitates when the platelets were aggregated with ADP in the presence of 45 Ca 2 + . (orig.)

  4. Rhodocytin (aggretin) activates platelets lacking alpha(2)beta(1) integrin, glycoprotein VI, and the ligand-binding domain of glycoprotein Ibalpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmeier, W; Bouvard, D; Eble, J A

    2001-01-01

    Although alpha(2)beta(1) integrin (glycoprotein Ia/IIa) has been established as a platelet collagen receptor, its role in collagen-induced platelet activation has been controversial. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rhodocytin (also termed aggretin), a snake venom toxin purified from the v...

  5. Dimerization of glycoprotein Ibα is not sufficient to induce platelet clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X; Syed, A K; Russell, S R; Ware, J; Li, R

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: Many anti-glycoprotein (GP)Ibα antibodies induce platelet clearance in a dimer-dependent manner. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that bind the mechanosensitive domain (MSD) of GPIbα. An anti-MSD antibody binds two copies of GPIbα in platelets but does not induce platelet clearance. The prevailing clustering model of GPIbα signaling is incorrect or needs revision. The mechanism of platelet clearance is not clear. Many antibodies binding the membrane-distal ligand-binding domain of glycoprotein (GP)Ibα induce rapid clearance of platelets and acute thrombocytopenia, which requires the bifurcated antibody structure. It was thought that binding of these antibodies induced lateral dimerization or clustering of GPIbα in the plasma membrane, which leads to downstream signaling and platelet clearance. However, many antibodies targeting GPIbβ and GPIX, which are associated with GPIbα in the GPIb-IX complex, do not induce platelet clearance, which is in contradiction to the clustering model. To test whether dimerization or clustering of GPIbα is sufficient to transmit the signal that leads to platelet clearance. We have recently raised several mAbs targeting the mechanosensitive domain (MSD) of GPIbα. Binding of these anti-MSD antibodies was characterized with biochemical methods. Their ability to stimulate platelets and induce platelet clearance in mice was assessed. Infusion of anti-MSD antibodies does not cause thrombocytopenia in mice. These antibodies show no detectable effects on platelet activation and aggregation in vitro. Further biochemical investigation showed that the anti-MSD antibody 3D1 binds two copies of GPIbα on the platelet surface. Therefore, lateral dimerization of GPIbα induced by antibody binding is not sufficient to initiate GPIb-IX signaling and induce platelet clearance. Our results suggest that a factor other than or in addition to clustering of GPIbα is required to induce platelet clearance. © 2015 International

  6. Radioimmune assay of human platelet prostaglandin synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, G.J.; Machuga, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Normal platelet function depends, in part, on platelet PG synthesis. PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) catalyzes the first step in PG synthesis, the formation of PGH 2 from arachidonic acid. Inhibition of the enzyme by ASA results in an abnormality in the platelet release reaction. Patients with pparent congenital abnormalities in the enzyme have been described, and the effects have been referred to as ''aspirin-like'' defects of the platelet function. These patients lack platelet PG synthetase activity, but the actual content of PG synthetase protein in these individuals' platelets is unknown. Therefore an RIA for human platelet PG synthetase would provide new information, useful in assessing the aspirin-like defects of platelet function. An RIA for human platelet PG synthetase is described. The assay utilizes a rabbit antibody directed against the enzyme and [ 125 I]-labelled sheep PG synthetase as antigen. The human platelet enzyme is assayed by its ability to inhibit precipitation of the [ 125 I]antigen. The assay is sensitive to 1 ng of enzyme. By the immune assay, human platelets contain approximately 1200 ng of PG synethetase protein per 1.5 mg of platelet protein (approximately 10 9 platelets). This content corresponds to 10,000 enzyme molecules per platelet. The assay provides a rapid and convenient assay for the human platelet enzyme, and it can be applied to the assessment of patients with apparent platelet PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) deficiency

  7. Human Platelet Senescence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    ability to measure certain enzymes to their oxidation-reduc other enzymes which can be measured by o phosphatase , acid phosphatase , chymotryp...alkaline sin, trypsin, esterases (17)); M use of n A or wheat germ agglutinin in the second etect specific carbohydrate constituents. We have...Von Willebrand factor. Nurden and Caen also demonstrated that GPI was rich in sialic acid (5) and probably responsible for the platelets’ surface

  8. Platelet glycoprotein VI binds to polymerized fibrin and promotes thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadova-Bach, Elmina; Ollivier, Véronique; Loyau, Stéphane; Schaff, Mathieu; Dumont, Bénédicte; Favier, Rémi; Freyburger, Geneviève; Latger-Cannard, Véronique; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Gachet, Christian; Mangin, Pierre H; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine

    2015-07-30

    Fibrin, the coagulation end product, consolidates the platelet plug at sites of vascular injury and supports the recruitment of circulating platelets. In addition to integrin αIIbβ3, another as-yet-unidentified receptor is thought to mediate platelet interaction with fibrin. Platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI) interacts with collagen and several other adhesive macromolecules. We evaluated the hypothesis that GPVI could be a functional platelet receptor for fibrin. Calibrated thrombin assays using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) showed that tissue factor-triggered thrombin generation was impaired in GPVI-deficient patients and reduced by the anti-GPVI Fab 9O12. Assays on reconstituted PRP and PRP from fibrinogen-deficient patients revealed a fibrinogen-dependent enhancement of thrombin generation, which relied on functional GPVI. The effect of GPVI was found to depend on fibrin polymerization. A binding assay showed a specific interaction between GPVI-Fc and fibrin, inhibited by the Fab 9O12. This Fab also reduced platelet adhesion to fibrin at low (300 s(-1)) and high (1500 s(-1)) wall shear rates. Platelets adherent to fibrin displayed shape change, exposure of procoagulant phospholipids, and the formation of small clots. When hirudinated blood was perfused at 1500 s(-1) over preformed fibrin-rich clots, the Fab 9O12 decreased the recruitment of platelets by up to 85%. This study identifies GPVI as a platelet receptor for polymerized fibrin with 2 major functions: (1) amplification of thrombin generation and (2) recruitment of circulating platelets to clots. These so-far-unrecognized properties of GPVI confer on it a key role in thrombus growth and stabilization. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Genomic clone encoding the α chain of the OKM1, LFA-1, and platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, L.J.; Sandrin, M.S.; Rajasekariah, P.; McKenzie, I.F.C.

    1986-01-01

    LFA-1, an antigen involved in cytolytic T lymphocyte-mediated killing, and Mac-1, the receptor for complement component C3bi, constitute a family of structurally and functionally related cell surface glycoproteins involved in cellular interactions. In both mouse and man, Mac-1 (OKM1) and LFA-1 share a common 95-kDa β subunit but are distinguished by their α chains, which have different cellular distributions, apparent molecular masses (165 and 177 kDa, respectively), and peptide maps. The authors report the isolation of a genomic clone from a human genomic library that on transfection into mouse fibroblasts produced a molecule(s) reactive with monoclonal antibodies to OKM1, to LFA-1, and to platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. This gene was cloned by several cycles of transfection of L cells with a human genomic library cloned in λ phase Charon 4A and subsequent rescue of the λ phage. Transfection with the purified recombinant λ DNA yielded a transfectant that expressed the three human α chains of OKM1, LFA-1, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa, presumably in association with the murine β chain

  10. The prevalence of the platelet glycoprotein VI polymorphisms in patients with sticky platelet syndrome and ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisz, Peter; Ivanková, Jela; Škereňová, Mária; Staško, Ján; Hollý, Pavol

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic variability of the GP6 gene in patients with sticky platelet syndrome (SPS), a disorder characterized by platelet hyperaggregability, and thus to identify the genetic changes of the glycoprotein VI with possible relation to the platelet hyperaggregability. Seventy-one patients with SPS, clinically manifested as ischemic stroke, and 77 controls without SPS and with negative personal history of thromboembolic events were involved. SPS was diagnosed by platelet aggregometry (PACKS-4 aggregometer, Helena Laboratories) according to the method and criteria described by Mammen and Bick. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GP6 gene (rs1654410, rs1671153, rs1654419, rs11669150, rs1613662, rs12610286, and rs1654431) were evaluated with the use of restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis. All allele and genotype frequencies were comparable between both SPS patients and the control group with no statistically significant differences. The haplotype analysis showed a higher occurrence of the one major haplotype (TTGTGA, 0.228 vs. 0.174; odds ratio (OR) 1.421; confidence interval (CI) 0.799-2.526) and two minor haplotypes (CGATAA, 0,026 vs. 0,006; OR 4.117; CI 0.443-38.25; TTGTGG, 0.018 vs. 0.009; OR 2.107; CI 0.259-17.12) in patients with SPS. None of haplotype differences was statistically significant. However, both the allele G of SNP rs12610286 (P = 0.029; OR 2.411; CI 1.134-5.123) and one major haplotype (TTGTGA; P = 0.012; OR 2.749; CI 1.223-6.174) were found significantly more frequent in patients with SPS type I in comparison with controls. Our results, especially higher occurrence of four haplotypes in SPS patients, can support an idea that variability of the GP6 gene may be associated with the platelet hyperaggregability in SPS.

  11. Effect of losartan on human platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Cuesta, J I; Montón, M; Rodríguez-Feo, J A; Jiménez, A M; González-Fernández, F; Rico, L A; García, R; Gómez, J; Farré, J; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    1999-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that losartan can block the thromboxane A2 receptor on the vascular wall. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of losartan on human platelet activation. Platelets were obtained from 15 healthy men, aged 26-40 years. Platelet activation was measured by changes in the light transmission of platelet-rich plasma stimulated by the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (5 x 10(-6) mol/l) or ADP (10(-5) mol/l). U46619-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by losartan in a dose-dependent manner. Only a high dose of EXP 3174 (5 x 10(-5) mol/l), the in vivo active metabolite of losartan, was able to attenuate U46619-induced platelet activation. Captopril, an angiotensin I converting inhibitor, failed to modify U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets was competitively inhibited by losartan, whereas only a high dose of EXP 3174 reduced the binding of [3H]-U46619. Captopril failed to modify the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets. Losartan also reduced the platelet activation induced by ADP (10(-5) mol/l), a platelet agonist partially dependent on thromboxane A2. In addition, when thromboxane A2 generation was blocked by aspirin, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited to a similar degree to the inhibition induced by losartan. Exogenous angiotensin II did not elicit any modification of either U46619- or ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation. Losartan decreased platelet aggregation by a thromboxane A2-dependent mechanism. EXP 3174 was less potent than losartan in reducing thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation. Captopril and exogenous angiotensin II had no effect on human platelet activation. These results suggest that losartan reduced thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation independently of its effect on angiotensin II.

  12. Proteolysis of platelet receptors in humans and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jian L; Shen, Yang; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2010-08-01

    In the past 5 years, metalloproteinase-mediated ectodomain shedding of platelet receptors has emerged as a new mechanism for modulating platelet function. By regulating surface expression of the platelet-specific receptors, glycoprotein (GP)VI that binds collagen, and GPIbalpha (the major ligand-binding subunit of the GPIb-IX-V complex) that binds von Willebrand factor (VWF) and other procoagulant and proinflammatory ligands, shedding not only irreversibly downregulates GPVI/GPIbalpha function, but generates proteolytic fragments that might be unique biomarkers or modulators in plasma. This is potentially significant because GPVI and GPIbalpha are involved in initiating thrombotic diseases such as heart attack and stroke, as well as autoimmune diseases where anti-platelet antibodies result in thrombocytopenia. Altered expression levels of GPIbalpha/GPVI are associated with both thrombotic propensity and platelet aging, suggesting an additional role in platelet clearance. Although emerging data are elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying GPIbalpha/GPVI shedding, evidence for the functional consequences of shedding in vivo, either clinically or in animal models, is far more limited. Here we consider recent published evidence for GPVI or GPIbalpha shedding in humans, nonhuman primates and mice, and whether conservation of sheddase cleavage sites across species points to a functional role for metalloproteolytic shedding in vivo.

  13. Releasing growth factors from activated human platelets after chitosan stimulation: a possible bio-material for platelet-rich plasma preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, E-Chin; Chou, Tz-Chong; Gau, Ching-Hwa; Tu, Hsiao-Pei; Chen, Yen-Teen; Fu, Earl

    2006-10-01

    Thrombin is commonly used for activating the platelets and releasing the growth factors on the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). We have previously reported that chitosan can enhance rabbit platelet aggregation. In this study, the effects of chitosan on the subsequent growth factors release after human platelets activation were examined to evaluate the possibility of chitosan being used as a substitute for thrombin during PRP preparation. Human platelet activation was determined by aggregation, adhesion and alpha-granule membrane glycoprotein expression. Platelet aggregation was measured by the turbidimetric method, the adhesion was directly examined on chitosan-coated glass plates under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the alpha-granule membrane glycoprotein was detected by fluorescent isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD61 antibody through flow cytometry. The subsequent epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 release from platelets were assayed by ELISA after mixing with chitosan. The enhancing effects on the platelet adhesion and the aggregation from chitosan were observed. Under both microscopes, the adhesive platelets on the chitosan-coated plates were not only greater in number but also earlier in activation than those on the control plates. With flow cytometry, increased glycoprotein IIIa expression in platelets was detected after chitosan treatment. Greater concentrations of growth factors were measured from PRP after chitosan treatment than after the solvent treatment. Because of the observations of growth factors releasing from activated human platelets after chitosan stimulation, we suggest that chitosan may be an appropriate substitute for thrombin in PRP preparation.

  14. Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins bind integrin αIIbβ3 and inhibit the platelet-fibrinogen interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Daniel K; Kiely, Patrick A; Golla, Kalyan; Allen, Seamus; Martin, Kenneth; O'Riordan, Ronan T; Ball, Melanie; Aplin, John D; Singer, Bernhard B; Caplice, Noel; Moran, Niamh; Moore, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are immunoglobulin superfamily members encoded by multigene families in rodents and primates. In human pregnancy, PSGs are secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast, a fetal tissue, and reach a concentration of up to 400 ug/ml in the maternal bloodstream at term. Human and mouse PSGs induce release of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGFβ1 from monocytes, macrophages, and other cell types, suggesting an immunoregulatory function. RGD tri-peptide motifs in the majority of human PSGs suggest that they may function like snake venom disintegrins, which bind integrins and inhibit interactions with ligands. We noted that human PSG1 has a KGD, rather than an RGD motif. The presence of a KGD in barbourin, a platelet integrin αIIbβ3 antagonist found in snake venom, suggested that PSG1 may be a selective αIIbβ3 ligand. Here we show that human PSG1 binds αIIbβ3 and inhibits the platelet - fibrinogen interaction. Unexpectedly, however, the KGD is not critical as multiple PSG1 domains independently bind and inhibit αIIbβ3 function. Human PSG9 and mouse Psg23 are also inhibitory suggesting conservation of this function across primate and rodent PSG families. Our results suggest that in species with haemochorial placentation, in which maternal blood is in direct contact with fetal trophoblast, the high expression level of PSGs reflects a requirement to antagonise abundant (3 mg/ml) fibrinogen in the maternal circulation, which may be necessary to prevent platelet aggregation and thrombosis in the prothrombotic maternal environment of pregnancy.

  15. Molecular insight into human platelet antigens: structural and evolutionary conservation analyses offer new perspective to immunogenic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Meytal; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are polymorphisms in platelet membrane glycoproteins (GPs) that can stimulate production of alloantibodies once exposed to foreign platelets (PLTs) with different HPAs. These antibodies can cause neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and PLT transfusion refractoriness. Most HPAs are localized on the main PLT receptors: 1) integrin αIIbβ3, known as the fibrinogen receptor; 2) the GPIb-IX-V complex that functions as the recepto...

  16. Non-redundant roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms alpha and beta in glycoprotein VI-induced platelet signaling and thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; Munnix, Imke C A; Mangin, Pierre; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Feijge, Marion A H; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Olieslagers, Servé; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena B; Lillian, Rivka; Schoenwaelder, Simone; Koyasu, Shigeo; Sage, Stewart O; Jackson, Shaun P; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2009-12-04

    Platelets are activated by adhesion to vascular collagen via the immunoglobulin receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). This causes potent signaling toward activation of phospholipase Cgamma2, which bears similarity to the signaling pathway evoked by T- and B-cell receptors. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an important role in collagen-induced platelet activation, because this activity modulates the autocrine effects of secreted ADP. Here, we identified the PI3K isoforms directly downstream of GPVI in human and mouse platelets and determined their role in GPVI-dependent thrombus formation. The targeting of platelet PI3Kalpha or -beta strongly and selectively suppressed GPVI-induced Ca(2+) mobilization and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production, thus demonstrating enhancement of phospholipase Cgamma2 by PI3Kalpha/beta. That PI3Kalpha and -beta have a non-redundant function in GPVI-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation was concluded from measurements of: (i) serine phosphorylation of Akt, (ii) dense granule secretion, (iii) intracellular Ca(2+) increases and surface expression of phosphatidylserine under flow, and (iv) thrombus formation, under conditions where PI3Kalpha/beta was blocked or p85alpha was deficient. In contrast, GPVI-induced platelet activation was insensitive to inhibition or deficiency of PI3Kdelta or -gamma. Furthermore, PI3Kalpha/beta, but not PI3Kgamma, contributed to GPVI-induced Rap1b activation and, surprisingly, also to Rap1b-independent platelet activation via GPVI. Together, these findings demonstrate that both PI3Kalpha and -beta isoforms are required for full GPVI-dependent platelet Ca(2+) signaling and thrombus formation, partly independently of Rap1b. This provides a new mechanistic explanation for the anti-thrombotic effect of PI3K inhibition and makes PI3Kalpha an interesting new target for anti-platelet therapy.

  17. Annotating Human P-Glycoprotein Bioassay Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Pinto, Marta; Vasanthanathan, Poongavanam; Williams, Antony J; Balderud, Linda Zander; Engkvist, Ola; Chichester, Christine; Hersey, Anne; Overington, John P; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2012-08-01

    Huge amounts of small compound bioactivity data have been entering the public domain as a consequence of open innovation initiatives. It is now the time to carefully analyse existing bioassay data and give it a systematic structure. Our study aims to annotate prominent in vitro assays used for the determination of bioactivities of human P-glycoprotein inhibitors and substrates as they are represented in the ChEMBL and TP-search open source databases. Furthermore, the ability of data, determined in different assays, to be combined with each other is explored. As a result of this study, it is suggested that for inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein it is possible to combine data coming from the same assay type, if the cell lines used are also identical and the fluorescent or radiolabeled substrate have overlapping binding sites. In addition, it demonstrates that there is a need for larger chemical diverse datasets that have been measured in a panel of different assays. This would certainly alleviate the search for other inter-correlations between bioactivity data yielded by different assay setups.

  18. Increased platelet expression of glycoprotein IIIa following aspirin treatment in aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Christopher N; Goodman, Timothy; Becker, Silke; Chen, Nan; Mustafa, Agnesa; Schofield, Emma; Campbell, James; Ward, Malcolm; Sharma, Pankaj; Ferro, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aims Aspirin is widely used as an anti-platelet agent for cardiovascular prophylaxis. Despite aspirin treatment, many patients experience recurrent thrombotic events, and aspirin resistance may contribute to this. We examined the prevalence of aspirin resistance in a healthy population, and investigated whether the platelet proteome differed in aspirin-resistant subjects. Methods Ninety-three healthy subjects received aspirin 300 mg daily for 28 days. Before and at the end of treatment, urine was taken to determine 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and blood was taken to measure arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma and to interrogate the platelet proteome by mass spectrometric analysis with further confirmation of findings using Western blotting. Results In two of the 93 subjects, neither AA-induced aggregation nor urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 was effectively suppressed by aspirin, despite measurable plasma salicylate concentrations, suggesting the presence of true aspirin resistance. Despite no detectable differences in the platelet proteome at baseline, following aspirin a marked increase was seen in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in the aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects. An increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression with aspirin resistance was confirmed in a separate cohort of 17 patients with stable coronary artery disease on long term aspirin treatment, four of whom exhibited aspirin resistance. Conclusions In a healthy population, true aspirin resistance is uncommon but exists. Resistance is associated with an increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in response to aspirin. These data shed new light on the mechanism of aspirin resistance, and provide the potential to identify aspirin-resistant subjects using a novel biomarker. PMID:25099258

  19. Humanizing recombinant glycoproteins from Chinese hamster ovary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Holmgaard; Amann, Thomas; Kol, Stefan

    With new tools for gene-editing like zinc-fingers, TALENS and CRISPR, it is now feasible totailor-make the N-Glycoforms for therapeutic glycoproteins that have previously been almost impossible. We here demonstrate a case of humanizing a recombinant human glycoprotein that in Wild type (WT) Chinese...

  20. Glycoprotein Ibα receptor instability is associated with loss of quality in platelets produced in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Amélie; Boyer, Lucie; Pineault, Nicolas

    2011-03-01

    The development of culture processes for hematopoietic progenitors could lead to the development of a complementary source of platelets for therapeutic purposes. However, functional characterization of culture-derived platelets remains limited, which raises some uncertainties about the quality of platelets produced in vitro. The aim of this study was to define the proportion of functional platelets produced in cord blood CD34+ cell cultures. Toward this, the morphological and functional properties of culture-derived platelet-like particles (PLPs) were critically compared to that of blood platelets. Flow cytometry combined with transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that PLPs formed a more heterogeneous population of platelets at a different stage of maturation than blood platelets. The majority of PLPs harbored the fibrinogen receptor αIIbβ3, but a significant proportion failed to maintain glycoprotein (GP)Ibα surface expression, a component of the vWF receptor essential for platelet functions. Importantly, GPIbα extracellular expression correlated closely with platelet function, as the GPIIb+ GPIbα+ PLP subfraction responded normally to agonist stimulation as evidenced by α-granule release, adhesion, spreading, and aggregation. In contrast, the GPIIb+ GPIbα⁻ subfraction was unresponsive in most functional assays and appeared to be metabolically inactive. The present study confirms that functional platelets can be generated in cord blood CD34+ cell cultures, though these are highly susceptible to ectodomain shedding of receptors associated with loss of function. Optimization of culture conditions to prevent these deleterious effects and to homogenize PLPs is necessary to improve the quality and yields of culture-derived platelets before they can be recognized as a suitable complementary source for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Platelet glycoprotein IaC807T polymorphisms and ischemic stroke in young Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Huang, D; Yang, J; An, H; Ojha, R; DU, C; Liu, R

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ia C807T polymorphisms and ischemic stroke in young Chinese Han Population. We conducted a case-control study in 92 consecutive young (ischemic stroke inpatients and outpatients, 86 elder ischemic stroke control (> 50 years), and 160 age- and sex-matched healthy control. Genotyping of platelet GP Ia C807Tpolymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing nucleic acid with dideoxy chain-termination method and an ABI PRISM3100 (Perkin-Elmer Co) genetic analyzer. Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression modeling were used for data significance analyses. Hypertension and smoking were found to be the independent risk factors for ischemic stroke patients (aged ischemic stroke patients (aged > 50 years). There was no significant difference observed in the T allele frequency of GPIa C807T polymorphisms between young stroke patients and corresponding controls. These findings suggest that there is no role of GPIa C807T polymorphisms in the development of young first-ever ischemic stroke in Chinese Han Population.

  2. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise.We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors.These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, suggests that endogenous

  3. Platelet-derived-growth-factor-induced signalling in human platelets: phosphoinositide-3-kinase-dependent inhibition of platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Fukami, M H; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    2000-09-01

    Human platelets release platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from alpha-granules during platelet activation. We have previously shown that platelets have PDGF alpha-receptors, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that takes part in negative feedback regulation during platelet activation. Here we have described a study of PDGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet substrates and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. By immunoblotting with phosphotyrosine antibodies of collagen-activated platelets we found that PDGF increased the phosphorylation of several platelet substrates, e.g. pp140, pp120 and pp85. PDGF inhibited collagen-induced platelet activation in the presence of inhibitors of autocrine stimulation, thus blocking the pure collagen-induced signal transduction. PDGF enhanced the collagen-induced formation of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) as measured by HPLC. Wortmannin and LY294002, two unrelated inhibitors of PI-3K, were used to investigate the role of PI-3K in PDGF-induced platelet signalling. Incubation of platelets with wortmannin and LY294002 blocked the formation of three phosphorylated inositides as well as the inhibitory effect of PDGF on collagen-induced platelet activation. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of PDGF on platelet activation is PI-3K dependent. This is the first demonstration of a negative regulatory function of 3-phosphorylated inositides in platelets.

  4. Roles of Platelet STIM1 and Orai1 in Glycoprotein VI- and Thrombin-dependent Procoagulant Activity and Thrombus Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; van Kruchten, Roger; Braun, Attila; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Feijge, Marion A. H.; Stegner, David; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Kuijpers, Marijke J. E.; Varga-Szabo, David; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    In platelets, STIM1 has been recognized as the key regulatory protein in store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) with Orai1 as principal Ca2+ entry channel. Both proteins contribute to collagen-dependent arterial thrombosis in mice in vivo. It is unclear whether STIM2 is involved. A key platelet response relying on Ca2+ entry is the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), which accomplishes platelet procoagulant activity. We studied this response in mouse platelets deficient in STIM1, STIM2, or Orai1. Upon high shear flow of blood over collagen, Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets had greatly impaired glycoprotein (GP) VI-dependent Ca2+ signals, and they were deficient in PS exposure and thrombus formation. In contrast, Stim2−/− platelets reacted normally. Upon blood flow in the presence of thrombin generation and coagulation, Ca2+ signals of Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets were partly reduced, whereas the PS exposure and formation of fibrin-rich thrombi were normalized. Washed Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets were deficient in GPVI-induced PS exposure and prothrombinase activity, but not when thrombin was present as co-agonist. Markedly, SKF96365, a blocker of (receptor-operated) Ca2+ entry, inhibited Ca2+ and procoagulant responses even in Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets. These data show for the first time that: (i) STIM1 and Orai1 jointly contribute to GPVI-induced SOCE, procoagulant activity, and thrombus formation; (ii) a compensating Ca2+ entry pathway is effective in the additional presence of thrombin; (iii) platelets contain two mechanisms of Ca2+ entry and PS exposure, only one relying on STIM1-Orai1 interaction. PMID:20519511

  5. Roles of platelet STIM1 and Orai1 in glycoprotein VI- and thrombin-dependent procoagulant activity and thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; van Kruchten, Roger; Braun, Attila; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Feijge, Marion A H; Stegner, David; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Varga-Szabo, David; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2010-07-30

    In platelets, STIM1 has been recognized as the key regulatory protein in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) with Orai1 as principal Ca(2+) entry channel. Both proteins contribute to collagen-dependent arterial thrombosis in mice in vivo. It is unclear whether STIM2 is involved. A key platelet response relying on Ca(2+) entry is the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), which accomplishes platelet procoagulant activity. We studied this response in mouse platelets deficient in STIM1, STIM2, or Orai1. Upon high shear flow of blood over collagen, Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets had greatly impaired glycoprotein (GP) VI-dependent Ca(2+) signals, and they were deficient in PS exposure and thrombus formation. In contrast, Stim2(-/-) platelets reacted normally. Upon blood flow in the presence of thrombin generation and coagulation, Ca(2+) signals of Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets were partly reduced, whereas the PS exposure and formation of fibrin-rich thrombi were normalized. Washed Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets were deficient in GPVI-induced PS exposure and prothrombinase activity, but not when thrombin was present as co-agonist. Markedly, SKF96365, a blocker of (receptor-operated) Ca(2+) entry, inhibited Ca(2+) and procoagulant responses even in Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets. These data show for the first time that: (i) STIM1 and Orai1 jointly contribute to GPVI-induced SOCE, procoagulant activity, and thrombus formation; (ii) a compensating Ca(2+) entry pathway is effective in the additional presence of thrombin; (iii) platelets contain two mechanisms of Ca(2+) entry and PS exposure, only one relying on STIM1-Orai1 interaction.

  6. Glycoprotein VI/Fc receptor γ chain-independent tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of murine platelets by collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Gavin E.; Best, Denise; Watson, Steve P.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of collagen to induce signalling and functional responses in suspensions of murine platelets deficient in the FcRγ (Fc receptor γ) chain, which lack the collagen receptor GPVI (glycoprotein VI). In the absence of the FcRγ chain, collagen induced a unique pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation which was potentiated by the thromboxane analogue U46619. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that neither collagen alone nor the combination of collagen plus U46619 induc...

  7. Storage of human platelets by freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B K; Tanoue, K; Baldini, M G

    1976-01-01

    Prolonged, probably indefinite storage of viable and functional human platelets is now possible by freezing with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The platelets have a nearly normal survival upon reinfusion and are capable of sustained hemostatic effectiveness in thrombocytopenic patients. Adaptation of the freezing technique for large-scale usage has more recently been achieved. The method is mainly based on the following principles: (1) use of plasma for suspension of the platelet concentrate; (2) gradual addition (0.5% every 2 min) of DMSO to a final concentration of 5% and its gradual removal; (3) a slow cooling rate of about 1/sup 0/C per min and rapid thawing (in 1 min); (4) use of a polyolefin plastic bag for freezing; (5) a washing medium of 20% plasma in Hanks' balanced salt solution; (6) final resuspension of the platelets in 50% plasma in Hanks' solution.

  8. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125 I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125 I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125 I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined

  9. Soluble glycoprotein VI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased in the plasma of subjects with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Stack

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA have been shown to cause platelet activation in vitro, through the low-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG receptor (FcγRIIa on platelets. Platelet activation via engagement of FcγRIIa results in proteolytic cleavage and shedding of platelet specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI which can be detected in the plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI. We hypothesized that plasma levels of sGPVI would be increased among patients with seropositive RA as a consequence of antibody-induced platelet activation and GPVI shedding.Samples from 84 patients with RA (65 seropositive and 19 seronegative and 67 healthy controls were collected prospectively and analysed for sGPVI using a standardised ELISA.Patients with seropositive RA had significantly higher levels of sGPVI compared to seronegative RA and controls. Median (IQR sGPVI levels were 4.2 ng/ml (3.2, 8.0 in seropositve RA, 2.2 ng/ml (1.5, 3.5 in seronegative RA and 2.2 ng/ml (1.6, 3.4 in controls (p<0.0001. sGPVI levels correlated with ACPA titres (r = 0.32, p = 0.0026 and with RF titres (r = 0.48, p<0.0001.Plasma sGPVI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased among patients with seropositive RA.

  10. Inhibition of platelet [3H]- imipramine binding by human plasma protein fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strijewski, A.; Chudzik, J.; Tang, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of high-affinity [ 3 H]-imipramine binding to platelet membranes by human plasma fractions and isolated plasma proteins was investigated. Several plasma proteins were found to contribute to the observed apparent inhibition and this contribution was assessed in terms of inhibitor units. Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, high density and low density lipoprotein, IgG and α 1 -antitrypsin were identified as effective non-specific inhibitors. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein was confirmed to be the most potent plasma protein inhibitor. Cohn fractions were evaluated for the presence of the postulated endocoid of [ 3 H]-imipramine binding site

  11. Effects of Platelets on Platelet Concentrate Product on the Activation of Human Peripheral Blood Monocyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sadat Razavi Hoseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monocytes can interact with platelets due to their surface molecules such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, and form monocyte-platelet complex. In the present study, the effects of platelets interaction of platelet concentrates (PCs and peripheral blood monocytes were investigated in vitro as a model to predict the probable interactions of these cells and consequently activation of monocytes. Methods: In this experimental study, units of whole blood and PCs were prepared from Tehran Blood Transfusion Center. After isolation of monocytes from the whole blood, these cells were treated with PC- derived platelets. The activation of monocytes was assessed before and after treatment by the analysis of the respiratory burst of monocytes using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123. The study data were analyzed using the non-parametric test of Wilcoxon. Results: The purity of monocytes was determined as 86.1±2 using NycoPrep method. The respiratory burst of monocytes was increased after exposure with platelets. In fact, the difference was significant when platelets were used on the 5th day of storage (P=0.001. Conclusions: The study findings revealed that platelets have an efficient capacity to stimulate and activate monocytes. The possible involvement of molecules in the interaction of platelet-monocyte demand to be further studied in future.

  12. Effect of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guoxin; Zhao Yiming; Ruan Changgeng

    1992-01-01

    Human platelet-rich plasma was irradiated with various doses (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 Gy) of 60 Co γ-rays in order to observe the changes of metabolites and the release of internal substance of platelets. At the dose of 5 Gy, alpha-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) molecules expressed on the surface of platelets increased significantly, while glycoproteins (GP) Ib and IIIa did not change apparently; at the dose as low as of 2.5 Gy, thromboxane B 2 production in plasma was remarkably increased; and, at the dose of over 5 Gy, the concentration of von Willebrand factor increased with increasing doses as in the case of GMP-140 molecules. These results indicate that platelets can be activated in vitro when the dose of 60 Co γ-rays exceeds 5 Gy

  13. Effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guoxin; Zhao Yiming; Ruan Changgeng

    1991-02-01

    Human platelet-rich plasma was irradiated with various doses (0,1.25,2.5,5.0,10,20,40Gy) of 60 Co γ-ray so as to observing the changes of metabolites and releasing substances of platelets. Alpha-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) molecules on the surface of platelet was expressed significantly increasing when the dosage of 60 Co γ-ray was 5 Gy; however, the glycoprotein (GP) I b and III a was not changed significantly; thromboxane B 2 production in plasma was significantly elevated while the γ-ray was only 2.5 Gy; the concentration of von Willebrand factor was increased when the γ-ray was over 5 Gy, this is in accordance with the GMP-140 molecules. These results indicate that platelets could be activated in vitro when the dosage of 60 Co γ was over 5 Gy

  14. Identification of functional VEGF receptors on human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, Frode; Holmsen, Holm; Vassbotn, Flemming S

    2002-02-13

    Platelets secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon stimulation. We have demonstrated that platelets have functionally active PDGF alpha-receptors, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase involved in negative feedback regulation. Here we demonstrate the presence of the related VEGF receptors fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and kinase-insert domain region on human platelets. VEGF itself did not cause platelet aggregation. However, addition of exogenous VEGF to SFRLLN or thrombin-stimulated platelets potentiated platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity were enhanced in the presence of VEGF.

  15. Human Milk Glycoproteins Protect Infants Against Human Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Breastfeeding protects the neonate against pathogen infection. Major mechanisms of protection include human milk glycoconjugates functioning as soluble receptor mimetics that inhibit pathogen binding to the mucosal cell surface, prebiotic stimulation of gut colonization by favorable microbiota, immunomodulation, and as a substrate for bacterial fermentation products in the gut. Human milk proteins are predominantly glycosylated, and some biological functions of these human milk glycoproteins (HMGPs) have been reported. HMGPs range in size from 14 kDa to 2,000 kDa and include mucins, secretory immunoglobulin A, bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin, butyrophilin, lactadherin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review summarizes known biological roles of HMGPs that may contribute to the ability of human milk to protect neonates from disease. PMID:23697737

  16. Platelet binding and biodistribution of [99mTc]rBitistatin in animal species and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Linda C.; Romano, Jan E.; Bright, Lewis T.; Agelan, Alexis; Kantor, Steven; Maurer, Alan H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: 99m Tc recombinant bitistatin (rBitistatin) is a radioligand for α IIb β 3 (glycoproteins IIb/IIIa) receptor on platelets and is being developed as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for in vivo imaging of acute thrombi and emboli. Prior to the first administration of [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin to human subjects, its biodistribution and effects on platelets were evaluated in animals. This paper reports findings in animal studies in comparison with initial findings in normal human subjects. Methods: [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin was administered to mice, guinea pigs and dogs to assess time-dependent organ distribution, urinary excretion and blood disappearance rates. Blood samples were analyzed to determine radioligand binding to circulating platelets and the extent of plasma protein binding. The effect of [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin on circulating platelet count was determined. These factors were also determined in normal human subjects who received [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin as part of a Phase I clinical trial. Results: The main organs that accumulated [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin were kidneys, liver and spleen in all animal species and humans. The main organs seen on human images were the kidneys and spleen. Liver uptake was fainter, and soft-tissue background was low. [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin bound to circulating platelets in blood, with a higher percentage of binding to platelets in guinea pigs and dogs compared to that in humans. Plasma protein binding was low and of little consequence in view of platelet binding. The main route of excretion was through the urine. [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin did not affect platelet counts in humans or dogs. Conclusions: [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin, when administered at low doses for imaging, has no adverse effects on platelets and has the qualitative biodistribution predicted by animal studies. [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin was found to bind to circulating platelets in humans, suggesting that it will be able to bind to activated platelets in vivo in patients with acute

  17. Glycoprotein VI but not alpha2beta1 integrin is essential for platelet interaction with collagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieswandt, B; Brakebusch, C; Bergmeier, W

    2001-01-01

    Platelet adhesion on and activation by components of the extracellular matrix are crucial to arrest post-traumatic bleeding, but can also harm tissue by occluding diseased vessels. Integrin alpha2beta1 is thought to be essential for platelet adhesion to subendothelial collagens, facilitating subs...

  18. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24 degree C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying 32 P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 x 10 -7 M PAF at 37 degree C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for 32 P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of 32 P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage

  19. A Cdc42/RhoA regulatory circuit downstream of glycoprotein Ib guides transendothelial platelet biogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dütting, Sebastian; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frederique; Stegner, David

    2017-01-01

    Blood platelets are produced by large bone marrow (BM) precursor cells, megakaryocytes (MKs), which extend cytoplasmic protrusions (proplatelets) into BM sinusoids. The molecular cues that control MK polarization towards sinusoids and limit transendothelial crossing to proplatelets remain unknown...

  20. The peanut lectin-binding glycoproteins of human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.I.; Keeble, S.; Watt, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    The peanut lectin (PNA) is known to bind more strongly to keratinocytes that are undergoing terminal differentiation than to proliferating keratinocytes. In order to investigate the significance of this change in cell-surface carbohydrate authors have identified the PNA-binding glycoproteins of cultured human keratinocytes and antibodies against them. Two heavily glycosylated bands of 110 and 250 kDa were resolved by PAGE of [ 14 C]galactose- or [ 14 C]mannose- and [ 14 C]glucosamine-labeled cell extracts eluted with galactose from PNA affinity columns. The higher molecular weight band was also detected on PNA blots of unlabeled cell extracts transferred to nitrocellulose. Both bands were sensitive to pronase digestion, but only the 250-kDa band was digested with trypsin. A rabbit antiserum that we prepared (anti-PNA-gp) immunoprecipitated both bands from cell extracts. In contrast to PNA, anti-PNA-gp bound equally to proliferating and terminally differentiating cells, indicating that some epitope(s) of the PNA-binding glycoproteins is present on the cell surface prior to terminal differentiation. When keratinocytes grown as a monolayer in low-calcium medium were switched to medium containing 2 mM calcium ions in order to induce desmosome formation and stratification, there was a dramatic redistribution of the PNA-binding glycoproteins, which became concentrated at the boundaries between cells. This may suggest a role for the glycoproteins in cell-cell interactions during stratification

  1. Isoforms of purified methyltransferase from human blood platelets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... purification from normal human blood platelets have not been investigated, hence, the aim of this study was to purify, characterise the enzyme from human blood platelets and determine its possible role in phospholipid transmethylation. The plasma membranes were purified by velocity and sucrose gradient centrifugation ...

  2. Monoclonal antibody to an external epitope of the human mdr1 P-glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arceci, R. J.; Stieglitz, K.; Bras, J.; Schinkel, A.; Baas, F.; Croop, J.

    1993-01-01

    A membrane glycoprotein, termed P-glycoprotein, has been shown to be responsible for cross-resistance to a broad range of structurally and functionally distinct cytotoxic agents. P-glycoprotein, encoded in humans by the mdr1 gene, functions as an energy-dependent efflux pump to exclude these

  3. Rapid resensitization of purinergic receptor function in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, S J; Barton, J F; Mayo-Martin, M B; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W

    2008-08-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors. Recently, we demonstrated that both receptors desensitize and internalize in human platelets by differential kinase-dependent mechanisms. To demonstrate whether responses to P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors resensitize in human platelets and determine the role of receptor traffic in this process. These studies were undertaken either in human platelets or in cells stably expressing epitope-tagged P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptor constructs. In this study we show for the first time that responses to both of these receptors can rapidly resensitize following agonist-dependent desensitization in human platelets. Further, we show that in human platelets or in 1321N1 cells stably expressing receptor constructs, the disruption of receptor internalization, dephosphorylation or subsequent receptor recycling is sufficient to block resensitization of purinergic receptor responses. We also show that, in platelets, internalization of both these receptors is dependent upon dynamin, and that this process is required for resensitization of responses. This study is therefore the first to show that both P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, and it reveals that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process.

  4. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O-/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O-/sub 2/ generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O-/sub 2/ responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils.

  5. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O- 2 and H 2 O 2 . This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O- 2 generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O- 2 responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils

  6. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus, Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ming Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.. Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 formation, hydroxyl radical (OH● formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatography of human glycoprotein hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlenov, M A; Kandyba, E I; Nagornaya, L V; Orlova, I L; Volgin, Y V

    1993-02-12

    The chromatographic behavior of the glycoprotein hormones from human pituitary glands and of placental origin [thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin (CG)] was studied. It was shown that hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a microparticulate packing and anion-exchange HPLC can be applied for the purification of these hormones. Reversed-phase HPLC on wide-pore C4-bonded silica at neutral pH can be applied for the determination of the above hormones and for the isolation of pure CG and its subunits.

  8. Oxidative alterations during human platelet storage

    OpenAIRE

    Göker, Bahar; Özsavcı, Derya; Şener, Azize; Aksoy, Halil; Bağışgil, Vedat; Yanıkkaya Demirel, Gülderen; Uras, Fikriye

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: During storage of platelet obtained by apheresis several changes occur. The aimof this study was to investigate the effect of storage on activation, apoptosis, protein pattern,lipid peroxidation, and the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) of platelets. In thisstudy, platelets obtained from healty donors (n=7) by apheresis were kept in an agitator fornine days at 20-24°C. The samples were taken on the 1st, 3 rd, 5 th and 9 th days and plateletswere precipitated. Platele...

  9. Relationship between the ability of oral streptococci to interact with platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha and with the salivary low-molecular-weight mucin, MG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Christopher; Douglas, Charles William Ian

    2006-12-01

    The oral streptococci Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus oralis are common aetiological agents of infective endocarditis, and their ability to adhere to and induce the aggregation of platelets is thought to be a virulence trait. The platelet glycoprotein GPIbalpha has been implicated as the adhesion receptor for S. sanguinis and S. gordonii, but it is not known if this is the case for S. oralis and other species. The aim of this study was to determine the GPIbalpha-interactive capability of a range of oral streptococci and to determine the relationship between this capability and their ability to interact with the salivary constituents that they would encounter in their normal habitat. All platelet-adhesive S. sanguinis strains and most S. gordonii strains adhered in a GPIbalpha-dependent manner, but strains of S. oralis, Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus parasanguinis and Streptococcus mitis had no direct affinity for platelets. Those strains that were able to bind GPIbalpha also bound to the low-molecular-weight submandibular salivary mucin, MG2, and this interaction was sialic acid-dependent. The data suggest that S. sanguinis and S. gordonii may be efficient colonizers of platelet vegetations because of their adaptation to recognize sialylated salivary mucins. In contrast, S. oralis does not interact with platelets and so is likely to colonize vegetations through an as yet unidentified mechanism.

  10. Generation of Megakaryocytes and Platelets from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the potential to produce any tissue type in the body and thus represent a source of cells for regenerative medicine. Here we have shown that human platelets can be produced from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells in a defined culture system. We describe a serum- and feeder-free culture system that enabled the generation of megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors and functional platelets from hPSCs. After 13 days the differentiated population included precursor cells that formed colonies containing differentiated Mks, and after 20 days these Mks were able to fragment into platelet-like particles that were functional. This protocol represents an important step towards the generation of human platelets for therapeutic use.

  11. In vitro effect of sodium nitrite on platelet aggregation in human platelet rich plasma--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, M; Doğanci, S; Yildirim, V; Özgür, G; Erol, G; Karabacak, K; Avcu, F

    2015-10-01

    The role of nitrates and nitric oxide on platelet functions has obtained an increasing attention with respect to their potential effects on cardiovascular disorders. In this study we aimed to analyze the effect of sodium nitrite on platelet functions in human platelets. This in vitro study was designed to show the effect of sodium nitrite on platelet functions in seven healthy volunteers. Blood samples were centrifuged to prepare platelet rich plasma and platelet poor plasma. Platelet rich plasma was diluted with the platelet poor plasma to have a final count of 300,000 ± 25,000 platelets. Platelet rich plasma was incubated with six different increasing doses (from 10 μM to 5 mM) of sodium nitrite for 1 hour at 37°C. Then stimulating agents including collagen (3 μg ml-1), adenosine diphosphate (10 μM), and epinephrine (10 μM) were added to the cuvette. Changes in light transmission were observed for 10 minutes. In addition spontaneous aggregation were performed in control group with all aggregating agents separately. Effect of sodium nitrite on agonist-induced platelet aggregation depends on the concentration of sodium nitrite. Compared with control group, agonist-induced platelet aggregations were significantly suppressed by sodium nitrite at the concentration of 5, 1.0 and 0.5 mM. Our results suggested that sodium nitrite has inhibitory effects in vitro on platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Platelet binding and biodistribution of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin in animal species and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)], E-mail: lknight@temple.edu; Romano, Jan E. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Bright, Lewis T.; Agelan, Alexis [University Laboratory Animal Resources, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Kantor, Steven; Maurer, Alan H. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Introduction: {sup 99m}Tc recombinant bitistatin (rBitistatin) is a radioligand for {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} (glycoproteins IIb/IIIa) receptor on platelets and is being developed as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for in vivo imaging of acute thrombi and emboli. Prior to the first administration of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin to human subjects, its biodistribution and effects on platelets were evaluated in animals. This paper reports findings in animal studies in comparison with initial findings in normal human subjects. Methods: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was administered to mice, guinea pigs and dogs to assess time-dependent organ distribution, urinary excretion and blood disappearance rates. Blood samples were analyzed to determine radioligand binding to circulating platelets and the extent of plasma protein binding. The effect of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin on circulating platelet count was determined. These factors were also determined in normal human subjects who received [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin as part of a Phase I clinical trial. Results: The main organs that accumulated [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin were kidneys, liver and spleen in all animal species and humans. The main organs seen on human images were the kidneys and spleen. Liver uptake was fainter, and soft-tissue background was low. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin bound to circulating platelets in blood, with a higher percentage of binding to platelets in guinea pigs and dogs compared to that in humans. Plasma protein binding was low and of little consequence in view of platelet binding. The main route of excretion was through the urine. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin did not affect platelet counts in humans or dogs. Conclusions: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin, when administered at low doses for imaging, has no adverse effects on platelets and has the qualitative biodistribution predicted by animal studies. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was found to bind to circulating platelets in humans, suggesting that it will be able to bind

  13. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated conversion of human platelet alloantigen allotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nanyan; Zhi, Huiying; Curtis, Brian R; Rao, Sridhar; Jobaliya, Chintan; Poncz, Mortimer; French, Deborah L; Newman, Peter J

    2016-02-11

    Human platelet alloantigens (HPAs) reside on functionally important platelet membrane glycoproteins and are caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes that encode them. Antibodies that form against HPAs are responsible for several clinically important alloimmune bleeding disorders, including fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and posttransfusion purpura. The HPA-1a/HPA-1b alloantigen system, also known as the Pl(A1)/Pl(A2) polymorphism, is the most frequently implicated HPA among whites, and a single Leu33Pro amino acid polymorphism within the integrin β3 subunit is responsible for generating the HPA-1a/HPA-1b alloantigenic epitopes. HPA-1b/b platelets, like those bearing other low-frequency platelet-specific alloantigens, are relatively rare in the population and difficult to obtain for purposes of transfusion therapy and diagnostic testing. We used CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9) gene-editing technology to transform Leu33 (+) megakaryocytelike DAMI cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to the Pro33 allotype. CD41(+) megakaryocyte progenitors derived from these cells expressed the HPA-1b (Pl(A2)) alloantigenic epitope, as reported by diagnostic NciI restriction enzyme digestion, DNA sequencing, and western blot analysis using HPA-1b-specific human maternal alloantisera. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to genetically edit this and other clinically-important HPAs holds great potential for production of designer platelets for diagnostic, investigative, and, ultimately, therapeutic use. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Global Proteome Analysis Identifies Active Immunoproteasome Subunits in Human Platelets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M.; Brown, Lyda M.; Hoffman, Michael D.; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. PMID:25146974

  15. Global proteome analysis identifies active immunoproteasome subunits in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M; Brown, Lyda M; Hoffman, Michael D; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen

    2014-12-01

    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Platelet modulation of human neutrophil functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarrity, S.T.; Hyers, T.M.; Webster, R.O.

    1986-03-01

    The combined presence of platelets (PLTS) and neutrophils (PMN) at inflammatory sites has led to examination of the hypothesis that interaction of these cells modulates their responses to stimuli. Gel-filtered human PLTS (GFP) were found to inhibit N-formyl-met-leu-phe (FMLP) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated PMN O/sub 2//sup -/ generation in a concentration-dependent fashion. The heat-stable inhibitory activity was present in the supernatants of GFP after incubation with FMLP (10/sup -7/M), thrombin (0.5 U/ml) or ADP (20 ..mu..M), suggesting a role for PLT release products. PLT lysates added to PMN produced up to 80% inhibition of O/sub 2//sup -/ generation for PMA and 40% for FMLP. Like GFP, lysates failed to scavenge O/sub 2/..pi.. produced by xanthine oxidase-hypoxanthine. The inhibitory activity could not be ascribed to serotonin or adenosine. PLT lysates failed to compete with /sup 3/H-FMLP for binding to PMN. Sephadex G-200 fractionation of PLT lysates releaved two peaks of inhibitory activity with apparent Mr > 200,000 and < 14,000 Daltons. Pretreatment of PMN with PLT lysates also results in a concentration-dependent inhibition of degranulation provoked by FMLP (2 x 10/sup -7/M) or PMA (2 ng/ml) and PMN chemotaxis to FMLP (10/sup -8/M). These studies indicate that preformed PLT mediator(s) released in response to physiological stimuli may limit tissue damage by PMN at sites of inflammation.

  17. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay

  18. Granulocyte-platelet interactions and platelet fibrinogen receptor exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornecki, E.; Ehrlich, Y.H.; Egbring, R.; Gramse, M.; Seitz, R.; Eckardt, A.; Lukasiewicz, H.; Niewiarowski, S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have examined the interaction of human granulocyte elastase with human platelets. Incubation of human platelets with human granulocyte elastase exposed active fibrinogen-binding sites as evidenced by 125 I-labeled fibrinogen binding and spontaneous fibrinogen-induced platelet aggregation. The aggregation of platelets by fibrinogen occurred at low concentrations of human granulocyte elastase. Platelets pretreated with human granulocyte elastase exposed an average of 10,500 fibrinogen-binding sites per platelet, i.e., about one-third the number of binding sites exposed by optimal concentrations of ADP. With the use of a polyclonal antiplatelet membrane antibody, the glycoproteins IIb (GPIIb), IIIa (GPIIIa), and a 60,000-Da (60 kDa) protein (66 kDa in a reduced system) derived from GPIIIa were immunoprecipitated from the surface of detergent extracts of human 125 I-radiolabeled platelets pretreated with increasing concentrations of human granulocyte elastase. They conclude that (1) the proteolytic action of human granulocyte elastase on platelet GPIIIa results in the formation of two major hydrolytic products, and (2) human granulocyte elastase exposes active fibrongen-binding sites associated with the GPIIb/GPIIIa complex, resulting in direct platelet aggregation by fibrinogen

  19. Antiaggregant effects of Arbutus unedo extracts in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, Mohammed; López, José J; Mekhfi, Hassane; Rosado, Juan A; Salido, Ginés M

    2007-09-05

    Platelet hyperaggregability plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Thrombin evokes aggregation through Ca(2+) mobilization, tyrosine phosphorylation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have investigated the antiaggregant properties of Arbutus unedo extracts in human platelets. Changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and intracellular oxidants production were registered by espectrofluorimetry using fura-2 and dichlorodihydrofluorescein, respectively, platelet aggregation was assessed by aggregometry and protein tyrosine phosphorylation was detected by Western blotting. Platelet treatment with increasing concentrations (0.015-1.5mg/mL) of crude aqueous, ethyl acetate or diethyl ether extracts reduced platelet aggregation evoked by thrombin (0.5 U/mL) and show a potent ROS scavenger activity, preventing thrombin-evoked endogenous generation of ROS. Treatment with Arbutus unedo extracts did not alter thrombin-evoked Ca(2+) release from the intracellular stores but reduced store-operated Ca(2+) entry induced by thrombin or by selective depletion of the two Ca(2+) stores in platelets, the dense tubular system and the acidic stores. In addition, platelet treatment with extracts reduced both basal and thrombin-stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that Arbutus unedo extracts show antiaggregant actions due to attenuation of Ca(2+) mobilization, ROS production and protein tyrosine phosphorylation and might be used for the treatment and/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Convergent evolution of pregnancy-specific glycoproteins in human and horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Denis; Blaschke, Lisa; Mißbach, Sophie; Hänske, Jana; Weiß, Wiebke; Handler, Johannes; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Cabrera-Sharp, Victoria; Read, Jordan E; de Mestre, Amanda M; O'Riordan, Ronan; Moore, Tom; Kammerer, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are members of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family that are secreted by trophoblast cells. PSGs may modulate immune, angiogenic and platelet responses during pregnancy. Until now, PSGs are only found in species that have a highly invasive (hemochorial) placentation including humans, mice and rats. Surprisingly, analyzing the CEACAM gene family of the horse, which has a non-invasive epitheliochorial placenta, with the exception of the transient endometrial cups, we identified equine CEACAM family members that seem to be related to PSGs of rodents and primates. We identified seven genes that encode secreted PSG-like CEACAMs Phylogenetic analyses indicate that they evolved independently from an equine CEACAM1-like ancestor rather than from a common PSG-like ancestor with rodents and primates. Significantly, expression of PSG-like genes (CEACAM44, CEACAM48, CEACAM49 and CEACAM55) was found in non-invasive as well as invasive trophoblast cells such as purified chorionic girdle cells and endometrial cup cells. Chorionic girdle cells are highly invasive trophoblast cells that invade the endometrium of the mare where they form endometrial cups and are in close contact with maternal immune cells. Therefore, the microenvironment of invasive equine trophoblast cells has striking similarities to the microenvironment of trophoblast cells in hemochorial placentas, suggesting that equine PSG-like CEACAMs and rodent and primate PSGs have undergone convergent evolution. This is supported by our finding that equine PSG-like CEACAM49 exhibits similar activity to certain rodent and human PSGs in a functional assay of platelet-fibrinogen binding. Our results have implications for understanding the evolution of PSGs and their functions in maternal-fetal interactions. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Increased platelet reactivity is associated with circulating platelet-monocyte complexes and macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Rutten

    Full Text Available Platelet reactivity, platelet binding to monocytes and monocyte infiltration play a detrimental role in atherosclerotic plaque progression. We investigated whether platelet reactivity was associated with levels of circulating platelet-monocyte complexes (PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.Platelet reactivity was determined by measuring platelet P-selectin expression after platelet stimulation with increasing concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP, in two independent cohorts: the Circulating Cells cohort (n = 244 and the Athero-Express cohort (n = 91. Levels of PMCs were assessed by flow cytometry in blood samples of patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (Circulating Cells cohort. Monocyte infiltration was semi-quantitatively determined by histological examination of atherosclerotic carotid plaques collected during carotid endarterectomy (Athero-Express cohort.We found increased platelet reactivity in patients with high PMCs as compared to patients with low PMCs (median (interquartile range: 4153 (1585-11267 area under the curve (AUC vs. 9633 (3580-21565 AUC, P<0.001. Also, we observed increased platelet reactivity in patients with high macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques as compared to patients with low macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques (mean ± SD; 8969 ± 3485 AUC vs. 7020 ± 3442 AUC, P = 0.02. All associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and use of drugs against platelet activation.Platelet reactivity towards ADP is associated with levels of PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

  2. Negative feedback regulation of human platelets via autocrine activation of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Havnen, O K; Heldin, C H; Holmsen, H

    1994-05-13

    Human platelets contain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in their alpha-granules which is released during platelet exocytosis. We show by immunoprecipitation and 125I-PDGF binding experiments that human platelets have functionally active PDGF alpha-receptors, but not beta-receptors. The PDGF alpha-receptor (PDGFR-alpha) was identified as a 170-kDa glycosylated protein-tyrosine kinase as found in other cell types. Stimulation of platelets with 0.1 unit/ml thrombin resulted in a significant increase (2-5-fold) of the tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha, as determined by immunoprecipitation with phosphotyrosine antiserum as well as with PDGFR-alpha antiserum. The observed thrombin-induced autophosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha was inhibited by the addition of a neutralizing monoclonal PDGF antibody. Thus, our results suggest that the platelet PDGFR-alpha is stimulated in an autocrine manner by PDGF secreted during platelet activation. Preincubation of platelets with PDGF inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and secretion of ATP + ADP and beta-hexosaminidase. Thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was also reversed when PDGF was added 30 s after thrombin stimulation. Inhibition of the autocrine PDGF pathway during platelet activation by the PDGF antibody led to a potentiation of thrombin-induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion. Thus, the PDGFR-alpha takes part in a negative feedback regulation during platelet activation. Our demonstration of PDGF alpha-receptors on human platelets and its inhibitory function during platelet activation identifies a new possible role of PDGF in the regulation of thrombosis.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Platelet Glycoprotein Receptor Blockade in Aged and Comorbid Mice With Acute Experimental Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Peter; Schuhmann, Michael K; Fluri, Felix; Lorenz, Kristina; Zernecke, Alma; Stoll, Guido; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Despite the medical and socioeconomic effect of ischemic stroke and extensive preclinical research, treatment options for ischemic stroke are limited. We recently identified and characterized essential steps of thrombus formation in stroke and demonstrated that inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) receptors Ib and VI, but not IIb/IIIa, protects young and healthy mice from ischemic neurodegeneration. Whether these findings translate to the clinic remains unclear. Considering that the typical stroke patient is elderly with comorbidity, we aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of novel preclinical antithrombotics in adult and comorbid mice with acute experimental stroke. We subjected adult, healthy, atherosclerotic (Ldlr(-/-)), diabetic (streptozotocin treated), and hypertensive (RenTgMK) mice to a 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were pretreated with anti-GPVI antibodies or treated 1 hour after stroke induction with anti-GPIb or anti-GPIIb/IIIa antigen-binding fragments, respectively. Isotype treatment served as control. Twenty-four hours after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we visually assessed the intracerebral hemorrhage rate and measured infarct volumes (using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained brain slices) and functional outcome (using Bederson and grip-test scores). GPIb and GPVI inhibition protected the mice from ischemic stroke without increasing bleeding complications. In contrast, GPIIb/IIIa inhibition was not protective but increased the intracerebral hemorrhage rate. Inhibition of early steps of thrombus formation protects adult and comorbid mice from ischemic stroke. The use of clinically meaningful mouse strains might improve the translation of preclinical stroke research to the clinic. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Developing baculovirus-insect cell expression systems for humanized recombinant glycoprotein production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is widely used to produce recombinant glycoproteins for many different biomedical applications. However, due to the fundamental nature of insect glycoprotein processing pathways, this system is typically unable to produce recombinant mammalian glycoproteins with authentic oligosaccharide side chains. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of insect protein glycosylation pathways and our recent efforts to address this problem. These efforts have yielded new insect cell lines and baculoviral vectors that can produce recombinant glycoproteins with humanized oligosaccharide side chains

  5. Aluminum induces lipid peroxidation and aggregation of human blood platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J.C. Neiva

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ intoxication is thought to play a major role in the development of Alzheimer's disease and in certain pathologic manifestations arising from long-term hemodialysis. Although the metal does not present redox capacity, it can stimulate tissue lipid peroxidation in animal models. Furthermore, in vitro studies have revealed that the fluoroaluminate complex induces diacylglycerol formation, 43-kDa protein phosphorylation and aggregation. Based on these observations, we postulated that Al3+-induced blood platelet aggregation was mediated by lipid peroxidation. Using chemiluminescence (CL of luminol as an index of total lipid peroxidation capacity, we established a correlation between lipid peroxidation capacity and platelet aggregation. Al3+ (20-100 µM stimulated CL production by human blood platelets as well as their aggregation. Incubation of the platelets with the antioxidants nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA (100 µM and n-propyl gallate (NPG (100 µM, inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, completely prevented CL and platelet aggregation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA (100 µM, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, was a weaker inhibitor of both events. These findings suggest that Al3+ stimulates lipid peroxidation and the lipoxygenase pathway in human blood platelets thereby causing their aggregation

  6. Proliferation-promoting effect of platelet-rich plasma on human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Minakata, Tatsuya; Mitsui, Toshihito; Kushida, Satoshi; Notodihardjo, Frederik Zefanya; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2008-11-01

    This study evaluated changes in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 release from platelets by platelet-rich plasma activation, and the proliferation potential of activated platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma on human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. Platelet-rich plasma was prepared using a double-spin method, with the number of platelets counted in each preparation stage. Platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma were activated with autologous thrombin and calcium chloride, and levels of platelet-released PDGF-AB and TGF-beta1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cells were cultured for 1, 4, or 7 days in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 5% whole blood plasma, nonactivated platelet-rich plasma, nonactivated platelet-poor plasma, activated platelet-rich plasma, or activated platelet-poor plasma. In parallel, these cells were cultured for 1, 4, or 7 days in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 1%, 5%, 10%, or 20% activated platelet-rich plasma. The cultured human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts were assayed for proliferation. Platelet-rich plasma contained approximately 7.9 times as many platelets as whole blood, and its activation was associated with the release of large amounts of PDGF-AB and TGF-beta1. Adding activated platelet-rich or platelet-poor plasma significantly promoted the proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. Adding 5% activated platelet-rich plasma to the medium maximally promoted cell proliferation, but activated platelet-rich plasma at 20% did not promote it. Platelet-rich plasma can enhance the proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. These results support clinical platelet-rich plasma application for cell-based, soft-tissue engineering and wound healing.

  7. Improved platelet survival after cold storage by prevention of glycoprotein Ibα clustering in lipid rafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gitz, E.; Koekman, C.A.; van den Heuvel, D.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355331861; Deckmyn, H.; Akkerman, J.W.N.; Gerritsen, H.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071548777; Urbanus, R.T

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Room temperature storage of platelets for transfusion increases the risk of microbial infection and decreases platelet functionality, leading to out-date discard rates of up to 20%. Cold storage may be a better alternative, but this treatment leads to rapid platelet clearance

  8. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Torreggiani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet lysate (PL in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one of the effectors of PL activity. Exosomes were isolated from human PL by differential ultracentrifugation, and analysed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC treated with three different exosome concentrations (0.6 μg, 5 μg and 50 μg showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control. In addition, osteogenic differentiation assays demonstrated that exosome concentration differently affected the ability of MSC to deposit mineralised matrix. Finally, the analysis of exosome protein content revealed a higher amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 as compared to PL. In regards to RNA content, an enrichment of small RNAs in exosomes as compared to donor platelets has been found. These results suggest that exosomes consistently contribute to PL activity and could represent an advantageous nanodelivery system for cell-free regeneration therapies.

  9. Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through α-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp

  10. MAC-1 Glycoprotein Family mediates adherence of neutrophils to endothelial cells stimulated by leukotriene B/sub 4/ and platelet activating factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnesen, M.G.; Anderson, D.C.; Springer, T.A.; Knedler, A.; Avdi, N.; Henson, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    The process of neutrophil (N) adhesion to and migration through endothelium (EC), an early event in the induction of the acute inflammatory response, has been attributed to the generation of extravascular chemoattractant peptides and lipids. Although both leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/) and platelet activating factor (PAF) enhance N adherence to EC, the mechanisms involved in this interaction are still not completely understood. Since the MAC-1 Glycoprotein (GP) Family has recently been shown to be required for a variety of adherence-dependent functions of stimulated N, the authors questioned whether these adherence-associated GP might be involved in N adherence to EC stimulated by LTB/sub 4/ or PAF. Using a microtiter adherence assay with /sup 111/In labeled N, they assessed the ability of N from patients with MAC-1, LFA-1 Deficiency to adhere to monolayers of human omental microvascular or umbilical vein EC as well as to serum-coated plastic. Patient N exhibited markedly diminished adherence in response to LTB/sub 4/ or PAF compared to normal controls. LTB/sub 4/ and PAF enhanced expression of the MAC-1 GP Family on the surface of normal N as determined by flow cytofluorimetry using a monoclonal antibody (TS1/18) to the GP common beta subunit. In addition TS1/18 (20 ..mu..g/ml) completely inhibited N adherence stimulated by either LTB/sub 4/ (10/sup -8/M) or PAF(10/sup -11/M). Thus, the MAC-1 GP Family appears to be important in chemotactic factor regulation of N adherence to EC.

  11. Human platelet lysate: Replacing fetal bovine serum as a gold standard for human cell propagation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnouf, Thierry; Strunk, Dirk; Koh, Mickey B C; Schallmoser, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The essential physiological role of platelets in wound healing and tissue repair builds the rationale for the use of human platelet derivatives in regenerative medicine. Abundant growth factors and cytokines stored in platelet granules can be naturally released by thrombin activation and clotting or artificially by freeze/thaw-mediated platelet lysis, sonication or chemical treatment. Human platelet lysate prepared by the various release strategies has been established as a suitable alternative to fetal bovine serum as culture medium supplement, enabling efficient propagation of human cells under animal serum-free conditions for a multiplicity of applications in advanced somatic cell therapy and tissue engineering. The rapidly increasing number of studies using platelet derived products for inducing human cell proliferation and differentiation has also uncovered a considerable variability of human platelet lysate preparations which limits comparability of results. The main variations discussed herein encompass aspects of donor selection, preparation of the starting material, the possibility for pooling in plasma or additive solution, the implementation of pathogen inactivation and consideration of ABO blood groups, all of which can influence applicability. This review outlines the current knowledge about human platelet lysate as a powerful additive for human cell propagation and highlights its role as a prevailing supplement for human cell culture capable to replace animal serum in a growing spectrum of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stent parameters predict major adverse clinical events and the response to platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade: findings of the ESPRIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, James E; Lim, Ing Haan; Srinivasan, Shankar; Jozic, Joseph; Gibson, C Michael; O'Shea, J Conor; Puma, Joseph A; Simon, Daniel I

    2009-02-01

    Only limited data describe relationships between stent parameters (length and diameter), adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention, and effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade by stent parameters. In this post hoc analysis of the 1983 patients receiving a stent in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy randomized percutaneous coronary intervention trial of eptifibatide versus placebo, rates of the major adverse cardiac event (MACE) end point (death, myocardial infarction, urgent target-vessel revascularization, or thrombotic bailout) at 48 hours and 1 year were correlated with stent parameters and then analyzed by randomization to eptifibatide versus placebo. In the placebo group, MACE increased with number of stents implanted, total stent length (by quartiles of or=30 mm), and total stented vessel area (by quartiles of area or=292 mm(2)). By stent parameters, MACE at 48 hours was reduced in the eptifibatide group at stent lengths of 18 to or=30 mm (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.75; P=0.003), stent diameters of >2.5 to <3.5 mm (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.82; P=0.002), and with 2 stents implanted (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.69; P=0.001). In the placebo group, near-linear relationships were observed between both increasing stent length and increasing stented vessel area and MACE at 48 hours and 1 year (all, P<0.001); these gradients were flattened in the eptifibatide group (P=0.005 for stent length). Stent parameters predict MACE after percutaneous coronary intervention. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade mitigates much of the hazard of increasing procedural complexity.

  13. Increase in density and accumulation of serotonin by human aging platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzano, D.; Aranda, E.; Rodriguez, S.; Foradori, A.; Lira, P.

    1984-01-01

    51 Cr-labeled autologous platelets were infused into splenectomized subjects and the specific radioactivities of high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet subpopulations were determined sequentially in postinfusion samples. These findings confirm previous observations in eusplenic individuals and support the hypothesis that human LD platelets are, on the average, younger than HD platelets. LD platelets contain 33.8 +/- 13.5 ng serotonin (5HT)/10(8) platelets and HD platelets 76.8 +/- 9.5 ng 5HT/10(8) platelets. Sequential measurements of 5HT in PRP platelets were performed during the recovery phase of thrombocytopenia following splenectomy in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), a condition associated with aging of platelets in circulation. Presplenectomy platelet 5HT was 17.7 ng/10(8) platelets and on days 1, 6, and 12 after surgery it increased to 18.1, 37.8, and 61.0 ng/10(8) platelets. When three healthy volunteers were given aspirin (500 mg/day) for up to 15 days, no significant change in the 5HT content of circulating platelets was observed. The observation that human HD platelets, enriched with older cells, contain more 5HT than LD platelets taken together with the parallel increase in platelet 5HT and age during the recovery from thrombocytopenia in ITP patients and the lack of effect of aspirin on platelet 5HT content, provides initial evidence that human platelets accumulate 5HT during their life-span in circulation

  14. Selective elution of HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin from human platelets by chloroquine diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether chloroquine can specifically elute HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) from the platelet surface, quantitative immunofluorescence flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies were used to show that HLA antigens and beta 2-M were proportionally eluted from the platelet surface without affecting the membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. Second, an autoradiogram of electrophoresed I-125-labeled platelets showed that only beta 2-M but not other I-125-labeled membrane proteins could be eluted. Although HLA antigens were poorly labeled by I-125 and could not be detected on the autoradiogram, the eluted HLA antigens could be detected by anti-HLA monoclonal antibody and immunoblotting techniques. No loss of plasma membrane integrity was observed by transmission electron microscopy after chloroquine treatment of platelets. The results indicate that chloroquine selectively elutes HLA antigens and their noncovalently associated beta 2-M without affecting other integral platelet membrane proteins

  15. Staphylococcal superantigen-like 5 activates platelets and supports platelet adhesion under flow conditions, which involves glycoprotein Ib alpha and alpha(IIb)beta(3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, C. J. C.; Weeterings, C.; Vughs, M. M.; De Groot, P. G.; Van Strijp, J. A.; Lisman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Staphylococcal superantigen-like 5 (SSL5) is an exoprotein secreted by Staphylococcus aureus that has been shown to inhibit neutrophil rolling over activated endothelial cells via a direct interaction with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). Methods and Results: When purified

  16. Glycoproteins and sialyl transferase of human B lymphoblastoid cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, S.W.L.; Ng, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    We used two radiolabeling methods to study glycoproteins on the surface of lymphoblastoid cells. One of the methods affects tritiation of residues which are oxidized with galactose oxidase and the other causes tritiation of neuraminic acid residues. This approach was shown to allow a better resolution of cell surface glycoproteins than if either method were used alone. Glycoproteins of B 1 - 19 cells which harbor the Epstein-Barr virus genomes were compared with those of its parental cell line, BJAB, which does not harbor the viral genomes. These studies did not reveal a unique viral protein. A 28,000 mol. wt. glycoprotein was found to be the most prominent neuraminic acidlabeled product of B 1 - 19 cells and also of the two other cell lines, Raji and Ly38, which harbor the EBV genomes. A similar molecular weight species from BJAB cells identified by galactose oxidase labeling might be deficient in neuraminic acid residues as it was poorly labeled by the periodate oxidation method. The neuraminic acid content and level of sialyl transferase of BJAB cells were found to be lower than those of the other cell lines studied. (auth.)

  17. Pharmacological modulation of human platelet leukotriene C4-synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, A; Folco, G; Henson, P M; Murphy, R C

    1997-03-21

    The aim of this study was to test if human platelet leukotriene C4-synthase (LTC4-S) is pharmacologically different from cloned and expressed LTC4-S and, in light of the significant homologies between 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) and LTC4-S, if different potencies of leukotriene synthesis inhibitors acting through binding with FLAP (FLAP inhibitors) reflect in different potencies as LTC4-S inhibitors. Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthesis by washed human platelets supplemented with synthetic leukotriene A4 (LTA4) was studied in the absence and presence of two different, structurally unrelated FLAP inhibitors (MK-886 and BAY-X1005) as well as a direct 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (zileuton). LTC4 production was analyzed by RP-HPLC coupled to diode array detection. We report that human platelet LTC4-S was inhibited by MK-886 and BAY-X1005 (IC50 of 4.7 microM and 91.2 microM, respectively), but not by zileuton (inactive up to 300 microM); all 3 compounds were able to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase metabolite biosynthesis in intact human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (IC50 of 0.044 microM, 0.85 microM, and 1.5 microM, respectively). Platelet LTC4-S does not appear pharmacologically different from expression cloned LTC4-S. LTC4-S inhibition by FLAP inhibitors is in agreement with the significant homology reported for expression-cloned LTC4-S with FLAP, Furthermore, functional homology of the binding sites for inhibitors on LTC4-S and FLAP is suggested by the conservation of the relative potencies of MK-886 and BAY-X1005 vs FLAP-dependent 5-lipoxygenase activity and LTC4-S inhibition: MK-886 was 19.3-fold more potent than BAY-X1005 as FLAP inhibitor and 19.6-fold more potent than BAY-X1005 as LTC4-S inhibitor.

  18. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Kimura, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using 111 In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10 6 platelets/μl. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 μM ADP but not in 5 μM ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  19. Comparative Analysis of Whey N-Glycoproteins in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk Using Quantitative Glycoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueyan; Song, Dahe; Yang, Mei; Yang, Ning; Ye, Qing; Tao, Dongbing; Liu, Biao; Wu, Rina; Yue, Xiqing

    2017-11-29

    Glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational protein modification that plays a substantial role in various processes. However, whey glycoproteins in human milk have not been completely profiled. Herein, we used quantitative glycoproteomics to quantify whey N-glycosylation sites and their alteration in human milk during lactation; 110 N-glycosylation sites on 63 proteins and 91 N-glycosylation sites on 53 proteins were quantified in colostrum and mature milk whey, respectively. Among these, 68 glycosylation sites on 38 proteins were differentially expressed in human colostrum and mature milk whey. These differentially expressed N-glycoproteins were highly enriched in "localization", "extracellular region part", and "modified amino acid binding" according to gene ontology annotation and mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades pathway. These results shed light on the glycosylation sites, composition and biological functions of whey N-glycoproteins in human colostrum and mature milk, and provide substantial insight into the role of protein glycosylation during infant development.

  20. Electrophoretic demonstration of glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and phosphoproteins in human and bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Bøg-Hansen, T C

    1990-01-01

    Enamel proteins from fully mineralized human molars and from bovine tooth germs were separated by electrophoresis. The gels were stained for detection of glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and phosphoproteins. Glycoproteins were shown by periodic acid-Schiff staining and lectin blotting. In mature human...... enamel a number of high molecular weight proteins could be demonstrated after ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid demineralization and subsequent Triton X-100 extraction. These proteins are suggested to be lipoproteins. Phosphoproteins could only be visualized in enamel matrix from the tooth germs....

  1. LIM kinase-1 selectively promotes glycoprotein Ib-IX–mediated TXA2 synthesis, platelet activation, and thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Estevez, Brian; Stojanovic-Terpo, Aleksandra; Delaney, M. Keegan; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Berndt, Michael C.; Ruan, Changgeng; Du, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Role for LIMK1 in GPIb-IX–dependent cPLA2 activation, TXA2 synthesis, and platelet activation independent of its role in actin polymerization.LIMK1 is important in arterial thrombosis in vivo but appears to be dispensable for hemostasis, suggesting a new antithrombotic target.

  2. Preparation of a viable population of indium-111-labelled human blood platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Pieters, H.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Duyvene de Wit, L.J.; Reenen, O.R. van; Retief, F.P.; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein

    1980-01-01

    Factors influencing labelling of human platelets with 111 Indium-8-hydroxyquinoline ([ 111 In]-oxine) in a physiological saline medium were investigated. The efficiency of labelling is influenced by time of incubation, concentration of oxine, and pH of the incubating medium. It was found that a viable platelet population could be labelled under the following conditions: (1) centrifugation of platelet rich plasma in polystyrene conical tubes at 800 g for 15 min; (2) resuspension of the platelet pellet in saline, pH 5.5; (3) incubating for 30 min at 22 0 C with [ 111 In]-oxine at a concentration of 6.25 mg oxine/litre platelet suspension; (4) washing once with platelet poor autologous plasma (PPP); and (5) finally suspending the platelets in PPP. The labelled platelets aggregated normally with collagen and ADP. Electron microscopy, done immediately after labelling, showed internal organelle reorganization characteristic of activated platelets. These ultrastructural features were reversible on incubationin PPP at 37 0 C for 30 min. The 111 In is not released from aggregated platelets and the label does not elute from incubated platelets for at least five hr. We conclude that human platelets thus labelled are suitable for in vivo kinetic studies. (orig.) [de

  3. Imipramine binding in subpopulations of normal human blood platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Imipramine binding was studied in platelet membranes isolated with different proportions of heavy (young) and light (old) platelets. The B/sub max/, a measure of the number of binding sites, was greater in the heavier platelets than in the light platelets. However, the dissociation constant K/sub d/ (a reflection of the affinity of imipramine binding) was greater in the lighter platelets compared to the heavy platelets. These results indicate that differences in K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ in particular membrane preparation, could be due to the differences in the relative proportion of heavy and light platelets

  4. Scalable Generation of Universal Platelets from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Feng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide a potentially replenishable source for the production of transfusable platelets. Here, we describe a method to generate megakaryocytes (MKs and functional platelets from iPSCs in a scalable manner under serum/feeder-free conditions. The method also permits the cryopreservation of MK progenitors, enabling a rapid “surge” capacity when large numbers of platelets are needed. Ultrastructural/morphological analyses show no major differences between iPSC platelets and human blood platelets. iPSC platelets form aggregates, lamellipodia, and filopodia after activation and circulate in macrophage-depleted animals and incorporate into developing mouse thrombi in a manner identical to human platelets. By knocking out the β2-microglobulin gene, we have generated platelets that are negative for the major histocompatibility antigens. The scalable generation of HLA-ABC-negative platelets from a renewable cell source represents an important step toward generating universal platelets for transfusion as well as a potential strategy for the management of platelet refractoriness.

  5. Myeloperoxidase modulates human platelet aggregation via actin cytoskeleton reorganization and store-operated calcium entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Gorudko

    2013-07-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO is a heme-containing enzyme released from activated leukocytes into the extracellular space during inflammation. Its main function is the production of hypohalous acids that are potent oxidants. MPO can also modulate cell signaling and inflammatory responses independently of its enzymatic activity. Because MPO is regarded as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases associated with increased platelet activity, we studied the effects of MPO on human platelet functional properties. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to reveal carbohydrate-independent MPO binding to human platelet membrane. Adding MPO to platelets did not activate their aggregation under basal conditions (without agonist. In contrast, MPO augmented agonist-induced platelet aggregation, which was not prevented by MPO enzymatic activity inhibitors. It was found that exposure of platelets to MPO leads to actin cytoskeleton reorganization and an increase in their elasticity. Furthermore, MPO evoked a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ through enhancement of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. Together, these findings indicate that MPO is not a direct agonist but rather a mediator that binds to human platelets, induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization and affects the mechanical stiffness of human platelets, resulting in potentiating SOCE and agonist-induced human platelet aggregation. Therefore, an increased activity of platelets in vascular disease can, at least partly, be provided by MPO elevated concentrations.

  6. Molecular insight into human platelet antigens: structural and evolutionary conservation analyses offer new perspective to immunogenic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Meytal; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2011-03-01

    Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are polymorphisms in platelet membrane glycoproteins (GPs) that can stimulate production of alloantibodies once exposed to foreign platelets (PLTs) with different HPAs. These antibodies can cause neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and PLT transfusion refractoriness. Most HPAs are localized on the main PLT receptors: 1) integrin αIIbβ3, known as the fibrinogen receptor; 2) the GPIb-IX-V complex that functions as the receptor for von Willebrand factor; and 3) integrin α2β1, which functions as the collagen receptor. We analyzed the structural location and the evolutionary conservation of the residues associated with the HPAs to characterize the features that induce immunologic responses but do not cause inherited diseases. We found that all HPAs reside in positions located on the protein surface, apart from the ligand-binding site, and are evolutionary variable. Disease-causing mutations often reside in highly conserved and buried positions. In contrast, the HPAs affect residues on the protein surface that were not conserved throughout evolution; this explains their naive effect on the protein function. Nonetheless, the HPAs involve substitutions of solvent-exposed positions that lead to altered interfaces on the surface of the protein and might present epitopes foreign to the immune system. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Stapled peptides as a new technology to investigate protein-protein interactions in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iegre, Jessica; Ahmed, Niaz S; Gaynord, Josephine S; Wu, Yuteng; Herlihy, Kara M; Tan, Yaw Sing; Lopes-Pires, Maria E; Jha, Rupam; Lau, Yu Heng; Sore, Hannah F; Verma, Chandra; O' Donovan, Daniel H; Pugh, Nicholas; Spring, David R

    2018-05-28

    Platelets are blood cells with numerous crucial pathophysiological roles in hemostasis, cardiovascular thrombotic events and cancer metastasis. Platelet activation requires the engagement of intracellular signalling pathways that involve protein-protein interactions (PPIs). A better understanding of these pathways is therefore crucial for the development of selective anti-platelet drugs. New strategies for studying PPIs in human platelets are required to overcome limitations associated with conventional platelet research methods. For example, small molecule inhibitors can lack selectivity and are often difficult to design and synthesise. Additionally, development of transgenic animal models is costly and time-consuming and conventional recombinant techniques are ineffective due to the lack of a nucleus in platelets. Herein, we describe the generation of a library of novel, functionalised stapled peptides and their first application in the investigation of platelet PPIs. Moreover, the use of platelet-permeable stapled Bim BH3 peptides confirms the part of Bim in phosphatidyl-serine (PS) exposure and reveals a role for the Bim protein in platelet activatory processes. Our work demonstrates that functionalised stapled peptides are a complementary alternative to conventional platelet research methods, and could make a significant contribution to the understanding of platelet signalling pathways and hence to the development of anti-platelet drugs.

  8. Niacin and biosynthesis of PGD₂ by platelet COX-1 in mice and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Stubbe, Jane; Ricciotti, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    during platelet activation in humans and, although vascular expression of DP1 is conserved between humans and mice, platelet DP1 is not present in mice. Despite this, DP1 deletion in mice augmented aneurysm formation and the hypertensive response to Ang II and accelerated atherogenesis and thrombogenesis....... Furthermore, COX inhibitors in humans, as well as platelet depletion, COX-1 knockdown, and COX-2 deletion in mice, revealed that niacin evoked platelet COX-1-derived PGD₂ biosynthesis. Finally, ADP-induced spreading on fibrinogen was augmented by niacin in washed human platelets, coincident with increased...... thromboxane (Tx) formation. However, in platelet-rich plasma, where formation of both Tx and PGD₂ was increased, spreading was not as pronounced and was inhibited by DP1 activation. Thus, PGD₂, like PGI₂, may function as a homeostatic response to thrombogenic and hypertensive stimuli and may have particular...

  9. [Effect of losartan on human platelet activation by thromboxane A2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J I; Montón, M; Rodríguez-Feo, J A; Farré, J; Jiménez, A M; Núñez, A; Gómez, J; Rico, L; Marcos, P; Castilla, C; Sánchez De Miguel, L; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    2000-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that losartan, an AT-1 receptor antagonist of angiotensin II (Ang II) could block the receptor of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) in the vascular wall. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of losartan on human platelet activation. Platelets were obtained from 15 healthy men between the age 26 and 40. Platelet activation was measured by changes in the light transmission of platelet-rich plasma stimulated by a synthetic TXA2 analogue, U46619 (5 x 10(-6) mol/l). The U46619-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by losartan in a dose-response manner. Only a high dose of EXP 3174 (5 10-5 mol/l), the in vivo active metabolite of losartan, was able to attenuate U46619-induced platelet activation. Captopril, an angiotensin I-converting inhibitor failed to modify U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Despite the platelets expressing AT-1 type receptors, of Ang II exogenous Ang II did not modify platelet aggregation induced by U46619. The binding of U46619 to platelets was competitively inhibited by losartan in dose-dependent manner. However, only a high dose of EXP 3174 reduced the binding of U46619. Captopril failed to modify the binding of U46619 to platelets. Losartan decreased platelet aggregation by a TXA2-dependent mechanism. EXP 3174 showed a lesser potency than losartan to reduce TXA2-platelet activation. Captopril and exogenous angiotensin II had no effect on human platelet activation. These results suggest that losartan reduced TXA2-dependent platelet activation independently of the blockade of AT-1 receptors.

  10. Human CRISP-3 binds serum alpha(1)B-glycoprotein across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, Lene; Johnsen, Anders H; Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    CRISP-3 was previously shown to be bound to alpha(1)B-glycoprotein (A1BG) in human serum/plasma. All mammalian sera are supposed to contain A1BG, although its presence in rodent sera is not well-documented. Since animal sera are often used to supplement buffers in experiments, in particular...

  11. Studies on the subunits of human glycoprotein hormones in relation to reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, C.

    1977-01-01

    In this review summarising present knowledge of the biological and immunological activity of the subunits of human glycoprotein hormones, the specificity of the α-subunit and β-subunit radioimmunoassays are discussed. The crossreaction studies performed with the α-subunit radioimmunoassays are aummarised in one table while those with the β-subunit radioimmunoassays are presented in a second table. (JIW)

  12. Genome-wide RNA-seq analysis of human and mouse platelet transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jesse W.; Oler, Andrew J.; Tolley, Neal D.; Hunter, Benjamin N.; Low, Elizabeth N.; Nix, David A.; Yost, Christian C.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2011-01-01

    Inbred mice are a useful tool for studying the in vivo functions of platelets. Nonetheless, the mRNA signature of mouse platelets is not known. Here, we use paired-end next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the polyadenylated transcriptomes of human and mouse platelets. We report that RNA-seq provides unprecedented resolution of mRNAs that are expressed across the entire human and mouse genomes. Transcript expression and abundance are often conserved between the 2 species. Several mRNAs, however, are differentially expressed in human and mouse platelets. Moreover, previously described functional disparities between mouse and human platelets are reflected in differences at the transcript level, including protease activated receptor-1, protease activated receptor-3, platelet activating factor receptor, and factor V. This suggests that RNA-seq is a useful tool for predicting differences in platelet function between mice and humans. Our next-generation sequencing analysis provides new insights into the human and murine platelet transcriptomes. The sequencing dataset will be useful in the design of mouse models of hemostasis and a catalyst for discovery of new functions of platelets. Access to the dataset is found in the “Introduction.” PMID:21596849

  13. Human platelet vasopressin receptor identification by direct ultraviolet photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibonnier, M.

    1987-01-01

    Tritiated vasopressin ([ 3 H]AVP) was directly crosslinked to its human platelet receptor by using an ultraviolet irradiation procedure. After preincubation with [ 3 H]AVP, the hydrodynamic parameters of the hormone-receptor complexes solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate were derived from Sephacryl S-300 superfine gel filtration and from sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation experiments. The following values were obtained: Stoke's radius = 5.48 +/- 0.1 nm, apparent sedimentation coefficient = 5.55 +/- 0.1 S, and calculated molecular weight = 132,000. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-8% polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, [ 3 H]AVP preferentially and specifically labeled a 125,000-dalton protein. The labeling of this protein was suppressed by addition of excess cold vasopressin, whereas angiotensin II did not inhibit incorporation of tritiated vasopressin in this protein. These results suggest that direct UV-photoaffinity labelling with [ 3 H]AVP is a suitable tool for the purification of the human platelet vasopressin receptor

  14. Complementary effects of thienopyridine pretreatment and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention; results from the ESPRIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, Jean-Pierre; Campbell, Mark E; Mathias, Jasmine; Pieper, Karen S; Harrington, Robert A; Madan, Mina; Gibson, C Michael; Tolleson, Thaddeus R; O'Shea, J Conor; Tcheng, James E

    2007-07-01

    This analysis sought to investigate the complementary effect of thienopyridine pretreatment and platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa integrin blockade in coronary stent intervention. Definitive evidence supporting combined antiplatelet therapy consisting of thienopyridine pretreatment and GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockade in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation is limited. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes by thienopyridine use in the 2,040 patients randomized to eptifibatide or placebo who underwent PCI in the ESPRIT trial. A total of 901 patients received a loading dose of thienopyridine before PCI (group 1), 123 received thienopyridine pretreatment without a loading dose (group 2), and 1,016 were not treated with thienopyridine before PCI (group 3). The composite incidence of death or myocardial infarction at 30 days was significantly lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 combined (OR, 0.71 [95%CI, 0.52-0.99]; P = 0.0417). A similar trend was seen for the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or urgent target vessel revascularization (unadjusted OR, 0.77 [0.57-1.05]; P = 0.1025). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, these differences were no longer significant. No interactions were identified with eptifibatide assignment for any of the group comparisons. Pretreatment with a loading dose of thienopyridine lowers the rate of ischemic complications regardless of treatment with a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor. Conversely, the efficacy of eptifibatide is maintained whether or not a loading dose of a thienopyridine is administered. Optimal outcomes are achieved in patients receiving thienopyridine pretreatment along with platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Mechanisms of andrographolide-induced platelet apoptosis in human platelets: regulatory roles of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Li-Ming; Su, Cheng-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hsien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Chung, Chi-Li; Yen, Ting-Lin; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2013-11-01

    Andrographolide, a novel nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, is isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Our recent studies revealed that andrographolide possesses potent antiplatelet activity by inhibition of the p38 MAPK/(●) HO-NF-κB-ERK2 cascade. Although platelets are anucleated cells, apoptotic machinery apparatus recently has been found to regulate platelet activation and limit platelet lifespan. Therefore, we further investigated the regulatory effects of andrographolide on platelet apoptotic events. In this study, apoptotic signaling events for caspase-3, -8, and Bid were time (10-60 min)- and dose (25-100 μΜ)-dependently activated by andrographolide in human platelets. Andrographolide could also disrupt mitrochondrial membrane potential. In addition, caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk, 50 μΜ) was found to reverse andrographolide-induced caspase-8 activation, whereas the antagonistic anti-Fas receptor (ZB4, 500 ng/mL) and anti-tumor necrosis factor-R1 (H398, 10 µg/mL) monoclonal antibodies did not. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated that andrographolide might limit platelet lifespan by initiating the caspase-8-dependent extrinsic apoptotic pathway, in spite of no direct evidence that death receptors are involved in this process proved. Overall, the various medicinal properties of andrographolide suggest its potential value in treating patients with thromboembolic disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Identification of a second putative receptor of platelet activating factor on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Due to multiple molecular species of platelet activating factor (PAF) and the existence of high affinity binding sites in a variety of cells and tissues, possible existence of PAF receptor subtypes has been suggested. This report shows differences between specific PAF receptors on human leukocytes and platelets. Human PMN leukocyte membranes showed high affinity binding sites for PAF with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.7 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -10 M. The maximal number (B/sub max/) of receptor sites was estimated to be 3.13 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -13 mol/mg protein. They compared the relative potencies of several PAF agonists and receptor antagonists between human platelet and human leukocyte membranes. One antagonist (Ono-6240) was found to be 8 times less potent at inhibiting the [ 3 H]PAF specific receptor binding to human leukocytes than to human platelets. Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and K + ions potentiated the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding in both systems. Na + ions inhibited the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding to human platelets but showed no effects in human leukocytes. K + ions decreased the Mg 2+ -potentiated [ 3 H]PAF binding in human leukocytes but showed no effects in human platelets. These results suggest that the PAF specific receptors in human leukocytes are different structurally and possibly functionally from the receptors identified in human platelets

  17. Virion Glycoprotein-Mediated Immune Evasion by Human Cytomegalovirus: a Sticky Virus Makes a Slick Getaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The prototypic herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (CMV) exhibits the extraordinary ability to establish latency and maintain a chronic infection throughout the life of its human host. This is even more remarkable considering the robust adaptive immune response elicited by infection and reactivation from latency. In addition to the ability of CMV to exist in a quiescent latent state, its persistence is enabled by a large repertoire of viral proteins that subvert immune defense mechanisms, such as NK cell activation and major histocompatibility complex antigen presentation, within the cell. However, dissemination outside the cell presents a unique existential challenge to the CMV virion, which is studded with antigenic glycoprotein complexes targeted by a potent neutralizing antibody response. The CMV virion envelope proteins, which are critical mediators of cell attachment and entry, possess various characteristics that can mitigate the humoral immune response and prevent viral clearance. Here we review the CMV glycoprotein complexes crucial for cell attachment and entry and propose inherent properties of these proteins involved in evading the CMV humoral immune response. These include viral glycoprotein polymorphism, epitope competition, Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis, glycan shielding, and cell-to-cell spread. The consequences of CMV virion glycoprotein-mediated immune evasion have a major impact on persistence of the virus in the population, and a comprehensive understanding of these evasion strategies will assist in designing effective CMV biologics and vaccines to limit CMV-associated disease. PMID:27307580

  18. Human platelet as an independent unit for sulfate conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, B.Y.; Sit, K.H.; Wong, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    The human platelets possess a full complement of enzymes capable of synthesizing N-acetyldopamine (NADA) 35 sulfate from ATP, Mg ++ and sodium 35 sulfate. The pH optimum for this three-step overall sulfate conjugation (comprising of the ATP sulfurylase, APS kinase and phenolsulfotransferase reactions) is 8.6 and the reactions proceeded progressively for several hours. Both ATP and Mg ++ ions, above their respective optimal concentrations of 5 and 7 mM, inhibited the sulfate conjugation of NADA. The apparent Km values for NADA as determined by the phenolsulfotransferase (PST) and overall reactions were similar in magnitude being 2.6 and 4.8 μM, respectively, while that for sodium 35 sulfate was 202 μM. A comparison of these two activities in 62 platelet preparations of normal subjects showed that the rate of the PST reaction was generally higher than the overall reaction even though the PST assay was carried out at suboptimal concentration of PAPS. There was a positive correlation (r=0.82) between the two sets of data, suggesting that the PST reaction probably has some control over the rate of overall sulfate conjugation

  19. Multiple Drug Transport Pathways through Human P-Glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, James W; Vogel, Pia D; Wise, John G

    2015-07-21

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that is commonly associated with therapy resistances in cancers and infectious diseases. P-gp can lower the intracellular concentrations of many drugs to subtherapeutic levels by translocating them out of the cell. Because of the broad range of substrates transported by P-gp, overexpression of P-gp causes multidrug resistance. We reported previously on dynamic transitions of P-gp as it moved through conformations based on crystal structures of homologous ABCB1 proteins using in silico targeted molecular dynamics techniques. We expanded these studies here by docking transport substrates to drug binding sites of P-gp in conformations open to the cytoplasm, followed by cycling the pump through conformations that opened to the extracellular space. We observed reproducible transport of two substrates, daunorubicin and verapamil, by an average of 11-12 Å through the plane of the membrane as P-gp progressed through a catalytic cycle. Methylpyrophosphate, a ligand that should not be transported by P-gp, did not show this movement through P-gp. Drug binding to either of two subsites on P-gp appeared to determine the initial pathway used for drug movement through the membrane. The specific side-chain interactions with drugs within each pathway seemed to be, at least in part, stochastic. The docking and transport properties of a P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, were also studied. A mechanism of inhibition by tariquidar that involves stabilization of an outward open conformation with tariquidar bound in intracellular loops or at the drug binding domain of P-gp is presented.

  20. Multiple Drug Transport Pathways through human P-Glycoprotein(†)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, James W.; Vogel, Pia D.; Wise, John G.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that is commonly associated with therapy resistances in cancers and infectious diseases. P-gp can lower the intracellular concentrations of many drugs to subtherapeutic levels by translocating them out of the cell. Because of the broad range of substrates transported by P-gp, overexpression of P-gp causes multidrug resistance. We reported previously on dynamic transitions of P-gp as it moved through conformations based on crystal structures of homologous ABCB1 proteins using in silico targeted molecular dynamics techniques. We expanded these studies here by docking transport substrates to drug binding sites of P-gp in conformations open to the cytoplasm, followed by cycling the pump through conformations that opened to the extracellular space. We observed reproducible transport of two substrates, daunorubicin and verapamil, by an average of 11 to 12 Å through the plane of the membrane as P-gp progressed through a catalytic cycle. Methyl-pyrophosphate, a ligand that should not be transported by P-gp, did not show this movement through P-gp. Drug binding to either of two subsites on P-gp appeared to determine the initial pathway used for drug movement through the membrane. The specific side-chain interactions with drugs within each pathway seemed to be, at least in part, stochastic. The docking and transport properties of a P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, were also studied. A mechanism of inhibition by tariquidar is presented that involves stabilization of an outward open conformation with tariquidar bound in intracellular loops or at the drug binding domain of P-gp. PMID:26125482

  1. Release of a human platelet specific protein measured by a radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, C A; Moore, S; Bolton, A E; Pepper, D S; Cash, J D

    1975-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and characterize a protein released from human platelets during thrombin-induced aggregation. This protein appeared to be unique to platelets and was named ..beta..-thromboglobulin (..beta..-TG). The following communication describes a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of ..beta..-TG and gives an account of preliminary studies to examine the potential application of this assay for the detection of platelet involvement in thromboembolic disorders.

  2. Association between platelet glycoprotein Ia C807T gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis in a separate ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Yun; Fu, Wen-Jin; Mei, Zhi-Zhong; Yu, Ying-Li; Huang, Yi-Hong; Lin, Han; Chen, Jian-Jun; Wang, Ming-Xia; Guan, Shao-Bing; Fang, Hao-Wei

    2017-11-30

    Many studies have been examined the association of platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ia C807T polymorphism with ischemic stroke (IS) susceptibility. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. To further assess the effects of GP Ia C807T polymorphism on the risk of IS, a meta-analysis was performed in a separate ethnic group. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed and Chinese databases through January 2017. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the associations. Finally, 13 studies contained 2438 IS cases and 2308 controls included. In the total analyses, a significantly elevated risk of IS was associated with all variants of GP Ia C807T in the Chinese population (T vs C: OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.09-1.40; TT vs CC: OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15; TT and CT combined vs CC: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.09-1.59; TT vs CC and CT: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.04-1.76). In the subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity and geographic areas, it revealed the significant results in Chinese Han and in South China. This meta-analysis provides the evidence that GP Ia C807T polymorphism may contribute to the IS development in the Chinese population, especially in South China, and further studies in other ethic groups are required for definite conclusions.

  3. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa polymorphism HPA-3 b/b is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients under 60 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hao; Cai, Yan; Sun, Xiaojiang

    2012-01-01

    The role of genetic risk factors in ischemic stroke is unclear. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GpIIb-IIIa) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the relationship between the GpIIb/IIIa complex gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke. We investigated the association of the GpIIb/IIIa complex gene polymorphism with stroke risk in 306 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 266 control subjects by determining the GpIIb and GpIIIa genotype from leukocyte DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by FokI and ScrFI digestion, respectively. Compared with controls, more patients presented with coronary heart disease, hypertension, smoking history, and diabetes. In addition, the patients had higher levels of cholesterol and glucose compared with the control subjects. All donors in the GpIIIa (n=572) group expressed the GpIIIa PlA1 (HPA-1 aa) phenotype. There were no significant differences between the HPA-3 genotype (GpIIb) patient distribution (aa=39.9%, ab=41.4%, bb=28.7%) and healthy control subjects (aa=36.1%, ab=35.0%, bb=28.9%) (P=0.580). Among study participants ischemic stroke >2-fold (P=0.008). The GpIIb Ile/Ser843 gene polymorphism is associated with ischemic stroke among young and middle-aged adults (ischemic stroke.

  4. Bailout use of platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibition during coronary stent implantation: observations from the ESPRIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Warren J; Madan, Mina; O'Shea, J Conor; Chisholm, Robert J; Lui, Henry K; Cohen, David J; Feldman, Robert L; Green, Robert; Hellkamp, Anne S; Kitt, Michael M; Tcheng, James E

    2005-07-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors are often used as a rescue or bailout therapy to manage complications arising during percutaneous coronary intervention, rather than as prophylactic treatment. We sought to identify the characteristics and outcomes of patients requiring bailout treatment. The ESPRIT trial randomized 2,064 patients to receive eptifibatide or placebo starting immediately before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Bailout therapy was used in 77 patients: 43 (4.2%) randomized to placebo and 34 (3.3%) to eptifibatide (p = 0.3). Bailout therapy for thrombosis was used more often in the placebo group (2.1% versus 1.0%; p = 0.03). Multivariable predictors of bailout included a greater than or equal to 90% stenosis, or visible thrombus on the baseline angiogram, and no aspirin pre-treatment before PCI. However, overall the model predicted bailout poorly (c-index = 0.64). The need for bailout cannot be reliably predicted using baseline characteristics. Patients experiencing complications have poor clinical outcomes despite bailout use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

  5. Max(a), a new low-frequency platelet-specific antigen localized on glycoprotein IIb, is associated with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noris, P.; Simsek, S.; de Bruijne-Admiraal, L. G.; Porcelijn, L.; Huiskes, E.; van der Vlist, G. J.; van Leeuwen, E. F.; van der Schoot, C. E.; von dem Borne, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    We have identified a new platelet-specific alloantigen, Max(a), responsible for a typical case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. The maternal serum reacted strongly with paternal platelets in the platelet immunofluorescence test, whereas platelet alloantigen typing showed that no

  6. USE OF VITAL STAINING IN STORED HUMAN PLATELETS MORPHOFUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Makarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apheresis and pooled platelet concentrates, stored at 22°C during 5 days, were studied with morho-functional platelet rate analysis, based on vital cell staining and registration with fluorescent microscope. It was revealed that apheresis and pooled PC had, on the average, normal values of morphological and functional parameters. On the other hand, both PC kept MFPR of cells only for 2 days storage. Longer PC storage caused the significant decay of morphological and functional platelet parameters.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma can replace fetal bovine serum in human meniscus cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, V.K.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Boer, T. den; Hannink, G.; Tienen, T.G. van; Heerde, W.L. van; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over fetal bovine serum (FBS) limit the clinical application of cultured tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, we investigated if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can fully replace FBS for meniscus tissue engineering purposes. Human PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were isolated from three

  8. Human plasma fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion to polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W B; Grunkemeier, J M; Horbett, T A

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to further investigate the role of fibrinogen adsorbed from plasma in mediating platelet adhesion to polymeric biomaterials. Polystyrene was used as a model hydrophobic polymer; i.e., we expected that the role of fibrinogen in platelet adhesion to polystyrene would be representative of other hydrophobic polymers. Platelet adhesion was compared to both the amount and conformation of adsorbed fibrinogen. The strategy was to compare platelet adhesion to surfaces preadsorbed with normal, afibrinogenemic, and fibrinogen-replenished afibrinogenemic plasmas. Platelet adhesion was determined by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) method, which was found to be closely correlated with adhesion of 111In-labeled platelets. Fibrinogen adsorption from afibrinogenemic plasma to polystyrene (Immulon I(R)) was low and polystyrene preadsorbed with fibrinogen-replenished afibrinogenemic plasma. Addition of even small, subnormal concentrations of fibrinogen to afibrinogenemic plasma greatly increased platelet adhesion. In addition, surface-bound fibrinogen's ability to mediate platelet adhesion was different, depending on the plasma concentration from which fibrinogen was adsorbed. These differences correlated with changes in the binding of a monoclonal antibody that binds to the Aalpha chain RGDS (572-575), suggesting alteration in the conformation or orientation of the adsorbed fibrinogen. Platelet adhesion to polystyrene preadsorbed with blood plasma thus appears to be a strongly bivariate function of adsorbed fibrinogen, responsive to both low amounts and altered states of the adsorbed molecule. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Comparative analyses of industrial-scale human platelet lysate preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jan; Benedetti, Eric; Preslar, Amber; Jacobson, Pam; Jin, Ping; Stroncek, David F; Reems, Jo-Anna

    2017-12-01

    Efforts are underway to eliminate fetal bovine serum from mammalian cell cultures for clinical use. An emerging, viable replacement option for fetal bovine serum is human platelet lysate (PL) as either a plasma-based or serum-based product. Nine industrial-scale, serum-based PL manufacturing runs (i.e., lots) were performed, consisting of an average ± standard deviation volume of 24.6 ± 2.2 liters of pooled, platelet-rich plasma units that were obtained from apheresis donors. Manufactured lots were compared by evaluating various biochemical and functional test results. Comprehensive cytokine profiles of PL lots and product stability tests were performed. Global gene expression profiles of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) cultured with plasma-based or serum-based PL were compared to MSCs cultured with fetal bovine serum. Electrolyte and protein levels were relatively consistent among all serum-based PL lots, with only slight variations in glucose and calcium levels. All nine lots were as good as or better than fetal bovine serum in expanding MSCs. Serum-based PL stored at -80°C remained stable over 2 years. Quantitative cytokine arrays showed similarities as well as dissimilarities in the proteins present in serum-based PL. Greater differences in MSC gene expression profiles were attributable to the starting cell source rather than with the use of either PL or fetal bovine serum as a culture supplement. Using a large-scale, standardized method, lot-to-lot variations were noted for industrial-scale preparations of serum-based PL products. However, all lots performed as well as or better than fetal bovine serum in supporting MSC growth. Together, these data indicate that off-the-shelf PL is a feasible substitute for fetal bovine serum in MSC cultures. © 2017 AABB.

  10. 3,3′,4,4′,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl Inhibits Drug Efflux Through P-Glycoprotein in KB-3 Cells Expressing Mutant Human P-Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujise

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the drug efflux of 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126, the most toxic of all coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs, were examined in KB-3 cells expressing human wild-type and mutant P-glycoprotein in which the 61st amino acid was substituted for serine or phenylalanine (KB3-Phe61. In the cells expressing P-glycoproteins, accumulations of vinblastine and colchicine decreased form 85% to 92% and from 62% to 91%, respectively, and the drug tolerances for these chemicals were increased. In KB3-Phe61, the decreases in drug accumulation were inhibited by adding PCB-126 in a way similar to that with cyclosporine A: by adding 1 μM PCB-126, the accumulations of vinblastine and colchicine increased up to 3.3- and 2.3-fold, respectively. It is suggested that PCB-126 decreased the drug efflux by inhibiting the P-glycoprotein in KB3-Phe61. Since there were various P-glycoproteins and many congeners of Co-PCBs, this inhibition has to be considered a new cause of the toxic effects of Co-PCBs.

  11. Platelets are a possible regulator of human endometrial re-epithelialization during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suginami, Koh; Sato, Yukiyasu; Horie, Akihito; Matsumoto, Hisanori; Kyo, Satoru; Araki, Yoshihiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The human endometrium periodically breaks down and regenerates. As platelets have been reported to contribute to the tissue remodeling process, we examined the possible involvement of platelets in endometrial regeneration. The distribution of extravasating platelets throughout the menstrual cycle was immunohistochemically examined using human endometrial tissues. EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells, a human endometrial epithelial cell-derived immortalized cell line, were co-cultured with platelets, and the effects of platelets on the epithelialization response of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells were investigated by attachment and permeability assays, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical study showed numerous extravasated platelets in the subluminar stroma during the menstrual phase. The platelets promoted the cell-to-matrigel attachment of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells concomitantly with the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. They also promoted cell-to-cell contact among EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells in parallel with E-cadherin expression. These results indicate the possible involvement of platelets in the endometrial epithelial re-epithelialization process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Identification of Aspergillus fumigatus Surface Components That Mediate Interaction of Conidia and Hyphae With Human Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambach, Günter; Blum, Gerhard; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Thierry; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Hagleitner, Magdalena; Jeckström, Hanna; Weigel, Günter; Würtinger, Philipp; Pfaller, Kristian; Krappmann, Sven; Löffler, Jürgen; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Speth, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Platelets were recently identified as a part of innate immunity. They are activated by contact with Aspergillus fumigatus; putative consequences include antifungal defense but also thrombosis, excessive inflammation, and thrombocytopenia. We aimed to identify those fungal surface structures that mediate interaction with platelets. Human platelets were incubated with Aspergillus conidia and hyphae, isolated wall components, or fungal surface mutants. Interaction was visualized microscopically; activation was quantified by flow cytometry of specific markers. The capacity of A. fumigatus conidia to activate platelets is at least partly due to melanin, because this effect can be mimicked with "melanin ghosts"; a mutant lacking melanin showed reduced platelet stimulating potency. In contrast, conidial hydrophobin masks relevant structures, because an A. fumigatus mutant lacking the hydrophobin protein induced stronger platelet activation than wild-type conidia. A. fumigatus hyphae also contain surface structures that interact with platelets. Wall proteins, galactomannan, chitin, and β-glucan are not the relevant hyphal components; instead, the recently identified fungal polysaccharide galactosaminogalactan potently triggered platelet activation. Conidial melanin and hydrophobin as well as hyphal galactosaminogalactan represent important pathogenicity factors that modulate platelet activity and thus might influence immune responses, inflammation, and thrombosis in infected patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Allele frequencies of human platelet antigens in Banjar, Bugis, Champa, Jawa and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Syafawati, W U; Norhalifah, H K; Zefarina, Z; Zafarina, Z; Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N; Chambers, G K; Edinur, H A

    2015-10-01

    The major aims of this study are to characterise and compile allelic data of human platelet antigen (HPA)-1 to -6 and -15 systems in five Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. HPAs are polymorphic glycoproteins expressed on the surface of platelet membranes and are genetically differentiated across ethnogeographically unrelated populations. Blood samples were obtained with informed consent from 192 volunteers: Banjar (n = 30), Bugis (n = 37), Champa (n = 51), Jawa (n = 39) and Kelantan (n = 35). Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method. In general, frequencies of HPAs in the Malay sub-ethnic groups are more similar to those in Asian populations compared with other more distinct populations such as Indians, Australian Aborigines and Europeans. This study provides the first HPA datasets for the selected Malay sub-ethnic groups. Subsequent analyses including previously reported HPA data of Malays, Chinese and Indians revealed details of the genetic relationships and ancestry of various sub-populations in Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, the comprehensive HPA allele frequency information from Peninsular Malaysia provided in this report has potential applications for future study of diseases, estimating risks associated with HPA alloimmunization and for developing an efficient HPA-typed donor recruitment strategy. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Niacin and biosynthesis of PGD₂by platelet COX-1 in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Stubbe, Jane; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Alamuddin, Naji; Ibrahim, Salam; Crichton, Irene; Prempeh, Maxwell; Lawson, John A; Wilensky, Robert L; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Puré, Ellen; FitzGerald, Garret A

    2012-04-01

    The clinical use of niacin to treat dyslipidemic conditions is limited by noxious side effects, most commonly facial flushing. In mice, niacin-induced flushing results from COX-1-dependent formation of PGD₂ and PGE₂ followed by COX-2-dependent production of PGE₂. Consistent with this, niacin-induced flushing in humans is attenuated when niacin is combined with an antagonist of the PGD₂ receptor DP1. NSAID-mediated suppression of COX-2-derived PGI₂ has negative cardiovascular consequences, yet little is known about the cardiovascular biology of PGD₂. Here, we show that PGD₂ biosynthesis is augmented during platelet activation in humans and, although vascular expression of DP1 is conserved between humans and mice, platelet DP1 is not present in mice. Despite this, DP1 deletion in mice augmented aneurysm formation and the hypertensive response to Ang II and accelerated atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Furthermore, COX inhibitors in humans, as well as platelet depletion, COX-1 knockdown, and COX-2 deletion in mice, revealed that niacin evoked platelet COX-1-derived PGD₂ biosynthesis. Finally, ADP-induced spreading on fibrinogen was augmented by niacin in washed human platelets, coincident with increased thromboxane (Tx) formation. However, in platelet-rich plasma, where formation of both Tx and PGD₂ was increased, spreading was not as pronounced and was inhibited by DP1 activation. Thus, PGD₂, like PGI₂, may function as a homeostatic response to thrombogenic and hypertensive stimuli and may have particular relevance as a constraint on platelets during niacin therapy.

  15. The mitochondrial membrane potential in human platelets: a sensitive parameter for platelet quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Arthur J.; Verhaar, Robin; Gouwerok, Eric G. W.; de Korte, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deterioration of platelet (PLT) quality during storage is accompanied by an increase in lactate production, indicating a decrease in mitochondrial function. In this study, the optimal conditions under which the fluorescent dye JC-1 can be used to detect changes in mitochondrial function

  16. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention: the ESPRIT trial: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, J C; Hafley, G E; Greenberg, S; Hasselblad, V; Lorenz, T J; Kitt, M M; Strony, J; Tcheng, J E

    2001-05-16

    The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial showed the efficacy of adjunctive, double-bolus eptifibatide therapy in reducing ischemic complications of nonurgent coronary stent implantation at 48 hours and at 30 days. To determine whether the beneficial effects of eptifibatide persist at 6 months after treatment. Follow-up study of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-permitted trial conducted from June 1999 through February 2000. Ninety-two tertiary care centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 2064 patients scheduled to undergo nonurgent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or eptifibatide (two 180-microg/kg boluses 10 minutes apart and continuous infusion of 2.0 microg/kg per minute), started immediately before stent implantation and continued for 18 to 24 hours. Complete follow-up data were available for 988 (95.0%) of 1040 patients given eptifibatide and 977 (95.4%) of 1024 patients given placebo. Composite rates of death or myocardial infarction (MI); death, MI, or target vessel revascularization; and their individual components 6 months after enrollment, compared between the 2 groups. By 6 months, the composite end point of death or MI had occurred in 7.5% of eptifibatide-treated patients and in 11.5% of placebo-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-0.84; P =.002). The composite of death, MI, or target vessel revascularization was 14.2% in eptifibatide-treated patients vs 18.3% in placebo-treated patients (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.93; P =.008). Most of this benefit accrued early (<48 hours after initiation of therapy) and was maintained through 6 months. Six-month mortality in the eptifibatide group was 0.8% vs 1.4% in the placebo group (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.24-1.34; P =.19) and target vessel revascularization occurred in 8.6% of the eptifibatide group vs 9.4% of

  17. Effect of platelet lysate on human cells involved in different phases of wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Barsotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are rich in mediators able to positively affect cell activity in wound healing. Aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different concentrations of human pooled allogeneic platelet lysate on human cells involved in the different phases of wound healing (inflammatory phase, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix secretion and epithelialization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Platelet lysate effect was studied on endothelial cells, monocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in terms of viability and proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, tissue repair pathway activation (ERK1/2 and inflammatory response evaluation (NFκB. Results were compared both with basal medium and with a positive control containing serum and growth factors. Platelet lysate induced viability and proliferation at the highest concentrations tested (10% and 20% v/v. Whereas both platelet lysate concentrations increased cell migration, only 20% platelet lysate was able to significantly promote angiogenic activity (p<0.05 vs. control, comparably to the positive control. Both platelet lysate concentrations activated important inflammatory pathways such as ERK1/2 and NFκB with the same early kinetics, whereas the effect was different for later time-points. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest the possibility of using allogeneic platelet lysate as both an alternative to growth factors commonly used for cell culture and as a tool for clinical regenerative application for wound healing.

  18. Oral streptococci utilize a Siglec-like domain of serine-rich repeat adhesins to preferentially target platelet sialoglycans in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingquan Deng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Damaged cardiac valves attract blood-borne bacteria, and infective endocarditis is often caused by viridans group streptococci. While such bacteria use multiple adhesins to maintain their normal oral commensal state, recognition of platelet sialoglycans provides an intermediary for binding to damaged valvular endocardium. We use a customized sialoglycan microarray to explore the varied binding properties of phylogenetically related serine-rich repeat adhesins, the GspB, Hsa, and SrpA homologs from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis species, which belong to a highly conserved family of glycoproteins that contribute to virulence for a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens. Binding profiles of recombinant soluble homologs containing novel sialic acid-recognizing Siglec-like domains correlate well with binding of corresponding whole bacteria to arrays. These bacteria show multiple modes of glycan, protein, or divalent cation-dependent binding to synthetic glycoconjugates and isolated glycoproteins in vitro. However, endogenous asialoglycan-recognizing clearance receptors are known to ensure that only fully sialylated glycans dominate in the endovascular system, wherein we find these particular streptococci become primarily dependent on their Siglec-like adhesins for glycan-mediated recognition events. Remarkably, despite an excess of alternate sialoglycan ligands in cellular and soluble blood components, these adhesins selectively target intact bacteria to sialylated ligands on platelets, within human whole blood. These preferred interactions are inhibited by corresponding recombinant soluble adhesins, which also preferentially recognize platelets. Our data indicate that circulating platelets may act as inadvertent Trojan horse carriers of oral streptococci to the site of damaged endocardium, and provide an explanation why it is that among innumerable microbes that gain occasional access to the bloodstream, certain viridans group

  19. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  20. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.

    1987-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120

  1. Improved Human Erythropoiesis and Platelet Formation in Humanized NSGW41 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Rahmig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human erythro-megakaryopoiesis does not occur in humanized mouse models, preventing the in vivo analysis of human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC differentiation into these lineages in a surrogate host. Here we show that stably engrafted KIT-deficient NOD/SCID Il2rg−/− KitW41/W41 (NSGW41 mice support much improved human erythropoiesis and platelet formation compared with irradiated NSG recipients. Considerable numbers of human erythroblasts and mature thrombocytes are present in the bone marrow and blood, respectively. Morphology, composition, and enucleation capacity of de novo generated human erythroblasts in NSGW41 mice are comparable with those in human bone marrow. Overexpression of human erythropoietin showed no further improvement in human erythrocyte output, but depletion of macrophages led to the appearance of human erythrocytes in the blood. Human erythropoiesis up to normoblasts and platelet formation is fully supported in NSGW41 mice, allowing the analysis of human HSC differentiation into these lineages, the exploration of certain pathophysiologies, and the evaluation of gene therapeutic approaches.

  2. Analysis of angiotensin II binding to human platelets: Differences in young and old subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, M.J.; Goodfriend, T.L.; Ball, D.; Elliott, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the binding of radiolabeled angiotensin II (AII) to human platelets to characterize the apparent increase in AII receptors observed in older subjects. At 22 degrees C, the amount of radioactivity associated with platelets from older subjects increased continuously for more than 2 hours. The same amount of radioactivity was displaced by addition of unlabeled AII at 30 min and 60 min. In the presence of phenylarsine oxide, in the cold, or when labeled antagonist was the ligand, binding came to equilibrium by 30 min. High pressure liquid chromatography demonstrated that 125 I-AII was the major radioactive compound in the supernatant and platelets after incubation, but the platelets also contained radiolabeled AII fragments. Thus, some degradation accompanied interaction of AII and platelets. Phenylarsine oxide did not prevent degradation of bound AII, suggesting that degradation precedes internalization. On average, maximum binding was greater in older subjects whether platelets were incubated with 125 I-AII alone, with 125 I-AII and phenylarsine oxide to prevent internalization, or when the competitive inhibitor 125 I-sar1,ile8-AII was the radioligand. Variability of binding among subjects also increased with age. Thus, platelets bind, degrade, and internalize AII, and the three processes occur to a greater extent in platelets from some, but not all older subjects

  3. GMP-140 binds to a glycoprotein receptor on human neutrophils: Evidence for a lectin-like interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.L.; Varki, A.; McEver, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    GMP-140 is a rapidly inducible receptor for neutrophils and monocytes expressed on activated platelets and endothelial cells. It is a member of the selectin family of lectin-like cell surface molecules that mediate leukocyte adhesion. We used a radioligand binding assay to characterize the interaction of purified GMP-140 with human neutrophils. Unstimulated neutrophils rapidly bound [125I]GMP-140 at 4 degrees C, reaching equilibrium in 10-15 min. Binding was Ca2+ dependent, reversible, and saturable at 3-6 nM free GMP-140 with half-maximal binding at approximately 1.5 nM. Receptor density and apparent affinity were not altered when neutrophils were stimulated with 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Treatment of neutrophils with proteases abolished specific binding of [125I]GMP-140. Binding was also diminished when neutrophils were treated with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae, which cleaves alpha 2-3-, alpha 2-6-, and alpha 2-8-linked sialic acids, or from Newcastle disease virus, which cleaves only alpha 2-3- and alpha 2-8-linked sialic acids. Binding was not inhibited by an mAb to the abundant myeloid oligosaccharide, Lex (CD15), or by the neoglycoproteins Lex-BSA and sialyl-Lex-BSA. We conclude that neutrophils constitutively express a glycoprotein receptor for GMP-140, which contains sialic acid residues that are essential for function. These findings support the concept that GMP-140 interacts with leukocytes by a lectin-like mechanism

  4. Effect of platelet lysate on human cells involved in different phases of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Maria Chiara; Chiara Barsotti, Maria; Losi, Paola; Briganti, Enrica; Sanguinetti, Elena; Magera, Angela; Al Kayal, Tamer; Feriani, Roberto; Di Stefano, Rossella; Soldani, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are rich in mediators able to positively affect cell activity in wound healing. Aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different concentrations of human pooled allogeneic platelet lysate on human cells involved in the different phases of wound healing (inflammatory phase, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix secretion and epithelialization). Platelet lysate effect was studied on endothelial cells, monocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in terms of viability and proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, tissue repair pathway activation (ERK1/2) and inflammatory response evaluation (NFκB). Results were compared both with basal medium and with a positive control containing serum and growth factors. Platelet lysate induced viability and proliferation at the highest concentrations tested (10% and 20% v/v). Whereas both platelet lysate concentrations increased cell migration, only 20% platelet lysate was able to significantly promote angiogenic activity (pplatelet lysate concentrations activated important inflammatory pathways such as ERK1/2 and NFκB with the same early kinetics, whereas the effect was different for later time-points. These data suggest the possibility of using allogeneic platelet lysate as both an alternative to growth factors commonly used for cell culture and as a tool for clinical regenerative application for wound healing.

  5. Platelet fibrinogen binding in Basset Hound Hereditary Thrombopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.; Estry, D.; Schwartz, K.; Bell, T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelets from dogs with Basset Hound Hereditary Thrombopathy (BHT) display a thrombasthenia-like aggregation defect but have been shown to have normal amounts of platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa). In order to investigate the possibility of a functionally abnormal GPIIb-IIIa complex, which might be unable to bind fibrinogen after stimulation, fibrinogen binding in BHT was evaluated. Two canine fibrinogen preparations were used, one from BHT dogs and one from normal control dogs, as well as a human fibrinogen preparation. Platelets from BHT and normal dogs were activated with 1 x 10 -5 M ADP in the presence of 125 I-labeled fibrinogen and the surface bound radioactivity quantitated. For all fibrinogen preparations, the amount of fibrinogen bound by BHT platelets was not significantly different than that bound by normal dog platelets. BHT platelets bound 23,972 +/- 3612 and normal dog platelets bound 23,033 +/- 3971 molecules of fibrinogen per platelet. The BHT platelet aggregation defect does not seem to be caused by a functionally abnormal GP IIb-IIIa complex, since BHT platelets bind normal amounts of fibrinogen. The results suggest that fibrinogen binding is not sufficient for platelet aggregation, and other factors, perhaps receptor mobility and membrane phospholipid content should be investigated in BHT

  6. VacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori, binds to multimerin 1 on human platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Kaneo; Hirayama, Toshiya; Takano, Katsuhiro; Suzuki-Inoue, Katsue; Sato, Tadashi; Ohta, Masato; Nakagomi, Junko; Ozaki, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Platelets were activated under the infection with H. pylori in human and mice. We investigated the role of VacA, an exotoxin released by H. pylori in this context. Acid-activated VacA, but not heated VacA, induced platelet CD62P expression. However, VacA reacted with none of the alleged VacA receptors present on platelet membranes. We therefore analyzed VacA associated proteins obtained through VacA affinity chromatography, using MALDI-TOF-MS. Multimerin1 was detected in two consecutive exper...

  7. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  8. Response to platelet-activating factor in human platelets stored and aged in plasma. Decrease in aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and receptor affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.D.; Morrison, W.J.; Klachko, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Human platelet concentrates were stored in polyolefin bags at 22 to 24 degrees C on a horizontal shaker for up to 8 days. At different intervals, aliquots of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were removed aseptically and five variables, i.e., platelet counts, morphology, platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and [3H]PAF binding to platelet receptors, were studied. The number of platelets did not change during the 8 days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the platelets revealed a gradual morphologic change from biconcave flat discs to irregular, crenated forms. The PAF-induced aggregation of platelets declined with time of storage. A decrease to 50 percent of the Day 1 aggregatory response to PAF was evident on Day 2, and there was a further decline to about 20 percent by Day 6. Similarly, PAF receptor-coupled phosphoinositide turnover, as monitored by 32P incorporation into individual phosphoinositides, decreased dramatically with storage. After 2 to 3 days of storage, the phosphoinositide turnover was reduced to 50 percent of the original response, and it continued to decline to about 25 percent of original response by Day 5 or 6. The binding of [3H]PAF to washed human platelets indicated subtle changes between Days 2 and 4, which became more noticeable by Day 6. These results have raised the possibility of changes in the number of the receptors and/or their affinity for the ligand during storage. We conclude that although the number of platelets was maintained during storage for 8 days, a general deterioration of their responses to PAF occurred at the levels of cell surface receptor, transmembrane signaling (phosphoinositide turnover), and response (aggregation)

  9. Catabolism of exogenously supplied thymidine to thymine and dihydrothymine by platelets in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pero, R.W.; Johnson, D.; Olsson, A.

    1984-01-01

    The interference of platelets with the estimation of unscheduled DNA synthesis in human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes following genotoxic exposure was studied. A 96% reduction in the unscheduled DNA synthesis value was achieved by incubating [ 3 H]thymidine with platelet-rich plasma for 5 hr at 37 degrees. Using radioactive thymine-containing compounds, together with quantitative analyses based on thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatographies, we have shown that thymidine was converted to thymine which, in turn, was converted to dihydrothymine in platelet-rich plasma. The enzymes responsible were separated from platelet lysates by gel filtration and were identified as thymidine phosphorylase and dihydrothymine dehydrogenase. The phosphorylase reversibly catalyzed the formation of thymine from thymidine and converted bromodeoxyuridine to bromouracil. The dehydrogenase reversibly catalyzed the interconversion of thymine and dihydrothymine in a reaction dependent on NADP(H), and it was inhibited by diazouracil and by thymine. Nearly all the thymidine-catabolizing activity found in whole blood samples supplied exogenously with thymidine was accounted for by the platelets. Since most genetic toxicological tests that use blood samples do not involve removing platelets from the blood cell cultures, then it is concluded that precautions should be taken in the future to determine the influence of platelets on these test systems. This is particularly true for methods dependent on thymidine pulses such as unscheduled DNA synthesis, or those dependent on bromodeoxyuridine, such as sister chromatid exchanges, since this nucleoside is also a substrate for thymidine phosphorylase

  10. Characterization of the stimulation of human platelets by stable analogues of PGH2/TXA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morinelli, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The specific effects of the TXA 2 /PGH 2 analogues, U46619 (9,11-dideoxy,9α-11α-methanoepoxy-PGF/sub 2α/), and 9,11 aza-PGH 2 , on human platelet shape change, myosin light chain phosphorylation, serotonin release, fibrinogen receptor exposure and platelet aggregation were measured and compared with binding of 3 H-U46619 to platelets. Shape change and myosin light chain phosphorylation were found to saturable and dose dependent. These two effects were competitively inhibited by specific antagonists of TXA 2 /PGH 2 receptors (BM13177 and I-PTA-OH) indicating that they are receptor mediated. Binding of 3 H-U46619 showed two components. Occupancy of high affinity binding sites correlated with platelet shape change and myosin and light chain phosphorylation. A second component with an apparent K/sub d/ of 1.46 +/- 0.47 μM, may represent a second, low-affinity site. Therefore, the platelet release reaction as not directly correlated with occupancy of high affinity receptors but could be related to the second binding component of U46619. Fibrinogen receptor exposure and platelet aggregation caused by U46619 appeared to be events mediated by the release of ADP from platelet dense granules

  11. The Neutralizing Linear Epitope of Human Herpesvirus 6A Glycoprotein B Does Not Affect Virus Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakata, Aika; Kanemoto, Satoshi; Tang, Huamin; Kawabata, Akiko; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Jasirwan, Chyntia; Mahmoud, Nora Fahmy; Mori, Yasuko

    2018-03-01

    Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) glycoprotein B (gB) is a glycoprotein consisting of 830 amino acids and is essential for the growth of the virus. Previously, we reported that a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) called 87-y-13 specifically reacts with HHV-6A gB, and we identified its epitope residue at asparagine (Asn) 347 on gB. In this study, we examined whether the epitope recognized by the neutralizing MAb is essential for HHV-6A infection. We constructed HHV-6A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomes harboring substitutions at Asn347, namely, HHV-6A BACgB(N347K) and HHV-6A BACgB(N347A). These mutant viruses could be reconstituted and propagated in the same manner as the wild type and their revertants, and MAb 87-y-13 could not inhibit infection by either mutant. In a cell-cell fusion assay, Asn at position 347 on gB was found to be nonessential for cell-cell fusion. In addition, in building an HHV-6A gB homology model, we found that the epitope of the neutralizing MAb is located on domain II of gB and is accessible to solvents. These results indicate that Asn at position 347, the linear epitope of the neutralizing MAb, does not affect HHV-6A infectivity. IMPORTANCE Glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the most conserved glycoproteins among all herpesviruses and is a key factor for virus entry. Therefore, antibodies targeted to gB may neutralize virus entry. Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) encodes gB, which is translated to a protein of about 830 amino acids (aa). Using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for HHV-6A gB, which has a neutralizing linear epitope, we analyzed the role of its epitope residue, N347, in HHV-6A infectivity. Interestingly, this gB linear epitope residue, N347, was not essential for HHV-6A growth. By constructing a homology model of HHV-6A gB, we found that N347 was located in the region corresponding to domain II. Therefore, with regard to its neutralizing activity against HHV-6A infection, the epitope on gB might be exposed to solvents

  12. Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) subunit vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, L.O.; Pyle, S.W.; Nara, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    The major envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been purified and was utilized as a prototype vaccine in chimpanzees. The 120,000-dalton glycoprotein (gp120) was purified from membranes of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-IIIB-infected cells and the final preparation contained low levels to no detectable HTLV-IIIB core antigen (p24) and low levels of endotoxin. Chimpanzees inoculated with gp120 responded by developing antibodies that precipitated radiolabeled gp120 and neutralized in vitro infection of HTLV-IIIB. Antibodies to HTLV-IIIB p24 were not detected in the gp120-immunized chimpanzees. Peripheral blood leukocytes from the vaccinated animals were examined for T4 + and T8 + cells, and no decrease in the T4/T8 ratio was found, indicating that immunization with a ligand (gp120) that binds to T4 has not detectable adverse effect on the population of T4 + cells. The only current animal model that can be reproducibly infected with HIV is the chimpanzee. Immunization of chimpanzees with HIV proteins will provide an experimental system for testing the effectiveness of prototype vaccines for preventing HIV infection in vivo

  13. Carcinoma-specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding glycoproteins of human colorectal carcinoma and its relation to carcinoembryonic antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Y; Yonezawa, S; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, S; Ozawa, M; Muramatsu, T; Sato, E

    1985-08-01

    Glycoproteins binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin, which recognizes the terminal alpha-L-fucose residue, were analyzed in 18 cases of human colorectal carcinoma by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the Western blotting method. In the distal large bowel (descending and sigmoid colon and rectum), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I existed in carcinoma tissue but not in normal mucosa. In the proximal large bowel (ascending and transverse colon), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I were found both in normal mucosa and in carcinoma tissue, whereas those from the carcinoma tissue had an apparently lower molecular weight as compared to the weight of those from the normal mucosa. Thus there is a biochemical difference in UEA-I binding glycoproteins between the normal mucosa and the carcinoma tissue, although in our previous histochemical study no difference was observed in UEA-I binding glycoproteins of the proximal large bowel between the carcinoma tissue and the normal mucosa. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen from the carcinoma tissue was found to have the same electrophoretical mobility as the UEA-I binding glycoproteins.

  14. Specific Inflammatory Stimuli Lead to Distinct Platelet Responses in Mice and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea M Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Diverse and multi-factorial processes contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. These processes affect cells involved in the development of this disease in varying ways, ultimately leading to atherothrombosis. The goal of our study was to compare the differential effects of specific stimuli--two bacterial infections and a Western diet--on platelet responses in ApoE-/- mice, specifically examining inflammatory function and gene expression. Results from murine studies were verified using platelets from participants of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS; n = 1819 participants.Blood and spleen samples were collected at weeks 1 and 9 from ApoE-/- mice infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis or Chlamydia pneumoniae and from mice fed a Western diet for 9 weeks. Transcripts based on data from a Western diet in ApoE-/- mice were measured in platelet samples from FHS using high throughput qRT-PCR.At week 1, both bacterial infections increased circulating platelet-neutrophil aggregates. At week 9, these cells individually localized to the spleen, while Western diet resulted in increased platelet-neutrophil aggregates in the spleen only. Microarray analysis of platelet RNA from infected or Western diet-fed mice at week 1 and 9 showed differential profiles. Genes, such as Serpina1a, Ttr, Fgg, Rpl21, and Alb, were uniquely affected by infection and diet. Results were reinforced in platelets obtained from participants of the FHS.Using both human studies and animal models, results demonstrate that variable sources of inflammatory stimuli have the ability to influence the platelet phenotype in distinct ways, indicative of the diverse function of platelets in thrombosis, hemostasis, and immunity.

  15. Human platelet releasates combined with polyglycolic acid scaffold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... rated thanks to the development of culture conditions based ... 61. Keywords. Chondrocyte; growth factors; PGA; platelet-rich plasma; tissue engineering. Published ... PRPr was then obtained by two cycles of freezing (−20°C ..... therapies for sports muscle injuries: any evidence behind clinical practice?

  16. Niacin and biosynthesis of PGD2 by platelet COX-1 in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Stubbe, Jane; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Alamuddin, Naji; Ibrahim, Salam; Crichton, Irene; Prempeh, Maxwell; Lawson, John A.; Wilensky, Robert L.; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Puré, Ellen; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of niacin to treat dyslipidemic conditions is limited by noxious side effects, most commonly facial flushing. In mice, niacin-induced flushing results from COX-1–dependent formation of PGD2 and PGE2 followed by COX-2–dependent production of PGE2. Consistent with this, niacin-induced flushing in humans is attenuated when niacin is combined with an antagonist of the PGD2 receptor DP1. NSAID-mediated suppression of COX-2–derived PGI2 has negative cardiovascular consequences, yet little is known about the cardiovascular biology of PGD2. Here, we show that PGD2 biosynthesis is augmented during platelet activation in humans and, although vascular expression of DP1 is conserved between humans and mice, platelet DP1 is not present in mice. Despite this, DP1 deletion in mice augmented aneurysm formation and the hypertensive response to Ang II and accelerated atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Furthermore, COX inhibitors in humans, as well as platelet depletion, COX-1 knockdown, and COX-2 deletion in mice, revealed that niacin evoked platelet COX-1–derived PGD2 biosynthesis. Finally, ADP-induced spreading on fibrinogen was augmented by niacin in washed human platelets, coincident with increased thromboxane (Tx) formation. However, in platelet-rich plasma, where formation of both Tx and PGD2 was increased, spreading was not as pronounced and was inhibited by DP1 activation. Thus, PGD2, like PGI2, may function as a homeostatic response to thrombogenic and hypertensive stimuli and may have particular relevance as a constraint on platelets during niacin therapy. PMID:22406532

  17. Women's attitude towards routine human platelet antigen-screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelhorst, Dian; Loeff, Rosanne M; van den Akker-Van Marle, M Elske; de Haas, Masja; Oepkes, Dick

    2017-08-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a potentially life-threatening disease with excellent preventative treatment available for subsequent pregnancies. To prevent index cases, the effectiveness of a population-based screening program has been suggested repeatedly. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate women's attitude towards possible future human platelet antigen-screening in pregnancy. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study among healthy pregnant women receiving prenatal care in one of seven participating midwifery practices. Attitude was assessed using a questionnaire based on the validated Multidimensional Measurement of Informed Choice model, containing questions assessing knowledge, attitude and intention to participate. A total of 143 of the 220 women (65%) completed and returned the questionnaire. A positive attitude towards human platelet antigen-screening was expressed by 91% of participants, of which 94% was based on sufficient knowledge. Attitude was more likely to be negatively influenced by the opinion that screening can be frightening. Informed choices were made in 87% and occurred significantly less in women from non-European origin, 89% in European women vs. 60% in non-European women (p = 0.03). Pregnant women in the Netherlands expressed a positive attitude towards human platelet antigen-screening in pregnancy. We therefore expect a high rate of informed uptake when human platelet antigen-screening is implemented. In future counseling on human platelet antigen-screening, ethnicity and possible anxiety associated with a screening test need to be specifically addressed. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. The glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex contributes to tissue factor-independent thrombin generation by recombinant factor VIIa on the activated platelet surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeterings, Cees; de Groot, Philip G.; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Lisman, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is able to activate factor X on an activated platelet, in a tissue factor-independent manner. We hypothesized that, besides the anionic surface, a receptor on the activated platelet surface is involved in this process. Here, we

  19. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B lt /B lt ) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B lt mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation

  20. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giang, Erick; Dorner, Marcus; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2012-01-01

    , and an effective vaccine should target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Conserved B-cell epitopes overlapping the CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) on the E2 viral envelope glycoprotein have been reported previously and provide promising vaccine targets. In this study, we isolated 73 human m......Abs recognizing five distinct antigenic regions on the virus envelope glycoprotein complex E1E2 from an HCV-immune phage-display antibody library by using an exhaustive-panning strategy. Many of these mAbs were broadly neutralizing. In particular, the mAb AR4A, recognizing a discontinuous epitope outside the CD81......bs on the E1E2 complex, has an exceptionally broad neutralizing activity toward diverse HCV genotypes and protects against heterologous HCV challenge in a small animal model. The mAb panel will be useful for the design and development of vaccine candidates to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies...

  1. Culture of human cell lines by a pathogen-inactivated human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzina, R; Iudicone, P; Mariotti, A; Fioravanti, D; Procoli, A; Cicchetti, E; Scambia, G; Bonanno, G; Pierelli, L

    2016-08-01

    Alternatives to the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) have been investigated to ensure xeno-free growth condition. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of human platelet lysate (PL) as a substitute of FBS for the in vitro culture of some human cell lines. PL was obtained by pools of pathogen inactivated human donor platelet (PLT) concentrates. Human leukemia cell lines (KG-1, K562, JURKAT, HL-60) and epithelial tumor cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7) were cultured with either FBS or PL. Changes in cell proliferation, viability, morphology, surface markers and cell cycle were evaluated for each cell line. Functional characteristics were analysed by drug sensitivity test and cytotoxicity assay. Our results demonstrated that PL can support growth and expansion of all cell lines, although the cells cultured in presence of PL experienced a less massive proliferation compared to those grown with FBS. We found a comparable percentage of viable specific marker-expressing cells in both conditions, confirming lineage fidelity in all cultures. Functionality assays showed that cells in both FBS- and PL-supported cultures maintained their normal responsiveness to adriamycin and NK cell-mediated lysis. Our findings indicate that PL is a feasible serum substitute for supporting growth and propagation of haematopoietic and epithelial cell lines with many advantages from a perspective of process standardization, ethicality and product safety.

  2. Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Inhibition in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes : Early Benefit During Medical Treatment Only, With Additional Protection During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Akkerhuis (Martijn); P. Théroux (Pierre); R.M. Califf (Robert); E.J. Topol (Eric); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); H. Boersma (Eric)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor blockers prevent life-threatening cardiac complications in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and protect against thrombotic complications associated with percutaneous coronary

  3. Radiolabeling of human platelets using four radiopharmaceuticals with Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portillo L, M.C.; Godoy, C.

    1991-01-01

    The present investigation work has been done in an evaluation of four different radiopharmaceuticals with Tin II (Glucoheptonate, Pyrophosphate, Citrate and DTPA), with the purpose of determining which one of the four would be obtained a higher rate of radiolabeling of platelets with Tc-99m. In order to evaluate the four radiopharmaceuticals it was procede to the separation and labeling of the human platelets. It was worked with samples of blood from five pacients, and the platelets from each one of them were labeled with the radiopharmaceuticals-Tc-99m. Then was observed a significant difference among the four radiopharmaceuticals studied, with a reliable level of 0.05 being the Glucoheptonate-Tc-99m the best to label platelets, obtaining with the same 50.23% of labeling efficiency, while for DTPA, Pyrophosphate and Citrate, It was obtained 33.42%, 29.82% and |2.62% respectively. Also, it was studied the biodistribution of the labeled platelets, using Glucoheptonate-Tc-99m as a radiopharamceutical. The biodistribution was studied in white mice at different times and it was founded that the place of biodistribution of the labeled platelets is given in greater percentage in the liver, spleen, lungs and kydneis. (Author)

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques promotes platelet activation. Correlation with ischaemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Massimo; Falcinelli, Emanuela; Pompili, Marcella; de Rango, Paola; Conti, Valentina; Guglielmini, Giuseppe; Momi, Stefania; Corazzi, Teresa; Giordano, Giuseppe; Gresele, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Purified active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is able to promote platelet aggregation. We aimed to assess the role of MMP-2 expressed in atherosclerotic plaques in the platelet-activating potential of human carotid plaques and its correlation with ischaemic events. Carotid plaques from 81 patients undergoing endarterectomy were tested for pro-MMP-2 and TIMP-2 content by zymography and ELISA. Plaque extracts were incubated with gel-filtered platelets from healthy volunteers for 2 minutes before the addition of a subthreshold concentration of thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6) and aggregation was assessed. Moreover, platelet deposition on plaque extracts immobilised on plastic coverslips under high shear-rate flow conditions was measured. Forty-three plaque extracts (53%) potentiated platelet aggregation (+233 ± 26.8%), an effect prevented by three different specific MMP-2 inhibitors (inhibitor II, TIMP-2, moAb anti-MMP-2). The pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio of plaques potentiating platelet aggregation was significantly higher than that of plaques not potentiating it (3.67 ± 1.21 vs 1.01 ± 0.43, p<0.05). Moreover, the platelet aggregation-potentiating effect, the active-MMP-2 content and the active MMP-2/pro-MMP-2 ratio of plaque extracts were significantly higher in plaques from patients who developed a subsequent major cardiovascular event. In conclusion, atherosclerotic plaques exert a prothrombotic effect by potentiating platelet activation due to their content of MMP-2; an elevated MMP-2 activity in plaques is associated with a higher rate of subsequent ischaemic cerebrovascular events.

  5. Review: Pichia pastoris represents an alternative for human glycoprotein production for therapeutic use. Fermentation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Córdoba Ruiz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Producing human proteins in lower organisms' cells using recombinant technology represents a very promising approach for treating many diseases produced by a particular protein deficiency, including close to 40 lysosomal storage diseases. Although E. coli has been the first host successfully employed in expressing human recombinant proteins, it has some limitations owing to its inability to perform some post-traductional steps such as glycosylation. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae has thusbeen initially considered and used. However, S. cerevisiae glycosylates proteins in a very different way to human cells producing highly antigenic proteins and thus some other non-conventional yeasts such as Pichia pastoris have been used recently. Human protein expression is not assodated with growth in this system; growth may occur at high cell concentrations, increasing heterologous protein productivity and yield. The system employs a very efficient, methanol-induced promoter which may be used as sole carbon and energy source. Post-traductional modifications seem more similar to human cells than those produced by other non-mammalian systems used in producing human glycoproteins; they do not secrete large amounts of endogenous proteins, simplifying expressed protein purification. This review presents some strategies for producing heterologous proteins in high density cultures using P. pastoris as an expression system.

  6. ARF6-dependent regulation of P2Y receptor traffic and function in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Owens, Sian E; Saha, Keya; Pope, Robert J; Mundell, Stuart J

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) in the internalization and function of P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function.

  7. ARF6-dependent regulation of P2Y receptor traffic and function in human platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi

    Full Text Available Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6 in the internalization and function of P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1 or P2Y(12 purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function.

  8. Molecular cloning and mammalian expression of human beta 2-glycoprotein I cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Schousboe, Inger; Boel, Espen

    1991-01-01

    Human β2-glycoprotein (β2gpI) cDNA was isolated from a liver cDNA library and sequenced. The cDNA encoded a 19-residue hydrophobic signal peptide followed by the mature β2gpI of 326 amino acid residues. In liver and in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 there are two mRNA species of about 1.4 and 4.3 kb......, respectively, hybridizing specifically with the β2gpI cDNA. Upon isoelectric focusing, recombinant β2gpI obtained from expression of β2gpI cDNA in baby hamster kidney cells showed the same pattern of bands as β2gpI isolated from plasma, and at least 5 polypeptides were visible...

  9. Sustained expression of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B (UL55) in the seeds of homozygous rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackaberry, Eilleen S; Prior, Fiona A; Rowlandson, Karen; Tocchi, Monika; Mehic, Jelica; Porter, Suzanne; Walsh, Mike; Schleiss, Mark R; Ganz, Peter R; Sardana, Ravinder K; Altosaar, Illimar; Dudani, Anil K

    2008-09-01

    Production of recombinant subunit vaccines in transgenic plants may be a means of reducing vaccine costs while increasing availability and safety. A plant-derived product found safe and effective for oral administration would provide additional advantages when used as a vaccine. Outstanding issues with the technology include transgene stability through successive generations and consistent bioproduction. We previously reported expression of glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus in seeds of transgenic tobacco. Here the goal was to determine if gB could be similarly expressed in rice, and if so, to examine expression over several plant generations. Results show that immunoreactive gB was successfully expressed in transgenic rice seeds, with sustained expression over three generations. The gB contained several neutralizing epitopes and was stable over 27 months.

  10. Determination of an unrelated donor pool size for human leukocyte antigen-matched platelets in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bonet Bub

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Successful transfusion of platelet refractory patients is a challenge. Many potential donors are needed to sustain human leukocyte antigen matched-platelet transfusion programs because of the different types of antigens and the constant needs of these patients. For a highly mixed population such as the Brazilian population, the pool size required to provide adequate platelet support is unknown. Methods: A mathematical model was created to estimate the appropriate size of an unrelated donor pool to provide human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet support for a Brazilian population. A group of 154 hematologic human leukocyte antigen-typed patients was used as the potential patient population and a database of 65,500 human leukocyte antigen-typed bone marrow registered donors was used as the donor population. Platelet compatibility was based on the grading system of Duquesnoy. Results: Using the mathematical model, a pool containing 31,940, 1710 and 321 donors would be necessary to match more than 80% of the patients with at least five completely compatible (no cross-reactive group, partial compatible (one cross-reactive group or less compatible (two cross-reactive group donors, respectively. Conclusion: The phenotypic diversity of the Brazilian population has probably made it more difficulty to find completely compatible donors. However, this heterogeneity seems to have facilitated finding donors when cross-reactive groups are accepted as proposed by the grading system of Duquesnoy. The results of this study may help to establish unrelated human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet transfusions, a procedure not routinely performed in most Brazilian transfusion services.

  11. Profiling of Concanavalin A-Binding Glycoproteins in Human Hepatic Stellate Cells Activated with Transforming Growth Factor-β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Qin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins play important roles in maintaining normal cell functions depending on their glycosylations. Our previous study indicated that the abundance of glycoproteins recognized by concanavalin A (ConA was increased in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs following activation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1; however, little is known about the ConA-binding glycoproteins (CBGs of HSCs. In this study, we employed a targeted glycoproteomics approach using lectin-magnetic particle conjugate-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare CBG profiles between LX-2 HSCs with and without activation by TGF-β1, with the aim of discovering novel CBGs and determining their possible roles in activated HSCs. A total of 54 and 77 proteins were identified in the quiescent and activated LX-2 cells, respectively. Of the proteins identified, 14.3% were glycoproteins and 73.3% were novel potential glycoproteins. Molecules involved in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (e.g., calreticulin and calcium signaling (e.g., 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase β-2 [PLCB2] were specifically identified in activated LX-2 cells. Additionally, PLCB2 expression was upregulated in the cytoplasm of the activated LX-2 cells, as well as in the hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells of liver cirrhosis tissues. In conclusion, the results of this study may aid future investigations to find new molecular mechanisms involved in HSC activation and antifibrotic therapeutic targets.

  12. Stabilization of the soluble, cleaved, trimeric form of the envelope glycoprotein complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Rogier W.; Vesanen, Mika; Schuelke, Norbert; Master, Aditi; Schiffner, Linnea; Kalyanaraman, Roopa; Paluch, Maciej; Berkhout, Ben; Maddon, Paul J.; Olson, William C.; Lu, Min; Moore, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein (Env) complex of human immunodeficiency virus type I has evolved a structure that is minimally immunogenic while retaining its natural function of receptor-mediated virus-cell fusion. The Env complex is trimeric; its six individual subunits (three gp120 and three gp41

  13. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  14. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Shukla, Deepak, E-mail: dshukla@uic.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  15. Isolation and characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to the e1 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Russell, Rodney S.; Goossens, Vera

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of humoral and cellular immunity in the prevention or clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is poorly understood. However, there is considerable evidence that neutralizing antibodies are involved in disease control. Here we describe the detailed analysis of human...... monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against HCV glycoprotein E1, which may have the potential to control HCV infection. We have identified two MAbs that can strongly neutralize HCV-pseudotyped particles (HCVpp) bearing the envelope glycoproteins of genotypes 1a, 1b, 4a, 5a, and 6a and less strongly...... neutralize HCVpp bearing the envelope glycoproteins of genotype 2a. Genotype 3a was not neutralized. The epitopes for both MAbs were mapped to the region encompassing amino acids 313 to 327. In addition, robust neutralization was also observed against cell culture-adapted viruses of genotypes 1a and 2a...

  16. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 Glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R.; Shukla, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: 1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; 2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, 3) coexpression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis. PMID:19747451

  17. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R.; Shukla, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  18. Effect of cocoa products and flavanols on platelet aggregation in humans: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura; Serafini, Mauro

    2015-07-01

    Previous evidence suggested an active role of cocoa products and flavanols in modulating platelet aggregation. However, cocoa flavanols are characterized by a low bioavailability that can deeply affect their presence in biological fluids and raise questions on their biological effect in humans. We performed a systematic search on Medline, Embase, Cochrane and ProQuest databases, until April 2015, on the effect of cocoa products on platelet aggregation in human intervention studies. We identified 13 interventions, of which only five involved repeated administration. Different effects were observed on the basis of the platelet aggregation test used, whereas neither a longer duration of treatment nor a higher dose was associated with a higher inhibition of platelet aggregation. In conclusion, the reviewed results suggest that consumption of cocoa products in bolus administration positively affects platelet aggregation in both healthy subjects and diseased patients. On the other hand, more evidence is required in order to assess the effect of long-term cocoa product ingestion and to identify the bioactive components involved.

  19. Secretory products from thrombin-stimulated human platelets exert an inhibitory effect on NK-cytotoxic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Madsen, P; Hokland, P; Hokland, M

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction between human platelets and the NK-system, with special emphasis on the action of secretory products from platelets in an NK assay with 51Cr-labelled K562 as target cells. Supernatants from thrombin-stimulated platelets added to the NK assay consistently...... decreased the NK-cytotoxicity by 40% +/- 4.3%, indicating the existence of secreted products from platelets as a source of NK-inhibiting substances. In contrast, no direct cytotoxic effect of these secretory products on the target cells (K562) was seen. Thus, normal human platelets, when stimulated...... with thrombin, are capable of secreting different, yet undefined factors, which significantly inhibit NK activity in vitro. The results also suggest that the role of products from contaminating in vitro activated platelets should be borne in mind when performing conventional NK assays. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Oct...

  20. Distribution of primaquine in human blood: Drug-binding to alpha 1-glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.; Frischer, H.

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the distribution of the antimalarial primaquine in human blood, we measured the drug separately in the liquid, cellular, and ultrafiltrate phases. Washed red cells resuspended at a hematocrit of 0.4 were exposed to a submaximal therapeutic level of 250 ng/ml of carbon 14-labeled primaquine. The tracer was recovered quantitatively in separated plasma and red cells. Over 75% of the total labeled drug was found in red cells suspended in saline solution, but only 10% to 30% in red cells suspended in plasma. The plasma effect was not mediated by albumin. Studies with alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, an agent that displaces AGP-bound drugs, and cord blood known to have decreased AGP established that primaquine binds to physiologic amounts of the glycoprotein in plasma. Red cell primaquine concentration increased linearly as AGP level fell and as the free drug fraction rose. We suggest that clinical blood levels of primaquine include the red cell fraction or whole blood level because (1) erythrocytic primaquine is a sizable and highly variable component of the total drug in blood; (2) this component reflects directly the free drug in plasma, and inversely the extent of binding to AGP; (3) the amount of free primaquine may influence drug transport into specific tissues in vivo; and (4) fluctuations of AGP, an acute-phase reactant that increases greatly in patients with malaria and other infections, markedly affect the partition of primaquine in blood. Because AGP binds many basic drugs, unrecognized primaquine-drug interactions may exist

  1. DMSO inhibits human platelet activation through cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition. A novel agent for drug eluting stents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, Lars; Tanner, Felix C.; Sudano, Isabella; Luescher, Thomas F.; Camici, Giovanni G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: DMSO is routinely infused together with hematopoietic cells in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy and was recently found to inhibit smooth muscle cells proliferation and arterial thrombus formation in the mouse by preventing tissue factor (TF), a key activator of the coagulation cascade. This study was designed to investigate whether DMSO prevents platelet activation and thus, whether it may represent an interesting agent to be used on drug eluting stents. Methods and results: Human venous blood from healthy volunteers was collected in citrated tubes and platelet activation was studied by cone and platelet analyzer (CPA) and rapid-platelet-function-assay (RPFA). CPA analysis showed that DMSO-treated platelets exhibit a lower adherence in response to shear stress (-15.54 ± 0.9427%, n = 5, P < 0.0001 versus control). Additionally, aggregometry studies revealed that DMSO-treated, arachidonate-stimulated platelets had an increased lag phase (18.0% ± 4.031, n = 9, P = 0.0004 versus control) as well as a decreased maximal aggregation (-6.388 ± 2.212%, n = 6, P = 0.0162 versus control). Inhibitory action of DMSO could be rescued by exogenous thromboxane A2 and was mediated, at least in part, by COX-1 inhibition. Conclusions: Clinically relevant concentrations of DMSO impair platelet activation by a thromboxane A2-dependent, COX-1-mediated effect. This finding may be crucial for the previously reported anti-thrombotic property displayed by DMSO. Our findings support a role for DMSO as a novel drug to prevent not only proliferation, but also thrombotic complications of drug eluting stents.

  2. Platelet serotonin level and impulsivity in human self-destructive behavior: A biological and psychological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Era Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a disease and a global public health problem. Suicidology has come to become a topic of study for intervention and research. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT] system has remained a prime area of investigation. The neurons and platelets display structural and functional similarities. Ninety-nine percent of 5HT is contained in platelets, which shares similar 5HT uptake and release mechanisms with 5HT neurons. Aims: This study aims to study human self-destructive behavior (HSDB. Objectives: Exploring the biological (serotonin levels in platelets and psychological aspects (impulsivity of attempted suicide or HSDB. Settings and Design: Thirty-one patients, above the age of 18 years, with a recent history of HSDB, were studied and given an International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis, after a detailed interview. Subjects and Methods: For the platelet 5HT estimation, blood samples were collected, and enzyme immunometric assay carried out. Detailed assessment of the impulsivity was done by the 25-item structured diagnostic interview for borderlines by Zanarini et al. Statistical Analysis Used: We obtained both categorical and continuous data. Chi-square test, Fisher's test, Student's t-test, and Pearson's product moment correlation were used. Results: Female subjects outnumbered males by 2:1. Major depression, adjustment disorder, personality disorder were predominant diagnoses. The mean platelet serotonin concentration for males = 57.3 ng/ml, that of females = 56.05 ng/ml (P > 0.05. Platelet 5HT levels were found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity scores (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Platelet serotonin levels in our study sample were quite low when compared with those reported in published literature. Low serotonin levels were inversely related to impulsivity, but only in males.

  3. The hemostatic agent ethamsylate enhances P-selectin membrane expression in human platelets and cultured endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Guerra, Miriam; Hernandez, Maria Rosa; Escolar, Ginés; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Garay, Ricardo P; Hannaert, Patrick

    2002-09-15

    Ethamsylate possesses antihemorrhagic properties, but whether or not it directly activates blood platelets is unclear. Here we investigated the platelet activation potential of ethamsylate, by measuring membrane P-selectin expression with flow cytometry in human whole blood and also by immunofluorescence imaging of isolated human platelets. Moreover, we measured membrane P-selectin expression in the SV40-transformed aortic rat endothelial cell line (SVAREC) and 14C-ethamsylate membrane binding and/or uptake in platelets and endothelial cells. Whole blood flow cytometry showed a modest, but statistically significant increase by ethamsylate in the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin (from 2% to 4-5%, p ethamsylate tested (1 microM), with maximal enhancement of P-selectin expression (75-90%) at 10 microM ethamsylate. Similar results were obtained in SVAREC endothelial cells. 14C-ethamsylate specifically bound to platelets and endothelial cell membranes, without significant uptake into the cell interior. In conclusion, ethamsylate enhances membrane P-selectin expression in human platelets and in cultured endothelial cells. Ethamsylate specifically binds to some protein receptor in platelet and endothelial cell membranes, receptor which can signal for membrane P-selectin expression. These results support the view that ethamsylate acts on the first step of hemostasis, by improving platelet adhesiveness and restoring capillary resistance. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  5. Molecular cloning of the α subunit of human and guinea pig leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein Mo1: Chromosomal localization and homology to the α subunits of integrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaout, M.A.; Remold-O'Donnell, E.; Pierce, M.W.; Harris, P.; Tenen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The cell surface-glycoprotein Mo1 is a member of the family of leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (Leu-CAMs) that includes lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and p150,95. Each Leu-CAM is a heterodimer with a distinct α subunit noncovalently associated with a common β subunit. The authors describe the isolation and analysis of two partial cDNA clones encoding the α subunit of the Leu-CAM Mo1 in humans and guinea pigs. A monoclonal antibody directed against an epitope in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the guinea pig α chain was used for immunoscreening a λgt11 expression library. The sequence of a 378-base-pair insert from one immunoreactive clone revealed a single continuous open reading frame encoding 126 amino acids including a 26-amino acid tryptic peptide isolated from the purified guinea pig α subunit. A cDNA clone of identical size was isolated from a human monocyte/lymphocyte cDNA library by using the guinea pig clone as a probe. The human clone also encoded a 126-amino acid peptide including the sequence of an additional tryptic peptide present in purified human Mo1α chain. Southern analysis of DNA from hamster-human hybrids localized the human Mo1α chain to chromosome 16, which has been shown to contain the gene for the α chain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1. These data suggest that the α subunits of Leu-CAMs evolved by gene duplication from a common ancestral gene and strengthen the hypothesis that the α subunits of these heterodimeric cell adhesion molecules on myeloid and lymphoid cells, platelets, and fibroblasts are evolutionary related

  6. Tailor-made purified human platelet lysate concentrated in neurotrophins for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Li; Wu, Joe-Wei; Gouel, Flore; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Timmerman, Kelly; Renn, Ting-Yi; Laloux, Charlotte; Chang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Devedjian, Jean-Christophe; Devos, David; Burnouf, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    Human platelet lysates (PLs), which contain multiple neurotrophins, have been proposed for treating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, current PLs suspended in plasma have high protein content and contain fibrinogen/fibrin and, following activation, also proteolytic and thrombogenic enzymes. Upon brain administration, such PLs may saturate the cerebrospinal fluid and exert neurotoxicity. We assessed whether purified PLs, concentrated in neurotrophins, protected dopaminergic neurons in PD models. Platelet concentrates were collected by apheresis and centrifuged to eliminate plasma and recover the platelets. Platelets were lysed by freeze-thaw cycles, and the 10-fold concentrated platelet pellet lysates (PPLs) were heat-treated (at 56 °C for 30 min). The heat-treated PPLs were low in total proteins, depleted in both plasma and platelet fibrinogen, and devoid of thrombogenic and proteolytic activities. They exerted very high neuroprotective activity when non-oncogenic, Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells that had differentiated into dopaminergic neurons were exposed to the MPP + neurotoxin. Heat treatment improved the neuroprotection and inactivated the neurotoxic blood-borne hepatitis C virus. PPL did not induce inflammation in BV2 microglial cells and inhibited COX-2 expression upon lipopolysaccharide exposure. Intranasal administration in mice revealed (a) diffusion of neurotrophins in the striatum and cortex, and (b) MPTP intoxication neuroprotection in the substantia nigra and striatum and the absence of neuroinflammation. These dedicated heat-treated PPLs can be a safe and valuable candidate for a therapeutic strategy for PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Platelet antiheparin activity. The isolation and characterisation of platelet factor 4 released from thrombin-aggregated washed human platelets and its dissociation into subunits and the isolation of membrane-bound antiheparin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Pepper, D S; Cash, J D

    1975-02-27

    Platelet factor 4 was isolated by gel filtration from the soluble release products of thrombin-aggregated washed human platelets as a proteoglycan-platelet factor 4 complex of molecular weight 358 000, Stokes radius (r-s) of 14.0 nm, sedimentation coefficient (s) of 7.1 S and frictional ratio (f/f-o) of 3.04. The complex was dissociated at high ionic strength (I equals 0.75) and the proteoglycan separated from platelet factor 4 by gel filtration. Platelet factor 4 had a molecular weight of 27 100, r-s of 2.52 nm, s of 2.4 S and f/f-o of 1.26, was insoluble under physiological conditions but readily soluble at pH 3. Under these conditions platelet factor 4 dissociated into four subunits with a molecular weight of 6900, r-s of 1.92 nm, s of 0.8 S, and f/f-o of 1.52. Qualitative N-terminal amino acid analysis showed the presence of glutamic acid or glutamine as the major end group. Platelet factor 4 was compared with protamine sulphate, which has similar biological properties, by electrophoresis at pH 2.2, in which both migrated as single bands but with differing mobility, and by amino acid analysis which showed a more normal distribution of residues than occurred in protamine sulphate. Of the basic amino acids platelet factor 4 (molecular weight 27 100) contained 5.97% arginine, 3.18% histidine, and 12.31% lysine compared to protamine sulphate with 64.2% arginine, 0.6% lysine and no histidine. A partial specific volume (v) of 0.747 was calculated for platelet factor 4 from its amino acid analysis. A membrane fraction with antiheparin activity, an isopycnic density of 1.090-1.110 and r-s of 15-35 nm, was also isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation from the ultrasonicated insoluble platelet residue remaining after thrombin-induced aggregation of washed human platelets. Trypsin treatment of the membrane fraction neither solubilised nor destroyed the activity.

  8. The role of platelet and endothelial GARP in thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Elien; Denorme, Frederik; Maes, Wim; De Meyer, Simon F; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Edwards, Justin; Shevach, Ethan M; Unutmaz, Derya; Fujii, Hodaka; Deckmyn, Hans; Tersteeg, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Glycoprotein-A Repetitions Predominant protein (GARP or LRRC32) is present on among others human platelets and endothelial cells. Evidence for its involvement in thrombus formation was suggested by full knockout of GARP in zebrafish. To evaluate the role of GARP in platelet physiology and in thrombus formation using platelet and endothelial conditional GARP knock out mice. Platelet and endothelial specific GARP knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP recombination system. The function of platelets without GARP was measured by flow cytometry, spreading analysis and aggregometry using PAR4-activating peptide and collagen related peptide. Additionally, clot retraction and collagen-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation under flow were analyzed. Finally, in vivo tail bleeding time, occlusion time of the mesenteric and carotid artery after FeCl3-induced thrombosis were determined in platelet and endothelial specific GARP knock out mice. Platelet specific GARP knockout mice had normal surface GPIb, GPVI and integrin αIIb glycoprotein expression. Although GARP expression was increased upon platelet activation, platelets without GARP displayed normal agonist induced activation, spreading on fibrinogen and aggregation responses. Furthermore, absence of GARP on platelets did not influence clot retraction and had no impact on thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under flow. In line with this, neither the tail bleeding time nor the occlusion time in the carotid- and mesenteric artery after FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in platelet or endothelial specific GARP knock out mice were affected. Evidence is provided that platelet and endothelial GARP are not important in hemostasis and thrombosis in mice.

  9. The role of platelet and endothelial GARP in thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elien Vermeersch

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein-A Repetitions Predominant protein (GARP or LRRC32 is present on among others human platelets and endothelial cells. Evidence for its involvement in thrombus formation was suggested by full knockout of GARP in zebrafish.To evaluate the role of GARP in platelet physiology and in thrombus formation using platelet and endothelial conditional GARP knock out mice.Platelet and endothelial specific GARP knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP recombination system. The function of platelets without GARP was measured by flow cytometry, spreading analysis and aggregometry using PAR4-activating peptide and collagen related peptide. Additionally, clot retraction and collagen-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation under flow were analyzed. Finally, in vivo tail bleeding time, occlusion time of the mesenteric and carotid artery after FeCl3-induced thrombosis were determined in platelet and endothelial specific GARP knock out mice.Platelet specific GARP knockout mice had normal surface GPIb, GPVI and integrin αIIb glycoprotein expression. Although GARP expression was increased upon platelet activation, platelets without GARP displayed normal agonist induced activation, spreading on fibrinogen and aggregation responses. Furthermore, absence of GARP on platelets did not influence clot retraction and had no impact on thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under flow. In line with this, neither the tail bleeding time nor the occlusion time in the carotid- and mesenteric artery after FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in platelet or endothelial specific GARP knock out mice were affected.Evidence is provided that platelet and endothelial GARP are not important in hemostasis and thrombosis in mice.

  10. Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated anoikis of primary human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Ratna B.; Basu, Arnab; Steele, Robert; Beyene, Aster; McHowat, Jane; Meyer, Keith; Ghosh, Asish K.; Ray, Ranjit

    2004-01-01

    Ebola virus glycoprotein (EGP) has been implicated for the induction of cytotoxicity and injury in vascular cells. On the other hand, EGP has also been suggested to induce massive cell rounding and detachment from the plastic surface by downregulating cell adhesion molecules without causing cytotoxicity. In this study, we have examined the cytotoxic role of EGP in primary endothelial cells by transduction with a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus expressing EGP (Ad-EGP). Primary human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) transduced with Ad-EGP displayed loss of cell adhesion from the plastic surface followed by cell death. Transfer of conditioned medium from EGP-transduced HCMEC into naive cells did not induce loss of adhesion or cell death, suggesting that EGP needs to be expressed intracellularly to exert its cytotoxic effect. Subsequent studies suggested that HCMEC death occurred through apoptosis. Results from this study shed light on the EGP-induced anoikis in primary human cardiac endothelial cells, which may have significant pathological consequences

  11. Ca 125 and Ca 19-9: two cancer-associated sialylsaccharide antigens on a mucus glycoprotein from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, F G; Uhlenbruck, G; Dienst, C; Stottrop, M; Hippauf, E

    1985-06-03

    The cancer-associated antigens Ca 125 and Ca 19-9 were demonstrated by radioimmunoassay to form structural units of a mucus glycoprotein in human milk taken from healthy women four days after parturition. The glycoprotein precipitated with the casein fraction at pH 4.6 and was completely absent in the whey as judged from Ca 19-9 assay. It could be effectively enriched by phenol-saline extraction from soluble milk proteins and further purified by gel filtration on Sephacryl S300 and Sephacryl S400. The active component with a bouyant density of 1.41 g/ml in isopycnic density gradient centrifugation (CsCl) shared common physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of mucus glycoproteins. Carbohydrates representing about 68% by weight were conjugated to protein by alkali-labile linkages, exclusively and were essentially free of D-mannose. Activities of Ca 125 and Ca 19-9 were both destroyed by treatment with periodate, mild alkali or neuraminidase suggesting the antigens are sialylated saccharides bound to protein by alkali-labile linkages. The fraction of monosialylated saccharide alditols isolated after reductive beta-elimination from the mucus glycoprotein was shown to inhibit monoclonal antibodies anti-(Ca 125) and anti-(Ca 19-9) in radioimmunoassay.

  12. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma

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    Beata Olas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation and the generation of superoxide anion (O2-∙ in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals. The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5– 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2-∙ in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL. The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  13. Flavonoids purified from parsley inhibit human blood platelet aggregation and adhesion to collagen under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadi, Dounia; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Bruel, Arlette; Berrabah, Mohamed; Legrand, Chantal; Fauvel-Lafeve, Françoise; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2012-08-10

    Blood platelets are directly involved in both haemostatic and pathologic thrombotic processes, through their adhesion, secretion and aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of genins (aglycone flavonoids without sugar group) isolated from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves in vitro on human platelet aggregation and adhesion to a collagen-coated surface under physiologic flow conditions. The aggregation and adhesion studies were monitored after pre-incubation of platelets with genins. Genins inhibited dose dependently aggregation induced by thrombin, ADP and collagen. The strongest effect was observed in collagen induced aggregation (IC50 = 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/ml). The HPLC identification of genins compounds revealed the presence of keampferol, apigenin and other not identified compounds. The aggregation tests showed that these compounds have anti-aggregating activity. In addition, adhesion of human platelets to collagen was greatly decreased (over 75 %) by genins (0.3 mg/ml). While the mechanism by which genins act is unclear, we suggest that these compounds may interfere with a multiple target step in the haemostasis process. These results show that genins isolated from parsley has a potent antiplatelet activity. It may be an important source of beneficial antiplatelet compounds that decrease thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Relative turnover of [3H]arachidonic acid and [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid in stimulated human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, B.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The relative release of arachidonic acid (AA) versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from platelet phospholipids may be important in accounting for the potential of dietary fish oil containing EPA to alter platelet reactivity. Human platelets enriched in EPA and prelabelled with [ 3 H]AA and [ 14 C]EPA were used to examine the relative losses of these fatty acids from platelet phospholipids upon stimulation. Washed dual-labelled platelets were incubated with and without thrombin in the presence of BW755C and in the presence and absence of trifluoperazine. The platelet lipids were extracted and the individual phospholipids as well as diacylglycerol (DG), phosphatidic acid (PA), etc. were separated by thin-layer chromatography and the radioactivity in each fraction determined. The [ 3 H]AA/[ 14 C]EPA dpm ratio for the loss in radioactivity from PC upon thrombin stimulation was similar to that for the PC in resting platelets. This suggests no marked selectivity in the degradation of AA versus EPA species of PC during platelet activation. The [ 3 H]/[ 14 C] ratios for the increased radioactivity in DG and PA upon thrombin stimulation were slightly higher than the ratio in PI from resting platelets suggesting only a minor preference for 1-acyl 2-arachidonoyl PI over 1-acyl 2-eicosapentaenoyl PI in the pathway from PI to DG to PA

  15. Overexpression of human virus surface glycoprotein precursors induces cytosolic unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Sasnauskas Kęstutis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of human virus surface proteins, as well as other mammalian glycoproteins, is much more efficient in cells of higher eukaryotes rather than yeasts. The limitations to high-level expression of active viral surface glycoproteins in yeast are not well understood. To identify possible bottlenecks we performed a detailed study on overexpression of recombinant mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuHN and measles hemagglutinin (MeH in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, combining the analysis of recombinant proteins with a proteomic approach. Results Overexpressed recombinant MuHN and MeH proteins were present in large aggregates, were inactive and totally insoluble under native conditions. Moreover, the majority of recombinant protein was found in immature form of non-glycosylated precursors. Fractionation of yeast lysates revealed that the core of viral surface protein aggregates consists of MuHN or MeH disulfide-linked multimers involving eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A and is closely associated with small heat shock proteins (sHsps that can be removed only under denaturing conditions. Complexes of large Hsps seem to be bound to aggregate core peripherally as they can be easily removed at high salt concentrations. Proteomic analysis revealed that the accumulation of unglycosylated viral protein precursors results in specific cytosolic unfolded protein response (UPR-Cyto in yeast cells, characterized by different action and regulation of small Hsps versus large chaperones of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families. In contrast to most environmental stresses, in the response to synthesis of recombinant MuHN and MeH, only the large Hsps were upregulated whereas sHsps were not. Interestingly, the amount of eEF1A was also increased during this stress response. Conclusions Inefficient translocation of MuHN and MeH precursors through ER membrane is a bottleneck for high-level expression in yeast. Overexpression of

  16. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  17. Platelets alter gene expression profile in human brain endothelial cells in an in vitro model of cerebral malaria.

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    Mathieu Barbier

    Full Text Available Platelet adhesion to the brain microvasculature has been associated with cerebral malaria (CM in humans, suggesting that platelets play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In vitro co-cultures have shown that platelets can act as a bridge between Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBC and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBEC and potentiate HBEC apoptosis. Using cDNA microarray technology, we analyzed transcriptional changes of HBEC in response to platelets in the presence or the absence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF and pRBC, which have been reported to alter gene expression in endothelial cells. Using a rigorous statistical approach with multiple test corrections, we showed a significant effect of platelets on gene expression in HBEC. We also detected a strong effect of TNF, whereas there was no transcriptional change induced specifically by pRBC. Nevertheless, a global ANOVA and a two-way ANOVA suggested that pRBC acted in interaction with platelets and TNF to alter gene expression in HBEC. The expression of selected genes was validated by RT-qPCR. The analysis of gene functional annotation indicated that platelets induce the expression of genes involved in inflammation and apoptosis, such as genes involved in chemokine-, TREM1-, cytokine-, IL10-, TGFβ-, death-receptor-, and apoptosis-signaling. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that platelets play a pathogenic role in CM.

  18. DioxolaneA3-phosphatidylethanolamines are generated by human platelets and stimulate neutrophil integrin expression

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    Maceler Aldrovandi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated platelets generate an eicosanoid proposed to be 8-hydroxy-9,10-dioxolane A3 (DXA3. Herein, we demonstrate that significant amounts of DXA3 are rapidly attached to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE forming four esterified eicosanoids, 16:0p, 18:0p, 18:1p and 18:0a/DXA3-PEs that can activate neutrophil integrin expression. These lipids comprise the majority of DXA3 generated by platelets, are formed in ng amounts (24.3±6.1 ng/2×108 and remain membrane bound. Pharmacological studies revealed DXA3-PE formation involves cyclooxygenase-1 (COX, protease-activated receptors (PAR 1 and 4, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, phospholipase C and intracellular calcium. They are generated primarily via esterification of newly formed DXA3, but can also be formed in vitro via co-oxidation of PE during COX-1 co-oxidation of arachidonate. All four DXA3-PEs were detected in human clots. Purified platelet DXA3-PE activated neutrophil Mac-1 expression, independently of its hydrolysis to the free eicosanoid. This study demonstrates the structures and cellular synthetic pathway for a family of leukocyte-activating platelet phospholipids generated on acute activation, adding to the growing evidence that enzymatic PE oxidation is a physiological event in innate immune cells.

  19. A modified assay method for determining serotonin uptake in human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of various experimental conditions on serotonin (5-HT) uptake in human platelets were examined. The experimental design allowed the evaluation of the effect of diffusion and other non-saturable processes on the affinity and maximum activity of the membrane pump for 5-HT uptake. Total 5-HT uptake was determined by incubating platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with increasing concentrations of serotonin at 37 0 C for 4 min. The passive uptake was measured by the addition of various 5-HT concentrations to PRP in buffer at 37 0 C, followed by immediate transfer to an ice-cold water bath. The difference between the total and passive uptake was linear for 6 min. The affinity (Ksub(m)) for active platelet serotonin uptake was 0.45 +- 0.09 μmol/l and maximal rate of uptake (V) was 10.7 +- 2.1 pmol/10 7 platelets/min. The described method provides a convenient and reliable measure of active 5-HT uptake suitable for clinical investigation. The effect of passive diffusion on kinetic parameters is discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Pathogen reduction by ultraviolet C light effectively inactivates human white blood cells in platelet products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohler, Petra; Müller, Meike; Winkler, Carla; Schaudien, Dirk; Sewald, Katherina; Müller, Thomas H; Seltsam, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Residual white blood cells (WBCs) in cellular blood components induce a variety of adverse immune events, including nonhemolytic febrile transfusion reactions, alloimmunization to HLA antigens, and transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). Pathogen reduction (PR) methods such as the ultraviolet C (UVC) light-based THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system were developed to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. As UVC light targets nucleic acids, it interferes with the replication of both pathogens and WBCs. This preclinical study aimed to evaluate the ability of UVC light to inactivate contaminating WBCs in platelet concentrates (PCs). The in vitro and in vivo function of WBCs from UVC-treated PCs was compared to that of WBCs from gamma-irradiated and untreated PCs by measuring cell viability, proliferation, cytokine secretion, antigen presentation in vitro, and xenogeneic GVHD responses in a humanized mouse model. UVC light was at least as effective as gamma irradiation in preventing GVHD in the mouse model. It was more effective in suppressing T-cell proliferation (>5-log reduction in the limiting dilution assay), cytokine secretion, and antigen presentation than gamma irradiation. The THERAFLEX UV-Platelets (MacoPharma) PR system can substitute gamma irradiation for TA-GVHD prophylaxis in platelet (PLT) transfusion. Moreover, UVC treatment achieves suppression of antigen presentation and inhibition of cytokine accumulation during storage of PCs, which has potential benefits for transfusion recipients. © 2014 AABB.

  1. Serotonin binding in vitro by releasable proteins from human blood platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemstra, V.L.

    1983-11-01

    Among the substances released from human blood platelets are serotonin and various proteins. It was hypothesized that one of these proteins binds serotonin and that serotonin might be important to the protein's function or that the protein might be important to serotonin's function. Two platelet-specific proteins, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and β-thromboglobulin (βTG) were found to bind serotonin in vitro. Endogenous PF4 was isolated by serotonin-affinity chromatography and was identified by radioimmunoassay. Purified [ 125 I] -PF4 and native PF4 bound to and eluted from a serotonin-affinity column similarly. Ultrafiltration of the homologous protein, βTG, with [ 14 C]-serotonin demonstrated binding of about 8 moles serotonin per mole tetrameric βTG with a dissociation constant of about 4 X 10(sup-8) M. Equilibrium dialysis of PF4 with radiolabelled serotonin was attempted, but no binding constant values were obtained because serotonin apparently bound to the dialysis membrane. Since EDTA was one of the two agents that eluted PF4 from the serotonin-affinity gel, calcium binding by PF4 was investigated by equilibrium dialysis. Evidence was obtained for positively cooperative binding of calcium ions by PF4. It is concluded that PF4 and βTG bind serotonin in vitro, that they may also bind in vivo when platelets undergo release, and that the functions of serotonin, PF4 and βTG may be mediated in part by serotonin-protein associations

  2. Celastraceae sesquiterpenes as a new class of modulators that bind specifically to human P-glycoprotein and reverse cellular multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Lu, Peihua; Cortés-Selva, Fernando; Pérez-Victoria, José María; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Ravelo, Angel G; Sharom, Frances J; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago

    2004-10-01

    Overexpression of ABCB1 (MDR1) P-glycoprotein, a multidrug efflux pump, is one mechanism by which tumor cells may develop multidrug resistance (MDR), preventing the successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae family are natural compounds shown previously to reverse MDR in several human cancer cell lines and Leishmania strains. However, their molecular mechanism of reversion has not been characterized. In the present work, we have studied the ability of 28 dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes to reverse the P-glycoprotein-dependent MDR phenotype and elucidated their molecular mechanism of action. Cytotoxicity assays using human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells allowed us to select the most potent sesquiterpenes reversing the in vitro resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. Flow cytometry experiments showed that the above active compounds specifically inhibited drug transport activity of P-glycoprotein in a saturable, concentration-dependent manner (K(i) down to 0.24 +/- 0.01 micromol/L) but not that of ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1; MRP1), ABCC2 (MRP2), and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein; BCRP) transporters. Moreover, sesquiterpenes inhibited at submicromolar concentrations the P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of [(3)H]colchicine and tetramethylrosamine in plasma membrane from CH(R)B30 cells and P-glycoprotein-enriched proteoliposomes, supporting that P-glycoprotein is their molecular target. Photoaffinity labeling in plasma membrane and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments with purified protein suggested that sesquiterpenes interact with transmembrane domains of P-glycoprotein. Finally, sesquiterpenes modulated P-glycoprotein ATPase-activity in a biphasic, concentration-dependent manner: they stimulated at very low concentrations but inhibited ATPase activity as noncompetitive inhibitors at higher concentrations. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae are promising P-glycoprotein modulators with potential

  3. Mapping of Minimal Motifs of B-Cell Epitopes on Human Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein-3

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    Wan-Xiang Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (hZP3 by virtue of its critical role during fertilization has been proposed as a promising candidate antigen to develop a contraceptive vaccine. In this direction, it is imperative to map minimal motifs of the B cell epitopes (BCEs so as to avoid ZP-specific oophoritogenic T cell epitopes (TCEs in the ZP3-based immunogens. In this study, based on known results of mapping marmoset and bonnet monkey ZP3 (mstZP3 and bmZP3, two predictable epitopes23–30  and  301–320 on hZP3 were first confirmed and five minimal motifs within four epitopes on hZP3 were defined using serum to recombinant hZP3a22–176 or hZP3b177–348 as well as a biosynthetic peptide strategy. These defined minimal motifs were QPLWLL23–28 for hZP323–30, MQVTDD103–108 for hZP393–110, EENW178–181 for hZP3172–190, as well as SNSWF306–310 and EGP313–315 for hZP3301–320, respectively. Furthermore, the antigenicity of two peptides for hZP3172–187 and hZP3301–315 and specificity of the antibody response to these peptides were also evaluated, which produced high-titer antibodies in immunized animals that were capable of reacting to ZP on human oocytes, r-hZP3b177–348 protein, as well as r-hZP3172–190, r-hZP3303–310, and r-hZP3313–320 epitope peptides fused with truncated GST188 protein.

  4. Visualisation of lectin binding sites on the surface of human platelets using lectins adsorbed to gold granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurden, A T; Horisberger, M; Savariau, E; Caen, J P

    1980-10-15

    Washed human platelets have been incubated with the lectins WGA, ConA and RCA1, adsorbed to different-sized gold particles. Plasma membrane receptors for each lectin were then located by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Evaluation of amotosalem treated platelets over 7 days of storage with an automated cytometry assay panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diquattro, M; De Francisci, G; Bonaccorso, R; Tagliavia, A M; Marcatti, M; Palma, B; Agliastro, R

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen Inactivation allows to overcome microbial contamination and growth related to storage of platelets concentrates (PC) at room temperature. The aim of our study was to evaluate the platelet storage lesion extending the storage period of pathogen inactivated platelet concentrates over 7 days using an automated cytometry assay panel. We analyzed 43 concentrates subjected to pathogen inactivation (CPPI) at 3, 5 and 7 days evaluating: platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelets at low optical density, platelets at high density, GPIIb-IIIa glycoprotein, platelet microparticles, lactate dehydrogenase. The collection bags (Fenwal) and the IBS kit made in PL2410/PL2411 are approved for the conservation of PC up to 7 days. Data analysis was performed with anova test. All the parameters except small platelets and PMP were statistically different among day 7 vs. 3 and day 7 vs. 5. Our study showed a progressive modification of pathogen inactivated platelet concentrates observed up to 7 days. The persistence of the secretory pool and the presence of the platelet membrane fibrinogen receptor suggest the persistence of a potential hemostatic efficacy. Clinical studies are necessary to directly correlate this type of analysis to 24 h recovery or survival of transfused platelets in humans. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Beta 3 and PDI proteins isolated from human platelets bind with ECwt rotavirus in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga, Diana; Rubio, Linda; Guerrero-Fonseca, Carlos A; Acosta-Losada, Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Commercial integrin Beta 3 is currently not available and commercial PDI is too expensive, which is making access difficult to these proteins needed for conducting experiments aimed at the establishment of possible interactions between integrin Beta 3 and PDI and wild type rotavirus strains. Objective. To explore a methodology allowing isolation of proteins Beta 3 and PDI from human platelets to be used as antigens in the generation of rabbit polyclonal antibodies useful in the assessment of interactions between these proteins and rotavirus ECwt. Materials and methods. Proteins Beta 3 and PDI from human platelet lysates were separated using preparative electrophoresis under reducing conditions and then eluted. Interactions of these proteins with rotavirus ECwt were analyzed using co-immunoprecipitation, Western blotting and capture ELISA. Results. Proteins from human platelet lysates were separated by preparative electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The identification of proteins Beta 3 and PDI present in a gel slice was performed through their reaction with commercial antibodies in a Western blotting analysis. Protein purity was established after electro elution from a gel slice. Polyclonal antibodies against protein Beta 3 were generated in rabbit. Incubation of eluted proteins Beta 3 and PDI with rotavirus ECwt showed in co-immunoprecipitation and ELISA assays that these proteins bound virus in vitro. The same binding was showed to occur when rotavirus was incubated with isolated small intestinal villi from suckling mice. Conclusions. Relatively high amounts of proteins Beta 3 and PDI were partially purified from human platelets by preparative electrophoresis. The isolation of these proteins allowed the generation of polyclonal antibodies against Beta 3 in addition to the establishment of the in vitro interaction of proteins Beta 3 and PDI with rotavirus ECwt. This interaction was also demonstrated in vivo after incubating the virus with isolated small

  7. Human platelet lysate supports the formation of robust human periodontal ligament cell sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bei-Min; Wu, Rui-Xin; Bi, Chun-Sheng; He, Xiao-Tao; Yin, Yuan; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2018-04-01

    The use of stem cell-derived sheets has become increasingly common in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Although substantial evidence has demonstrated that human platelet lysate (PL) can be used for therapeutic cell expansion, either as a substitute for or as a supplement to xenogeneic fetal bovine serum (FBS), its impact on cell sheet production remains largely unexplored. In this study, we manufactured periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) sheets in vitro by incubating PDLSCs in sheet-induction media supplemented with various ratios of PL and FBS, i.e. 10% PL without FBS, 7.5% PL + 2.5% FBS, 5% PL + 5% FBS, 2.5% PL + 7.5% FBS or 10% FBS without PL. Cultures with the addition of all the designed supplements led to successful cell sheet production. In addition, all the resultant cellular materials exhibited similar expression profiles of matrix-related genes and proteins, such as collagen I, fibronectin and integrin β1. Interestingly, the cell components within sheets generated by media containing both PL and FBS exhibited improved osteogenic potential. Following in vivo transplantation, all sheets supported significant new bone formation. Our data suggest that robust PDLSC sheets can be produced by applying PL as either an alternative or an adjuvant to FBS. Further examination of the relevant influences of human PL that benefit cell behaviour and matrix production will pave the way towards optimized and standardized conditions for cell sheet production. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Identification and characterization of a putative human platelet thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saussy, D.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) analog, 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16-(3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13,14-dihydro-13-aza-15αβ-omega-tetranor TXA 2 (I-PTA-OH) was characterized as a competitive antagonist of TXA 2 mimetic-induced platelet aggregation, with a K/sub d/ of 190 nM in platelet rich plasma. This antagonism was specific for the putative thromboxane A 2 /prostaglandin H 2 (TXA 2 /PGH 2 ) receptor, since I-PTA-OH had no inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists which act independently of TXA 2 /PGH 2 , and did not inhibit platelet TXA 2 synthesis. [ 125 I]-PTA-OH binding to a particulate fraction from human platelets was saturable, displaceable, and linear with protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites, with a K/sub d/ of 30 +/- 4 nM and a B/sub max/ of 1.8 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein. Kinetic analysis yielded a k 1 of 1.35 x 10 6 M -1 x min -1 and a k√ 1 of 0.032 min -1 , K/sub d/ = k√ 1 /k 1 = 24 nM. The subcellular localization of the putative TXA 2 /PGH 2 receptor was determined using [ 125 I]-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. [ 125 I]-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. [ 125 I]-PTA-OH binding, was coenriched with markers for plasma membranes and dense tubular system; but not with markers for cytoplasmic constituents, mitochondria, or granules

  9. Safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment® Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Solchaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses nonclinical and clinical data regarding the safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB as a component of the Augment® Bone Graft (Augment. Augment is a bone graft substitute intended to be used as an alternative to autologous bone graft in the fusion of hindfoot and ankle joints. Nonclinical studies included assessment of the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenously administered recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in rat and dog, effects of intravenous administration of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in a reproductive and development toxicity study in rats, and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of Augment in a 12-month implantation model. These studies showed that systemic exposure was brief and clearance was rapid. No signs of toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion were observed even with doses far exceeding the maximum clinical dose. Results of clinical trials (605 participants and commercial use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB containing products indicate that these products are not associated with increased incidence of adverse events or cancer. The safety data presented provide evidence that recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB is a safe therapeutic when used in combination products as a single administration during surgical procedures for bone repair and fusion. There is no evidence associating use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment with chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion.

  10. ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) reduces bacterial attachment to human gastrointestinal LS174T epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Andrew; Bebawy, Mary

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this project was to show elevated P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression decreasing bacterial association with LS174T human gastrointestinal cells, and that this effect could be reversed upon blocking functional P-gp efflux. Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus acidophilus and numerous strains of Escherichia coli, from commensal to enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic strains (O157:H7) were fluorescently labelled and incubated on LS174T cultures either with or without P-gp amplification using rifampicin. PSC-833 was used as a potent functional P-gp blocking agent. Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas displayed the greatest association with the LS174T cells. Surprisingly, lactobacilli retained more fluorescence than enteropathogenic-E. coli in this system. Irrespective of attachment differences between the bacterial species, the increase in P-gp protein expression decreased bacterial fluorescence by 25-30%. This included the GFP-labelled E. coli, and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (O157:H7). Blocking P-gp function through the co-administration of PSC-833 increased the amount of bacteria associated with P-gp expressing LS174T cells back to control levels. As most bacteria were affected to the same degree, irrespective of pathogenicity, it is unlikely that P-gp has a direct influence on adhesion of bacteria, and instead P-gp may be playing an indirect role by secreting a bank of endogenous factors or changing the local environment to one less suited to bacterial growth in general. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Catalytic transitions in the human MDR1 P-glycoprotein drug binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John G

    2012-06-26

    Multidrug resistance proteins that belong to the ATP-binding cassette family like the human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 or Pgp) are responsible for many failed cancer and antiviral chemotherapies because these membrane transporters remove the chemotherapeutics from the targeted cells. Understanding the details of the catalytic mechanism of Pgp is therefore critical to the development of inhibitors that might overcome these resistances. In this work, targeted molecular dynamics techniques were used to elucidate catalytically relevant structures of Pgp. Crystal structures of homologues in four different conformations were used as intermediate targets in the dynamics simulations. Transitions from conformations that were wide open to the cytoplasm to transition state conformations that were wide open to the extracellular space were studied. Twenty-six nonredundant transitional protein structures were identified from these targeted molecular dynamics simulations using evolutionary structure analyses. Coupled movement of nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the drug binding cavities were observed. Pronounced twisting of the NBDs as they approached each other as well as the quantification of a dramatic opening of the TMDs to the extracellular space as the ATP hydrolysis transition state was reached were observed. Docking interactions of 21 known transport ligands or inhibitors were analyzed with each of the 26 transitional structures. Many of the docking results obtained here were validated by previously published biochemical determinations. As the ATP hydrolysis transition state was approached, drug docking in the extracellular half of the transmembrane domains seemed to be destabilized as transport ligand exit gates opened to the extracellular space.

  12. Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet Lysate as Serum Substitute in Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Negin; Bordbar, Sima; Goodarzi, Alireza; Mohammad, Monire; Khosravani, Pardis; Sayahpour, Froughazam; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    The diverse clinical applications for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine warrant increased focus on developing adequate culture supplements devoid of animal-derived products. In the present study, we have investigated the feasibility of umbilical cord blood-platelet lysate (UCB-PL) as a standard substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) and human peripheral blood-PL (PB-PL). In this experimental study, platelet concentrates (PC) from UCB and human PB donors were frozen, melted, and sterilized to obtain PL. Quality control included platelet cell counts, sterility testing (viral and microbial), total protein concentrations, growth factor levels, and PL stability. The effects of UCB-PL and PB-PL on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes were studied and the results compared with FBS. UCB-PL contained high levels of protein content, platelet-derived growth factor- AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor (TGF) compared to PB-PL. All growth factors were stable for at least nine months post-storage at -70˚C. hMSCs proliferation enhanced following treatment with UCB-PL. With all three supplements, hMSCs could differentiate into all three lineages. PB-PL and UCB-PL both were potent in hMSCs proliferation. However, PB promoted osteoblastic differentiation and UCB-PL induced chondrogenic differentiation. Because of availability, ease of use and feasible standardization of UCB-PL, we have suggested that UCB-PL be used as an alternative to FBS and PB-PL for the cultivation and expansion of hMSCs in cellular therapy. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of human platelet lysate alternatives using expired and freshly isolated platelet concentrates for adipose-derived stromal cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessels, Carla; Durandt, Chrisna; Pepper, Michael S

    2018-03-19

    Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) has been used to expand adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and can be formulated using fresh or expired buffy coats (BCs) which are then resuspended in either plasma or an additive solution. Not much is known about the effects that expired products and additive solutions have on ASC expansion, and the need for quality control and release criteria has been expressed. This pilot study compared proliferation, cell size, morphology and immunophenotype of ASCs expanded in the different pHPL alternatives versus foetal bovine serum (FBS). Quality control criteria were assessed prior to and during the manufacture of the pHPL alternatives. ASCs were then expanded in 1%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% of the different pHPL alternatives or in 10% FBS. Cell size, morphology, cell number and immunophenotype were measured using microscopy and flow cytometry. The majority of the pHPL alternatives were within the recommended ranges for the quality control criteria. ASCs expanded in the pHPL alternatives were smaller in size, displayed a tighter spindle-shaped morphology, increased cell growth and had a similar immunophenotype (with the exception of CD34 and CD36) when compared to ASCs expanded in FBS. Here we report on the effects that expired BC products and additive solutions have on ASC expansion. When taken together, our findings indicate that all of the pHPL alternatives can be considered to be suitable replacements for FBS for ASC expansion, and that expired BC products can be used as an alternative to fresh BC products.

  14. Human Platelets Exhibit Chemotaxis using Functional N-Formyl Peptide Receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czapiga, Meggan; Gao, Ji-Liang; Kirk, Allen; Lekstrom-Himes, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Activated platelets participate in inflammatory and microbicidal processes by upregulation of surface selectins, shedding of CD40 ligand, and release of platelet microbicidal proteins and microparticles...

  15. Metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and estrone-sulfate by human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, A; Munoz, Y; Sierralta, W; Valladares, L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study the uptake of DHEAS, and to establish the intracrine capacity of human platelets to produce sex steroid hormones. The DHEAS transport was evaluated through the uptake of [(3)H]-DHEAS in the presence or absence of different substrates through the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family. The activity of sulfatase enzyme was evaluated, and the metabolism of DHEAS was measured by the conversion of [(3)H]-DHEAS to [(3)H]-androstenedione, [(3)H]-testosterone, [(3)H]-estrone and [(3)H]-17beta-estradiol. Results indicated the existence in the plasma membrane of an OATP with high affinity for DHEAS and estrone sulphate (E(1)S). The platelets showed the capacity to convert DHEAS to active DHEA by the steroid-sulfatase activity. The cells resulted to be a potential site for androgens production, since they have the capacity to produce androstenedione and testosterone; in addition, they reduced [(3)H]-estrone to [(3)H]-17beta-estradiol. This is the first demonstration that human platelets are able to import DHEAS and E(1)S using the OATP family and to convert DHEAS to active DHEA, and to transform E(1)S to 17beta-estradiol.

  16. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Valsami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization.

  17. Human intestinal P-glycoprotein activity estimated by the model substrate digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, U L; Hyldahl Olesen, L; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) plays a part in the intestinal uptake of xenobiotics and has been associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to examine Pgp activity in relation to age, gender, medical treatment (rifampicin or ketoconazole) and the multidrug resistance (MDR...

  18. Modification-specific proteomic analysis of glycoproteins in human body fluids by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Hägglund, Per; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2007-01-01

    -glycosylated proteins in body fluids and other complex samples. An approach for identification of N-glycosylated proteins and mapping of their glycosylation sites is described. In this approach, glycoproteins are initially selectively purified by lectin chromatography. Following tryptic digestion, glycopeptides...

  19. Effect of operator and institutional volume on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions performed in Canada and the United States: a brief report from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Mina; Nikhil, Janarthan; Hellkamp, Anne S; Pieper, Karen S; Labinaz, Marino; Cohen, E A; Buller, Christopher E; Cantor, Warren J; Seidelin, Peter; Ducas, John; Carere, Ronald G; Natarajan, Madhu K; O'Shea, J Conor; Tcheng, James E

    2009-08-01

    The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial compared the use of eptifibatide with placebo in 2064 coronary intervention patients. It was previously reported that Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, myocardial infarction (MI) or target vessel revascularization (TVR) compared with patients in the United States (US). To examine whether operator or institutional volume differences explain the regional variation in clinical outcome. Each site received an operator and institutional volume survey. Fifty-seven sites (62%) returned complete data on 1338 patients. In this smaller cohort, Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, MI or TVR compared with US patients (6.3% versus 10.3% and 14.9% versus 20.1%, respectively; PESPRIT study, institutional volume was associated with a modest reduction in risk of death, MI or TVR over short- and long-term follow-up periods. The Canadian and US investigators and institutions selected in ESPRIT had similar annual procedural volumes. Therefore, volume variables did not explain the differential risk of clinical events observed for patients enrolled in the two countries.

  20. Characterization of the Fusion and Attachment Glycoproteins of Human Metapneumovirus and Human Serosurvey to Determine Reinfection Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    Metapneumovirus genus. The Paramyxoviridae are in the taxonomical order Mononegavirales which includes Bornaviridae, Rhabdoviridae and Filoviridae which... Rhabdoviridae plant virus, replicate in the cytoplasm (66). The Paramyxoviridae are enveloped viruses and have been defined by the fusion glycoprotein

  1. Modified method for labeling human platelets with indium-111 oxine using albumin density-gradient separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunting, R.W.; Callahan, R.J.; Finkelstein, S.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    When labeling platelets with indium-111 oxine, albumin density-gradient separation minimizes the time spent to resuspend those platelets that have been centrifuged against a hard surface. Labeling efficiency or platelet viability, as measured by platelet survival or aggregation with adenosine diphosphate, are not adversely affected

  2. Crystal structure of the Hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    Full Text Available The henipaviruses, represented by Hendra (HeV and Nipah (NiV viruses are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses with uniquely broad host tropisms responsible for repeated outbreaks in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection and lack of licensed antiviral therapies make the henipaviruses a potential biological threat to humans and livestock. Henipavirus entry is initiated by the attachment of the G envelope glycoprotein to host cell membrane receptors. Previously, henipavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (hmAb have been isolated using the HeV-G glycoprotein and a human naïve antibody library. One cross-reactive and receptor-blocking hmAb (m102.4 was recently demonstrated to be an effective post-exposure therapy in two animal models of NiV and HeV infection, has been used in several people on a compassionate use basis, and is currently in development for use in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of HeV-G with m102.3, an m102.4 derivative, and describe NiV and HeV escape mutants. This structure provides detailed insight into the mechanism of HeV and NiV neutralization by m102.4, and serves as a blueprint for further optimization of m102.4 as a therapeutic agent and for the development of entry inhibitors and vaccines.

  3. Identification of a nonsense mutation at amino acid 584-arginine of platelet glycoprotein IIb in patients with type I glanzmann thrombasthenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jianming; Xu Wenfeng; Wang Xiaodong; Wu Qingyu; Qi Zhengwu; Ruan Changgeng

    1993-08-01

    Using southern blot, the restriction digests of genomic DNAs in eleven patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia from ten unrelated kindred were probed with a platelet full-length GP IIb cDNA. An abnormal 2.3 kb Taq I fragment and two 1.65 kb and 0.65 kb fragments with reduced band intensity were found in the genes of two affected siblings from a family originated in city Huang Yan of Zhejiang Province. The Taq I digest of the abnormal gene was further probed with three portions of GP IIb cDNA, revealing that the heterozygous mutation was present in the region around exons 15 ∼ 17 of the GP IIb gene. Two primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were then designed, and a 394 bp PCR product was generated and sequenced, indicating that a stop codon was substituted for an Arg codon at amino acid position 584 of GP IIb, and brought about a premature termination of translation and production of a shortened protein. The Western blot analysis showed that GP IIb and GP IIIa at the platelet surface were apparently deficient, it may be ascribed to the rapid turn-over of GP IIIa uncomplexed with the truncated GP II b. The abnormal 2.3 kb Tag I fragment was used as a specific genetic marker to detect the carrier status of the patient's family. The abnormal allele was proved to be derived from the mother, the two affected siblings are double heterozygotes carrying two different GP II b-defective alleles and one clinically unaffected sister has also inherited this defective allele, while the father carries another unidentified recessive abnormal GP IIb-defective allele

  4. Human platelet antigens in Burmese, Karen and north-eastern Thais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuangtham, R; Romphruk, A; Puapairoj, C; Leelayuwat, C; Romphruk, A V

    2017-02-01

    A comparative study of allele frequencies at HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15 in Burmese and Karen populations as well as at HPA-15 in north-eastern Thais (NET) is presented. Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are clinically important in several immune platelet disorders, including foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR). The knowledge of antigen frequencies in a population is essential for the evaluation of patients suffering from immune-mediated platelet disorders. A total of 285 unrelated, healthy Burmese, 242 Karen and 300 NET were recruited to this study. Genotype and allele frequencies of HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15 were defined using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) RESULTS: No individuals homozygous for HPA-1bb, -2bb, -4bb, -5bb and -6bb were detected. HPA-1a, -2a, -4a, -5a and -6a were present in all samples of Burmese and Karen origin. HPA-1b, -2b, -4b, -5b and -6b were rare in these populations. The frequencies of HPA-3a/-3b were 60·4/39·6% in Burmese and 55·8/44·2% in Karen, respectively. Frequencies of HPA-15a/-15b were 57·2/42·8% in Burmese, 52·5/47·5% in Karen and 49·8/50·2% in NET. The frequencies of HPA genotypes in our study indicates that HPA-1a, -2a, -4a, -5a and -6a are unlikely involved in FNAIT, PTP and PTR in Burmese and Karen populations. However, HPA-1b, -2b, -3a, -3b, -4b, -5b, -6b, -15a and -15b may likely stimulate alloantibodies in these populations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Distinct spatial relationship of interleukin-9 receptor with IL-2R and MHC glycoproteins in human T lymphoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nizsalóczki, Enikő; Csomós, István; Nagy, Péter; Fazekas, Zsolt; Goldman, Carolyn K.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Damjanovich, Sándor; Vámosi, György; Mátyus, László; Bodnár, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The IL-9R consists of the α-subunit and the γc-chain shared with other cytokine receptors, including IL-2R, an important regulator of T cells. We have previously shown that IL-2R is expressed in common clusters with MHC glycoproteins in lipid rafts of human T lymphoma cells raising the question what the relationship between clusters of IL-2R/MHC and IL-9R is. Confocal microscopic co-localization and FRET experiments capable of detecting membrane protein organization at different size scales r...

  6. Metabolism of 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid by the human platelet. Formation of novel thromboxane analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazy, M

    1991-12-15

    Radiolabeled cis-(+-)-5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5(6)-EpETrE) was incubated with a suspension of isolated human platelets in order to study its metabolic fate. The epoxide slowly disappeared from the suspension and was completely metabolized within 30 min. After extraction and analysis by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, seven metabolites were found. Addition of either indomethacin (0.01 mM, cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or BW755C (0.1 mM, cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor) to the incubations blocked the formation of four and six metabolites, respectively, 1,2-Epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane (inhibitor of microsomal epoxide hydrolase) failed to inhibit the formation of 5,6-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-DiHETrE), a hydrolysis product of the precursor 5(6)-EpETrE. The metabolites were characterized by UV spectroscopy, negative ion chemical ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and, in one instance, coelution with synthetic standard. Three primary platelet metabolites were structurally determined to be 5,6-epoxy-12-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, 5,6-epoxy-12-hydroxyheptadecadienoic acid, and a unique bicyclic metabolite, 5-hydroxy-6,9-epoxy-thromboxane B1, which originated from intramolecular hydrolysis of 5,6-epoxythromboxane-B1. This thromboxane analog was partially separated into stereoisomers and coeluted with the racemic synthetic standard in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three other metabolites were characterized as 5,6,12-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, 5,6,12-trihydroxyheptadecadienoic acid, and 5,6-dihydroxythromboxane-B1, and resulted from the hydrolysis of the corresponding epoxides rather than from the metabolism of 5,6-DiHETrE. The latter was not metabolized by platelet cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase. The biosynthesis of two cyclooxygenase metabolites indicated the formation of unstable 5,6-epoxythromboxane-A1 as an intermediate

  7. Effect of zolpidem on human cytochrome P450 activity, and on transport mediated by P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Moltke, Lisa L; Weemhoff, James L; Perloff, Michael D; Hesse, Leah M; Harmatz, Jerold S; Roth-Schechter, Barbara F; Greenblatt, David J

    2002-12-01

    The influence of high concentrations of zolpidem (100 microM, corresponding to approximately 200 times maximum therapeutic concentrations) on the activity of six human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was evaluated in a model system using human liver microsomes. Zolpidem produced negligible or weak inhibition of human CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A. Transport of rhodamine 123, presumed to be mediated mainly by the energy-dependent efflux transport protein P-glycoprotein, was studied in a cell culture system using a human intestinal cell line. High concentrations of zolpidem (100 microM), exceeding the usual therapeutic range by more than 100-fold, produced only modest impairment of rhodamine 123 transport. The findings indicate that zolpidem is very unlikely to cause clinical drug interactions attributable to impairment of CYP activity or P-gp mediated transport. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Genomic Knockout of Endogenous Canine P-Glycoprotein in Wild-Type, Human P-Glycoprotein and Human BCRP Transfected MDCKII Cell Lines by Zinc Finger Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, Dominik; Delzer, Jürgen; Laplanche, Loic; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Sydor, Jens; Fricker, Gert

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to specifically suppress the expression and function of endogenous canine P-glycoprotein (cPgp) in Madin-Darby canine kidney type II cells (MDCKII) transfected with hPGP and breast cancer resistance protein (hBCRP) by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) producing sequence specific DNA double strand breaks. Wild-type, hPGP-transfected, and hBCRP-transfected MDCKII cells were transfected with ZFN targeting for cPgp. Net efflux ratios (NER) of Pgp and Bcrp substrates were determined by dividing efflux ratios (basal-to-apical / apical-to-basal) in over-expressing cell monolayers by those in wild-type ones. From ZFN-transfected cells, cell populations (ko-cells) showing knockout of cPgp were selected based on genotyping by PCR. qRT-PCR analysis showed the significant knock-downs of cPgp and interestingly also cMrp2 expressions. Specific knock-downs of protein expression for cPgp were shown by western blotting and quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. Endogenous canine Bcrp proteins were not detected. For PGP-transfected cells, NERs of 5 Pgp substrates in ko-cells were significantly greater than those in parental cells not transfected with ZFN. Similar result was obtained for BCRP-transfected cells with a dual Pgp and Bcrp substrate. Specific efflux mediated by hPGP or hBCRP can be determined with MDCKII cells where cPgp has been knocked out by ZFN.

  9. Potency testing of mesenchymal stromal cell growth expanded in human platelet lysate from different human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzina, R; Iudicone, P; Fioravanti, D; Bonanno, G; Totta, P; Zizzari, I G; Pierelli, L

    2016-08-25

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been largely investigated, in the past decade, as potential therapeutic strategies for various acute and chronic pathological conditions. MSCs isolated from different sources, such as bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord tissue (UCT) and adipose tissue (AT), share many biological features, although they may show some differences on cumulative yield, proliferative ability and differentiation potential. The standardization of MSCs growth and their functional amplification is a mandatory objective of cell therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative yield and the ex vivo amplification potential of MSCs obtained from various sources and different subjects, using defined culture conditions with a standardized platelet lysate (PL) as growth stimulus. MSCs isolated from BM, UCT and AT and expanded in human PL were compared in terms of cumulative yield and growth potential per gram of starting tissue. MSCs morphology, phenotype, differentiation potential, and immunomodulatory properties were also investigated to evaluate their biological characteristics. The use of standardized PL-based culture conditions resulted in a very low variability of MSC growth. Our data showed that AT has the greater capacity to generate MSC per gram of initial tissue, compared to BM and UCT. However, UCT-MSCs replicated faster than AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs, revealing a greater proliferation capacity of this source irrespective of its lower MSC yield. All MSCs exhibited the typical MSC phenotype and the ability to differentiate into all mesodermal lineages, while BM-MSCs showed the most prominent immunosuppressive effect in vitro. The adoption of standardized culture conditions may help researchers and clinicians to reveal particular characteristics and inter-individual variability of MSCs sourced from different tissues. These data will be beneficial to set the standards for tissue collection and MSCs clinical-scale expansion both for cell banking

  10. Flavanols and Platelet Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A. Pearson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activity and platelet-endothelial cell interactions are important in the acute development of thrombosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. An increasing number of foods have been reported to have platelet-inhibitory actions, and research with a number of flavanol-rich foods, including, grape juice, cocoa and chocolate, suggests that these foods may provide some protection against thrombosis. In the present report, we review a series of in vivo studies on the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and chocolate on platelet activation and platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa inhibited several measures of platelet activity including, epinephrine- and ADP-induced glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa and P-Selectin expression, platelet microparticle formation, and epinephrine-collagen and ADP-collagen induced primary hemostasis. The epinephrine-induced inhibitory effects on GP IIb/IIIa and primary hemostasis were similar to, though less robust than those associated with the use of low dose (81 mg aspirin. These data, coupled with information from other studies, support the concept that flavanols present in cocoa and chocolate can modulate platelet function through a multitude of pathways.

  11. Identification of structural and secretory lectin-binding glycoproteins of normal and cancerous human prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, P M; Cooper, J F; Learn, D B; Olson, C V

    1984-12-07

    We have utilized the technique of lectin-loading of SDS gels with iodinated concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin to identify glycoproteins in prostatic and seminal fluids as well as in prostate tissue fractions. The following subunits which bound both lectins were detected: (a) 50, 43 and 38 kDa subunits common to prostatic and seminal fluids, and an additional 55 kDa subunit which predominates only in prostatic fluid; (b) 78, 55, 50 and 43 kDa subunits in prostatic tissue cytosol and (c) 195, 170, 135, 116 and 95 kDa subunits present in the particulate fractions of prostatic tissue. Immunoblotting using specific rabbit antibodies revealed the 50 kDa band to be prostatic acid phosphatase and the 38 kDa band to be prostate-specific antigen. Interestingly, antibodies directed toward prostatic acid phosphatase were found to cross-react with the 43 kDa band. Fractionation on sucrose gradients showed that several of these particulate glycoproteins were associated with a vesicle fraction enriched in adenylate cyclase activity, implying that they are plasma membrane glycoproteins. Comparison of soluble and particulate fractions of normal and cancerous tissue homogenates was made by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms of lectin-loaded gels. Similar relative intensities of lectin-binding were obtained for corresponding proteins in normal and cancerous tissue fractions. Also, immunoblotting showed no differences in prostatic acid phosphatase or prostate-specific antigen between normal and cancerous soluble homogenate fractions. Our results suggest that major lectin-binding proteins are conserved in the transition from normal to cancerous tissue. These results may be useful in developing a multiple-marker profile of metastatic prostate cancer and for the design of imaging agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, to prominent soluble and particulate prostate glycoproteins.

  12. Evaluation of human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum for culture of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeda, Hatim; Giebel, Bernd; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    Culture media for therapeutic cell preparations-such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-usually comprise serum additives. Traditionally, fetal bovine serum is supplemented in basic research and in most clinical trials. Within the past years, many laboratories adapted their culture conditions to human platelet lysate (hPL), which further stimulates proliferation and expansion of MSCs. Particularly with regard to clinical application, human alternatives for fetal bovine serum are clearly to be preferred. hPL is generated from human platelet units by disruption of the platelet membrane, which is commonly performed by repeated freeze and thaw cycles. Such culture supplements are notoriously ill-defined, and many parameters contribute to batch-to-batch variation in hPL such as different amounts of plasma, a broad range of growth factors and donor-specific effects. The plasma components of hPL necessitate addition of anticoagulants such as heparins to prevent gelatinization of hPL medium, and their concentration must be standardized. Labels for description of hPL-such as "xenogen-free," "animal-free" and "serum free"-are not used consistently in the literature and may be misleading if not critically assessed. Further analysis of the precise composition of relevant growth factors, attachment factors, microRNAs and exosomes will pave the way for optimized and defined culture conditions. The use of hPL has several advantages and disadvantages: they must be taken into account because the choice of cell culture additive has major impact on cell preparations. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Platelet Lysate as a Replacement for Fetal Bovine Serum in Limbal Stem Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Kunal; Gong, Hwee K; Yuan, Ching; Kaufman, Stephen C

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the use of human platelet lysate (HPL) as an alternative supplement for limbal explant culture. Culture media were prepared using either 10% pooled HPL (PHPL), single donor HPL, or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Limbal tissues, obtained from the Minnesota Lions Eye Bank, were cultured in each medium on plastic plates or on denuded amniotic membrane (AM). Immunofluorescence staining was performed for ABCG2, tumor protein p63α, and cytokeratin 3 (K3). Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of ABCG2 and p63. Limbal explants grown in each medium were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to assess the proliferative capacity in each medium. Concentration of growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) in HPL and PHPL was compared to that in human serum (HS). Immunofluorescence staining on AM showed prominent expression of ABCG2, p63α but sparse expression of K3 in HPL and PHPL supplemented medium. Real time-PCR showed 1.7 fold higher expression of ABCG2 in PHPL supplemented medium (p = 0.03), and similar expression of p63 in HPL and PHPL supplemented medium compared to FBS medium. The proliferation assay showed that LSCs retained their proliferative potential in HPL supplemented medium. Higher concentration of growth factors were found in HPL, compared to HS. Human platelet lysate has higher concentration of grown factors and is effective in maintaining growth and stem cell phenotype of corneal limbal explant cultures.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of several zoanthamine-type alkaloids on the aggregation of human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Rosa M; Gil-Longo, José; Daranas, Antonio H; Souto, María L; Fernández, José J; Peixinho, Solange; Barral, Miguel A; Santafé, Gilmar; Rodríguez, Jaime; Jiménez, Carlos

    2003-05-15

    Ten zoanthamine-type alkaloids from two marine zoanthids belonging to the Zoanthus genus (Zoanthus nymphaeus and Zoanthus sp.) along with one semisynthetic derivative were evaluated for their antiplatelet activities on human platelet aggregation induced by several stimulating agents. 11-Hydroxyzoanthamine (11) and a synthetic derivative of norzoanthamine (16) showed strong inhibition against thrombin-, collagen- and arachidonic acid-induced aggregation, zoanthenol (15) displayed a selective inhibitory activity induced by collagen, while zoanthaminone (10) behaved as a potent aggregant agent. These evaluations allowed us to deduce several structure-activity relationships and suggest some mechanisms of action for this type of compounds.

  15. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors in the human central nervous system : autoradiographic distribution and receptor densities in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Wilczak, N

    1997-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors were studied in postmortem adult human brain and cervical spinal cord using autoradiography with human recombinant I-125-PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB binds to the three different dimers of PDGF receptors (alpha alpha, alpha beta and beta beta) PDGF receptors were

  16. Shedding of soluble glycoprotein 1 detected during acute Lassa virus infection in human subjects

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    Momoh Mambu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. With a high rate of infection that may lead to morbidity and mortality, understanding how the virus interacts with the host's immune system is of great importance for generating vaccines and therapeutics. Previous work by our group identified a soluble isoform of the Lassa virus (LASV GP1 (sGP1 in vitro resulting from the expression of the glycoprotein complex (GPC gene 12. Though no work has directly been done to demonstrate the function of this soluble isoform in arenaviral infections, evidence points to immunomodulatory effects against the host's immune system mediated by a secreted glycoprotein component in filoviruses, another class of hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses. A significant fraction of shed glycoprotein isoforms during viral infection and biogenesis may attenuate the host's inflammatory response, thereby enhancing viral replication and tissue damage. Such shed glycoprotein mediated effects were previously reported for Ebola virus (EBOV, a filovirus that also causes hemorrhagic fever with nearly 90% fatality rates 345. The identification of an analogous phenomenon in vivo could establish a new correlate of LHF infection leading to the development of sensitive diagnostics targeting the earliest molecular events of the disease. Additionally, the reversal of potentially untoward immunomodulatory functions mediated by sGP1 could potentiate the development of novel therapeutic intervention. To this end, we investigated the presence of sGP1 in the serum of suspected LASV patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH Lassa Fever Ward (LFW, in Kenema, Sierra Leone that tested positive for viral antigen or displayed classical signs of Lassa fever. Results It is reasonable to expect that a narrow window exists for

  17. Shedding of soluble glycoprotein 1 detected during acute Lassa virus infection in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luis M; Grove, Jessica N; Moses, Lina M; Goba, Augustine; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambu; Schoepp, Randal J; Bausch, Daniel G; Garry, Robert F

    2010-11-09

    Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF) is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. With a high rate of infection that may lead to morbidity and mortality, understanding how the virus interacts with the host's immune system is of great importance for generating vaccines and therapeutics. Previous work by our group identified a soluble isoform of the Lassa virus (LASV) GP1 (sGP1) in vitro resulting from the expression of the glycoprotein complex (GPC) gene [1, 2]. Though no work has directly been done to demonstrate the function of this soluble isoform in arenaviral infections, evidence points to immunomodulatory effects against the host's immune system mediated by a secreted glycoprotein component in filoviruses, another class of hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses. A significant fraction of shed glycoprotein isoforms during viral infection and biogenesis may attenuate the host's inflammatory response, thereby enhancing viral replication and tissue damage. Such shed glycoprotein mediated effects were previously reported for Ebola virus (EBOV), a filovirus that also causes hemorrhagic fever with nearly 90 percent fatality rates [3 - 5]. The identification of an analogous phenomenon in vivo could establish a new correlate of LHF infection leading to the development of sensitive diagnostics targeting the earliest molecular events of the disease. Additionally, the reversal of potentially untoward immunomodulatory functions mediated by sGP1 could potentiate the development of novel therapeutic intervention. To this end, we investigated the presence of sGP1 in the serum of suspected LASV patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) Lassa Fever Ward (LFW), in Kenema, Sierra Leone that tested positive for viral antigen or displayed classical signs of Lassa fever. It is reasonable to expect that a narrow window exists for detection of sGP1 as the sole

  18. Avian Influenza virus glycoproteins restrict virus replication and spread through human airway epithelium at temperatures of the proximal airways.

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    Margaret A Scull

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE, we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C, avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal airways (32 degrees C. These data support the hypothesis that avian influenza viruses, ordinarily adapted to the temperature of the avian enteric tract (40 degrees C, rarely infect humans, in part due to differences in host airway regional temperatures. Previously, a critical residue at position 627 in the avian influenza virus polymerase subunit, PB2, was identified as conferring temperature-dependency in mammalian cells. Here, we use reverse genetics to show that avianization of residue 627 attenuates a human virus, but does not account for the different infection between 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. To determine the mechanism of temperature restriction of avian influenza viruses in HAE at 32 degrees C, we generated recombinant human influenza viruses in either the A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2 or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 genetic background that contained avian or avian-like glycoproteins. Two of these viruses, A/Victoria/3/75 with L226Q and S228G mutations in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99 and A/PR/8/34 containing the H7 and N1 from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99, exhibited temperature restriction approaching that of wholly avian influenza viruses. These data suggest that influenza viruses bearing avian or avian-like surface glycoproteins have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection at the temperature of the human proximal airways. This temperature restriction may limit zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses and

  19. Human platelet ( sup 125 I)R-DOI binding sites. Characterization by in vitro autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himeno, A.; Saavedra, J.M. (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-02-01

    We quantified binding sites for 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-phenylisopropylamine (DOI), a 5-HT2 agonist and hallucinogen, in human platelets. We incubated sections from human platelet pellets with ({sup 125}I)R-DOI with or without 1 mumol/L ketanserin, followed by autoradiography and computerized microdensitometry. We corrected the values of binding density by the protein content of each section with a densitometric protein assay. The present method revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites for ({sup 125}I)R-DOI, with a Kd of 6.4 +/- 0.7 nmol/L and a Bmax of 100 +/- 10 fmol/mg protein. Kd and Bmax for ({sup 125}I)R-DOI determined by the classical membrane binding assay, were 2.7 +/- 0.4 nmol/L and 100 +/- 10 fmol/mg protein, respectively. The present method is precise, very sensitive, and allows the characterization of ({sup 125}I)R-DOI binding in sections obtained from as little as 3 ml of blood. Standardization is possible after correction by the protein content of each individual section.

  20. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  1. Equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Stokol

    Full Text Available Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. One of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. Platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHV-1 activates platelets. We found that two EHV-1 strains, RacL11 and Ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activate platelets within 10 minutes, causing α-granule secretion (surface P-selectin expression and platelet microvesiculation (increased small events double positive for CD41 and Annexin V. Microvesiculation was more pronounced with the RacL11 strain. Virus-induced P-selectin expression required plasma and 1.0 mM exogenous calcium. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced in factor VII- or X-deficient human plasma. Both P-selectin expression and microvesiculation were re-established in factor VII-deficient human plasma with added purified human factor VIIa (1 nM. A glycoprotein C-deficient mutant of the Ab4 strain activated platelets as effectively as non-mutated Ab4. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced by preincubation of virus with a goat polyclonal anti-rabbit tissue factor antibody. Infectious virus could be retrieved from washed EHV-1-exposed platelets, suggesting a direct platelet-virus interaction. Our results indicate that EHV-1 activates equine platelets and that α-granule secretion is a consequence of virus-associated tissue factor triggering factor X activation and thrombin generation. Microvesiculation was only partly tissue factor and thrombin-dependent, suggesting the virus causes microvesiculation through other mechanisms, potentially through direct binding. These findings suggest that EHV-1-induced platelet activation could contribute to the thrombosis

  2. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against rat platelet GPIIb/IIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, H.; Tamura, S.; Sudo, T.; Suzuki, T.

    1990-01-01

    Four murine monoclonal antibodies against rat platelets were produced by fusion of spleen cells from mice intravenously immunized with whole rat platelets. All four antibodies immunoprecipitated two major platelet membrane proteins with apparent molecular weights of 130,000 and 82,000 (nonreduced) and of 120,000 and 98,000 (reduced), which were structurally analogous to human glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, i.e. rat GPIIb/IIIa. Two of four antibodies, named P9 and P55, strongly inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation of washed rat platelets and caused approximately 50% inhibition of human fibrinogen binding to ADP-stimulated rat platelets, suggesting that rat GPIIb/IIIa serves as a fibrinogen receptor in ADP-induced aggregation. In contrast, two other antibodies, named P14 and P34, themselves caused aggregation of rat platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the secretion of 14C-serotonin from 14C-serotonin-labeled PRP. These results indicate that rat GPIIb/IIIa plays an important role in platelet aggregation

  3. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Bayer; Justus Lammel; Mersedeh Tohidnezhad; Sebastian Lippross; Peter Behrendt; Tim Klüter; Thomas Pufe; Jochen Cremer; Holger Jahr; Franziska Rademacher; Regine Gläser; Jürgen Harder

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF?)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting acti...

  4. Evaluation of human platelet lysate and dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectants for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xiao, Ran; Cao, Yi-Lin; Yin, Hong-Yu

    2017-09-09

    Cryopreservation provides an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are frequently used as cryoprotectants for this purpose. However, the use of DMSO can result in adverse effects and toxic reactions and FBS can introduce risks of viral, prion, zoonose contaminations and evoke immune responses after injection. It is therefore crucial to reduce DMSO concentrations and use serum-free solution in the cryopreservation process. Human platelet lysate (PL) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative to DMSO and FBS. Therefore, in this study, with an aim to identify a cryoprotective agent for ASC cryopreservation, we determined the viability, proliferation potential, phenotype, and differentiation potential of fresh ASCs and ASCs cryopreserved using different combinations of three cryoprotective agents: fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and human platelet lysate (PL). The viability of the ASCs cryopreserved with 90% FBS and 10% DMSO, 95% FBS and 5% DMSO, and 97% PL and 3% DMSO was >80%, and the proliferation potentials, cell phenotypes, and differentiation potentials of these groups were similar to those of fresh ASCs. Together, our findings suggest that a combination of 97% PL and 3% DMSO is an ideal cryoprotective agent for the efficient cryopreservation of human ASCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergism between thrombin and adrenaline (epinephrine) in human platelets. Marked potentiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, V M; Tysnes, O B; Holmsen, H

    1988-01-01

    We have studied synergism between adrenaline (epinephrine) and low concentrations of thrombin in gel-filtered human platelets prelabelled with [32P]Pi. Suspensions of platelets, which did not contain added fibrinogen, were incubated at 37 degrees C to measure changes in the levels of 32P-labelled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidate (PA), aggregation and dense-granule secretion after stimulation. Adrenaline alone (3.5-4.0 microM) did not cause a change in any parameter (phosphoinositide metabolism, aggregation and dense-granule secretion), but markedly enhanced the thrombin-induced responses over a narrow range of thrombin concentrations (0.03-0.08 units/ml). The thrombin-induced hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C, which was measured as the formation of [32P]PA, was potentiated by adrenaline, as was the increase in the levels of [32P]PIP2 and [32P]PIP. The presence of adrenaline caused a shift to the left for the thrombin-induced changes in the phosphoinositide metabolism, without affecting the maximal levels of 32P-labelled compounds obtained. A similar shift by adrenaline in the dose-response relationship was previously demonstrated for thrombin-induced aggregation and dense-granule secretion. Also, the narrow range of concentrations of thrombin over which adrenaline potentiates thrombin-induced platelet responses is the same for changes in phosphoinositide metabolism and physiological responses (aggregation and dense-granule secretion). Our observations clearly indicate that adrenaline directly or indirectly influences thrombin-induced changes in phosphoinositide metabolism. PMID:2845924

  6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell responses in humans immunized with an HSF type 2 glycoprotein subunit vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarling, J.M.; Moran, P.A.; Brewer, L.; Ashley, R.; Corey, L.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether immunization of humans with a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein-subunit vaccine would result in the priming of both HSV-specific proliferating cells and cytotoxic T cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from all eight vaccinees studied responded by proliferating after stimulation with HSV-2, HSV-1, and glycoprotein gB-1. The PBL of five of these eight vaccinees proliferated following stimulation with gD-2, whereas stimulation with Gd-1 resulted in relatively low or no proliferative responses. T-cell clones were generated from HSV-2-stimulated PBL of three vaccinees who demonstrated strong proliferative responses to HSV-1 and HSV-2. Of 12 clones studied in lymphoproliferative assays, 9 were found to be cross-reactive for HSV-1 and HSV-2. Of the approximately 90 T-cell clones isolated, 14 demonstrated HSV-specific cytotoxic activity. Radioimmunoprecipitation-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses confirmed that the vaccinees had antibodies only to HSV glycoproteins, not to proteins which are absent in the subunit vaccine, indicating that these vaccinees had not become infected with HSV. Immunization of humans with an HSV-2 glycoprotein-subunit vaccine thus results in the priming of T cells that proliferate in response to stimulation with HSV and its glycoproteins and T cells that have cytotoxic activity against HSV-infected cells. Such HSV-specific memory T cells were detected as late as 2 years following the last boost with the subunit vaccine.

  7. Next Generation Sequencing Analysis of Human Platelet PolyA+ mRNAs and rRNA-Depleted Total RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissopoulou, Antheia; Jonasson, Jon; Lindahl, Tomas L.; Osman, Abdimajid

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelets are small anucleate cells circulating in the blood vessels where they play a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Here, we compared platelet RNA-Seq results obtained from polyA+ mRNA and rRNA-depleted total RNA. Materials and Methods We used purified, CD45 depleted, human blood platelets collected by apheresis from three male and one female healthy blood donors. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was employed to sequence cDNA converted either from oligo(dT) isolated polyA+ RNA or from rRNA-depleted total RNA. The reads were aligned to the GRCh37 reference assembly with the TopHat/Cufflinks alignment package using Ensembl annotations. A de novo assembly of the platelet transcriptome using the Trinity software package and RSEM was also performed. The bioinformatic tools HTSeq and DESeq from Bioconductor were employed for further statistical analyses of read counts. Results Consistent with previous findings our data suggests that mitochondrially expressed genes comprise a substantial fraction of the platelet transcriptome. We also identified high transcript levels for protein coding genes related to the cytoskeleton function, chemokine signaling, cell adhesion, aggregation, as well as receptor interaction between cells. Certain transcripts were particularly abundant in platelets compared with other cell and tissue types represented by RNA-Seq data from the Illumina Human Body Map 2.0 project. Irrespective of the different library preparation and sequencing protocols, there was good agreement between samples from the 4 individuals. Eighteen differentially expressed genes were identified in the two sexes at 10% false discovery rate using DESeq. Conclusion The present data suggests that platelets may have a unique transcriptome profile characterized by a relative over-expression of mitochondrially encoded genes and also of genomic transcripts related to the cytoskeleton function, chemokine signaling and surface components compared with other cell and

  8. Platelet-rich plasma differs according to preparation method and human variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocca, Augustus D; McCarthy, Mary Beth R; Chowaniec, David M; Cote, Mark P; Romeo, Anthony A; Bradley, James P; Arciero, Robert A; Beitzel, Knut

    2012-02-15

    Varying concentrations of blood components in platelet-rich plasma preparations may contribute to the variable results seen in recently published clinical studies. The purposes of this investigation were (1) to quantify the level of platelets, growth factors, red blood cells, and white blood cells in so-called one-step (clinically used commercial devices) and two-step separation systems and (2) to determine the influence of three separate blood draws on the resulting components of platelet-rich plasma. Three different platelet-rich plasma (PRP) separation methods (on blood samples from eight subjects with a mean age [and standard deviation] of 31.6 ± 10.9 years) were used: two single-spin processes (PRPLP and PRPHP) and a double-spin process (PRPDS) were evaluated for concentrations of platelets, red and white blood cells, and growth factors. Additionally, the effect of three repetitive blood draws on platelet-rich plasma components was evaluated. The content and concentrations of platelets, white blood cells, and growth factors for each method of separation differed significantly. All separation techniques resulted in a significant increase in platelet concentration compared with native blood. Platelet and white blood-cell concentrations of the PRPHP procedure were significantly higher than platelet and white blood-cell concentrations produced by the so-called single-step PRPLP and the so-called two-step PRPDS procedures, although significant differences between PRPLP and PRPDS were not observed. Comparing the results of the three blood draws with regard to the reliability of platelet number and cell counts, wide variations of intra-individual numbers were observed. Single-step procedures are capable of producing sufficient amounts of platelets for clinical usage. Within the evaluated procedures, platelet numbers and numbers of white blood cells differ significantly. The intra-individual results of platelet-rich plasma separations showed wide variations in

  9. Investigation of age-related decline of microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 in human skin through immunohistochemistry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Q

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Qian Zheng, Siming Chen, Ying Chen, John Lyga, Russell Wyborski, Uma SanthanamGlobal Research and Development, Avon Products Inc., Suffern, New York, USAAbstract: During aging, the reduction of elastic and collagen fibers in dermis can lead to skin atrophy, fragility, and aged appearance, such as increased facial wrinkling and sagging. Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP-1 is an extracellular matrix protein critical for elastic fiber assembly. It integrates and stabilizes the microfibril and elastin matrix network that helps the skin to endure mechanical stretch and recoil. However, the observation of MAGP-1 during skin aging and its function in the dermis has not been established. To better understand age-related changes in the dermis, we investigated MAGP-1 during skin aging and photoaging, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies. Gene expression by microarray was performed using human skin biopsies from young and aged female donors. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis on the MAGP-1 protein was performed in dermal fibroblast cultures and in human skin biopsies. Specific antibodies against MAGP-1 and fibrillin-1 were used to examine protein expression and extracellular matrix structure in the dermis via biopsies from donors of multiple age groups. A reduction of the MAGP-1 gene and protein levels were observed in human skin with increasing age and photoexposure, indicating a loss of the functional MAGP-1 fiber network and a lack of structural support in the dermis. Loss of MAGP-1 around the hair follicle/pore areas was also observed, suggesting a possible correlation between MAGP-1 loss and enlarged pores in aged skin. Our findings demonstrate that a critical “pre-elasticity” component, MAGP-1, declines with aging and photoaging. Such changes may contribute to age-related loss of dermal integrity and perifollicular structural support, which may lead to skin fragility, sagging, and enlarged pores

  10. Pathogen-free, plasma-poor platelet lysate and expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudicone, Paola; Fioravanti, Daniela; Bonanno, Giuseppina; Miceli, Michelina; Lavorino, Claudio; Totta, Pierangela; Frati, Luigi; Nuti, Marianna; Pierelli, Luca

    2014-01-27

    Supplements to support clinical-grade cultures of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are required to promote growth and expansion of these cells. Platelet lysate (PL) is a human blood component which may replace animal serum in MSC cultures being rich in various growth factors. Here, we describe a plasma poor pathogen-free platelet lysate obtained by pooling 12 platelet (PLT) units, to produce a standardized and safe supplement for clinical-grade expansion of MSC. PL lots were obtained by combining 2 6-unit PLT pools in additive solution (AS) following a transfusional-based procedure including pathogen inactivation (PI) by Intercept technology and 3 cycles of freezing/thawing, followed by membrane removal. Three PI-PL and 3 control PL lots were produced to compare their ability to sustain bone marrow derived MSC selection and expansion. Moreover, two further PL, subjected to PI or not, were also produced starting from the same initial PLT pools to evaluate the impact of PI on growth factor concentration and capacity to sustain cell growth. Additional PI-PL lots were used for comparison with fetal bovine serum (FBS) on MSC expansion. Immunoregulatory properties of PI-PL-generated MSC were documented in vitro by mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) mitogen induced proliferation. PI-PL and PL control lots had similar concentrations of 4 well-described growth factors endowed with MSC stimulating ability. Initial growth and MSC expansion by PI-PL and PL controls were comparable either using different MSC populations or in head to head experiments. Moreover, PI-PL and PL control sustained similar MSC growth of frozen/thawed MSC. Multilineage differentiation of PI-derived and PI-PL-derived MSC were maintained in any MSC cultures as well as their immunoregulatory properties. Finally, no direct impact of PI on growth factor concentration and MSC growth support was observed, whereas the capacity of FBS to sustain MSC expansion in basic

  11. Effects of the NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP system on the functions of human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Stephanie; Walter, Elena; Pagel, Oliver; Walter, Ulrich; Sickmann, Albert; Gambaryan, Stepan; Smolenski, Albert; Zahedi, René P; Jurk, Kerstin

    2018-06-01

    Platelets are circulating sentinels of vascular integrity and are activated, inhibited, or modulated by multiple hormones, vasoactive substances or drugs. Endothelium- or drug-derived NO strongly inhibits platelet activation via activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP elevation, often in synergy with cAMP-elevation by prostacyclin. However, the molecular mechanisms and diversity of cGMP effects in platelets are poorly understood and sometimes controversial. Recently, we established the quantitative human platelet proteome, the iloprost/prostacyclin/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-regulated phosphoproteome, and the interactions of the ADP- and iloprost/prostacyclin-affected phosphoproteome. We also showed that the sGC stimulator riociguat is in vitro a highly specific inhibitor, via cGMP, of various functions of human platelets. Here, we review the regulatory role of the cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) system in human platelet function, and our current approaches to establish and analyze the phosphoproteome after selective stimulation of the sGC/cGMP pathway by NO donors and riociguat. Present data indicate an extensive and diverse NO/riociguat/cGMP phosphoproteome, which has to be compared with the cAMP phosphoproteome. In particular, sGC/cGMP-regulated phosphorylation of many membrane proteins, G-proteins and their regulators, signaling molecules, protein kinases, and proteins involved in Ca 2+ regulation, suggests that the sGC/cGMP system targets multiple signaling networks rather than a limited number of PKG substrate proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An alternative conformation of the gp41 heptad repeat 1 region coiled coil exists in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mische, Claudia C.; Yuan Wen; Strack, Bettina; Craig, Stewart; Farzan, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, gp41, which mediates virus-cell fusion, exists in at least three different conformations within the trimeric envelope glycoprotein complex. The structures of the prefusogenic and intermediate states are unknown; structures representing the postfusion state have been solved. In the postfusion conformation, three helical heptad repeat 2 (HR2) regions pack in an antiparallel fashion into the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of a triple-helical coiled coil formed by the heptad repeat 1 (HR1) regions. We studied the prefusogenic conformation of gp41 by mutagenic alteration of membrane-anchored and soluble forms of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Our results indicate that, in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein precursor, the gp41 HR1 region is in a conformation distinct from that of a trimeric coiled coil. Thus, the central gp41 coiled coil is formed during the transition of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins from the precursor state to the receptor-bound intermediate

  13. Characterization of the B-chain of human plasma α2HS-glycoprotein. The complete amino acid sequence and primary structure of its heteroglycan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Gejyo, F.; Chang, J.-L.; Bürgi, W.; Schmid, K.; Offner, G.D.; Troxler, R.F.; Halbeek, H. van

    1983-01-01

    α2HS-Glycoprotein, a normal human plasma protein, was recently shown to consist of two polypeptide chains. In the present study, we have separated these two chains from one another and have elucidated the complete primary structure of the B-chain. Employing automated Edman degradation, the

  14. The antibacterial activity of peptides derived from human beta-2 glycoprotein I is inhibited by protein H and M1 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, Maria; Wasylik, Sylwia; Mörgelin, Matthias; Olin, Anders I.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Derksen, Ronald H. W. M.; de Groot, Philip G.; Herwald, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    During the last years, the importance of antibacterial peptides has attracted considerable attention. We report here that peptides derived from the fifth domain of beta-2 glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI), a human heparin binding plasma protein, have antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and

  15. Functional alterations of human platelets following 111In labeling with different ligands and incubation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieno, Masayuki; Isaka, Yoshinori; Kimura, Kazutumi

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of various 111 In-water soluble chelates and incubation media on labeling efficiency of platelets and in vitro platelet aggregability. High labeling efficiency of platelets in ACD-saline was achieved with 111 In-oxine sulfate, 111 In-tropolone and 111 In-MPO (2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide). In the condition with 4.8 x 10 6 /mm 3 platelets in ACD-plasma, 111 In-oxine-sulfate had low labeling efficiency and inconsistent labeling, while 111 In-tropolone and 111 In-MPO had high labeling efficiency. In vitro platelet aggregability (ADP 2μM) was reduced when platelets were labeled in the absence of plasma. However, there was no significant difference in platelet aggregability among 111 In-platelets labeled by three different chelates. In conclusion, to maintain aggregation activity of the platelets with relatively high labeling efficiency, the best result was obtained by using MPO or tropolone chelate in plasma at 4.8 x 10 6 /μl platelet concentration. (author)

  16. Study on platelet kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, Tokuo

    1981-01-01

    Fundamental study: Factors influencing the labeling on human platelets were evaluated and optimal labeling conditions were chosen. Then, platelet survival times were measured and organ distribution of labeled platelets was observed in rat by four different methods. These results were compared with each other. Based on the findings of those studies, the protocol of human platelet labeling with 111 In-oxine for clinical use was established. Clinical study: In normal cases, a platelet survival time and a platelet turnover rate were quite similar to the results from 51 Cr method. In gamma camera imaging, a radioactivity on the heart decreased with the lapse of time, while that on the spleen and liver gradually increased. In patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, platelet survival time was markedly shortened and both a platelet turnover rate and an effective production increased. In patient with congestive splenomegaly, a platelet survival time was normal, whereas a platelet pooling on the spleen markedly increased. In patients who were implanted dacron-graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm, a radioactivity accumulated to the graft and a platelet survival time shortened. In a patient with myocardial infarction, the camera imaging clearly showed the thrombus in the left ventricular aneurysm. In three patients with mitral stenosis, thrombi in left atrium were observed at the camera images. Imaging of a platelet distribution and measurement of platelet survival time using 111 In-oxine labeled platelets are considered to be an excellent method for the diagnosis and decision of treatment on various disorders with thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. (J.P.N.)

  17. The Use of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor for Maxillary Sinus Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Atsushi; Sarmiento, Hector; Alqahtani, Mohammed Saad; Llobell, Arturo; Fiorellini, Joseph P

    The maxillary sinus augmentation procedure has become a predictable treatment to regenerate bone for implant placement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB) combined with a deproteinized cancellous bovine bone graft for sinus augmentation. The lateral window approach was used for maxillary sinuses with minimal residual bone. After a healing period of 4 months, dental implants were placed and then restored following a 2-month osseointegration period. The result demonstrated increased bone height and ISQ values and a 100% survival rate. This study indicates that the addition of rhPDGF-BB to deproteinized cancellous bovine bone accelerated the healing period in maxillary sinuses with minimal native bone.

  18. Effect of antidepressants and neuroleptics on phosphoinositide turnover in human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, S.C.; Davis, J.M.; Schwertz, D.; Pandey, G.N. (Illinois State Psychiatric Inst., Chicago (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The authors previously reported that tricyclic antidepressants and iprindole inhibit thrombin-stimulated formation of inositol-1, 4 bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol-1,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) but do not cause any change in inositol-1 phosphate (IP1). In order to examine if this decrease in IP2 and IP3 formation by antidepressants is related to the inhibition of the enzyme phospholipase C (PLC), the authors determined the effects of antidepressants and neuroleptics on the levels of 3(H) phosphotidylinositol (PI), 3(H) PI-4 phosphate (PIP), 3(H) PI-4, 5 bisphosphate (PIP2) in human platelets. The implications of the findings and their relevance to the mode of action of antidepressants are discussed.

  19. Characterization of lipid rafts in human platelets using nuclear magnetic resonance: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua F. Ceñido

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid microdomains (‘lipid rafts’ are plasma membrane subregions, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, which participate dynamically in cell signaling and molecular trafficking operations. One strategy for the study of the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts in model membrane systems has been the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, but until now this spectroscopic method has not been considered a clinically relevant tool. We performed a proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of using NMR to study lipid rafts in human tissues. Platelets were selected as a cost-effective and minimally invasive model system in which lipid rafts have previously been studied using other approaches. Platelets were isolated from plasma of medication-free adult research participants (n=13 and lysed with homogenization and sonication. Lipid-enriched fractions were obtained using a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Association of lipid fractions with GM1 ganglioside was tested using HRP-conjugated cholera toxin B subunit dot blot assays. 1H high resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR spectra obtained with single-pulse Bloch decay experiments yielded spectral linewidths and intensities as a function of temperature. Rates of lipid lateral diffusion that reported on raft size were measured with a two-dimensional stimulated echo longitudinal encode-decode NMR experiment. We found that lipid fractions at 10–35% sucrose density associated with GM1 ganglioside, a marker for lipid rafts. NMR spectra of the membrane phospholipids featured a prominent ‘centerband’ peak associated with the hydrocarbon chain methylene resonance at 1.3 ppm; the linewidth (full width at half-maximum intensity of this ‘centerband’ peak, together with the ratio of intensities between the centerband and ‘spinning sideband’ peaks, agreed well with values reported previously for lipid rafts in model membranes. Decreasing

  20. Determination of human platelet antigen typing by molecular methods: Importance in diagnosis and early treatment of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinsburg, Suzanne A; Shaz, Beth H; Westhoff, Connie; Cushing, Melissa M

    2012-05-01

    Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is the most common cause of severe thrombocytopenia and intracranial hemorrhage in the perinatal period. While the gold standard for making a diagnosis of NAIT is detection of a human platelet antigen (HPA)-specific antibody in maternal serum, together with identifying an incompatibility between the parents for the cognate HPA antigen, platelet genotyping is the gold standard method for HPA typing. Platelet genotyping is critical in screening at-risk fetuses for the presence ofthe HPA corresponding to the maternal antibody. In addition, platelet genotyping may play a role in population screening to identify women at risk for sensitization, and thus, fetuses at risk for NAIT. The most commonly used methods of platelet genotyping are sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP), restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (PCR-RFLP), and TaqMan real-time PCR. PCR-SSP and PCR-RFLP are relatively inexpensive and technically simple methods, but they are not easily automated and require expertise for reliable interpretation of results. Newer methods that allow for multiplexing, automation, and easily interpretable results, such as bead arrays, are currently in development and available for research purposes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Vaziri, Shahram; Torshabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Materials and Methods: Anitua’s PRGF and Choukran’s PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-valuesPRGF treatment induced statistically significant (PPRGF than in PRF group (PPRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF. PMID:26877740

  2. In vivo quantitation of platelet deposition on human peripheral arterial bypass grafts using indium-111-labeled platelets. Effect of dipyridamole and aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumphrey, C.W.; Chesebro, J.H.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Wahner, H.W.; Hollier, L.H.; Pairolero, P.C.; Fuster, V.

    1983-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled autologous platelets, injected 48 hours after operation, were used to evaluate the thrombogenicity of prosthetic material and the effect of platelet inhibitor therapy in vivo. Dacron double-velour (Microvel) aortofemoral artery bifurcation grafts were placed in 16 patients and unilateral polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal grafts were placed in 10 patients. Half the patients in each group received platelet inhibitors before operation (dipyridamole, 100 mg 4 times a day) and after operation (dipyridamole, 75 mg, and acetylsalicylic acid, 325 mg 3 times a day); the rest of the patients served as control subjects. Five-minute scintigrams of the graft region were taken with a gamma camera interfaced with a computer 48, 72, and 96 hours after injection of the labeled platelets. Platelet deposition was estimated from the radioactivities of the grafts and expressed as counts per 100 pixels per microcurie injected. Dipyridamole and aspirin therapy significantly reduced the number of platelets deposited on Dacron grafts and prevented platelet accumulation over 3 days. With the small amount of platelet deposition on polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal artery grafts even in control patients, platelet inhibitor therapy had no demonstrable effect on platelet deposition on these grafts. It is concluded that (1) platelet deposition on vascular grafts in vivo can be quantitated by noninvasive methods, and (2) dipyridamole and aspirin therapy reduced platelet deposition on Dacron aortofemoral artery grafts

  3. Pluripotent stem cells reveal the developmental biology of human megakaryocytes and provide a source of platelets for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Naoya; Eto, Koji

    2012-10-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells [PSCs; including human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)] can infinitely proliferate in vitro and are easily accessible for gene manipulation. Megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets can be created from human ESCs and iPSCs in vitro and represent a potential source of blood cells for transfusion and a promising tool for studying the human thrombopoiesis. Moreover, disease-specific iPSCs are a powerful tool for elucidating the pathogenesis of hematological diseases and for drug screening. In that context, we and other groups have developed in vitro MK and platelet differentiation systems from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Combining this co-culture system with a drug-inducible gene expression system enabled us to clarify the novel role played by c-MYC during human thrombopoiesis. In the next decade, technical advances (e.g., high-throughput genomic sequencing) will likely enable the identification of numerous gene mutations associated with abnormal thrombopoiesis. Combined with such technology, an in vitro system for differentiating human PSCs into MKs and platelets could provide a novel platform for studying human gene function associated with thrombopoiesis.

  4. Purification and characterization of a heteromultimeric glycoprotein from Artocarpus heterophyllus latex with an inhibitory effect on human blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2011-01-01

    Plant latex has many health benefits and has been used in folk medicine. In this study, the biological effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) latex on human blood coagulation was investigated. By a combination of heat precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, a heat stable heteromultimeric glycoprotein (HSGPL1) was purified from jackfruit milky latex. The apparent molecular masses of the monomeric proteins on SDS/PAGE were 33, 31 and 29 kDa. The isoelectric points (pIs) of the monomers were 6.63, 6.63 and 6.93, respectively. Glycosylation and deglycosylation tests confirmed that each subunit of HSGPL1 formed the native multimer by sugar-based interaction. Moreover, the multimer of HSGPL1 also resisted 2-mercaptoethanol action. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis indicated that HSGPL1 was a complex protein related to Hsps/chaperones. HSGPL1 has an effect on intrinsic pathways of the human blood coagulation system by significantly prolonging the activated partial thrombin time (APTT). In contrast, it has no effect on the human extrinsic blood coagulation system using the prothrombin time (PT) test. The prolonged APTT resulted from the serine protease inhibitor property of HSGPL1, since it reduced activity of human blood coagulation factors XI(a) and α-XII(a).

  5. [Experimental research on the effects of different activators on the formation of platelet-rich gel and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhang, W; Cheng, B

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To explore the effects of calcium gluconate and thrombin on the formation of platelet-rich gel (PRG) and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the clinical significance. Methods: Six healthy blood donors who met the inclusion criteria were recruited in our unit from May to August in 2016. Platelet samples of each donor were collected for preparation of PRP. (1) PRP in the volume of 10 mL was collected from each donor and divided into thrombin activation group (TA, added with 0.5 mL thrombin solution in dose of 100 U/mL) and calcium gluconate activation group (CGA, added with 0.5 mL calcium gluconate solution in dose of 100 g/L) according to the random number table, with 5 mL PRP in each group. Then the PRP of the two groups was activated in water bath at 37 ℃ for 1 h. The formation time of PRG was recorded, and the formation situation of PRG was observed within 1 hour of activation. After being activated for 1 h, one part of PRG was collected to observe the distribution of fibrous protein with HE staining, and another part of PRG was collected to observe platelet ultrastructure under transmission electron microscope (TEM). After being activated for 1 h, the supernatant was collected to determine the content of transforming growth factor β(1, )platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factorⅠby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (2) Another 10 mL PRP from each donor was collected and grouped as above, and the platelet suspension was obtained after two times of centrifugation and resuspension with phosphate buffered saline, respectively. And then they were treated with corresponding activator for 1 h as that in experiment (1). Nanoparticle tracking analyzer was used to detect the concentrations of microvesicles with different diameters and total microvesicles derived from platelet. Data

  6. High-throughput proteomics detection of novel splice isoforms in human platelets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an intrinsic regulatory mechanism of all metazoans. Recent findings suggest that 100% of multiexonic human genes give rise to splice isoforms. AS can be specific to tissue type, environment or developmentally regulated. Splice variants have also been implicated in various diseases including cancer. Detection of these variants will enhance our understanding of the complexity of the human genome and provide disease-specific and prognostic biomarkers. We adopted a proteomics approach to identify exon skip events - the most common form of AS. We constructed a database harboring the peptide sequences derived from all hypothetical exon skip junctions in the human genome. Searching tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) data against the database allows the detection of exon skip events, directly at the protein level. Here we describe the application of this approach to human platelets, including the mRNA-based verification of novel splice isoforms of ITGA2, NPEPPS and FH. This methodology is applicable to all new or existing MS\\/MS datasets.

  7. 86Rb(K) influx and [3H]ouabain binding by human platelets: Evidence for beta-adrenergic stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turaihi, K.; Khokher, M.A.; Barradas, M.A.; Mikhailidis, D.P.; Dandona, P.

    1989-01-01

    Although active transport of potassium into human platelets has been demonstrated previously, there is hitherto no evidence that human platelets have an ouabain-inhibitable Na-K ATPase in their membrane. The present study demonstrates active rubidium (used as an index of potassium influx), 86 Rb(K), influx into platelets, inhibitable by ouabain, and also demonstrates the presence of specific [ 3 H]ouabain binding by the human platelet. This 86 Rb(K) influx was stimulated by adrenaline, isoprenaline, and salbutamol, but noradrenaline caused a mild inhibition. Active 86 Rb(K) influx by platelets was inhibited markedly by timolol, mildly by atenolol, but not by phentolamine. Therefore, active 86 Rb(K) influx in human platelets is enhanced by stimulation of beta adrenoceptors of the beta 2 subtype. The platelet may therefore replace the leukocyte in future studies of Na-K ATPase activity. This would be a considerable advantage in view of the ease and rapidity of preparation of platelets

  8. sup 86 Rb(K) influx and ( sup 3 H)ouabain binding by human platelets: Evidence for beta-adrenergic stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turaihi, K.; Khokher, M.A.; Barradas, M.A.; Mikhailidis, D.P.; Dandona, P. (Royal Free Hospital and School of Medicine, London (England))

    1989-08-01

    Although active transport of potassium into human platelets has been demonstrated previously, there is hitherto no evidence that human platelets have an ouabain-inhibitable Na-K ATPase in their membrane. The present study demonstrates active rubidium (used as an index of potassium influx), {sup 86}Rb(K), influx into platelets, inhibitable by ouabain, and also demonstrates the presence of specific ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding by the human platelet. This {sup 86}Rb(K) influx was stimulated by adrenaline, isoprenaline, and salbutamol, but noradrenaline caused a mild inhibition. Active {sup 86}Rb(K) influx by platelets was inhibited markedly by timolol, mildly by atenolol, but not by phentolamine. Therefore, active {sup 86}Rb(K) influx in human platelets is enhanced by stimulation of beta adrenoceptors of the beta 2 subtype. The platelet may therefore replace the leukocyte in future studies of Na-K ATPase activity. This would be a considerable advantage in view of the ease and rapidity of preparation of platelets.

  9. EMMPRIN (CD147/basigin) mediates platelet-monocyte interactions in vivo and augments monocyte recruitment to the vascular wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, C; von Brühl, M-L; Barocke, V; Cullen, P; Mayer, K; Okrojek, R; Steinhart, A; Ahmad, Z; Kremmer, E; Nieswandt, B; Frampton, J; Massberg, S; Schmidt, R

    2011-05-01

    Platelets play a central role in hemostasis, in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, and during thrombus formation following vascular injury. Thereby, platelets interact intensively with monocytes and enhance their recruitment to the vascular wall. To investigate the role of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in platelet-monocyte interactions. Isolated human monocytes were perfused in vitro over firmly adherent platelets to allow investigation of the role of EMMPRIN in platelet-monocyte interactions under flow conditions. Monocytes readily bound to surface-adherent platelets. Both antibody blockade and gene silencing of monocyte EMMPRIN substantially attenuated firm adhesion of monocytes to platelets at arterial and venous shear rates. In vivo, platelet interactions with the murine monocyte cell line ANA-1 were significantly decreased when ANA-1 cells were pretreated with EMMPRIN-silencing small interfering RNA prior to injection into wild-type mice. Using intravital microscopy, we showed that recruitment of EMMPRIN-silenced ANA-1 to the injured carotid artery was significantly reduced as compared with control cells. Further silencing of EMMPRIN resulted in significantly fewer ANA-1-platelet aggregates in the mouse circulation as determined by flow cytometry. Finally, we identified glycoprotein (GP)VI as a critical corresponding receptor on platelets that mediates interaction with monocyte EMMPRIN. Thus, blocking of GPVI inhibited the effect of EMMPRIN on firm monocyte adhesion to platelets under arterial flow conditions in vitro, and abrogated EMMPRIN-mediated platelet-monocyte aggregate formation in vivo. EMMPRIN supports platelet-monocyte interactions and promotes monocyte recruitment to the arterial wall. Therefore, EMMPRIN might represent a novel target to reduce vascular inflammation and atherosclerotic lesion development. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  10. Isolation and characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to the e1 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Russell, Rodney S; Goossens, Vera

    2008-01-01

    monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against HCV glycoprotein E1, which may have the potential to control HCV infection. We have identified two MAbs that can strongly neutralize HCV-pseudotyped particles (HCVpp) bearing the envelope glycoproteins of genotypes 1a, 1b, 4a, 5a, and 6a and less strongly...

  11. Evaluation of P-glycoprotein expression in pain relevant tissues: understanding translation of efflux from preclinical species to human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Singh Dhanikula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Various efflux transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp are now widely accepted to have profound influence on the disposition of substrates. Nevertheless, there is paucity of information about their expression and functionality in the pain relevant tissues (such as brain, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG across various species. Therefore, our attempts were directed at evaluating P-gp expression in these tissues to understand its effect on the central nervous system (CNS disposition. As a means of characterizing the normal tissue distribution of P-gp, immunohistochemistry was performed with two antibodies (C219 and H241 directed against different epitopes of MDR1 gene. Notable expression of P-gp was detected in the DRG of Sprague Dawley rat, Beagle Dog, Cynomolgous monkey as well as human. The expression of P-gp was observed in the CNS tissues with evident species differences, the expression of P-gp in human brain and spinal cord was lower than in rats and dogs but relatively comparable to that in monkeys. However, no species related differences were seen in the expression at the DRG level. Double-labelling using an antibody against a marker of endothelial cells confirmed that P-gp was exclusively localized in capillary endothelial cells. This study highlights the cross species similarities and differences in the expression of P-gp and thus serves as a vital step in understanding the translation of exposure of P-gp substrates to human.

  12. The major surface glycoprotein (gp63) from Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani cleaves CD4 molecules on human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, A S; Theander, T G; Hviid, L

    1994-01-01

    The effect of Leishmania major and L. donovani surface protease gp63 on surface markers on human T cells was studied using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry. Purified gp63 (63,000 m.w. glycoprotein) at concentrations above 10 micrograms/ml completely inhibited binding of six different anti-CD4......-expression of CD4, reaching 50% of the initial level after 72 h of incubation in medium. Preincubation of cells with live promastigotes showed an inhibitory effect on CD4 comparable to that seen with purified gp63. The binding of Abs directed against other surface markers present on human T-cells--CD2, CD3, CD5......, CD8, CD11A, CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CD58, TCR-alpha, TCR-gamma, and HLA DQ--was not inhibited by gp63. These data suggest that gp63, both in its purified form and in the form anchored to the parasite membrane, cleaves CD4 on human T cells. The cleavage of CD4 by the protease might play a role...

  13. Identification of the Interaction between P-Glycoprotein and Anxa2 in Multidrug-resistant Human Breast Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-chang; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Bing; Han, Jing-hua; Ji, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Niu, Rui-fang

    2012-01-01

    To explore the interaction of Anxa2 with P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) in the migration and invasion of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR. A pair of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting P-gp was transfected into MCF-7/ADR cells, and monoclonal cell strains were screened. The expression of P-gp was detected by Western blot. Transwell chambers were used to observe the cell migration capacity and invasion ability. The interaction between P-gp and Anxa2 was examined by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy analyses. P-gp expression was significantly knocked down, and there were notable decreasing trends in the migration and invasion capability of MDR breast cancer cells (P<0.05). There was a close interaction between Anxa2 and P-gp. MCF-7/ADR is an MDR human breast cancer cell line with high migration and invasion abilities. The knockdown of P-gp notably impaired the migration and invasion abilities of the tumor cells. The interaction of Anxa2 with P-pg may play an important role in the enhanced invasiveness of MDR human breast cancer cells

  14. [Optimization on trehalose loading technique as protective conditioning for lyophilization of human platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Han; Zhou, Jun; Ouyang, Xi-Lin; Li, Xi-Jin; Lu, Fa-Qiang

    2005-08-01

    This study was aimed to further optimize trehalose loading technique including loading temperature, loading time, loading solution and loading concentration of trehalose, based on the established parameters. Loading efficiency in plasma was compared with that in buffer at 37 degrees C; the curves of intracellular trehalose concentration versus loading time at 37 degrees C and 16 degrees C were measured; curves of mean platelet volume (MPV) versus loading time and loading concentration were investigated and compared. According to results obtained, the loaing time, loading temperature, loading solution and trehalose concentration were ascertained for high loading efficiency of trehalose into human platelet. The results showed that the loading efficiency in plasma was markedly higher than that in buffer at 37 degrees C, the loading efficiency in plasma at 37 degrees C was significantly higher than that at 16 degrees C and reached 19.51% after loading for 4 hours, but 6.16% at 16 degrees C. MPV at 16 degrees C was increased by 43.2% than that at 37 degrees C, but had no distinct changes with loading time and loading concentration. In loading at 37 degrees C, MPV increased with loading time and loading concentration positively. Loading time and loading concentration displayed synergetic effect on MPV. MPV increased with loading time and concentration while trehalose loading concentration was above 50 mmol/L. It is concluded that the optimization parameters of trehalose loading technique are 37 degrees C (temperature), 4 hours (leading time), plasma (loading solution), 50 mmol/L (feasible trehalose concentration). The trehalose concentration can be adjusted to meet the requirement of lyophilization.

  15. Synthesis and secretion of platelet-derived growth factor by human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronzert, D.A.; Pantazis, P.; Antoniades, H.N.; Kasid, A.; Davidson, N.; Dickson, R.B.; Lippman, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report that human breast cancer cells secrete a growth factor that is biologically and immunologically similar to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Serum-free medium conditioned by estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 or estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells contains a mitogenic or competence activity that is capable of inducing incorporation of [ 3 H] thymidine into quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells in the presence of platelet-poor plasma. Like authentic PDGF, the PDGF-like activity produced by breast cancer cells is stable after acid and heat treatment (95 0 C) and inhibited by reducing agents. The mitogenic activity comigrates with a material of ≅30 kDa on NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with PDGF antiserum of proteins from metabolically labeled cell lysates and conditioned medium followed by analysis on nonreducing NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels identified proteins of 30 and 34 kDa. Upon reduction, the 30- and 34-kDa bands were converted to 15- and 16-kDa bands suggesting that the immunoprecipitated proteins were made up of two disulfide-linked polypeptides similar to PDGF. Hybridization studies with cDNA probes for the A chain PDGF and the B chain of PDGF/SIS identified transcripts for both PDGF chains in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The data summarized above provide conclusive evidence for the synthesis and hormonally regulated secretion of a PDGF-like mitogen by breast carcinoma cells. Production of a PDGF-like growth factor by breast cancer cell lines may be important in mediating paracrine stimulation of tumor growth

  16. Donor age of human platelet lysate affects proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lohmann

    Full Text Available The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1, but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years. Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal. HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1 or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3 were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.

  17. Donor Age of Human Platelet Lysate Affects Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation. PMID:22662236

  18. Frequency of anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5b,-5a and anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (anti-HPA-1a,-3a,-4a alloantibodies in multiparous women of African descent

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    Zaccheaus A Jeremiah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Justina E Oburu2, Osaro Erhabor1, Fiekumo I Buseri1, Teddy C Adias31Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; 2Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 3Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Human platelet antibodies are often implicated in some disease conditions, such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP and platelet refractoriness. The frequencies of these alloantibodies have not been reported in Nigeria and West Africa.Methods: Screening for allontibodies to human platelet antigens (HPA was undertaken using the GTI PakPlus® qualitative solid phase ELISA reagent. Platelet count was done using the ICSH approved procedure using 1% ammonium oxalate reagent.Study design: A cross-section of apparently healthy adult Nigerian multiparous non-pregnant women, who were staff of a tertiary health facility in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were screened for alloantibodies to human platelet antigens.Results: Of the one hundred (100 women screened, the prevalence of anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (anti-HPA-Ia,-3a,-4a was zero percent (0%, anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5b accounted for 30% of results, while anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5a was 18%. Parity was found to exert significant influence on the development to HPA antibodies (Fisher’s Exact Test = 11.683, P < 0.05; 13.577, P < 0.01. The platelet count of the women did not appear to exert any influence on the development of the antibodies (P > 0.05.Conclusion: This study has observed a high prevalence of anti-HPA-5b in our sample population. The prevalence of alloantibodies to HPA antigens was found to associate strongly with parity. These results indicate that there is a

  19. Electrospun silk fibroin fibers for storage and controlled release of human platelet lysate.

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    Pignatelli, Cataldo; Perotto, Giovanni; Nardini, Marta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2018-04-17

    Human platelet lysate (hPL) is a pool of growth factors and cytokines able to induce regeneration of different tissues. Despite its good potentiality as therapeutic tool for regenerative medicine applications, hPL has been only moderately exploited in this field. A more widespread adoption has been limited because of its rapid degradation at room temperature that decreases its functionality. Another limiting factor for its extensive use is the difficulty of handling the hPL gels. In this work, silk fibroin-based patches were developed to address several points: improving the handling of hPL, enabling their delivery in a controlled manner and facilitating their storage by creating a device ready to use with expanded shelf life. Patches of fibroin loaded with hPL were synthesized by electrospinning to take advantage of the fibrous morphology. The release kinetics of the material was characterized and tuned through the control of fibroin crystallinity. Cell viability assays, performed with primary human dermal fibroblasts, demonstrated that fibroin is able to preserve the hPL biological activity and prolong its shelf-life. The strategy of storing and preserving small active molecules within a naturally-derived, protein-based fibrous scaffold was successfully implemented, leading to the design of a biocompatible device, which can potentially simplify the storage and the application of the hPL on a human patient, undergoing medical procedures such as surgery and wound care. Human platelets lysate (hPL) is a mixture of growth factors and cytokines able to induce the regeneration of damaged tissues. This study aims at enclosing hPL in a silk fibroin electrospun matrix to expand its utilization. Silk fibroin showed the ability to preserve the hPL activity at temperature up to 60 °C and the manipulation of fibroin's crystallinity provided a tool to modulate the hPL release kinetic. This entails the possibility to fabricate the hPL silk fibroin patches in advance and

  20. EMMPRIN (CD147) is a novel receptor for platelet GPVI and mediates platelet rolling via GPVI-EMMPRIN interaction.

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    Seizer, Peter; Borst, Oliver; Langer, Harald F; Bültmann, Andreas; Münch, Götz; Herouy, Yared; Stellos, Konstantinos; Krämer, Björn; Bigalke, Boris; Büchele, Berthold; Bachem, Max G; Vestweber, Dietmar; Simmet, Thomas; Gawaz, Meinrad; May, Andreas E

    2009-04-01

    The Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN, CD147, basigin) is an immunoglobulin-like receptor expressed in various cell types. During cellular interactions homotypic EMMPRIN-EMMPRIN interactions are known to induce the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases. Recently, we have identified EMMPRIN as a novel receptor on platelets. To our knowledge EMMPRIN has not been shown to serve as adhesion receptor, yet. Here we characterise platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI) as a novel adhesion receptor for EMMPRIN. Human platelets were prestimulated with ADP and perfused over immobilised recombinant EMMPRIN-Fc or Fc-fragments under arterial shear conditions. ADP-stimulated platelets showed significantly enhanced rolling (but not enhanced firm adhesion) on immobilised EMMPRIN-Fc compared to Fc. Pretreatment of platelets with blocking mAbs anti-EMMPRIN or anti-GPVI leads to a significant reduction of rolling platelets on immobilised EMMPRIN-Fc, whereas pretreatment with blocking mAbs anti-p-selectin, anti-alpha4-integrin or anti-GPIIb/IIIa complex (20 microg/ml each) had no effect. Consistently, chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with GPVI showed enhanced rolling (but not adhesion) on immobilised EMMPRIN-Fc in comparison to non-transfected CHO cells. Similarly, CHO cells stably transfected with EMMPRIN showed enhanced rolling on immobilised GPVI-Fc (or EMMPRIN-Fc) compared to non transfected CHO-cells. Finally, specific binding of EMMPRIN to GPVI was demonstrated by a modified ELISA and surface plasmon resonance technology with a dissociation constant of 88 nM. Platelet GPVI is a novel receptor for EMMPRIN and can mediate platelet rolling via GPVI-EMMPRIN interaction.

  1. Serum-converted platelet lysate can substitute for fetal bovine serum in human mesenchymal stromal cell cultures.

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    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Jacobson, Pam; Morris, Julie; Kelley, Linda; Pierce, Jan; Boyer, Michael; Reems, Jo-Anna

    2013-12-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used as a serum supplement for culturing human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, human cells grown in FBS, especially for extended periods, risk potential exposure to bovine immunogenic proteins and infectious agents. To address this issue, we investigated the ability of a novel human platelet serum supplement to substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Platelet lysate-serum (PL-serum) was converted from platelet lysate-plasma (PL-plasma) that was manufactured from pooled platelet-rich plasma (PRP) apheresis units. Growth factor levels and the number of residual intact platelets in PL-serum and PL-plasma were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Proliferation responses of hMSCs cultured in PL-serum, PL-plasma, or FBS were assessed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the immunophenotype of harvested hMSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry and tri-lineage differentiation potential was evaluated by assessing adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic development. Selected growth factor levels in PL-serum were not significantly different from PL-plasma (P > 0.05). hMSC cultures supplemented with PL-serum had comparable growth kinetics to PL-plasma, and hMSC yields were consistently greater than with FBS. hMSCs harvested from cultures supplemented with PL-serum, PL-plasma or FBS had similar cell surface phenotypes and maintained tri-lineage differentiation potential. PL-serum, similar to PL-plasma, can substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Use of PL-serum, in contrast to PL-plasma, has an added advantage of not requiring addition of a xenogeneic source of heparin, providing a completely xeno-free culture medium. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing Ebola Virus Glycoprotein GP Administered Intranasally Is Immunogenic in African Green Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingemann, Matthias; Liu, Xueqiao; Surman, Sonja; Liang, Bo; Herbert, Richard; Hackenberg, Ashley D; Buchholz, Ursula J; Collins, Peter L; Munir, Shirin

    2017-05-15

    The recent 2014-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak prompted increased efforts to develop vaccines against EBOV disease. We describe the development and preclinical evaluation of an attenuated recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) expressing the membrane-anchored form of EBOV glycoprotein GP, as an intranasal (i.n.) EBOV vaccine. GP was codon optimized and expressed either as a full-length protein or as an engineered chimeric form in which its transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail (TMCT) domains were replaced with those of the HPIV1 F protein in an effort to enhance packaging into the vector particle and immunogenicity. GP was inserted either preceding the N gene (pre-N) or between the N and P genes (N-P) of rHPIV1 bearing a stabilized attenuating mutation in the P/C gene (C Δ170 ). The constructs grew to high titers and efficiently and stably expressed GP. Viruses were attenuated, replicating at low titers over several days, in the respiratory tract of African green monkeys (AGMs). Two doses of candidates expressing GP from the pre-N position elicited higher GP neutralizing serum antibody titers than the N-P viruses, and unmodified GP induced higher levels than its TMCT counterpart. Unmodified EBOV GP was packaged into the HPIV1 particle, and the TMCT modification did not increase packaging or immunogenicity but rather reduced the stability of GP expression during in vivo replication. In conclusion, we identified an attenuated and immunogenic i.n. vaccine candidate expressing GP from the pre-N position. It is expected to be well tolerated in humans and is available for clinical evaluation. IMPORTANCE EBOV hemorrhagic fever is one of the most lethal viral infections and lacks a licensed vaccine. Contact of fluids from infected individuals, including droplets or aerosols, with mucosal surfaces is an important route of EBOV spread during a natural outbreak, and aerosols also might be exploited for intentional virus spread. Therefore, vaccines that protect

  3. Production of human platelet lysate by use of ultrasound for ex vivo expansion of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Martina; Albiero, Elena; Alghisi, Alberta; Chieregato, Katia; Lievore, Chiara; Madeo, Domenico; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Astori, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    A medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) is of common use for the expansion of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, its use is discouraged by regulatory authorities because of the risk of zoonoses and immune reactions. Human platelet lysate (PL) obtained by freezing/thawing disruption of platelets has been proposed as a possible substitute of FBS. The process is time-consuming and not well standardized. A new method for obtaining PL that is based on the use of ultrasound is proposed. Platelet sonication was performed by submerging platelet-containing plastic bags in an ultrasonic bath. To evaluate platelet lysis we measured platelet-derived growth factor-AB release. PL efficiency was tested by expanding bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, measuring population doubling time, differentiation capacity and immunogenic properties. Safety was evaluated by karyotyping expanded cells. After 30 minutes of sonication, 74% of platelet derived growth factor-AB was released. PL enhanced BM-MSC proliferation rate compared with FBS. The mean cumulative population doubling (cPD) of cells growth in PL at 10%, 7.5% and 5% was better compared with cPD obtained with 10% FBS. PD time (hours) of MSCs with PL obtained by sonication was shorter than for cPD with PL obtained by freezing/thawing (18.9 versus 17.4, P < 0.01). BM mononucleated cells expressed MSC markers and were able to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. When BM-MSCs and T cells were co-cultured in close contact, immunosuppressive activity of BM-MSCs was maintained. Cell karyotype showed no genetic alterations. The proposed method for the production of PL by sonication could be a safe, efficient and fast substitute of FBS, without the potential risks of FBS. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on the Biological Effects of Ozone: 10. Release of Factors from Ozonated Human Platelets

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    G. Valacchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work we have shown that heparin, in the presence of ozone (O3, promotes a dose-dependent platelet aggregation, while after Ca2+ chelation with citrate, platelet aggregation is almost negligible. These results led us to think that aggregation may enhance the release of platelet components. We have here shown that indeed significantly higher amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-8(IL-8 are released in a dose-dependent manner after ozonation of heparinised platelet-rich plasma samples. These findings may explain the enhanced healing of torpid ulcers in patients with chronic limbischemia treated with O3 autohaemoteraphy (O3-AHT.

  5. Radiolabeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Taylor, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Initial interest in developing techniques to radiolabel platelets was spurred by the lack of an accurate method for measuring platelet life span in both normals and in thrombocytopenic patients. Early investigators could obtain only rough estimates of platelet life spans by monitoring the platelet counts of thrombocytopenic patients undergoing platelet transfusions. Labels were also sought that would allow imaging of platelets in vivo in order to better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, thrombophlebitis, and clotting disorders, and to improve the clinical diagnosis of these diseases. Two types of platelet labels were investigated: cohort (pulse) labels and random labels. Cohort labels are taken up by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and incorporated in the DNA and other components of the forming platelet. In theory, only freshly released platelets of a uniform age are labeled. Random labels, on the other hand, tag platelets in the peripheral blood, labeling platelets of all ages

  6. Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparation Types Show Impact on Chondrogenic Differentiation, Migration, and Proliferation of Human Subchondral Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuz, Peter Cornelius; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Pruss, Axel; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of platelet concentrates on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Furthermore, the migratory and proliferative effect of platelet concentrates were assessed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared using preparation kits (Autologous Conditioned Plasma [ACP] Kit [Arthrex, Naples, FL]; Regen ACR-C Kit [Regen Lab, Le Mont-Sur-Lausanne, Switzerland]; and Dr.PRP Kit [Rmedica, Seoul, Republic of Korea]) by apheresis (PRP-A) and by centrifugation (PRP-C). In contrast to clinical application, freeze-and-thaw cycles were subsequently performed to activate platelets and to prevent medium coagulation by residual fibrinogen in vitro. MPCs were harvested from the cortico-spongious bone of femoral heads. Chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs was induced in high-density pellet cultures and evaluated by histochemical staining of typical cartilage matrix components. Migration of MPCs was assessed using a chemotaxis assay, and proliferation activity was measured by DNA content. MPCs cultured in the presence of 5% ACP, Regen, or Dr.PRP formed fibrous tissue, whereas MPCs stimulated with 5% PRP-A or PRP-C developed compact and dense cartilaginous tissue rich in type II collagen and proteoglycans. All platelet concentrates significantly (ACP, P = .00041; Regen, P = .00029; Dr.PRP, P = .00051; PRP-A, P platelet concentrates but one (Dr.PRP, P = .63) showed a proliferative effect on MPCs, as shown by significant increases (ACP, P = .027; Regen, P = .0029; PRP-A, P = .00021; and PRP-C, P = .00069) in DNA content. Platelet concentrates obtained by different preparation methods exhibit different potentials to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation, migration, and proliferation of MPCs. Platelet concentrates obtained by commercially available preparation kits failed to induce chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs, whereas highly standardized PRP

  7. The hemostatic agent ethamsylate promotes platelet/leukocyte aggregate formation in a model of vascular injury.

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    Hernandez, Maria Rosa; Alvarez-Guerra, Miriam; Escolar, Ginés; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Hannaert, Patrick; Garay, Ricardo P

    2004-08-01

    The hemostatic agent ethamsylate enhances membrane expression of P-selectin in human platelets, but whether this promotes platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation is unknown. Here we investigated this point by flow cytometry determination of human platelet-leukocyte aggregates under basal conditions and after whole-blood perfusion through a damaged rabbit aorta segment. Actions of ethamsylate on adhesive molecules of platelets and leukocytes were investigated in parallel. Under basal conditions, ethamsylate was unable to modify whole-blood platelet-leukocyte aggregation, but following whole-blood perfusion through a damaged vessel, ethamsylate produced a modest, but significant increase in platelet-leukocyte aggregates (48+/-21 and 45+/-26% above control levels at ethamsylate 20 and 40 microm respectively). In isolated leukocyte plasma membranes, 14C-ethamsylate specifically bound up to an amount of 660 pmol/mg protein. Moreover, at concentrations > or =1 microm, ethamsylate induced an important (100-200%) and significant increase in the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) fluorescence signal in isolated leukocytes and was unable to significantly modify the percentage of CD11b-positive cells. However, no significant changes in aggregate formation were found when ethamsylate was incubated with isolated leukocytes and blood was reconstituted and perfused. In isolated platelet cell membranes, anti-P-selectin antibody and the anti-integrin RGD-containing pentapeptide (GRDGS) were unable to displace 14C-ethamsylate binding. In conclusion, ethamsylate specifically binds to plasma membranes of leukocytes, enhances membrane PSGL-1 expression and promotes leukocyte-platelet aggregation in whole-blood perfused through a damaged vascular segment. These results together with the previously observed enhancement of platelet P-selectin membrane expression [Thromb. Res. (2002)107:329-335] confirms and extends the view that ethamsylate acts on the first step of hemostasis, by

  8. Platelet lysate supports the in vitro expansion of human periodontal ligament stem cells for cytotherapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui-Xin; Yu, Yang; Yin, Yuan; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Gao, Li-Na; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Human platelet lysate (PL) produced under optimal conditions of standardization and safety has been increasingly suggested as the future 'gold standard' supplement to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) for the ex vivo propagation of mesenchymal stem cells for translational medicine and cell therapy applications. However, the multifaceted effects of PL on tissue-specific stem cells remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the stem cell behaviours of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in media with or without PL. Our data indicate that human PL, either as an adjuvant for culture media or as a substitute for FBS, supports the proliferation and expansion of human PDLSCs derived from either 'young' or 'old' donors to the same extent as FBS, without interfering with their immunomodulatory capacities. Although PL appears to inhibit the in vitro differentiation of 'young' or 'old' PDLSCs, their decreased osteogenic potential may be restored to similar or higher levels compared with FBS-expanded cells. PL- and FBS-expanded PDLSCs exhibited a similar potential to form mineralized nodules and expressed similar levels of osteogenic genes. Our data indicate that large clinically relevant quantities of PDLSCs may be yielded by the use of human PL; however, further analysis of its precise composition and function will pave the way for determining optimized, defined culture conditions. In addition to the potential increase in patient safety, our findings highlight the need for further research to develop the potential of PL-expanded PDLSCs for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. miR-326 targets antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and mediates apoptosis in human platelets.

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    Shifang Yu

    Full Text Available Platelets play crucial roles in hemostasis, thrombosis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastases. Because they are anucleated blood cells, platelets lack nuclear DNA, but they do contain mitochondrial DNA, which plays a key role in regulating apoptosis. Recent evidence has suggested that miRNAs are also involved in regulating gene expression and apoptosis in platelets. Our previous study showed that the expression of miR-326 increased visibly when apheresis platelets were stored in vitro. The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family regulator Bcl-xL has been identified as a putative target of miR-326. In the present study, dual reporter luciferase assays were used to characterize the function of miR-326 in the regulation of the apoptosis of platelet cells. These assays demonstrated that miR-326 bound to the 3'-translated region of Bcl-xL. To directly assess the functional effects of miR-326 expression, levels of Bcl-xL and the apoptotic status of stored apheresis platelets were measured after transfection of miR-326 mimic or inhibitor. Results indicated that miR-326 inhibited Bcl-xL expression and induced apoptosis in stored platelets. Additionally, miR-326 inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression and enhanced Bak expression, possibly through an indirect mechanism, though there was no effect on the expression of Bax. The effect of miR-326 appeared to be limited to apoptosis, with no significant effect on platelet activation. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms affecting differential platelet gene regulation, which may increase understanding of the role of platelet apoptosis in multiple diseases.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase content and activity in low-platelet, low-leukocyte and high-platelet, high-leukocyte platelet rich plasma (PRP) and the biologic response to PRP by human ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Matthew A; Maerz, Tristan; Baker, Kevin C; Anderson, Kyle

    2014-05-01

    Recent work has shown the presence of catabolic cytokines in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), but little is known about endogenous catabolic proteases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Hypothesis/ To quantify MMP content in 2 commercially available PRP preparation systems: Arthrex Double Syringe System autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) and Biomet GPS (GPS). The hypothesis was that MMPs are actively secreted from PRP immediately after preparation. Controlled laboratory study. PRP was prepared using either ACP (low platelet, low leukocyte) or GPS (high platelet, high leukocyte). MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 concentrations were measured using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for up to 6 days in 2 donors, and MMP activity was measured in 3 donors using kinetic activity kits able to detect the enzymatic cleavage of a fluorogenic peptide. Human ligament fibroblasts were cultured and exposed to both ACP and GPS from 1 donor each. MMP-2, -3, and -9 concentrations were assayed in culture media at 24 and 48 hours after exposure. GPS exhibited higher total MMP-2, -3, and -9 concentrations for up to 144 hours of release, while ACP had higher platelet-normalized MMP-2 and MMP-3 concentrations. GPS had significantly higher total and endogenous MMP-2 activity (P = .004 and .014, respectively), MMP-3 activity (P = .020 and .015, respectively), and MMP-9 activity (P = .004 and .002, respectively) compared with ACP. Once normalized to platelet count, differences in MMP activity were not significant between ACP and GPS. Compared with controls, cells stimulated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and treated with ACP showed significantly higher fold changes of MMP-2 (P = .001) and MMP-3 (P = .003) concentrations at 24 hours than did cells treated with GPS. Total MMP-9 content was higher in the media of GPS-treated, IL-1β-stimulated cells compared with ACP-treated cells (P = .001). At 48 hours, IL-1β-stimulated cells treated with GPS exhibited higher fold changes of MMP-2

  11. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Lysate Can Ameliorate Dysfunction of Chronically UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

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    Wirohadidjojo, Yohanes Widodo; Budiyanto, Arief; Soebono, Hardyanto

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether platelet-rich fibrin lysate (PRF-L) could restore the function of chronically ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we isolated and sub-cultured HDFs from six different human foreskins. HDFs were divided into two groups: those that received chronic UVA irradiation (total dosages of 10 J cm⁻²) and those that were not irradiated. We compared the proliferation rates, collagen deposition, and migration rates between the groups and between chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in control and PRF-L-treated media. Our experiment showed that chronic UVA irradiation significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition of HDFs, compared to controls. Compared to control media, chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L had significantly increased proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition (p<0.05), and the migration rates and collagen deposition of chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L were equal to those of normal fibroblasts. Based on this experiment, we concluded that PRF-L is a good candidate material for treating UVA-induced photoaging of skin, although the best method for its clinical application remains to be determined.

  12. Innate immunity glycoprotein gp-340 variants may modulate human susceptibility to dental caries

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    Johansson Ingegerd

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial adhesion is an important determinant of colonization and infection, including dental caries. The salivary scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein gp-340, which mediates adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (implicated in caries, harbours three major size variants, designated gp-340 I to III, each specific to an individual saliva. Here we have examined the association of the gp-340 I to III polymorphisms with caries experience and adhesion of S. mutans. Methods A case-referent study was performed in 12-year-old Swedish children with high (n = 19 or low (n = 19 caries experiences. We measured the gp-340 I to III saliva phenotypes and correlated those with multiple outcome measures for caries experience and saliva adhesion of S. mutans using the partial least squares (PLS multivariate projection technique. In addition, we used traditional statistics and 2-year caries increment to verify the established PLS associations, and bacterial adhesion to purified gp-340 I to III proteins to support possible mechanisms. Results All except one subject were typed as gp-340 I to III (10, 23 and 4, respectively. The gp-340 I phenotype correlated positively with caries experience (VIP = 1.37 and saliva adhesion of S. mutans Ingbritt (VIP = 1.47. The gp-340 II and III phenotypes tended to behave in the opposite way. Moreover, the gp-340 I phenotype tended to show an increased 2-year caries increment compared to phenotypes II/III. Purified gp-340 I protein mediated markedly higher adhesion of S. mutans strains Ingbritt and NG8 and Lactococcus lactis expressing AgI/II adhesins (SpaP or PAc compared to gp-340 II and III proteins. In addition, the gp-340 I protein appeared over represented in subjects positive for Db, an allelic acidic PRP variant associated with caries, and subjects positive for both gp-340 I and Db tended to experience more caries than those negative for both proteins. Conclusion Gp-340 I behaves as a caries

  13. Next generation sequencing analysis of human platelet PolyA+ mRNAs and rRNA-depleted total RNA.

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    Antheia Kissopoulou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are small anucleate cells circulating in the blood vessels where they play a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Here, we compared platelet RNA-Seq results obtained from polyA+ mRNA and rRNA-depleted total RNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used purified, CD45 depleted, human blood platelets collected by apheresis from three male and one female healthy blood donors. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was employed to sequence cDNA converted either from oligo(dT isolated polyA+ RNA or from rRNA-depleted total RNA. The reads were aligned to the GRCh37 reference assembly with the TopHat/Cufflinks alignment package using Ensembl annotations. A de novo assembly of the platelet transcriptome using the Trinity software package and RSEM was also performed. The bioinformatic tools HTSeq and DESeq from Bioconductor were employed for further statistical analyses of read counts. RESULTS: Consistent with previous findings our data suggests that mitochondrially expressed genes comprise a substantial fraction of the platelet transcriptome. We also identified high transcript levels for protein coding genes related to the cytoskeleton function, chemokine signaling, cell adhesion, aggregation, as well as receptor interaction between cells. Certain transcripts were particularly abundant in platelets compared with other cell and tissue types represented by RNA-Seq data from the Illumina Human Body Map 2.0 project. Irrespective of the different library preparation and sequencing protocols, there was good agreement between samples from the 4 individuals. Eighteen differentially expressed genes were identified in the two sexes at 10% false discovery rate using DESeq. CONCLUSION: The present data suggests that platelets may have a unique transcriptome profile characterized by a relative over-expression of mitochondrially encoded genes and also of genomic transcripts related to the cytoskeleton function, chemokine signaling and surface components

  14. Affinity column for purification of the human platelet thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venton, D.L.; Arora, S.K.; Kim, S.O.; Lim, C.T.; Le Breton, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The TXA 2 /PGH 2 receptor antagonist, 13-azaprostanoic acid (13-APA), was synthesized and used as the immobilized ligand in the affinity column purification of the 13-APA/U46619 binding component in human platelets. Diazo coupling of the ligand to the phenol of this tyr-gly-gly-NH-(CO)-O-Sepharose gave the affinity column material. Isolated platelet membranes were solubilized with detergent, applied directly to the affinity column and the eluate collected as 6 x 70 ml fractions. For each fraction, protein concentration and specific 3 H-13-APA/numberH-U46619 binding were determined. The majority of the applied protein (>98%) eluted in fraction number1. However, the specific 13-APA/U46619 binding per mg of protein was localized in fractions number4 and number5, representing approximately a 500-fold purification of this binding component. These results suggest that the platelet TXA 2 /PGH 2 receptor protein is retarded by this column, and that starting from crude, solubilized platelet membranes, a single pass through the column provides a 500-fold purification of the receptor

  15. Imaging platelet deposition on Dacron bifurcation grafts in man: Quantification by a dual-tracer method using 111In-labeled platelets and sup(99m)Tc-labeled human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Kimura, Kazufumi; Etani, Hideki; Uehara, Akira; Yoneda, Shotaro; Kamada, Takenobu; Kusunoki, Masahito; Kim, Teak Dong; Ohshiro, Takeshi

    1986-01-01

    A dual tracer technique using 111 In-labeled platelets and sup(99m)Tc-labeled human serum albumin was applied to evaluate the thrombogenicity of Dacron, bifurcation arterial grafts. The level of platelet accumulation over the whole of the graft was estimated from the ratio of 111 In-platelet radioactivity deposited on the vascular wall to these radioactivity circulating in the blood pool, i.e., the platelet-accumulation index (PAI). Furthermore, the PAI value was calculated for each pixel in digitized images and the PAI distribution image (PAI image) was reconstructed. Eighteen patients with DeBakey knitted Dacron bifurcation grafts and 11 normal volunteers were studied. Of the 18 patients, 11 had no graft occlusion (group I) and the remaining 7 (group II) had occlusion. The mean PAI value (+-SD) over the whole of the graft in group I was 32.6%+-33.7% as compared to -8.8%+-4.5% in the control group (P 2 =10.55; P<0.005). The method used for platelet imaging in the present study may be useful in the study of platelet reactions on Dacron arterial prostheses. (orig.)

  16. Platelet deposition at angioplasty sites and its relation to restenosis in human iliac and femoropopliteal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minar, E.; Ehringer, H.; Ahmadi, R.; Dudczak, R.; Leitha, T.; Koppensteiner, R.; Jung, M.; Stuempflen, A.

    1989-01-01

    The amount and time course of platelet accumulation at angioplasty sites and influence of these platelets on restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries were determined in 92 patients, who received either a high or low dose of aspirin. Platelet deposition was quantitated by means of dual-radiotracer scintigraphy and calculation of a platelet accumulation index (PAI). The PAI was higher (P less than .05) 4-6 hours after PTA compared with that on subsequent days. There was a trend toward greater platelet accumulation in vessels with extensive dissection. Platelet accumulation at the PTA site occurred with both doses of aspirin, with no differences between the two dosage groups. Twenty-one of 67 patients who underwent PTA in the femoropopliteal segment developed restenosis during a median follow-up of 14 months. The median PAI at 4-6 and 22-24 hours after PTA was significantly less in these 21 patients than in the 46 without restenosis. The data suggest that use of antiplatelet agents to prevent platelet deposition after PTA may not be useful for prevention of restenosis

  17. Absence of cytotoxic antibody to human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in humans and its induction in animals after infection or immunization with purified envelope glycoprotein gp120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, P.L.; Robey, W.G.; Gonda, M.A.; Carter, S.G.; Fischinger, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) was assessed in humans and chimpanzees, which are capable of infection with human immunodeficiency virus isolate HTLV-IIIb, and examined in the goat after immunization with the major viral glycoprotein (gp120) of HTLV-IIIb. In infected humans no antibody mediating ACC was observed regardless of the status of disease. Even healthy individuals with high-titer, broadly reactive, neutralizing antibodies has no ACC. In contrast, chimpanzees infected with HTLV-IIIb, from whom virus could be isolated, not only had neutralizing antibody but also antibodies broadly reactive in ACC, even against distantly related human immunodeficiency virus isolates, as well as against their own reisolated virus. In the goat, the gp120 of HTLV-IIIb induced a highly type-specific response as measured by both ACC and flow cytofluorometry of live infected H9 cells. Normal human cells were not subject to ACC by animal anti-HTLV-III gp120-specific sera. Induction of ACC and neutralizing antibody were closely correlated in the animal experimental models but not in humans. The presence of ACC in gp120-inoculated goats and HTLV-III-infected chimpanzees represent a qualitative difference that may be important in the quest for the elicitation of a protective immunity in humans

  18. Dual-specificity phosphatase 3 deficiency or inhibition limits platelet activation and arterial thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Lucia; Kuijpers, Marijke J; Gilio, Karen; Hego, Alexandre; Théâtre, Emilie; Maurissen, Lisbeth; Vandereyken, Maud; Diogo, Catia V; Lecut, Christelle; Guilmain, William; Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Eble, Johannes A; Dahl, Russell; Drion, Pierre; Rascon, Justin; Mostofi, Yalda; Yuan, Hongbin; Sergienko, Eduard; Chung, Thomas D Y; Thiry, Marc; Senis, Yotis; Moutschen, Michel; Mustelin, Tomas; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Tautz, Lutz; Oury, Cécile; Rahmouni, Souad

    2015-02-17

    A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet activation is important for the development of improved therapies. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatases have emerged as critical regulators of platelet function. This is the first report implicating the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling and thrombosis. This phosphatase is highly expressed in human and mouse platelets. Platelets from DUSP3-deficient mice displayed a selective impairment of aggregation and granule secretion mediated by the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2. DUSP3-deficient mice were more resistant to collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism compared with wild-type mice and showed severely impaired thrombus formation on ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury. Intriguingly, bleeding times were not altered in DUSP3-deficient mice. At the molecular level, DUSP3 deficiency impaired Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, subsequently reducing phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ2 and calcium fluxes. To investigate DUSP3 function in human platelets, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DUSP3 was developed. This compound specifically inhibited collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-induced human platelet aggregation, thereby phenocopying the effect of DUSP3 deficiency in murine cells. DUSP3 plays a selective and essential role in collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo. Inhibition of DUSP3 may prove therapeutic for arterial thrombosis. This is the first time a protein tyrosine phosphatase, implicated in platelet signaling, has been targeted with a small-molecule drug. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Divalent cations and the protein surface co-ordinate the intensity of human platelet adhesion and P-selectin surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiss, P A; Andersson, R G G

    2002-07-01

    At sites of blood vessel injury, platelets adhere to exposed vessel components, such as collagen, or immobilized fibrinogen derived from plasma or activated platelets. The divalent cations Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) are essential for platelet adhesion and activation, but Mg(2+) can also inhibit platelet activation. The present study evaluates, by an enzymatic method, the effects of various divalent cations on the adhesion of isolated human platelets to collagen, fibrinogen, albumin or plastic in vitro. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, platelet surface expression of P-selectin was measured to estimate the state of activation on adherence. Mg(2+) increased platelet adhesion exclusively to collagen and fibrinogen at physiologically relevant concentrations. At higher concentrations, the adhesion declined. Ca(2+) induced a weak adhesion only to fibrinogen at physiological doses and a peak of increased adhesion to all protein-coated surfaces at 10 mmol/l. Mn(2+) elicited dose-dependent adhesion only to collagen and fibrinogen. Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) increased the adhesion of platelets independently of the surface. Ca(2+) dose-dependently inhibited adhesion elicited by Mg(2+) to collagen and fibrinogen. No other combination of divalent cations elicited such an effect. Mg(2+)-dependent platelet adhesion to collagen and Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion to fibrinogen increased P-selectin expression. Thus, the present study shows that the outcome of the platelet adhesion depends on the surface and the access of divalent cations, which co-ordinate the intensity of platelet adhesion and P-selectin surface expression.

  20. Determination of human serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein and albumin binding of various marketed and preclinical kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsila, Ferenc; Fitos, Ilona; Bencze, Gyula; Kéri, György; Orfi, László

    2009-01-01

    There are about 380 protein kinase inhibitors in drug development as of today and 15 drugs have been marketed already for the treatment of cancer. This time 139 validated kinase targets are in the focus of drug research of pharmaceutical companies and big efforts are made for the development of new, druglike kinase inhibitors. Plasma protein binding is an important factor of the ADME profiling of a drug compound. Human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AAG) are the most relevant drug carriers in blood plasma. Since previous literature data indicated that AAG is the principal plasma binding component of some kinase inhibitors the present work focuses on the comprehensive evaluation of AAG binding of a series of marketed and experimental kinase inhibitors by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy approach. HSA binding was also evaluated by affinity chromatography. Protein binding interactions of twenty-six kinase inhibitors are characterized. The contribution of AAG and HSA binding data to the pharmacokinetic profiles of the investigated therapeutic agents is discussed. Structural, biological and drug binding properties of AAG as well as the applicability of the CD method in studying drug-protein binding interactions are also briefly reviewed.

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 group M consensus and mosaic envelope glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T.; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2017-11-21

    The disclosure relates to nucleic acids mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  2. CTA1-DD adjuvant promotes strong immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins following mucosal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Christopher; Schön, Karin; Mörner, Andreas; Forsell, Mattias N E; Wyatt, Richard T; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Lycke, Nils Y

    2008-12-01

    Strategies to induce potent and broad antibody responses against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) at both systemic and mucosal sites represent a central goal for HIV-1 vaccine development. Here, we show that the non-toxic CTA1-DD adjuvant promoted mucosal and systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following intranasal (i.n.) immunizations with trimeric or monomeric forms of HIV-1 Env in mice and in non-human primates. Env-specific IgG subclasses in the serum of immunized mice reflected a balanced Th1/Th2 type of response. Strikingly, i.n. immunizations with Env and the CTA1-DD adjuvant induced substantial levels of mucosal anti-Env IgA in bronchial alveolar lavage and also detectable levels in vaginal secretions. By contrast, parenteral immunizations of Env formulated in Ribi did not stimulate mucosal IgA responses, while the two adjuvants induced a similar distribution of Env-specific IgG-subclasses in serum. A single parenteral boost with Env in Ribi adjuvant into mice previously primed i.n. with Env and CTA1-DD, augmented the serum anti-Env IgG levels to similar magnitudes as those observed after three intraperitoneal immunizations with Env in Ribi. The augmenting potency of CTA1-DD was similar to that of LTK63 or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). However, in contrast to CpG ODN, the effect of CTA1-DD and LTK63 appeared to be independent of MyD88 and toll-like receptor signalling. This is the first demonstration that CTA1-DD augments specific immune responses also in non-human primates, suggesting that this adjuvant could be explored further as a clinically safe mucosal vaccine adjuvant for humoral and cell-mediated immunity against HIV-1 Env.

  3. Human platelet lysate supplementation of mesenchymal stromal cell delivery: issues of xenogenicity and species variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ashley B; Butts, Emily B; Copland, Ian B; Stevens, Hazel Y; Guldberg, Robert E

    2017-10-01

    Immunogenicity of fetal bovine serum (FBS) poses a problem for its use in the propagation of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy. Human platelet lysate (hPL), an enriched growth factor solution containing mitogenic and angiogenic cues, has potential utility in replacing FBS for human MSC (hMSC) delivery strategies. Despite its potentiation of hMSC number in vitro, little is known concerning its capacity to supplement implanted hMSC-seeded constructs and promote tissue regeneration in vivo. In this study, we tested the effects of incorporating hPL in cell-seeded constructs implanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised rats, investigated in vitro interactions between hPL and rat MSCs (rMSCs) and determined interspecies variability in the PL product [hPL vs rat PL (rPL)] and its effect on cultured MSCs (hPL/hMSCs vs rPL/rMSCs). The overarching aim was to determine the utility of hPL to foster MSC survival in preclinical rodent models. Exposure to hPL-supplemented media resulted in rMSC death, by a process attributable to heat-labile proteins, but not membrane attack complex formation. In the in vitro syngeneic model, the rodent product proved fundamentally distinct from the human product, with rPL having substantially lower growth factor content than hPL. Moreover, contrary to the positive effects of hPL on hMSC expansion, rPL did not reduce rMSC doubling time for the serum concentrations examined. When tested in vivo, hPL did not improve cell survival within hydrogel constructs through 2 weeks postimplantation. In summary, this study highlights the many facets of xenogenicity and interspecies variability that must be considered in the preclinical evaluation of hPL. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Culture Medium Supplements Derived from Human Platelet and Plasma: Cell Commitment and Proliferation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Muraglia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Present cell culture medium supplements, in most cases based on animal sera, are not fully satisfactory especially for the in vitro expansion of cells intended for human cell therapy. This paper refers to (i an heparin-free human platelet lysate (PL devoid of serum or plasma components (v-PL and (ii an heparin-free human serum derived from plasma devoid of PL components (Pl-s and to their use as single components or in combination in primary or cell line cultures. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC primary cultures were obtained from adipose tissue, bone marrow, and umbilical cord. Human chondrocytes were obtained from articular cartilage biopsies. In general, MSC expanded in the presence of Pl-s alone showed a low or no proliferation in comparison to cells grown with the combination of Pl-s and v-PL. Confluent, growth-arrested cells, either human MSC or human articular chondrocytes, treated with v-PL resumed proliferation, whereas control cultures, not supplemented with v-PL, remained quiescent and did not proliferate. Interestingly, signal transduction pathways distinctive of proliferation were activated also in cells treated with v-PL in the absence of serum, when cell proliferation did not occur, indicating that v-PL could induce the cell re-entry in the cell cycle (cell commitment, but the presence of serum proteins was an absolute requirement for cell proliferation to happen. Indeed, Pl-s alone supported cell growth in constitutively activated cell lines (U-937, HeLa, HaCaT, and V-79 regardless of the co-presence of v-PL. Plasma- and plasma-derived serum were equally able to sustain cell proliferation although, for cells cultured in adhesion, the Pl-s was more efficient than the plasma from which it was derived. In conclusion, the cells expanded in the presence of the new additives maintained their differentiation potential and did not show alterations in their karyotype.

  5. Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors Determined by Sequence-Specific Primer Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Chung Pai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of human platelet antigens (HPAs leads to alloimmunizations and immune-mediated platelet disorders including fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT, posttransfusion purpura (PTP, and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR. HPA typing and knowledge of antigen frequency in a population are important in particular for the provision of HPA-matched blood components for patients with PTR. We have performed allele genotyping for HPA-1 through -6 and -15 among 998 platelet donors from 6 blood centers in Taiwan using sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. The HPA allele frequency was 99.55, and 0.45% for HPA-1a and -1b; 96.49, and 3.51% for HPA-2a and -2b; 55.81, and 44.19% for HPA-3a and -3b; 99.75, and 0.25% for HPA-4a and -4b; 98.50, and 1.50% for HPA-5a and -5b; 97.75 and 2.25% for HPA-6a and -6b; 53.71 and 46.29% for HPA-15a and -15b. HPA-15b and HPA-3a, may be considered the most important, followed by HPA-2, -6, -1, -5, and -4 systems, as a cause of FNAIT, PTP, and PTR based on allele frequency. HPA-4b and HPA-5b role cannot be excluded based on their immunogenicity. A larger-scale study will now be conducted to confirm these hypotheses and to establish an apheresis donor database for the procurement of HPA-matched apheresis platelets for patients with PTR.

  6. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of effects of platelet-rich plasma on human facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Esra Pancar; Sahin, Gokhan; Aydin, Fatma; Senturk, Nilgun; Turanli, Ahmet Yasar

    2014-10-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used for rapid healing and tissue regeneration in many fields of medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PRP application procedure on human facial skin. PRP was applied thrice at 2-week intervals on the face of ten healthy volunteers. It was applied to individual's forehead, malar area, and jaw by a dermaroller, and injected using a 27-gauge injector into the wrinkles of crow's feet. Participants were asked to grade on a scale from 0 to 5 for general appearance, skin firmness-sagging, wrinkle state and pigmentation disorder of their own face before each PRP procedure and 3 months after the last PRP procedure. While volunteers were evaluating their own face, they were also assessed by three different dermatologists at the same time by the same five-point scale. There was statistically significant difference regarding the general appearance, skin firmness-sagging and wrinkle state according to the grading scale of the patients before and after three PRP applications. Whereas there was only statistically significant difference for the skin firmness-sagging according to the assessment of the dermatologists. PRP application could be considered as an effective procedure for facial skin rejuvenation.

  8. Heparin concentration is critical for cell culture with human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeda, Hatim; Kalz, Jana; Walenda, Gudrun; Lohmann, Michael; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    Culture media for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are generally supplemented with fetal bovine serum. Human platelet lysate (hPL) has been proven to be a very effective alternative without the risk of xenogeneic infections or immune reactions. In contrast to fetal bovine serum, hPL comprises plasma, and anticoagulants-usually unfractionated heparin (UFH)-need to be added to prevent gel formation. Cultures of MSCs in hPL media with various concentrations of UFH and enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), were systematically compared with regard to proliferation, fibroblastoid colony-forming unit frequency, immunophenotype and in vitro differentiation. At least 0.61 IU/mL UFH or 0.024 mg/mL LMWH was necessary for reliable prevention of coagulation of hPL pools used in this study. Higher concentrations impaired cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner even without benzyl alcohol, which is commonly added to heparins as a bacteriostatic agent. Colony-forming unit frequency was also reduced at higher heparin concentrations, particularly with LMWH, whereas no significant effect was observed on cellular morphology or immunophenotype. High concentrations of heparins reduced the in vitro differentiation toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Heparin concentration is critical for culture of MSCs in hPL media; this is of particular relevance for cellular therapy where cell culture procedures need to be optimized and standardized. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Global phenotypic characterisation of human platelet lysate expanded MSCs by high-throughput flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Monica; McDonald, David; Nicholson, Lindsay; Godthardt, Kathrin; Knobel, Sebastian; Dickinson, Anne M; Filby, Andrew; Wang, Xiao-Nong

    2018-03-02

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source to develop cell therapy for many diseases. Human platelet lysate (PLT) is increasingly used as an alternative to foetal calf serum (FCS) for clinical-scale MSC production. To date, the global surface protein expression of PLT-expended MSCs (MSC-PLT) is not known. To investigate this, paired MSC-PLT and MSC-FCS were analysed in parallel using high-throughput flow cytometry for the expression of 356 cell surface proteins. MSC-PLT showed differential surface protein expression compared to their MSC-FCS counterpart. Higher percentage of positive cells was observed in MSC-PLT for 48 surface proteins, of which 13 were significantly enriched on MSC-PLT. This finding was validated using multiparameter flow cytometry and further confirmed by quantitative staining intensity analysis. The enriched surface proteins are relevant to increased proliferation and migration capacity, as well as enhanced chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation properties. In silico network analysis revealed that these enriched surface proteins are involved in three distinct networks that are associated with inflammatory responses, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular motility. This is the first study reporting differential cell surface protein expression between MSC-PLT and MSC-FSC. Further studies are required to uncover the impact of those enriched proteins on biological functions of MSC-PLT.

  10. Reduction of indium-111 platelet deposition on Dacron vascular grafts in humans by aspirin plus dipyridamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduces platelet accumulation on short-term Dacron vascular grafts in man. To determine whether drug inhibition of platelet deposition is sustained on older grafts, we studied 18 men aged 41 to 87 years who had Dacron aortic bifurcation grafts in place a mean of 43.4 months (range 9.8 to 121.0) before and during short-term therapy with aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid). During both the baseline and drug studies, indium-111 ( 111 In) platelet deposition was quantitated by two techniques, standard planar imaging performed at 24, 48, and 72 hr after injection of platelets and single photon emission computed tomographic imaging performed at 24 and 72 hr after injection. All analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. On both the planar and tomographic images, platelet accumulation on the graft was quantitated by a graft/blood ratio that compared activity in the graft to simultaneously collected whole blood 111 In platelet activity. Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduced the tomographic graft/blood ratio at 24 hr (20.6 +/- 3.5 vs 17.3 +/- 2.5) (+/-SEM) and at 72 hr (29.0 +/- 4.8 vs 25.0 +/- 4.1) after injection of platelets (p = .02). Dacron vascular grafts. Similarly, the planar graft/blood ratio was reduced at 24 hr (2.7 +/- 0.5 vs 2.4 +/- 0.5), 48 hr (3.7 +/- 0.9 vs 3.1 +/- 0.7), and 72 hr (4.0 +/- 0.9 vs 3.6 +/- 0.8) (p = .04). We conclude that aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid) reduces platelet accumulation on long-term Dacron vascular grafts

  11. Human ClC-6 is a late endosomal glycoprotein that associates with detergent-resistant lipid domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Ignoul

    and ClC-7 when cotransfected in COS-1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that human ClC-6 is an endosomal glycoprotein that partitions in detergent resistant lipid domains. The differential sorting of endogenous (late endosomal versus overexpressed (early and recycling endosomal ClC-6 is reminiscent of that of other late endosomal/lysosomal membrane proteins (e.g. LIMP II, and is consistent with a rate-limiting sorting step for ClC-6 between early endosomes and its final destination in late endosomes.

  12. Quantitative serology assays for determination of antibody responses to Ebola virus glycoprotein and matrix protein in nonhuman primates and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hong; Shulenin, Sergey; Grolla, Allen; Audet, Jonathan; He, Shihua; Kobinger, Gary; Unfer, Robert C; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad; Holtsberg, Frederick W

    2016-02-01

    The West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has reached unprecedented magnitude and caused worldwide concerns for the spread of this deadly virus. Recent findings in nonhuman primates (NHPs) demonstrate that antibodies can be protective against EVD. However, the role of antibody response in vaccine-mediated protection is not fully understood. To address these questions quantitative serology assays are needed for measurement of the antibody response to key Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins. Serology enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA's), using a reference detection antibody, were developed in order to standardize the quantitation of antibody levels in vaccinated NHPs or in humans exposed to EBOV or immunized with an EBOV vaccine. Critical reagents were generated to support the development of the serology ELISAs. Recombinant EBOV matrix protein (VP40) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Two variants of the glycoprotein (GP), the ectodomain lacking the transmembrane domain (GPΔTM), and an engineered GP lacking the mucin-like domain (GPΔmuc) were expressed and purified from mammalian cell systems. Using these proteins, three ELISA methods were developed and optimized for reproducibility and robustness, including stability testing of critical reagents. The assay was used to determine the antibody response against VP40, GPΔTM, and GPΔmuc in a NHP vaccine study using EBOV virus-like particles (VLP) vaccine expressing GP, VP40 and the nucleoprotein. Additionally, these ELISAs were used to successfully detect antibody responses to VP40, GPΔTM and GPΔmuc in human sera from EBOV infected individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by HIV protease inhibitors increases intracellular accumulation of berberine in murine and human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Zha

    Full Text Available HIV protease inhibitor (PI-induced inflammatory response in macrophages is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported that berberine (BBR, a traditional herbal medicine, prevents HIV PI-induced inflammatory response through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in macrophages. We also found that HIV PIs significantly increased the intracellular concentrations of BBR in macrophages. However, the underlying mechanisms of HIV PI-induced BBR accumulation are unknown. This study examined the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp in HIV PI-mediated accumulation of BBR in macrophages.Cultured mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, human THP-1-derived macrophages, Wild type MDCK (MDCK/WT and human P-gp transfected (MDCK/P-gp cells were used in this study. The intracellular concentration of BBR was determined by HPLC. The activity of P-gp was assessed by measuring digoxin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123 efflux. The interaction between P-gp and BBR or HIV PIs was predicated by Glide docking using Schrodinger program. The results indicate that P-gp contributed to the efflux of BBR in macrophages. HIV PIs significantly increased BBR concentrations in macrophages; however, BBR did not alter cellular HIV PI concentrations. Although HIV PIs did not affect P-gp expression, P-gp transport activities were significantly inhibited in HIV PI-treated macrophages. Furthermore, the molecular docking study suggests that both HIV PIs and BBR fit the binding pocket of P-gp, and HIV PIs may compete with BBR to bind P-gp.HIV PIs increase the concentration of BBR by modulating the transport activity of P-gp in macrophages. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of potential drug-drug interactions is critical prior to applying successful combinational therapy in the clinic.

  14. Levels of the Novel Glycoprotein Lacritin in Human Tears After Laser Refractive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    et al. Lacritin and other new proteins of the lacrimal functional unit . Exp Eye Res 2009;88(5):848. 6. McKown RL, et al. Mutational analysis of...Ryan COL MC USA 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER email:Kraig.Bower@amedd.army.mil 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...mitogenesis in human corneal epithelial cells and promoting production of tears in lacrimal gland acinar cells. Heparanase (HPSE) acts as a regulator for

  15. Molecular Characterization of the Interactions between Vascular Selectins and Glycoprotein Ligands on Human Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Dina

    2016-12-01

    The human bone marrow vasculature constitutively expresses both E-selectin and P-selectin where they interact with the cell-surface glycan moiety, sialyl Lewis x, on circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to mediate the essential tethering/rolling step. Although several E-selectin glycoprotein ligands (E-selLs) have been identified, the importance of each E-selL on human HSPCs is debatable and requires additional methodologies to advance their specific involvement. The first objective was to fill the knowledge gap in the in vitro characterization of the mechanisms used by selectins to mediate the initial step in the HSPCs homing by developing a real time immunoprecipitation-based assay on a surface plasmon resonance chip. This novel assay bypass the difficulties of purifying ligands, enables the use of natively glycosylated forms of selectin ligands from any model cell of interest and study its binding affinities under flow. We provide the first comprehensive quantitative binding kinetics of two well-documented ligands, CD44 and PSGL-1, with E-selectin. Both ligands bind monomeric E-selectin transiently with fast on- and off-rates while they bind dimeric E-selectin with remarkably slow on- and off-rates with the on-rate, but not the off-rate, is dependent on salt concentration. Thus, suggest a mechanism through which monomeric selectins mediate initial fast-on and -off binding to capture the circulating cells out of shear-flow; subsequently, tight binding by dimeric/oligomeric selectins is enabled to slow rolling significantly. The second objective is to fully identify and characterize E/P-selectin ligand candidates expressed on CD34+ HSPCs which cause enhanced migration after intravenous transplantation compared to their CD34- counterparts. CD34 is widely recognized marker of human HSPCs but its natural ligand and function on these cells remain elusive. Proteomics identified CD34 as an E-selL candidate on human HSPCs, whose binding to E

  16. Human Platelet Lysate as a Xeno Free Alternative of Fetal Bovine Serum for the In Vitro Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Saeed; Nikbakht, Mohsen; Malek Mohammadi, Ashraf; Zahed Panah, Mahdi; Ostadali, Mohammad Reza; Nasiri, Hajar; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2016-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are employed in various different clinical settings in order to modulate immune response. Human autologous and allogeneic supplements including platelet derivatives such as platelet lysate (PL), platelet-released factors (PRF) and serum are assessed in clinical studies to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS). The immunosuppressive activity and multi-potential characteristic of MSCs appear to be maintained when the cells are expanded in platelet derivatives. Platelet-rich plasma was collected from umbrical cord blood (UCB). Platelet-derived growth factors obtained by freeze and thaw methods. CD62P expression was determined by flow cytometry. The concentration of PDGF-BB and PDGF-AB was detemined by ELISA. We tested the ability of a different concentration of PL-supplemented medium to support the ex vivo expansion of Wharton's jelly derived MSCs. We also investigated the biological/functional properties of expanded MSCs in presence of different concentration of PL. The conventional karyotyping was performed in order to study the chromosomal stability. The gene expression of Collagen I and II aggrecan and SOX-9 in the presence of different concentrations of PL was evaluated by Real-time PCR. We observed 5% and 10% PL, causing greater effects on proliferation of MSCs .These cells exhibited typical morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. The genetic stability of these derivative cells from Wharton's jelly was demonstrated by a normal karyotype. Furthermore, the results of Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of chondrocyte specific genes was higher in MSCs in the presence of 5% and 10% PL, compared with FBS supplement. We demonstrated that PL could be used as an alternative safe source of growth factors for expansion of MSCs and also maintained similar growing potential and phenotype without any effect on chromosomal stability.

  17. Analysis of glycoprotein E-selectin ligANDs on human and mouse marrow cells enriched for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    KAUST Repository

    Merzaban, Jasmeen S.

    2011-06-09

    Although well recognized that expression of E-selectin on marrow microvessels mediates osteotropism of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), our knowledge regarding the cognate E-selectin ligand(s) on HSPCs is incomplete. Flow cytometry using E-selectin-Ig chimera (E-Ig) shows that human marrow cells enriched for HSPCs (CD34+ cells) display greater E-selectin binding than those obtained from mouse (lin-/Sca-1+/c-kit+ [LSK] cells). To define the relevant glycoprotein E-selectin ligands, lysates from human CD34+ and KG1a cells and from mouse LSK cells were immunoprecipitated using E-Ig and resolved byWestern blot using E-Ig. In both human and mouse cells, E-selectin ligand reactivity was observed at ∼ 120- to 130-kDa region, which contained two E-selectin ligands, the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand- 1 glycoform "CLA," and CD43. Human, but not mouse, cells displayed a prominent ∼ 100-kDa band, exclusively comprising the CD44 glycoform "HCELL."E-Ig reactivity was most prominent on CLA in mouse cells and on HCELL in human cells. To further assess HCELL\\'s contribution to E-selectin adherence, complementary studies were performed to silence (via CD44 siRNA) or enforce its expression (via exoglycosylation). Under physiologic shear conditions, CD44/HCELL-silenced human cells showed striking decreases (> 50%) in E-selectin binding. Conversely, enforced HCELL expression of LSK cells profoundly increased E-selectin adherence, yielding > 3-fold more marrow homing in vivo. These data define the key glycoprotein E-selectin ligands of human and mouse HSPCs, unveiling critical species-intrinsic differences in both the identity and activity of these structures. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Levels of the Novel Glycoprotein Lacritin in Human Tears After Laser Refractive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    be done at the 1 day and 1 week post-operative visit. Each of these tests has been used in clinical practice for years. They are being done for...medical or command authorities. Your name will not appear in any published paper or presentation related to this study. A folder will be maintained...Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:863–876. 19. Zhou L, Beuerman RW, Foo Y, Liu S, Ang LP, Tan DT. Character- isation of human tear proteins using high

  19. A human PrM antibody that recognizes a novel cryptic epitope on dengue E glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Hoi Yi Chan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a major mosquito-borne pathogen infecting up to 100 million people each year; so far no effective treatment or vaccines are available. Recently, highly cross-reactive and infection-enhancing pre-membrane (prM-specific antibodies were found to dominate the anti-DENV immune response in humans, raising concern over vaccine candidates that contain native dengue prM sequences. In this study, we have isolated a broadly cross-reactive prM-specific antibody, D29, during a screen with a non-immunized human Fab-phage library against the four serotypes of DENV. The antibody is capable of restoring the infectivity of virtually non-infectious immature DENV (imDENV in FcγR-bearing K562 cells. Remarkably, D29 also cross-reacted with a cryptic epitope on the envelope (E protein located to the DI/DII junction as evidenced by site-directed mutagenesis. This cryptic epitope, while inaccessible to antibody binding in a native virus particle, may become exposed if E is not properly folded. These findings suggest that generation of anti-prM antibodies that enhance DENV infection may not be completely avoided even with immunization strategies employing E protein alone or subunits of E proteins.

  20. Identification of continuous human B-cell epitopes in the VP35, VP40, nucleoprotein and glycoprotein of Ebola virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Becquart

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is a highly virulent human pathogen. Recovery of infected patients is associated with efficient EBOV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG responses, whereas fatal outcome is associated with defective humoral immunity. As B-cell epitopes on EBOV are poorly defined, we sought to identify specific epitopes in four EBOV proteins (Glycoprotein (GP, Nucleoprotein (NP, and matrix Viral Protein (VP40 and VP35. For the first time, we tested EBOV IgG+ sera from asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic Gabonese survivors, collected during the early humoral response (seven days after the end of symptoms and the late memory phase (7-12 years post-infection. We also tested sera from EBOV-seropositive patients who had never had clinical signs of hemorrhagic fever or who lived in non-epidemic areas (asymptomatic subjects. We found that serum from asymptomatic individuals was more strongly reactive to VP40 peptides than to GP, NP or VP35. Interestingly, anti-EBOV IgG from asymptomatic patients targeted three immunodominant regions of VP40 reported to play a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. In contrast, serum from most survivors of the three outbreaks, collected a few days after the end of symptoms, reacted mainly with GP peptides. However, in asymptomatic subjects the longest immunodominant domains were identified in GP, and analysis of the GP crystal structure revealed that these domains covered a larger surface area of the chalice bowl formed by three GP1 subunits. The B-cell epitopes we identified in the EBOV VP35, VP40, NP and GP proteins may represent important tools for understanding the humoral response to this virus and for developing new antibody-based therapeutics or detection methods.

  1. Identification of continuous human B-cell epitopes in the VP35, VP40, nucleoprotein and glycoprotein of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquart, Pierre; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly virulent human pathogen. Recovery of infected patients is associated with efficient EBOV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses, whereas fatal outcome is associated with defective humoral immunity. As B-cell epitopes on EBOV are poorly defined, we sought to identify specific epitopes in four EBOV proteins (Glycoprotein (GP), Nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix Viral Protein (VP)40 and VP35). For the first time, we tested EBOV IgG+ sera from asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic Gabonese survivors, collected during the early humoral response (seven days after the end of symptoms) and the late memory phase (7-12 years post-infection). We also tested sera from EBOV-seropositive patients who had never had clinical signs of hemorrhagic fever or who lived in non-epidemic areas (asymptomatic subjects). We found that serum from asymptomatic individuals was more strongly reactive to VP40 peptides than to GP, NP or VP35. Interestingly, anti-EBOV IgG from asymptomatic patients targeted three immunodominant regions of VP40 reported to play a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. In contrast, serum from most survivors of the three outbreaks, collected a few days after the end of symptoms, reacted mainly with GP peptides. However, in asymptomatic subjects the longest immunodominant domains were identified in GP, and analysis of the GP crystal structure revealed that these domains covered a larger surface area of the chalice bowl formed by three GP1 subunits. The B-cell epitopes we identified in the EBOV VP35, VP40, NP and GP proteins may represent important tools for understanding the humoral response to this virus and for developing new antibody-based therapeutics or detection methods.

  2. The effects of platelet gel on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Balagholi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The positive role of platelet gel (PG in tissue regeneration is well known, however, other characteristics of PG still remain to be determined. We investigated cellular and molecular changes in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells when treated with different concentrations of PG named PG1, PG2, and PG3. hRPE cells were isolated from donor eyes of two newborn children, within 24 hours after their death. The cells were treated with three concentrations of PG for 7 days: 3 × 104/ml (PG1, 6 × 104/ml (PG2, and 9 × 104/ml (PG3. Fetal bovine serum was used as a control. Immunocytochemistry was performed with anti-RPE65 (H-85, anti-Cytokeratin 8/18 (NCL-5D3, and anti-PAX6 antibody. We used MTT assay to determine cell viability. Gene expressions of PAX6, MMP2, RPE65, ACTA2, MKI67, MMP9, and KDR were analyzed using real-time PCR. A significant increase in viability was observed for PG3-treated cells compared to control (p = 0.044 and compared to PG1 group (p = 0.027, on day 7. Cellular elongation together with dendritiform extensions were observed in PG-treated cells on days 1 and 3, while epithelioid morphology was observed on day 7. All cells were immunoreactive for RPE65, cytokeratin 8/18, and PAX6. No significant change was observed in the expression of MKI67 and PAX6, but the expressions of MMP2, MMP9, ACTA2, and KDR were significantly higher in PG2-treated cells compared to controls (p < 0.05. Our results indicate that increased concentration of PG and extended exposure time have positive effects on viability of hRPE cells. PG may be useful for hRPE cell encapsulation in retinal cell replacement therapy.

  3. Potential Angiogenic Role of Platelet-Activating Factor in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Sapino, Anna; Bussolati, Benedetta; Ghisolfi, Gianpiero; Rizea-Savu, Simona; Silvestro, Luigi; Lupia, Enrico; Camussi, Giovanni

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the lipid extracts of 18 primary breast carcinomas and 20 control breast tissues. The amount of PAF detected in breast carcinomas was significantly higher than in controls. The mass spectrometric analysis of PAF-bioactive lipid extract from breast carcinomas showed the presence of several molecular species of PAF, including C16-alkylPAF, C18-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), C16-LPC, lyso-PAF, and C16-acylPAF. The amount of bioactive PAF extracted from breast specimens significantly correlated with tumor vascularization revealed by the number of CD34- and CD31-positive cells. As C16-alkylPAF was previously shown to induce angiogenesis in vivo, we evaluated whether the thin layer chromatography-purified lipid extracts of breast specimens elicited neoangiogenesis in a murine model of subcutaneous Matrigel injection. The lipid extracts from specimens of breast carcinoma containing high levels of PAF bioactivity, but not from breast carcinomas containing low levels of PAF bioactivity or from normal breast tissue, induced a significant angiogenic response. This angiogenic response was significantly inhibited by the PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2170. T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines, but not an immortalized nontumor breast cell line (MCF10), released PAF in the culture medium. A significant in vivo neoangiogenic response, inhibited by WEB 2170, was elicited by T47D and MCF7 but not by MCF10 culture medium. These results indicate that an increased concentration of PAF is present in tumors with high microvessel density and that PAF may account for the neoangiogenic activity induced in mice by the lipid extracts obtained from breast cancer. A contribution of PAF in the neovascularization of human breast cancer is suggested. PMID:9811351

  4. Platelet mimicry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Hunter, Alan Christy; Peer, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Here we critically examine whether coating of nanoparticles with platelet membranes can truly disguise them against recognition by elements of the innate immune system. We further assess whether the "cloaking technology" can sufficiently equip nanoparticles with platelet-mimicking functionalities...

  5. Platelet size does not correlate with platelet age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C B; Love, D G; Quinn, P G; Valeri, C R

    1983-08-01

    The relationship between platelet size and in vivo aging was investigated in the baboon using size-dependent platelet subpopulations separated by counterflow centrifugation. The separation characteristics, size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and dense-body content of the baboon platelet subpopulations were similar to those previously observed in studies of human platelets. Three independent labeling techniques were used: (1) in vivo labeling with 75Se-methionine, (2) in vitro labeling with 51Cr, and (3) in vivo labeling with 14C-serotonin. Maximal incorporation of all three labels showed a close correlation between the mean platelet volume (MPV) of each fraction and the platelet radioactivity. The onset of incorporation and rate of accumulation of 75Se-methionine were comparable in all fractions when corrected for differences in volume, suggesting that platelet size heterogeneity was present from the time of release of the platelets from the bone marrow. Survival studies using 51Cr and 14C-serotonin showed no translocation of the label from one fraction to another in the circulation over time. In vivo survival values for the three radionuclides showed a slight but significant correlation between the lifespan and the MPV of the fractions. The data suggest that large platelets were not younger platelets, but rather platelets with a longer life-span. Platelet size heterogeneity is the result of production factors in the bone marrow and not maturation in the circulation.

  6. Platelet size does not correlate with platelet age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; Love, D.G.; Quinn, P.G.; Valeri, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between platelet size and in vivo aging was investigated in the baboon using size-dependent platelet subpopulations separated by counterflow centrifugation. The separation characteristics, size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and dense-body content of the baboon platelet subpopulations were similar to those previously observed in studies of human platelets. Three independent labeling techniques were used: (1) in vivo labeling with 75 Se-methionine, (2) in vitro labeling with 51 Cr, and (3) in vivo labeling with 14C-serotonin. Maximal incorporation of all three labels showed a close correlation between the mean platelet volume (MPV) of each fraction and the platelet radioactivity. The onset of incorporation and rate of accumulation of 75 Se-methionine were comparable in all fractions when corrected for differences in volume, suggesting that platelet size heterogeneity was present from the time of release of the platelets from the bone marrow. Survival studies using 51 Cr and 14 C-serotonin showed no translocation of the label from one fraction to another in the circulation over time. In vivo survival values for the three radionuclides showed a slight but significant correlation between the lifespan and the MPV of the fractions. The data suggest that large platelets were not younger platelets, but rather platelets with a longer life-span. Platelet size heterogeneity is the result of production factors in the bone marrow and not maturation in the circulation

  7. Zonal variation in the distribution of an alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform receptor in human adrenal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1999-01-01

    receptor was located in the cytoplasm of glomerulosa and outer fasciculata cells. The intensity of the reaction product decreased in the fasciculata, and no staining was seen in inner fasciculata and reticularis. Inhibition with the simple sugars, mannose and GlcNAc confirmed a lectin-like reaction...... specific receptor. The binding of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform B and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform C to the glycoform specific receptor is inhibited by the steroid hormones cortisone, aldosterone, estradiol and progesterone but not by testosterone. The pronounced changes in the distribution...

  8. Multiple signaling pathways mediated by dopamine and calcium ionophore A23187 in human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.A.; Waqar, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism(s) of platelet aggregation induced by the synergistic action of dopamine (DA) and a Ca/sup +2/-ionophore, A23187. DA showed non significant effect on platelet aggregation over a wide range of concentrations (up to 500 micro M), but did potentiate the aggregation response of A23187. Aggregation induced by A23187 was inhibited by calcium channel blockers (diltiazem and verpamil), receptor blockers (chlorpromazine and haloperidol) and a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin). However, the inhibitory effect of these blockers was more pronounced (with a selectivity ratio of 1.5-28) in the aggregation induced by synergistic effect of A23187 and DA. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (P1 3-Kinase) inhibitor, wortmanin (1C/sub 50/. 25-30 nM), inhibited aggregation induced by either A23187 or DA and act synergistically. This synergistic effect on platelet aggregation is mediated through multiple signaling pathways. (author)

  9. Human platelet lysate improves human cord blood derived ECFC survival and vasculogenesis in three dimensional (3D) collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Prasain, Nutan; Vemula, Sasidhar; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Yoder, Mervin C

    2015-09-01

    Human cord blood (CB) is enriched in circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) that display high proliferative potential and in vivo vessel forming ability. Since diminished ECFC survival is known to dampen the vasculogenic response in vivo, we tested how long implanted ECFC survive and generate vessels in three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen matrices in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that human platelet lysate (HPL) would promote cell survival and enhance vasculogenesis in the 3D collagen matrices. We report that the percentage of ECFC co-cultured with HPL that were alive was significantly enhanced on days 1 and 3 post-matrix formation, compared to ECFC alone containing matrices. Also, co-culture of ECFC with HPL displayed significantly more vasculogenic activity compared to ECFC alone and expressed significantly more pro-survival molecules (pAkt, p-Bad and Bcl-xL) in the 3D collagen matrices in vitro. Treatment with Akt1 inhibitor (A-674563), Akt2 inhibitor (CCT128930) and Bcl-xL inhibitor (ABT-263/Navitoclax) significantly decreased the cell survival and vasculogenesis of ECFC co-cultured with or without HPL and implicated activation of the Akt1 pathway as the critical mediator of the HPL effect on ECFC in vitro. A significantly greater average vessel number and total vascular area of human CD31(+) vessels were present in implants containing ECFC and HPL, compared to the ECFC alone implants in vivo. We conclude that implantation of ECFC with HPL in vivo promotes vasculogenesis and augments blood vessel formation via diminishing apoptosis of the implanted ECFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Human Serum and 2 Different Types of Platelet Concentrates on Human Meniscus Cell Migration, Proliferation, and Matrix Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymann, Undine; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Krüger, Jan-Philipp; Hirsh, Glen; Endres, Michaela; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of 10% human serum (HS), 5% platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and 5% autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) on migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis of human meniscus cells. Cell migration and proliferation on stimulation with HS, PRP, and ACP were assessed by chemotaxis assays and measurement of genomic DNA content. Meniscus cells were cultivated in pellets stimulated with 10% HS, 5% PRP, or 5% ACP. Meniscal ECM formation was evaluated by histochemical staining of collagen type I, type II, and proteoglycans and by analysis of fibrochondrocyte marker gene expression. Human meniscus cells were significantly attracted by all 3 blood-derived products (10% HS and 5% ACP: P = .0001, 5% PRP: P = .0002). Cell proliferation at day 9 was significantly increased on stimulation with 10% HS (P = .0001) and 5% PRP (P = .0002) compared with 5% ACP and controls. Meniscus cell pellet cultures showed the formation of a well-structured meniscal ECM with deposition of collagen type I, type II, and proteoglycans on stimulation with 10% HS, whereas 5% PRP or 5% ACP resulted in the formation of an inhomogeneous and more fibrous ECM. Stimulation with 10% HS and 5% ACP showed a significant induction of fibrochondrocyte marker genes such as aggrecan (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0147), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0005), and biglycan (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0003), whereas PRP showed no inducing effect. Among all tested blood-derived products, only stimulation with HS showed the formation of a meniscal ECM as well as positive cell proliferating and migrating effects in vitro. Regarding a potential biological repair of nonvascular meniscus lesions, our results may point toward the use of HS as a beneficial augment in regenerative meniscus repair approaches. Our findings may suggest that HS might be a beneficial augment for meniscus repair. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published

  11. Role of the serine-rich surface glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Seong Seo

    Full Text Available The binding of bacteria to fibrinogen and platelets are important events in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Srr1 is a serine-rich repeat glycoprotein of Streptococcus agalactiae that binds directly to the Aα chain of human fibrinogen. To assess the impact of Srr1 on the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, we first examined the binding of this organism to immobilized human platelets. Strains expressing Srr1 had significantly higher levels of binding to human platelets in vitro, as compared with isogenic Δsrr1 mutants. In addition, platelet binding was inhibited by pretreatment with anti-fibrinogen IgG or purified Srr1 binding region. To assess the contribution of Srr1 to pathogenicity, we compared the relative virulence of S. agalactiae NCTC 10/84 strain and its Δsrr1 mutant in a rat model of endocarditis, where animals were co-infected with the WT and the mutant strains at a 1:1 ratio. At 72 h post-infection, bacterial densities (CFU/g of the WT strain within vegetations, kidneys, and spleens were significantly higher, as compared with the Δsrr1 mutant. These results indicate that Srr1 contributes to the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, at least in part through its role in fibrinogen-mediated platelet binding.

  12. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF® contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3 is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of PRGF on hBD-3 expression in human primary keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, we investigated the influence of Vivostat PRF on hBD-3 expression in artificially generated human skin wounds in vivo. PRGF treatment of primary keratinocytes induced a significant, concentration- and time-dependent increase in hBD-3 gene expression which was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. In line with these cell culture data, in vivo experiments revealed an enhanced hBD-3 expression in experimentally produced human wounds after the treatment with Vivostat PRF. Thus, the induction of hBD-3 may contribute to the beneficial effects of thrombocyte concentrate lysates in the treatment of chronic or infected wounds.

  13. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Justus; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Cremer, Jochen; Jahr, Holger; Rademacher, Franziska; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF®)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of PRGF on hBD-3 expression in human primary keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, we investigated the influence of Vivostat PRF on hBD-3 expression in artificially generated human skin wounds in vivo. PRGF treatment of primary keratinocytes induced a significant, concentration- and time-dependent increase in hBD-3 gene expression which was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In line with these cell culture data, in vivo experiments revealed an enhanced hBD-3 expression in experimentally produced human wounds after the treatment with Vivostat PRF. Thus, the induction of hBD-3 may contribute to the beneficial effects of thrombocyte concentrate lysates in the treatment of chronic or infected wounds. PMID:28811680

  14. Scintigraphic assessment of focal platelet accumulations following infrainguinal bypass surgery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Hesse, B; Eiberg, J

    1997-01-01

    . In 28 patients undergoing in situ vein (n = 24), composite vein-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (n = 1) or PTFE (n = 3) bypass surgery, assumed vascular injuries were recorded intraoperatively. Autologous indium-111-labelled platelets were injected into the inflow artery immediately after restoration...... antiplatelet therapy or vein graft diameter. Only 2 of the 20 intragraft platelet depositions occurred in areas where intra-operative vascular injury was suspected. In the composite graft and the PTFE grafts, diffuse activity was observed throughout the entire bypass. In conclusion, focal activity...

  15. Antibody formation in pregnant women with maternal-neonatal human platelet antigen mismatch from a hospital in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Hua Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT is a clinical syndrome that resembles hemolytic disease of the newborn, affecting the platelets only. The thrombocytopenia results from the maternal alloantibodies reacting with specific human platelet antigens (HPAs on the fetal platelets. Forty-four maternal plasma samples were screened for platelet alloantibodies using qualitative solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA commercial kit (LIFECODES Pakplus, Hologic Gen-Probe GTI Diagnostics, Waukesha, WI, USA, and both the maternal and the corresponding cord blood samples were genotyped (LIFECODES ThromboType, Hologic Gen-Probe GTI Diagnostics, Waukesha, WI, USA. HPA genotyping results correlated with the genetic frequencies in the Taiwan population. A total of 34 newborns (77.3% had partial HPA genotyping mismatches with the corresponding mothers. The most common partial mismatches between mothers and neonates in HPA genotypes were 13 (29.5% in both HPA-3b and HPA-15a, followed by 12 (27.3% in HPA-15b, and 8 (18.2% in HPA-3a. The frequencies of homozygotic mother with heterozygotic neonate were 15.9% in both HPA-3a and HPA-15b, 9.1% in HPA-15a, 6.8% in HPA-3b, and 2.3% in both HPA-2a and HPA-6a. In this study, maternal HPA antibodies were found in five samples, whereas HLA class I antibodies were found in seven maternal plasma samples from the antibody screen. The results from this study have demonstrated that HPA mismatch is not the main cause for the production of HPA alloantibodies.

  16. Mechanisms of Nifedipine-Downregulated CD40L/sCD40L Signaling in Collagen Stimulated Human Platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso-Hsiao Chen

    Full Text Available The platelet-derived soluble CD40L (sCD40L release plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Nifedipine, a dihydropyridine-based L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB, has been reported to have an anti-atherosclerotic effect beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether nifedipine affects sCD40L release from collagen-stimulated human platelets and to determine the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/-γ (PPAR-β/-γ. We found that treatment with nifedipine significantly inhibited the platelet surface CD40L expression and sCD40L release in response to collagen, while the inhibition was markedly reversed by blocking PPAR-β/-γ activity with specific antagonist such as GSK0660 and GW9662. Meanwhile, nifedipine also enhanced nitric oxide (NO and cyclic GMP formation in a PPAR-β/-γ-dependent manner. When the NO/cyclic GMP pathway was suppressed, nifedipine-mediated inhibition of sCD40L release was abolished significantly. Collagen-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and HSP27, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 expression/activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation were significantly inhibited by nifedipine, whereas these alterations were all attenuated by co-treatment with PPAR-β/-γ antagonists. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPAR-β/-γ-dependent pathways contribute to nifedipine-mediated downregulation of CD40L/sCD40L signaling in activated platelets through regulation of NO/ p38MAPK/ERK1/2/HSP27/MMP-2 signalings and provide a novel mechanism regarding the anti-atherosclerotic effect of nifedipine.

  17. HCMV Infection of Human Trophoblast Progenitor Cells of the Placenta Is Neutralized by a Human Monoclonal Antibody to Glycoprotein B and Not by Antibodies to the Pentamer Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zydek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the major viral cause of congenital infection and birth defects. Primary maternal infection often results in virus transmission, and symptomatic babies can have permanent neurological deficiencies and deafness. Congenital infection can also lead to intrauterine growth restriction, a defect in placental transport. HCMV replicates in primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs, the specialized cells of the placenta, and inhibits differentiation/invasion. Human trophoblast progenitor cells (TBPCs give rise to the mature cell types of the chorionic villi, CTBs and multi-nucleated syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs. Here we report that TBPCs are fully permissive for pathogenic and attenuated HCMV strains. Studies with a mutant virus lacking a functional pentamer complex (gH/gL/pUL128-131A showed that virion entry into TBPCs is independent of the pentamer. In addition, infection is blocked by a potent human neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb, TRL345, reactive with glycoprotein B (gB, but not mAbs to the pentamer proteins pUL130/pUL131A. Functional studies revealed that neutralization of infection preserved the capacity of TBPCs to differentiate and assemble into trophospheres composed of CTBs and STBs in vitro. Our results indicate that mAbs to gB protect trophoblast progenitors of the placenta and could be included in antibody treatments developed to suppress congenital infection and prevent disease.

  18. Novel agents for anti-platelet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xuebin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anti-platelet therapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with thrombotic diseases. The most commonly used anti-platelet drugs, namely, aspirin, ticlopidine, and clopidogrel, are effective in the prevention and treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists (e.g., abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban have demonstrated good clinical benefits and safety profiles in decreasing ischemic events in acute coronary syndrome. However, adverse events related to thrombosis or bleeding have been reported in cases of therapy with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. Cilostazol is an anti-platelet agent used in the treatment of patients with peripheral ischemia, such as intermittent claudication. Presently, platelet adenosine diphosphate P2Y(12 receptor antagonists (e.g., clopidogrel, prasugrel, cangrelor, and ticagrelor are being used in clinical settings for their pronounced protective effects. The new protease-activated receptor antagonists, vorapaxar and atopaxar, potentially decrease the risk of ischemic events without significantly increasing the rate of bleeding. Some other new anti-platelet drugs undergoing clinical trials have also been introduced. Indeed, the number of new anti-platelet drugs is increasing. Consequently, the efficacy of these anti-platelet agents in actual patients warrants scrutiny, especially in terms of the hemorrhagic risks. Hopefully, new selective platelet inhibitors with high anti-thrombotic efficiencies and low hemorrhagic side effects can be developed.

  19. Effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on human gingival fibroblast, osteoblast and periodontal ligament cell behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Sculean, Anton; Chappuis, Vivianne; Buser, Daniel; Schaller, Benoit; Dőri, Ferenc; Miron, Richard J

    2017-06-02

    The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP, GLO) has been used as an adjunct to various regenerative dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to characterize the influence of PRP on human gingival fibroblasts, periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and osteoblast cell behavior in vitro. Human gingival fibroblasts, PDL cells and osteoblasts were cultured with conditioned media from PRP and investigated for cell migration, proliferation and collagen1 (COL1) immunostaining. Furthermore, gingival fibroblasts were tested for genes encoding TGF-β, PDGF and COL1a whereas PDL cells and osteoblasts were additionally tested for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers including Runx2, COL1a2, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). It was first found that PRP significantly increased cell migration of all cells up to 4 fold. Furthermore, PRP increased cell proliferation at 3 and 5 days of gingival fibroblasts, and at 3 days for PDL cells, whereas no effect was observed on osteoblasts. Gingival fibroblasts cultured with PRP increased TGF-β, PDGF-B and COL1 mRNA levels at 7 days and further increased over 3-fold COL1 staining at 14 days. PDL cells cultured with PRP increased Runx2 mRNA levels but significantly down-regulated OCN mRNA levels at 3 days. No differences in COL1 staining or ALP staining were observed in PDL cells. Furthermore, PRP decreased mineralization of PDL cells at 14 days post seeding as assessed by alizarin red staining. In osteoblasts, PRP increased COL1 staining at 14 days, increased COL1 and ALP at 3 days, as well as increased ALP staining at 14 days. No significant differences were observed for alizarin red staining of osteoblasts following culture with PRP. The results demonstrate that PRP promoted gingival fibroblast migration, proliferation and mRNA expression of pro-wound healing molecules. While PRP induced PDL cells and osteoblast migration and proliferation, it tended to have

  20. Comparative Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma, Platelet Lysate, and Fetal Calf Serum on Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, A P; Bondarenko, N A; Surovtseva, M A; Kim, I I; Poveshchenko, O V; Pokushalov, E A; Konenkov, V I

    2017-10-01

    We studied the effects of human platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate on proliferation, migration, and colony-forming properties of rat mesenchymal stem cells. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate stimulated the proliferation, migration, and colony formation of mesenchymal stem cells. A real-time study showed that platelet-rich plasma produces the most potent stimulatory effect, while both platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate stimulated migration of cells.

  1. [3H]52770 RP, a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist, and tritiated platelet-activating factor label a common specific binding site in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, O.; Robaut, C.; Cavero, I.

    1988-01-01

    In human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the tritiated platelet activating factor ([ 3 H]PAF) labels in a saturable manner a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 3.5 +/- 0.5 nM (n = 7) and a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 206 +/- 13 fmol/2.5 X 10(6) PMNs (n = 7). 52770 RP, a nonphospholipid antagonist of PAF receptors, fully and competitively displaced the [ 3 H]PAF from its binding sites with a Ki of 7.0 +/- 0.7 nM (n = 4). The high potency and the low solubility in cellular membranes of this compound led us to prepare [ 3 H]52770 RP. This ligand was characterized by a binding which was rapid, reversible, confined to a single site, saturable, specific and stereoselective. Its Kd and Bmax were 4.2 +/- 0.3 nM and 181 +/- 11 fmol/2.5 X 10(6) PMNs, respectively. The stereoselectivity of the binding was suggested by the 600- and 1050-fold higher potency of the d-enantiomer with respect to l-52770 RP in displacing [ 3 H]52770 RP or [ 3 H]PAF, respectively. Several PAF analogs (e.g., lyso-PAF, 2-O-methyl-lyso-PAF), which are poorly active as PAF receptor agonists in functional tests, were weak displacers of [ 3 H]PAF and [ 3 H]52770 RP. Furthermore, for a series of 14 known PAF receptor agonists or antagonists belonging to different chemical families, there was an excellent correlation (r = 0.98) between their ability to displace [ 3 H]PAF and [ 3 H]52770 RP. Thus, [ 3 H]52770 RP and [ 3 H]PAF appear to interact with the same binding site on human PMNs which is proposed to be the PAF receptor mediating functional responses

  2. Expression of peanut agglutinin-binding mucin-type glycoprotein in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as a marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Ramathilakam

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TF (Thomson – Friedenreich blood group antigen behaves as an onco-foetal carcinoma-associated antigen, showing increased expression in malignancies and its detection and quantification can be used in serologic diagnosis mainly in adenocarcinomas. This study was undertaken to analyze the sera and tissue level detectable mucin-type glycoprotein (TF-antigen by Peanut agglutinin (PNA and its diagnostic index in serum as well tissues of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as marker. Results We examined 100 patients for serological analysis by Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay (ELISA and demonstrated a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 90% and a positive predictive value of 95%. The immuno-histochemical localization of TF antigen by Fluorescence Antigen Technique (FAT in 25 specimens of normal esophageal squamous epithelium specimens and 92 specimens with different grades of, allowed a quicker and more precise identification of its increased expression and this did not correlate with gender and tumor size. There was a positive correlation between membrane bound TF antigen expression with different histological progression, from well differentiated to poorly differentiated, determined by PNA binding. Specimens showed morphological changes and a pronounced increase in PNA binding in Golgi apparatus, secretory granules of the cytosol of well differentiated and an increased cell membrane labeling in moderately and poorly differentiated, when compared with ESCC and normal tissues. Conclusion The authors propose that the expression of TF-antigen in human may play an important role during tumorigenesis establishing it as a chemically well-defined carcinoma-associated antigen. Identification of the circulating TF-antigen as a reactive form and as a cryptic form in the healthy individuals, using PNA-ELLA and Immunohistochemical analysis of TF antigen by FAT is positively correlated with the different histological grades as a simple

  3. Human histologic evaluation of anorganic bovine bone mineral combined with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB in maxillary sinus augmentation: case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Myron; Garber, David; Hanratty, James J; McAllister, Bradley S; Nevins, Marc L; Salama, Maurice; Schupbach, Peter; Wallace, Steven; Bernstein, Simon M; Kim, David M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle study was to examine the potential for improved bone regenerative outcomes in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures when recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (0.3 mg/mL) is combined with particulate anorganic bovine bone mineral. The surgical outcomes in all treated sites were uneventful at 6 to 8 months, with sufficient regenerated bone present to allow successful placement of maxillary posterior implants. Large areas of dense, well-formed lamellar bone were seen throughout the intact core specimens in more than half of the grafted sites. Abundant numbers of osteoblasts were noted in concert with significant osteoid in all sites, indicating ongoing osteogenesis. A number of cores demonstrated efficient replacement of the normally slowly resorbing anorganic bovine bone mineral matrix particles with newly formed bone when the matrix was saturated with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB.

  4. Impact of human platelet lysate on the expansion and chondrogenic capacity of cultured human chondrocytes for cartilage cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, J G; Kuiper, J H; Richardson, J B; Roberts, S; Wright, K T; Kuiper, N J

    2018-05-01

    High hopes have been pinned on regenerative medicine strategies in order to prevent the progression of cartilage damage to osteoarthritis, particularly by autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The loss of chondrocyte phenotype during in vitro monolayer expansion, a necessary step to obtain sufficient cell numbers, may be a key limitation in ACI. In this study, it was determined whether a shorter monolayer expansion approach could improve chondrogenic differentiation. The effects of two supplement types, foetal bovine serum (FBS) and Stemulate™ (a commercial source of human platelet lysate), on the expansion and re-differentiation potential of human chondrocytes, isolated from five individuals, were compared. Chondrocytes were expanded with 10 % FBS or 10 % Stemulate™. Pellets were cultured for 28 d in chondrogenic differentiation medium and assessed for the presence of cartilage matrix molecules and genes associated with chondrogenicity. Stemulate™ significantly enhanced the proliferation rate [average population doubling times: FBS, 25.07 ± 6.98 d (standard error of the mean, SEM) vs. Stemulate™, 13.10 ± 2.57 d (SEM)]. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), total collagen and qRT-PCR analyses of cartilage genes showed that FBS-expanded chondrocytes demonstrated significantly better chondrogenic capacity than Stemulate™-expanded chondrocytes. Histologically, FBS-expanded chondrocyte pellets appeared to be more stable, with a more intense staining for toluidine blue, indicating a greater chondrogenic capacity. Although Stemulate™ positively influenced chondrocyte proliferation, it had a negative effect on chondrogenic differentiation potential. This suggested that, in the treatment of cartilage defects, Stemulate™ might not be the ideal supplement for expanding chondrocytes (which maintained a chondrocyte phenotype) and, hence, for cell therapies (including ACI).

  5. Impact of human platelet lysate on the expansion and chondrogenic capacity of cultured human chondrocytes for cartilage cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Sykes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High hopes have been pinned on regenerative medicine strategies in order to prevent the progression of cartilage damage to osteoarthritis, particularly by autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI. The loss of chondrocyte phenotype during in vitro monolayer expansion, a necessary step to obtain sufficient cell numbers, may be a key limitation in ACI. In this study, it was determined whether a shorter monolayer expansion approach could improve chondrogenic differentiation. The effects of two supplement types, foetal bovine serum (FBS and Stemulate™ (a commercial source of human platelet lysate, on the expansion and re-differentiation potential of human chondrocytes, isolated from five individuals, were compared. Chondrocytes were expanded with 10 % FBS or 10 % Stemulate™. Pellets were cultured for 28 d in chondrogenic differentiation medium and assessed for the presence of cartilage matrix molecules and genes associated with chondrogenicity. Stemulate™ significantly enhanced the proliferation rate [average population doubling times: FBS, 25.07 ± 6.98 d (standard error of the mean, SEM vs. Stemulate™, 13.10 ± 2.57 d (SEM]. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG, total collagen and qRT-PCR analyses of cartilage genes showed that FBS-expanded chondrocytes demonstrated significantly better chondrogenic capacity than Stemulate™-expanded chondrocytes. Histologically, FBS-expanded chondrocyte pellets appeared to be more stable, with a more intense staining for toluidine blue, indicating a greater chondrogenic capacity. Although Stemulate™ positively influenced chondrocyte proliferation, it had a negative effect on chondrogenic differentiation potential. This suggested that, in the treatment of cartilage defects, Stemulate™ might not be the ideal supplement for expanding chondrocytes (which maintained a chondrocyte phenotype and, hence, for cell therapies (including ACI.

  6. Effect of moderate walnut consumption on lipid profile, arterial stiffness and platelet activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, J N; Aftab, S M; Jubb, A W; Carnegy, F H; Lyall, K; Sarma, J; Newby, D E; Flapan, A D

    2011-02-01

    A large intake of walnuts may improve lipid profile and endothelial function. The effect of moderate walnut consumption is not known. We investigated whether a moderate intake of walnuts would affect lipid profile, arterial stiffness and platelet activation in healthy volunteers. A total of 30 healthy males were recruited into a single-blind randomized controlled crossover trial of 4 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation (15 g/day) and 4 weeks of control (no walnuts). Arterial stiffness was assessed using pulse waveform analysis to determine the augmentation index and augmented pressure. Platelet activation was determined using flow cytometry to measure circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates. There were no differences in lipid profile after 4 weeks of walnut supplementation compared with control. Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid was increased during the walnut diet (2.1±0.4 g/day versus 0.7±0.4 g/day, Pprofile, arterial stiffness or platelet activation in man. Our results suggest that the potentially beneficial cardiac effects of walnuts may not be apparent at lower and more practical levels of consumption.

  7. Effects of activated and nonactivated platelet-rich plasma on proliferation of human osteoblasts in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slapnička, J.; Fassmann, A.; Strašák, Luděk; Augustin, P.; Vaněk, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2008), s. 297-301 ISSN 0278-2391 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : platelet-rich plasma * osteoblast * proliferation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.241, year: 2008

  8. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na + and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14 C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet

  9. Comparing different preparation methods to study human fibrin fibers and platelets using TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Antoinette V; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2012-06-01

    For the study of cellular ultrastructure, the sample needs to be stabilized by fixation, with the ultimate aim to preserve the native tissue organization and to protect the tissue against later stages of preparation. Chemical and freezing fixation are most used, and chemical fixation employs agents that permeate tissues and cells by diffusion and covalently bind with their major biochemical constituents to fix them. Most widely used chemical fixatives are aldehydes, e.g., formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, which are noncoagulating, crosslinking agents. Cryofixation methods for ultrastructural studies are also popular, and high-pressure freezing immobilizes all cell constituents and arrests biological activity by removing the thermal energy from the system. In the current research, we used platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to study expansive fibrin fibers and platelet ultrastructure to compare the two fixation techniques. We also used thrombin and calcium chloride as a clotting agent to determine the technique most suitable for the formation of extensive fibrin networks. Chemically fixated fibrin fibers were more compact and condensed and also showed a banding pattern on longitudinal sections. High-pressure frozen samples were more dispersed while platelets fixated showed better preserved cellular membranes and organelle structure. PRP coagulated by addition of CaCl(2) showed blood platelets that are noticeably more activated compared with PRP; however, with thrombin, a sharp ultrastructure was seen. We conclude that PRP mixed with thrombin, and freeze substituted, is the most suitable method for the study of extensive fibrin fibers as well as platelets. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Deciphering of ADP-induced, phosphotyrosine-dependent signaling networks in human platelets by Src-homology 2 region (SH2)-profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigel, Hardy; Geiger, Jörg; Beck, Florian; Buhs, Sophia; Gerull, Helwe; Walter, Ulrich; Sickmann, Albert; Nollau, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a central role in signal transduction controlling many important biological processes. In platelets, the activity of several signaling proteins is controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation ensuring proper platelet activation and aggregation essential for regulation of the delicate balance between bleeding and hemostasis. Here, we applied Src-homology 2 region (SH2)-profiling for deciphering of the phosphotyrosine state of human platelets activated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Applying a panel of 31 SH2-domains, rapid and complex regulation of the phosphotyrosine state of platelets was observed after ADP stimulation. Specific inhibition of platelet P2Y receptors by synthetic drugs revealed a major role for the P2Y1 receptor in tyrosine phosphorylation. Concomitant activation of protein kinase A (PKA) abolished ADP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Given the fact that PKA activity is negatively regulated by the P2Y12 receptor, our data provide evidence for a novel link of synergistic control of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation by both P2Y receptors. By SH2 domain pull down and MS/MS analysis, we identified distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in cell adhesion molecules, intracellular adapter proteins and phosphatases suggesting a major, functional role of tyrosine phosphorylation of theses candidate proteins in ADP-dependent signaling in human platelets. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Comparison of clinical grade human platelet lysates for cultivation of mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Morten; Tratwal, Josefine; Follin, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    be devoid of any animal derived components. We have evaluated whether human Platelet Lysate (hPL) could be an attractive alternative to animal supplements. METHODS: MSCs from bone marrow (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) obtained from three donors were culture expanded in three...... culture conditions with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cell morphology, proliferation, phenotype, genomic stability, and differentiation potential were analyzed. RESULTS: Regardless of manufacturer, BMSCs and ASCs cultured in hPL media showed a significant increase in proliferation capacity compared to FBS...

  12. Human endometrial stromal stem cells differentiate into megakaryocytes with the ability to produce functional platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Wang

    Full Text Available Human endometrium is a high dynamic tissue that contains endometrial stromal stem cells (hESSCs. The hESSCs have been differentiated into a number of cell lineages. However, differentiation of hESSCs into megakaryocytes (MKs has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of MK generation from hESSCs and subsequent production of functional platelets (PLTs. In our study, hESSCs were cultured from endometrial stromal cells as confirmed by positive stromal cell specific markers (CD90 and CD29 and negative hematopoietic stem cell markers (CD45 and CD34 expression. Then, hESSCs were differentiated in a medium supplemented with thrombopoietin (TPO for 18 days. The MK differentiation was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The differentiation medium was collected for PLT production analysis by flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and functional measurements. Our results show: 1 MKs were successfully generated from hESSCs as identified by expression of specific markers (CD41a: 1 ± 0.09% and 39 ± 3.0%; CD42b: 1.2 ± 0.06% and 28 ± 2.0%, control vs. differentiation accompanied with reduction of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct4 and Sox2 expression; 2 The level of PLTs in the differentiation medium was 16 ± 1 number/µl as determined by size (2-4 µm and CD41a expression (CD41a: 1 ± 0.4% and 90±2.0%, control vs. differentiation; 3 Generated PLTs were functional as evidenced by the up-regulation of CD62p expression and fibrinogen binding following thrombin stimulation; 4 Released PLTs showed similar ultra-structure characteristics (alpha granules, vacuoles and dense tubular system as PLTs from peripheral blood determined by electron microscopic analysis. Data demonstrate the feasibility of generating MKs from hESSCs, and that the generated MKs release functional PLTs. Therefore, hESSCs could be a potential new stem cell source for in vitro MK/PLT production.

  13. A New Method to Develop Human Dental Pulp Cells and Platelet-rich Fibrin Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Chen, Wen-Xia; Ban, Guifei; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Wen-Jin; Li, Xian-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been used as a scaffold material in various tissue regeneration studies. In the previous methods to combine seed cells with PRF, the structure of PRF was damaged, and the manipulation time in vitro was also increased. The objective of this in vitro study was to explore an appropriate method to develop a PRF-human dental pulp cell (hDPC) complex to maintain PRF structure integrity and to find out the most efficient part of PRF. The PRF-hDPC complex was developed at 3 different time points during PRF preparation: (1) the before centrifugation (BC) group, the hDPC suspension was added to the venous blood before blood centrifugation; (2) the immediately after centrifugation (IAC) group, the hDPC suspension was added immediately after blood centrifugation; (3) the after centrifugation (AC) group, the hDPC suspension was added 10 minutes after blood centrifugation; and (4) the control group, PRF without hDPC suspension. The prepared PRF-hDPC complexes were cultured for 7 days. The samples were fixed for histologic, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopic evaluation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate messenger RNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and dentin sialophosphoprotein. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay quantification for growth factors was performed within the different parts of the PRF. Histologic, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopic results revealed that hDPCs were only found in the BC group and exhibited favorable proliferation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that alkaline phosphatase and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression increased in the cultured PRF-hDPC complex. The lower part of the PRF released the maximum quantity of growth factors. Our new method to develop a PRF-hDPCs complex maintained PRF structure integrity. The hDPCs were distributed in the buffy coat, which might be the most efficient part of PRF. Copyright © 2016 American

  14. Bitistatin-functionalized fluorescent nanodiamond particles specifically bind to purified human platelet integrin receptor αIIbβ3 and activated platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcinkiewicz C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cezary Marcinkiewicz,1,2 Jonathan A Gerstenhaber,1 Mark Sternberg,2 Peter I Lelkes,1 Giora Feuerstein1,2 1Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, 2Debina Diagnostic, Inc., Newton Square, PA, USA Abstract: Thromboembolic events (TEE underwrite key causes of death in developed countries. While advanced imaging technologies such as computed tomography scans serve to diagnose blood clots during acute cardiovascular events, no such technology is available in routine primary care for TEE risk assessment. Here, we describe an imaging platform technology based on bioengineered fluorescent nanodiamond particles (F-NDPs functionalized with bitistatin (Bit, a disintegrin that specifically binds to the αIIbβ3 integrin, platelet fibrinogen receptor (PFR on activated platelets. Covalent linkage of purified Bit to F-NDP was concentration-dependent and saturable, as validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using specific anti-Bit antibodies. F-NDP–Bit interacted with purified PFR, either in immobilized or soluble form. Lotrafiban, a nonpeptide, αIIbβ3 receptor antagonist, specifically blocked F-NDP–Bit–PFR complex formation. Moreover, F-NDP–Bit specifically binds to activated platelets incorporated into a clot generated by thrombin-activated rat platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Our results suggest that engineered F-NDP–Bit particles could serve as noninvasive, “real-time” optical diagnostics for clots present in blood vessels. Keywords: carbon nanoparticles, blood clots, imaging, platelet fibrinogen receptor, fluorescence, disintegrin, thromboembolic complications, thrombosis

  15. Effects of tunicamycin, mannosamine, and other inhibitors of glycoprotein processing on skeletal alkaline phosphatase in human osteoblast-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, J R; Magnusson, P

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP) is a glycoprotein- approximately 20% carbohydrate by weight, with five presumptive sites for N-linked glycosylation, as well as a carboxy-terminal site for attachment of the glycolipid structure (glycosylphosphatidylinositol, GPI), which anchors sALP to the outer surface of osteoblasts. The current studies were intended to characterize the effects of inhibiting glycosylation and glycosyl-processing on the synthesis, plasma membrane attachment, cellular-extracellular distribution, and reaction kinetics of sALP in human osteosarcoma (SaOS-2) cells. sALP synthesis, glycosylation, and GPI-anchor attachment were assessed as total protein synthesis/immunospecific sALP synthesis, sialic acid content (i.e., wheat germ agglutinin precipitation), and insolubility (i.e., temperature-dependent phase-separation), respectively. sALP reaction kinetics were characterized by analysis of dose-dependent initial velocity data, with a phosphoryl substrate. The results of these studies revealed that the inhibition of either N-linked glycosylation or oligosaccharide synthesis for GPI-anchor addition could affect the synthesis and the distribution of sALP, but not the kinetics of the phosphatase reaction. Tunicamycin-which blocks N-linked glycosylation by inhibiting core oligosaccharide synthesis-decreased cell layer protein and the total amount of sALP in the cells, while increasing the relative level of sALP in the cell-conditioned culture medium (CM, i.e., the amount of sALP released). These effects were attributed to dose- and time-dependent decreases in sALP synthesis and N-linked glycosylation, and an increase in apoptotic cell death (P sALP specific activity, in the cells and in the CM; and (3) increases in the percentages of both anchorless and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-soluble sALP in the medium, but not in the cells (P sALP to the outside of the plasma membrane surface. Neither mannosammine nor tunicamycin had any effect on the reaction

  16. Platelet-derived growth factor inhibits platelet activation in heparinized whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    1999-08-15

    We previously have demonstrated that human platelets have functionally active platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptors. Studies with gel-filtered platelets showed that an autocrine inhibition pathway is transduced through this tyrosine kinase receptor during platelet activation. The physiological significance of this inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor on gel-filtered platelets activation is, however, not known. In the present study, we investigated whether platelet-derived growth factor inhibits platelet activation under more physiological conditions in heparinized whole blood, which represents a more physiological condition than gel-filtered platelets. Using flow cytometric assays, we demonstrate here that platelet-derived growth factor inhibits thrombin-, thrombin receptor agonist peptide SFLLRN-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shedding of platelet-derived microparticles from the platelet plasma membrane during platelet aggregation in stirred heparinized whole blood. The inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor was dose dependent. However, under nonaggregating conditions (no stirring), we could not demonstrate any significant effect of platelet-derived growth factor on thrombin- and thrombin receptor agonist peptide-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin. Our results demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor appears to be a true antithrombotic agent only under aggregating conditions in heparinized whole blood.

  17. Staphylococcal β-Toxin Modulates Human Aortic Endothelial Cell and Platelet Function through Sphingomyelinase and Biofilm Ligase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE. IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like “vegetations” composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism’s ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase and biofilm ligase. Although both activities have functions in a rabbit model of IE, the mechanism(s by which β-toxin directly affects human cells and is involved in the infectious process has not been elucidated. Here, we compared the in vitro effects of purified recombinant wild-type β-toxin, SMase-deficient β-toxin (H289N, and biofilm ligase-deficient β-toxin (H162A and/or D163A on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs and platelets. β-Toxin was cytotoxic to HAECs and inhibited the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8 from these cells by both SMase and biofilm ligase activities. β-Toxin altered HAEC surface expression of CD40 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1. HAECs treated with β-toxin displayed granular membrane morphology not seen in treatment with the SMase-deficient mutant. The altered morphology resulted in two possibly separable activities, cell rounding and redistribution of cell membranes into granules, which were not the result of endosome production from the Golgi apparatus or lysosomes. β-Toxin directly aggregated rabbit platelets via SMase activity.

  18. Human platelet lysate stimulates high-passage and senescent human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell growth and rejuvenation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Baraniak, Priya R; Copland, Ian B; Nerem, Robert M; McDevitt, Todd C

    2013-12-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are clinically useful because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties, but MSC therapies are limited by the loss of self-renewal and cell plasticity associated with ex vivo expansion culture and, on transplantation, increased immunogenicity from xenogen exposure during culture. Recently, pooled human platelet lysate (hPL) has been used as a culture supplement to promote MSC growth; however, the effects of hPL on MSCs after fetal bovine serum (FBS) exposure remain unknown. MSCs were cultured in medium containing FBS or hPL for up to 16 passages, and cell size, doubling time and immunophenotype were determined. MSC senescence was assessed by means of a fluorometric assay for endogenous β-galactosidase expression. MSCs cultured with FBS for different numbers of passages were switched to hPL conditions to evaluate the ability of hPL to "rescue" the proliferative capacity of MSCs. hPL culture resulted in more rapid cell proliferation at earlier passages (passage 5 or earlier) than remove FBS; by day 4, hPL (5%) yielded an MSC doubling time of 1.28 days compared with 1.52 days in 16% FBS. MSCs cultured first in FBS and switched to hPL proliferated more and demonstrated less β-galactosidase production and smaller cell sizes than remove MSCs continuously propagated in FBS. hPL enables rapid expansion of MSCs without adversely affecting immunophenotype. hPL culture of aged and senescent MSCs demonstrated cellular rejuvenation, reflected by decreased doubling time and smaller cell size. These results suggest that expansion of MSCs in hPL after FBS exposure can enhance cell phenotype and proliferative capacity. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and synthesis of novel platelet fibrinogen receptor antagonists with 2H-1,4-benzoxazine-3(4H)-one scaffold. A systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderluh, Marko; Cesar, Jozko; Stefanic, Petra; Kikelj, Danijel; Janes, Damjan; Murn, Jernej; Nadrah, Kristina; Tominc, Mojca; Addicks, Elisabeth; Giannis, Athanassios; Stegnar, Mojca; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2005-01-01

    New platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa, integrin alpha(IIb)beta3) antagonists were prepared on a 2H-1,4-benzoxazine-3(4H)-one scaffold. Their anti-aggregatory activities in human platelet rich plasma and their affinity towards alpha(IIb)beta3 and alpha(V)beta3 integrins were assessed. Various substitution positions and side chain variations were studied. In contrast to the generally accepted model, compounds containing ethyl esters as aspartate mimetics were in general more active than the corresponding free acids. We suggest an explanation for the observed behaviour of these new compounds.

  20. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.

    2017-05-03

    Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  1. Effect of membrane protein concentration on binding of 3H-imipramine in human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkai, A.I.; Kowalik, S.; Baron, M.

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 3 H-imipramine to platelet membranes has been implicated as a marker for depression. Comparing 3 H-IMI binding between depressed patients and normal subjects we observed an increase in the dissociation constant Kd with increasing membrane protein. This phenomenon was studied more rigorously in five normal subjects. Platelet membranes were prepared and adjusted to four concentrations of protein ranging from 100 to 800 micrograms/ml. The 3 H-IMI binding parameters of maximum binding sites number (Bmax) and Kd were obtained by Scatchard analysis at each membrane concentration. A positive linear relationship was found between K/sub d/ values and the concentration of membrane protein in the assay, but no change was observed in Bmax. The variability in Kd values reported in the literature may be accounted for in part by the different concentrations of membrane protein used in various studies

  2. Platelet Activation after Presyncope by Lower Body Negative Pressure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Data acquisition was performed on BD FACS CANTO using FACSDiva software (BD FACSDIVA 6.0 software , BD FACSCanto Flow Cytometry, BD Biosciences, CA... software integrated in SigmaPlot (version 11.0; Systat Software ). The probability of observing chance effects on the dependent variables of interest...FD, Gosselin RC, et al. (2001) Platelet activation and function after trauma. J Trauma 51: 639–647. 11. Libre EP, Cowan DH, Watkins SP Jr, Shulman NR

  3. Release of (14C)5-hydroxytryptamine from human platelets by red wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, J.; Glover, V.; Sandler, M.

    1991-01-01

    Red wine, at a final dilution of 1/50, caused released of ( 14 C)5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from preloaded platelets, an effect which was not observed with any white wines or beers tested. Since 5-HT, is probably released from body stores during migraine attacks and red wine is known to provoke migraine episodes in susceptible individuals, release of 5-HT, possibly from central stores, could represent a plausible mechanism for its mode of action

  4. Prediction of exposed domains of envelope glycoprotein in Indian HIV-1 isolates and experimental confirmation of their immunogenicity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohabatkar H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the impact of subtype differences on the seroreactivity of linear antigenic epitopes in envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 isolates from different geographical locations. By computer analysis, we predicted potential antigenic sites of envelope glycoprotein (gp120 and gp4l of this virus. For this purpose, after fetching sequences of proteins of interest from data banks, values of hydrophilicity, flexibility, accessibility, inverted hydrophobicity, and secondary structure were considered. We identified several potential antigenic epitopes in a B subtype strain of envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 (IIIB. Solid- phase peptide synthesis methods of Merrifield and Fmoc chemistry were used for synthesizing peptides. These synthetic peptides corresponded mainly to the C2, V3 and CD4 binding sites of gp120 and some parts of the ectodomain of gp41. The reactivity of these peptides was tested by ELISA against different HIV-1-positive sera from different locations in India. For two of these predicted epitopes, the corresponding Indian consensus sequences (LAIERYLKQQLLGWG and DIIGDIRQAHCNISEDKWNET (subtype C were also synthesized and their reactivity was tested by ELISA. These peptides also distinguished HIV-1-positive sera of Indians with C subtype infections from sera from HIV-negative subjects.

  5. Cyclic nucleotide dependent dephosphorylation of regulator of G-protein signaling 18 in human platelets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gegenbauer, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets.

  6. Pharmacology of functional endogenous IP prostanoid receptors in NCB-20 cells: comparison with binding data from human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, J Y; Xu, S X; Sharif, N A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to characterize the effects of a broad range of prostanoid agonists upon the stimulation of cAMP production in National Cancer Bank (NCB-20; mouse neuroblastoma/hamster brain hybridoma) cells. The pharmacology of these functional responses in NCB-20 cells was compared with that of the classic endogenous IP receptor present on human platelets using [3H]-iloprost binding techniques. In both assay systems, agonists from the IP prostanoid class exhibited the highest affinities and functional potencies. Specific prostanoids exhibited the following rank order of potency (EC50 +/- SEM) in stimulating cAMP production in the NCB-20 cells: carbaprostacyclin (4.3 +/- 0.9 nM) = PGI2 (6.6 +/-1.5 nM) > iloprost (75+/-13 nM) > 11-deoxy PGE, (378+/-138 nM) > misoprostol (1,243+/-48) > PGE2 (3020+/-700 nM) > ZK-118182 (7265+/-455 nM). Iloprost wasthe most potent compound in the human platelet binding assay while prostanoidsfromthe DPand EP receptor classes showed modest affinity. These studies provide functional and binding information for a broad range of both natural and synthetic prostanoid receptor ligands at the endogenous IP receptor in two different cell types.

  7. Localization of the fourth membrane spanning domain as a ligand binding site in the human platelet α2-adrenergic receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.; Regan, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The human platelet α 2 -adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein which binds epinephrine. The gene for this receptor has been cloned, and the primary structure is thus known. A model of its secondary structure predicts that the receptor has seven transmembrane spanning domains. By covalent labeling and peptide mapping, the authors have identified a region of the receptor that is directly involved with ligand binding. Partially purified preparations of the receptor were covalently radiolabeled with either of two specific photoaffinity ligands: [ 3 H]SKF 102229 (an antagonist) or p-azido[ 3 H]clonidine (an agonist). The radiolabeled receptors were then digested with specific endopeptidases, and peptides containing the covalently bound radioligands were identified. Lysylendopeptidase treatment of [ 3 H]SKF 102229 labeled receptor yielded one peptide of M r 2400 as the product of a complete digest. Endopeptidase Arg-C gave a labeled peptide of M r 4000, which was further digested to the M r 2400 peptide by additional treatment with lysylendopeptidase. Using p-azido[ 3 H]clonidine-labeled receptor, a similar M r 2400 peptide was obtained by lysylendopeptidase cleavage. This M r 2400 peptide corresponds to the fourth transmembrane spanning domain of the receptor. These data suggest that this region forms part of the ligand binding domain of the human platelet α 2 -adrenergic receptor

  8. Cultivation and irradiation of human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, the use of culture medium, enriched with bovine serum, and murines fibroblasts, with the rate of proliferation controlled by irradiation or by share anticarcinogenic drugs, has been playing successfully its role in assisting in the development of keratinocytes in culture, for clinical purposes. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and animals viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, the present work aims to cultivate human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with human platelets lysate and determine the irradiation dose of these cells, for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture. For carrying out the proposed objective, platelets lysis has standardized, this lysate was used for human fibroblasts cultivation and the irradiation dose enough to inhibit its duplication was evaluated. Human keratinocytes were cultivated in these feeder layers, in culture medium enriched with the lysate. With these results we conclude that the 10% platelets lysate promoted a better adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts and in all dose levels tested (60 to 300 Gy), these had their mitotic activity inactivated by ionizing irradiation, being that the feeder layers obtained with doses from 70 to 150 Gy were those that provided the best development of keratinocytes in medium containing 2.5% of human platelet lysate. Therefore, it was possible to standardize both the cultivation of human fibroblasts as its inactivation for use as feeder layer in culture of keratinocytes, so as to eliminate xenobiotics components. (author)

  9. Of von Willebrand factor and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryckaert, Marijke; Rosa, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Cécile V; Lenting, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Hemostasis and pathological thrombus formation are dynamic processes that require multiple adhesive receptor-ligand interactions, with blood platelets at the heart of such events. Many studies have contributed to shed light on the importance of von Willebrand factor (VWF) interaction with its platelet receptors, glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V and αIIbβ3 integrin, in promoting primary platelet adhesion and aggregation following vessel injury. This review will recapitulate our current knowledge on the subject from the rheological aspect to the spatio-temporal development of thrombus formation. We will also discuss the signaling events generated by VWF/GPIb-IX-V interaction, leading to platelet activation. Additionally, we will review the growing body of evidence gathered from the recent development of pathological mouse models suggesting that VWF binding to GPIb-IX-V is a promising target in arterial and venous pathological thrombosis. Finally, the pathological aspects of VWF and its impact on platelets will be addressed.

  10. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs.Materials and Methods: Anitua's PRGF and Choukran's PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: PRGF treatment induced statistically significant (P<0.001 proliferation of HGF cells compared to the negative control (100% viability at 24, 48 and 72 hours in values of 123%±2.25%, 102%±2.8% and 101%±3.92%, respectively. The PRF membrane treatment of HGF cells had a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation (21%±1.73%, P<0.001 at 24 hours compared to the negative control. However, at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, PRF had a negative effect on HGF cell proliferation and caused 38% and 60% decrease in viability and proliferation compared to the negative control, respectively. The HGF cell proliferation was significantly higher in PRGF than in PRF group (P< 0.001.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that PRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF.

  11. Bitistatin-functionalized fluorescent nanodiamond particles specifically bind to purified human platelet integrin receptor αIIbβ3 and activated platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A; Sternberg, Mark; Lelkes, Peter I; Feuerstein, Giora

    2017-01-01

    Thromboembolic events (TEE) underwrite key causes of death in developed countries. While advanced imaging technologies such as computed tomography scans serve to diagnose blood clots during acute cardiovascular events, no such technology is available in routine primary care for TEE risk assessment. Here, we describe an imaging platform technology based on bioengineered fluorescent nanodiamond particles (F-NDPs) functionalized with bitistatin (Bit), a disintegrin that specifically binds to the α IIb β 3 integrin, platelet fibrinogen receptor (PFR) on activated platelets. Covalent linkage of purified Bit to F-NDP was concentration-dependent and saturable, as validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using specific anti-Bit antibodies. F-NDP-Bit interacted with purified PFR, either in immobilized or soluble form. Lotrafiban, a nonpeptide, α IIb β 3 receptor antagonist, specifically blocked F-NDP-Bit-PFR complex formation. Moreover, F-NDP-Bit specifically binds to activated platelets incorporated into a clot generated by thrombin-activated rat platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Our results suggest that engineered F-NDP-Bit particles could serve as noninvasive, "real-time" optical diagnostics for clots present in blood vessels.

  12. Time-dependent association between platelet-bound fibrinogen and the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerschke, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies indicated a correlation between the formation of EDTA-resistant (irreversible) platelet-fibrinogen interactions and platelet cytoskeleton formation. The present study explored the direct association of membrane-bound fibrinogen with the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton of aspirin-treated, gel-filtered platelets, activated but not aggregated with 20 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or 150 mU/mL human thrombin (THR) when bound fibrinogen had become resistant to dissociation by EDTA. Conversion of exogenous 125I-fibrinogen to fibrin was prevented by adding Gly-Pro-Arg and neutralizing THR with hirudin before initiating binding studies. After 60 minutes at 22 degrees C, the cytoskeleton of ADP-treated platelets contained 20% +/- 12% (mean +/- SD, n = 14) of membrane-bound 125I-fibrinogen, representing 10% to 50% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. The THR-activated cytoskeleton contained 45% +/- 15% of platelet bound fibrinogen, comprising 80% to 100% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. 125I-fibrinogen was not recovered with platelet cytoskeletons if binding was inhibited by the RGDS peptide, excess unlabeled fibrinogen, or disruption of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex by EDTA-treatment. Both development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding and fibrinogen association with the cytoskeleton were time dependent and reached maxima 45 to 60 minutes after fibrinogen binding to stimulated platelets. Although a larger cytoskeleton formed after platelet stimulation with thrombin as compared with ADP, no change in cytoskeleton composition was noted with development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding

  13. Influence of hirudin and cobra venom factor on the release of 14C-serotonin and 51chromium from human platelets induced by thrombin, collagen, aggregate gammaglobulin and HLA antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemeyer, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The present work investigates the influence of hirudin and cobra venom factor on thrombin, collagen, aggregate gammaglobulin and HLA-antibody-induced release of 14 C-serotonin and 51 chromium from human platelets. Besides the platelet-specific release reaction ( 14 C-serotonin) the extent of platelet lysis was determined by measurement of the loss of 51 chromium from the platelets. The results showed the thrombin, collagen and aggregate-gammaglobulin-induced platelet alteration to be a non-complement-dependent reaction of the platelets with release of 14 C-serotonin. Following long-term incubation small quantities of 51 chromium are also released. As this release of 51 chromium cannot be inhibited using cobra venom factor and does not occur in washed platelets either, it is most probably a non-complement-dependent reaction. The HLA-antibody-induced, specific platelet alteration is both complement-dependent and complement-independent. Differentiation is possible by inhibition of the complement-dependent lysis. On the other hand thrombin is of no relevance to the collagen, aggregate gammaglobulin, and HLA-antibody-induced platelet alteration as the interactions of these substances with platelets are not inhibited by hirudin. The above results are confirmed by investigation of the 51 chromium uptake capacity of washed platelets treated previously with thrombin, collagen and HLA antibody. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Human Platelet Lysate versus Fetal Calf Serum: These Supplements Do Not Select for Different Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Mentrup, Birgit; Ebert, Regina; Franzen, Julia; Abagnale, Giulio; Sieben, Torsten; Ostrowska, Alina; Hoffmann, Per; Roux, Pierre-François; Rath, Björn; Goodhardt, Michele; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc; Bischof, Oliver; Jakob, Franz; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2017-07-11

    Culture medium of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is usually supplemented with either human platelet lysate (HPL) or fetal calf serum (FCS). Many studies have demonstrated that proliferation and cellular morphology are affected by these supplements - it is therefore important to determine if they favor outgrowth of different subpopulations and thereby impact on the heterogeneous composition of MSCs. We have isolated and expanded human bone marrow-derived MSCs in parallel with HPL or FCS and demonstrated that HPL significantly increases proliferation and leads to dramatic differences in cellular morphology. Remarkably, global DNA-methylation profiles did not reveal any significant differences. Even at the transcriptomic level, there were only moderate changes in pairwise comparison. Furthermore, the effects on proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and focal adhesions were reversible by interchanging to opposite culture conditions. These results indicate that cultivation of MSCs with HPL or FCS has no systematic bias for specific cell types.

  15. Binding of (/sup 3/H)imipramine to human platelet membranes with compensation for saturable binding to filters and its implication for binding studies with brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, O.M.; Wood, K.M.; Williams, D.C.

    1984-08-01

    Apparent specific binding of (/sup 3/H)imipramine to human platelet membranes at high concentrations of imipramine showed deviation from that expected of a single binding site, a result consistent with a low-affinity binding site. The deviation was due to displaceable, saturable binding to the glass fibre filters used in the assays. Imipramine, chloripramine, desipramine, and fluoxetine inhibited binding to filters whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine and ethanol were ineffective. Experimental conditions were developed that eliminated filter binding, allowing assay of high- and low-affinity binding to membranes. Failure to correct for filter binding may lead to overestimation of binding parameters, Bmax and KD for high-affinity binding to membranes, and may also be misinterpreted as indicating a low-affinity binding component in both platelet and brain membranes. Low-affinity binding (KD less than 2 microM) of imipramine to human platelet membranes was demonstrated and its significance discussed.

  16. Platelet proteome reveals novel pathways of platelet activation and platelet-mediated immunoregulation in dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ramos de Oliveira Trugilho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Platelets are blood cells classically known as effectors of hemostasis which have been increasingly recognized to have major immune and inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the phenotype and effector functions of platelets in dengue pathogenesis are not completely understood. Here we used quantitative proteomics to investigate the protein content of platelets in clinical samples from patients with dengue compared to platelets from healthy donors. Our assays revealed a set of 252 differentially abundant proteins. In silico analyses associated these proteins with key molecular events including platelet activation and inflammatory responses, and with events not previously attributed to platelets during dengue infection including antigen processing and presentation, proteasome activity, and expression of histones. From these results, we conducted functional assays using samples from a larger cohort of patients and demonstrated evidence for platelet activation indicated by P-selectin (CD62P translocation and secretion of granule-stored chemokines by platelets. In addition, we found evidence that DENV infection triggers HLA class I synthesis and surface expression by a mechanism depending on functional proteasome activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell-free histone H2A released during dengue infection binds to platelets, increasing platelet activation. These findings are consistent with functional importance of HLA class I, proteasome subunits, and histones that we found exclusively in proteome analysis of platelets in samples from dengue patients. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of the platelet

  17. A new rapid method to measure human platelet cholesterol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagroop, I Anita; Persaud, Jahm Want; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-01-01

    Platelet cholesterol (PC) could be used to assess "tissue" cholesterol of patients with vascular disease. However, the methods available so far to measure PC involve a complex extraction process. We developed a rapid method to measure PC and assessed its correlation with serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides (TG), and non-HDL-C. We assessed repeatability (20 times, 3 participants) and reproducibility (8 times, 2 participants). A group of 47 healthy participants was studied. Blood was collected to analyze serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. Citrated blood was used to prepare a platelet pellet. A "clear soup" was produced (by disrupting this pellet using freeze-thaw and sonication cycles) and used to measure PC. Repeatability of PC showed a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.8%. The reproducibility of PC over a period of 2 months was CV 7.5% and 8.1% (8 measurements for 2 participants). The PC of participants with serum LDL-C >2.6 mmol/L (treatment goal recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) was 377 ± 120 μmol/10(12) platelets (n = 25). There was a significant correlation (Spearman, correlation coefficient) of PC (n = 25) with serum LDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), LDL-C/HDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), TG (r(s) = 0.43, P = .03), and non-HDL-C (r(s) = 0.53, P = .007). This technique of measuring PC has the advantage of being reproducible, fast, and simpler than previous methods. Thus, it may be useful for multiple sampling when investigating changes in PC in hypercholesterolemic patients. More extensive evaluation is necessary.

  18. Partial purification and identification of the thrombozane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor protein in human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.T.; Kattelman, E.J.; Arora, S.K.; Venton, D.L.; Le Breton, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    The thromboxane A 2 /prostaglandin H 2 (TXA 2 /PGH 2 ) receptor antagonist [ 3 H]-13-azaprostanoic acid (13-APA) was used to identify and purify the platelet TXA 2 /PGH 2 receptor protein. Optimal solubilization of the 13-APA binding protein was achieved by extraction with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) detergent. Preliminary purification of the crude solubilized membrane fraction was performed by gel filtration chromatography using a Sepharose 4B column. Further purification was accomplished by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Synchropak GPC-500 column. The HPLC protein profile revealed two protein peaks, only one of which was enriched in [ 3 H]-13-APA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of this peak revealed two bands with molecular weights of 65,000 and 60,000 daltons. In binding studies using the 60,000 dalton-enriched subfraction, unlabelled 13-APA, the TXA 2 /PGH 2 mimetic U46619 and the TXA 2 /PGH 2 antagonist SQ 29,548 all competed for [ 3 H]-13-APA binding whereas TXB 2 did not compete for binding. Heat denaturation of this subfraction resulted in a complete loss of binding activity. These findings indicate that a protein of approximately 60,000 daltons represents the human platelet TXA 2 /PGH 2 receptor

  19. Radioimmunoimaging of experimental thrombi in dogs using technetium-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody fragments reactive with human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Zamora, P.O.; Yamamoto, K.; Sacker, D.F.; Brill, A.B.; Newell, K.D.; Rhodes, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 50H.19, which reacts with human platelets, was converted to fragments, pretinned, and made into kits for subsequent radiolabeling with /sup 99m/Tc. The antibody, which cross-reacts with dog platelets, was used to evaluate in vitro binding to blood clots and in vivo in experimental thrombi in dogs. After radiolabeling, 97.4 +/- 6.4% of the /sup 99m/Tc was antibody-associated. The preparations retained immunoreactivity, as determined by: binding studies using whole blood and determining the ratio of cell-to-plasma radioactivity (ratios of 57.6-61.2) and binding of the antibody to clots (clot/serum ratios were 57.2-74.6%). Approximately 50% of the radioactivity was cleared from the blood in 3-6 min and 18-24% was excreted in urine within 3 hr. Experimental thrombi in dogs could be visualized consistently within 2-3 hr postinjection in peripheral veins and arteries, pulmonary arteries, and the right ventricle. In addition, damage to blood vessel intima without visible thrombi could also be detected. This method has the following advantages: short and simple pre-imaging preparation, and rapid visualization of thrombi with no need for blood-pool subtraction or delayed imaging

  20. Statin-induced changes in mitochondrial respiration in blood platelets in rats and human with dyslipidemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vevera, J.; Fišar, Z.; Nekovářová, Tereza; Vrablík, M.; Zlatohlávek, L.; Hroudová, J.; Singh, N.; Raboch, J.; Valeš, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2016), s. 777-788 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA MZd(CZ) NT13403; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1464 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : statin * mitochondria * platelet Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  1. Platelet count

    Science.gov (United States)

    The normal number of platelets in the blood is 150,000 to 400,000 platelets per microliter (mcL) or 150 to 400 × 10 9 /L. Normal value ranges may vary slightly. Some lab use different measurements or ...

  2. Human platelet lysate as a promising growth-stimulating additive for culturing of stem cells and other cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanskii, Ya D; Sergeeva, N S; Sviridova, I K; Kirakozov, M S; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Antokhin, A I; Chissov, V I

    2013-11-01

    We compared the composition and biological activity of fetal calf serum and platelet lysate from donor platelet concentrate. In platelet lysate, the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and mineral metabolism parameters were lower, while parameters of lipid and protein metabolism were higher than in fetal calf serum. The concentrations of growth factors (platelet-derived (AA, AB, BB), vascular endothelial, insulin-like, and transforming growth factor β) in platelet lysate 1.7-148.7-fold surpassed the corresponding parameters in fetal calf serum. After replacement of fetal calf serum with platelet lysate in the culture medium (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%), the count of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells on day 7 (in comparison with day 1) increased by 154.8, 206.6, 228.2, 367.7, and 396.5%, respectively. Thus, platelet lysate can be an adequate non-xenogenic alternative for fetal calf serum.

  3. Comparison between human cord blood serum and platelet-rich plasma supplementation for Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells and dermal fibroblasts culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi SS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a side-by-side comparison of the effects of Human cord blood serum (HcbS versus embryonic PRP on Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells(hWMSCand dermal fibroblasts proliferation. Human umbilical cord blood was collected to prepare activated serum (HCS and platelet-rich plasma (CPRP.Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells and dermal fibroblasts were cultured in complete medium with10% CPRP, 10%HCSor 10% fetal bovine serumand control (serum-free media.The efficiency of the protocols was evaluated in terms of the number of adherent cells and their expansion and Cell proliferation. We showed that proliferation of fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of cord blood serum and platelet-rich plasma significantly more than the control group (p≤0/05. As an alternative to FBS, cord blood serum has been proved as an effective component in cell tissue culture applications and embraced a vast future in clinical applications of regenerative medicine. However, there is still a need to explore the potential of HCS and its safe applications in humanized cell therapy or tissue engineering.

  4. Individual contributions of the human metapneumovirus F, G, and SH surface glycoproteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Biacchesi, Stephane; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Amaro-Carambot, Emerito; Surman, Sonja R.; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the individual contributions of the three surface glycoproteins of human metapneumovirus (HMPV), namely the fusion F, attachment G, and small hydrophobic SH proteins, to the induction of serum HMPV-binding antibodies, serum HMPV-neutralizing antibodies, and protective immunity. Using reverse genetics, each HMPV protein was expressed individually from an added gene in recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) and used to infect hamsters once or twice by the intranasal route. The F protein was highly immunogenic and protective, whereas G and SH were only weakly or negligibly immunogenic and protective, respectively. Thus, in contrast to other paramyxoviruses, the HMPV attachment G protein is not a major neutralization or protective antigen. Also, although the SH protein of HMPV is a virion protein that is much larger than its counterparts in previously studied paramyxoviruses, it does not appear to be a significant neutralization or protective antigen

  5. iP-gp , a novel cell line with tight barrier function and expression of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) for drug screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Ozgür, Burak; Saaby, Lasse

    that new API's are evaluated with respect to P-gp interactions.  Aim : The aim of the present work was to validate the suitability of the newly developed iP-gp cell line for investigating P-gp interactions with human P-gp. Methods: IPEC-J2 MDR1 (iP-gp) cells were cultured on permeable supports for 17......Background : The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, product of the MDR1/ABCB1 gene) hinders uptake of drug compounds to the brain, limits intestinal uptake, is a cause of resistance to chemoterapeutics and a potential "site" for drug-drug interaction. Regulatory agencies therefore recommend.......04 +/- 0.01 µM in transport experiments including digoxin and rhodamine 123, respectively. Summary/Conclusion : The iP-gp cell line may become a useful screening tool for interactions between drug compounds and human P-gp....

  6. Podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation and increases risk of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Julia; Preusser, Matthias; Nazari, Pegah Mir Seyed; Posch, Florian; Panzer, Simon; Marosi, Christine; Birner, Peter; Thaler, Johannes; Brostjan, Christine; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2017-03-30

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with brain tumors, and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that podoplanin, a sialomucin-like glycoprotein, increases the risk of VTE in primary brain tumors via its ability to induce platelet aggregation. Immunohistochemical staining against podoplanin and intratumoral platelet aggregates was performed in brain tumor specimens of 213 patients (mostly high-grade gliomas [89%]) included in the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study, a prospective observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed cancer or progressive disease aimed at identifying patients at risk of VTE. Platelet aggregation in response to primary human glioblastoma cells was investigated in vitro. During 2-year follow-up, 29 (13.6%) patients developed VTE. One-hundred fifty-one tumor specimens stained positive for podoplanin (33 high expression, 47 medium expression, 71 low expression). Patients with podoplanin-positive tumors had lower peripheral blood platelet counts ( P < .001) and higher D-dimer levels ( P < .001). Podoplanin staining intensity was associated with increasing levels of intravascular platelet aggregates in tumor specimens ( P < .001). High podoplanin expression was associated with an increased risk of VTE (hazard ratio for high vs no podoplanin expression: 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-21.26; P = 010), independent of age, sex, and tumor type. Podoplanin-positive primary glioblastoma cells induced aggregation of human platelets in vitro, which could be abrogated by an antipodoplanin antibody. In conclusion, high podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation, correlates with hypercoagulability, and is associated with increased risk of VTE. Our data indicate novel insights into the pathogenesis of VTE in primary brain tumors. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Effect of albumin-bound DHA on phosphoinositide phosphorylation in collagen stimulated human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudette, D.C.; Holub, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of exogenous albumin-bound docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) (AA), and eicosapendaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (EPA) on phosphoinositide metabolism following collagen stimulation was studied using [3H]inositol prelabelled platelets. Collagen stimulation (3 min, 1.8 micrograms/ml) increased the labelling of both phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2). Of the fatty acids tested, only pre-incubation (2 min) with DHA (20 microM) significantly attenuated the collagen-induced increased PIP and PIP2 labelling; EPA was without effect, while AA enhanced PIP labelling. Forty microM DHA was less effective at attenuating the increased PIP and PIP2 labelling even though this concentration of DHA resulted in greater inhibition of platelet aggregation. Neither concentration of DHA attenuated the increased polyphosphoinositide labelling resulting from stimulation by the endoperoxide analogue U46619, or the phorbol ester, PMA. These data suggest that the effect of DHA on attenuating the increased PIP and PIP2 labelling following collagen stimulation likely occurs before thromboxane receptor occupancy, may not occur at the level of protein kinase C activation, and could be mediated in part via a lessened synthesis of thromboxane A2

  8. Observations on human smooth muscle cell cultures from hyperplastic lesions of prosthetic bypass grafts: Production of a platelet-derived growth factor-like mitogen and expression of a gene for a platelet-derived growth factor receptor--a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birinyi, L.K.; Warner, S.J.; Salomon, R.N.; Callow, A.D.; Libby, P.

    1989-01-01

    Prosthetic bypass grafts placed to the distal lower extremity often fail because of an occlusive tissue response in the perianastomotic region. The origin of the cells that comprise this occlusive lesion and the causes of the cellular proliferation are not known. To increase our understanding of this process we cultured cells from hyperplastic lesions obtained from patients at the time of reexploration for lower extremity graft failure, and we studied their identity and growth factor production in tissue culture. These cultures contain cells that express muscle-specific actin isoforms, shown by immunohistochemical staining, consistent with vascular smooth muscle origin. These cultures also released material that stimulated smooth muscle cell growth. A portion of this activity was similar to platelet-derived growth factor, since preincubation with antibody-to-human platelet-derived growth factor partially blocked the mitogenic effect of medium conditioned by human anastomotic hyperplastic cells. These conditioned media also contained material that competed with platelet-derived growth factor for its receptor, as measured in a radioreceptor assay. Northern blot analysis showed that these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes the A chain but not the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor. In addition, these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes a platelet-derived growth factor receptor. We conclude that cultured smooth muscle cells from human anastomotic hyperplastic lesions express genes for platelet-derived growth factor A chain and a platelet-derived growth factor receptor and secrete biologically active molecules similar to platelet-derived growth factor

  9. Computational identification of epitopes in the glycoproteins of novel bunyavirus (SFTS virus) recognized by a human monoclonal antibody (MAb 4-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenshuai; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Peng, Haiyan; Jiao, Yongjun; Zeng, Jun; Treutlein, Herbert R.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we have developed a new approach to predict the epitopes of antigens that are recognized by a specific antibody. Our method is based on the "multiple copy simultaneous search" (MCSS) approach which identifies optimal locations of small chemical functional groups on the surfaces of the antibody, and identifying sequence patterns of peptides that can bind to the surface of the antibody. The identified sequence patterns are then used to search the amino-acid sequence of the antigen protein. The approach was validated by reproducing the binding epitope of HIV gp120 envelop glycoprotein for the human neutralizing antibody as revealed in the available crystal structure. Our method was then applied to predict the epitopes of two glycoproteins of a newly discovered bunyavirus recognized by an antibody named MAb 4-5. These predicted epitopes can be verified by experimental methods. We also discuss the involvement of different amino acids in the antigen-antibody recognition based on the distributions of MCSS minima of different functional groups.

  10. Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: structural elucidation of the sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have elucidated the structures of the anionic asparagine-linked oligosaccharides present on the glycoprotein hormones lutropin (luteinizing hormone), follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone), and thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone). Purified hormones, isolated from bovine, ovine, and human pituitaries, were digested with N-glycanase, and the released oligosaccharides were reduced with NaB[ 3 H] 4 . The 3 H-labeled oligosaccharides from each hormone were then fractionated by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into populations differing in the number of sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties. The sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures, which together comprised 67-90% of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones, were highly heterogeneous and displayed hormone- as well as animal species-specific features. A previously uncharacterized dibranched oligosaccharide, bearing one residue each of sulfate and sialic acid, was found on all of the hormones except bovine lutropin. In this study, they describe the purification and detailed structural characterizations of the sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated oligosaccharides found on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin from several animal species

  11. Further studies on the relationship between platelet buoyant density and platelet age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneu, B.; Vigoni, F.; Boneu, A.; Caranobe, C.; Sie, P.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between platelet buoyant density and platelet age was investigated in eight human subjects submitted to an autologous chromium labeled platelet survival study. Platelets were isolated after isopycnic centrifugation using eight discontinuous isoosmotic stractan gradients (five subjects), or various continuous and linear isoosmolar gradients (three subjects). A paradoxical radioactivity enrichment of the dense platelets and a premature loss of radioactivity in the light platelets were observed. These results are explained by a shift of the radioactivity distribution curve toward higher densities during the 3-4 days after platelet injection, while the standard deviation of the distribution was conserved throughout the platelet life span. These results suggest that young platelets are heterogeneous and slightly less dense than the total platelet population

  12. Amino acid 489 is encoded by a mutational "hot spot" on the beta 3 integrin chain: the CA/TU human platelet alloantigen system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R; McFarland, J G; Kekomaki, R; Newman, P J

    1993-12-01

    A new platelet alloantigen, termed CA, has recently been implicated in a case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NATP) in a Filipino family in Canada. Maternal anti-CA serum reacted with glycoprotein (GP) IIIa and maintained its reactivity after removal of high mannose carbohydrate residues from GPIIIa. The monoclonal antibody (MoAb) AP3 partially blocked binding of anti-CA to GPIIIa, suggesting that the CA polymorphism is proximal to the AP3 epitope. Platelet RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the region of GPIIIa cDNA that encodes this region of the protein. DNA sequence analysis showed a GA nucleotide substitution at base 1564 that results in an arginine (Arg) (CGG)glutamine (Gln) (CAG) polymorphism in amino acid (AA) 489. Further analysis of PCR-amplified genomic DNA from 27 normal individuals showed that AA 489 is encoded by a mutational "hot spot" of the GPIIIa gene, as three different codons for the wild-type Arg489 of GPIIIa were also found. The codon usage for Arg489 was found to be: CGG (63%), CGA (37%), and CGC (Definition of these new molecular variants of the beta 3 integrin chain should prove valuable in the diagnosis of NATP in these two geographically disparate populations, and it may also provide useful genetic markers for examining other pathologic variations of the GPIIb-IIIa complex.

  13. Influence of sulphate on effects of ADP, 3′,5′-cyclic amp and citrate on human platelet phosphofructokinase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Jan Willem N.; Gorter, G.; Sixma, J.J.; Staal, Gerard E.J.

    1974-01-01

    1. 1. Sulphate ions activate partially-purified human platelet phosphofructokinase. This is caused by suppression of the cooperativity of the enzyme with respect to fructose 6-phosphate. 2. 2. Sulphate therefore markedly affects the influences of allosteric modifiers such as ADP, 3′,5′-cyclic AMP

  14. Up-Regulation of the Lymphatic Marker Podoplanin, a Mucin-Type Transmembrane Glycoprotein, in Human Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, Vivien; Dadras, Soheil S.; Johnson, Louise A.; Jackson, David G.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Detmar, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The mucin-type glycoprotein podoplanin is specifically expressed by lymphatic but not blood vascular endothelial cells in culture and in tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis, and podoplanin deficiency results in congenital lymphedema and impaired lymphatic vascular patterning. However, research into the biological importance of podoplanin has been hampered by the lack of a generally available antibody against the human protein, and its expression in normal tissues and in human malignancies has remained unclear. We generated a human podoplanin-Fc fusion protein and found that the commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody D2-40 specifically recognized human podoplanin, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analyses. We found that, in addition to lymphatic endothelium, podoplanin was also expressed by peritoneal mesothelial cells, osteocytes, glandular myoepithelial cells, ependymal cells, and by stromal reticular cells and follicular dendritic cells of lymphoid organs. These findings were confirmed in normal mouse tissues with anti-podoplanin antibody 8.1.1. Podoplanin was also strongly expressed by granulosa cells in normal ovarian follicles, and by ovarian dysgerminomas and granulosa cell tumors. Although podoplanin was primarily absent from normal human epidermis, its expression was strongly induced in 22 of 28 squamous cell carcinomas studied. These findings suggest a potential role of podoplanin in tumor progression, and they also identify the first commercially available antibody for the specific staining of a defined lymphatic marker in archival human tissue sections, thereby enabling more widespread studies of tumor lymphangiogenesis in human cancers. PMID:15743802

  15. The measurement of platelet activation by radioimmunoassay in asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guoxin; Sun Jian; Li Jianyong; Ruan Changgeng

    1992-02-01

    Radioimmunoassay with specific monoclonal antibody was used to evaluate the platelet activation in 14 cases of acute bronchial asthma. The result showed that the number of molecules of alpha-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) which was exposed on the surface of platelet following secretion significantly increased on the surface of platelet and in plasma, while the number of molecules of glycoprotein (GP) I b and GPIII a did not change significantly; the concentration of thromboxane B 2 in plasma was raised, while the concentration of 6-keto-PGF 1a was within the normal limits; the concentrations of β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4(PF 4 ) in plasma increased significantly; the number of platelets decreased. These results strongly confirmed that the degree of platelet activation was enhanced during acute asthmatic attack. The significance of platelet activation in the pathogenesis of asthma should be further investigated

  16. Expression of a splice variant of the platelet-activating factor receptor transcript 2 in various human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissam Youlyouz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R transcripts were analysed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in five human cancer cell lines derived from the breast (BT20, SKBR3 and T47D cells, the pancreas (Miapaca cells and the bladder (5637 cells in order to confirm the existence of a splice variant of the PAF-R transcript 2. After cloning and sequencing, we confirmed its existence in all cell lines. It consisted of the PAF-R transcript 2 lengthening with 82 nucleotides from the 3' end of exon 1 of the PAF-R gene. The role of this elongated form of the tissue-type PAF-R transcript in cell physiology remains to be elucidated.

  17. The role of nitric oxide in aspirin induced thrombolysis in vitro and the purification of aspirin activated nitric oxide synthase from human blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmohapatra, Soumendra K; Chakraborty, Kushal; Kahn, Nighat N; Sinha, Asru K

    2007-11-01

    Aspirin, a well-known inhibitor of platelet aggregation, is extensively used for the prevention/treatment of coronary artery disease. The beneficial and antithrombotic effects of the compound are related to the inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase. It is currently believed that aspirin has no effect on the formed thrombus, which results in coronary artery disease. It was found that the exposure of platelets to 4.0 microM aspirin either in vitro or in vivo resulted in fibrinolysis of the formed "clot" produced by the recalcification of platelet-rich plasma due to the production of NO in these cells by the compound. The lysis of clot in the presence of aspirin was found to be related to the fibrinolysis with simultaneous appearance of fibrin degradation products due to the generation of serine proteinase activity by NO in the assay mixture. The aspirin activated nitric oxide synthase that catalyzed the synthesis of NO in platelets was solubilized by Triton X-100 treatment and purified to homogeneity by chromatography on DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G-50 columns. The enzyme was found to be a single chain polypeptide with M.W. 19 kDa. The treatment of human plasminogen with NO was found to directly activate the zymogen to plasmin with the production of preactivation peptide in the absence of cofactors, or cells without the formation of cyclic GMP in the assay mixture. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Antibody-mediated platelet phagocytosis by human macrophages is inhibited by siRNA specific for sequences in the SH2 tyrosine kinase, Syk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Wang, Weiming; Mao, Huiming; Hu, Hai; Wu, Yanling; Chen, Bing-Guan; Liu, Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia depends upon Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis that involves signaling through the SH2 tyrosine kinase, Syk. We designed small interfering (siRNA) sequences complementary to Syk coding regions to decrease the expression of Syk in the human macrophage cell line, THP-1. To evaluate the functional effect of siRNA on phagocytosis, we developed a new in vitro assay for antibody-mediated platelet ingestion by THP-1 cells. Incubation of THP-1 cells at 37°C with fluorescence-labeled platelets and anti-platelet antibody promoted ingestion of platelets that could be quantitated by flow cytometry. Transfection of THP-1 cells with Syk-specific siRNA resulted in a reduction in the amount of FcγRII-associated Syk protein. Coincident with decreased Syk expression, we observed inhibition of antibody-mediated platelet ingestion. These results confirm a key role for Syk in antibody-mediated phagocytosis and suggest Syk-specific siRNA as a possible therapeutic candidate for immune thrombocytopenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative characterisation of the biofilm-production abilities of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from human skin and platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mariam; Kohnen, Carissa; Mallya, Shruti; Kou, Yuntong; Zapata, Adriana; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the predominant contaminant of platelet concentrates (PCs), a blood product used to treat patients with platelet deficiencies. This microorganism is able to form surface-attached aggregates (biofilms) in human skin. Herein, the abundance of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers in contaminated PCs compared to skin isolates was explored. Furthermore, the potential positive selection of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers during the blood donation process and PC manufacturing was investigated. Twenty-four S. epidermidis isolates obtained from contaminated PCs and 48 S. epidermidis isolates obtained from the venipuncture area of human volunteers were compared for their ability to form biofilms in laboratory media and in PCs using a semi quantitative crystal violet assay. Also, the presence of the biofilm-associated icaA and icaD genes was assessed by PCR-amplification.Results/Key findings.Biofilm production in laboratory media showed a higher number of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers in the skin-derived group (43.7 %) compared to the PC-derived isolates (25 %). However, all skin and PC isolates formed biofilms in PCs. The prevalence of ica-positive biofilm-producer isolates was similar in PC and skin isolates (16.6 and 18.8 %, respectively). In contrast, the abundance of ica-negative biofilm-producers was lower in PC isolates compared to skin isolates (8.3 vs 25 %, respectively). Positive selection of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers during blood donation and PC manufacturing was not observed. Interestingly, ica-negative biofilm-producers seem to be negatively affected by skin disinfection, blood processing and PC storage. Furthermore, this study shows that S. epidermidis adopts a biofilm-forming phenotype in PCs regardless of its genetic background or origin.

  20. Cleavage of a Neuroinvasive Human Respiratory Virus Spike Glycoprotein by Proprotein Convertases Modulates Neurovirulence and Virus Spread within the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Le Coupanec

    Full Text Available Human coronaviruses (HCoV are respiratory pathogens that may be associated with the development of neurological diseases, in view of their neuroinvasive and neurotropic properties. The viral spike (S glycoprotein is a major virulence factor for several coronavirus species, including the OC43 strain of HCoV (HCoV-OC43. In an attempt to study the role of this protein in virus spread within the central nervous system (CNS and neurovirulence, as well as to identify amino acid residues important for such functions, we compared the sequence of the S gene found in the laboratory reference strain HCoV-OC43 ATCC VR-759 to S sequences of viruses detected in clinical isolates from the human respiratory tract. We identified one predominant mutation at amino acid 758 (from RRSR↓ G758 to RRSR↓R758, which introduces a putative furin-like cleavage (↓ site. Using a molecular cDNA infectious clone to generate a corresponding recombinant virus, we show for the first time that such point mutation in the HCoV-OC43 S glycoprotein creates a functional cleavage site between the S1 and S2 portions of the S protein. While the corresponding recombinant virus retained its neuroinvasive properties, this mutation led to decreased neurovirulence while potentially modifying the mode of virus spread, likely leading to a limited dissemination within the CNS. Taken together, these results are consistent with the adaptation of HCoV-OC43 to the CNS environment, resulting from the selection of quasi-species harboring mutations that lead to amino acid changes in viral genes, like the S gene in HCoV-OC43, which may contribute to a more efficient establishment of a less pathogenic but persistent CNS infection. This adaptative mechanism could potentially be associated with human encephalitis or other neurological degenerative pathologies.

  1. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 regulates pokemon gene transcription through p53 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shengnan; Liu, Feng; Xie, Zhenhua; Zu, Xuyu; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2010-08-27

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy.

  2. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 Regulates Pokemon Gene Transcription Through p53 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp, encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1 gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy.

  3. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During your donation you can relax, watch a movie, listen to music…in a few hours you’ ... requirements may become eligible to donate platelets. Please review our eligibility requirements as some states require parental ...

  4. Virally inactivated human platelet concentrate lysate induces regulatory T cells and immunosuppressive effect in a murine asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Lun; Lee, Lin-Wen; Su, Chen-Yao; Hsiao, George; Yang, Yi-Yuan; Leu, Sy-Jye; Shieh, Ying-Hua; Burnouf, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Platelet concentrate lysates (PCLs) are increasingly used in regenerative medicine. We have developed a solvent/detergent (S/D)-treated PCL. The functional properties of this preparation should be unveiled. We hypothesized that, due to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) content, PCLs may exert immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory functions. PCL was prepared by S/D treatment, oil extraction, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The content of TGF-β in PCL was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cultured CD4+ T cells were used to investigate the effects of PCL on expression of transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), the inhibition of T-cell proliferation, and cytokine production. The regulatory function of PCL-converted CD4+ T cells was analyzed by suppressive assay. The BALB/c mice were given PCL-converted CD4+ T cells before ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge using an asthma model. Inflammatory parameters, such as the level of immunoglobulin E (IgE), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchial lavage fluid eosinophils, and cytokines were assayed. Recombinant human (rHu) TGF-β1 was used as control. PCL significantly enhanced the development of CD4+Foxp3+-induced regulatory T cells (iTregs). Converted iTregs produced neither Th1 nor Th2 cytokines and inhibited normal T-cell proliferation. PCL- and rHuTGF-β-converted CD4+ T cells prevented OVA-induced asthma. PCL- and rHuTGF-β-modified T cells both significantly reduced expression levels of OVA-specific IgE and significantly inhibited the development of AHR, airway eosinophilia, and Th2 responses in mice. S/D-treated PCL promotes Foxp3+ iTregs and exerts immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. This finding may help to understand the clinical properties of platelet lysates. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Platelet lysate activates quiescent cell proliferation and reprogramming in human articular cartilage: Involvement of hypoxia inducible factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Descalzi, Fiorella

    2018-03-01

    The idea of rescuing the body self-repair capability lost during evolution is progressively gaining ground in regenerative medicine. In particular, growth factors and bioactive molecules derived from activated platelets emerged as promising therapeutic agents acting as trigger for repair of tissue lesions and restoration of tissue functions. Aim of this study was to assess the potential of a platelet lysate (PL) for human articular cartilage repair considering its activity on progenitor cells and differentiated chondrocytes. PL induced the re-entry in the cell cycle of confluent, growth-arrested dedifferentiated/progenitor cartilage cells. In a cartilage permissive culture environment, differentiated cells also resumed proliferation after exposure to PL. These findings correlated with an up-regulation of the proliferation/survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with an induction of cyclin D1. In short- and long-term cultures of articular cartilage explants, we observed a release of proliferating chondroprogenitors able to differentiate and form an "in vitro" tissue with properties of healthy articular cartilage. Moreover, in cultured cartilage cells, PL induced a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha increase, its nuclear relocation and the binding to HIF-1 responsive elements. These events were possibly related to the cell proliferation because the HIF-1 inhibitor acriflavine inhibited HIF-1 binding to HIF-1 responsive elements and cell proliferation. Our study demonstrates that PL induces quiescent cartilage cell activation and proliferation leading to new cartilage formation, identifies PL activated pathways playing a role in these processes, and provides a rationale to the application of PL for therapeutic treatment of damaged articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Constitutive production and thrombin-induced release of vascular endothelial growth factor by human megakaryocytes and platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhle, Robert; Green, David; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Nachman, Ralph L.; Rafii, Shahin

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that coculture of bone marrow microvascular endothelial cells with hematopoietic progenitor cells results in proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes. In these long-term cultures, bone marrow microvascular endothelial cell monolayers maintain their cellular integrity in the absence of exogenous endothelial growth factors. Because this interaction may involve paracrine secretion of cytokines, we evaluated megakaryocytic cells for secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Megakaryocytes (CD41a+) were generated by ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells with kit-ligand and thrombopoietin for 10 days and further purified with immunomagnetic microbeads. Using reverse transcription–PCR, we showed that megakaryocytic cell lines (Dami, HEL) and purified megakaryocytes expressed mRNA of the three VEGF isoforms (121, 165, and 189 amino acids). Large quantities of VEGF (>1 ng/106 cells/3 days) were detected in the supernatant of Dami cells, ex vivo-generated megakaryocytes, and CD41a+ cells isolated from bone marrow. The constitutive secretion of VEGF by CD41a+ cells was stimulated by growth factors of the megakaryocytic lineage (interleukin 3, thrombopoietin). Western blotting of heparin–Sepharose-enriched supernatant mainly detected the isoform VEGF165. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed intracytoplasmic VEGF in polyploid megakaryocytes. Thrombin stimulation of megakaryocytes and platelets resulted in rapid release of VEGF within 30 min. We conclude that human megakaryocytes produce and secrete VEGF in an inducible manner. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, VEGF secreted by megakaryocytes may contribute to the proliferation of endothelial cells. VEGF delivered to sites of vascular injury by activated platelets may initiate angiogenesis. PMID:9012841

  7. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  8. Combined Quantification of the Global Proteome, Phosphoproteome, and Proteolytic Cleavage to Characterize Altered Platelet Functions in the Human Scott Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Fiorella A; Mattheij, Nadine J A; Burkhart, Julia M; Swieringa, Frauke; Collins, Peter W; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Sickmann, Albert; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Zahedi, René P

    2016-10-01

    The Scott syndrome is a very rare and likely underdiagnosed bleeding disorder associated with mutations in the gene encoding anoctamin-6. Platelets from Scott patients are impaired in various Ca 2+ -dependent responses, including phosphatidylserine exposure, integrin closure, intracellular protein cleavage, and cytoskeleton-dependent morphological changes. Given the central role of anoctamin-6 in the platelet procoagulant response, we used quantitative proteomics to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms and the complex phenotypic changes in Scott platelets compared with control platelets. Therefore, we applied an iTRAQ-based multi-pronged strategy to quantify changes in (1) the global proteome, (2) the phosphoproteome, and (3) proteolytic events between resting and stimulated Scott and control platelets. Our data indicate a limited number of proteins with decreased (70) or increased (64) expression in Scott platelets, among those we confirmed the absence of anoctamin-6 and the strong up-regulation of aquaporin-1 by parallel reaction monitoring. The quantification of 1566 phosphopeptides revealed major differences between Scott and control platelets after stimulation with thrombin/convulxin or ionomycin. In Scott platelets, phosphorylation levels of proteins regulating cytoskeletal or signaling events were increased. Finally, we quantified 1596 N-terminal peptides in activated Scott and control platelets, 180 of which we identified as calpain-regulated, whereas a distinct set of 23 neo-N termini was caspase-regulated. In Scott platelets, calpain-induced cleavage of cytoskeleton-linked and signaling proteins was downregulated, in accordance with an increased phosphorylation state. Thus, multipronged proteomic profiling of Scott platelets provides detailed insight into their protection against detrimental Ca 2+ -dependent changes that are normally associated with phosphatidylserine exposure. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  9. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human p...

  10. Defining glycoprotein cancer biomarkers by MS in conjunction with glycoprotein enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ehwang; Mechref, Yehia

    2015-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important and common post-translational modification. More than 50% of human proteins are believed to be glycosylated to modulate the functionality of proteins. Aberrant glycosylation has been correlated to several diseases, such as inflammatory skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's and prion diseases, and cancer. Many approved cancer biomarkers are glycoproteins which are not highly abundant proteins. Therefore, effective qualitative and quantitative assessment of glycoproteins entails enrichment methods. This chapter summarizes glycoprotein enrichment methods, including lectin affinity, immunoaffinity, hydrazide chemistry, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, and click chemistry. The use of these enrichment approaches in assessing the qualitative and quantitative changes of glycoproteins in different types of cancers are presented and discussed. This chapter highlights the importance of glycoprotein enrichment techniques for the identification and characterization of new reliable cancer biomarkers.

  11. The effects of the oral administration of fish oil concentrate on the release and the metabolism of [14C]arachidonic acid and [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, A.; Terano, T.; Hamazaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested by several investigators that eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3, EPA) might have anti-thrombotic effects. In this experiment, the effect of the oral administration of EPA rich fish oil concentrate on platelet aggregation and the release and the metabolism of [ 1 - 14 C]arachidonic acid and [(U)- 14 C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets was studied. Eight healthy male subjects ingested 18 capsules of fish oil concentrate (EPA 1.4 g) per day for 4 weeks. Plasma and platelet concentrations of EPA markedly increased, while those of arachidonic acid (C20:4 omega 6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3, DHA) did not change. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was reduced. Collagen induced [ 14 C]thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets decreased. There was no detectable formation of [ 14 C]TXB3 from [ 14 C]EPA prelabeled platelets, and the conversion of exogenous [ 14 C]EPA to [ 14 C]TXB3 was lower than that of [ 14 C]AA to [ 14 C]TXB2. The release of [ 14 C]AA from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets by collagen was significantly decreased. These observations raise the possibility that the release of arachidonic acid from platelet lipids might be affected by the alteration of EPA content in platelets

  12. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...

  13. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  14. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) suppresses the collagen-induced activation of human platelets via S1P4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Takashi; Tanabe, Kumiko; Kito, Yuko; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Uematsu, Kodai; Enomoto, Yukiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Doi, Tomoaki; Nagase, Kiyoshi; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru; Kozawa, Osamu; Iida, Hiroki

    2017-08-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is as an extracellular factor that acts as a potent lipid mediator by binding to specific receptors, S1P receptors (S1PRs). However, the precise role of S1P in human platelets that express S1PRs has not yet been fully clarified. We previously reported that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is released from human platelets accompanied by its phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. In the present study, we investigated the effect of S1P on the collagen-induced platelet activation. S1P pretreatment markedly attenuated the collagen-induced aggregation. Co-stimulation with S1P and collagen suppressed collagen-induced platelet activation, but the effect was weaker than that of S1P-pretreatment. The collagen-stimulated secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and the soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) release were significantly reduced by S1P. In addition, S1P suppressed the collagen-induced release of HSP27 as well as the phosphorylation of HSP27. S1P significantly suppressed the collagen-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. S1P increased the levels of GTP-bound Gαi and GTP-bound Gα13 coupled to S1PPR1 and/or S1PR4. CYM50260, a selective S1PR4 agonist, but not SEW2871, a selective S1PR1 agonist, suppressed the collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, PDGF-AB secretion and sCD40L release. In addition, CYM50260 reduced the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 by collagen as well as the phosphorylation of HSP27. The selective S1PR4 antagonist CYM50358, which failed to affect collagen-induced HSP27 phosphorylation, reversed the S1P-induced attenuation of HSP27 phosphorylation by collagen. These results strongly suggest that S1P inhibits the collagen-induced human platelet activation through S1PR4 but not S1PR1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycoprotein on cell surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, T.

    1975-01-01

    There are conjugated polysaccharides in cell membranes and outside of animal cells, and they play important role in the control of cell behavior. In this paper, the studies on the glycoprotein on cell surfaces are reported. It was found that the glycoprotein on cell surfaces have both N-glycoside type and O-glycoside type saccharic chains. Therefore it can be concluded that the basic structure of the saccharic chains in the glycoprotein on cell surfaces is similar to that of blood serum and body fluid. The main glycoprotein in the membranes of red blood corpuscles has been studied most in detail, and it also has both types of saccharic chains. The glycoprotein in liver cell membranes was found to have only the saccharic chains of acid type and to be in different pattern from that in endoplasmic reticula and nuclear membranes, which also has the saccharic chains of neutral type. The structure of the saccharic chains of H-2 antigen, i.e. the peculiar glycoprotein on the surfaces of lymph system cells, has been studied, and it is similar to the saccharic chains of glycoprotein in blood serum. The saccharic chain structures of H-2 antigen and TL antigen are different. TL, H-2 (D), Lna and H-2 (K) are the glycoprotein on cell surfaces, and are independent molecules. The analysis of the saccharic chain patterns on cell surfaces was carried out, and it was shown that the acid type saccharic chains were similar to those of ordinary glycoprotein, because the enzyme of pneumococci hydrolyzed most of the acid type saccharic chains. The change of the saccharic chain patterns of glycoprotein on cell surfaces owing to canceration and multiplication is complex matter. (Kako, I.)

  16. The c-Myc target glycoprotein1balpha links cytokinesis failure to oncogenic signal transduction pathways in cultured human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An increase in chromosome number, or polyploidization, is associated with a variety of biological changes including breeding of cereal crops and flowers, terminal differentiation of specialized cells such as megakaryocytes, cellular stress and oncogenic transformation. Yet it remains unclear how cells tolerate the major changes in gene expression, chromatin organization and chromosome segregation that invariably accompany polyploidization. We show here that cancer cells can initiate increases in chromosome number by inhibiting cell division through activation of glycoprotein1b alpha (GpIbalpha, a component of the c-Myc signaling pathway. We are able to recapitulate cytokinesis failure in primary cells by overexpression of GpIbalpha in a p53-deficient background. GpIbalpha was found to localize to the cleavage furrow by microscopy analysis and, when overexpressed, to interfere with assembly of the cellular cortical contraction apparatus and normal division. These results indicate that cytokinesis failure and tetraploidy in cancer cells are directly linked to cellular hyperproliferation via c-Myc induced overexpression of GpIbalpha.

  17. Evodiamine synergizes with doxorubicin in the treatment of chemoresistant human breast cancer without inhibiting P-glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is one of the main hurdles for the successful treatment of breast cancer. The synchronous targeting of apoptosis resistance and survival signal transduction pathways may be a promising approach to overcome drug resistance. In this study, we determined that evodiamine (EVO, a major constituent of the Chinese herbal medicine Evodiae Fructus, could induce apoptosis of doxorubicin (DOX-sensitive MCF-7 and DOX-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells in a caspase-dependent manner, as confirmed by significant increases of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, caspase-7/9, and caspase activities. Notably, the reversed phenomenon of apoptosis resistance by EVO might be attributed to its ability to inhibit the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs. Furthermore, our results indicated that EVO enhanced the apoptotic action of DOX by inhibiting the Ras/MEK/ERK cascade and the expression of IAPs without inhibiting the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp. Taken together, our data indicate that EVO, a natural product, may be useful applied alone or in combination with DOX for the treatment of resistant breast cancer.

  18. Increasing BMI is associated with reduced expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 gene) in the human brain with a stronger association in African-Americans than Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Vendelbo; Olesen, Rasmus Hansen; Lauridsen, Jesper Krogh

    2016-01-01

    The efflux pump, p-glycoprotein, controls bioavailability and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds. In the blood-brain barrier, p-glycoprotein regulates the delivery of pharmaceutical substances to the brain, influencing efficacy and side effects for some drugs notably antipsychotics. Common sid...... online publication, 29 November 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.74....

  19. Human α2-HS-glycoprotein: the A and B chains with a connecting sequence are encoded by a single mRNA transcript

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.C.; Bowman, B.H.; Yang, F.

    1987-01-01

    The α 2 -HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) is a plasma protein reported to play roles in bone mineralization and in the immune response. It is composed of two subunits, the A and B chains. Recombinant plasmids containing human cDNA AHSG have been isolated by screening an adult human liver library with a mixed oligonucleotide probe. The cDNA clones containing AHSG inserts span approximately 1.5 kilobase pairs and include the entire AHSG coding sequence, demonstrating that the A and B chains are encoded by a single mRNA transcript. The cDNA sequence predicts an 18-amino-acid signal peptide, followed by the A-chain sequence of AHSG. A heretofore unseen connecting sequence of 40 amino acids was deduced between the A- and B-chain sequences. The connecting sequence demonstrates the unique amino acid doublets and collagen triplets found in the A and B chains; it is not homologous with other reported amino acid sequences. The connecting sequence may be cleaved in a posttranslational step by limited proteolysis before mature AHSG is released into the circulation or may vary in its presence because of alternative processing. The AHSG cDNA was utilized for mapping the AHSG gene to the 3q21→qter region of human chromosome 3. The availability of the AHSG cDNA clone will facilitate the analysis of its genetic control and gene expression during development and bone formation

  20. Feasibility and Efficiency of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Culture with Allogeneic Platelet Lysate-Supplementation for Cell Therapy against Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbo Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is increasing interest in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs as regeneration therapy against cerebral stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of hBMSC cultures with allogeneic platelet lysates (PLs. Platelet concentrates (PC were harvested from healthy volunteers and made into single donor-derived PL (sPL. The PL mixtures (mPL were made from three different sPL. Some growth factors and platelet cell surface antigens were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The hBMSCs cultured with 10% PL were analyzed for their proliferative potential, surface markers, and karyotypes. The cells were incubated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO agents and injected into a pig brain. MRI and histological analysis were performed. Consequently, nine lots of sPL and three mPL were prepared. ELISA analysis showed that PL contained adequate growth factors and a particle of platelet surface antigens. Cell proliferation capacity of PLs was equivalent to or higher than that of fetal calf serum (FCS. No contradiction in cell surface markers and no chromosomal aberrations were found. The MRI detected the distribution of SPIO-labeled hBMSCs in the pig brain. In summary, the hBMSCs cultured with allogeneic PL are suitable for cell therapy against stroke.

  1. Manufacture of endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells from steady-state peripheral blood leukapheresis using pooled human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Georg; Fleck, Erika; Elser, Stefanie; Hermanutz-Klein, Ursula; Waidmann, Marc; Northoff, Hinnak; Seifried, Erhard; Schäfer, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) are promising candidates for cell therapies. However, ECFC translation to the clinic requires optimized isolation and manufacture technologies according to good manufacturing practice (GMP). ECFCs were manufactured from steady-state peripheral blood (PB) leukapheresis (11 donors), using GMP-compliant technologies including pooled human platelet (PLT) lysate, and compared to human umbilical cord endothelial cells, human aortic endothelial cells, and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Specific variables assessed were growth kinetics, phenotype, trophic factors production, stimulation of tube formation, and Dil-AcLDL uptake. ECFCs could be isolated from PB leukapheresis units with mean processed volume of 5411 mL and mean white blood cell (WBC) concentration factor of 8.74. The mean frequency was 1.44 × 10 -8 ECFCs per WBC, corresponding to a mean of 177.8 ECFCs per apheresis unit. Expandable for up to 12 cumulative population doublings, calculated projection showed that approximately 730 × 10 3 ECFCs could be manufactured from 1 apheresis unit. ECFCs produced epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, PLT-derived growth factor-B, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, featured high potential for capillary-like tubes formation, and showed no telomerase activity. They were characterized by CD29, CD31, CD44, CD105, CD117, CD133, CD144, CD146, and VEGF-R2 expression, with the most common subpopulation CD34+CD117-CD133-. Compared to controls, ECFCs featured greater Dil-AcLDL uptake and higher expression of CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD144, and VEGF-R2. Here we show that isolation of ECFCs with proangiogenic profile from steady-state PB leukapheresis is feasible, marking a first step toward ECFC product manufacture according to GMP. © 2018 AABB.

  2. TREM-like transcript-1 protects against inflammation-associated hemorrhage by facilitating platelet aggregation in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, A. Valance; Gibot, Sébastien; Acevedo, Ismael; Gattis, James; Quigley, Laura; Feltz, Robert; De La Mota, Alina; Schubert, Rebecca L.; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Cheng, Jun; Dutra, Amalia; Pak, Evgenia; Chertov, Oleg; Rivera, Linette; Morales, Jessica; Lubkowski, Jacek; Hunter, Robert; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; McVicar, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells–like (TREM-like) transcript-1 (TLT-1), a type 1 single Ig domain orphan receptor specific to platelet and megakaryocyte α-granules, relocates to the platelet surface upon platelet stimulation. We found here that patients diagnosed with sepsis, in contrast to healthy individuals, had substantial levels of soluble TLT-1 (sTLT-1) in their plasma that correlated with the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. sTLT-1 bound to fibrinogen and augmented platelet aggregation in vitro. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domain of TLT-1 could also bind ezrin/radixin/moesin family proteins, suggesting its ability to link fibrinogen to the platelet cytoskeleton. Accordingly, platelets of Treml1–/– mice failed to aggregate efficiently, extending tail-bleeding times. Lipopolysaccharide-treated Treml1–/– mice developed higher plasma levels of TNF and D-dimers than wild-type mice and were more likely to succumb during challenge. Finally, Treml1–/– mice were predisposed to hemorrhage associated with localized inflammatory lesions. Taken together, our findings suggest that TLT-1 plays a protective role during inflammation by dampening the inflammatory response and facilitating platelet aggregation at sites of vascular injury. Therefore, therapeutic modulation of TLT-1–mediated effects may provide clinical benefit to patients with hypercoagulatory conditions, including those associated with inflammation. PMID:19436112

  3. Role of Human Breast Cancer Related Protein versus P-Glycoprotein as an Efflux Transporter for Benzylpenicillin: Potential Importance at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfang Li

    Full Text Available While the blood-brain barrier (BBB protects the brain by controlling the access of solutes and toxic substances to brain, it also limits drug entry to treat central nervous system disorders. Many drugs are substrates for ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters at the BBB that limit their entry into the brain. The role of those transporters in limiting the entry of the widely prescribed therapeutic, benzylpenicillin, has produced conflicting results. This study investigated the possible potential involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, two ABC transporters, in benzylpenicillin transport at BBB in human using MDCKII cells overexpressing those transporters as well as pharmacological inhibition. MDCKII cells overexpressing human BCRP (MDCKII-BCRP but not those overexpressing human P-gp (MDCKII-MDR cells had reduced [3H]benzylpenicillin uptake. Similarly, inhibiting BCRP increased [3H]benzylpenicillin uptake in MDCKII-BCRP cells, while inhibiting P-gp in MDCKII-MDR cells had no effect on uptake although there was evidence that benzylpenicillin is a substrate for canine P-gp. While inhibiting BCRP affected [3H]benzylpenicillin cell concentrations it did not affect transepithelial flux in MDCKII-BCRP cells. In summary, the results indicate that human BCRP and not human P-gp is involved in benzylpenicillin transport. However, targeting BCRP alone was not sufficient to alter transepithelial flux in MDCKII cells. Whether it would be sufficient to alter blood-to-brain flux at the human BBB remains to be investigated.

  4. Membrane-associated 41-kDa GTP-binding protein in collagen-induced platelet activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Bourguignon, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Initially we established that the binding of collagen to human blood platelets stimulates both the rapid loss of PIP2 and the generation of inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). These results indicate that the binding of collagen stimulates inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C during platelet activation. The fact that GTP or GTP-gamma-S augments, and pertussis toxin inhibits, collagen-induced IP3 formation suggests that a GTP-binding protein or (or proteins) may be directly involved in the regulation of phospholipase C-mediated phosphoinositide turnover in human platelets. We have used several complementary techniques to isolate and characterize a platelet 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) that has a number of structural and functional similarities to the regulatory alpha i subunit of the GTP-binding proteins isolated from bovine brain. This 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) is found to be closely associated with at least four membrane glycoproteins (e.g., gp180, gp110, gp95, and gp75) in a 330-kDa complex that can be dissociated by treatment with high salt plus urea. Most important, we have demonstrated that antilymphoma 41-kDa (alpha i subunit of GTP-binding proteins) antibody cross-reacts with the platelet 41-kDa protein (or proteins) and the alpha i subunit of bovine brain Gi alpha proteins, and blocks GTP/collagen-induced IP3 formation. These data provide strong evidence that the 41-kDa platelet GTP-binding protein (or proteins) is directly involved in collagen-induced signal transduction during platelet activation

  5. Membrane-associated 41-kDa GTP-binding protein in collagen-induced platelet activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, G.; Bourguignon, L.Y. (Univ. of Miami Medical School, FL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Initially we established that the binding of collagen to human blood platelets stimulates both the rapid loss of PIP2 and the generation of inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). These results indicate that the binding of collagen stimulates inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C during platelet activation. The fact that GTP or GTP-gamma-S augments, and pertussis toxin inhibits, collagen-induced IP3 formation suggests that a GTP-binding protein or (or proteins) may be directly involved in the regulation of phospholipase C-mediated phosphoinositide turnover in human platelets. We have used several complementary techniques to isolate and characterize a platelet 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) that has a number of structural and functional similarities to the regulatory alpha i subunit of the GTP-binding proteins isolated from bovine brain. This 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) is found to be closely associated with at least four membrane glycoproteins (e.g., gp180, gp110, gp95, and gp75) in a 330-kDa complex that can be dissociated by treatment with high salt plus urea. Most important, we have demonstrated that antilymphoma 41-kDa (alpha i subunit of GTP-binding proteins) antibody cross-reacts with the platelet 41-kDa protein (or proteins) and the alpha i subunit of bovine brain Gi alpha proteins, and blocks GTP/collagen-induced IP3 formation. These data provide strong evidence that the 41-kDa platelet GTP-binding protein (or proteins) is directly involved in collagen-induced signal transduction during platelet activation.

  6. Quantitative Glycoproteomic Analysis Identifies Platelet-Induced Increase of Monocyte Adhesion via the Up-Regulation of Very Late Antigen 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiqing; Kast, Juergen

    2015-08-07

    Physiological stimuli, such as thrombin, or pathological stimuli, such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), activate platelets circulating in blood. Once activated, platelets bind to monocytes via P-selectin-PSGL-1 interactions but also release the stored contents of their granules. These platelet releasates, in addition to direct platelet binding, activate monocytes and facilitate their recruitment to atherosclerotic sites. Consequently, understanding the changes platelet releasates induce in monocyte membrane proteins is critical. We studied the glyco-proteome changes of THP-1 monocytic cells affected by LPA- or thrombin-induced platelet releasates. We employed lectin affinity chromatography combined with filter aided sample preparation to achieve high glyco- and membrane protein and protein sequence coverage. Using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we quantified 1715 proteins, including 852 membrane and 500 glycoproteins, identifying the up-regulation of multiple proteins involved in monocyte extracellular matrix binding and transendothelial migration. Flow cytometry indicated expression changes of integrin α5, integrin β1, PECAM-1, and PSGL-1. The observed increase in monocyte adhesion to fibronectin was determined to be mediated by the up-regulation of very late antigen 5 via a P-selectin-PSGL-1 independent mechanism. This novel aspect could be validated on CD14+ human primary monocytes, highlighting the benefits of the improved enrichment method regarding high membrane protein coverage and reliable quantification.

  7. IPEC-J2 MDR1, a Novel High-Resistance Cell Line with Functional Expression of Human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) for Drug Screening Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lasse; Helms, Hans Christian Cederberg; Brodin, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump has been shown to affect drug distribution and absorption in various organs and to cause drug resistance in cancer therapy. The aim of this work was to develop a cell line to serve as a screening system for potential substrates of P-gp. This requires a cell...... line with high paracellular tightness, low expression of nonhuman ABC transporters, and high expression of functional human P-gp (ABCB1). The porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, was selected as a transfection host, due to its ability to form extremely high-resistance monolayers (>10,000 Ω......·cm(2)) and its low endogenous expression of ABC-type efflux transporters. The IPEC-J2 cells were transfected with a plasmid that contained the sequence of the human MDR1 gene, which encodes P-gp, followed by a selection of successfully transfected cells with geneticin and puromycin. The resulting cell...

  8. Crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment of a monoclonal antibody specific for the multidrug-resistance-linked ABC transporter human P-glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, Lothar; Shukla, Suneet; Zhou, Fei; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Xia, Di

    2016-07-27

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a polyspecific ATP-dependent transporter linked to multidrug resistance in cancers that plays important roles in the pharmacokinetics of a large number of drugs. The drug-resistance phenotype of P-gp can be modulated by the monoclonal antibody UIC2, which specifically recognizes human P-gp in a conformation-dependent manner. Here, the purification, sequence determination and high-resolution structure of the Fab fragment of UIC2 (UIC2/Fab) are reported. Purified UIC2/Fab binds human P-gp with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Crystals of UIC2/Fab are triclinic (space groupP1), with unit-cell parametersa= 40.67,b= 44.91,c= 58.09 Å, α = 97.62, β = 99.10, γ = 94.09°, and diffracted X-rays to 1.6 Å resolution. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined to 1.65 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of UIC2/Fab, which exhibits a positively charged antigen-binding surface, suggesting that it might recognize an oppositely charged extracellular epitope of P-gp.

  9. Differential staining of Western blots of human secreted glycoproteins from serum, milk, saliva, and seminal fluid using lectins displaying diverse sugar specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Garber, Nechama; Lerrer, Batya; Lesman-Movshovich, Efrat; Dgani, Orly

    2005-12-01

    Human milk, serum, saliva, and seminal fluid glycoproteins (gps) nourish and protect newborn and adult tissues. Their saccharides, which resemble cell membrane components, may block pathogen adhesion and infection. In the present study, they were examined by a battery of lectins from plants, animals, and bacteria, using hemagglutination inhibition and Western blot analyses. The lectins included galactophilic ones from Aplysia gonad, Erythrina corallodendron, Maclura pomifera (MPL), peanut, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IL); fucose-binding lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IIL), Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), and mannose/glucose-binding Con A. The results demonstrated the chosen lectin efficiency for differential analysis of human secreted gps as compared to CBB staining. They unveiled the diversity of these body fluid gp glycans (those of the milk and seminal fluid being highest): the milk gps interacted most strongly with PA-IIL, followed by RSL; the saliva gps with RSL, followed by PA-IIL and MPL; the serum gps with Con A and MPL, followed by PA-IIL and RSL, and the seminal plasma gps with RSL and MPL, followed by UEA-I and PA-IIL. The potential usage of these lectins as probes for scientific, industrial, and medical purposes, and for quality control of the desired gps is clearly indicated.

  10. Chimeric human parainfluenza virus bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the sole surface protein is immunogenic and highly protective against Ebola virus challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Zhang Liqun; Yang Lijuan; Ward, Jerrold M.; Dorward, David W.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Murphy, Brian R.; Feldmann, Heinz; Collins, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    We generated a new live-attenuated vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a chimeric virus HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP that contains the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) as the sole transmembrane envelope protein combined with the internal proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Electron microscopy analysis of the virus particles showed that they have an envelope and surface spikes resembling those of EBOV and a particle size and shape resembling those of HPIV3. When HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP was inoculated via apical surface of an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium, the virus was released from the apical surface; when applied to basolateral surface, the virus infected basolateral cells but did not spread through the tissue. Following intranasal (IN) inoculation of guinea pigs, scattered infected cells were detected in the lungs by immunohistochemistry, but infectious HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP could not be recovered from the lungs, blood, or other tissues. Despite the attenuation, the virus was highly immunogenic, and a single IN dose completely protected the animals against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge of guinea pig-adapted EBOV

  11. Filamin A Modulates Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry by Regulating STIM1 (Stromal Interaction Molecule 1)-Orai1 Association in Human Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose J; Albarrán, Letizia; Jardín, Isaac; Sanchez-Collado, Jose; Redondo, Pedro C; Bermejo, Nuria; Bobe, Regis; Smani, Tarik; Rosado, Juan A

    2018-02-01

    Here, we provide evidence for the role of FLNA (filamin A) in the modulation of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). SOCE is a major mechanism for calcium influx controlled by the intracellular Ca 2+ stores. On store depletion, the endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) redistributes into puncta at endoplasmic reticulum/plasma membrane junctions, a process supported by the cytoskeleton, where it interacts with the calcium channels; however, the mechanism for fine-tuning SOCE is not completely understood. Our results demonstrate that STIM1 interacts with FLNA on calcium store depletion in human platelets. The interaction is dependent on the phosphorylation of FLNA at Ser 2152 by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Impairment of FLNA phosphorylation and knockdown of FLNA expression using siRNA increased SOCE in platelets. Similarly, SOCE was significantly greater in FLNA-deficient melanoma M2 cells than in the FLNA-expressing M2 subclone A7. Expression of FLNA in M2 cells attenuated SOCE, an effect prevented when the cells were transfected with the nonphosphorylatable FLNA S2152A mutant. Transfection of M2 cells with the STIM1(K684,685E) mutant reduced the STIM1-FLNA interaction. In platelets, attenuation of FLNA expression using siRNA resulted in enhanced association of STIM1 with the cytoskeleton, greater STIM1-Orai1 interaction, and SOCE. Introduction of an anti-FLNA (2597-2647) antibody attenuated the STIM1-FLNA interaction and enhanced thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Our results indicate that FLNA modulates SOCE and then the correct platelet function, by fine-tuning the distribution of STIM1 in the cytoskeleton and the interaction with Orai1 channels. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Cross-Linking GPVI-Fc by Anti-Fc Antibodies Potentiates Its Inhibition of Atherosclerotic Plaque- and Collagen-Induced Platelet Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jamasbi, RPh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the antithrombotic properties of recombinant glycoprotein VI fragment crystallizable (GPVI-Fc, the authors incubated GPVI-Fc with anti-human Fc antibodies to cross-link the Fc tails of GPVI-Fc. Cross-linking potentiated the inhibition of human plaque- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation by GPVI-Fc under static and flow conditions without increasing bleeding time in vitro. Cross-linking with anti-human-Fc Fab2 was even superior to anti-human-Fc immunoglobulin G (IgG. Advanced optical imaging revealed a continuous sheath-like coverage of collagen fibers by cross-linked GPVI-Fc complexes. Cross-linking of GPVI into oligomeric complexes provides a new, highly effective, and probably safe antithrombotic treatment as it suppresses platelet GPVI-plaque interaction selectively at the site of acute atherothrombosis.

  13. Intra-plaque production of platelet-activating factor correlates with neoangiogenesis in human carotid atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Pucci, Angela; Peasso, Paolo; Merlo, Maurizio; Baron, Paolo; Zanini, Cristina; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Rizea-Savu, Simona; Silvestro, Luigi; Forni, Marco; Emanuelli, Giorgio; Camussi, Giovanni; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2003-09-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid mediator synthesized by activated inflammatory and endothelial cells. Recently PAF has been shown to contribute to neoangiogenesis in several experimental models. Here we evaluated the presence of PAF and its potential role in neovascularization within human atherosclerotic plaques. The amount of PAF extracted from 18 carotid plaques (266.65+/-40.07 pg/100 mg dry tissue; mean +/- SE) was significantly higher than that extracted from 18 normal arterial specimens (6 from carotid artery and 12 from aorta) (4.72+/-2.31 pg/100 mg dry tissue; mean +/- SE). The levels of PAF significantly correlated with the infiltration of CD68-positive monocytes and the extent of neovascularization, detected as von Willebrand Factor-positive cells. The amount of PAF also correlated with the area occupied by TNF-alpha-expressing cells. The absence of enhanced level of PAF in the circulation of atherosclerotic patients suggests a local production of this mediator within the plaque. The lipid extracts of atherosclerotic plaques containing high levels of PAF-bioactivity, but not those of control arteries, were angiogenic in a murine Matrigel model. WEB 2170, a specific PAF receptor antagonist, significantly prevented angiogenesis induced by the lipid extracts of atherosclerotic plaques. Our results indicate a local production of PAF within the atherosclerotic plaques and suggest that it may contribute to intra-plaque neoangiogenesis.

  14. Morphine induces expression of platelet-derived growth factor in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: implication for vascular permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiu Wen

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy, complications of HIV-1 infection with concurrent drug abuse are an emerging problem. Morphine, often abused by HIV-infected patients, is known to accelerate neuroinflammation associated with HIV-1 infection. Detailed molecular mechanisms of morphine action however, remain poorly understood. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, primarily due to its potent mitogenic and permeability effects. Whether morphine exposure results in enhanced vascular permeability in brain endothelial cells, likely via induction of PDGF, remains to be established. In the present study, we demonstrated morphine-mediated induction of PDGF-BB in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, an effect that was abrogated by the opioid receptor antagonist-naltrexone. Pharmacological blockade (cell signaling and loss-of-function (Egr-1 approaches demonstrated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, PI3K/Akt and the downstream transcription factor Egr-1 respectively, in morphine-mediated induction of PDGF-BB. Functional significance of increased PDGF-BB manifested as increased breach of the endothelial barrier as evidenced by decreased expression of the tight junction protein ZO-1 in an in vitro model system. Understanding the regulation of PDGF expression may provide insights into the development of potential therapeutic targets for intervention of morphine-mediated neuroinflammation.

  15. Human Platelet-Rich Plasma- and Extracellular Matrix-Derived Peptides Promote Impaired Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Wolf, Lindsey; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has described several pro-angiogenic short peptides derived from endothelial extracellular matrices degraded by bacterial collagenase. Here we tested whether these peptides could stimulate wound healing in vivo. Our experiments demonstrated that a peptide created as combination of fragments of tenascin X and fibrillin 1 (comb1) applied into cranial dermal wounds created in mice treated with cyclophosphamide to impair wound healing, can improve the rate of wound closure. Furthermore, we identify and characterize a novel peptide (UN3) created and modified from two naturally-occurring peptides, which are present in human platelet-rich plasma. In vitro testing of UN3 demonstrates that it causes a 50% increase in endothelial proliferation, 250% increase in angiogenic response and a tripling of epithelial cell migration in response to injury. Results of in vivo experiments where comb1 and UN3 peptides were added together to cranial wounds in cyclophosphamide-treated mice leads to improvement of wound vascularization as shown by an increase of the number of blood vessels present in the wound beds. Application of the peptides markedly promotes cellular responses to injury and essentially restores wound healing dynamics to those of normal, acute wounds in the absence of cyclophosphamide impairment. Our current work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effects of these peptides as well as identification of the cellular receptors mediating these effects. PMID:22384158

  16. Reversible Hypothermia-Induced Inhibition of Human Platelet Activation in Whole Blood in Vitro and in Vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelson, A

    1992-01-01

    Platelets and other blood components are often transfused in clinical settings associated with hypothermia and a bleeding diathesis, such as cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, other major surgery, and multiple trauma...

  17. Antigenic properties of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 on virions bound to target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meron Mengistu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, undergoes multiple molecular interactions and structural rearrangements during the course of host cell attachment and viral entry, which are being increasingly defined at the atomic level using isolated proteins. In comparison, antigenic markers of these dynamic changes are essentially unknown for single HIV-1 particles bound to target cells. Such markers should indicate how neutralizing and/or non-neutralizing antibodies might interdict infection by either blocking infection or sensitizing host cells for elimination by Fc-mediated effector function. Here we address this deficit by imaging fluorescently labeled CCR5-tropic HIV-1 pseudoviruses using confocal and superresolution microscopy to track the exposure of neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes as they appear on single HIV-1 particles bound to target cells. Epitope exposure was followed under conditions permissive or non-permissive for viral entry to delimit changes associated with virion binding from those associated with post-attachment events. We find that a previously unexpected array of gp120 epitopes is exposed rapidly upon target cell binding. This array comprises both neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes, the latter being hidden on free virions yet capable of serving as potent targets for Fc-mediated effector function. Under non-permissive conditions for viral entry, both neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitope exposures were relatively static over time for the majority of bound virions. Under entry-permissive conditions, epitope exposure patterns changed over time on subsets of virions that exhibited concurrent variations in virion contents. These studies reveal that bound virions are distinguished by a broad array of both neutralizing and non-neutralizing gp120 epitopes that potentially sensitize a freshly engaged target cell for destruction by Fc-mediated effector function and/or for direct neutralization at a post-binding step

  18. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time’ to unwind from the daily stresses of life while helping save lives. What are the benefits to donating platelets? Knowing you’re helping cancer ... of your arm. That pinch is similar to what you will feel when the needle is ... compared to a traditional whole blood donation so some donors find it to ...

  19. Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin αvβ3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B; González, Pablo A; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Jacobs, William R; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These

  20. Low-affinity FcγR interactions can decide the fate of novel human IgG-sensitised red blood cells and platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathryn L; Smith, Cheryl S; Turner, Craig P; Kirton, Christopher M; Wilkes, Anthony M; Hadley, Andrew G; Ghevaert, Cedric; Williamson, Lorna M; Clark, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    G1Δnab is a mutant human IgG1 constant region with a lower ability to interact with FcγR than the natural IgG constant regions. Radiolabelled RBCs and platelets sensitised with specific G1Δnab Abs were cleared more slowly from human circulation than IgG1-sensitised counterparts. However, non-destructive splenic retention of G1Δnab-coated RBCs required investigation and plasma radioactivities now suggest this also occurred for platelets sensitised with an IgG1/G1Δnab mixture. In vitro assays with human cells showed that G1Δnab-sensitised RBCs did not cause FcγRI-mediated monocyte activation, FcγRIIIa-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or macrophage phagocytosis although they did adhere to macrophages. Thus, FcγRII was implicated in the adhesion despite the Δnab mutation reducing the already low-affinity binding to this receptor class. Additional contacts via P-selectin enhance the interaction of sensitised platelets with monocytes and this system provided evidence of FcγRII-dependent activation by G1Δnab. These results emphasise the physiological relevance of low-affinity interactions: It appears that FcγRII interactions of G1Δnab allowed splenic retention of G1Δnab-coated RBCs with inhibitory FcγRIIb binding preventing RBC destruction and that FcγRIIb engagement by G1Δnab on IgG1/G1Δnab-sensitised platelets overcame activation by IgG1. Considering therapeutic blocking Abs, G1Δnab offers lower FcγR binding and a greater bias towards inhibition than IgG2 and IgG4 constant regions. PMID:24285214

  1. Conservation of Ebp-type pilus genes among Enterococci and demonstration of their role in adherence of Enterococcus faecalis to human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Sillanpää, Jouko; Mitchell, Jennifer; Singh, Kavindra V; Chowdhury, Shahreen A; Weinstock, George M; Sullam, Paul M; Murray, Barbara E

    2011-07-01

    Ebp are endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili of Enterococcus faecalis that are also important in experimental urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our analyses, using available genomes, found that the ebp locus is unique to enterococci. In E. faecalis, the ebp locus is very highly conserved and only 1/473 E. faecalis isolates tested lacked ebpABC, while only 1.2% had the bee pilus locus. No other pilus-encoding operon was identified in 55 available genomes, indicating that the vast majority of E. faecalis strains (unlike Enterococcus faecium and streptococci) have a single pilus locus. Surface expression studies showed that Ebp pili were produced in vitro by 91/91 brain heart infusion (BHI) plus serum-grown E. faecalis isolates and that strain OG1RF expressed pili at even higher levels in rat endocarditis vegetations. However, Ebp expression was restricted to 30 to 72% of E. faecalis cells, consistent with a bistability mode of expression. We also evaluated E. faecalis interactions with human platelets and found that growth of E. faecalis in BHI plus serum significantly enhanced adherence to human platelets and that sortase deletion mutants (the ΔsrtA, Δbps, and ΔbpsΔsrtA mutants) were markedly defective. Further studies identified that Ebp pili, but not the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) Ace and Fss2, mediate adherence of E. faecalis to platelets. Taken together, our data show that the immunogenic (in human endocarditis patients) and commonly expressed Ebp pili, which are known to be important for experimental endocarditis, are highly conserved and mediate adherence to platelets, suggesting that Ebp pili may be a reasonable immunotherapeutic target for prevention or possibly treatment of endocarditis caused by this species.

  2. Conservation of Ebp-Type Pilus Genes among Enterococci and Demonstration of Their Role in Adherence of Enterococcus faecalis to Human Platelets ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Sillanpää, Jouko; Mitchell, Jennifer; Singh, Kavindra V.; Chowdhury, Shahreen A.; Weinstock, George M.; Sullam, Paul M.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    Ebp are endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili of Enterococcus faecalis that are also important in experimental urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our analyses, using available genomes, found that the ebp locus is unique to enterococci. In E. faecalis, the ebp locus is very highly conserved and only 1/473 E. faecalis isolates tested lacked ebpABC, while only 1.2% had the bee pilus locus. No other pilus-encoding operon was identified in 55 available genomes, indicating that the vast majority of E. faecalis strains (unlike Enterococcus faecium and streptococci) have a single pilus locus. Surface expression studies showed that Ebp pili were produced in vitro by 91/91 brain heart infusion (BHI) plus serum-grown E. faecalis isolates and that strain OG1RF expressed pili at even higher levels in rat endocarditis vegetations. However, Ebp expression was restricted to 30 to 72% of E. faecalis cells, consistent with a bistability mode of expression. We also evaluated E. faecalis interactions with human platelets and found that growth of E. faecalis in BHI plus serum significantly enhanced adherence to human platelets and that sortase deletion mutants (the ΔsrtA, Δbps, and ΔbpsΔsrtA mutants) were markedly defective. Further studies identified that Ebp pili, but not the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) Ace and Fss2, mediate adherence of E. faecalis to platelets. Taken together, our data show that the immunogenic (in human endocarditis patients) and commonly expressed Ebp pili, which are known to be important for experimental endocarditis, are highly conserved and mediate adherence to platelets, suggesting that Ebp pili may be a reasonable immunotherapeutic target for prevention or possibly treatment of endocarditis caused by this species. PMID:21502588

  3. Expression and localization of p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 4, and breast cancer resistance protein in the female lower genital tract of human and pigtailed macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy; Rohan, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters.

  4. Indium-111 platelet imaging for detection of platelet deposition in abdominal aneurysms and prosthetic arterial grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.L.; Stratton, J.R.; Thiele, B.; Haminton, G.W.; Warrick, L.N.; Huang, T.W.; Harker, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-four platelet imaging studies were performed in 23 patients to determine whether platelet deposition could be detected in patients with vascular aneurysms (18 patients) or in patients in whom Dacron prosthetic grafts had been placed (5 patients). In patients in whom abnormal platelet deposition was detected, the effect of administration of platelet-active drugs on platelet deposition was examined. Of the 18 patients with an aneurysm, 12 had equivocally positive studies on initial imaging and 2 had equivocally positive images. Of five patients with Dacron arterial grafts in place, four had diffuse platelet deposition in the grafts; the fifth patient had a platelet deposition only in a pseudoaneurysm. Eight patients with an abdominal aneurysm and positive or equivocally positive baseline images were restudied during platelet-active drug therapy either with aspirin plus dipyridamole (seven patients) or with sulfinpyrazone (four patients). No patient studied during treatment with aspirin plus dipyridamole had detectably decreased platelet deposition compared with baseline determinations. In contrast, two of four patients studied while receiving sulfinpyrazone showed decreased platelet deposition. Thus, platelet imaging may be of value for studying platelet physiology in vivo and for assessing platelet-active drugs and the thrombogenicity of prosthetic graft materials in human beings

  5. Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane glycoprotein involved in normal and neoplastic cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quackenbush, E.; Clabby, M.; Gottesdiener, K.M.; Barbosa, J.; Jones, N.H.; Strominger, J.L.; Speck, S.; Leiden, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the heavy chain of the heterodimeric human membrane glycoprotein 4F2 have been isolated by immunoscreening of a λgt11 expression library. The identity of these clones has been confirmed by hybridization to RNA and DNA prepared from mouse L-cell transfectants, which were produced by whole cell gene transfer and selected for cell-surface expression of the human 4F2 heavy chain. DNA sequence analysis suggest that the 4F2 heavy-chain cDNAs encode an approximately 526-amino acid type II membrane glycoprotein, which is composed of a large C-terminal extracellular domain, a single potential transmembrane region, and a 50-81 amino acid N-terminal intracytoplasmic domain. Southern blotting experiments have shown that the 4F2 heavy-chain cDNAs are derived from a single-copy gene that has been highly conserved during mammalian evolution

  6. Covalent modification of platelet proteins by palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszbek, L.; Laposata, M.

    1989-01-01

    Covalent attachment of fatty acid to proteins plays an important role in association of certain proteins with hydrophobic membrane structures. In platelets, the structure of many membrane glycoproteins (GPs) has been examined in detail, but the question of fatty acid acylation of platelet proteins has not been addressed. In this study, we wished to determine (a) whether platelet proteins could be fatty acid acylated; and, if so, (b) whether these modified proteins were present in isolated platelet membranes and cytoskeletal fractions; and (c) if the pattern of fatty acid acylated proteins changed on stimulation of the platelets with the agonist thrombin. We observed that in platelets allowed to incorporate 3H-palmitate, a small percentage (1.37%) of radioactivity incorporated into the cells became covalently bound to protein. Selective cleavage of thioester, thioester plus O-ester, and amide-linked 3H-fatty acids from proteins, and their subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that the greatest part of 3H-fatty acid covalently bound to protein was thioester-linked 3H-palmitate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorography, at least ten major radiolabeled proteins were detected. Activation of platelets by thrombin greatly increased the quantity of 3H-palmitoylated proteins associated with the cytoskeleton. Nearly all radiolabeled proteins were recovered in the membrane fraction, indicating that these proteins are either integral or peripheral membrane proteins or proteins tightly associated to membrane constituents. Components of the GPIIb-IIIa complex were not palmitoylated. Thus, platelet proteins are significantly modified posttranslationally by 3H-palmitate, and incorporation of palmitoylated proteins into the cytoskeleton is a prominent component of the platelet response to thrombin stimulation

  7. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga; Luque, Daniel; Terrón, María C.; Calder, Lesley J.; Melero, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSV F occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSV F , we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSV F at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy

  8. Human MHC-II with Shared Epitope Motifs Are Optimal Epstein-Barr Virus Glycoprotein 42 Ligands—Relation to Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Nicole; Izarzugaza, Jose; Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo; Houen, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder of unknown etiology, which is characterized by inflammation in the synovium and joint damage. Although the pathogenesis of RA remains to be determined, a combination of environmental (e.g., viral infections) and genetic factors influence disease onset. Especially genetic factors play a vital role in the onset of disease, as the heritability of RA is 50–60%, with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles accounting for at least 30% of the overall genetic risk. Some HLA-DR alleles encode a conserved sequence of amino acids, referred to as the shared epitope (SE) structure. By analyzing the structure of a HLA-DR molecule in complex with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the SE motif is suggested to play a vital role in the interaction of MHC II with the viral glycoprotein (gp) 42, an essential entry factor for EBV. EBV has been repeatedly linked to RA by several lines of evidence and, based on several findings, we suggest that EBV is able to induce the onset of RA in predisposed SE-positive individuals, by promoting entry of B-cells through direct contact between SE and gp42 in the entry complex. PMID:29361739

  9. Molecular determinants of the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120 responsible for controlling cell tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, S C; Griffin, P; Han-Liu, Z; Keys, B; Vekony, M A; Cann, A J

    1994-11-01

    We and others have identified the major determinant of cell tropism in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as the V3 loop of glycoprotein gp120. We have conducted a detailed study of two molecularly cloned isolates of HIV-1, HIVJR-CSF and HIVNL4-3, that differ in their tropism for immortalized CD4+ cell lines, by constructing a series of site-directed mutations within the V3 loop of HIVJR-CSF based on the sequence of HIVNL4-3. The phenotypes of these mutants fall into two classes, those which are viable and those which are not. A spontaneous mutant with significantly altered growth properties was also recovered and found to have an additional single amino acid change in the V3 loop sequence. The carboxy-terminal beta-strand part of the V3 loop is the major determinant of cell tropism. However, the results presented here indicate that the functional role of the V3 loop sequences can only be interpreted properly in the context of the original gp120 backbone from which they were derived. These findings show that over-simplistic interpretation of sequence data derived from unknown mixtures of HIV variants in infected persons may be highly misleading.

  10. The impact of envelope glycoprotein cleavage on the antigenicity, infectivity, and neutralization sensitivity of Env-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Carolina; Klasse, Per Johan; Michael, Elizabeth; Kake, Shivani; Barnes, Kelly; Kibler, Christopher W.; Campbell-Gardener, Lila; Si, Zhihai; Sodroski, Joseph; Moore, John P.; Beddows, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Endoproteolytic processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoproteins is an obligate part of the biosynthetic pathway that generates functional, fusion-competent Env complexes, which are then incorporated into infectious virions. We have examined the influence of cleavage on Env-specific antibody reactivity, Env incorporation into pseudovirions, and the infectivity and neutralization sensitivity of Env-pseudotyped viruses. To do so, we have used both incompletely processed wild-type (Wt) Env and engineered, cleavage-defective Env mutants. We find that there is no simple association between antibody reactivity to cell surface-expressed Env, and the ability of the same antibody to neutralize virus pseudotyped with the same Env proteins. One explanation for the absence of such an association is the diverse array of Env species present on the surface of transiently transfected cells. We also confirm that cleavage-defective mutants are antigenically different from Wt Env. These findings have implications for the use of Env binding assays as predictors of neutralizing activity, and for the development of cleavage-defective Env trimers for use as subunit immunogens

  11. Ninety-five- and 25-kDa fragments of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the CD4 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, A.; Bergman, T.; Matthews, T.; Joernvall, H.; Wigzell, H.

    1988-01-01

    Iodine-125-labeled gp120 (120-kDa envelope glycoprotein) from the BH10 isolate of human immunodeficiency virus is cleaved to a limited extend with the glutamate-specific protease from Staphylococcus aureus. After disulfide bond reduction, fragments with approximate molecular masses of 95, 60, 50, and 25 kDa are produced. Tests for binding to CD4-positive cells show that only two fragments, the 95- and 25- kDa peptides, are observed in cleavage products that retain the selective binding capacity of gp120. Radiosequence analysis of the fragments after sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electroblotting demonstrates that the 95-kDa fragment lacks the N-terminal region of gp120 and starts at position 143 of the mature envelope protein. The 50-kDa fragment starts at the same position. The 25-kDa binding fragment was similarly deduced to be generated as a small fragment from a cleavage site in the C-terminal part of gp120. The identifications of these fragments demonstrate that radiosequence analysis utilizing 125 I-labeled tyrosine residues can function as a useful and reliable method for small-scale determination of cleavage sites in proteins. Combined, the data suggest domain-like subdivisions of gp120, define at least two intervening segments especially sensitive to proteolytic cleavage, and demonstrate the presence of a functional region for receptor binding in the C-terminal part of the molecule

  12. Rational design and synthesis of altered peptide ligands based on human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 epitope: inhibition of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselios, Theodore; Aggelidakis, Mihalis; Tapeinou, Anthi; Tseveleki, Vivian; Kanistras, Ioannis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Matsoukas, John

    2014-11-04

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the etiology of MS remains unclear, there is evidence T-cell recognition of immunodominant epitopes of myelin proteins, such as the 35-55 epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), plays a pathogenic rol