Sample records for human plasma fibronectin

  1. Peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation of plasma fibronectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Y; Kawasaki, Hiroaki


    Fibronectin is a large dimeric glycoprotein present in both human plasma and in basement membranes. The latter are specialized extracellular matrices underlying endothelial cells in the artery wall. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH) a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo from superoxide...... and nitric oxide radicals by stimulated macrophages and other cells. Considerable evidence supports ONOOH involvement in human atherosclerotic lesion development and rupture, possibly via extracellular matrix damage. Here we demonstrate that Tyr and Trp residues on human plasma fibronectin are highly...

  2. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

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    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A


    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...... with the degree of hepatic fatty change, declined (p less than 0.01), but the individual change was unrelated with the change in plasma fibronectin. In conclusion, the elevated plasma fibronectin levels in morbidly obese subjects seem to normalize during weight loss. We suggest the normalization to be mediated...... (medians 1.22 and 0.59 mumol/l before and after weight loss, p less than 0.01) and was after weight loss within the normal range in 14 patients. The change in plasma fibronectin was unassociated with the magnitude of the weight loss as well as with the reduction of overweight. The resulting plasma...

  3. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

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    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde


    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg....../l) was found in the obese subjects when compared with concentrations in the controls (median 348 mg/l, range 164-536 mg/l). Plasma fibronectin concentrations of the obese patients correlated significantly to their degree of overweight (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05) as well as to the degree of fatty change found...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  4. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in patients with liver diseases

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    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Clemmensen, I


    Plasma, obtained just prior to diagnostic liver biopsy in 71 patients with various liver diseases, was examined by electroimmunoassay using immunoglobulin against human fibronectin and purified plasma fibronectin as standard. The plasma fibronectin concentration was not significantly different from...... age- and sex-matched healthy controls in patients with chronic persistent or chronic active hepatitis (n = 7), primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 8), alcoholic fatty liver (n = 9), alcoholic hepatitis (n = 10), and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 16). Patients with acute viral hepatitis (type A (n = 2); type B...... (n = 7); type non A, non B (n = 1] had significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 506 mg/l (range 339-804] compared to controls (median 399 mg/l (range 304-462]. Morbidly obese patients with fatty liver (n = 11) had significantly (P less than 0.001) raised...

  5. Synergistic effects of BMP-2, BMP-6 or BMP-7 with human plasma fibronectin onto hydroxyapatite coatings: A comparative study. (United States)

    Brigaud, Isabelle; Agniel, Rémy; Leroy-Dudal, Johanne; Kellouche, Sabrina; Ponche, Arnaud; Bouceba, Tahar; Mihailescu, Natalia; Sopronyi, Mihai; Viguier, Eric; Ristoscu, Carmen; Sima, Felix; Mihailescu, Ion N; Carreira, Ana Claudia O; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Gallet, Olivier; Anselme, Karine


    Design of new osteoinductive biomaterials to reproduce an optimized physiological environment capable of recruiting stem cells and instructing their fate towards the osteoblastic lineage has become a priority in orthopaedic surgery. This work aims at evaluating the bioactivity of BMP combined with human plasma fibronectin (FN/BMP) delivered in solution or coated onto titanium-hydroxyapatite (TiHA) surfaces. Herein, we focus on the comparison of in vitro osteogenic efficacy in mouse C2C12 pre-osteoblasts of three BMP members, namely: BMP-2, BMP-6 and BMP-7. In parallel, we evaluated the molecular binding strength between each BMP with FN using the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technology. The affinity of BMPs for FN was found totally different and dependent on BMP type. Indeed, the combination of FN with BMP-2 on TiHA surfaces potentiates the burst of gene-mediated osteogenic induction, while it prolongs the osteogenic activity of BMP-6 and surprisingly annihilates the BMP-7 one. These results correlate with FN/BMP affinity for TiHA, since BMP-6>BMP-2>BMP-7. In addition, by analyzing the osteogenic activity in the peri-implant environment, we showed that osteoinductive paracrine effects were significantly decreased upon (FN/BMP-6), as opposed to (FN/BMP-2) coatings. Altogether, our results support the use of FN/BMP-6 to develop a biomimetic microenvironment capable to induce osteogenic activity under physiological conditions, with minimum paracrine signalization. The originality of our paper relies on the first direct comparison of the in vitro osteogenic potential of three osteogenic BMPs (BMP-2, -6 and -7) combined with native human plasma fibronectin delivered in solution or coated by laser transfer onto titanium hydroxyapatite surfaces. We confirm that BMP association with fibronectin enhances the osteogenic activity of BMP-2, -6 and -7, but with essential discrepancies, depending on the BMP member, and in agreement with the affinity of BMPs for fibronectin

  6. Sorption of fibronectin to human root surfaces in vitro

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    Mendieta, C.; Caravana, C.; Fine, D.H. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))


    The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions that favor the sorption and retention of human plasma fibronectin to cementum. Rectangular root segments prepared from teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were mounted on a capillary pipette and immersed in solutions of {sup 125}I fibronectin for assay of cementum sorption under various conditions. Kinetic studies showed sorption to be rapid, with 77% of the maximum fibronectin sorption occurring within 1 minute. Fibronectin sorption was reduced when added in conjunction with serum and was inhibited by monovalent ions (such as sodium), but enhanced in the presence of divalent cations (such as calcium). Exposure of cementum to serum partially blocked subsequent sorption of fibronectin, while cementum bound fibronectin was eluted by subsequent exposure to serum. Treatment of cementum with citric acid pH 1.1 (4 minutes) followed by 5% sodium hypochlorite (5 minutes) caused a significant increase in fibronectin sorption with maximum retention upon subsequent exposure to serum (P less than 0.05). Fibronectin sorption to cementum was: rapid, electrostatic in nature, competitive, reversible, Ca+(+)-facilitated, and maximized by prior treatment of the root with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite. It is concluded that sorption of fibronectin to cementum can be achieved for clinical gain; however, conditions of application can significantly influence both accumulation and subsequent release of root sorbed material.

  7. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M


    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10......%. The active or activable fibronectin was compared to the immunoreactive fibronectin in plasma from patients with various bacterial diseases. Similar concentrations were detected by the two assays suggesting that all the circulating fibronectin was functionally active. The assay was also applied to determine...... the structure-function relationship of heparin and heparansulphate in activation of fibronectin. Low-sulphated heparansulphate from umbilical cords and heparin-activated fibronectin but the effect was uncorrelated to anticoagulation activity. Only a small fraction of the heparin was actually capable...

  8. Terminal glycotope expression on milk fibronectin differs from plasma fibronectin and changes over lactation. (United States)

    Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena; Hirnle, Lidia; Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona


    Fibronectin (FN) is a multifunctional glycoprotein appearing in various glycovariants with potential biological activities. Using lectins we analyzed the expression of terminal glycotopes on human milk fibronectin over lactation and compared it with that of the mother's plasma. FN concentration and relative amounts of its fucosylated and sialylated glycovariants as well as O-glycans were analyzed in early colostrum, colostrum, transitional and mature milk samples of 132 healthy mothers by lectin-FN-ELISA using α2,3- and α2,6-sialic acid, α1,2-, α1,3-, and α1,6-fucose, and sialyl-T, asialyl-T and Tn antigen specific biotinylated Maackia amurensis, Sambucus nigra, Ulex europaeus, Tetragonolobus purpureus, Lens culinaris, Artocarpus integrifolia, Arachis hypogaea, and Vicia villosa lectins, respectively. FN concentration was almost unchanged during human milk maturation and was about 150 times lower than in plasma of lactating mothers. Milk FN elicited significantly higher expression of sialylated glycotopes including sialyl-T antigen than plasma FN, and contained fucose-linked glycans, as well as T and Tn antigens absent in plasma FN. With milk maturation the expression of α2,6-sialylated, sialyl-T, α1,6- and α1,2-fucosylated epitopes decreased in transitional milk compared with colostrum, whereas that of asialyl-T antigen increased. The expression levels of α2,3-sialyl- and α1,3-fucosyl-glycotopes and Tn antigen on FN were low and did not change over lactation. The expression of terminal sugars on milk FN is different from that of plasma FN of the lactating mother and is associated with milk maturation. The analysis of degree of milk sialylation and fucosylation should be considered during control of biochemical quality of milk collected in milk banks. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M


    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10...

  10. Distribution of a major connective tissue protein, fibronectin, in normal human tissues. (United States)

    Stenman, S; Vaheri, A


    Fibronectin is a major surface-associated glycoprotein of cultured fibroblasts and it is also present in human plasma. Antiserum specific for human fibronectin was used to study the distribution of fibronectin in normal adult human tissues. The protein was detected (a) characteristically in various basement membranes including capillary walls: (b) around individual smooth muscle cells and in the sarcolemma of striated muscle fibers; and (c) in the stroma of lymphatic tissue and as thin fibers in loose connective tissue. The distribution of fibronectin was distinct from that of collagen and elastic fibers, but was very similar to reticulin, as demonstrated by conventional histological staining. The results indicate that fibronectin is a major component of connective tissue matrix. The distribution also indicates that most types of adherent cells abut fibronectin-containing structures. This supports the possible role of fibronectin in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in tissues.

  11. The plasma levels of fibronectin in patients with ischemic heart failure

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    S. V. Fedorov


    Full Text Available The main element of heart failure progression is extracellular matrix condition, where the fibronectin is an important component. Aim.To investigate the plasma levels of fibronectinin patients with ischemic heart failure. Methods and results. The identification of the plasma levels of fibronectin’s concentration was made by ELISA method. Conclusion. The fibronectin plasma levels are higher in patients with II-III HF (NYHA and at presence of atrial fibrillation. The main important factors, which have influence for fibronectin concentration, are endogenous intoxication, left atrium size and end-systolic volume of left ventricle.

  12. Plasma fibronectin promotes thrombus growth and stability in injured arterioles (United States)

    Ni, Heyu; Yuen, Peter S. T.; Papalia, Jessie M.; Trevithick, Jane E.; Sakai, Takao; Fässler, Reinhard; Hynes, Richard O.; Wagner, Denisa D.


    Mice lacking both of the best-known platelet ligands, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, can still form occlusive thrombi in injured arterioles. The platelets of these animals accumulate excessive amounts of fibronectin (FN). These observations led us to examine the contribution of plasma FN (pFN) to thrombus formation. Inactivation of the FN gene in FN conditional knockout mice reduced pFN levels to <2% and platelet FN to ≈20% of the levels in similarly treated control mice. The mice were then observed in a model of arterial injury to evaluate their capacity to form thrombi. The deficiency of pFN did not affect the initial platelet adhesion, but a delay of several minutes in thrombus formation was observed in the arterioles of pFN-deficient mice as compared with control mice. The thrombi that formed in the absence of pFN were stably anchored to the vessel wall but continuously shed platelets or small platelet clumps, thus slowing their growth significantly; the platelet/platelet cohesion was apparently diminished. Consequently the occlusion of pFN-deficient vessels was delayed, with the majority of vessels remaining patent at the end of the 40-min observation period. We conclude that, in addition to von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, FN plays a significant role in thrombus initiation, growth, and stability at arterial shear rates and that deficiency in each of the three platelet ligands has its own specific impact on platelet plug formation. PMID:12606706

  13. TSG-6 binds via its CUB_C domain to the cell-binding domain of fibronectin and increases fibronectin matrix assembly (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Svetlana A.; Mahoney, David J.; Martin-Manso, Gema; Ali, Tariq; Nentwich, Hilke A.; Sipes, John M.; Zeng, Bixi; Vogel, Tikva; Day, Anthony J.; Roberts, David D.


    Human plasma fibronectin binds with high affinity to the inflammation-induced secreted protein TSG-6. Fibronectin binds to the CUB_C domain of TSG-6 but not to its Link module. TSG-6 can thus act as a bridging molecule to facilitate fibronectin association with the TSG-6 Link module ligand thrombospondin-1. Fibronectin binding to TSG-6 is divalent cation-independent and is conserved in cellular fibronectins. Based on competition binding studies using recombinant and proteolytic fragments of fibronectin, TSG-6 binding localizes to type III repeats 9–14 of fibronectin. This region of fibronectin contains the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence recognized by α5β1 integrin, but deletion of that sequence does not prevent TSG-6 binding, and TSG-6 does not inhibit cell adhesion on fibronectin substrates mediated by this integrin. This region of fibronectin is also involved in fibronectin matrix assembly, and addition of TSG-6 enhances exogenous and endogenous fibronectin matrix assembly by human fibroblasts. Therefore, TSG-6 is a high affinity ligand that can mediate fibronectin interactions with other matrix components and modulate some interactions of fibronectin with cells. PMID:18042364

  14. Fibronectin-cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, M R; Woods, A


    and both heparin-binding domains of the plasma fibronectin molecule and their interactions determined the type of adhesion. The same principle was seen in a study of the ability of plasma fibronectin to promote basement membrane assembly in an endodermal cell line, PF-HR9. There also, interactions of both...

  15. Expression, refolding and spectroscopic characterization of fibronectin type III (FnIII)-homology domains derived from human fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT)-1,-2, and-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lila; Falkesgaard, Maria Hansen; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben


    The fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane (FLRT) protein family consists in humans of 3 proteins, FLRT1, -2, and -3. The FLRT proteins contain two extracellular domains separated by an unstructured linker. The most membrane distal part is a leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain responsible for both cis......- and trans-interactions, whereas the membrane proximal part is a fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain responsible for a cis-interaction with members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) family, which results in FGFR tyrosine kinase activation. Whereas the structures of FLRT LRR domains from...

  16. Participation of collagen types I, III, IV, V, and fibronectin in the formation of villi fibrosis in human term placenta. (United States)

    Rukosuev, V S; Nanaev, A K; Milovanov, A P


    The indirect immunofluorescence method was used to study the human term placenta in pathological pregnancy for the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV, V, and fibronectin in fibrosis stromatis villi. All collagen types and fibronectin were shown to participate in fibrosis villorum formation. Fibronectin was also detected in the fibrinoid that surrounded villi at stroma. The presence of free cytotrophoblast cells in the fibrinoid was accompanied by a noticeable increase in fibronectin fluorescence. A significant amount of collagen types IV and V and a less amount of collagen types I and III were identified.

  17. Fibronectin: a chromatin-associated protein? (United States)

    Zardi, L; Siri, A; Carnemolla, B; Santi, L; Gardner, W D; Hoch, S O


    We have previously reported that chromatin preparations from human cultured fibroblasts contain a single homologous serum protein. In this paper we present evidence, based on immunological identity and physicochemical properties, that this serum protein is fibronectin. Furthermore, using a radioimmunoassay system, we have estimated that fibronectin represents about 0.7% of the total protein in both chromatin preparations and whole fibroblasts. Using a nitrocellulose filter assay system, we also show that fibronectin is a DNA-binding protein having an equilibrium constant of 4.6 x 10(-6) M. Equilibrium competition experiments have demonstrated that fibronectin has the ability to differentiate among nucleotides, indicating that fibronectin-DNA interaction is at least partially specific, and that a minimum polymer length of 12-18 nucleotides is required for effective binding to occur. Fibronectin has been isolated readily from plasma using DNA-affinity chromatography. We do not have direct evidence that fibronectin is an actual nonhistone chromosomal protein, but fibronectin is a DNA-binding protein (at least under in vitro assay conditions) and appears to be a normal constituent of chromatin as chromatin is currently isolated from cell nuclei.

  18. The extracellular matrix is an integrated unit: ultrastructural localization of collagen types I, III, IV, V, VI, fibronectin, and laminin in human term placenta. (United States)

    Amenta, P S; Gay, S; Vaheri, A; Martinez-Hernandez, A


    The human term placenta is used extensively as a source of extracellular matrix components. To elucidate the tissue distribution and interrelationships of seven of these components, monospecific antibodies directed against collagen types I, III, IV, V, VI, fibronectin, and laminin were reacted with human term placenta and studied by light and electron immunohistochemistry. Type I collagen was the basic structural unit of human term placenta, present as 30-35 nm, cross-banded fibers, often in the form of large fiber bundles. Type III collagen was present as thin 10-15 nm, beaded fibers often forming a meshwork which encased type I collagen fibers. Types V and VI collagen were present as 6-10 nm filaments, often closely associated with types I and III collagen. Type VI collagen also coated collagen fibers of all diameters, enhancing their periodicity, providing a staining pattern often similar to that observed with anti-fibronectin antibodies. Fibronectin was present in both maternal and fetal plasma and throughout the stroma of the chorionic villus, as both free filaments and coating collagen fibers. Basement membranes contained laminin and type IV collagen, but no fibronectin. In summary, the non-basement membrane proteins studied often codistributed with type I collagen, between and apparently attached to fibers, suggesting that they may act as binding proteins, linking type I fibers and bundles, to themselves and to other structures.

  19. Fibronectin-synthesizing activity of free and membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts and chick embryos

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    Belkin, V.M.; Volodarskaya, S.M.


    The fibronectin-synthesizing activity of membrane-bound and free polyribosomes in a cell-free system was studied using immunochemical methods. It was found that fibronectin biosynthesis on membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts accounts for 4.9% and those from 10-day-old chick embryos for 1.1% of the total amount of newly synthesized proteins, whereas on free polyribosomes it is 1.0 and 0.3%, respectively. Fibronectin monomers with a molecular weight of 220,000 were found only in the material of the cell-free system containing heavy fractions of membrane-bound polyribosomes newly synthesized in the presence of spermidine. Thus, it was shown that fibronectin is synthesized primarily on membrane-bound polyribosomes.

  20. Silibinin inhibits fibronectin induced motility, invasiveness and survival in human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells via targeting integrin signaling

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    Deep, Gagan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)


    Highlights: • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induce motile morphology in PC3 cells. • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induced migration and invasion in PC3 cells. • Silibinin targets fibronectin-induced integrins and downstream signaling molecule. - Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCA) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Preventing or inhibiting metastasis-related events through non-toxic agents could be a useful approach for lowering high mortality among PCA patients. We have earlier reported that natural flavonoid silibinin possesses strong anti-metastatic efficacy against PCA however, mechanism/s of its action still remains largely unknown. One of the major events during metastasis is the replacement of cell–cell interaction with integrins-based cell–matrix interaction that controls motility, invasiveness and survival of cancer cells. Accordingly, here we examined silibinin effect on advanced human PCA PC3 cells’ interaction with extracellular matrix component fibronectin. Silibinin (50–200 μM) treatment significantly decreased the fibronectin (5 μg/ml)-induced motile morphology via targeting actin cytoskeleton organization in PC3 cells. Silibinin also decreased the fibronectin-induced cell proliferation and motility but significantly increased cell death in PC3 cells. Silibinin also inhibited the PC3 cells invasiveness in Transwell invasion assays with fibronectin or cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serving as chemoattractant. Importantly, PC3-luc cells cultured on fibronectin showed rapid dissemination and localized in lungs following tail vein injection in athymic male nude mice; however, in silibinin-treated PC3-luc cells, dissemination and lung localization was largely compromised. Molecular analyses revealed that silibinin treatment modulated the fibronectin-induced expression of integrins (α5, αV, β1 and β3), actin-remodeling (FAK, Src, GTPases, ARP2 and cortactin), apoptosis (cPARP and

  1. Dexamethasone-Mediated Activation of Fibronectin Matrix Assembly Reduces Dispersal of Primary Human Glioblastoma Cells.

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    Stephen Shannon

    Full Text Available Despite resection and adjuvant therapy, the 5-year survival for patients with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is less than 10%. This poor outcome is largely attributed to rapid tumor growth and early dispersal of cells, factors that contribute to a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. An understanding of the cellular and molecular machinery that drive growth and dispersal is essential if we are to impact long-term survival. Our previous studies utilizing a series of immortalized GBM cell lines established a functional causation between activation of fibronectin matrix assembly (FNMA, increased tumor cohesion, and decreased dispersal. Activation of FNMA was accomplished by treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex, a drug routinely used to treat brain tumor related edema. Here, we utilize a broad range of qualitative and quantitative assays and the use of a human GBM tissue microarray and freshly-isolated primary human GBM cells grown both as conventional 2D cultures and as 3D spheroids to explore the role of Dex and FNMA in modulating various parameters that can significantly influence tumor cell dispersal. We show that the expression and processing of fibronectin in a human GBM tissue-microarray is variable, with 90% of tumors displaying some abnormality or lack in capacity to secrete fibronectin or assemble it into a matrix. We also show that low-passage primary GBM cells vary in their capacity for FNMA and that Dex treatment reactivates this process. Activation of FNMA effectively "glues" cells together and prevents cells from detaching from the primary mass. Dex treatment also significantly increases the strength of cell-ECM adhesion and decreases motility. The combination of increased cohesion and decreased motility discourages in vitro and ex vivo dispersal. By increasing cell-cell cohesion, Dex also decreases growth rate of 3D spheroids. These effects could all be reversed by an inhibitor of FNMA and by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU

  2. Platelet-Rich Plasma Attenuates 30-kDa Fibronectin Fragment-Induced Chemokine and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression by Meniscocytes and Articular Chondrocytes. (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Lee, Chian-Her; Peng, Yi-Jen; Salter, Donald M; Lee, Herng-Sheng


    Proteolytic fragments of fibronectin have catabolic effects on cartilage and menisci. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly being used to treat a range of joint conditions, but it is unknown whether PRP influences fibronectin fragment (FN-f) procatabolic activity. The procatabolic activity of FN-f on meniscocytes and articular chondrocytes is attenuated by cotreatment with PRP. Controlled laboratory study. Human meniscocytes were treated with FN-f (30 kDa) with or without PRP coincubation, and gene expression was analyzed by complementary DNA microarray analysis. Validation of altered expression of known and novel chemokine and protease genes was undertaken by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in articular chondrocytes and meniscocytes. Chemokine release was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and intracellular pathway signaling was evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Microarray analysis and RT-PCR showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 (CXCL8), CCL5, CCL20, and CXCL10 chemokines in meniscocytes after treatment with FN-f. Upregulation of these genes was significantly attenuated by PRP. Similar results were seen with articular chondrocytes, although no changes in MMP2 or MMP9 levels were identified. PRP-induced suppression of gene expression was associated with activation of Akt and p44/p42. PRP treatment attenuates the 30-kDa FN-f-induced expression of a range of proinflammatory chemokines and MMPs, including IL-8, IL-6, CCL20, CCL5, CXCL10, MMP1, MMP3, and MMP13, by both meniscocytes and articular chondrocytes. These observations provide support for the use and further trials of PRP in management of cartilage and meniscal injuries. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Plasma fibronectin stabilizes Borrelia burgdorferi–endothelial interactions under vascular shear stress by a catch-bond mechanism (United States)

    Niddam, Alexandra F.; Ebady, Rhodaba; Bansal, Anil; Koehler, Anne; Hinz, Boris


    Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with endothelia under vascular shear stress requires mechanically specialized interaction mechanisms, including force-strengthened catch bonds. However, the biomechanical mechanisms supporting vascular interactions of most bacterial pathogens are undefined. Fibronectin (Fn), a ubiquitous host molecule targeted by many pathogens, promotes vascular interactions of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Here, we investigated how B. burgdorferi exploits Fn to interact with endothelia under physiological shear stress, using recently developed live cell imaging and particle-tracking methods for studying bacterial–endothelial interaction biomechanics. We found that B. burgdorferi does not primarily target insoluble matrix Fn deposited on endothelial surfaces but, instead, recruits and induces polymerization of soluble plasma Fn (pFn), an abundant protein in blood plasma that is normally soluble and nonadhesive. Under physiological shear stress, caps of polymerized pFn at bacterial poles formed part of mechanically loaded adhesion complexes, and pFn strengthened and stabilized interactions by a catch-bond mechanism. These results show that B. burgdorferi can transform a ubiquitous but normally nonadhesive blood constituent to increase the efficiency, strength, and stability of bacterial interactions with vascular surfaces. Similar mechanisms may promote dissemination of other Fn-binding pathogens. PMID:28396443

  4. Fibronectin promotes epithelial migration of cultured rabbit cornea in situ



    We investigated the effect of fibronectin on epithelial migration onto the stroma in cultured rabbit cornea. Rabbit plasma fibronectin was purified by affinity chromatography using gelatin-Sepharose 4B, and its purity was confirmed by SDS polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Antibody against rabbit plasma fibronectin raised in guinea pigs formed a single precipitin line against rabbit plasma and purified rabbit plasma fibronectin by Ouchterlony double diffusion test. When rabbit cornea wa...

  5. Fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV as modulators of cell behavior during adrenal gland development in the human fetus. (United States)

    Chamoux, Estelle; Narcy, Agnès; Lehoux, Jean-Guy; Gallo-Payet, Nicole


    The specific development of the human fetal adrenal gland requires cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and zone-specific steroidogenic activity. The present work was designed to determine the physiological significance of the previously identified spatial distribution of extracellular matrix components in the fetal gland. Primary cultures of human fetal adrenal cells grown on collagen IV, laminin, or fibronectin revealed that cell morphology was affected by environmental cues. Matrices also modulated the profile of steroid secretion by the fetal cells. Collagen IV favored cortisol secretion after ACTH or angiotensin II stimulation and increased dehydroepiandrosterone production when the AT(2) receptor of angiotensin II was specifically stimulated. These effects were correlated by changes in the mRNA levels of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450C17. In contrast, fibronectin and laminin decreased cell responsiveness to ACTH in terms of cortisol secretion, but enhanced ACTH-stimulated androgen secretion. Finally, extracellular matrices were able to orchestrate cell behavior. Collagen IV and laminin enhanced cell proliferation, and fibronectin increased cell death. This study is the first to demonstrate that the nature of extracellular matrix coordinates specific steroidogenic pathways and cell turnover in the developing human fetal adrenal gland.

  6. The outer membrane protein OprQ and adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to human fibronectin. (United States)

    Arhin, Abraham; Boucher, Cliff


    Outer membrane proteins of the Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a significant role in membrane permeability, antibiotic resistance, nutrient uptake, and virulence in the infection site. In this study, we show that the P. aeruginosa outer membrane protein OprQ, a member of the OprD superfamily, is involved in the binding of human fibronectin (Fn). Some members of the OprD subfamily have been reported to be important in the uptake of nutrients from the environment. Comparison of wild-type and mutant strains of P. aeruginosa revealed that inactivation of the oprQ gene does not reduce the growth rate. Although it does not appear to be involved in nutrient uptake, an increased doubling time was reproducibly observed with the loss of OprQ in P. aeruginosa. Utilizing an oprQ-xylE transcriptional fusion, we determined that the PA2760 gene, encoding OprQ, was upregulated under conditions of decreased iron and magnesium. This upregulation appears to occur in early exponential phase. Insertional inactivation of PA2760 in the P. aeruginosa wild-type background did not produce a significant increase in resistance to any antibiotic tested, a phenotype that is typical of OprD family members. Interestingly, the in trans expression of OprQ in the DeltaoprQ PAO1 mutant resulted in increased sensitivity to certain antibiotics. These findings suggest that OprQ is under dual regulation with other P. aeruginosa genes. Intact P. aeruginosa cells are capable of binding human Fn. We found that loss of OprQ resulted in a reduction of binding to plasmatic Fn in vitro. Finally, we present a discussion of the possible role of the P. aeruginosa outer membrane protein OprQ in adhesion to epithelial cells, thereby increasing colonization and subsequently enhancing lung destruction by P. aeruginosa.

  7. Identification of a putative binding site for negatively charged surfaces in the fibronectin type II domain of human factor XII--an immunochemical and homology modeling approach. (United States)

    Citarella, F; te Velthuis, H; Helmer-Citterich, M; Hack, C E


    Monoclonal antibodies directed against functional sites of proteins provide useful tools for structure-function studies. Here we describe a mAb, KOK5, directed against the heavy chain region of human coagulation factor XII (FXII), which inhibits kaolin-induced clotting activity by preventing the binding of FXII to kaolin. Furthermore, mAb KOK5 enhances FXII susceptibility for cleavage by kallikrein and supports FXII autoactivation. Hence, mAb KOK5 likely is directed against the binding site of FXII for negatively charged surfaces. Screening of two phage-displayed random peptide libraries with mAb KOK5 selected phages that could be grouped on the basis of two amino acid consensus sequences: A) FXFQTPXW and B) HQ/LCTHR/KKC. Sequence A contains two motifs: one shares homology with FXII amino acid residues 30-33 (FPFQ), the second one with residues 57-60 (TPNF); both amino acid stretches belonging to the fibronectin type II domain of FXII. Sequence B also reveals homology with part of the fibronectin type II domain, i.e. the stretch 40-47 (HKCTHKGR). A three-dimensional model of FXII residues 28-65, obtained by homology modeling, indicated that the three amino acid stretches 30-33, 40-47 and 57-60 are close to each other and accessible for the solvent, i.e. in a form available for interaction with the monoclonal antibody, suggesting that mAb KOK5 recognizes a discontinuous epitope on the fibronectin type III domain of FXII. Peptides corresponding to FXII sequences 29-37 (FXII29-37) or 39-47 (FXII39-47), were synthesized and tested for the capability to inhibit FXII binding to negatively charged surfaces. Peptide FXII39-47 inhibited the binding of labeled FXII to kaolin and effectively prevented both dextran sulfate- and kaolin-induced activation of the contact system in plasma. Hence, we suggest that the fibronectin type II domain of FXII, in particular residues 39 to 47, contribute to the binding site of FXII for negatively charged surfaces.

  8. Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum TP0136 protein is heterogeneous among isolates and binds cellular and plasma fibronectin via its NH2-terminal end. (United States)

    Ke, Wujian; Molini, Barbara J; Lukehart, Sheila A; Giacani, Lorenzo


    Adherence-mediated colonization plays an important role in pathogenesis of microbial infections, particularly those caused by extracellular pathogens responsible for systemic diseases, such as Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum), the agent of syphilis. Among T. pallidum adhesins, TP0136 is known to bind fibronectin (Fn), an important constituent of the host extracellular matrix. To deepen our understanding of the TP0136-Fn interaction dynamics, we used two naturally-occurring sequence variants of the TP0136 protein to investigate which region of the protein is responsible for Fn binding, and whether TP0136 would adhere to human cellular Fn in addition to plasma Fn and super Fn as previously reported. Fn binding assays were performed with recombinant proteins representing the two full-length TP0136 variants and their discrete regions. As a complementary approach, we tested inhibition of T. pallidum binding to Fn by recombinant full-length TP0136 proteins and fragments, as well as by anti-TP0136 immune sera. Our results show that TP0136 adheres more efficiently to cellular Fn than to plasma Fn, that the TP0136 NH2-terminal conserved region of the protein is primarily responsible for binding to plasma Fn but that binding sites for cellular Fn are also present in the protein's central and COOH-terminal regions. Additionally, message quantification studies show that tp0136 is highly transcribed during experimental infection, and that its message level increases in parallel to the host immune pressure on the pathogen, which suggests a possible role for this protein in T. pallidum persistence. In a time where syphilis incidence is high, our data will help in the quest to identify suitable targets for development of a much needed vaccine against this important disease.

  9. Fibronectin promotes proplatelet formation in the human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Hatano, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Kyoji; Nawa, Katsuhiko; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Yokota, Hiroshi


    We investigated PPF (proplatelet formation) in the human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO in vitro and signal transduction pathways responsible for PPF. The megakaryocytic cell lines are useful for studying megakaryocyte biology, although PPF is induced only in the presence of phorbol ester. TPO (thrombopoietin) stimulates megakaryocyte proliferation and differentiation; however, no PPF occurred in the megakaryocytic cell lines, even after the addition of TPO. Therefore, factors other than TPO may play an important role in the process of PPF. As PPF occurs in the bone marrow in vivo, we noted extracellular matrix proteins and found that soluble FN (fibronectin) induced potent PPF in UT-7/TPO without phorbol ester. A Western blot analysis showed that the expression of integrins was not increased by FN treatment. Anti-β1 antibody and the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) peptide inhibited FN-induced PPF. This result indicates that the signal originated from integrin β1, which is essential to inducing PPF in UT-7/TPO. Results of the experiments using several inhibitors suggest that activation of the MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase]-ERK and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathways are necessary for PPF. The phosphorylation of ERK gradually increased for 2 h after the addition of soluble FN, which suggests that activation of ERK is essential for the initial induction of FN-induced PPF in UT-7/TPO. UT-7/TPO is a useful cell line that enables us to study the signals of PPF without effects of chemical compounds. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 Portland Press Limited

  10. BB0347, from the lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is surface exposed and interacts with the CS1 heparin-binding domain of human fibronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Gaultney

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, codes for several known fibronectin-binding proteins. Fibronectin a common the target of diverse bacterial pathogens, and has been shown to be essential in allowing for the development of certain disease states. Another borrelial protein, BB0347, has sequence similarity with these other known fibronectin-binding proteins, and may be important in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Herein, we perform an initial characterization of BB0347 via the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. We found that BB0347 is expressed, produced, and presented on the outer surface of intact B. burgdorferi. We also demonstrate that BB0347 has the potential to be important in Lyme disease progression, and have begun to characterize the nature of the interaction between human fibronectin and this bacterial protein. Further work is needed to define the role of this protein in the borrelial infection process.

  11. The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast. (United States)

    Hashim, Puziah


    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.

  12. Immunofluorescent localization of collagen types I, III, IV, V, fibronectin, laminin, entactin, and heparan sulphate proteoglycan in human immature placenta. (United States)

    Rukosuev, V S


    The distribution of eight components of the extracellular matrix in immature human placenta was studied by an indirect immunofluorescence method with monospecific antibodies. In the stroma of the term chorionic villi, collagen types I, III, IV, V, and fibronectin formed a mesh of fibers and conglomerates. Heparan sulphate proteoglycan formed multiple conglomerates, whereas laminin comprised small, scanty, discrete granules. Collagen type IV, laminin, entactin, and heparan sulphate proteoglycan were confined to the basement membrane of the trophoblast. Sometimes, only collagen type IV was identified in fetal vascular basement membrane.

  13. Transglutaminase activity arising from Factor XIIIA is required for stabilization and conversion of plasma fibronectin into matrix in osteoblast cultures. (United States)

    Cui, Cui; Wang, Shuai; Myneni, Vamsee D; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Kaartinen, Mari T


    Circulating plasma fibronectin (pFN), produced by hepatocytes, is a major component of the noncollagenous bone matrix where it was recently shown in vivo in mice to control the biomechanical quality as well as the mineral-to-matrix ratio in bone. FN fibrillogenesis is a process generally requiring FN binding to cellular integrins, and cellular tension to elongate and assemble the molecule. Whether soluble pFN undergoes cell-mediated assembly in bone is not fully established. FN is a well-known substrate for transglutaminases (TGs), which are protein-crosslinking enzymes capable of stabilizing macromolecular structures. The role of this modification regarding the function of FN in bone matrix has remained unknown. Osteoblasts express two TGs-transglutaminase 2 and Factor XIIIA-and we have shown that Factor XIIIA is the main TG active during osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, conducted using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures and bone marrow stromal cells, we demonstrate that pFN requires a TG-mediated crosslinking step to form osteoblast matrix in vitro. This modification step is specific for pFN; cellular FN (EDA-FN) does not serve as a TG substrate. Inhibition of pFN assembly using a TG inhibitor, or depletion of pFN from cell culture serum, dramatically decreased total FN matrix assembly in the osteoblast cultures and affected both the quantity and quality of the type I collagen matrix, and decreased lysyl oxidase and alkaline phosphatase levels, resulting in decreased mineralization. Experiments with isozyme-specific substrate peptides showed that FXIIIA is responsible for the crosslinking of pFN. Addition of exogenous preactivated FXIIIA to osteoblast cultures promoted pFN assembly from the media into matrix. Exogenous TG2 had no effect. Analysis of pFN and EDA-FN fibrils by immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that they form distinct matrix network, albeit with minor overlap, suggesting different functions for the two FN forms. Further analysis

  14. Fibronectin Binding Is Required for Acquisition of Mesenchymal/Endothelial Differentiation Potential in Human Circulating Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Seta


    Full Text Available We previously reported monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs, which include progenitors capable of differentiating into a variety of mesenchymal cells and endothelial cells. In vitro generation of MOMCs from circulating CD14+ monocytes requires their binding to extracellular matrix (ECM protein and exposure to soluble factor(s derived from circulating CD14- cells. Here, we investigated the molecular factors involved in MOMC generation by examining the binding of monocytes to ECM proteins. We found that MOMCs were obtained on the fibronectin, but not on type I collagen, laminin, or poly-L-lysine. MOMC generation was followed by changes in the expression profiles of transcription factors and was completely inhibited by either anti-α5 integrin antibody or a synthetic peptide that competed with the RGD domain for the β1-integrin binding site. These results indicate that acquisition of the multidifferentiation potential by circulating monocytes depends on their binding to the RGD domain of fibronectin via cell-surface α5β1 integrin.

  15. Design, expression, and stability of a diverse protein library based on the human fibronectin type III domain. (United States)

    Olson, C Anders; Roberts, Richard W


    Protein libraries based on natural scaffolds enable the generation of novel molecular tools and potential therapeutics by directed evolution. Here, we report the design and construction of a high complexity library (30 x 10(13) sequences) based on the 10th fibronectin type III domain of human fibronectin (10FnIII). We examined the bacterial expression characteristics and stability of this library using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-reporter screen, SDS-PAGE analysis, and chemical denaturation, respectively. The high throughput GFP reporter screen demonstrates that a large fraction of our library expresses significant levels of soluble protein in bacteria. However, SDS-PAGE analysis of expression cultures indicates the ratio of soluble to insoluble protein expressed varies greatly for randomly chosen library members. We also tested the stabilities of several representative variants by guanidinium chloride denaturation. All variants tested displayed cooperative unfolding transitions similar to wild-type, and two exhibited free energies of unfolding equal to wild-type 10FnIII. This work demonstrates the utility of GFP-based screening as a tool for analysis of high-complexity protein libraries. Our results indicate that a vast amount of protein sequence space surrounding the 10FnIII scaffold is accessible for the generation of novel functions by directed as well as natural evolution.

  16. Spreading, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells on chitosan scaffolds immobilized with RGD or fibronectin. (United States)

    Asghari Sana, Farzin; Çapkın Yurtsever, Merve; Kaynak Bayrak, Gökçe; Tunçay, Ekin Özge; Kiremitçi, Arlin S; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe


    Nowadays, human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) became more attractive for therapeutic purposes because of their high proliferation and differentiation potential. Thus, coupling the desired cellular characteristics of hDPSCs with good biomaterial properties of the chitosan scaffolds provide an interesting approach for tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, scaffold surface modification is also needed to promote stem cell adhesion since chitosan lacks adhesion motifs to support direct cell anchorage. In this study, hDPSCs were isolated from third molars of healthy female individuals (aged 16-25) with enzymatic digestion. For cell culture studies, the chitosan scaffolds which have approximately 9 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness with interconnected structure were prepared by freeze-drying. To support cellular attachment the scaffolds were covalently immobilized with either RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) or fibronectin (Fn) molecules. Cells were seeded on chitosan scaffolds with or without immobilized RGD and fibronectin. Cell attachment, spreading, adhesion behaviors and proliferation capacity were examined by scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and PrestoBlue ® assays, respectively. In addition, differentiation potential of hDPSCs on Fn immobilized chitosan scaffolds was determined with real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that chitosan scaffolds were not able to support stem cell attachment. hDPSCs on chitosan scaffolds formed spheroids more quickly and the size of spheroids were smaller than on chitosan-RGD while Fn-immobilized chitosan scaffolds strongly supported cellular attachment but not odontogenic differentiation. The results suggest that the Fn-immobilized chitosan scaffolds may serve as good three-dimensional substrates for dental pulp stem cell attachment and proliferation. In the case of dental regeneration, they must be supported by appropriate biosignals to

  17. Fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV interact with ACTH and angiotensin II to dictate specific cell behavior and secretion in human fetal adrenal cells in culture. (United States)

    Chamoux, E; Narcy, A; Lehoux, J G; Gallo-Payet, N


    Whereas collagen IV is expressed throughout the fetal adrenal gland during the second trimester of human development, fibronectin, and laminin demonstrate a rather mirror-image distribution, with higher expression of fibronectin in the central portion and laminin at the periphery of the gland. In the present study, extracellular matrices were able to modulate the profile of steroid secretion in primary cultures: collagen IV favored cortisol secretion following adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) or angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation while specific stimulation of the AT2 receptor of Ang II elicited dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA) production. These effects were correlated by changes in mRNA levels of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and cytochrome P450C17. In contrast, fibronectin and laminin decreased cell responsiveness to ACTH in terms of cortisol secretion, but enhanced ACTH-stimulated androgen secretion. Finally, extracellular matrices were able to orchestrate cell behavior: collagen IV and laminin enhanced cell proliferation whereas fibronectin incited cell death. These results indicate that the nature of extracellular matrix coordinates specific steroidogenic pathways and cell turnover in the developing human fetal adrenal gland.

  18. [Distribution of fibronectin and other plasma proteins in gastric cancer tissues: investigation of mechanisms of desmoplasia of the stroma]. (United States)

    Maeda, M


    To elucidate the mechanisms of desmoplasia of gastric cancer tissues, distribution of fibronectin (FN), fibrinogen (Fbg), alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2PI) and factor XIII (XIIIA) in fresh 49 gastric cancer tissues and 5 gastric ulcer tissues was studied by indirect immunofluorescent technique. FN existed scarcely in the basement membrane area of gastric cancer tubuli. FN and Fbg were distributed in same patterns abundantly in the stroma of all gastric cancer tissues regardless of their histological types. Neither alpha 2PI nor XIIIA was demonstrated in gastric cancer tissues. Autofluorescence of the cross-linked collagen fibers, which were seen in many gastric cancer cases, were surrounded with FN and Fbg. These results were well identical with those obtained from gastric ulcer tissues. These facts indicate that such a mechanism as non-specific wound healing process participates in desmoplasia of gastric cancer stroma as well as in fibrosis of gastric ulcer.

  19. Stabilization of the third fibronectin type III domain of human tenascin-C through minimal mutation and rational design. (United States)

    Gilbreth, R N; Chacko, B M; Grinberg, L; Swers, J S; Baca, M


    Non-antibody scaffolds are increasingly used to generate novel binding proteins for both research and therapeutic applications. Our group has developed the tenth fibronectin type III domain of human tenascin-C (TNfn3) as one such scaffold. As a scaffold, TNfn3 must tolerate extensive mutation to introduce novel binding sites. However, TNfn3's marginal stability (T(m) ∼ 59°C, ΔG(unfolding) = 5.7 kcal/mol) stands as a potential obstacle to this process. To address this issue, we sought to engineer highly stable TNfn3 variants. We used two parallel strategies. Using insights gained from structural analysis of other FN3 family members, we (1) rationally designed stabilizing point mutations or (2) introduced novel stabilizing disulfide bonds. Both strategies yielded highly stable TNfn3 variants with T(m) values as high as 83°C and ΔG(unfolding) values as high as 9.4 kcal/mol. Notably, only three or four mutations were required to achieve this level of stability with either approach. These results validate our rational design strategies and illustrate that substantial stability increases can be achieved with minimal mutation. One TNfn3 variant reported here has now been successfully used as a scaffold to develop two promising therapeutic molecules. We anticipate that other variants described will exhibit similar utility. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  20. Fibronectin distribution during the development of fetal rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibson, W T; Couchman, J R; Weaver, A C


    revealed fibronectin on the surface of many of these cells and in association with the surrounding fine collagen fibrils. At the dermal-epidermal junction, both follicular and interfollicular, fibronectin was localized mainly in the plasma membrane and lamina lucida regions of the basement membrane...

  1. Treponema pallidum receptor binding proteins interact with fibronectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.M.; Baseman, J.B.; Alderete, J.F.


    Analysis of plasma proteins avidly bound to T. pallidum surfaces revealed the ability of T. pallidum to acquire numerous host macromolecules. No acquisition was evident by the avirulent spirochete, T. phagedenis biotype Reiter. Western blotting technology using hyperimmune antifibronectin serum as a probe revealed the ability of virulent treponemes to avidly bind fibronectin from a complex medium such as plasma. The specificity of the tiplike adherence of motile T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated glass surfaces and to fibronectin on HEp-2 cells was reinforced by the observation that pretreatment of coverslips or cell monolayers with monospecific antiserum against fibronectin substantially reduced T. pallidum attachment. The stoichiometric binding of T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated coverslips and the inability of unlabeled or /sup 35/S-radiolabeled treponemes to interact with glass surfaces treated with other plasma proteins further established the specific nature of the interaction between virulent T. pallidum and fibronectin. The avid association between three outer envelope proteins of T. pallidum and fibronectin was also demonstrated. These treponemal surface proteins have been previously identified as putative receptor-binding proteins responsible for T. pallidum parasitism of host cells. The data suggest that surface fibronectin mediates tip-oriented attachment of T. pallidum to host cells via a receptor-ligand mechanism of recognition.

  2. Preparation of Bioactive Titanium Surfaces via Fluoride and Fibronectin Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nelson Elias


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem. The chemical or topographic modification of the dental implant surface can affect bone healing, promote accelerated osteogenesis, and increase bone-implant contact and bonding strength. Objective. In this work, the effects of dental implant surface treatment and fibronectin adsorption on the adhesion of osteoblasts were analyzed. Materials and Methods. Two titanium dental implants (Porous-acid etching and PorousNano-acid etching followed by fluoride ion modification were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction before and after the incorporation of human plasma fibronectin (FN. The objective was to investigate the biofunctionalization of these surfaces and examine their effects on the interaction with osteoblastic cells. Results. The evaluation techniques used showed that the Porous and PorousNano implants have similar microstructural characteristics. Spectrophotometry demonstrated similar levels of fibronectin adsorption on both surfaces (80%. The association indexes of osteoblastic cells in FN-treated samples were significantly higher than those in samples without FN. The radioactivity values associated with the same samples, expressed as counts per minute (cpm, suggested that FN incorporation is an important determinant of the in vitro cytocompatibility of the surfaces. Conclusion. The preparation of bioactive titanium surfaces via fluoride and FN retention proved to be a useful treatment to optimize and to accelerate the osseointegration process for dental implants.

  3. Streptococcus pyogenes in Human Plasma (United States)

    Malmström, Johan; Karlsson, Christofer; Nordenfelt, Pontus; Ossola, Reto; Weisser, Hendrik; Quandt, Andreas; Hansson, Karin; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars; Björck, Lars


    Streptococcus pyogenes is a major bacterial pathogen and a potent inducer of inflammation causing plasma leakage at the site of infection. A combination of label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategies were used to measure how the intracellular proteome homeostasis of S. pyogenes is influenced by the presence of human plasma, identifying and quantifying 842 proteins. In plasma the bacterium modifies its production of 213 proteins, and the most pronounced change was the complete down-regulation of proteins required for fatty acid biosynthesis. Fatty acids are transported by albumin (HSA) in plasma. S. pyogenes expresses HSA-binding surface proteins, and HSA carrying fatty acids reduced the amount of fatty acid biosynthesis proteins to the same extent as plasma. The results clarify the function of HSA-binding proteins in S. pyogenes and underline the power of the quantitative mass spectrometry strategy used here to investigate bacterial adaptation to a given environment. PMID:22117078

  4. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Marcacao de Corynebacterium diphtheriae com Tecnecio-99m e avaliacao da capacidade de ligacao a fibronectina de plasma humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas


    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of {sup 99m}Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by {sup 99m}Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl{sub 2} bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl{sub 2} > 110 {mu}g/ml. Adherence levels of {sup 99m}Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 {mu}g/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% {+-} 1.2). Therefore, bacterial {sup 99m}Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  5. Genetics Home Reference: fibronectin glomerulopathy (United States)

    ... fibronectin glomerulopathy fibronectin glomerulopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... hematuria and proteinuria, respectively). They also have high blood pressure (hypertension). Some affected individuals develop renal tubular acidosis, ...

  6. Influence of a Single-bout of Muscle Damaging Eccentric Exercise on Human Plasma Fibronectin Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuBose, D


    .... Such exposure can significantly contribute to the casualty rate. To reduce casualties, physiological markers are required to characterize training programs relative to their capacity to impart resistance to the lethal effects of stress...

  7. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja von Au


    Full Text Available Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers.

  8. Fibronectin and laminin promote differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into insulin producing cells through activating Akt and ERK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Shih-Hwa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Islet transplantation provides a promising cure for Type 1 diabetes; however it is limited by a shortage of pancreas donors. Bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs offer renewable cells for generating insulin-producing cells (IPCs. Methods We used a four-stage differentiation protocol, containing neuronal differentiation and IPC-conversion stages, and combined with pellet suspension culture to induce IPC differentiation. Results Here, we report adding extracellular matrix proteins (ECM such as fibronectin (FN or laminin (LAM enhances pancreatic differentiation with increases in insulin and Glut2 gene expressions, proinsulin and insulin protein levels, and insulin release in response to elevated glucose concentration. Adding FN or LAM induced activation of Akt and ERK. Blocking Akt or ERK by adding LY294002 (PI3K specific inhibitor, PD98059 (MEK specific inhibitor or knocking down Akt or ERK failed to abrogate FN or LAM-induced enhancement of IPC differentiation. Only blocking both of Akt and ERK or knocking down Akt and ERK inhibited the enhancement of IPC differentiation by adding ECM. Conclusions These data prove IPC differentiation by MSCs can be modulated by adding ECM, and these stimulatory effects were mediated through activation of Akt and ERK pathways.

  9. Paclitaxel enhances therapeutic efficacy of the F8-IL2 immunocytokine to EDA-fibronectin-positive metastatic human melanoma xenografts. (United States)

    Moschetta, Michele; Pretto, Francesca; Berndt, Alexander; Galler, Kerstin; Richter, Petra; Bassi, Andrea; Oliva, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Valbusa, Giovanni; Schwager, Kathrin; Kaspar, Manuela; Trachsel, Eveline; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Bani, Maria Rosa; Neri, Dario; Giavazzi, Raffaella


    The selective delivery of bioactive agents to tumors reduces toxicity and enhances the efficacy of anticancer therapies. In this study, we show that the antibody F8, which recognizes perivascular and stromal EDA-fibronectin (EDA-Fn), when conjugated to interleukin-2 (F8-IL2) can effectively inhibit the growth of EDA-Fn-expressing melanomas in combination with paclitaxel. We obtained curative effects with paclitaxel administered before the immunocytokine. Coadministration of paclitaxel increased the uptake of F8 in xenografted melanomas, enhancing tumor perfusion and permeability. Paclitaxel also boosted the recruitment of F8-IL2-induced natural killer (NK) cells to the tumor, suggesting a host response as part of the observed therapeutic benefit. In support of this likelihood, NK cell depletion impaired the antitumor effect of paclitaxel plus F8-IL2. Importantly, this combination reduced both the tumor burden and the number of pulmonary metastatic nodules. The combination did not cause cumulative toxicity. Together, our findings offer a preclinical proof that by acting on the tumor stroma paclitaxel potentiates the antitumor activity elicited by a targeted delivery of IL2, thereby supporting the use of immunochemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. ©2012 AACR.

  10. Human Fibronectin Extra-Domain B (EDB)-Specific Aptide (APTEDB) Radiolabelling with Technetium-99m as a Potent Targeted Tumour-Imaging Agent. (United States)

    Mohammadgholi, Mohsen; Sadeghzadeh, Nourollah; Erfani, Mostafa; Abediankenari, Saeid; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Emrarian, Iman; Jafari, Narjes; Behzadi, Ramezan


    Human fibronectin extra-domain B (EDB) is particularly expressed during angiogenesis progression. It is, thus, a promising marker of tumour growth. Aptides are a novel class of peptides with high-affinity binding to specific protein targets. APTEDB is an antagonist-like ligand that especially interacts with human fibronectin EDB. This study was the first attempt in which the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-conjugated APTEDB was labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) as an appropriate radiotracer and tricine/EDDA exchange labeling . Method: Radiochemical purity, normal saline, and serum stability were evaluated by HPLC and radio-isotope TLC scanner. Other examinations, such as protein-binding calculation, dissociation radioligand binding assay, and partition coefficient constant determination, were also carried out. The cellular-specific binding of 99mTc-HYNIC-conjugated APTEDB was assessed in two EDB-positive (U87MG) and EDB-negative (U373MG) cell lines. Bio-distribution was investigated in normal mice as well as in U87MG and U373MG tumour-bearing mice. Eventually, the radiolabelled APTEDB was used for tumour imaging using planar SPECT. Results: Radiolabelling was achieved with high purity (up to 97%) and accompanied by high solution (Over 90% after overnight) and serum (80% after 2 hours) stability. The obtained cellular-specific binding ratio was greater than nine-fold. In-vivo experiments showed rapid blood clearance with mainly renal excretion and tumour uptake specificity (0.48±0.03% ID/g after 1h ). The results of the imaging also confirmed considerable tumour uptake for EDB-positive cell lines compared with the EDB-negative ones. Conclusion: Aptides are considered to be a potent candidate for biopharmaceutical applications. They can be modified with imaging or therapeutic agents. This report shows the capability of 99mTc-HYNIC-APTEDB for human EDB-expressing tumour detection. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  11. Human ovulation and plasma oxytocin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaresan, Perianna; Kumaresan, Malathi; Hossini, Mahmood; Arellano, Carolina; Vasicka, Alois (State Univ. of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn (USA))


    Plasma oxytocin (OT) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) method without extracting plasma in 11 normal menstruating women. Mean plasma OT level began to increase steadily from the 7th day of the menstrual cycle and this level rose up to 20+-5 (Mean+-S.E.) on the 10th day of the cycle. OT level declined to 13+-6 on the day of the LH peak and continuously declined for another 2 days - then rose. The OT level was higher during the follicular phase than during the luteal phase. In 1 individual OT measured in 2 cycles a year apart showed the highest level of OT coincided with LH and FSH peak and abruptly declined. When there was the highest level of progesterone, the OT level was measurable 1 out of 11 cycles. From this study, we conclude that OT may have a role in human ovulation either synergistically or alone with other ovulatory mechanisms and ovarian estradiol and progesterone control the secretion of OT and also suggests that OT may play some role in the regulation of the luteolysis and the menstrual cycle in women.

  12. Characterization of the opsonic and monocyte adherence functions of the specific fibronectin fragment that enhances phagocytosis of particulate activators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czop, JK; Kadish, JL; Zepf, DM; Austen, KF


    .... opsonic fibronectin fragment (180K-opFnf) that selectively augments human monocyte phagocytosis of particulate activators of the alternative complement pathway were analyzed with Fab fragments of monoclonal anti-fibronectin antibodies BC7...

  13. Adsorption of fibronectin and vitronectin onto Primaria and tissue culture polystyrene and relationship to the mechanism of initial attachment of human vein endothelial cells and BHK-21 fibroblasts. (United States)

    Steele, J G; Dalton, B A; Johnson, G; Underwood, P A


    The two cell culture substrata, tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and Primaria, were compared in order to determine whether a nitrogen-containing surface such as Primaria attracts cells by a different mechanism to an oxygen-containing surface (TCPS). The amounts of vitronectin (Vn) and fibronectin (Fn) which adsorb from the fetal bovine serum (FBS) component of the culture medium onto Primaria and TCPS were determined. Primaria adsorbed two- to threefold more Fn than TCPS, but adsorbed similar amounts of Vn from medium containing FBS. The Fn and Vn binding sites on Primaria were distinct, as adsorption was non-competitive between these two proteins. The amounts of Fn and Vn that adsorbed onto the two surfaces were compared to the concentration dependence of the cell attachment activities of Fn and Vn. Whereas the amounts of Fn which adsorbed onto TCPS were suboptimal for cell attachment, Primaria adsorbed an Fn surface density that was supraoptimal for attachment of human vein endothelial cells and BHK-21 fibroblasts. We conclude that Primaria differs from TCPS in that both Fn and Vn mediate initial cell attachment to Primaria when the culture medium contains FBS, whereas cell attachment to TCPS is dependent upon Vn.

  14. Adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to conformationally specific determinants in fibronectin. (United States)

    Lowrance, J H; Hasty, D L; Simpson, W A


    The adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to specific receptors exposed or deposited at the site of endothelial damage may play an important role in the development of infective endocarditis. Adherence of the Challis strain of S. sanguis to gelatin (or collagen) and gelatin-binding components of plasma was examined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. S. sanguis adhered poorly to immobilized gelatin and to molecular or fibrillar collagen. However, in the presence of fresh human plasma, the adherence of S. sanguis to all three substrates increased as much as eightfold. Removal of gelatin-binding proteins eliminates the ability of plasma to enhance adherence of S. sanguis to the substrates. Addition of purified human plasma fibronectin (Fn) to the absorbed plasma restored the adherence-promoting ability in a dose-dependent manner. A similar dose-dependent increase in S. sanguis adherence was observed when increasing concentrations of Fn alone were added to the gelatin-coated assay wells. S. sanguis adherence to immobilized fibronectin could not be inhibited by preincubating either the bacteria or the gelatin-coated assay wells with Fn or by including excess soluble Fn in the assay mixture. Studies with peptides purified from trypsin digests of Fn indicated that the 160- to 180-kilodalton (kDa) fragments which retain both the gelatin-binding and the cell-binding regions of the intact molecule support adherence of S. sanguis to gelatin. The 160- to 180-kDa fragments inhibited the interaction of S. sanguis with immobilized Fn. In contrast, intact Fn and the 31-kDa amino-terminal fragment were unable to inhibit the adherence when used in equivalent or greater molar amounts. These in vitro results suggest that in the presence of whole plasma, S. sanguis binds to immobilized gelatin or collagen via Fn bound to the immobilized substrates. Our finding that adherence of S. sanguis to immobilized Fn can occur in the presence of large concentrations of Fn, whether in plasma

  15. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ and IIδ mediate TGFβ-induced transduction of fibronectin and collagen in human pulmonary fibroblasts. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Sheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Janssen, Luke J


    It is now clear that in addition to activating several complex kinase pathways (Smad, MAP kinase, PI3 kinase), TGFβ also acts by elevating cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration within human pulmonary fibroblasts. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamK II) is also known to regulate gene expression in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the interactions between calcium signaling, activation of CamK and other kinases, and extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression. Human pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured and stimulated with artificially generated Ca(2+) pulses in the absence of TGFβ, or with TGFβ (1 nM) or vehicle in the presence of various blockers of Ca(2+) signaling. PCR and Western blotting were used to measure gene expression and protein levels, respectively. We found that Ca(2+) pulses in the absence of TGFβ increased ECM gene expression in a pulse frequency-dependent manner, and that blocking Ca(2+) signaling and the CamK II pathway significantly reduced TGFβ-mediated ECM gene expression, without having any effects on other kinase pathways (Smad, PI3 kinase, or MAP kinase). We also found that TGFβ elevated the expression of CamK IIβ and CamK IIδ, while siRNA silencing of those two subtypes significantly reduced TGFβ-mediated expression of collagen A1 and fibronectin 1. Our data suggest that TGFβ induces the expression of CamK IIβ and CamK IIδ, which in turn are activated by TGFβ-evoked Ca(2+) waves in a frequency-dependent manner, leading to increased expression of ECM proteins. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. In Vitro Analysis of Fibronectin-Modified Titanium Surfaces (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Chang, Wei Jen


    Background Glow discharge plasma (GDP) procedure is an effective method for grafting various proteins, including albumin, type I collagen, and fibronectin, onto a titanium surface. However, the behavior and impact of titanium (Ti) surface modification is yet to be unraveled. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the biological properties of fibronectin-grafted Ti surfaces treated by GDP. Materials and Methods Grade II Ti discs were initially cleaned and autoclaved to obtain original specimens. Subsequently, the specimens were GDP treated and grafted with fibronectin to form Ar-GDP (Argon GDP treatment only) and GDP-fib (fibronectin coating following GDP treatment) groups. Blood coagulation test and MG-63 cell culture were performed to evaluate the biological effects on the specimen. Results There was no significant difference between Ar-GDP and GDP-fib groups in blood compatibility analysis. While in the MTT test, cellular proliferation was benefited from the presence of fibronectin coating. The numbers of cells on Ar-GDP and GDP-fib specimens were greater than those in the original specimens after 24 h of culturing. Conclusions GDP treatment combined with fibronectin grafting favored MG-63 cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation on titanium surfaces, which could be attributed to the improved surface properties. PMID:26731536

  17. NF-κB Mediates the Stimulation of Cytokine and Chemokine Expression by Human Articular Chondrocytes in Response to Fibronectin Fragments1 (United States)

    Pulai, Judit I.; Chen, Hong; Im, Hee-Jeong; Kumar, Sanjay; Hanning, Charles; Hegde, Priti S.; Loeser, Richard F.


    Fibronectin fragments (FN-f) that bind to the α5β1 integrin stimulate chondrocyte-mediated cartilage destruction and could play an important role in the progression of arthritis. The objective of this study was to identify potential cytokine mediators of cartilage inflammation and destruction induced by FN-f and to investigate the mechanism of their stimulation. Human articular chondrocytes, isolated from normal ankle cartilage obtained from tissue donors, were treated with a 110-kDa FN-f in serum-free culture, and expression of various cytokine genes was analyzed by cDNA microarray and by a cytokine protein array. Compared with untreated control cultures, stimulation by FN-f resulted in a >2-fold increase in IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and growth-related oncogene β (GRO-β). Constitutive and FN-f-inducible expression of GRO-α and GRO-γ were also noted by RT-PCR and confirmed by immunoblotting. Previous reports of IL-1β expression induced by FN-f were also confirmed, while TNF expression was found to be very low. Inhibitor studies revealed that FN-f-induced stimulation of chondrocyte chemokine expression was dependent on NF-κB activity, but independent of IL-1 autocrine signaling. The ability of FN-f to stimulate chondrocyte expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines suggests that damage to the cartilage matrix is capable of inducing a proinflammatory state responsible for further progressive matrix destruction, which also includes the chemoattraction of inflammatory cells. Targeting the signaling pathways activated by FN-f may be an effective means of inhibiting production of multiple mediators of cartilage destruction. PMID:15843581

  18. Stereological evaluation of fibronectin in the periurethral region of the transitional zone from normal human prostates compared with benign prostatic hyperplasia. (United States)

    Manaia, Jorge H M; Cardoso, Gilberto P; Babinski, Marcio A


    The aim of this study was to assess the volumetric density (Vv) of the fibronectin in the periurethral region of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and compare with a control group. Prostatic periurethral tissue samples were obtained from ten patients (age range 65 to 79 years, mean 66) with clinical symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction who had undergone open prostatectomy. The control group samples (periurethral tissue samples from the transitional zone) were collected from prostates obtained during autopsy of accidental death adults of less than 25 years. The volumetric density (Vv) of the fibronectin was determined with stereological methods from 25 random fields per sample using the point-count method with an M-42 grid test system. The quantitative data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney U tests. The Vv in the control and BPH groups was 21.9% ± 1.5% and 29.1% ± 1.2% in the fibronectin, respectively. BPH tissues presented a significant increase of fibronectin in prostatic periurethral region in the transitional zone that may cause lengthening of the prostatic urethra.

  19. Full-Length Fibronectin Drives Fibroblast Accumulation at the Surface of Collagen Microtissues during Cell-Induced Tissue Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Foolen

    Full Text Available Generating and maintaining gradients of cell density and extracellular matrix (ECM components is a prerequisite for the development of functionality of healthy tissue. Therefore, gaining insights into the drivers of spatial organization of cells and the role of ECM during tissue morphogenesis is vital. In a 3D model system of tissue morphogenesis, a fibronectin-FRET sensor recently revealed the existence of two separate fibronectin populations with different conformations in microtissues, i.e. 'compact and adsorbed to collagen' versus 'extended and fibrillar' fibronectin that does not colocalize with the collagen scaffold. Here we asked how the presence of fibronectin might drive this cell-induced tissue morphogenesis, more specifically the formation of gradients in cell density and ECM composition. Microtissues were engineered in a high-throughput model system containing rectangular microarrays of 12 posts, which constrained fibroblast-populated collagen gels, remodeled by the contractile cells into trampoline-shaped microtissues. Fibronectin's contribution during the tissue maturation process was assessed using fibronectin-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Fn-/- MEFs and floxed equivalents (Fnf/f MEFs, in fibronectin-depleted growth medium with and without exogenously added plasma fibronectin (full-length, or various fragments. In the absence of full-length fibronectin, Fn-/- MEFs remained homogenously distributed throughout the cell-contracted collagen gels. In contrast, in the presence of full-length fibronectin, both cell types produced shell-like tissues with a predominantly cell-free compacted collagen core and a peripheral surface layer rich in cells. Single cell assays then revealed that Fn-/- MEFs applied lower total strain energy on nanopillar arrays coated with either fibronectin or vitronectin when compared to Fnf/f MEFs, but that the presence of exogenously added plasma fibronectin rescued their contractility. While collagen

  20. Heparin-binding proteins of human seminal plasma: purification and characterization. (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Kashav, Tara; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita


    Human seminal plasma (HuSP) contains several proteins that bind heparin and related glycosaminoglycans. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs) from seminal plasma have been shown to participate in modulation of capacitation or acrosome reaction and thus have been correlated with fertility in some species. However, these have not been studied in detail in human. The objective of this study was to purify major HBPs from HuSP in order to characterize these proteins. HBPs were isolated by affinity-chromatography on Heparin-Sepharose column, purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Size-exclusion chromatography and checked for purity on sodium-dodecyl PAGE (SDS-PAGE). Identification of HBPs was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Here we report the purification and identification of seven HBPs in seminal fluid. The major HBPs are lactoferrin and its fragments, semenogelin I fragments, semenogelin II, prostate specific antigen, homolog of bovine seminal plasma-proteins (BSP), zinc finger protein (Znf 169) and fibronectin fragments. In this study we are reporting for the first time the purification and identification of BSP-homolog and Znf 169 from HuSP and classified them as HBPs. Here we report the purification of seven clinically important proteins from human seminal fluid through heparin affinity chromatography and RP-HPLC, in limited steps with higher yield. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid concentration of fibronectin in meningitis.


    Torre, D; Zeroli, C; Issi, M; Fiori, G P; Ferraro, G.; Speranza, F


    Fibronectin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were assessed in 20 patients with acute meningitis using a turbidimetric immunoassay. A significant increase in fibronectin concentrations was observed in patients with bacterial meningitis; decreased concentrations were observed in patients with viral meningitis. The determination of fibronectin concentration in patients with bacterial meningitis may represent a useful marker in differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  2. Intermittent cyclic loading of cartilage explants modulates fibronectin metabolism. (United States)

    Steinmeyer, J; Ackermann, B; Raiss, R X


    The aim of this study was to evaluate systematically the effect of tissue load, its amplitude, time of intermittence and duration of loading on the biosynthesis and release of fibronectin by intermittently loaded mature bovine articular cartilage explants. Cyclic compressive pressure was introduced using a sinusoidal waveform of 0.5 Hz-frequency with a peak stress of 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 MPa for a period of 10 s followed by an unloaded period lasting 10, 100 or 1000 s. Fibronectin and total proteins were radiolabeled with 10 microCi/ml [3H]-phenylalanine during the final 18 h of the 1, 3 or 6 day experiments. The content of endogenous fibronectin was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), whereas the viability of explants was measured using sections of cartilage explants stained with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. The deformation of loaded explants was determined using a load-displacement transducer system. The mechanical factor time of intermittence significantly altered the synthesis and release of fibronectin by cartilage explants, whereas the tested range of load magnitudes, as well as the duration of loading, seemed to be of subordinate importance. Loading affected the viability of the superficial zone in the cartilage, whereas the chondrocytes of the intermediate and deep zone remained viable. The compression of loaded explants was dependent on the magnitude of stress, as well as on the duration of unloading between each loading cycle. Synthesis of fibronectin, the retention of newly synthesized fibronectin within the extracellular matrix, and the portion of newly synthesized proteins that were fibronectin was significantly increased in cartilage explants which were cyclically compressed with 0.5 MPa for 10 s followed by a period of unloading lasting 100 s. Previous studies reporting that cartilage explants of human and animal osteoarthritic joints synthesize and retain elevated amounts of fibronectin imply that in our experiments

  3. Molecular characterization of fibronectin-binding protein of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of lactobacilli to adhere to vaginal epithelial surfaces and intestinal tracts is believed to be important to allow colonization and host interaction for persistence. Bacterial adhesins molecules are proteins of which the human host fibronectin serves as a substrate for the attachment of bacteria and play a significant ...

  4. 21 CFR 640.90 - Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). 640.90 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.90 Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  5. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins (United States)

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin


    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5–6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5–6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development. PMID:26338058

  6. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. (United States)

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin


    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5-6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5-6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development.

  7. Analysis of the collagen I and fibronectin of temporomandibular joint synovial fluid and discs. (United States)

    Natiella, Joseph R; Burch, Lindsay; Fries, Kristin M; Upton, L George; Edsberg, Laura E


    The objective of this study was to investigate the content of synovial fluid aspirates and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc tissue for collagen I and total fibronectin in patients with closed lock. Fibronectin contains dual properties of assisting with wound healing and inducing cartilage degradation. Native fibronectin has been shown to assist with wound repair, whereas particular fibronectin fragments may degrade cartilage. In addition, collagen I is the major supporting protein of the TMJ disc and will degrade as osteoarthritis progresses. Fibronectin or collagen I expression in human TMJ synovial aspirates and disc tissue may indicate the proteins' involvement in closed lock. The hypothesis of this study is that TMJ discs and serum of patients with closed lock will contain an increased amount of fibronectin and decreased amount of collagen I. We analyzed a total of 8 diseased TMJ discs and 4 diseased synovial fluid aspirates. For our control samples, we assessed 5 synovial samples from healthy patients and control skin samples. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay allowed us to measure the total amount of fibronectin and collagen I in synovial aspirates. Furthermore, we used light microscopy to assess TMJ disc histology and collagen architecture in control skin samples. Lastly, using fluorescent staining, we examined fibronectin and collagen I expression in TMJ discs. We compared the fluorescent staining and light microscopy results of both proteins within each disc to confirm fibronectin and collagen I expression. Disc specimens with advanced morphologic pathology showed significant labeling for fibronectin in 3 of 3 cases and for collagen I in 4 of 4 cases. There was no considerable difference in detection of either fibronectin or collagen I in TMJ synovial aspirates from patients with advanced disc pathology compared with controls. The levels of fibronectin and collagen I in the TMJ disc and synovial fluid may be influenced by the stage of disease

  8. Double Stranded RNA in Human Seminal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Zagoskin


    Full Text Available Recently, human semen was shown to contain cell-free nucleic acids, such as DNA, long single stranded RNA, and small RNAs–miRNA and piRNA. The RNAs have been suggested to have potential biological roles as communication molecules between cells and in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression in the male reproductive system. Here we demonstrate that human seminal plasma contains a variety of cell-free dsRNAs, describe a robust method to isolate this type of nucleic acid in preparative amounts, and discuss the potential biological roles of these molecules in inheritance. dsRNA plays a role in a variety of biological processes, including gene regulation, is extremely stable and can gain access to cells from the extracellular medium. We suggest that one of the possible functions of dsRNA in human seminal plasma may be to influence human oocytes and therefore, influence the offspring. It also remains possible that these dsRNAs might have potential use as biomarkers for the study of human physiopathological conditions and genetic variation.

  9. A comparison between the unfolding of fibronectin and contactin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowska, A; Lebed, K; Lekka, M; Lekki, J; Kwiatek, W M [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)


    The mechanical unfolding of two proteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, fibronectin (an extracellular matrix protein) and contactin (a neuronal adhesion protein), was studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The mean unfolding forces and characteristic lengths describing unfolding events of two types of the immunoglobulin module observed for contactin were compared with results obtained for fibronectin. The results showed that the FnIII-type domain present in both proteins, i.e. in contactin and fibronectin, requires a similar force of about 100 pN to be unfolded. However, the IgC2-type domains of contactin, normally remaining intact in view of the intra-domain disulfide bonds, reveal rather lower stability in the presence of the reducing agent. The force needed to unfold a single IgC2 domain was calculated and established to be about 70 pN. Initially, natural human fibronectin was chosen only as a reference protein for studies of contactin unfolding force values. However, interesting results were obtained and used as a reference in further analysis of the contactin unfolding pathway. Two characteristic length values were obtained for the FnIII domain type of both studied proteins; thus for both domains the ability to unravel in two different pathways was concluded.

  10. Fibronectin distribution in epithelial and associated tissues of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T; Thom, D


    parts of tissues, such as the sebaceous glands or the matrix, medulla, cortex, and cuticles of the hair and the inner and outer root sheaths, or even in tissues in which there is some cell movement, such as the epidermis. It is, however, characteristic of sites at which cell division is occurring...... in contact with an extracellular scaffolding, such as basement membrane or loose connective tissue. Conspicuous examples were in the glassy membrane and connective tissue sheath associated with the follicular epithelium, the basement membrane underlying vascular endothelial cells, the connective tissues...... surrounding and investing nerve and muscle fibre bundles, and the dermal connective tissue where fibronectin was often associated closely with collagen fibres. At the basement membrane of the dermal/epidermal junction, fibronectin occurred at the plasma membrane of the basal cells and in the lamina lucida...

  11. Interaction between {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin and secreted fibronectin is involved in macrophage differentiation of human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laouar, A.; Collart, F. R.; Chubb, C. B. H.; Xie, B.; Huberman, E.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; anl-cmb


    We examined the role of fibronectin (FN) and FN-binding integrins in macrophage differentiation. Increased FN and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin gene expression was observed in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate PMA-treated HL-60 cells and PMA- or macrophage-CSF-treated blood monocytes before the manifestation of macrophage markers. After treatment of HL-60 cells and monocytes, newly synthesized FN was released and deposited on the dishes. An HL-60 cell variant, HL-525, which is deficient in the protein kinase C{beta} (PKC-{beta}) and resistant to PMA-induced differentiation, failed to express FN after PMA treatment. Transfecting HL-525 cells with a PKC-{beta} expression plasmid restored PMA-induced FN gene expression and macrophage differentiation. Untreated HL-525 cells (which have a high level of the {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin) incubated on FN differentiated into macrophages. The percentage of cells having a macrophage phenotype induced by PMA in HL-60 cells, by FN in HL-525 cells, or by either PMA or macrophage-CSF in monocytes was reduced in the presence of mAbs to FN and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. The integrin-signaling nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, p72{sup Syk}, was activated in PMA-treated HL-60 and FN-treated HL-525 cells. We suggest that macrophage differentiation involves the activation of PKC-{beta} and expression of extracellular matrix proteins such as FN and the corresponding integrins, {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin in particular. The stimulated cells, through the integrins, attach to substrates by binding to the deposited FN. This attachment, in turn, may through integrin signaling activate nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, including p72{sup Syk}, and later lead to expression of other genes involved in evoking the macrophage phenotype.

  12. Assembly of Fibronectin Extracellular Matrix (United States)

    Singh, Purva; Carraher, Cara; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.


    In the process of matrix assembly, multivalent extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are induced to self-associate and to interact with other ECM proteins to form fibrillar networks. Matrix assembly is usually initiated by ECM glycoproteins binding to cell surface receptors, such as fibronectin (FN) dimers binding to α5β1 integrin. Receptor binding stimulates FN self-association mediated by the N-terminal assembly domain and organizes the actin cytoskeleton to promote cell contractility. FN conformational changes expose additional binding sites that participate in fibril formation and in conversion of fibrils into a stabilized, insoluble form. Once assembled, the FN matrix impacts tissue organization by contributing to the assembly of other ECM proteins. Here, we describe the major steps, molecular interactions, and cellular mechanisms involved in assembling FN dimers into fibrillar matrix while highlighting important issues and major questions that require further investigation. PMID:20690820

  13. Kinetics of hydrolysis of meclofenoxate hydrochloride in human plasma. (United States)

    Yoshioka, S; Aso, Y; Uchiyama, M


    The kinetics of hydrolysis of meclofenoxate hydrochloride in human plasma have been compared with those of clofibrate. The hydrolysis rate in fractionated plasma was determined in the presence and absence of a plasma esterase inhibitor, tetraethyl pyrophosphate. The kinetic data indicated that clofibrate decomposed only by esterase-induced hydrolysis, which was inhibited by binding of clofibrate to plasma proteins. In contrast to clofibrate, meclofenoxate decomposed rapidly in human plasma via spontaneous hydrolysis as well as esterase-induced hydrolysis. The spontaneous hydrolysis appeared to be inhibited by some components present in the esterase fraction isolated from plasma, while no significant inhibition of the hydrolysis by protein binding was observed.

  14. Enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functions on cathodic arc plasma-treated titanium. (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Teel, George; O'Brien, Christopher M; Zhuang, Taisen; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace


    Surface modification of titanium for use in orthopedics has been explored for years; however, an ideal method of integrating titanium with native bone is still required to this day. Since human bone cells directly interact with nanostructured extracellular matrices, one of the most promising methods of improving titanium's osseointegration involves inducing bio-mimetic nanotopography to enhance cell-implant interaction. In this regard, we explored an approach to functionalize the surface of titanium by depositing a thin film of textured titanium nanoparticles via a cathodic arc discharge plasma. The aim is to improve human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment and differentiation and to reduce deleterious effects of more complex surface modification methods. Surface functionalization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle testing, and specific protein adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination demonstrate the deposition of titanium nanoparticles and the surface roughness change after coating. The specific fibronectin adsorption was enhanced on the modified titanium surface that associates with the improved hydrophilicity. MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted on the nanocoated surface. More importantly, compared to bare titanium, greater production of total protein, deposition of calcium mineral, and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase were observed from MSCs on nanocoated titanium after 21 days. The method described herein presents a promising alternative method for inducing more cell favorable nanosurface for improved orthopedic applications.

  15. Identification of Fibronectin Adhesins on Candida albicans


    VARDAR-ÜNLÜ, Gülhan


    The pattern of distribution of fibronectin adhesins on yeast and hyphal-form Candida albicanswas studied with gold-labelled fibronectin and transmission electron microscopy. The germ-tube parts of the hyphal-form cells were the major binding sites for gold-labelled fibronectin, and the attached yeast-cell parts and yeast-form cell remained unlabelled. Therefore, the walls of the germ tube parts of hyphal-form cells might be sites of important interactions between C. albicans and ho...

  16. Purification of glycocalicin from human plasma. (United States)

    HadjKacem, Basma; Mkaouar, Héla; Ben Amor, Ikram; Gargouri, Jalel; Gargouri, Ali


    Glycocalicin (GC) is a large extracellular proteolytic fragment of glycoprotein Ib, a membrane platelet component playing an essential role in the physiological processes of platelet adhesion and aggregation. GC contains the binding sites for thrombin and von Willebrand factor. GC circulates normally in vivo in significant concentrations and the plasma level of this protein reflects a complex function of factors including platelet count or platelet turnover. It can therefore serve as a good indicator for many diseases like hypoplastic thrombocytopenia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. For this reason, several purification assays have been previously described. In this work, we describe a novel analytical method for GC purification from human platelets based on preparative HPLC gel filtration followed by immuno-affinity chromatography on NHS activated column conjugated with specific antibody. Pure GC was obtained from tiny amount of starting material. Our protocol of GC purification is simple, fast and provides a pure end product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco


    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  18. Pathogen reduction in human plasma using an ultrashort pulsed laser. (United States)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Kingsley, David H; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Sizemore, Sara; Vaiana, Sara M; Anderson, Jeanne; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Achilefu, Samuel


    Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma.

  19. Pathogen reduction in human plasma using an ultrashort pulsed laser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw-Wei D Tsen

    Full Text Available Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma.

  20. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)


    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  1. IgE-mediated allergy against human seminal plasma. (United States)

    Weidinger, Stephan; Ring, J; Köhn, F M


    Human seminal plasma hypersensitivity has to be differentiated from allergic reactions to latex, spermicidal agents, local anesthetics or components of lubricants. The present review article discusses IgE-mediated allergic reactions (type I) to specific components of the seminal plasma. Such incidents are rare, even though there seems to be a considerable number of unreported cases. Since the first publication in 1958, human seminal plasma allergy has been increasingly recognized, and approximately 80 cases have been described. Most affected women are younger than 40 years, presenting with an atopic family history. Anaphylaxis to components of the seminal plasma is not always associated with infertility. Complaints occur immediately or within 1 h after contact with seminal plasma. Local reactions include itching, burning, erythema and edema in the vulvar region or other sperm contact sites. Systemic reactions are experienced as dyspnea, dysphagia, rhinoconjunctival complaints, generalized urticaria, angioedema, gastrointestinal symptoms, exacerbation of existing atopic eczema or anaphylactic shock. Recently, it has been reported that human seminal plasma anaphylaxis may also present as 'vulvar vestibulitis syndrome' or 'burning semen syndrome'. These symptoms may occur during the first sexual intercourse. Some results are indicative of allergens originating from the prostate, prostate-specific antigen being clinically relevant. The diagnosis of human seminal plasma allergy is based on history, demonstration of specific IgE antibodies in the serum and skin tests. Therapeutic options include allergen avoidance by use of condoms and attempts at desensitization.

  2. Characterization of circulating DNA in healthy human plasma. (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Kamataki, Akihisa; Yamaki, Junko; Homma, Yoshimi


    The importance of circulating DNA has been recognized since the detection of mutated oncogene products in cancer patients; however, there is little information about circulating DNA in normal human plasma. We characterized circulating DNA in normal human plasma to obtain basic information. Circulating DNA was purified from plasma samples obtained from 10 healthy donors and examined. Purified DNA was cloned and their sequence determined and analyzed. The terminal structure was examined by a labeling method. The DNA levels in normal plasma samples were quite low (3.6-5.0 ng/ml). All 556 clones analyzed were independent, and obtained from various chromosomes and various regions of the gene. The mean values of their length and GC content were 176 bp and 53.7%, respectively. Their 5' and 3' ends were rich in C and G, respectively, and they presented as 5' protruding forms of double-stranded DNA in plasma. Circulating DNA in normal human plasma is derived from apoptotic cells but not from necrotic cells. Structural characteristics of the circulating DNA might be associated with their stability in plasma.

  3. Self-assembly of fibronectin mimetic peptide-amphiphile nanofibers (United States)

    Rexeisen, Emilie Lynn

    Many therapeutic strategies incorporate peptides into their designs to mimic the natural protein ligands found in vivo. A few examples are the short peptide sequences RGD and PHSRN that mimic the primary and synergy-binding domains of the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin, which is recognized by the cell surface receptor, alpha5beta 1 integrin. Even though scaffold modification with biomimetic peptides remains one of the most promising approaches for tissue engineering, the use of these peptides in therapeutic tissue-engineered products and drug delivery systems available on the commercial market is limited because the peptides are not easily able to mimic the natural protein. The design of a peptide that can effectively target the alpha5beta1 integrin would greatly increase biomimetic scaffold therapeutic potential. A novel peptide containing both the RGD primary binding domain and PHSRN synergy-binding domain for fibronectin joined with the appropriate linker should bind alpha 5beta1 integrin more efficiently and lead to greater cell adhesion over RGD alone. Several fibronectin mimetic peptides were designed and coupled to dialkyl hydrocarbon tails to make peptide-amphiphiles. The peptides contained different linkers connecting the two binding domains and different spacers separating the hydrophobic tails from the hydrophilic headgroups. The peptide-amphiphiles were deposited on mica substrates using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Langmuir isotherms indicated that the peptide-amphiphiles that contained higher numbers of serine residues formed a more tightly packed monolayer, but the increased number of serines also made transferring the amphiphiles to the mica substrate more difficult. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the bilayers showed that the headgroups might be bent, forming small divots in the surface. These divots may help expose the PHSRN synergy-binding domain. Parallel studies undertaken by fellow group members showed that human

  4. Utilizing human blood plasma for proteomic biomarker discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Qian, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yufeng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.


    Application of proteomic biomarker discovery efforts towards human plasma entails both incredible clinical potential as well as significant challenges to overcome the intrinsic characteristics of plasma. The dynamic range of proteins within plasma, coupled with the likely presence of potential biomarkers in the more difficult to detect lower abundance range has driven the development of various methodologies and strategies to maximize the possible detective dynamic range within this biofluid. Discussed is the array of the available approaches currently used by our laboratory and others to utilized human plasma as a viable medium for biomarker discovery efforts. Various separation, depletion, enrichment, and quantitative efforts have resulted in a measurable improvement in the detectability of the low abundance fraction of proteins but more advances are needed to bridge the gap between the current range of detection and what remains unobservable to fully maximize the potential of this sample.

  5. Proteins involved in the Vroman effect during exposure of human blood plasma to glass and polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turbill, P.; Beugeling, T.; Beugeling, T.; Poot, Andreas A.


    The amounts of fibrinogen adsorbed to glass from various human blood plasmas have been measured as a function of time. The plasmas were 11 single donor plasmas, pooled plasma, a single donor high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK)-deficient plasma and HMWK-deficient plasma, which had been

  6. Display of Cell Surface Sites for Fibronectin Assembly Is Modulated by Cell Adherence to 1F3 and C-Terminal Modules of Fibronectin


    Jielin Xu; Eunnyung Bae; Qinghong Zhang; Annis, Douglas S.; Erickson, Harold P.; Mosher, Deane F.


    BACKGROUND: Fibronectin-null cells assemble soluble fibronectin shortly after adherence to a substrate coated with intact fibronectin but not when adherent to the cell-binding domain of fibronectin (modules (7)F3-(10)F3). Interactions of adherent cells with regions of adsorbed fibronectin other than modules (7)F3-(10)F3, therefore, are required for early display of the cell surface sites that initiate and direct fibronectin assembly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify these regions, ...

  7. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of ... (United States)

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores the merit of utilizing available pharmaceutical data to predict Fub for environmentally relevant chemicals via machine learning techniques. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were constructed with k nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machines (SVM), and random forest (RF) machine learning algorithms from a training set of 1045 pharmaceuticals. The models were then evaluated with independent test sets of pharmaceuticals (200 compounds) and environmentally relevant ToxCast chemicals (406 total, in two groups of 238 and 168 compounds). The selection of a minimal feature set of 10-15 2D molecular descriptors allowed for both informative feature interpretation and practical applicability domain assessment via a bounded box of descriptor ranges and principal component analysis. The diverse pharmaceutical and environmental chemical sets exhibit similarities in terms of chemical space (99-82% overlap), as well as comparable bias and variance in constructed learning curves. All the models exhibit significant predictability with mean absolute errors (MAE) in the range of 0.10-0.18 Fub. The models performed best for highly bound chemicals (MAE 0.07-0.12), neutrals (MAE 0

  8. Guidance of mesenchymal stem cells on fibronectin structured hydrogel films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Kasten

    Full Text Available Designing of implant surfaces using a suitable ligand for cell adhesion to stimulate specific biological responses of stem cells will boost the application of regenerative implants. For example, materials that facilitate rapid and guided migration of stem cells would promote tissue regeneration. When seeded on fibronectin (FN that was homogeneously immmobilized to NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO, which otherwise prevents protein binding and cell adhesion, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC revealed a faster migration, increased spreading and a more rapid organization of different cellular components for cell adhesion on fibronectin than on a glass surface. To further explore, how a structural organization of FN controls the behavior of MSC, adhesive lines of FN with varying width between 10 µm and 80 µm and spacings between 5 µm and 20 µm that did not allow cell adhesion were generated. In dependance on both line width and gaps, cells formed adjacent cell contacts, were individually organized in lines, or bridged the lines. With decreasing sizes of FN lines, speed and directionality of cell migration increased, which correlated with organization of the actin cytoskeleton, size and shape of the nuclei as well as of focal adhesions. Together, defined FN lines and gaps enabled a fine tuning of the structural organization of cellular components and migration. Microstructured adhesive substrates can mimic the extracellular matrix in vivo and stimulate cellular mechanisms which play a role in tissue regeneration.

  9. Proteases secreted by Gnathostoma binucleatum degrade fibronectin and antibodies from mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibanco-Pérez N.


    Full Text Available Gnathostomiasis is a prevalent zoonosis in humans in some regions of the world. The genus Gnathostoma is considered an accidental parasite for humans; G. binucleatum is the endemic species in Nayarit, Mexico. This work was designed to determine the proteolytic activity of the excretory-secretory products (ESP of advanced third-stage larvae (ADVL3 of Gnathostoma binucleatum against human fibronectin and antibodies from human and sheep. Our findings showed protease activity against human fibronectin as well as sheep and human gamma globulins of the ESP at molecular weights of 80 and 56 kDa. The proteases found in the ESP of G. binucleatum are thus candidate molecules for consideration as pathogenic elements, owing to the fact that they destroy proteins of the host tissue, which probably allows them to migrate through those tissues and degrade molecules involved in the humoral immune response.

  10. Ochratoxin A in human plasma in Morocco: a preliminary survey. (United States)

    Filali, A; Betbeder, A M; Baudrimont, I; Benayad, A; Soulaymani, R; Creppy, E E


    Available epidemiological information seems to indicate that Balkan endemic nephropathy is associated with consumption patterns involving foodstuffs contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA) and with a higher frequency of OTA-positive blood samples. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess OTA concentrations in human plasma in Morocco. Therefore, samples from 309 healthy volunteers (213 males, 96 females) were analysed. The analyses revealed that 60% of the human plasma sampled was positive for OTA (61.5% in the male and 56% in the female population), and an average concentration of 0.29 ng/mL (0.31 ng/mL in males, 0.26 ng/mL in females). The highest concentration found was 6.59 ng/mL. The results suggest that the Moroccan population is exposed to OTA, even though the OTA plasma levels are lower than that reported in some North African countries.

  11. Fibronectin Deposition Participates in Extracellular Matrix Assembly and Vascular Morphogenesis (United States)

    Hielscher, Abigail; Ellis, Kim; Qiu, Connie; Porterfield, Josh; Gerecht, Sharon


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been demonstrated to facilitate angiogenesis. In particular, fibronectin has been documented to activate endothelial cells, resulting in their transition from a quiescent state to an active state in which the cells exhibit enhanced migration and proliferation. The goal of this study is to examine the role of polymerized fibronectin during vascular tubulogenesis using a 3 dimensional (3D) cell-derived de-cellularized matrix. A fibronectin-rich 3D de-cellularized ECM was used as a scaffold to study vascular morphogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs). Confocal analyses of several matrix proteins reveal high intra- and extra-cellular deposition of fibronectin in formed vascular structures. Using a small peptide inhibitor of fibronectin polymerization, we demonstrate that inhibition of fibronectin fibrillogenesis in ECs cultured atop de-cellularized ECM resulted in decreased vascular morphogenesis. Further, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses reveal decreased expression of stromal matrix proteins in the absence of polymerized fibronectin with high co-localization of matrix proteins found in association with polymerized fibronectin. Evaluating vascular kinetics, live cell imaging showed that migration, migration velocity, and mean square displacement, are disrupted in structures grown in the absence of polymerized fibronectin. Additionally, vascular organization failed to occur in the absence of a polymerized fibronectin matrix. Consistent with these observations, we tested vascular morphogenesis following the disruption of EC adhesion to polymerized fibronectin, demonstrating that block of integrins α5β1 and αvβ3, abrogated vascular morphogenesis. Overall, fibronectin deposition in a 3D cell-derived de-cellularized ECM appears to be imperative for matrix assembly and vascular morphogenesis. PMID:26811931

  12. Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes (United States)

    Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M.; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L.; Cargile, Benjamin J.; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J.; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E.; Lee, Cheng S.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Menon, Rajasree; Mueller, Michael; Qiao, Renli; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Sevinsky, Joel R.; States, David; Stephenson, James L.; Than, Shawn; Yates, John R.; Yu, Weixia; Xie, Hongwei; Xie, Yongming; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Loo, Joseph A.; Wong, David T.


    The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential that each fluid provides. To create a more comprehensive catalog of human salivary proteins, we have first compiled an extensive list of proteins from whole saliva (WS) identified through MS experiments. The WS list is thereafter combined with the proteins identified from the ductal parotid, and submandibular and sublingual (parotid/SMSL) salivas. In parallel, a core dataset of the human plasma proteome with 3020 protein identifications was recently released. A total of 1939 nonredundant salivary proteins were compiled from a total of 19 474 unique peptide sequences identified from whole and ductal salivas; 740 out of the total 1939 salivary proteins were identified in both whole and ductal saliva. A total of 597 of the salivary proteins have been observed in plasma. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed similarities in the distributions of the saliva and plasma proteomes with regard to cellular localization, biological processes, and molecular function, but revealed differences which may be related to the different physiological functions of saliva and plasma. The comprehensive catalog of the salivary proteome and its comparison to the plasma proteome provides insights useful for future study, such as exploration of potential biomarkers for disease diagnostics. PMID:19898684

  13. Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes


    Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M.; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L.; Cargile, Benjamin J.; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J.; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E.; Lee, Cheng S.; Malamud, Daniel


    The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential t...

  14. Quantitation of Solifenacin in Human Plasma using a Specific and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blank human plasma batches were obtained free-of-charge from the Jordan National Blood Bank, Amman, ... was used (Peak nitrogen generator,. Scotland). The collision gas and curtain gas were set at 7 and ... The collision energy for solifenacin was 41 V and the collision cell exit potential was 11 V. Multiple reactions ...

  15. Identification and quantification of diadenosine polyphosphate concentrations in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowski, Joachim; Jankowski, Vera; Laufer, Udo


    Diadenosine polyphosphates have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of vascular tone as well as the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells and hence, possibly, in atherogenesis. In this study we investigated the question of whether diadenosine polyphosphates are present in human plasma...... and whether a potential source can be identified that may release diadenosine polyphosphates into the circulation....

  16. Localization of fibronectin during dentinogenesis in rat incisor. (United States)

    Linde, A; Johansson, S; Jonsson, R; Jontell, M


    Fibronectin (FN) was localized in the dental pulp and predentine at different stages of dentinogenesis by indirect immunofluorescence. Fibronectin was present in the basement membrane between the inner enamel epithelium and the underlying dental mesenchyme and also in mantle predentine. Fibronectin was absent from predentine during further (circumpulpal) dentine formation, indicating that the FN molecule is not directly involved in mineralization. The findings emphasize the difference between the mantle and circumpulpal dentine formation. Fibronectin was localized in the odontoblast layer at the level where the cell processes leave the cell bodies and where the odontoblasts adhere to each other by junctional complexes.

  17. [Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM). II -- Fibronectin and perinatal morbidity]. (United States)

    Martín Carballo, G; Codoceo Alquila, R; Fernández Cano, G; Hawkins Carranza, F; Grande Aragón, C; Velasco Hernando, A; Gracia Bouthelier, R


    The objective of this study was to determine fibronectin levels in umbilical cord blood of infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and evaluate a possible correlation with perinatal pathology. A prospective study of 58 IDM (33 males and 25 females) and 58 control newborns (NB) (33 males and 25 females) was carried out. There were no differences in fibronectin levels between the two groups nor between the sexes. Perinatal morbidity was higher in the IDM group, but there was no correlation between fibronectin levels and the presence of perinatal pathology. Fibronectin levels are not useful in the perinatal evaluation of infants of diabetic mothers.

  18. Demonstration in human plasma of a lectin activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Thiel, S; Isager, H


    Evidence of the existence in human plasma of an activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin is presented. The human plasma component was characterized antigenically and functionally. Human plasma was shown to agglutinate complement-coated erythrocytes in the presence of Ca2+, and this conglu......Evidence of the existence in human plasma of an activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin is presented. The human plasma component was characterized antigenically and functionally. Human plasma was shown to agglutinate complement-coated erythrocytes in the presence of Ca2...

  19. Impact of sub-inhibitory antibiotics on fibronectin-mediated host cell adhesion and invasion by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasigade Jean


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a well-armed pathogen prevalent in severe infections such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Fibronectin-binding proteins A and B, encoded by fnbA/B, are major pathogenesis determinants in these infections through their involvement in S. aureus adhesion to and invasion of host cells. Sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs of antibiotics, frequently occurring in vivo because of impaired drug diffusion at the infection site, can alter S. aureus phenotype. We therefore investigated their impact on S. aureus fibronectin-mediated adhesiveness and invasiveness. Methods After in vitro challenge of S. aureus 8325-4 and clinical isolates with sub-MICs of major anti-staphylococcal agents, we explored fnbA/B transcription levels, bacterial adhesiveness to immobilised human fibronectin and human osteoblasts in culture, and bacterial invasion of human osteoblasts. Results Oxacillin, moxifloxacin and linezolid led to the development of a hyper-adhesive phenotype in the fibronectin adhesion assay that was consistent with an increase in fnbA/B transcription. Conversely, rifampin treatment decreased fibronectin binding in all strains tested without affecting fnbA/B transcription. Gentamicin and vancomycin had no impact on fibronectin binding or fnbA/B transcription levels. Only oxacillin-treated S. aureus displayed a significantly increased adhesion to cultured osteoblasts, but its invasiveness did not differ from that of untreated controls. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that several antibiotics at sub-MICs modulate fibronectin binding in S. aureus in a drug-specific fashion. However, hyper- and hypo- adhesive phenotypes observed in controlled in vitro conditions were not fully confirmed in whole cell infection assays. The relevance of adhesion modulation during in vivo infections is thus still uncertain and requires further investigations.

  20. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis. (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua


    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  1. Survey of Argentinean human plasma for ochratoxin A. (United States)

    Pacin, A M; Ciancio Bovier, E V; Motta, E; Resnik, S L; Villa, D; Olsen, M


    The presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in human blood has been reported for many countries, especially in Europe. However, so far no report exists concerning such a presence in Argentina. The aim of this study was to assess OTA concentration in human plasma in two different areas of Buenos Aires province. OTA was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 199 plasma samples from blood donors in Mar del Plata and 236 from General Rodriguez. Solid-phase extraction with Bakerbond C-18 cartridge and a final purification with Ochraprep immunoaffinity columns was employed. The limit of quantification of ochratoxin A was 0.019ngml(-1) and the confirmation of OTA was by formation of ochratoxin A methyl ester. The results showed that 63.8% of human plasma samples from Mar del Plata and 62.3% from General Rodriguez were positive for OTA, with Winsorized means of 0.15 and 0.43ngml(-1), respectively. It is important to continue the research to detect the foods responsible of the presence of OTA in plasma.

  2. Identification of non‐reported bupropion metabolites in human plasma (United States)

    Connarn, Jamie N.; Luo, Ruijuan; Windak, Jim; Zhang, Xinyuan; Babiskin, Andrew; Kelly, Marisa; Harrington, Gloria; Ellingrod, Vicki L.; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin


    Abstract Bupropion and its three active metabolites exhibit clinical efficacy in the treatment of major depression, seasonal depression and smoking cessation. The pharmacokinetics of bupropion in humans is highly variable. It is not known if there are any non‐reported metabolites formed in humans in addition to the three known active metabolites. This paper reports newly identified and non‐reported metabolites of bupropion in human plasma samples. Human subjects were dosed with a single oral dose of 75 mg of an immediate release bupropion HCl tablet. Plasma samples were collected and analysed by LC–MS/MS at 0, 6 and 24 h. Two non‐reported metabolites (M1 and M3) were identified with mass‐to‐charge (m/z) ratios of 276 (M1, hydration of bupropion) and 258 (M3, hydroxylation of threo/erythrohydrobupropion) from human plasma in addition to the known hydroxybupropion, threo/erythrohydrobupropion and the glucuronidation products of the major metabolites (M2 and M4–M7). These new metabolites may provide new insight and broaden the understanding of bupropion's variability in clinical pharmacokinetics. © 2016 The Authors Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27723114

  3. Dissecting the interaction between transglutaminase 2 and fibronectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Inês; Østerlund, Eva Christina; Stamnaes, Jorunn


    In the extracellular environment, the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is involved in cell-matrix interactions through association with the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin (FN). The 45 kDa gelatin-binding domain of FN (45FN) is responsible for the binding to TG2. Previous studies have...... three residues simultaneously reduced binding to 45FN by more than 2000-fold. We also identified residues in the catalytic core domain of TG2 that contributed to FN binding, hence extending the binding interface between TG2 and FN. This study provides new insights into the high affinity interaction...... demonstrated that the FN-binding site of TG2 is located in the N-terminal domain of the enzyme although with conflicting results regarding the specific residues involved. Here we have mapped the FN interaction site of human TG2 by use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry, and we...

  4. Posttranslational modifications in human plasma MBL and human recombinant MBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Laursen, Inga; Matthiesen, Finn


    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a complex serum protein that plays an important role in innate immunity. In addition to assuming several different oligomeric forms, the polypeptide itself is highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity is due to post-translational modifications, which help to stabilize......(202)) was modified in trace amounts to dehydroalanine, as detected by a 34 Da mass loss. This impairs the formation of a disulphide bond in the carbohydrate recognition domain. The dehydroalanine was identified in similar small amounts in both recombinant and plasma-derived MBL....

  5. Immunohistochemistry of the intercellular matrix components and the epithelio-mesenchymal junction of the human tooth germ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, M E; Olsen, B E; Moe, D


    The immunohistochemical localization of heparan sulphate, collagen type I, III and IV, laminin, tenascin, plasma- and cellular fibronectin was studied in tooth germs from human fetuses. The lamina basalis ameloblastica or membrana preformativa, which separates the pre-ameloblasts from the pre...

  6. Review. Ochratoxin A: presence in human plasma and intake estimation. (United States)

    Coronel, M B; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J; Marin, S


    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal toxic secondary metabolite that can be found in several foodstuffs and thereby ingested by humans. One way to assess exposure of humans to OTA is the determination of the levels of this mycotoxin in blood plasma from a certain population. Such studies have been done in many countries, both in healthy people and nephropathy patients. Relationships with individual characteristics were investigated in several cases. Thus, most studies found no correlation with age, either with gender. However, the few studies that found correlation between OTA plasma levels and gender showed that men presented the highest values. When sampling was done over more than one season, the highest OTA plasma levels were found mostly in summer. Differences within regions of a country were related to dietary habits of each area. OTA levels of group populations showed variations from year to year, whereas intraindividual repetitions showed no specific trend. Daily intake of the toxin can be estimated from OTA plasma concentrations by the Klaassen equation. OTA toxicokinetics are considered in this review. Calculated daily intake of OTA by different studies did not overpass the proposed tolerable daily intakes of OTA.

  7. A novel fibronectin binding motif in MSCRAMMs targets F3 modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Prabhakaran

    Full Text Available BBK32 is a surface expressed lipoprotein and fibronectin (Fn-binding microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Previous studies from our group showed that BBK32 is a virulence factor in experimental Lyme disease and located the Fn-binding region to residues 21-205 of the lipoprotein.Studies aimed at identifying interacting sites between BBK32 and Fn revealed an interaction between the MSCRAMM and the Fn F3 modules. Further analysis of this interaction showed that BBK32 can cause the aggregation of human plasma Fn in a similar concentration-dependent manner to that of anastellin, the superfibronectin (sFn inducing agent. The resulting Fn aggregates are conformationally distinct from plasma Fn as indicated by a change in available thermolysin cleavage sites. Recombinant BBK32 and anastellin affect the structure of Fn matrices formed by cultured fibroblasts and inhibit endothelial cell proliferation similarly. Within BBK32, we have located the sFn-forming activity to a region between residues 160 and 175 which contains two sequence motifs that are also found in anastellin. Synthetic peptides mimicking these motifs induce Fn aggregation, whereas a peptide with a scrambled sequence motif was inactive, suggesting that these motifs represent the sFn-inducing sequence.We conclude that BBK32 induces the formation of Fn aggregates that are indistinguishable from those formed by anastellin. The results of this study provide evidence for how bacteria can target host proteins to manipulate host cell activities.

  8. Adhesion of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes to fibronectin or laminin modifies tubulin and paraflagellar rod protein phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliciane C Mattos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The unicellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagaś disease in humans. Adherence of the infective stage to elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM, as laminin and fibronectin, is an essential step in host cell invasion. Although members of the gp85/TS, as Tc85, were identified as laminin and fibronectin ligands, the signaling events triggered on the parasite upon binding to these molecules are largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viable infective parasites were incubated with laminin, fibronectin or bovine serum albumin for different periods of time and the proteins were separated by bidimensional gels. The phosphoproteins were envisaged by specific staining and the spots showing phosphorylation levels significantly different from the control were excised and identified by MS/MS. The results of interest were confirmed by immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation and the localization of proteins in the parasite was determined by immunofluorescence. Using a host cell-free system, our data indicate that the phosphorylation contents of T. cruzi proteins encompassing different cellular functions are modified upon incubation of the parasite with fibronectin or laminin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Herein it is shown, for the first time, that paraflagellar rod proteins and α-tubulin, major structural elements of the parasite cytoskeleton, are predominantly dephosphorylated during the process, probably involving the ERK1/2 pathway. It is well established that T. cruzi binds to ECM elements during the cell infection process. The fact that laminin and fibronectin induce predominantly dephosphorylation of the main cytoskeletal proteins of the parasite suggests a possible correlation between cytoskeletal modifications and the ability of the parasite to internalize into host cells.

  9. Expression of cancer cell-derived IgG and extra domain A-containing fibronectin in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. (United States)

    Lv, Wan-Qi; Peng, Jing; Wang, Hai-Cheng; Chen, De-Ping; Yang, Yue; Zhao, Yang; Qiu, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Jiu-Hui; Li, Cui-Ying


    Cancer-IgG is a newly-discovered molecule, mainly derived from epithelial carcinoma cells and is significantly correlated with differentiation, metastasis, local invasion, and poor prognosis of many cancers. In our previous study we detected IgG expression in oral epithelial carcinoma, including salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC), using an IgG-specific commercial antibody. Here, we explored the correlation between cancer-IgG and clinicopathological features of SACC. A total of 68 human SACC tissue specimens and 2 siRNAs were used to analyze the correlation between cancer-IgG and extra domain A (EDA(+))-containing fibronectin using the cancer-IgG-specific monoclonal antibody, RP215. We found an unexpected correlation between cancer-IgG and EDA(+) fibronectin, both of which showed aberrant expression in SACC tissue samples. Both were highly expressed in SACC with nerve invasion. In our previous study, EDA(+) fibronectin overexpression in SACC cells decreased N-cadherin expression. In the present study, we used SACC-83 cells, wherein EDA(+) fibronectin is overexpressed and cancer-IgG is knocked down. EDA(+) fibronectin expression was reduced with cancer-IgG knockdown, while cancer-IgG expression did not affect EDA(+) fibronectin overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of non-B cell-derived IgG in SACC cells decreased cellular motility (PIgG potentially regulates EDA(+) fibronectin expression, thereby suggesting possible new therapeutic approaches for SACC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Great apes show highly selective plasma carotenoids and have physiologically high plasma retinyl esters compared to humans. (United States)

    García, Ada L; Raila, Jens; Koebnick, Corinna; Eulenberger, Klaus; Schweigert, Florian J


    Great apes are the closest living relatives of humans. Physiological similarities between great apes and humans provide clues to identify which biological features in humans are primitive or derived from great apes. Vitamin A (VA) and carotenoid metabolism have been only partially studied in great apes, and comparisons between great apes and humans are not available. We aimed to investigate VA and carotenoid intake and plasma concentrations in great apes living in captivity, and to compare them to healthy humans. Dietary intakes of humans (n = 20) and, among the great apes, chimpanzees (n = 15) and orangutans (n = 5) were calculated. Plasma retinol (ROH), retinol-binding protein (RBP), retinyl esters, and major carotenoids were analyzed. The great ape diet was higher in VA than in humans, due to high intake of provitamin A carotenoids. Plasma ROH concentrations in great apes were similar to those in humans, but retinyl esters were higher in great apes than in humans. Differences in plasma carotenoid concentrations were observed between great apes and humans. Lutein was the main carotenoid in great apes, while beta-carotene was the main carotenoid for humans. RBP concentrations did not differ between great apes and humans. The molar ratio of ROH to RBP was close to 1.0 in both great apes and humans. In conclusion, great apes show homeostatic ROH regulation, with high but physiological retinyl esters circulating in plasma. Furthermore, great apes show great selectivity in their plasmatic carotenoid concentration, which is not explained by dietary intake.

  11. Ochratoxin A levels in human plasma and foods in Lebanon. (United States)

    Assaf, Hind; Betbeder, Anne-Marie; Creppy, Edmond E; Pallardy, Marc; Azouri, Hayat


    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin which contaminates food such as cereals, beer, coffee, wine and products of animal origin. OTA is known for its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic and carcinogenic properties. The prevalence of OTA in human blood and foodstuffs has been investigated in many countries. In this study, exposure of the Lebanese population to OTA was evaluated and the contamination of the most commonly consumed foods in Lebanon by OTA was assessed. Plasma samples from healthy individuals and also cereals and beer samples obtained from markets were collected from the different regions of Lebanon. OTA was detectable in 33% of tested plasma samples (n =250) with a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 0.87 ng/mL and a mean of 0.17+/-0.01ng/mL. No sex and age differences were found. The frequency of OTA-positive plasma samples obtained in the South of Lebanon and in the Bekaa valley (50 and 47%, respectively) was significantly higher compared to plasma samples obtained in the Beirut/Mount Lebanon region (19%). Food analyses showed that wheat, burghul and beer were contaminated with a mean value of 0.15+/-0.03 microg/kg, 0.21+/-0.04 microg/kg and 0.19+/-0.12 ng/mL, respectively. These data suggest that the Lebanese population is exposed to OTA through food ingestion at concentrations lower than the tolerable daily intake.

  12. Assay to mechanically tune and optically probe fibrillar fibronectin conformations from fully relaxed to breakage. (United States)

    Little, William C; Smith, Michael L; Ebneter, Urs; Vogel, Viola


    In response to growing needs for quantitative biochemical and cellular assays that address whether the extracellular matrix (ECM) acts as a mechanochemical signal converter to co-regulate cellular mechanotransduction processes, a new assay is presented where plasma fibronectin fibers are manually deposited onto elastic sheets, while force-induced changes in protein conformation are monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Fully relaxed assay fibers can be stretched at least 5-6 fold, which involves Fn domain unfolding, before the fibers break. In native fibroblast ECM, this full range of stretch-regulated conformations coexists in every field of view confirming that the assay fibers are physiologically relevant model systems. Since alterations of protein function will directly correlate with their extension in response to force, the FRET vs. strain curves presented herein enable the mapping of fibronectin strain distributions in 2D and 3D cell cultures with high spatial resolution. Finally, cryptic sites for fibronectin's N-terminal 70-kD fragment were found to be exposed at relatively low strain, demonstrating the assay's potential to analyze stretch-regulated protein-protein interactions.

  13. Radio-immunoassay of gastrin in human plasma (United States)

    Ganguli, P. C.; Hunter, W. M.


    1. A radio-immunoassay for gastrin has been developed using partially purified porcine gastrin to raise antibodies and highly purified natural porcine gastrin I for radio-iodination with 125I. The separation of antibody-bound from free hormone was performed by a double-antibody method. 2. In this assay highly purified natural porcine gastrin I, synthetic human gastrin I, radio-iodinated porcine gastrin I, gastrin in the plasma of a healthy volunteer, a patient with pernicious anaemia and another patient with the Zollinger—Ellison syndrome were immunologically identical. 3. The fasting plasma gastrin concentration of fourteen gastric ulcer patients was significantly higher than that of the 113 hospital controls with no history of gastro-intestinal disease, while twenty-seven duodenal ulcer patients had gastrin levels within the normal range. 4. Plasma gastrin concentration was significantly elevated in pernicious anaemia (fifty-one patients), achlorhydria (thirty-three patients), hypochlorhydria (eleven patients) and in nine patients with histologically proven Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. 5. In human volunteers a protein meal stimulated endogenous gastrin release while a carbohydrate meal did not. Atropine sulphate I.M., and hydrochloric acid orally, produced a significant fall in the level of circulating gastrin. PMID:5014108

  14. A plasma metabolomic signature discloses human breast cancer. (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Collado, Ricardo; Quiles, José Luís; Ramírez-Tortosa, Mari-Carmen; Sol, Joaquim; Ruiz-Sanjuan, Maria; Fernandez, Mónica; de la Torre Cabrera, Capilla; Ramírez-Tortosa, Cesar; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Sánchez-Rovira, Pedro; Pamplona, Reinald


    Metabolomics is the comprehensive global study of metabolites in biological samples. In this retrospective pilot study we explored whether serum metabolomic profile can discriminate the presence of human breast cancer irrespective of the cancer subtype. Plasma samples were analyzed from healthy women (n = 20) and patients with breast cancer after diagnosis (n = 91) using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform. Multivariate statistics and a Random Forest (RF) classifier were used to create a metabolomics panel for the diagnosis of human breast cancer. Metabolomics correctly distinguished between breast cancer patients and healthy control subjects. In the RF supervised class prediction analysis comparing breast cancer and healthy control groups, RF accurately classified 100% both samples of the breast cancer patients and healthy controls. So, the class error for both group in and the out-of-bag error were 0. We also found 1269 metabolites with different concentration in plasma from healthy controls and cancer patients; and basing on exact mass, retention time and isotopic distribution we identified 35 metabolites. These metabolites mostly support cell growth by providing energy and building stones for the synthesis of essential biomolecules, and function as signal transduction molecules. The collective results of RF, significance testing, and false discovery rate analysis identified several metabolites that were strongly associated with breast cancer. In breast cancer a metabolomics signature of cancer exists and can be detected in patient plasma irrespectively of the breast cancer type.

  15. Quantification of (1)H NMR Spectra from Human Plasma. (United States)

    de Graaf, Robin A; Prinsen, Hetty; Giannini, Cosimo; Caprio, Sonia; Herzog, Raimund I


    Human plasma is a biofluid that is high in information content, making it an excellent candidate for metabolomic studies. (1)H NMR has been a popular technique to detect several dozen metabolites in blood plasma. In order for (1)H NMR to become an automated, high-throughput method, challenges related to (1) the large signal from lipoproteins and (2) spectral overlap between different metabolites have to be addressed. Here diffusion-weighted (1)H NMR is used to separate lipoprotein and metabolite signals based on their large difference in translational diffusion. The metabolite (1)H NMR spectrum is then quantified through spectral fitting utilizing full prior knowledge on the metabolite spectral signatures. Extension of the scan time by 3 minutes or 15% per sample allowed the acquisition of a (1)H NMR spectrum with high diffusion weighting. The metabolite (1)H NMR spectra could reliably be modeled with 28 metabolites. Excellent correlation was found between results obtained with diffusion NMR and ultrafiltration. The combination of minimal sample preparation together with minimal user interaction during processing and quantification provides a metabolomics technique for automated, quantitative (1)H NMR of human plasma.

  16. Titanium alloy surface oxide modulates the conformation of adsorbed fibronectin to enhance its binding to α5β1 integrins in osteoblasts (United States)

    Rapuano, Bruce E.; Lee, Jani Jae Eun; MacDonald, Daniel E.


    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that heat (600 °C) or radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD) pretreatment of a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) increases the net-negative charge of the alloy’s surface oxide and the attachment of osteoblastic cells to adsorbed fibronectin. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the biological mechanism by which these surface pretreatments enhance the capacity of fibronectin to stimulate osteoblastic cell attachment. Each pretreatment was found to increase the binding (measured by ELISA) of a monoclonal anti-fibronectin Ig to the central integrin-binding domain of adsorbed fibronectin, and to increase the antibody’s inhibition of osteogenic cell attachment (measured using the hexosaminidase assay). Pretreatments also increased the binding (measured by ELISA) of anti-integrin Igs to the α5 and β1 integrin subunits that became attached to fibronectin during cell incubation. These findings suggest that negatively charged surface oxides of Ti6Al4V cause conformational changes in fibronectin that increase the availability of its integrin-binding domain to α5β1 integrins. PMID:22607334

  17. Propolis Modulates Fibronectin Expression in the Matrix of Thermal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the propolis effect on fibronectin metabolism in the course of burn wounds healing process. A model of burn wound healing of pig skin was applied. The amount of the released glycoprotein was assessed by a surface plasmon resonance. The profile of extracted fibronectin components was also assessed by an electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, with a subsequent immunodetection by Western Blotting. Propolis burn treatment decreased the release of fibronectin components from healing wounds in relation to damages treated with silver sulfadiazine. The main reason of decreased extraction of fibronectin components from wounds treated with propolis was a substantial decrease of degradation product release of the mentioned glycoprotein, which was observed particularly from the 3rd to 5th day of the repair. Wounds treatment with propolis demonstrated, especially in relation to damages treated with silver sulfadiazine, the decreased release of synthesized fibronectin molecules. The obtained results suggest that propolis modifies fibronectin metabolism in the course of wound healing process. The influence of propolis is reflected in prevention of fibronectin biosynthesis as well as its degradation in the wound area. The above-mentioned metabolic changes may decrease the risk of complications in the repair wounds process.

  18. Pleiotropic virulence factor - Streptococcus pyogenes fibronectin-binding proteins. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada


    Streptococcus pyogenes causes a broad spectrum of infectious diseases, including pharyngitis, skin infections and invasive necrotizing fasciitis. The initial phase of infection involves colonization, followed by intimate contact with the host cells, thus promoting bacterial uptake by them. S. pyogenes recognizes fibronectin (Fn) through its own Fn-binding proteins to obtain access to epithelial and endothelial cells in host tissue. Fn-binding proteins bind to Fn to form a bridge to α5 β1 -integrins, which leads to rearrangement of cytoskeletal actin in host cells and uptake of invading S. pyogenes. Recently, several structural analyses of the invasion mechanism showed molecular interactions by which Fn converts from a compact plasma protein to a fibrillar component of the extracellular matrix. After colonization, S. pyogenes must evade the host innate immune system to spread into blood vessels and deeper organs. Some Fn-binding proteins contribute to evasion of host innate immunity, such as the complement system and phagocytosis. In addition, Fn-binding proteins have received focus as non-M protein vaccine candidates, because of their localization and conservation among different M serotypes.Here, we review the roles of Fn-binding proteins in the pathogenesis and speculate regarding possible vaccine antigen candidates. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes. (United States)

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi


    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.

  20. MT1-MMP regulates the turnover and endocytosis of extracellular matrix fibronectin (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Sottile, Jane


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is dynamically remodeled by cells during development, normal tissue homeostasis and in a variety of disease processes. We previously showed that fibronectin is an important regulator of ECM remodeling. The deposition and/or polymerization of fibronectin into the ECM controls the deposition and stability of other ECM molecules. In addition, agents that inhibit fibronectin polymerization promote the turnover of fibronectin fibrils and enhance ECM fibronectin endocytosis and intracellular degradation. Endocytosis of ECM fibronectin is regulated by β1 integrins, including α5β1 integrin. We have examined the role of extracellular proteases in regulating ECM fibronectin turnover. Our data show that membrane type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP; also known as MMP14) is a crucial regulator of fibronectin turnover. Cells lacking MT1-MMP show reduced turnover and endocytosis of ECM fibronectin. MT1-MMP regulates ECM fibronectin remodeling by promoting extracellular cleavage of fibronectin and by regulating α5β1-integrin endocytosis. Our data also show that fibronectin polymerization stabilizes fibronectin fibrils and inhibits ECM fibronectin endocytosis by inhibiting α5β1-integrin endocytosis. These data are the first to show that an ECM protein and its modifying enzyme can regulate integrin endocytosis. These data also show that integrin trafficking plays a major role in modulating ECM fibronectin remodeling. The dual dependence of ECM fibronectin turnover on extracellular proteolysis and endocytosis highlights the complex regulatory mechanisms that control ECM remodeling to ensure maintenance of proper tissue function. PMID:22159414

  1. Spectrodensitometric simultaneous determination of esomeprazole and domperidone in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khashaba Pakinaz Y.


    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive TLC-spectrodensitometric method for simultaneous determination of esomeprazole and domperidone was developed and tested in human plasma. Ethyl acetate: methanol: benzene: acetonitrile (5: 4: 8: 3, v/v/v/v mobile phase was used for separation on TLC plates detected at 286 nm. The linearity ranges were 5-1200 and 2-600 ng/ spot for esomeprazole and domperidone, and limits of detection were 1.73 and 0.59 ng/spot. The effects of four variables affecting Rf were evaluated by fractional factorial design. The benzene volume and saturation time had significant effects.

  2. Oleaster oil positively modulates plasma lipids in humans. (United States)

    Belarbi, Meriem; Bendimerad, Soraya; Sour, Souad; Soualem, Zoubida; Baghdad, Choukri; Hmimed, Sara; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco


    The olive tree had been domesticated during the early Neolithic in the Near East, and more than 1000 different cultivars have been identified to date. However, examples of wild olive trees (Olea europaea oleaster) can still be found in the Mediterranean basin. Evidence of oleaster use for oil production can be found in historical and sacred texts, such as the Odyssey, the Holey Koran, and the Holey Bible. While the nutritional and healthful properties of olive oil are actively being explored, there are no data on the human actions of oleaster oil. Therefore, we investigated the effect of prolonged, i.e., 1 month, consumption of oleaster oil on the lipid profile of a 40 healthy Algerian subjects (aged 27.9 ± 3.85 years), as compared to nonconsumers from the same area. Plasma urea, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations and glycemia did not significantly differ, at the end of the study, between controls and oleaster-oil-supplemented subjects. Conversely, we recorded significant decreases of plasma triglyceride concentration (-24.8%; p oleaster-oil-treated subjects. Concomitantly, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were significantly increased (17.94%; p oleaster oil administration. In conclusion, we show that oil obtained from feral olive trees, i.e., oleasters, improves the plasma lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

  3. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de


    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was

  4. Fetal fibronectin as a predictor of labor in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario I. Ortiz


    Full Text Available Background: The presence of fetal fibronectin in vaginal secretions has been regarded as a predictor of labor in pregnant term and preterm. Objective: For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of fibronectin in pregnant women who attended the General Hospital SSH Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Methodology: We included pregnant patients admitted to hospital for pregnancy control. Fetal fibronectin was determined in all participants and then followed until the onset of labor. Results: A total of 148 patients participated. One group with 53 patients less than 37 weeks gestation, and another group of 95 patients with 37 or more weeks gestation. In general, the test showed an average sensitivity of 72.5% and specificity 82.9% average for both groups. Conclusion: Based on these results, we recommend using fibronectin test in pregnant women after 32 weeks of gestation, both in emergency departments and outpatient clinics.

  5. EDA-Containing Fibronectin Increases Proliferation of Embryonic Stem Cells (United States)

    Losino, Noelia; Waisman, Ariel; Solari, Claudia; Luzzani, Carlos; Espinosa, Darío Fernández; Sassone, Alina; Muro, Andrés F.; Miriuka, Santiago; Sevlever, Gustavo; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra


    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) need a set of specific factors to be propagated. They can also grow in conditioned medium (CM) derived from a bovine granulosa cell line BGC (BGC-CM), a medium that not only preserves their main features but also increases ESC´s proliferation rate. The mitogenic properties of this medium were previously reported, ascribing this effect to an alternative spliced generated fibronectin isoform that contains the extra domain A (FN EDA+). Here, we investigated if the FN EDA+ isoform increased proliferation of mouse and human ES cells. We analyzed cell proliferation using conditioned media produced by different mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) lines genetically engineered to express FN constitutively including or excluding the EDA domain (FN EDA-), and in media supplemented with recombinant peptides containing or not the EDA. We found that the presence of EDA in the medium increased mouse and human ESC’s proliferation rate. Here we showed for the first time that this FN isoform enhances ESC’s proliferation. These findings suggest a possible conserved behavior for regulation of ES cells proliferation by this FN isoform and could contribute to improve their culturing conditions both for research and cell therapy. PMID:24244705

  6. Liquid chromatographic determination of bromide in human milk and plasma. (United States)

    Goewie, C E; Hogendoorn, E A


    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of bromide present in human body fluids at the level of 0.5-5.0 ppm is presented. The method involves liquid--liquid extraction of lipids and other lipophilic compounds, destruction of the aqueous phase and analysis of the residue on an aminopropyl bonded silica column with UV detection at 214 nm. The method was applied to the analysis of 278 samples of Dutch human milk. Comparison of the results obtained with those from a routinely used colorimetric procedure for plasma indicated excellent agreement. The ease of automation of the described procedure and its excellent reproducibility make it a good alternative to existing methods for bromide analysis in body fluids.

  7. In silico prediction of total human plasma clearance. (United States)

    Berellini, Giuliano; Waters, Nigel J; Lombardo, Franco


    The prediction of the total human plasma clearance of novel chemical entities continues to be of paramount importance in drug design and optimization, because it impacts both dose size and dose regimen. Although many in vivo and in vitro methods have been proposed, a well-constructed, well-validated, and less resource-intensive computational tool would still be very useful in an iterative compound design cycle. A new completely in silico linear PLS (partial least-squares) model to predict the human plasma clearance was built on the basis of a large data set of 754 compounds using physicochemical descriptors and structural fragments, the latter able to better represent biotransformation processes. The model has been validated using the "ELASTICO" approach (Enhanced Leave Analog-Structural, Therapeutic, Ionization Class Out) based on ten therapeutic/structural analog classes. The model yields a geometric mean fold error (GMFE) of 2.1 and a percentage of compounds predicted within 2- and 3-fold error of 59% and 80%, respectively, showing an improved performance when compared with previous published works in predicting clearance of neutral compounds, and a very good performance with ionized molecules at pH 7.5, able to compare favorably with fairly accurate in vivo methods.

  8. Fibronectin matrix assembly is essential for cell condensation during chondrogenesis. (United States)

    Singh, Purva; Schwarzbauer, Jean E


    Mesenchymal cell condensation is the initiating event in endochondral bone formation. Cell condensation is followed by differentiation into chondrocytes, which is accompanied by induction of chondrogenic gene expression. Gene mutations involved in chondrogenesis cause chondrodysplasias and other skeletal defects. Using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an in vitro chondrogenesis assay, we found that knockdown of the diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) sulfate transporter (DTDST, also known as SLC26A2), which is required for normal cartilage development, blocked cell condensation and caused a significant reduction in fibronectin matrix. Knockdown of fibronectin with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) also blocked condensation. Fibrillar fibronectin matrix was detected prior to cell condensation, and its levels increased during and after condensation. Inhibition of fibronectin matrix assembly by use of the functional upstream domain (FUD) of adhesin F1 from Streptococcus pyogenes prevented cell condensation by MSCs and also by the chondrogenic cell line ATDC5. Our data show that cell condensation and induction of chondrogenesis depend on fibronectin matrix assembly and DTDST, and indicate that this transporter is required earlier in chondrogenesis than previously appreciated. They also raise the possibility that certain of the skeletal defects in DTD patients might derive from the link between DTDST, fibronectin matrix and condensation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Platelets, inflammatory cells, von Willebrand factor, syndecan-1, fibrin, fibronectin, and bacteria co-localize in the liver thrombi of Bacillus anthracis-infected mice. (United States)

    Popova, Taissia G; Millis, Bryan; Bailey, Charles; Popov, Serguei G


    Vascular dysfunction and thrombosis have been described in association with anthrax infection in humans and animals but the mechanisms of these dysfunctions, as well as the components involved in thrombi formation are poorly understood. Immunofluorescent microscopy was used to define the composition of thrombi in the liver of mice challenged with the Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores. Lethal infection with the toxigenic Sterne strain, in contrast to the non-lethal, non-toxigenic delta-Sterne strain, demonstrated time-dependent increase in the number of vegetative bacteria inside the liver sinusoids and central vein. Massive appearance of thrombi typically occluding the lumen of the vessels coincided with the sudden death of infected animals. Bacterial chains in the thrombi were stained positive for syndecan-1 (SDC-1), fibronectin, and were surrounded by fibrin polymers, GPIIb-positive platelets, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), CD45-positive leukocytes, and massive amount of shed SDC-1. Experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) demonstrated the active role of the host response to the secreted pathogenic factors of bacteria during the onset of the pro-thrombotic condition. The bacterial culture supernatants, as well as the isolated proteins (the pore-forming toxin anthrolysin O and phospholipase C) induced release of vWF, while anthrolysin O, sphingomyelinase and edema toxin induced release of thrombin from HUVECs and polymerization of fibrin in the presence of human plasma. Our findings suggest that activation of endothelium in response to infection can contribute to the formation of occlusive thrombi consisting of aggregated bacteria, vWF, shed SDC-1, fibrin, activated platelets, fibronectin and leukocytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fibronectin binding modulates CXCL11 activity and facilitates wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tortelli

    Full Text Available Engineered biomatrices offer the potential to recapitulate the regenerative microenvironment, with important implications in tissue repair. In this context, investigation of the molecular interactions occurring between growth factors, cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM has gained increasing interest. Here, we sought to investigate the possible interactions between the ECM proteins fibronectin (FN and fibrinogen (Fg with the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, which are expressed during wound healing. New binding interactions were observed and characterized. Heparin-binding domains within Fg (residues 15-66 of the β chain, Fg β15-66 and FN (FNI1-5, but not FNIII12-14 were involved in binding to CXCL10 and CXCL11 but not CXCL9. To investigate a possible influence of FN and Fg interactions with CXCL11 in mediating its role during re-epithelialization, we investigated human keratinocyte migration in vitro and wound healing in vivo in diabetic db/db mice. A synergistic effect on CXCL11-induced keratinocyte migration was observed when cells were treated with CXCL11 in combination with FN in a transmigration assay. Moreover, wound healing was enhanced in full thickness excisional wounds treated with fibrin matrices functionalized with FN and containing CXCL11. These findings highlight the importance of the interactions occurring between cytokines and ECM and point to design concepts to develop functional matrices for regenerative medicine.

  11. Immunofluorometric assay for lamotrigine (Lamictal) in human plasma. (United States)

    Sailstad, J M; Findlay, J W


    An immunofluorometric assay (IFA) has been developed for the potential antiepileptic agent, lamotrigine (Lamictal). The assay involves competition between lamotrigine free in solution and bound to a bovine thyroglobulin conjugate on the surface of microtiter strip wells for a limited amount of polyclonal lamotrigine antisera. The end-point of this reaction, which indicates the concentration of lamotrigine present in the solution under analysis, is detected by adding Eu(3+)-labelled anti-rabbit IgG, followed by an enhancement solution to produce a fluorescent product. Thus, the higher the concentration of lamotrigine in the sample, the less intense the fluorescence produced. The assay displays minor cross-reactivity (0.05%) by the major glucuronide metabolite (in humans) and moderate cross-reactivity (2.7%) by a minor N-oxide metabolite (in rats) of the parent drug. No interference from these sources in the analysis of plasma samples from clinical trials was demonstrated by comparative sample analysis by IFA and high-performance liquid chromatography. Intraassay accuracy and precision were excellent, greater than 90% and less than 5% coefficient of variation (CV), while interassay accuracy was greater than 95% and interassay precision (CV) was 8.8-17.0%. This assay is suitable for analysis of lamotrigine in plasma samples collected during clinical trials.

  12. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Brandt


    Full Text Available Background. Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3 is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. Objective. To elucidate the association between plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. Study Design. Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TNF-α, or interleukin-6 (IL-6 as well as a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were used to examine if plasma fstl3 was acutely regulated in humans. Results. Plasma fstl3 was increased in obese subjects independent of glycemic state. Moreover, plasma fstl3 was positively correlated with fat mass, plasma leptin, fasting insulin, and HOMA B and negatively with HOMA S. Furthermore plasma fstl3 correlated positively with plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Infusion of LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 and insulin, increased plasma fstl3 in humans. Conclusion. Plasma fstl3 is increased in obese subjects and associated with fat mass and low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, TNF-α increased plasma fstl3, suggesting that TNF-α is one of the inflammatory drivers of increased systemic levels of fstl3.

  13. 2 D gel based analysis of biological variability of the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rentsch, Maria Louise; Jessen, Flemming

    Human blood plasma is a valuable specimen for the biomarker discovery process, since it is easily accessible and contains proteins that are synthesised, secreted or lost from cells and tissue. In this way, changes in plasma proteome reflect the current state of the organism. The analysis of plasma...

  14. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Pedersen, Maria; Rinnov, Anders


    plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS...... and associated with fat mass and low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, TNF-α increased plasma fstl3, suggesting that TNF-α is one of the inflammatory drivers of increased systemic levels of fstl3......., plasma leptin, fasting insulin, and HOMA B and negatively with HOMA S. Furthermore plasma fstl3 correlated positively with plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Infusion of LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 and insulin, increased plasma fstl3 in humans. CONCLUSION: Plasma fstl3 is increased in obese subjects...

  15. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik


    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  16. The Human Plasma Proteome Draft of 2017: Building on the Human Plasma PeptideAtlas from Mass Spectrometry and Complementary Assays. (United States)

    Schwenk, Jochen M; Omenn, Gilbert S; Sun, Zhi; Campbell, David S; Baker, Mark S; Overall, Christopher M; Aebersold, Ruedi; Moritz, Robert L; Deutsch, Eric W


    Human blood plasma provides a highly accessible window to the proteome of any individual in health and disease. Since its inception in 2002, the Human Proteome Organization's Human Plasma Proteome Project (HPPP) has been promoting advances in the study and understanding of the full protein complement of human plasma and on determining the abundance and modifications of its components. In 2017, we review the history of the HPPP and the advances of human plasma proteomics in general, including several recent achievements. We then present the latest 2017-04 build of Human Plasma PeptideAtlas, which yields ∼43 million peptide-spectrum matches and 122,730 distinct peptide sequences from 178 individual experiments at a 1% protein-level FDR globally across all experiments. Applying the latest Human Proteome Project Data Interpretation Guidelines, we catalog 3509 proteins that have at least two non-nested uniquely mapping peptides of nine amino acids or more and >1300 additional proteins with ambiguous evidence. We apply the same two-peptide guideline to historical PeptideAtlas builds going back to 2006 and examine the progress made in the past ten years in plasma proteome coverage. We also compare the distribution of proteins in historical PeptideAtlas builds in various RNA abundance and cellular localization categories. We then discuss advances in plasma proteomics based on targeted mass spectrometry as well as affinity assays, which during early 2017 target ∼2000 proteins. Finally, we describe considerations about sample handling and study design, concluding with an outlook for future advances in deciphering the human plasma proteome.

  17. Plasma norepinephrine in humans: limitations in assessment of whole body norepinephrine kinetics and plasma clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Christensen, N J


    ]IP and 131I-hippurate, whole body clearance from plasma of [3H]NE, as obtained from infusion rate divided by plasma concentration of tracer [1.74 +/- 0.64 (SD) 1/min] was significantly higher than the value obtained by total tracer infusion divided by total plasma area of tracer (1.27 +/- 0.51, P less than 0...

  18. Isolation and purification of plasma albumin from human blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dried isolated plasma albumin was further characterized for purity using protein analysis, optical rotation, solubility and denaturation tests. The results show the plasma album contained 63.67% protein , with specific rotation at[á]598 32 at pH 7.2 of 80 and gradually dissolved in acidified water and ethanol. The plasma ...

  19. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J


    To clarify the origin of plasma DOPA (3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine), the relationship between plasma DOPA and acute or chronic changes in sympathetic activity has been studied. Plasma DOPA and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...... is not related to sympathetic activity and may be of non-neuronal origin....

  20. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B


    -eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining...

  1. Predicting preterm birth: Cervical length and fetal fibronectin. (United States)

    Son, Moeun; Miller, Emily S


    Spontaneous preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and accounts for a significant global health burden. Several obstetric strategies to screen for spontaneous preterm delivery, such as cervical length and fetal fibronectin measurement, have emerged. However, the effectiveness of these strategies relies on their ability to accurately predict those pregnancies at increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). Transvaginal cervical shortening is predictive of preterm birth and when coupled with appropriate preterm birth prevention strategies, has been associated with reductions in SPTB in asymptomatic women with a singleton gestation. The use of qualitative fetal fibronectin may be useful in conjunction with cervical length assessment in women with acute preterm labor symptoms, but data supporting its clinical utility remain limited. As both cervical length and qualitative fetal fibronectin have limited capacity to predict preterm birth, further studies are needed to investigate other potential screening modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Glomerulopathy associated with predominant fibronectin deposits: Exclusion of the genes for fibronectin, villin and desmin as causative genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, F.; Strahm, B.; Prochoroff, A.; Cybulla, M.; Brandis, M. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)] [and others


    Glomerulopathy with predominant fibronectin deposits (GFD) is a newly recognized autosomal dominant renal disease that leads to albuminuria, microscopic hematuria, hypertension, renal tubular acidosis type IV, and end-stage renal disease in the second to fourth decade of life. Light microscopy documents extensive deposits in the subendothelial space, which on electron microscopy consist of non-oriented 12 x 125 nm fibers. Deposits are strongly immunoreactive for antibodies to fibronectin. We examined the hypothesis that a genetic defect in the gene for fibronectin is responsible for the disease. In a 197 member pedigree, 13 relatives developed end-stage renal failure from the disease. In 99 individuals haplotype analysis was performed using 6 microsatellite markers spanning a >56 cM interval in chromosome region 2q34, where fibronectin, villin, and desmin map in close proximity. Haplotype analysis resulted in exclusion of the whole range of 78 cM covered by the markers examined. This result excludes fibronectin, villin, and desmin from being the causative genes for GFD in this large kindred. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P


    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis....

  4. A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo


    BACKGROUND: The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list...... the full diagnostic potential of blood plasma, we feel that there is still a need for an ultra-high confidence reference list (at least 99% confidence) of blood plasma proteins. METHODS: To address the complexity and dynamic protein concentration range of the plasma proteome, we employed a linear ion...... consecutive stages of tandem mass spectrometry (MS3). The combination of MS3 with very high mass accuracy in the parent peptide allows peptide identification with orders of magnitude more confidence than that typically achieved. RESULTS: Herein we established a high confidence set of 697 blood plasma proteins...

  5. Endothelium-derived fibronectin regulates neonatal vascular morphogenesis in an autocrine fashion. (United States)

    Turner, Christopher J; Badu-Nkansah, Kwabena; Hynes, Richard O


    Fibronectin containing alternatively spliced EIIIA and EIIIB domains is largely absent from mature quiescent vessels in adults, but is highly expressed around blood vessels during developmental and pathological angiogenesis. The precise functions of fibronectin and its splice variants during developmental angiogenesis however remain unclear due to the presence of cardiac, somitic, mesodermal and neural defects in existing global fibronectin KO mouse models. Using a rare family of surviving EIIIA EIIIB double KO mice, as well as inducible endothelial-specific fibronectin-deficient mutant mice, we show that vascular development in the neonatal retina is regulated in an autocrine manner by endothelium-derived fibronectin, and requires both EIIIA and EIIIB domains and the RGD-binding α5 and αv integrins for its function. Exogenous sources of fibronectin do not fully substitute for the autocrine function of endothelial fibronectin, demonstrating that fibronectins from different sources contribute differentially to specific aspects of angiogenesis.

  6. Functional Analysis of an S-Layer-Associated Fibronectin-Binding Protein in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hymes, Jeffrey P; Johnson, Brant R; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R


    ... dairy products and probiotic supplements. One putative S-layer-associated protein (SLAP), LBA0191, was predicted to mediate adhesion to fibronectin based on the in silico detection of a fibronectin-binding domain...

  7. Effect of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on human breast cancer cells (United States)

    Mirpour, Shahriar; Nikkhah, Maryam; Pirouzmand, Somaye; Ghomi, Hamid Reza


    Nowadays, Non-thermal plasma enjoy a wide range of applications in biomedical fields such as Sterilization, Wound healing, Cancer treatment and etc. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. In this regard the effect of plasma on death of the cancer cells are explored experimentally. The plasma in this discharge is created by pulsed dc high voltage power supply with repetition rate of several tens of kilohertz which led to the inductively coupled plasma. The pure helium gas were used for formation of the plasma jet. MTT assay were used for quantification of death cells. The results showed that the cells death rate increase with plasma exposure time. This study confirm that plasma jet have significant effect on treatment of human breast cancer cells.

  8. Display of cell surface sites for fibronectin assembly is modulated by cell adherence to (1)F3 and C-terminal modules of fibronectin. (United States)

    Xu, Jielin; Bae, Eunnyung; Zhang, Qinghong; Annis, Douglas S; Erickson, Harold P; Mosher, Deane F


    Fibronectin-null cells assemble soluble fibronectin shortly after adherence to a substrate coated with intact fibronectin but not when adherent to the cell-binding domain of fibronectin (modules (7)F3-(10)F3). Interactions of adherent cells with regions of adsorbed fibronectin other than modules (7)F3-(10)F3, therefore, are required for early display of the cell surface sites that initiate and direct fibronectin assembly. To identify these regions, coatings of proteolytically derived or recombinant pieces of fibronectin containing modules in addition to (7)F3-(10)F3 were tested for effects on fibronectin assembly by adherent fibronectin-null fibroblasts. Pieces as large as one comprising modules (2)F3-(14)F3, which include the heparin-binding and cell adhesion domains, were not effective in supporting fibronectin assembly. Addition of module (1)F3 or the C-terminal modules to modules (2)F3-(14)F3 resulted in some activity, and addition of both (1)F3 and the C-terminal modules resulted in a construct, (1)F3-C, that best mimicked the activity of a coating of intact fibronectin. Constructs (1)F3-C V0, (1)F3-C V64, and (1)F3-C Delta(V(15)F3(10)F1) were all able to support fibronectin assembly, suggesting that (1)F3 through (11)F1 and/or (12)F1 were important for activity. Coatings in which the active parts of (1)F3-C were present in different proteins were much less active than intact (1)F3-C. These results suggest that (1)F3 acts together with C-terminal modules to induce display of fibronectin assembly sites on adherent cells.

  9. A Phospholipidomic Analysis of All Defined Human Plasma Lipoproteins (United States)

    Dashti, Monireh; Kulik, Willem; Hoek, Frans; Veerman, Enno C.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad


    Since plasma lipoproteins contain both protein and phospholipid components, either may be involved in processes such as atherosclerosis. In this study the identification of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipids, which is essential for understanding these processes at the molecular level, are performed. LC-ESI/MS, LC-ESI-MS/MS and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of different lipoprotein fractions collected from pooled plasma revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and sphingomyeline (SM) only on lipoproteins and phosphatidylcholine (PC), Lyso-PC on both lipoproteins and plasma lipoprotein free fraction (PLFF). Cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and Phosphatidylserine (PS) were observed neither in the lipoprotein fractions nor in PLFF. All three approaches led to the same results regarding phospholipids occurrence in plasma lipoproteins and PLFF. A high abundancy of PE and SM was observed in VLDL and LDL fractions respectively. This study provides for the first time the knowledge about the phospholipid composition of all defined plasma lipoproteins. PMID:22355656

  10. Computational lipidology: predicting lipoprotein density profiles in human blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hübner


    Full Text Available Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond "bad" and "good" cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL, we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile is calculated. As our main results, we (i successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS, revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia.

  11. Adhesion and cytoskeletal organisation of fibroblasts in response to fibronectin fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R; Johansson, S


    since it mediates cell attachment and inhibits cell adhesion to intact fibronectin. We show here, however, that substrata coated with an isolated cell-binding domain of fibronectin are not sufficient for complete cell adhesion; cells attach and spread but, unlike those adhering to intact fibronectin...

  12. Heterologously expressed Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding proteins are sufficient for invasion of host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, B; Francois, P; Que, Y A; Hussain, M; Heilmann, C; Moreillon, P; Lew, D; Krause, K H; Peters, Georg; Herrmann, M


    Staphylococcus aureus invasion of mammalian cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells, critically depends on fibronectin bridging between S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host fibronectin receptor integrin alpha(5)beta(1) (B. Sinha et al., Cell.

  13. High Throughput Sequencing of Extracellular RNA from Human Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty M Danielson

    Full Text Available The presence and relative stability of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs in biofluids has led to an emerging recognition of their promise as 'liquid biopsies' for diseases. Most prior studies on discovery of exRNAs as disease-specific biomarkers have focused on microRNAs (miRNAs using technologies such as qRT-PCR and microarrays. The recent application of next-generation sequencing to discovery of exRNA biomarkers has revealed the presence of potential novel miRNAs as well as other RNA species such as tRNAs, snoRNAs, piRNAs and lncRNAs in biofluids. At the same time, the use of RNA sequencing for biofluids poses unique challenges, including low amounts of input RNAs, the presence of exRNAs in different compartments with varying degrees of vulnerability to isolation techniques, and the high abundance of specific RNA species (thereby limiting the sensitivity of detection of less abundant species. Moreover, discovery in human diseases often relies on archival biospecimens of varying age and limiting amounts of samples. In this study, we have tested RNA isolation methods to optimize profiling exRNAs by RNA sequencing in individuals without any known diseases. Our findings are consistent with other recent studies that detect microRNAs and ribosomal RNAs as the major exRNA species in plasma. Similar to other recent studies, we found that the landscape of biofluid microRNA transcriptome is dominated by several abundant microRNAs that appear to comprise conserved extracellular miRNAs. There is reasonable correlation of sets of conserved miRNAs across biological replicates, and even across other data sets obtained at different investigative sites. Conversely, the detection of less abundant miRNAs is far more dependent on the exact methodology of RNA isolation and profiling. This study highlights the challenges in detecting and quantifying less abundant plasma miRNAs in health and disease using RNA sequencing platforms.

  14. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P


    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...

  15. Determination of selenoprotein P in human plasma by solid phase extraction and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L.; Sidenius, U.; Gammelgaard, Bente


    A method based on solid phase extraction was developed for the determination of selenoprotein P as selenium in human plasma. Separation of selenoprotein P from other selenium-containing proteins was accomplished by immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. The selenium content was subsequently...

  16. The importance of selecting a proper biological milieu for protein corona analysis in vitro: Human plasma versus human serum. (United States)

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L


    Nanoparticle (NP) exposure to biological fluids in the body results in protein binding to the NP surface, which forms a protein coating that is called the "protein corona". To simplify studies of protein-NP interactions and protein corona formation, NPs are incubated with biological solutions, such as human serum or human plasma, and the effects of this exposure are characterized in vitro. Yet, how NP exposure to these two different biological milieus affects protein corona composition and cell response has not been investigated. Here, we explore the differences between the protein coronas that form when NPs are incubated in human serum versus human plasma. NP characterization indicated that NPs that were exposed to human plasma had higher amounts of proteins bound to their surfaces, and were slightly larger in size than those exposed to human serum. In addition, significant differences in corona composition were also detected with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, where a higher fraction of coagulation proteins and complement factors were found on the plasma-exposed NPs. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that the uptake of plasma-exposed NPs was higher than that of serum-exposed NPs by RAW 264.7 macrophage immune cells, but not by NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. This difference is likely due to the elevated amounts of opsonins, such as fibrinogen, on the surfaces of the NPs exposed to plasma, but not serum, because these components trigger NP internalization by immune cells. As the human plasma better mimics the composition of the in vivo environment, namely blood, in vitro protein corona studies should employ human plasma, and not human serum, so the biological phenomena that is observed is more similar to that occurring in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A phospholipidomic analysis of all defined human plasma lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashti, M.; Kulik, W.; Hoek, F.; Veerman, E.C.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Rezaee, F.


    Since plasma lipoproteins contain both protein and phospholipid components, either may be involved in processes such as atherosclerosis. In this study the identification of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipids, which is essential for understanding these processes at the molecular level, are

  18. A Phospholipidomic Analysis of All Defined Human Plasma Lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashti, Monireh; Kulik, Willem; Hoek, Frans; Veerman, Enno C.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad


    Since plasma lipoproteins contain both protein and phospholipid components, either may be involved in processes such as atherosclerosis. In this study the identification of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipids, which is essential for understanding these processes at the molecular level, are

  19. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma. (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L


    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  20. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian Philip; Keller, Charlotte


    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a transient increase in plasma IL-6 induces an anti-inflammatory environment in humans. Therefore, young healthy volunteers received a low dose of recombinant human (rh)IL-6 or saline for 3 h. Plasma IL-6 levels during rhIL-6 infusion...... number without effects on plasma epinephrine, body temperature, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that physiological concentrations of IL-6 induce an anti-inflammatory rather than an inflammatory response in humans and that IL-6, independently of TNF......-induced leukocyte trafficking....

  1. Staphylococcus aureus-Fibronectin Interactions with and without Fibronectin-Binding Proteins and Their Role in Adhesion and Desorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.P.; Boks, N.P.; Vries, de J.; Kaper, H.J.; Norde, W.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, van der H.C.


    Adhesion and residence-time-dependent desorption of two Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without fibronectin (Fn) binding proteins (FnBPs) on Fn-coated glass were compared under flow conditions. To obtain a better understanding of the role of Fn-FnBP binding, the adsorption enthalpies of Fn

  2. Trypanocidal activity of human plasma on Trypanosoma evansi in mice Atividade tripanocida do plasma humano sobre Trypanosoma evansi em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva


    Full Text Available This study aimed to test an alternative protocol with human plasma to control Trypanosoma evansi infection in mice. Plasma from an apparently 27-year-old healthy male, blood type A+, was used in the study. A concentration of 100 mg.dL-1 apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1 was detected in the plasma. Forty mice were divided into four groups with 10 animals each. Group A comprised uninfected animals. Mice from groups B, C and D were inoculated with a T. evansi isolate. Group B was used as a positive control. At three days post-infection (DPI, the mice were administered intraperitoneally with human plasma. A single dose of 0.2 mL plasma was given to those in group C. The mice from group D were administered five doses of 0.2 mL plasma with a 24 hours interval between the doses. Group B showed high increasing parasitemia that led to their death within 5 DPI. Both treatments eliminated parasites from the blood and increased the longevity of animals. An efficacy of 50 (group C and 80% (group D of human plasma trypanocidal activity was found using PCR. This therapeutic success was likely achieved in the group D due to their higher levels of APOL1 compared with group C.Este estudo teve como objetivo testar um protocolo alternativo com plasma humano para controlar a infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em camundongos. O plasma foi oriundo de um homem aparentemente saudável, com idade entre 27 anos e tipo de sangue A+. Foi detectada uma concentração de 100 mg.dL -1 de apolipoproteína L1 (APOL1 no plasma. Quarenta camundongos foram divididos em quatro grupos, contendo dez animais cada. Grupo A, composto de animais não infectados. Os roedores dos grupos B, C e D foram inoculados intraperitonealmente com um isolado de T. evansi. O Grupo B foi usado como um controle positivo. Três dias pós-infecção (DPI, os camundongos foram tratados com plasma humano. Uma dose única de 0,2 mL de plasma foi administrada nos roedores do grupo C. Os ratos do grupo D receberam cinco

  3. Plasma Proteome Profiling to Assess Human Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Kulak, Nils A; Pichler, Garwin


    Proteins in the circulatory system mirror an individual's physiology. In daily clinical practice, protein levels are generally determined using single-protein immunoassays. High-throughput, quantitative analysis using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics of blood, plasma, and serum would...... be advantageous but is challenging because of the high dynamic range of protein abundances. Here, we introduce a rapid and robust "plasma proteome profiling" pipeline. This single-run shotgun proteomic workflow does not require protein depletion and enables quantitative analysis of hundreds of plasma proteomes...

  4. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine


    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic...

  5. Leishmania infection modulates beta-1 integrin activation and alters the kinetics of monocyte spreading over fibronectin. (United States)

    Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; Carvalhal, Djalma Gomes Ferrão; Almeida, Rafaela Andrade; Hermida, Micely d' El-Rei; Touchard, Dominique; Robert, Phillipe; Pierres, Anne; Bongrand, Pierre; dos-Santos, Washington L C


    Contact with Leishmania leads to a decreases in mononuclear phagocyte adherence to connective tissue. In this work, we studied the early stages of bond formation between VLA4 and fibronectin, measured the kinetics of membrane alignment and the monocyte cytoplasm spreading area over a fibronectin-coated surface, and studied the expression of high affinity integrin epitope in uninfected and Leishmania-infected human monocytes. Our results show that the initial VLA4-mediated interaction of Leishmania-infected monocyte with a fibronectin-coated surface is preserved, however, the later stage, leukocyte spreading over the substrate is abrogated in Leishmania-infected cells. The median of spreading area was 72 [55-89] μm(2) for uninfected and 41 [34-51] μm(2) for Leishmania-infected monocyte. This cytoplasm spread was inhibited using an anti-VLA4 blocking antibody. After the initial contact with the fibronectrin-coated surface, uninfected monocyte quickly spread the cytoplasm at a 15 μm(2) s(-1) ratio whilst Leishmania-infected monocytes only made small contacts at a 5.5 μm(2) s(-1) ratio. The expression of high affinity epitope by VLA4 (from 39 ± 21% to 14 ± 3%); and LFA1 (from 37 ± 32% to 18 ± 16%) molecules was reduced in Leishmania-infected monocytes. These changes in phagocyte function may be important for parasite dissemination and distribution of lesions in leishmaniasis.

  6. Inactivation of Zika virus by solvent/detergent treatment of human plasma and other plasma-derived products and pasteurization of human serum albumin. (United States)

    Kühnel, Denis; Müller, Sebastian; Pichotta, Alexander; Radomski, Kai Uwe; Volk, Andreas; Schmidt, Torben


    In 2016 the World Health Organization declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) a "public health emergency of international concern." ZIKV is a blood-borne pathogen, which therefore causes concerns regarding the safety of human plasma-derived products due to potential contamination of the blood supply. This study investigated the effectiveness of viral inactivation steps used during the routine manufacturing of various plasma-derived products to reduce ZIKV infectivity. Human plasma and intermediates from the production of various plasma-derived products were spiked with ZIKV and subjected to virus inactivation using the identical techniques (either solvent/detergent [S/D] treatment or pasteurization) and conditions used for the actual production of the respective products. Samples were taken and the viral loads measured before and after inactivation. After S/D treatment of spiked intermediates of the plasma-derived products Octaplas(LG), Octagam, and Octanate, the viral loads were below the limit of detection in all cases. The mean log reduction factor (LRF) was at least 6.78 log for Octaplas(LG), at least 7.00 log for Octagam, and at least 6.18 log for Octanate after 60, 240, and 480 minutes of S/D treatment, respectively. For 25% human serum albumin (HSA), the mean LRF for ZIKV was at least 7.48 log after pasteurization at 60°C for 120 minutes. These results demonstrate that the commonly used virus inactivation processes utilized during the production of human plasma and plasma-derived products, namely, S/D treatment or pasteurization, are effective for inactivation of ZIKV. © 2016 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  7. Plasma norepinephrine in humans: limitations in assessment of whole body norepinephrine kinetics and plasma clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Christensen, N J


    To investigate catecholamine residence in plasma, constant intravenous infusions of increasing duration (20, 40, and 80 min) of [3H]norepinephrine [( 3H]NE), [3H]isoproterenol [( 3H]IP) IP) and a reference substance: 131I-labeled hippurate were performed in six normal volunteers. In contrast to [...... irreversible removal of NE, is smaller than previously estimated due to recycling through the plasma space. Attention has been drawn to limitations of [3H]NE kinetics....

  8. In vivo plasma concentration for lindane after 6 hour exposure in human skin (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset is a time course description of lindane disappearance in blood plasma after dermal exposure in human volunteers. This dataset is associated with the...

  9. Fibroblast-fibronectin patterning and network formation in 3D fibrin matrices. (United States)

    Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Graham, Eric; Manohar, Sujal; Petroll, W Matthew


    We previously reported that fibroblasts migrating within 3-D collagen matrices move independently, whereas fibroblasts within 3-D fibrin matrices form an interconnected network. Similar networks have been identified previously during in vivo corneal wound healing. In this study, we investigate the role of fibronectin in mediating this mechanism of collective cell spreading, migration and patterning. To assess cell spreading, corneal fibroblasts were plated within fibrillar collagen or fibrin matrices. To assess migration, compacted cell-populated collagen matrices were nested inside cell-free fibrin matrices. Constructs were cultured in serum-free media containing PDGF, with or without RGD peptide, anti-α5 or anti-fibronectin blocking antibodies. In some experiments, LifeAct and fluorescent fibronectin were used to allow dynamic assessment of cell-induced fibronectin reorganization. 3-D and 4-D imaging were used to assess cell mechanical behavior, connectivity, F-actin, α5 integrin and fibronectin organization. Corneal fibroblasts within 3-D fibrin matrices formed an interconnected network that was lined with cell-secreted fibronectin. Live cell imaging demonstrated that fibronectin tracks were formed at the leading edge of spreading and migrating cells. Furthermore, fibroblasts preferentially migrated through fibronectin tracks laid down by other cells. Interfering with cell-fibronectin binding with RGD, anti α5 integrin or anti fibronectin antibodies inhibited cell spreading and migration through fibrin, but did not affect cell behavior in collagen. In this study, a novel mode of cell patterning was identified in which corneal fibroblasts secrete and attach to fibronectin via α5β1 integrin to facilitate spreading and migration within 3-D fibrin matrices, resulting in the formation of localized fibronectin tracks. Other cells use these fibronectin tracks as conduits, resulting in an interconnected cell-fibronectin network. Copyright © 2017 International

  10. Interaction of phosphorylcholine with fibronectin coatings: Surface characterization and biological performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaño-Machado, Vanessa, E-mail: [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Noël, Céline, E-mail: [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Chevallier, Pascale, E-mail: [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Turgeon, Stéphane, E-mail: [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Houssiau, Laurent, E-mail: [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Pauthe, Emmanuel, E-mail: [ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); and others


    Highlights: • Fibronectin/phosphorylcholine coatings on plasma deposited fluorocarbon films were created. • The effect of several coating techniques on the surface biological performances was evaluated. • XPS, DWCA, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) techniques were applied. • Potential for cardiovascular applications was showed by endothelial cell and blood interactions. - Abstract: Coating medical devices with several bioactive molecules is an interesting approach to achieve specific biological targets upon the interaction of the biomaterial with the living environment. In this work, a fluorocarbon polymer (CF{sub x}) was first deposited by plasma treatment on stainless steel (SS) substrate and thereafter, coatings containing fibronectin (FN) and phosphorylcholine (PRC) were created for cardiovascular applications. These two biomolecules were chosen to promote endothelialization and to avoid thrombus formation, respectively. Adsorption and grafting techniques were applied – and combined – to accomplish 4 different coatings containing both molecules. However, big challenge was found to characterize a small molecule (PRC: 184 g/mol) interacting with a protein (FN: 450 kD). For the first time XPS, dynamic water contact angle, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) analyses were combined to accomplish the characterization of such a coating. The most encouraging biological performances were obtained for samples where FN was grafted to the CF{sub x} film followed by the adsorption of PRC: proliferation of endothelial cells and hemocompatibility properties were observed. Promising coatings for cardiovascular applications were developed. The relevance of characterizing the coatings with high sensitive techniques and the further correlation with their biological performances were evidenced.

  11. Comparative proteomics evaluation of plasma exosome isolation techniques and assessment of the stability of exosomes in normal human blood plasma. (United States)

    Kalra, Hina; Adda, Christopher G; Liem, Michael; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mechler, Adam; Simpson, Richard J; Hulett, Mark D; Mathivanan, Suresh


    Exosomes are nanovesicles released by a variety of cells and are detected in body fluids including blood. Recent studies have highlighted the critical application of exosomes as personalized targeted drug delivery vehicles and as reservoirs of disease biomarkers. While these research applications have created significant interest and can be translated into practice, the stability of exosomes needs to be assessed and exosome isolation protocols from blood plasma need to be optimized. To optimize methods to isolate exosomes from blood plasma, we performed a comparative evaluation of three exosome isolation techniques (differential centrifugation coupled with ultracentrifugation, epithelial cell adhesion molecule immunoaffinity pull-down, and OptiPrep(TM) density gradient separation) using normal human plasma. Based on MS, Western blotting and microscopy results, we found that the OptiPrep(TM) density gradient method was superior in isolating pure exosomal populations, devoid of highly abundant plasma proteins. In addition, we assessed the stability of exosomes in plasma over 90 days under various storage conditions. Western blotting analysis using the exosomal marker, TSG101, revealed that exosomes are stable for 90 days. Interestingly, in the context of cellular uptake, the isolated exosomes were able to fuse with target cells revealing that they were indeed biologically active. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A relatively simple normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was modified for determination of nifedipine in human plasma. The method is based on ultraviolet detection at 235 nm and acidic plasma extraction by a mixture of dichioromethane (30% and n-hexane (70% using nimodipine as an internal standard. The system was stabilized with the use of n-hexane (80%, chloroform (17% and methanol (3% as mobile phase. The assay was linear up to at least 120 ng/ml of nifedipine in plasma. The limit of reliable determination was at least 3 ng/ml plasma. The reproducibility of the method was satisfactory. The procedure can be used effectively to quantitate nifedipine in the human plasma.

  13. Liquid chromatographic determination of ceftibuten, a new oral cephalosporin, in human plasma and urine. (United States)

    Lim, J M; Kim, H; Marco, A; Mojaverian, P; Lin, C C


    Two liquid chromatographic methods with UV detection were developed for the determination of ceftibuten in human plasma and urine. Diluted plasma samples were directly injected onto a reversed-phase column without prior protein precipitation while diluted urine samples were processed through an automated on-line sample clean-up procedure using column-switching. Both methods were linear over clinically relevant concentration ranges in plasma (from 0.1 to 50 micrograms ml-1) and urine (from 0.5 to 60 micrograms ml-1). The methods showed acceptable precision (RSD ceftibuten in plasma and urine. These LOQs represented the lowest concentrations of ceftibuten in plasma (0.1 micrograms ml-1) and urine (0.5 micrograms ml-1) that could be measured with acceptable precision and accuracy. RSDs for both within-day and between-day analyses were ceftibuten in plasma and urine following single oral doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg in man.

  14. Plasma norepinephrine in humans: limitations in assessment of whole body norepinephrine kinetics and plasma clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    .01). Mean residence time in plasma (theta) after stopping the infusion of [3H]NE increased along an almost straight line with progressive infusion time, theta of 131I-hippurate increased less, and constant values were recorded after 40 min infusion of [3H]IP. Our results suggest the presence of a very large...... irreversible removal of NE, is smaller than previously estimated due to recycling through the plasma space. Attention has been drawn to limitations of [3H]NE kinetics....

  15. Preparation of Bioactive Titanium Surfaces via Fluoride and Fibronectin Retention


    Elias, Carlos Nelson; Gravina, Patricia Abdo; Silva Filho, Costa e; Nascente, Pedro Augusto de Paula


    Statement of Problem. The chemical or topographic modification of the dental implant surface can affect bone healing, promote accelerated osteogenesis, and increase bone-implant contact and bonding strength. Objective. In this work, the effects of dental implant surface treatment and fibronectin adsorption on the adhesion of osteoblasts were analyzed. Materials and Methods. Two titanium dental implants (Porous-acid etching and PorousNano-acid etching followed by fluoride ion modification) wer...

  16. Molecular simulation of fibronectin adsorption onto polyurethane surfaces. (United States)

    Panos, Melisa; Sen, Taner Z; Ahunbay, M Göktuğ


    Poly(ethylene glycol)-based polyurethanes have been widely used in biomedical applications; however, they are prone to swelling. A natural polyol, castor oil, can be incorporated into these polyurethanes to control the degree of the swelling, which alters mechanical properties and protein adsorption characteristic of the polymers. In this work, we modeled poly(ethylene glycol) and castor oil copolymers of hexamethylene diisocyanate-based polyurethanes (PEG-HDI and CO-HDI, respectively) and compared their mechanisms for fibronectin adsorption using molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that the interplay between the hydrophobic residues concentrated at the N-terminal end of the protein, the surface roughness, and the hydrophilicity of the polymer surface determine the overall protein adsorption affinity. Incorporating explicit water molecules in the simulations results in higher affinity for fibronectin adsorption to more hydrophobic surface of CO-HDI surfaces, emphasizing the role that water molecules play during adsorption. We also observed that the strain energies that are indicative of flexibility and consequently entropy are significantly affected by the changes in the patterns of β-sheet formation/breaking. Our study lends supports to the view that while castor oil controls the degree of swelling, it increases the adsorption of fibronectin to a limited extent due to the interplay between its hydrophobicity and its surface roughness, which needs to be taken into account during the design of polyurethane-based biomaterials.

  17. Sedum telephium L. polysaccharide content affects MRC5 cell adhesion to laminin and fibronectin. (United States)

    Raimondi, L; Banchelli, G; Dalmazzi, D; Mulinacci, N; Romani, A; Vincieri, F F; Pirisino, R


    In traditional medicine the fresh leaves and juice of Sedum telephium L. are used as wound-healing promoters. Cell adhesion represents a primary event in wound repair and in tissue homeostasis, and therefore we have investigated the effect of Sedum juice and its main fractions, polysaccharides and flavonols, on human fibroblast (MRC5) adhesion to fibronectin and laminin. Our findings revealed that total Sedum juice strongly inhibited cell adhesion to laminin and fibronectin (EC50 1.03+/-0.12 mg mL(-1)). This anti-adhesive feature was concentrated mainly in the two polysaccharide fractions (EC50 values comprised between 0.09 and 0.44 mg mL(-1)). The flavonol fractions did not seem to contribute to this effect. A first attempt to elucidate the polysaccharide-related anti-adhesive feature of Sedum juice was also performed. The results confirmed that natural polysaccharides, with chemical structures different from heparin, were able to interfere with integrin-mediated cell behaviour and they contributed to the outstanding effects of Sedum juice and to the role of polysaccharides in cell-matrix interaction.

  18. Human seminal plasma cadmium: comparison with fertility and smoking habits. (United States)

    Saaranen, M; Kantola, M; Saarikoski, S; Vanha-Perttula, T


    Cadmium, selenium and zinc were determined in seminal plasma and serum of 64 men by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The mean (+/- SD) cadmium concentrations in seminal plasma and serum were 0.22 +/- 0.22 micrograms and 0.28 +/- 0.10 micrograms, respectively, but they did not correlate with each other. Smokers (n = 31) had significantly (p less than 0.01) higher serum cadmium concentrations than non-smokers (n = 31). Also seminal plasma cadmium in smokers was elevated, but a significant difference to non-smokers was only found if more than 20 cigarettes were consumed daily. No differences were found in semen quality and fertility between smokers and non-smokers. The seminal plasma cadmium had no correlation to selenium or zinc which, however, displayed a positive correlation (r = 0.852, p less than 0.001) to each other. It is concluded that smoking increases the exposure to cadmium. Although no obvious reproductive suppression was observed, heavy smoking may possibly enhance toxic effects in men under other detrimental exposures.

  19. SM22 a Plasma Biomarker for Human Transmural Intestinal Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Dirk H. S. M.; Reisinger, Kostan W.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Hadfoune, M.'hamed; Olde Damink, Steven W.; Buurman, Wim A.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Derikx, Joep P. M.


    To evaluate the diagnostic potential of smooth muscle protein of 22 kDa (SM22) as plasma biomarker for the detection of transmural intestinal ischemia. Acute mesenteric ischemia is an abdominal emergency requiring rapid diagnosis and treatment. Especially, detection of transmural damage is

  20. Determinants of postprandial plasma bile acid kinetics in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiamoncini, J.; Yiorkas, A.M.; Gedrich, K.; Rundle, M.; Alsters, S.I.; Roeselers, G.; Broek, T.J. van den; Clavel, T.; Lagkouvardos, I.; Wopereis, S.; Frost, G.; Ommen, B. van; Blakemore, A.I.; Daniel, H.


    Bile acids (BA) are signaling molecules with a wide range of biological effects, also identified among the most responsive plasma metabolites in the postprandial state. We here describe this response to different dietary challenges and report on key determinants linked to its interindividual

  1. Plasma degradome affected by variable storage of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaisar, Maria; Van Dullemen, Leon F. A.; Thezenas, Marie-Laetitia; Akhtar, M. Zeeshan; Huang, Honglei; Rendel, Sandrine; Charles, Philip D.; Fischer, Roman; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Kessler, Benedikt M.


    Background: The successful application of-omics technologies in the discovery of novel biomarkers and targets of therapeutic interventions is facilitated by large collections of well curated clinical samples stored in bio banks. Mining the plasma proteome holds promise to improve our understanding

  2. Plasma adiponectin and endogenous glucose production in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Stumvoll, Michael; Vozarova, Barbora


    High plasma adiponectin is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, probably a consequence of its insulin-sensitizing properties. In vivo data in rodents suggest that the insulin-sensitization responsible for improvement of glycemia occurs in muscle and liver. Whereas associations of plas...

  3. Spectrofluorimetric determination of amlodipine in human plasma without derivatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Kadioglu


    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of amlodipine (AD, a calcium channel blocker, in the plasma. The type of solvent, the wavelength range, and the range of AD concentration were selected to optimize the experimental conditions. The calibration curves were linear (r² >0.997 in the concentration range of 0.1-12.5 ppm of AD. The limit of quantitation and limit of detection values for the method for plasma samples were 0.1 ppm and 0.07 ppm, respectively. The precision calculated as the relative standard deviation was less than 3.5%, and the accuracy (relative error was better than 5.5% (n=6. The method developed in this study can be directly and easily applied for the determination of AD in the plasma without derivatization in plasma.Método espectrofluorometrico rápido e sensível é descrito para a determinação de anlodipina (AD, um bloqueador de canais de cálcio, em amostras de plasma. O tipo de solvente, a faixa de comprimento de onda e a faixa de concentração foram escolhidas a fim de otimizar as condições experimentais. As curvas de calibração foram lineares (r > 0,997 na faixa de concentração de 0,1-12,5 ppm de AD. Os valores LoQ e LoD do método para amostras de plasma foram 0,1 ppm e 0,07 ppm, respectivamente. A precisão calculada como desvio padrão relativo (RSD foi menor do que 3,5% e a precisão (erro relativo foi melhor do que 5,5% (n=6. O método desenvolvido neste estudo pode ser fácil e diretamente aplicado para a determinação de AD sem derivatização no plasma.

  4. Circulating Metabolites of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitor Nelfinavir in Humans: Structural Identification, Levels in Plasma, and Antiviral Activities


    Zhang, Kanyin E.; Wu, Ellen; Amy K Patick; Kerr,Bradley; Zorbas, Mark; Lankford, Angela; Kobayashi, Takuo; Maeda, Yuki; Shetty, Bhasker; Webber, Stephanie


    Nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept, formally AG1343) is a potent and orally bioavailable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (Ki = 2 nM) and is being widely prescribed in combination with HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors for the treatment of HIV infection. The current studies evaluated the presence of metabolites circulating in plasma following the oral administration of nelfinavir to healthy volunteers and HIV-infected patients, as well as the levels in plasma...

  5. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells. (United States)

    Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio


    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be considered a

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to human butyrylcholinesterase reactive with butyrylcholinesterase in animal plasma. (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Brimijoin, Stephen; Hrabovska, Anna; Krejci, Eric; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana


    Five mouse anti-human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) monoclonal antibodies bind tightly to native human BChE with nanomolar dissociation constants. Pairing analysis in the Octet system identified the monoclonal antibodies that bind to overlapping and independent epitopes on human BChE. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 4 monoclonal antibodies are deposited in GenBank. Our goal was to determine which of the 5 monoclonal antibodies recognize BChE in the plasma of animals. Binding of monoclonal antibodies 11D8, B2 18-5, B2 12-1, mAb2 and 3E8 to BChE in animal plasma was measured using antibody immobilized on Pansorbin cells and on Dynabeads Protein G. A third method visualized binding by the shift of BChE activity bands on nondenaturing gels stained for BChE activity. Gels were counterstained for carboxylesterase activity. The three methods agreed that B2 18-5 and mAb2 have broad species specificity, but the other monoclonal antibodies interacted only with human BChE, the exception being 3E8, which also bound chicken BChE. B2 18-5 and mAb2 recognized BChE in human, rhesus monkey, horse, cat, and tiger plasma. A weak response was found with rabbit BChE. Monoclonal mAb2, but not B2 18-5, bound pig and bovine BChE. Gels stained for carboxylesterase activity confirmed that plasma from humans, monkey, pig, chicken, and cow does not contain carboxylesterase, but plasma from horse, cat, tiger, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse, and rat has carboxylesterase. Rabbit plasma carboxylesterase hydrolyzes butyrylthiocholine. In conclusion monoclonal antibodies B2 18-5 and mAb2 can be used to immuno extract BChE from the plasma of humans, monkey and other animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between Human Plasma Chondroitin Sulfate Isomers and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Zinellu


    Full Text Available Several studies have evidenced variations in plasma glycosaminoglycans content in physiological and pathological conditions. In normal human plasma GAGs are present mainly as undersulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible correlations between plasma CS level/structure and the presence/typology of carotid atherosclerotic lesion. Plasma CS was purified from 46 control subjects and 47 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy showing either a soft or a hard plaque. The concentration and structural characteristics of plasma CS were assessed by capillary electrophoresis of constituent unsaturated fluorophore-labeled disaccharides. Results showed that the concentration of total CS isomers was increased by 21.4% (P<0.01 in plasma of patients, due to a significant increase of undersulfated CS. Consequently, in patients the plasma CS charge density was significantly reduced with respect to that of controls. After sorting for plaque typology, we found that patients with soft plaques and those with hard ones differently contribute to the observed changes. In plasma from patients with soft plaques, the increase in CS content was not associated with modifications of its sulfation pattern. On the contrary, the presence of hard plaques was associated with CS sulfation pattern modifications in presence of quite normal total CS isomers levels. These results suggest that the plasma CS content and structure could be related to the presence and the typology of atherosclerotic plaque and could provide a useful diagnostic tool, as well as information on the molecular mechanisms responsible for plaque instability.

  8. Fibronectin in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients: correlation with biochemical risk factors for the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Mesquita


    Full Text Available Cirrhotic patients (23 with alcoholic cirrhosis, 5 with posthepatitic cirrhosis and 2 with cryptogenic cirrhosis with ascites and portal hypertension were studied and divided into two groups corresponding to high or low risk to develop spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP related to the concentration of total protein in the ascitic fluid (A-TP: group I (high risk: A-TP£1.5 g/dl and group II (low risk: A-TP>1.5 g/dl. Fibronectin (FN, C3 and C4 concentrations were measured by radial immunodiffusion while total protein was measured by the biuret method. The mean values (group I vs group II of C3 (12.59 ± 4.72 vs 24.53 ± 15.58 mg/dl, C4 (4.26 ± 3.87 vs 7.26 ± 4.14 mg/dl and FN (50.47 ± 12.49 vs 75.89 ± 24.70 mg/dl in the ascitic fluid were significantly lower (P<0.05 in the group considered to be at high risk for SBP. No significant difference was observed in the plasma/ascites fibronectin ratio (3.91 ± 1.21 vs 3.80 ± 1.26 or gradient (131.46 ± 64.01 vs 196.96 ± 57.38 between groups. Fibronectin in ascites was significantly correlated to C3 (r = 0.76, C4 (r = 0.58, total protein (r = 0.73 and plasma FN (r = 0.58 (P<0.05. The data suggest that the FN concentration in ascites is related to the opsonic capacity of this fluid, and that its concentration in the ascitic fluid may be a biochemical risk factor indicator for the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

  9. HIP2: An online database of human plasma proteins from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Changyu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the introduction of increasingly powerful mass spectrometry (MS techniques for clinical research, several recent large-scale MS proteomics studies have sought to characterize the entire human plasma proteome with a general objective for identifying thousands of proteins leaked from tissues in the circulating blood. Understanding the basic constituents, diversity, and variability of the human plasma proteome is essential to the development of sensitive molecular diagnosis and treatment monitoring solutions for future biomedical applications. Biomedical researchers today, however, do not have an integrated online resource in which they can search for plasma proteins collected from different mass spectrometry platforms, experimental protocols, and search software for healthy individuals. The lack of such a resource for comparisons has made it difficult to interpret proteomics profile changes in patients' plasma and to design protein biomarker discovery experiments. Description To aid future protein biomarker studies of disease and health from human plasma, we developed an online database, HIP2 (Healthy Human Individual's Integrated Plasma Proteome. The current version contains 12,787 protein entries linked to 86,831 peptide entries identified using different MS platforms. Conclusion This web-based database will be useful to biomedical researchers involved in biomarker discovery research. This database has been developed to be the comprehensive collection of healthy human plasma proteins, and has protein data captured in a relational database schema built to contain mappings of supporting peptide evidence from several high-quality and high-throughput mass-spectrometry (MS experimental data sets. Users can search for plasma protein/peptide annotations, peptide/protein alignments, and experimental/sample conditions with options for filter-based retrieval to achieve greater analytical power for discovery and validation.

  10. Human plasma paraoxonase 1 (PON1) arylesterase activity during aging: correlation with susceptibility of LDL oxidation. (United States)

    Mehdi, Mohammad Murtaza; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim


    The role of free radicals has long been proposed as a cause for the aging process. Oxidative stress is considered a major factor for altering many physiological processes and enzymatic activities during aging and is also known to play a major role in the development of several age-dependent diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an anti-atherosclerotic enzyme that mainly prevents accumulation of lipoperoxides and inhibits the lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). This study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant behavior of PON1 by measuring its arylesterase activity. The susceptibility of LDL for oxidation and the radical scavenging activity of plasma were also measured during aging in humans. Arylesterase activity of PON1 was measured in plasma of human subjects between 20 and 81 years of age of both genders. The susceptibility of LDL for oxidation and radical scavenging activity were measured in plasma. Decrease in plasma arylesterase activity of PON1, increase in susceptibility of LDL for oxidation and decrease in plasma radical scavenging activity were observed as a function of human age. The study provides evidence of a relationship between PON1 activity, LDL oxidation and free radical scavenging activity of plasma. The present results emphasize the dependency of PON1 activity to prevailing oxidative stress during human aging. Our findings assume significance in view of the possible categorization of PON1 as a longevity gene. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma and tissue homoarginine concentrations in healthy and obese humans. (United States)

    May, Marcus; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Batkai, Sandor; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Engeli, Stefan


    Increased cardiovascular risk associated with obesity cannot be fully explained by traditional risk markers. We therefore assessed plasma and interstitial concentrations of the novel cardiovascular risk biomarker homoarginine (hArg) in 18 individuals without signs of cardiovascular disease, including 4 morbidly obese subjects before and after bariatric surgery and subsequent weight reduction of 36 ± 7 kg. hArg concentrations were greater in skeletal muscle compared with adipose tissue. Plasma and tissue hArg concentrations did not correlate with BMI. Adipose tissue interstitial hArg concentrations were not affected by obesity, an oral glucose load, or dramatic weight loss. In conclusion, obesity seems not to have a major effect on hArg homeostasis, and hArg may not explain the added cardiovascular risk associated with obesity. Yet, given the small sample size of the study, the significance of hArg in obesity should be investigated in a larger population.

  12. Stable liver-specific expression of human IDOL in humanized mice raises plasma cholesterol. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Salam; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Wilson, James M; Rader, Daniel J


    IDOL (inducible degrader of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, LDLR) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of the LDLR. IDOL is a potential therapeutic target for the development of a novel class of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapies. In an attempt to develop a mouse model for testing IDOL inhibitors, we examined the effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated stable expression of human IDOL in the livers of mice 'humanized' with regard to lipoprotein metabolism. Using a liver-specific AAV serotype 8 (AAV8)-mediated delivery, AAV-hIDOL produced a dose-dependent increase in LDL-C levels and a decrease in liver LDLR protein. Furthermore, we expressed hIDOL in a 'humanized' mouse model of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (LDLR(+/-)/Apobec1(-/-)/hApoB-Tg, LAhB). In this model, total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels were increased by ∼60% starting from 1 week and were sustainable for at least 3 weeks post-injection. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects caused by hIDOL expression are LDLR- dependent given the unchanged plasma lipids in LAhB mice lacking LDLR. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a dose-dependent physiological effect of human IDOL on LDL metabolism in mice. This provides a potential model for preclinical testing of IDOL inhibitors for reduction of LDL-C levels. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email:

  13. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans


    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Francis, Sunday M.; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma


    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ‘ecstasy’) is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its prosocial effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy...

  14. In vitro behavior of a porous TiO2/perlite composite and its surface modification with fibronectin. (United States)

    von Walter, Matthias; Rüger, Matthias; Ragoss, Christian; Steffens, Guy C M; Hollander, Dirk A; Paar, Othmar; Maier, Horst R; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Bosserhoff, Anja K; Erli, Hans-Josef


    In this study, we introduce a porous composite material, termed "Ecopore", and describe in vitro investigation of the material and its modification with fibronectin. The material is a sintered compound of rutile TiO2 and the volcanic silicate perlite with a macrostructure of interconnecting pores. It is both inexpensive and easy to manufacture. We first investigated Ecopore for corrosion and leaching of elements in physiological saline. The corrosion supernatants did not contain critical concentrations of toxic trace elements. In an in vitro model, human primary osteoblasts (HOB) were cultured directly on Ecopore. HOB grew on the composite as well as on samples of its single constituents, TiO2 and perlite glass, and remained vital, but cellular spreading was less than on tissue culture plastic. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-alpha were below detection limits in HOB culture supernatants, whereas IL-6 was detectable on a low level. To enhance cellular attachment and growth, the surface of the composite was modified by etching, functionalization with aminosilane and coupling of fibronectin. This modification greatly enhanced the spreading of HOB, indicated by vital staining and Sodium 3'-[1-(phenylaminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis (4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene sulfonic acid hydrate (XTT) metabolism assays. HOB grew on the entire visible surface of porous fibronectin-modified composite, expressing alkaline phosphatase, a mature osteoblast marker. We conclude that Ecopore is non-toxic and sustains HOB growth, cellular spreading being improvable by coating with fibronectin. The composite may be usable in the field of bone substitution.

  15. Effects of sleep restriction on the human plasma metabolome. (United States)

    Bell, Lauren N; Kilkus, Jennifer M; Booth, John N; Bromley, Lindsay E; Imperial, Jacqueline G; Penev, Plamen D


    This study examined the effects of recurrent sleep restriction on the plasma metabolome of adults with familial risk of type 2 diabetes. Eleven healthy adults (6M/5F; mean [SD] age: 26 [3]years; BMI 23.5 [2.3]kg/m(2)) with parental history of type 2 diabetes participated in a two-condition, two-period randomized crossover study at the Clinical Resource Center at an academic hospital. Each participant completed two 8-night inpatient sessions with restricted (5.5-h time-in-bed) vs. adequate (8.5-h time-in-bed) sleep opportunity while daily food intake and physical activity were carefully controlled. A combination of two UHPLC/MS/MS platforms and one GC/MS platform was used to measure 362 biochemicals in fasting plasma samples collected from study participants the morning after each 8-night sleep treatment. Relative concentrations of 12 amino acids and related metabolites were increased when sleep was curtailed. Sleep restriction also induced elevations in several fatty acid, bile acid, steroid hormone, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, some monosaccharides, gluconate, and five-carbon sugar alcohols tended to decline when sleep was reduced. Recurrent sleep curtailment affected multiple pathways of intermediary metabolism in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. An elevation in plasma amino acids and related biochemicals was the most pronounced metabolic signature seen in response to 8 nights of sleep restriction. © 2013.

  16. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC modifies plasma proteome in humans.

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    Michele Hepponstall

    Full Text Available Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC induced by brief episodes of ischemia of the limb protects against multi-organ damage by ischemia-reperfusion (IR. Although it has been demonstrated that RIPC affects gene expression, the proteomic response to RIPC has not been determined. This study aimed to examine RIPC induced changes in the plasma proteome. Five healthy adult volunteers had 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia alternating with 5 min reperfusion of the forearm. Blood samples were taken from the ipsilateral arm prior to first ischaemia, immediately after each episode of ischemia as well as, at 15 min and 24 h after the last episode of ischemia. Plasma samples from five individuals were analysed using two complementary techniques. Individual samples were analysed using 2Dimensional Difference in gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE and mass spectrometry (MS. Pooled samples for each of the time-points underwent trypsin digestion and peptides generated were analysed in triplicate using Liquid Chromatography and MS (LC-MS. Six proteins changed in response to RIPC using 2D DIGE analysis, while 48 proteins were found to be differentially regulated using LC-MS. The proteins of interest were involved in acute phase response signalling, and physiological molecular and cellular functions. The RIPC stimulus modifies the plasma protein content in blood taken from the ischemic arm in a cumulative fashion and evokes a proteomic response in peripheral blood.

  17. Survey of Canadian human blood plasma for ochratoxin A. (United States)

    Scott, P M; Kanhere, S R; Lau, B P; Lewis, D A; Hayward, S; Ryan, J J; Kuiper-Goodman, T


    Blood plasma samples collected from 144 healthy volunteers in 16 locations across Canada in 1994 were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA). The method of analysis included cleanup by C18 solid phase extraction and immunoaffinity columns followed by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection, which gave 86.5% (s.d. = 9.7) recovery (n = 31) of OTA (added at 2 ng/ml) with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/ml. The arithmetic mean concentration found in the plasma samples, corrected for volume of anticoagulant added, was 0.88 ng/ml with a standard deviation of 0.35 ng/ml and a range of 0.29-2.37 ng/ml. Confirmation of identity of OTA was by methyl ester formation for 65 samples and by LC-tandem mass spectrometry for 17 samples (some of which were included in pooled samples). Statistical analysis, by ANOVA of the log OTA plasma concentrations, showed a highly significant effect due to location in Canada (p = blood group of donors. The highest mean concentration was found in Winnipeg, significantly different (p = 0.05) by the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test from the lowest levels found in Toronto, Vancouver and Saint John.

  18. Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption. (United States)

    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan


    Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the human plasma phosphoproteome using linear ion trap mass spectrometry and multiple search engines. (United States)

    Carrascal, Montserrat; Gay, Marina; Ovelleiro, David; Casas, Vanessa; Gelpí, Emilio; Abian, Joaquin


    Major plasma protein families play different roles in blood physiology and hemostasis and in immunodefense. Other proteins in plasma can be involved in signaling as chemical messengers or constitute biological markers of the status of distant tissues. In this respect, the plasma phosphoproteome holds potentially relevant information on the mechanisms modulating these processes through the regulation of protein activity. In this work we describe for the first time a collection of phosphopeptides identified in human plasma using immunoaffinity separation of the seven major serum protein families from other plasma proteins, SCX fractionation, and TiO(2) purification prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. One-hundred and twenty-seven phosphosites in 138 phosphopeptides mapping 70 phosphoproteins were identified with FDR search engines.

  20. Determination of total L-Ascorbic Acid by high performance liquid chromatography in human plasma

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    Oveisi MR


    Full Text Available The total vitamin C content in human plasma is widely accepted as an indicator of the tissue status of vitamin C. A liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detector (264 nm for measuring ascorbic acid in human plasma was developed. A C18 reversed-phase column and cetrimide as an ion-pairing agent was employed. Ascorbic acid (AA was measured after reducing L-dehydroascorbic acid to L-ascorbic acid with dithiothreitol. The stability of the ascorbic acid in plasma, metaphosphoric acid and trichloroacetic acid was also evaluated. The analytical parameters, including linearity (1-60 µg/ml, accuracy (98.98%, repeatability (2.8% and reproducibility (7.2%, showed that the method is reliable for measuring the total vitamin C content in plasma.

  1. Análise de ácidos graxos em plasma humano Analysis of fatty acids in human plasma

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    Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer


    Full Text Available Nesse fascículo da revista, o estudo de Morais et al. (2010 avaliou quatro metodologias clássicas de extração de lipídeos (métodos de Folch, Bligh-Dyer, Rose-Gottlieb e Gerber e uma técnica alternativa, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da extração e a composição em ácidos graxos de plasma humano. O método alternativo proposto pelos autores usou o forno de micro-ondas como ferramenta e foi considerado muito rápido na extração lipídica e adequado na identificação de ácidos graxos, mas não em sua quantificação. O método de extração mais indicado para quantificação de ácidos graxos em plasma humano foi o método de Folch.In this issue of the journal, the study by Morais et al. (2010 evaluated four classical methodologies of lipid extraction (methods of Folch, Bligh-Dyer, Rose-Gottlieb and Gerber, and an alternative technique, in order to evaluate the efficiency of extraction and fatty acid composition of human plasma. The alternative method proposed by the authors used the microwave oven as a tool, and was considered very fast in lipid extraction and identification of fatty acids, but not in their quantification. The most suitable extraction method for quantification of fatty acids in human plasma was the method of Folch.

  2. Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph M.; Mosher, Kira I.; Abbey, Rachelle J.; McBride, Alisha A.; James, Michelle L.; Berdnik, Daniela; Shen, Jadon C.; Zou, Bende; Xie, Xinmin S.; Tingle, Martha; Hinkson, Izumi V.; Angst, Martin S.; Wyss-Coray, Tony


    Ageing drives changes in neuronal and cognitive function, the decline of which is a major feature of many neurological disorders. The hippocampus, a brain region subserving roles of spatial and episodic memory and learning, is sensitive to the detrimental effects of ageing at morphological and molecular levels. With advancing age, synapses in various hippocampal subfields exhibit impaired long-term potentiation1, an electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory. At the molecular level, immediate early genes are among the synaptic plasticity genes that are both induced by long-term potentiation2, 3, 4 and downregulated in the aged brain5, 6, 7, 8. In addition to revitalizing other aged tissues9, 10, 11, 12, 13, exposure to factors in young blood counteracts age-related changes in these central nervous system parameters14, 15, 16, although the identities of specific cognition-promoting factors or whether such activity exists in human plasma remains unknown17. We hypothesized that plasma of an early developmental stage, namely umbilical cord plasma, provides a reservoir of such plasticity-promoting proteins. Here we show that human cord plasma treatment revitalizes the hippocampus and improves cognitive function in aged mice. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2), a blood-borne factor enriched in human cord plasma, young mouse plasma, and young mouse hippocampi, appears in the brain after systemic administration and increases synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent cognition in aged mice. Depletion experiments in aged mice revealed TIMP2 to be necessary for the cognitive benefits conferred by cord plasma. We find that systemic pools of TIMP2 are necessary for spatial memory in young mice, while treatment of brain slices with TIMP2 antibody prevents long-term potentiation, arguing for previously unknown roles for TIMP2 in normal hippocampal function. Our findings reveal that human cord plasma contains plasticity-enhancing proteins of high

  3. Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice. (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph M; Mosher, Kira I; Abbey, Rachelle J; McBride, Alisha A; James, Michelle L; Berdnik, Daniela; Shen, Jadon C; Zou, Bende; Xie, Xinmin S; Tingle, Martha; Hinkson, Izumi V; Angst, Martin S; Wyss-Coray, Tony


    Ageing drives changes in neuronal and cognitive function, the decline of which is a major feature of many neurological disorders. The hippocampus, a brain region subserving roles of spatial and episodic memory and learning, is sensitive to the detrimental effects of ageing at morphological and molecular levels. With advancing age, synapses in various hippocampal subfields exhibit impaired long-term potentiation, an electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory. At the molecular level, immediate early genes are among the synaptic plasticity genes that are both induced by long-term potentiation and downregulated in the aged brain. In addition to revitalizing other aged tissues, exposure to factors in young blood counteracts age-related changes in these central nervous system parameters, although the identities of specific cognition-promoting factors or whether such activity exists in human plasma remains unknown. We hypothesized that plasma of an early developmental stage, namely umbilical cord plasma, provides a reservoir of such plasticity-promoting proteins. Here we show that human cord plasma treatment revitalizes the hippocampus and improves cognitive function in aged mice. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2), a blood-borne factor enriched in human cord plasma, young mouse plasma, and young mouse hippocampi, appears in the brain after systemic administration and increases synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent cognition in aged mice. Depletion experiments in aged mice revealed TIMP2 to be necessary for the cognitive benefits conferred by cord plasma. We find that systemic pools of TIMP2 are necessary for spatial memory in young mice, while treatment of brain slices with TIMP2 antibody prevents long-term potentiation, arguing for previously unknown roles for TIMP2 in normal hippocampal function. Our findings reveal that human cord plasma contains plasticity-enhancing proteins of high translational value for targeting ageing- or disease

  4. Simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method to analyse megazol in human and rat plasma


    Enanga, Bertin; Labat, Christian; Boudra, Hamid; Chauvière, G; Keita, M; Bouteille, B.; Dumas, Michel; Houin, Georges


    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed to measure megazol in human plasma. The method was optimized and validated according to the Washington Concensus Conference on the Validation of Analytical Methods (V.P. Shah et al., Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet., 15 (1991) 249). The criteria of complete validation were specificity, linearity, precision, analytical recovery, dilution and stability. It involved extraction of the plasma with dichlorome...

  5. IL-6, but not TNF-α, increases plasma YKL-40 in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R; Plomgaard, Peter; Krabbe, Karen S


    of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in the regulation of YKL-40 plasma levels, we included healthy men, who received either recombinant human (rh)IL-6 (n=6), rhTNF-a (n=8) or vehicle (n=7) for 3h. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-a reached ~ 150 and ~ 18 pg/ml, respectively, during...

  6. IL-6, but not TNF-α, increases plasma YKL-40 in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R; Plomgaard, Peter; Krabbe, Karen S


    of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the regulation of YKL-40 plasma levels, we included healthy men, who received either recombinant human (rh)IL-6 (n=6), rhTNF-α (n=8) or vehicle (n=7) for 3h. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α reached ∼ 150 and ∼ 18 pg/ml, respectively, during...

  7. A Sensitive HPLC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Dolutegravir in Human Plasma


    Bennetto-Hood, Chantelle; Tabolt, Glenn; Savina, Paul; Acosta, Edward P.


    A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated to facilitate the assessment of clinical pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir (DTG) in plasma samples. This work describes an assay system requiring only a 20 μL aliquot of human plasma that is subjected to a simple acetronitrile protein precipitation containing a stably labeled isotope of DTG used as an internal standard. Chromatography was performed on an XBridge C18, 2.1 × 50 mm, reversed ph...

  8. Kinetic parameters and intraindividual fluctuations of ochratoxin A plasma levels in humans

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    Studer-Rohr, I. [Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland); Dept. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland); Schlatter, J. [Toxicology Section, Div. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Zurich (Switzerland); Dietrich, D.R. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland)


    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a rodent carcinogen produced by species of the ubiquitous fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is found in a variety of food items and as a consequence is also found in human plasma (average concentrations found in this study: 0.1-1 ng OTA/ml plasma). To improve the scientific basis for cancer risk assessment the toxicokinetic profile of OTA was studied in one human volunteer following ingestion of 395 ng {sup 3}H-labeled OTA (3.8 {mu}Ci). A two-compartment open model consisting of a central compartment was found to best describe the in vivo data. This two-compartment model consisted of a fast elimination and distribution phase (T{sub 1/2} about 20 h) followed by a slow elimination phase (renal clearance about 0.11 ml/min.) and a calculated plasma half-life of 35.55 days. This half-life was approximately eight times longer than that determined previously in rats. In addition, the intraindividual fluctuation of OTA plasma levels was investigated in eight individuals over a period of 2 months. The concentrations determined ranged between 0.2 and 0.9 ng OTA/ml plasma. The plasma levels in some individuals remained nearly constant over time, while others varied considerably (e.g. increase of 0.4 ng/ml within 3 days, decrease of 0.3 ng/ml within 5 days) during the observation period. This intraindividual fluctuation in OTA plasma levels, which may represent differences in OTA exposure and/or metabolism, as well as the large difference in plasma half-life in humans compared to rats must be taken into consideration when the results of rat cancer study data are extrapolated to humans for risk assessment purposes. (orig.)

  9. Fully automated methods for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma and urine. (United States)

    Hsieh, J Y; Lin, C; Matuszewski, B K; Dobrinska, M R


    LC assays utilizing fully automated sample preparation procedures on Zymark PyTechnology Robot and BenchMate Workstation for the quantification of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in human plasma and urine have been developed. After aliquoting plasma and urine samples, and adding internal standard (IS) manually, the robot executed buffer and organic solvent addition, liquid-liquid extraction, solvent evaporation and on-line LC injection steps for plasma samples, whereas, BenchMate performed buffer and organic solvent addition, liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions, and on-line LC injection steps for urine samples. Chromatographic separations were carried out on Beckman Octyl Ultrasphere column using the mobile phase composed of 12% (v/v) acetonitrile and 88% of either an ion-pairing reagent (plasma) or 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (urine). The eluent from the column was monitored with UV detector (271 nm). Peak heights for HCTZ and IS were automatically processed using a PE-Nelson ACCESS*CHROM laboratory automation system. The assays have been validated in the concentration range of 2-100 ng ml-1 in plasma and 0.1-20 micrograms ml-1 in urine. Both plasma and urine assays have the sensitivity and specificity necessary to determine plasma and urine concentrations of HCTZ from low dose (6.25/12.5 mg) administration of HCTZ to human subjects in the presence or absence of losartan.

  10. Identification of Central Nervous System Proteins in Human Blood Serum and Plasma. (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Yu V; Petushkova, N A; Teryaeva, N B; Lisitsa, A V; Zgoda, V G; Belyaev, A Yu; Potapov, A A


    Mass-spectrometric identification of proteins in human blood plasma and serum was performed by comparing mass-spectra of fragmented peptides using Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB databases of amino acid sequences. After choosing the appropriate identification conditions we found that combination of spectrum search parameters are optimal for identification of CNS proteins. In the studied plasma and serum samples, 9 proteins involved into pathological processes in the nervous tissue were identified; 7 of them were identified in both plasma and serum.

  11. Prediction of human iron bioavailability using rapid c-ELISAs for human plasma hepcidin. (United States)

    Stoffel, Nicole U; Zeder, Christophe; Fort, Eloïse; Swinkels, Dorine W; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego


    Hepcidin is the central systemic regulator of iron metabolism, but its quantification in biological fluids is challenging. Rapid, accurate and user-friendly methods are needed. Our aim was to assess the ability of hepcidin as measured by three different c-ELISA assays to predict iron bioavailability in humans. The three assays used were commercially available DRG and Peninsula assays and the c-ELISA method performed at Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (, validated by comparative measurements with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We analyzed plasma samples (n=37) selected to represent a broad range of hepcidin concentrations from a subgroup of healthy, iron-depleted women in a study assessing fractional absorption from iron supplements. In single regressions, all three c-ELISA assays were predictors of fractional iron absorption: R2=0.363 (DRG), R2=0.281 (Peninsula) and R2=0.327 ( In multiple regressions, models including hepcidin measured with either DRG-, Peninsula or explained 55.7%, 44.5% and 52.5% of variance in fractional absorption, and hepcidin was a strong predictor of fractional absorption irrespective of the hepcidin assays used. However, we found significant differences in absolute values for hepcidin between different methods. Both the DRG assay's (y=0.61x+0.87; R2=0.873) and the Peninsula assay's measurements (y=1.88x+0.62; R2=0.770) were correlated with The biological variability in plasma hepcidin, (inter-sample CV) was 5-10-fold higher for both the Peninsula and DRG assay than the analytical variably (inter-run within-sample CV) suggesting substantial discriminatory power to distinguish biological hepcidin variation. Between methods, prediction of iron bioavailability in generally healthy iron depleted subjects appears comparable.

  12. Plasma Opioid Peptide Responses during Heat Acclimation in Humans (United States)


    menstrual cycle . 154: 540-542. 1977. Physiologist 28: 368, 1985. 6. Clark. W. G. Influence of opioids on central thermoregulatory 19. Kraemer. W., B...The mine maximum oxygen consumption ( VO 2max), which was methanol eluate was evaporated to dryness at 37°C. Samples used to calculate the relative...Scientific) to intensity (71.8±2.9% VO 2max for running). Day 4 running mix plasma and /3-endorphin antibody coated Sepharose exercise was performed at Ehe


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    Full Text Available Introduction. CD59 is one of the complement regulatory proteins (CRPs which exert inhibitory function by blocking the formation of C5b-9 complex or Membrane Attacks complex (MAC. Regarding the therapeutic role of CD59 in treatment of pathological effects in uncontrolled activation of complements system and its efficiency to overcome the hyper-acute rejection, CD59 was suggested for maintenance of transplanted organ. In this study We determined and isolated CD59 from seminal plasma. Methods. Six normospermic sample according to WHO standards were chosen. Plasma of samples was separated and to remove the postasomes, the seminal plama was ultra centrifuged. CD59 was detected by Dot-Blot using CD59 mAb (MEM43. The molecular weight and purity of protein was detected by SOS-PAGE method follwed by Westerm Blot. Results. Protein was present in the 6.5 ml and 15ml of gel fitration fractions. Molecular weight based on marker size in these two fractions was 65 and 21KD respectively. Discussion. CD59 had previously beem purified by lysis of erythrocyte cell membrane. Because of use of detergent and preservative agents, this method decreased physiologic effects of the protein. In this study the isolation was performed from prostasome granules" without using of any detergent and preservative agents.

  14. Syndecan-1 regulates cell migration and fibronectin fibril assembly. (United States)

    Stepp, Mary Ann; Daley, William P; Bernstein, Audrey M; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Shashurin, Alexey; Palsen, Sarah; Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Larsen, Melinda


    Corneal scarring is a major cause of blindness worldwide and can result from the deposition of abnormal amounts of collagen fibers lacking the correct size and spacing required to produce a clear cornea. Collagen fiber formation requires a preformed fibronectin (FN) matrix. We demonstrate that the loss of syndecan1 (sdc1) in corneal stromal cells (CSC) impacts cell migration rates, the sizes and composition of focal and fibrillar adhesions, the activation of integrins, and the assembly of fibronectin into fibrils. Integrin and fibronectin expression are not altered on sdc1-null CSCs. Cell adhesion, spreading, and migration studies using low compared to high concentrations of FN and collagen I (CNI) or vitronectin (VN) with and without activation of integrins by manganese chloride show that the impact of sdc1 depletion on integrin activation varies depending on the integrin-mediated activity evaluated. Differences in FN fibrillogenesis and migration in sdc1-null CSCs are reversed by addition of manganese chloride but cell spreading differences remain. To determine if our findings on sdc1 were specific to the cornea, we compared the phenotypes of sdc1-null dermal fibroblasts with those of CSCs. We found that without sdc1, both cell types migrate faster; however, cell-type-specific differences in FN expression and its assembly into fibrils exist between these two cell types. Together, our data demonstrate that sdc1 functions to regulate integrin activity in multiple cell types. Loss of sdc1-mediated integrin function results in cell-type specific differences in matrix assembly. A better understanding of how different cell types regulate FN fibril formation via syndecans and integrins will lead to better treatments for scarring and fibrosis.

  15. Development of a microplate coagulation assay for Factor V in human plasma

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    Samis John A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor V (FV in its activated form, FVa, is a critical regulator of thrombin generation during fibrin clot formation. There is a need of a simple, fast, and inexpensive microplate-based coagulation assay to measure the functional activity of FV in human plasma. The objective of this study was to develop a microplate-based assay that measures FV coagulation activity during clot formation in human plasma, which is currently not available. Methods The FV assay requires a kinetic microplate reader to measure the change in absorbance at 405nm during fibrin formation in human plasma. The FV assay accurately measures the time, initial rate, and extent of fibrin clot formation in human plasma. Results The FV microplate assay is simple, fast, economical, sensitive to approx 24-80pM, and multiple samples may be analyzed simultaneously. All the required materials are commercially available. Standard curves of time or initial rate of fibrin clot formation vs FV activity in the 1-stage assay (Without activation by thrombin may be used to measure FV activity in samples of human plasma. The assay was used to demonstrate that in nine patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, the FV 1-stage, 2-stage (With activation by thrombin, and total (2-stage activity - 1-stage activity activities were decreased, on average, by approximately 54%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, from prolonged clot times when compared to normal pooled human reference plasma (NHP. The results indicate that the FV in the DIC patient plasmas supported both a delayed and slower rate of fibrin clot formation compared with NHP; however, the extent of fibrin clot formation in the DIC patients remained largely unchanged from that observed with NHP. Conclusions The FV microplate assay may be easily adapted to measure the activity of any coagulation factor using the appropriate factor-deficient plasma and clot initiating reagent. The microplate assay will find use in

  16. Inactivation of AIDS-causing retroviruses by the manufacturing procedures for human plasma proteins. (United States)

    Hilfenhaus, J; Gregersen, J P


    Human retroviruses causing AIDS (HIV) may occur in human plasma. Since HIV contaminated plasma cannot be completely excluded by testing for anti-HIV, AIDS safety of human plasma products can only be achieved by introducing HIV inactivating and/or eliminating methods into the manufacturing procedure. Here we review a number of methods used when manufacturing plasma derivatives at Behringwerke. These methods were previously developed either to produce a protein of required purity or to manufacture hepatitis safe products. Methods used to produce purer proteins are ethanol fractionation, pepsin treatment, affinity chromatography or various protein precipitation procedures. The method developed at Behringwerke for inactivating infectious viruses in plasma protein preparations not destroying the biological activities of the human protein is pasteurization, i.e. 10 h heat treatment of the aqueous protein solution at 60 degrees C. To investigate the HIV inactivating efficiency of the methods mentioned above, aliquots of an infectious HIV type 1 concentrate were added to a protein preparation, the resulting HIV spiked preparation treated according to the method to be studied and the amount of infectious HIV in this preparation determined before and after treatment. By all methods reported on here the HIV type 1 isolate was completely inactivated resulting in high inactivation factors. In addition, the heat stability of HIV type 2 was tested in aqueous solution at 60 degrees C proving that both HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates are of comparably low heat stability under these conditions. From the results discussed here it can be concluded that all commercial human protein products of Behringwerke derived from either human plasma or placenta do not contain any infectious retrovirus causing AIDS and thus have a high margin of safety regarding the transmission of AIDS.

  17. Galectin-3 Is a Substrate for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in Human Seminal Plasma (United States)

    Saraswati, Sarika; Block, Ashley S.; Davidson, Mari. K.; Rank, Roger. G.; Mahadevan, Maha; Diekman, Alan B.


    Background Galectin-3 is a multivalent carbohydrate-binding protein involved in cell adhesion, cell cycle control, immunomodulation, and cancer progression, including prostate cancer. Galectin-3 function is regulated by proteolytic cleavage that destroys galectin-3 multivalency while preserving carbohydrate-binding activity. In human semen, galectin-3 is present in seminal plasma and is also associated with prostasomes, exosome-like vesicles secreted by the prostate. In the current study, we characterized the proteolytic activity that cleaves galectin-3 in human seminal plasma. Methods An in vitro assay was developed to investigate galectin-3 cleavage in seminal plasma. The effect of protease inhibitors, divalent ion chelators, and Zn2+ on the cleavage activity was determined. Proteases enriched from seminal plasma were tested for their ability to cleave galectin-3. Affinity purification and microsequence analysis were used to identify the cleavage site in galectin-3. Results Galectin-3 was identified in human seminal plasma in an intact and truncated form. Gelatinases enriched from seminal plasma did not cleave galectin-3. Inhibitor studies indicated that the galectin-3 cleavage activity in seminal plasma is a Zn2+ sensitive, serine protease. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was demonstrated to cleave galectin-3 between tyrosine107-glycine108 and produce a functionally-active, monovalent lectin. Conclusions PSA is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease secreted by the prostatic epithelium and normally functions in liquefaction of semen following ejaculation. Furthermore, PSA is implicated in the promotion of localized prostate tumors and bone metastases by its roles in immunomodulation, invasion, and apoptosis. Our results indicate that PSA regulates galectin-3 in human semen and may regulate galectin-3 function during prostate cancer progression. PMID:20672323

  18. On the variability of the salting-out curves of proteins of normal human plasma and serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.; Hout, A.J. van den


    Salting-out curves of proteins of normal human plasma reflect the influence of a number of other factors besides the protein composition: the manner of obtaining the blood, the nature of the anti-coagulant used, the non-protein components of the plasma. Diagrams of serum and plasma obtained from

  19. Sensitive determination of clarithromycin in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection. (United States)

    Amini, Hossein; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan


    A rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with spectrophotometric detection was developed for the determination of clarithromycin in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction of clarithromycin and norverapamil (as internal standard) from plasma samples was performed with n-hexane/1-butanol (98:2, v/v) in alkaline condition followed by back-extraction into diluted acetic acid. Chromatography was carried out using a CN column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) under isocratic elution with acetonitrile-50 mM aqueous sodium dihydrogen phosphate (32:68, v/v), pH 4.5. Detection was made at 205 nm and analyses were run at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min at 40 degrees C. The analysis time was less than 11 min. The method was specific and sensitive with a quantification limit of 31.25 ng/ml and a detection limit of 10 ng/ml in plasma. The mean absolute recovery of clarithromycin from plasma was 95.9%, while the intra- and inter-day coefficient of variation and percent error values of the assay method were all less than 9.5%. Linearity was assessed in the range of 31.25-2000 ng/ml in plasma with a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The method was used to analyze several hundred human plasma samples for bioavailability studies.

  20. Effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (United States)

    Miletić, M.; Mojsilović, S.; Okić Đorđević, I.; Maletić, D.; Puač, N.; Lazović, S.; Malović, G.; Milenković, P.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Bugarski, D.


    Here we investigate the influences of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs). A specially redesigned plasma needle was used as the source of low-temperature plasma and its effects on different hPDL-MSC functions were investigated. Cell cultures were obtained from extracted normal impacted third molars and characterized for their phenotype and multi-potential differentiation. The hPDL-MSCs possessed all the typical MSC properties, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate, specific phenotype and multilineage differentiation. The data regarding the interaction of plasma with hPDL-MSCs demonstrated that plasma treatment inhibited the migration of hPDL-MSCs and induced some detachment, while not affecting their viability. Additionally, plasma significantly attenuated hPDL-MSCs' proliferation, but promoted their osteogenic differentiation. The results of this study indicated that a non-thermal plasma offers specific activity with non-destructive properties that can be advantageous for future dental applications.

  1. Non-thermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes by inducing oxidative stress (United States)



    The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) through the induction of oxidative stress. For this purpose, the cells were exposed to surface dielectric-barrier discharge plasma in 70% oxygen and 30% argon. We noted that cell viability was decreased following exposure of the cells to plasma in a time-dependent manner, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium was used to monitor superoxide anion production. Plasma induced the generation of ROS, including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. N-acetyl cysteine, which is an antioxidant, prevented the decrease in cell viability caused by exposure to plasma. ROS generated by exposure to plasma resulted in damage to various cellular components, including lipid membrane peroxidation, DNA breaks and protein carbonylation, which was detected by measuring the levels of 8-isoprostane and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine assay, comet assay and protein carbonyl formation. These results suggest that plasma exerts cytotoxic effects by causing oxidative stress-induced damage to cellular components. PMID:26573561

  2. Plasma membrane organization promotes virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans (United States)

    Douglas, Lois M.; Konopka, James. B.


    Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen capable of causing lethal systemic infections. The plasma membrane plays key roles in virulence because it not only functions as a protective barrier, it also mediates dynamic functions including secretion of virulence factors, cell wall synthesis, invasive hyphal morphogenesis, endocytosis, and nutrient uptake. Consistent with this functional complexity, the plasma membrane is composed of a wide array of lipids and proteins. These components are organized into distinct domains that will be the topic of this review. Some of the plasma membrane domains that will be described are known to act as scaffolds or barriers to diffusion, such as MCC/eisosomes, septins, and sites of contact with the endoplasmic reticulum. Other zones mediate dynamic processes, including secretion, endocytosis, and a special region at hyphal tips that facilitates rapid growth. The highly organized architecture of the plasma membrane facilitates the coordination of diverse functions and promotes the pathogenesis of C. albicans. PMID:26920878

  3. Human platelet-rich plasma improves the nesting and differentiation of human chondrocytes cultured in stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds. (United States)

    Sancho-Tello, Maria; Martorell, Sara; Mata Roig, Manuel; Milián, Lara; Gámiz-González, M A; Gómez Ribelles, Jose Luis; Carda, Carmen


    The clinical management of large-size cartilage lesions is difficult due to the limited regenerative ability of the cartilage. Different biomaterials have been used to develop tissue engineering substitutes for cartilage repair, including chitosan alone or in combination with growth factors to improve its chondrogenic properties. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the benefits of combining activated platelet-rich plasma with a stabilized porous chitosan scaffold for cartilage regeneration. To achieve this purpose, stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds were prepared using freeze gelation and combined with activated platelet-rich plasma. Human primary articular chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds with and without combination to activated platelet-rich plasma. Scanning electron microscopy was used for the morphological characterization of the resulting scaffolds. Cell counts were performed in hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, and type I and II collagen expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Significant increase in cell number in activated platelet-rich plasma/stabilized porous chitosan was found compared with stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds. Chondrocytes grown on stabilized porous chitosan expressed high levels of type I collagen but type II was not detectable, whereas cells grown on activated platelet rich plasma/stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds expressed high levels of type II collagen and type I was almost undetectable. In summary, activated platelet-rich plasma increases nesting and induces the differentiation of chondrocytes cultured on stabilized porous chitosan scaffolds.

  4. Quantitative variability of 342 plasma proteins in a human twin population (United States)

    Liu, Yansheng; Buil, Alfonso; Collins, Ben C; Gillet, Ludovic CJ; Blum, Lorenz C; Cheng, Lin-Yang; Vitek, Olga; Mouritsen, Jeppe; Lachance, Genevieve; Spector, Tim D; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Aebersold, Ruedi


    The degree and the origins of quantitative variability of most human plasma proteins are largely unknown. Because the twin study design provides a natural opportunity to estimate the relative contribution of heritability and environment to different traits in human population, we applied here the highly accurate and reproducible SWATH mass spectrometry technique to quantify 1,904 peptides defining 342 unique plasma proteins in 232 plasma samples collected longitudinally from pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins at intervals of 2–7 years, and proportioned the observed total quantitative variability to its root causes, genes, and environmental and longitudinal factors. The data indicate that different proteins show vastly different patterns of abundance variability among humans and that genetic control and longitudinal variation affect protein levels and biological processes to different degrees. The data further strongly suggest that the plasma concentrations of clinical biomarkers need to be calibrated against genetic and temporal factors. Moreover, we identified 13 cis-SNPs significantly influencing the level of specific plasma proteins. These results therefore have immediate implications for the effective design of blood-based biomarker studies. PMID:25652787

  5. Metabolomics reveals increased isoleukotoxin diol (12,13-DHOME) in human plasma after acute Intralipid infusion. (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Lawler, Nathan G; Nikolic, Sonja B; Peters, James M; Horne, James; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W; Sharman, James E


    Intralipid is a fat emulsion that is regularly infused into humans and animals. Despite its routine use, Intralipid infusion can cause serious adverse reactions, including immunosuppression. Intralipid is a complex mix of proteins, lipids, and other small molecules, and the effect of its infusion on the human plasma metabolome is unknown. We hypothesized that untargeted metabolomics of human plasma after an Intralipid infusion would reveal novel insights into its effects. We infused Intralipid and saline into 10 healthy men in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment and used GC/MS, LC/MS, and NMR to profile the small-molecule composition of their plasma before and after infusion. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 40 resulting plasma samples revealed that after Intralipid infusion, a less-well-characterized pathway of linoleic acid metabolism had resulted in the appearance of (9Z)-12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (12,13-DHOME, P plasma 12,13-DHOME. Given that 12,13-DHOME is known to directly affect neutrophil function, we conclude that untargeted metabolomics may have revealed a hitherto-unknown mechanism of intralipid-induced immunosuppression.

  6. Distribution of different collagen types and fibronectin in neurofibromatosis tumours. (United States)

    Peltonen, J; Aho, H; Halme, T; Näntö-Salonen, K; Lehto, M; Foidart, J M; Duance, V; Vaheri, A; Penttinen, R


    Collagen types I, III, IV and V and fibronectin were localized in neurofibromas from six patients with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis (NF) using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) techniques. Type I and III collagens were abundantly and rather evenly present in the tumours and formed a continuous network, but were absent from the capillary endothelial walls and were sparse in the perineurium of the occasional nerve fascicles. The type III/type I + type III collagen ratio in neurofibromas varied from 17.4% to 37.3% when estimated with cyanogen bromide peptide analysis. Fibronectin was detected in areas where type I and III collagens were present but was most intensively stained in the vascular walls and perineurium. Type IV collagen was detected at the dermo-epidermal junction of the skin overlying the tumours, in the endothelial cells of the capillaries, the perineurium and endoneurium. Furthermore, in the tumourous stroma there was plenty of type IV collagen appearing as a discontinuous patchy pattern suggesting abundant basement membrane material associated with cells forming the tumours. Type V collagen distribution was very similar to that of type IV collagen.

  7. HPLC Method for Determination of Rifaximin in Human Plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This method was applied successfully for the analysis of blood samples following oral administration of rifaximin (200 mg) in 17 healthy Indian male human volunteers under fasting conditions. Keywords: Bioequivalence, mass spectrometry, rifaximin. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.

  8. Analysis of free hydroxytyrosol in human plasma following the administration of olive oil. (United States)

    Pastor, Antoni; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Olesti, Eulàlia; Pujadas, Mitona; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Khymenets, Olha; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, María-Isabel; Solá, Rosa; Motilva, María-José; Farré, Magí; de la Torre, Rafael


    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) from olive oil, a potent bioactive molecule with health benefits, has a poor bioavailability, its free form (free HT) being undetectable so far. This fact leads to the controversy whether attained HT concentrations after olive oil polyphenol ingestion are too low to explain the observed biological activities. Due to this, an analytical methodology to determine free HT in plasma is crucial for understanding HT biological activity. Plasma HT instability and low concentrations have been major limitations for its quantification in clinical studies. Here, we describe a method to detect and quantify free HT in human plasma by using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The method encompasses different steps of sample preparation including plasma stabilization, protein precipitation, selective derivatization with benzylamine, and purification by solid-phase extraction. A high sensitivity (LOD, 0.3ng/mL), specificity and stability of HT is achieved following these procedures. The method was validated and its applicability was demonstrated by analyzing human plasma samples after olive oil intake. A pharmacokinetic comparison was performed measuring free HT plasma concentrations following the intake of 25mL of ordinary olive oil (nearly undetectable concentrations) versus an extra-virgin olive oil (Cmax=4.40ng/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first time that an analytical procedure for quantifying free HT in plasma after olive oil dietary doses has been reported. The present methodology opens the door to a better understanding of the relationship between HT plasma concentrations and its beneficial health effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fibronectin-degrading activity of Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine proteinase plays a role in host cell invasion. (United States)

    Maeda, Fernando Yukio; Cortez, Cristian; Izidoro, Mario Augusto; Juliano, Luiz; Yoshida, Nobuko


    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, binds to diverse extracellular matrix proteins. Such an ability prevails in the parasite forms that circulate in the bloodstream and contributes to host cell invasion. Whether this also applies to the insect-stage metacyclic trypomastigotes, the developmental forms that initiate infection in the mammalian host, is not clear. Using T. cruzi CL strain metacyclic forms, we investigated whether fibronectin bound to the parasites and affected target cell invasion. Fibronectin present in cell culture medium bound to metacyclic forms and was digested by cruzipain, the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase. G strain, with negligible cruzipain activity, displayed a minimal fibronectin-degrading effect. Binding to fibronectin was mediated by gp82, the metacyclic stage-specific surface molecule implicated in parasite internalization. When exogenous fibronectin was present at concentrations higher than cruzipain can properly digest, or fibronectin expression was stimulated by treatment of epithelial HeLa cells with transforming growth factor beta, the parasite invasion was reduced. Treatment of HeLa cells with purified recombinant cruzipain increased parasite internalization, whereas the treatment of parasites with cysteine proteinase inhibitor had the opposite effect. Metacyclic trypomastigote entry into HeLa cells was not affected by anti-β1 integrin antibody but was inhibited by anti-fibronectin antibody. Overall, our results have indicated that the cysteine proteinase of T. cruzi metacyclic forms, through its fibronectin-degrading activity, is implicated in host cell invasion. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Identification of peptidase substrates in human plasma by FTMS based differential mass spectrometry (United States)

    Yates, Nathan A.; Deyanova, Ekaterina G.; Geissler, Wayne; Wiener, Matthew C.; Sachs, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Kenny K.; Thornberry, Nancy A.; Sinha Roy, Ranabir; Settlage, Robert E.; Hendrickson, Ronald C.


    Approximately 2% of the human genome encodes for proteases. Unfortunately, however, the biological roles of most of these enzymes remain poorly defined, since the physiological substrates are typically unknown and are difficult to identify using traditional methods. We have developed a proteomics experiment based on FTMS profiling and differential mass spectrometry (dMS) to identify candidate endogenous substrates of proteases using fractionated human plasma as the candidate substrate pool. Here we report proof-of-concept experiments for identifying in vitro substrates of aminopeptidase P2, (APP2) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), a peptidase of therapeutic interest for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. For both proteases, previously validated peptide substrates spiked into the human plasma pool were identified. Of note, the differential mass spectrometry experiments also identified novel substrates for each peptidase in the subfraction of human plasma. Targeted MS/MS analysis of these peptides in the complex human plasma pool and manual confirmation of the amino acid sequences led to the identification of these substrates. The novel DPP-4 substrate EPLGRQLTSGP was chemically synthesized and cleavage kinetics were determined in an in vitro DPP-4 enzyme assay. The apparent second order rate constant (kcat/KM) for DPP-4-mediated cleavage was determined to be 2.3 x 105 M-1 s-1 confirming that this peptide is efficiently processed by the peptidase in vitro. Collectively, these results demonstrate that differential mass spectrometry has the potential to identify candidate endogenous substrates of target proteases from a human plasma pool. Importantly, knowledge of the endogenous substrates can provide useful insight into the biology of these enzymes and provides useful biomarkers for monitoring their activity in vivo.

  11. Quantitation of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Plasma of Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Hongbin; Banh, Alice [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Kwok, Shirley [Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Shi Xiaoli; Wu, Simon; Krakow, Trevor; Khong, Brian; Bavan, Brindha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Bala, Rajeev; Pinsky, Benjamin A. [Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Colevas, Dimitrios [Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Pourmand, Nader [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Kong, Christina S. [Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To determine whether human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA can be detected in the plasma of patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) and to monitor its temporal change during radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We used polymerase chain reaction to detect HPV DNA in the culture media of HPV-positive SCC90 and VU147T cells and the plasma of SCC90 and HeLa tumor-bearing mice, non-tumor-bearing controls, and those with HPV-negative tumors. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantify the plasma HPV DNA in 40 HPV-positive OPC, 24 HPV-negative head-and-neck cancer patients and 10 non-cancer volunteers. The tumor HPV status was confirmed by p16{sup INK4a} staining and HPV16/18 polymerase chain reaction or HPV in situ hybridization. A total of 14 patients had serial plasma samples for HPV DNA quantification during radiotherapy. Results: HPV DNA was detectable in the plasma samples of SCC90- and HeLa-bearing mice but not in the controls. It was detected in 65% of the pretreatment plasma samples from HPV-positive OPC patients using E6/7 quantitative polymerase chain reaction. None of the HPV-negative head-and-neck cancer patients or non-cancer controls had detectable HPV DNA. The pretreatment plasma HPV DNA copy number correlated significantly with the nodal metabolic tumor volume (assessed using {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography). The serial measurements in 14 patients showed a rapid decline in HPV DNA that had become undetectable at radiotherapy completion. In 3 patients, the HPV DNA level had increased to a discernable level at metastasis. Conclusions: Xenograft studies indicated that plasma HPV DNA is released from HPV-positive tumors. Circulating HPV DNA was detectable in most HPV-positive OPC patients. Thus, plasma HPV DNA might be a valuable tool for identifying relapse.

  12. A comprehensive analysis of the Streptococcus pyogenes and human plasma protein interaction network. (United States)

    Sjöholm, Kristoffer; Karlsson, Christofer; Linder, Adam; Malmström, Johan


    Streptococcus pyogenes is a major human bacterial pathogen responsible for severe and invasive disease associated with high mortality rates. The bacterium interacts with several human blood plasma proteins and clarifying these interactions and their biological consequences will help to explain the progression from mild to severe infections. In this study, we used a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques to comprehensively quantify the components of the S. pyogenes-plasma protein interaction network. From an initial list of 181 interacting human plasma proteins defined using liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis we further subdivided the interacting protein list using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) depending on the level of enrichment and protein concentration on the bacterial surface. The combination of MS methods revealed several previously characterized interactions between the S. pyogenes surface and human plasma along with many more, so far uncharacterised, possible plasma protein interactions with S. pyogenes. In follow-up experiments, the combination of MS techniques was applied to study differences in protein binding to a S. pyogenes wild type strain and an isogenic mutant lacking several important virulence factors, and a unique pair of invasive and non-invasive S. pyogenes isolates from the same patient. Comparing the plasma protein-binding properties of the wild type and the mutant and the invasive and non-invasive S. pyogenes bacteria revealed considerable differences, underlining the significance of these protein interactions. The results also demonstrate the power of the developed mass spectrometry method to investigate host-microbial relationships with a large proteomics depth and high quantitative accuracy.

  13. Induction of experimental proteinuria in vivo following infusion of human plasma hemopexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, PK; Klok, PA; Baller, JFW; Bakker, WW

    Background. The human plasma constituent hemopexin (Hx), following incubation with renal tissue, is able to induce glomerular alterations in vitro that are similar to those seen in minimal change disease (MCD). Whether this acute phase reactant is also able to induce proteinuria and minimal

  14. LC determination of propylene glycol in human plasma after pre-column derivatization with benzoyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinjewel, A.; Swart, E.L.; Lingeman, H.; Wilhelm, A.J.


    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method, using photodiode array detection was developed for the determination of propylene glycol in human plasma and in the fluid retreived after continuous veno-venous hemofiltration. The method entailed alkaline derivatization with benzoyl chloride

  15. Oxygen-dependent injury by a human plasma factor associated with minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, PK; Baller, JFW; Bakker, WW

    The mechanism by which a human plasma factor associated with proteinuria is able to cause experimental glomerular albumin leakage is unknown. This factor (called 100KF) is able to induce glomerular alterations in the rat kidney, similar to those seen in minimal change disease, including loss of

  16. Time-related contact angle measurements with human plasma on biomaterial surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; Van der Mei, HC; Van Oeveren, W; Spijker, HT; Busscher, HJ

    Axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P) was used to assess in time contact angle changes of human plasma drops placed on four different biomaterials. Results were related with conventional blood compatibility measurements: albumin adsorption, fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  17. Lack of association between human plasma oxytocin and interpersonal trust in a Prisoner's Dilemma paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Christensen

    Full Text Available Expanding interest in oxytocin, particularly the role of endogenous oxytocin in human social behavior, has created a pressing need for replication of results and verification of assay methods. In this study, we sought to replicate and extend previous results correlating plasma oxytocin with trust and trustworthy behavior. As a necessary first step, the two most commonly used commercial assays were compared in human plasma via the addition of a known quantity of exogenous oxytocin, with and without sample extraction. Plasma sample extraction was found to be critical in obtaining repeatable concentrations of oxytocin. In the subsequent trust experiment, twelve samples in duplicate, from each of 82 participants, were collected over approximately six hours during the performance of a Prisoner's Dilemma task paradigm that stressed human interpersonal trust. We found no significant relationship between plasma oxytocin concentrations and trusting or trustworthy behavior. In light of these findings, previous published work that used oxytocin immunoassays without sample extraction should be reexamined and future research exploring links between endogenous human oxytocin and trust or social behavior should proceed with careful consideration of methods and appropriate biofluids for analysis.

  18. Cold plasma inactivation of human pathogens on foods and regulatory status update (United States)

    Contamination of foods with human pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, norovirus, and other pathogens is an ongoing challenge for growers and processors. In recent years, cold plasma has emerged as a promising antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut...

  19. Simple Quantification of Pentosidine in Human Urine and Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Sang Lee


    Full Text Available Pentosidine is an advanced glycation end-product (AGE and fluorescent cross-link compound. A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method was developed for the detection and quantification of pentosidine in human urine and plasma. The mobile phase used a gradient system to improve separation of pentosidine from endogenous peaks, and chromatograms were monitored by fluorescent detector set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 328 and 378 nm, respectively. The retention time for pentosidine was 24.3 min and the lower limits of quantification (LLOQ in human urine and plasma were 1 nM. The intraday assay precisions (coefficients of variation were generally low and found to be in the range of 5.19–7.49% and 4.96–8.78% for human urine and plasma, respectively. The corresponding values of the interday assay precisions were 9.45% and 4.27%. Accuracies (relative errors ranged from 87.9% to 115%. Pentosidine was stable in a range of pH solutions, human urine, and plasma. In summary, this HPLC method can be applied in future preclinical and clinical evaluation of pentosidine in the diabetic patients.

  20. A continuous displacement immunoassay for human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, D; Pelsers, MMAL; Korf, J; Hermens, WT; Glatz, JFC


    Human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) is suggested as an early plasma marker of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and several studies have proved that, for early diagnosis of AMI, FABP performs better than myoglobin, which is a more often used early marker protein. Because serial

  1. Fibronectin matrix assembly requires distinct contributions from Rho kinases I and -II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Ushakov, Dmitriy; Multhaupt, Hinke A B


    Extracellular matrix is integral to tissue architecture and regulates many aspects of cell behavior. Fibronectin matrix assembly involves the actin cytoskeleton and the small GTPase RhoA, but downstream signaling is not understood. Here, down-regulation of either rho kinase isoform (ROCK I or -II......) by small interfering RNA treatment blocked fibronectin matrix assembly, although the phenotypes were distinct and despite persistence of the alternate kinase. Remnant fibronectin on ROCK-deficient fibroblasts was mostly punctate and more deoxycholate soluble compared with controls. Fibronectin matrix...... assembly defects in ROCK-deficient cells did not result from decreased synthesis/secretion, altered fibronectin mRNA splicing, metalloproteinase activity, or alpha5beta1 integrin dysfunction. Rescue could be effected by ROCK protein restoration or phosphomimetic myosin light chain expression. However...

  2. Sample preparation and orthogonal chromatography for broad polarity range plasma metabolomics: Application to human subjects with neurodegenerative dementia


    Armirotti, Andrea; Basit, Abdul; Realini, Natalia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piomelli, Daniele


    We describe a simple protocol for the preparation and orthogonal hydrophobic/hydrophilic LC-MS/MS analysis of mouse and human plasma samples, which enables the untargeted ("shotgun") or targeted profiling of hydrophilic, amphipathic, and hydrophobic constituents of plasma metabolome. The protocol is rapid, efficient, and reliable, and offers several advantages compared to current procedures. When applied to a training set of human plasma samples, the protocol allowed for the rapid acquisition...

  3. A conserved gene family encodes transmembrane proteins with fibronectin, immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat domains (FIGLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Christopher L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mouse the cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7 is required for generation of B lymphocytes, but human IL-7 does not appear to have this function. A bioinformatics approach was therefore used to identify IL-7 receptor related genes in the hope of identifying the elusive human cytokine. Results Our database search identified a family of nine gene candidates, which we have provisionally named fibronectin immunoglobulin leucine-rich repeat (FIGLER. The FIGLER 1–9 genes are predicted to encode type I transmembrane glycoproteins with 6–12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR, a C2 type Ig domain, a fibronectin type III domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain containing one to four tyrosine residues. Members of this multichromosomal gene family possess 20–47% overall amino acid identity and are differentially expressed in cell lines and primary hematopoietic lineage cells. Genes for FIGLER homologs were identified in macaque, orangutan, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, toad, and puffer fish databases. The non-human FIGLER homologs share 38–99% overall amino acid identity with their human counterpart. Conclusion The extracellular domain structure and absence of recognizable cytoplasmic signaling motifs in members of the highly conserved FIGLER gene family suggest a trophic or cell adhesion function for these molecules.

  4. Diagnosing schistosomiasis by detection of cell-free parasite DNA in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Wichmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis (bilharzia, one of the most relevant parasitoses of humans, is confirmed by microscopic detection of eggs in stool, urine, or organ biopsies. The sensitivity of these procedures is variable due to fluctuation of egg shedding. Serological tests on the other hand do not distinguish between active and past disease. In patients with acute disease (Katayama syndrome, both serology and direct detection may produce false negative results. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a novel diagnostic strategy, following the rationale that Schistosoma DNA may be liberated as a result of parasite turnover and reach the blood. Cell-free parasite DNA (CFPD was detected in plasma by PCR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Real-time PCR with internal control was developed and optimized for detection of CFPD in human plasma. Distribution was studied in a mouse model for Schistosoma replication and elimination, as well as in human patients seen before and after treatment. CFPD was detectable in mouse plasma, and its concentration correlated with the course of anti-Schistosoma treatment. Humans with chronic disease and eggs in stool or urine (n = 14 showed a 100% rate of CFPD detection. CFPD was also detected in all (n = 8 patients with Katayama syndrome. Patients in whom no viable eggs could be detected and who had been treated for schistomiasis in the past (n = 30 showed lower detection rates (33.3% and significantly lower CFPD concentrations. The duration from treatment to total elimination of CFPD from plasma was projected to exceed one year. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PCR for detection of CFPD in human plasma may provide a new laboratory tool for diagnosing schistosomiasis in all phases of clinical disease, including the capacity to rule out Katayama syndrome and active disease. Further studies are needed to confirm the clinical usefulness of CFPD quantification in therapy monitoring.

  5. Long-term wheat germ intake beneficially affects plasma lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic human subjects. (United States)

    Cara, L; Armand, M; Borel, P; Senft, M; Portugal, H; Pauli, A M; Lafont, H; Lairon, D


    In previous short-term studies in rats and humans, the ingestion of raw wheat germ lowered plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the possible long-term effects of wheat germ intake. Diet supplementation with raw wheat germ or partially defatted wheat germ was tested in two separate groups of 10 and 9 free-living human subjects, respectively. They all exhibited hypercholesterolemia (6.14-9.67 mmol/L cholesterol) and 11 had hypertriglyceridemia. None was diabetic. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study, after 4 wk of 20 g/d wheat germ intake, after 14 additional weeks of 30 g/d wheat germ intake and after 12 wk without any supplementation. Dietary records were kept for seven and three consecutive days, before and during the wheat germ intake periods, respectively. Raw wheat germ intake significantly decreased plasma cholesterol (-8.7%) and tended to reduce VLDL cholesterol (-19.6%) after 4 wk. After 14 additional weeks, plasma cholesterol (-7.2%) and LDL cholesterol (-15.4%) remained lower and plasma triglycerides (-11.3%) tended to be lower. The apo B:apo A1 ratio significantly decreased after both periods. Partially defatted wheat germ transiently decreased plasma triglycerides and cholesterol after a 4-wk intake. The present data indicate that wheat germ reduces cholesterolemia in the long term and could play a beneficial role in the dietary management of type IIa and IIb hyperlipidemia.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human plasma: Development and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummerich, W.; Konrads, A.; Roesch, R.; Sofroniew, M.


    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of arg-vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma is described. Recovery of added AVP from plasma was about 65-70%. An acetone extraction step was necessary to prevent unspecific blank effects. Sensitivity of the assay in 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma. In normally hydrated subjects AVP-concentration ranged from 0.7 pg/ml to 5.8 pg/ml and showed a good correlation with plasma osmolality. In patients with complete diabetes insipidus (D.i.) AVP-values were below the sensitivity limit of the method and they were subnormal when D.i. was incomplete. There was no increase of AVP-concentration during fluid restriction in patients with complete or incomplete D.i. In subjects with psychogenic polydipsia AVP-values were normal and dehydration produced adequate rises of plasma AVP. In patients with SIADH (Schwartz-Bartter-syndrome) AVP-values were greatly enhanced (> 10 pg/ml) when correlated to plasma osmolality (< 170 mosmol/kg H/sub 2/O).

  7. Simultaneous determination of niacin, niacinamide and nicotinuric acid in human plasma. (United States)

    Pfuhl, P; Kärcher, U; Häring, N; Baumeister, A; Tawab, Mona Abdel; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M


    A sensitive, specific, accurate, and reproducible HPLC/MS-method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of niacin (NA) and its main metabolites niacinamide (NAM) and nicotinuric acid (NUR) in human plasma using chinolin-3-carboxylic acid as an internal standard was developed and validated according to international guidelines for method validation. All analytes and the internal standard were separated from acidified plasma by solid phase extraction. Afterwards the extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC/MS in the positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI) and selected ion monitoring (SIM). The total run time was 7 min between injections. The assay had a lower limit of quantification of 50.0 ng/mL for each analyte using 1 mL of plasma. The calibration curves were linear in the measured range between 50.0 and 750 ng/mL plasma. The overall precision and accuracy for all concentrations of quality controls and standards was better than 15%. No indications were found for possible instabilities of niacin, niacinamide and nicotinuric acid in plasma at -20 degrees C, in the extraction solvent or after repeated thawing/freezing cycles. In stabilities were observed in whole blood and in plasma at room temperature. The recovery of the extraction method ranged from 86 to 89% for the three analytes.

  8. Human Plasma and Human Platelet-rich Plasma as a Substitute for Fetal Calf Serum during Long-term Cultivation of Mesenchymal Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Suchánková Kleplová


    Full Text Available Aims: Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. Methods: DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, or fetal calf serum (FCS. The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. Results: We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT (28.6 ± 4.6 hours, in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours; hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours, 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC’s viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. Conclusions: We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  9. Human plasma and human platelet-rich plasma as a substitute for fetal calf serum during long-term cultivation of mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells. (United States)

    Suchánková Kleplová, Tereza; Soukup, Tomáš; Řeháček, Vít; Suchánek, Jakub


    Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), or fetal calf serum (FCS). The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT) (28.6 ± 4.6 hours), in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours); hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours), 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours) and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours) showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC's viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  10. Methodological factors influencing measurement and processing of plasma reelin in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Flavio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reelin, intensively studied as an extracellular protein that regulates brain development, is also expressed in a variety of tissues and a circulating pool of reelin exists in adult mammals. Here we describe the methodological and biological foundation for carrying out and interpreting clinical studies of plasma reelin. Results Reelin in human plasma was sensitive to proteolysis, freeze-thawing and heating during long-term storage, sample preparation and electrophoresis. Reelin in plasma was a dimer under denaturing conditions. Boiling of samples resulted in laddering, suggesting that each of the 8 repeats expressed in reelin contains a heat-labile covalent bond susceptible to breakage. Urinary-type and tissue-type plasminogen activator converted reelin to a discrete 310 kDa fragment co-migrating with the major immunoreactive reelin fragment seen in plasma and also detected in brain. (In contrast, plasmin produced a spectrum of smaller unstable reelin fragments. We examined archival plasma of 10 pairs of age-matched male individuals differing in repeat length of a CGG repeat polymorphism of the 5'-untranslated region of the reelin gene (both alleles 11 repeats. Reelin 310 kDa band content was lower in subjects having the long repeats in all 10 pairs, by 25% on average (p Conclusions Our studies indicate the need for caution in measuring reelin in archival blood samples, and suggest that assays of plasma reelin should take into account three dimensions that might vary independently: a the total amount of reelin protein; b the relative amounts of reelin vs. its proteolytic processing products; and c the aggregation state of the native protein. Reelin-plasminogen activator interactions may affect their roles in synaptic plasticity. Our results also suggest that the human CGG repeat polymorphism affects reelin gene expression, and may affect susceptibility to human disease.

  11. A Sulfur Amino Acid–Free Meal Increases Plasma Lipids in Humans123 (United States)

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J.; Lee, Kichun S.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Jones, Dean P.


    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR (1H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (18–36 y, 5 males and 3 females) were equilibrated for 3 d to adequate SAA, fed chemically defined meals without SAA for 5 d (depletion), and then fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous meals containing 56 mg·kg−1·d−1 SAA for 4.5 d (repletion). On the first and last day of consuming the chemically defined meals, a morning meal containing 60% of the daily food intake was given and plasma samples were collected over an 8-h postprandial time course for characterization of metabolic changes by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. SAA-free food increased peak intensity in the plasma 1H-NMR spectra in the postprandial period. Orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed changes in signals associated with lipids, some amino acids, and lactate, with notable increases in plasma lipid signals (TG, unsaturated lipid, cholesterol). Conventional lipid analyses confirmed higher plasma TG and showed an increase in plasma concentration of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, apoC-III. The results show that plasma 1H-NMR spectra can provide useful macronutrient profiling following a meal challenge protocol and that a single meal with imbalanced SAA content alters postprandial lipid metabolism. PMID:21677075

  12. Determination of total protein in human seminal plasma. (United States)

    Hernvann, A; Gonzales, J; Diemert, M C; Galli, J


    Methodological problems are encountered in determinating human seminal protein content since results are influenced especially by techniques which are used, and by modifications due to liquefaction process. In order to test these two points, three methods (Folin, Biuret and Meulemans's reactions) were applied to the same seminal samples and results were compared. The differences seem principally due to the high level of glycoproteins. To determine the modifications of total protein content with time after semen collection, each sample was separated in aliquot fractions and proteolysis was blocked at different times for each fraction. There is an increase of the protein concentration during the first fifteen minutes that follows semen collection. The cause of this phenomenon is discussed.

  13. Nutrikinetic modeling reveals order of genistein phase II metabolites appearance in human plasma. (United States)

    Smit, Suzanne; Szymańska, Ewa; Kunz, Iris; Gomez Roldan, Victoria; van Tilborg, Marcel W E M; Weber, Peter; Prudence, Kevin; van der Kloet, Frans M; van Duynhoven, John P M; Smilde, Age K; de Vos, Ric C H; Bendik, Igor


    Genistein from foods or supplements is metabolized by the gut microbiota and the human body, thereby releasing many different metabolites into systemic circulation. The order of their appearance in plasma and the possible influence of food format are still unknown. This study compared the nutrikinetic profiles of genistein metabolites. In a randomized cross-over trial, 12 healthy young volunteers were administered a single dose of 30 mg genistein provided as a genistein tablet, a genistein tablet in low fat milk, and soy milk containing genistein glycosides. A high mass resolution LC-LTQ-Orbitrap FTMS platform detected and quantified in human plasma: free genistein, seven of its phase-II metabolites and 15 gut-derived metabolites. Interestingly, a novel metabolite, genistein-4'-glucuronide-7-sulfate (G-4'G-7S) was identified. Nutrikinetic analysis using population-based modeling revealed the order of appearance of five genistein phase II metabolites in plasma: (1) genistein-4',7-diglucuronide, (2) genistein-7-sulfate, (3) genistein-4'-sulfate-7-glucuronide, (4) genistein-4'-glucuronide, and (5) genistein-7-glucuronide, independent of the food matrix. The conjugated genistein metabolites appear in a distinct order in human plasma. The specific early appearance of G-4',7-diG suggests a multistep formation process for the mono and hetero genistein conjugates, involving one or two deglucuronidation steps. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Microdetermination of chondroitin sulfate in normal human plasma by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca


    An inexpensive, simple, sensitive and reproducible analytical method for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from human blood plasma samples by using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) has been developed. After treatment with a nonspecific protease to convert proteins into small peptides, CS from 100 microl of normal human plasma was extracted by using a filter membrane (molecular mass cut-off of 3000 Da) or purification by using an anion-exchange resin. The recovered CS was converted into unsaturated disaccharides through the action of chondroitin ABC lyase, derivatized with 2-aminoacridone by reductive amination in the presence of cyanoborohydride and separated by FACE. The procedure using the purification of plasma CS on the anion-exchange resin produced a cleaner separation and a better resolution of Delta-disaccharides then using microfiltration. The linearity, sensitivity and reproducibility of the method were determined in comparison with HPLC equipped with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection using 2-cyanoacetamide as a fluorogenic reagent. The detection limit was calculated to be 50 ng of CS with a linear response from 50 to 2000 ng. The recovery was found greater than 85% (from 2 to 10 microg CS) with a variation coefficient of approx. 10%. Furthermore, the results obtained from 100 microl plasma were almost identical to those obtained using 20 microl, 50 microl and 200 microl. This method was applied to the characterization of CS in 33 healthy human subjects ageing from 30 to 63 years old.

  15. Determination of oxeladin in human plasma by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Lartigue-Mattei, C; Galmier, M J; Chabard, J L; Beyssac, E; Aiache, J M


    A capillary gas chromatographic method with mass-selective detection was developed for the determination of oxeladin in human plasma. Plasma samples (1 mL) were alkalinized and extracted using 5mL of hexane: isoamyl alcohol (99:1). The method was demonstrated to be sensitive (limit of quantitation at 1 ng/mL), linear between 1 and 150 mg/mL, accurate and precise enough (mean error and mean coefficient of variation at the limit of quantitation were 2.3 and 13.3%, respectively) to support pharmacokinetic evaluation of the drug at doses down to 30 mg.

  16. Simultaneous determination of cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin and etoposide in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Honoré, Per Hartvig


    A method for simultaneous bioanalysis of the three cytotoxic drugs cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin and etoposide in human plasma was developed and validated. A HPLC method with ultra-violet and fluorescence detection, preceded by mixed-mode cation-exchange solid phase extraction sample....... The overall precision (% relative standard deviation) was within 0.2-13.5% and the recovery ranged between 86.1% and 110.1% for the three drugs at all concentrations tested. Plasma samples were stable for at least two months when stored at -20 degrees C. The method was successfully applied to quantification...

  17. Fibrinolytic proteins in human bile accelerate lysis of plasma clots and induce breakdown of fibrin sealants. (United States)

    Boonstra, Elizabeth A; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Verkade, Henkjan J; de Boer, Marieke T; Porte, Robert J; Lisman, Ton


    We investigated the effect of human bile on the stability of plasma clots and of fibrin sealants. Fibrin sealants are extensively used in liver surgery, for example, during liver resections. Although these sealants have been developed to induce hemostasis, in practice these products are actually mainly used to seal dissected bile ducts to prevent postsurgical bile leakage. We performed in vitro assays in which clotting and lysis of human plasma clots or fibrin sealants was studied in presence or absence of human bile. Addition of bile to human plasma resulted in a dose-dependent increase in clotting time, and a dose-dependent decrease in clot lysis time. Bile also accelerated lysis of in vitro clotted fibrin sealants. Immunodepletion of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) resulted in partial depletion of the lysis promoting activity of bile. Immunodepletion of both tPA and lysine-binding proteins from bile fully abolished the lytic activity, suggesting that tPA and plasminogen present in human bile are responsible for the lysis-promoting effect. Surprisingly, addition of high dose plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) to bile did not attenuate the lytic activity toward fibrin sealants, which suggested that tPA in a biliary environment may be unsusceptible to PAI-1 inhibition. Indeed, bile acids were shown to prevent tPA from interacting with PAI-1, although preformed complexes were not destabilized upon addition of bile acids. These combined results suggest that the presence of tPA and other fibrinolytic proteins in human bile results in lysis of plasma clots or fibrin sealants, which potentially could affect the efficacy of the latter products.

  18. Fibronectin tetrapeptide is target for syphilis spirochete cytadherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.D.; Baseman, J.B.; Alderete, J.F.


    The syphilis bacterium, Treponema pallidum, parasitizes host cells through recognition of fibronectin (Fn) on cell surfaces. The active site of the Fn molecule has been identified as a four-amino acid sequence, arg-gly-asp-ser (RGDS), located on each monomer of the cell-binding domain. The synthetic heptapeptide gly-arg-gly-asp-ser-pro-cys (GRGDSPC), with the active site sequence RGDS, specifically competed with SVI-labeled cell-binding domain acquisition by T. pallidum. Additionally, the same heptapeptide with the RGDS sequence diminished treponemal attachment to HEp-2 and HT1080 cell monolayers. Related heptapeptides altered in one key amino acid within the RGDS sequence failed to inhibit Fn cell-binding domain acquisition or parasitism of host cells by T. pallidum. The data support the view that T. pallidum cytadherence of host cells is through recognition of the RGDS sequence also important for eukaryotic cell-Fn binding.

  19. Flow Cytometry Assessment of In Vitro Generated CD138+ Human Plasma Cells

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    Rayelle Itoua Maïga


    Full Text Available The in vitro CD40-CD154 interaction promotes human B lymphocytes differentiation into plasma cells. Currently, CD138 is the hallmark marker enabling the detection of human plasma cells, both in vitro and in vivo; its presence can be monitored by flow cytometry using a specific antibody. We have developed a culture system allowing for the differentiation of memory B lymphocytes. In order to detect the newly formed plasma cells, we have compared their staining using five anti-CD138 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. As a reference, we also tested human cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and bone marrow samples. The five anti-CD138 mAbs stained RPMI-8226 cells (>98% with variable stain index (SI. The highest SI was obtained with B-A38 mAb while the lowest SI was obtained with DL-101 and 1D4 mAbs. However, the anti-CD138 mAbs were not showing equivalent CD138+ cells frequencies within the generated plasma cells. B-A38, B-B4, and MI-15 were similar (15–25% while DL-101 mAb stained a higher proportion of CD138-positive cells (38–42%. DL-101 and B-A38 mAbs stained similar populations in bone marrow samples but differed in their capacity to bind to CD138high and CD138lo cell lines. In conclusion, such cellular fluctuations suggest heterogeneity in human plasma cell populations and/or in CD138 molecules.

  20. Vitamin K plasma levels determination in human health. (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea; Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Moysés, Rosa M A; Jorgetti, Vanda; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Fabris, Fabrizio; Aghi, Andrea; Sella, Stefania; Galli, Francesco; Viola, Valentina; Plebani, Mario


    Vitamin K (phylloquinone or vitamin K1 and menaquinones or vitamin K2) plays an important role as a cofactor in the synthesis of hepatic blood coagulation proteins, but recently has also aroused an increasing interest for its action in extra-hepatic tissues, in particular in the regulation of bone and vascular metabolism. The accurate measurement of vitamin K status in humans is still a critical issue. Along with indirect assays, such as the undercarboxylated fractions of vitamin K-dependent proteins [prothrombin, osteocalcin (OC), and matrix gla protein], the direct analysis of blood levels of phylloquinone and menaquinones forms might be considered a more informative and direct method for assessing vitamin K status. Different methods for direct quantification of vitamin K serum levels are available. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods coupled with post-column reduction procedures and fluorimetric or electrochemical detection are commonly used for food and blood analysis of phylloquinone, but they show some limitations when applied to the analysis of serum menaquinones because of interferences from triglycerides. Recent advancements include liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) detection, which assures higher specificity. The optimization and standardization of these methods requires specialized laboratories. The variability of results observed in the available studies suggests the need for further investigations to obtain more accurate analytical results.

  1. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))


    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  2. Liver and Muscle Contribute Differently to the Plasma Acylcarnitine Pool During Fasting and Exercise in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.; Hansen, J S; Zhao, Jian-xin


    BACKGROUND: Plasma acylcarnitine levels are elevated by physiological conditions such as fasting and exercise but also in states of insulin resistance and obesity. AIM: To elucidate the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to plasma acylcarnitines in the fasting state and during exercise...... in humans. METHODS: In 2 independent studies, young healthy males were fasted overnight and performed an acute bout of exercise to investigate either acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle biopsies and arterial-to-venous plasma differences over the exercising and resting leg (n = 9) or the flux over the hepato......:1-carnitines were released from the exercising leg and simultaneously; C6, C8, C10, C10:1, C14, and C16:1 were taken up by the hepato-splanchnic. CONCLUSION: These data provide novel insight to the organo-specific release/uptake of acylcarnitines. The liver is a major contributor to systemic short chain...

  3. Simultaneous Quantification of Antidiabetic Agents in Human Plasma by a UPLC-QToF-MS Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Millan Fachi

    Full Text Available An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, gliclazide, glimepiride, metformin, nateglinide, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and vildagliptin in human plasma was developed and validated, using isoniazid and sulfaquinoxaline as internal standards. Following plasma protein precipitation using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid, chromatographic separation was performed on a cyano column using gradient elution with water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% formic acid. Detection was performed in a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer, using electrospray ionization operated in the positive mode. Data from validation studies demonstrated that the new method is highly sensitive, selective, precise (RSD 0.99, free of matrix and has no residual effects. The developed method was successfully applied to volunteers' plasma samples. Hence, this method was demonstrated to be appropriate for clinical monitoring of antidiabetic agents.

  4. Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma (United States)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.


    The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  5. Stability of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Bak, Monika Judyta; Hartmann, Bolette


    To investigate the stability of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) and glucagon in plasma under short- and long-term storage conditions. Methods: Pooled human plasma (n=20), to which a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and aprotinin were added, was spiked with synthetic GLP-1 (intact, 7-36NH2...... or an inhibitor cocktail. GLP-1, but not glucagon, was stable for at least 1 year. Surprisingly, the recovery of glucagon was reduced by almost 50% by freezing compared to immediate analysis, regardless of storage time. Conclusion: Plasma handling procedures can significantly influence results of subsequent...... hormone analysis. Our data support addition of DPP-4 inhibitor for GLP-1 measurement as well as cooling on ice of both GLP-1 and glucagon. Freeze/thaw cycles did not significantly affect stability of GLP-1 or glucagon. Long term storage may affect glucagon levels regardless of storage temperature...

  6. Plasma retinol-binding protein in human uterine cervical dysplasias and cancer. (United States)

    Palan, P R; Basu, J; Romney, S L


    Plasma concentrations of retinol-binding protein (RBP) were measured in a cross-sectional study of asymptomatic normal menstruating women (n = 94) who obtained Pap smears and participated in a double-blinded nutritional survey. Controls (n = 45) were women with negative cervical cytology, normal colposcopy and no known gynecologic pathology or dysfunction. Cases (n = 49) were subjects with abnormal cytology and colposcopically directed biopsy that established cervical epithelial dysplasias histopathologically in the previous 12-month period. In addition, 8 women with cancer of the cervix were also investigated. The mean plasma concentration of RBP was significantly lower in cases than in controls (p less than 0.001). In normal females, the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was increased. This increase was absent in the plasma of patients with cervical dysplasias (p less than 0.05). The data direct attention to a possible etiologic association between RBP in human cervical epithelial abnormalities and cancer.

  7. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Pijuan, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid


    The new sample preparation concept “Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)” was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual...... wells in a 96-well donor plate and diluted with HCl to protonate the acidic drugs. The acidic drugs were extracted as protonated species from the individual plasma samples, through corresponding artificial liquid membranes each comprising 2 μL of dihexyl ether, and into corresponding acceptor solutions......-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection of the individual acceptor solutions. Important PALME parameters including the chemical composition of the liquid membrane, extraction time, and sample pH were optimized, and the extraction performance was evaluated. Except for flurbiprofen, exhaustive...

  8. In-human subject-specific evaluation of a control-theoretic plasma volume regulation model. (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Kinsky, Michael; Kramer, George; Hahn, Jin-Oh


    The goal of this study was to conduct a subject-specific evaluation of a control-theoretic plasma volume regulation model in humans. We employed a set of clinical data collected from nine human subjects receiving fluid bolus with and without co-administration of an inotrope agent, including fluid infusion rate, plasma volume, and urine output. Once fitted to the data associated with each subject, the model accurately reproduced the fractional plasma volume change responses in all subjects: the error between actual versus model-reproduced fractional plasma volume change responses was only 1.4 ± 1.6% and 1.2 ± 0.3% of the average fractional plasma volume change responses in the absence and presence of inotrope co-administration. In addition, the model parameters determined by the subject-specific fitting assumed physiologically plausible values: (i) initial plasma volume was estimated to be 36 ± 11 mL/kg and 37 ± 10 mL/kg in the absence and presence of inotrope infusion, respectively, which was comparable to its actual counterpart of 37 ± 4 mL/kg and 43 ± 6 mL/kg; (ii) volume distribution ratio, specifying the ratio with which the inputted fluid is distributed in the intra- and extra-vascular spaces, was estimated to be 3.5 ± 2.4 and 1.9 ± 0.5 in the absence and presence of inotrope infusion, respectively, which accorded with the experimental observation that inotrope could enhance plasma volume expansion in response to fluid infusion. We concluded that the model was equipped with the ability to reproduce plasma volume response to fluid infusion in humans with physiologically plausible model parameters, and its validity may persist even under co-administration of inotropic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fetal fibronectin as a predictor of preterm delivery in twin gestations. (United States)

    Oliveira, T; de Souza, E; Mariani-Neto, C; Camano, L


    To evaluate fetal fibronectin as a predictor of premature delivery in twin pregnancies. Cervicovaginal secretions were obtained from 52 pregnant women with twin pregnancies between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation. The secretions were analyzed to detect the presence of fetal fibronectin by immediate-reading membrane test. The correlation between the presence of fetal fibronectin and preterm birth was evaluated. In addition, cervical dilatation and effacement were evaluated with each sampling. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value to predict preterm delivery were 89.3, 50.0, 67.6, and 80.0%, respectively. A positive fetal fibronectin result was associated with a relative risk (RR) for preterm birth of 3.4 (95% CI, 1.2-9.5). A positive fetal fibronectin test associated with cervical dilatation or effacement increased the RR for preterm birth to 4.3 and 7.7, respectively, when compared with those with negative test and without cervical dilatation and effacement. Fetal fibronectin in the cervicovaginal secretions of patients with twin pregnancies is a sensitive predictor of preterm delivery. However, because of its low specificity, the fetal fibronectin test should be evaluated along with cervical changes for better identification of twins likely to develop preterm labor.

  10. MC3T3-E1 Cells on Titanium Surfaces with Nanometer Smoothness and Fibronectin Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Hayakawa


    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the viability and total protein contents of osteoblast-like cells on the titanium surface with different surface mechanical treatment, namely, nanometer smoothing (Ra: approximately 2.0 nm and sandblasting (Ra: approximately 1.0 μm, and biochemical treatment, namely, with or without fibronectin immobilization. Fibronectin could be easily immobilized by tresyl chloride-activation technique. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the different titanium surfaces. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. At 1 day of cell culture, there were no significant differences in cell viability among four different titanium surfaces. At 11 days, sandblasted titanium surface with fibronectin immobilization showed the significantly highest cell viability than other titanium surface. No significant differences existed for total protein contents among four different titanium surfaces at 11 days of cell culture. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that smoothness of titanium surface produced more spread cell morphologies, but that fibronectin immobilization did not cause any changes of the morphologies of attached cells. Fibronectin immobilization provided greater amount of the number of attached cells and better arrangement of attached cells. In conclusion, the combination of sandblasting and fibronectin immobilization enhanced the cell viability and fibronectin immobilization providing better arrangements of attached cells.

  11. Fibronectin-Containing Extracellular Vesicles Protect Melanocytes against Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Kim, Nan-Hyung; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Kim, Sung Tae; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Tae Ryong; Cho, Eun-Gyung


    Skin melanocytes are activated by exposure to UV radiation to secrete melanin-containing melanosomes to protect the skin from UV-induced damage. Despite the continuous renewal of the epidermis, the turnover rate of melanocytes is very slow, and they survive for long periods. However, the mechanisms underlying the survival of melanocytes exposed to UV radiation are not known. Here, we investigated the role of melanocyte-derived extracellular vesicles in melanocyte survival. Network analysis of the melanocyte extracellular vesicle proteome identified the extracellular matrix component fibronectin at a central node, and the release of fibronectin-containing extracellular vesicles was increased after exposure of melanocytes to UVB radiation. Using an anti-fibronectin neutralizing antibody and specific inhibitors of extracellular vesicle secretion, we demonstrated that extracellular vesicles enriched in fibronectin were involved in melanocyte survival after UVB radiation. Furthermore, we observed that in the hyperpigmented lesions of patients with melasma, the extracellular space around melanocytes contained more fibronectin compared with normal skin, suggesting that fibronectin is involved in maintaining melanocytes in pathological conditions. Collectively, our findings suggest that melanocytes secrete fibronectin-containing extracellular vesicles to increase their survival after UVB radiation. These data provide important insight into how constantly stimulated melanocytes can be maintained in pathological conditions such as melasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of Tramadol in human plasma by HPLC with fluorescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Baconi


    Full Text Available Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic, atypical opioid, and although it is generally considered as a medicinal drug with a low potential for dependence, there is growing evidence of tramadol abuse in some countries. The ultraviolet detection is not suitable for analysis of tramadol in plasma, due to the lack of sensitivity and selectivity. However, it was shown that tramadol has a weak fluorescence, and the latest techniques for determination of tramadol in plasma include liquid chromatographic methods with fluorescence detection (FL. The objective of the paper was to develop a HPLC-FL method applicable for quantification of tramadol in human plasma.The separation was achieved by reverse phase HPLC method, using as stationary phase C18 – Kromasil® column and a mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:0.1% formic acid (20:80. The fluorescence detection has been applied with λex/em= 280/310 nm. A solid phase extraction procedure using C18 cartridge was carried out. The linearity of the method has been demonstrated in the range of both therapeutic and toxic plasma tramadol levels (concentrations of 0.100 – 1µg/mL. The selectivity, precision, and accuracy of the method have been demonstrated. The limit of detection (LOD= 0.010 µg/mL and the limit of quantification (LOQ = 0.100 µg/mL have been established.The proposed method can be used to assess tramadol levels in human plasma in pharmacokinetic studies, as well as in overdose cases. The utility of the method for the quantification of therapeutic levels of tramadol has been shown on the plasma samples from the patients with tramadol treatment as analgesic (doses ranging from 100 mg to 400 mg/day.The developed method is rapid, using simple experimental conditions and an accurate and short extraction procedure.

  13. Modulation of fibronectin expression in the central nervous system of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Carvalho M.C.A.


    Full Text Available Fibronectin (FN, a large family of plasma and extracellular matrix (ECM glycoproteins, plays an important role in leukocyte migration. In normal central nervous system (CNS, a fine and delicate mesh of FN is virtually restricted to the basal membrane of cerebral blood vessels and to the glial limitans externa. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an inflammatory CNS demyelinating disease, was induced in Lewis rats with a spinal cord homogenate. During the preclinical phase and the onset of the disease, marked immunolabelling was observed on the endothelial luminal surface and basal lamina of spinal cord and brainstem microvasculature. In the paralytic phase, a discrete labelling was evident in blood vessels of spinal cord and brainstem associated or not with an inflammatory infiltrate. Conversely, intense immunolabelling was present in cerebral and cerebellar blood vessels, which were still free from inflammatory cuffs. Shortly after clinical recovery minimal labelling was observed in a few blood vessels. Brainstem and spinal cord returned to normal, but numerous inflammatory foci and demyelination were still evident near the ventricle walls, in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellum. Intense expression of FN in brain vessels ascending from the spinal cord towards the encephalon preceded the appearance of inflammatory cells but faded away after the establishment of the inflammatory cuff. These results indicate an important role for FN in the pathogenesis of CNS inflammatory demyelinating events occurring during EAE.

  14. Detection of fetal fibronectin in twin pregnancies in relation to gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenilson Amaral Oliveira


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The presence of fetal fibronectin in the cervix or vagina has been investigated as a possible marker for the risk of preterm birth. Fetal fibronectin in cervical fluid can provide direct evidence of pathologic changes at the interface of fetal and maternal tissues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of fetal fibronectin as a predictor of premature delivery in twin pregnancies in relation to gestational age. DESIGN: Acuracy study. SETTING: University referral unit. PARTICIPANTS: 52 pregnant women with twin pregnancies and gestational age of between 24 and 34 weeks. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sensivity, specifity, predictive values and relative risk ratios of the correlation between fetal fibronectin and preterm birth before 34 and 37 weeks using an immediate-reading membrane test on cervicovaginal secretions obtained from participants. RESULT: The sensitivity varied between 66.7% and 85.7%, whereas the specificity was from 58.3% to 81.8% according to gestational age at the time of sampling. The relative risk of spontaneous preterm birth after a positive fetal fibronectin test, as compared with a negative fetal fibronectin test, rose from 2.8 at 24-26 weeks to 4.1 at 27-30 weeks. Analyses of the risk of delivery before 34 weeks were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Fetal fibronectin in the cervicovaginal secretions of patients with twin pregnancies is a useful tool for the early identification of twin pregnancies likely to deliver before 37 weeks. However, the clinical value of the fibronectin test is limited because of low indices for prediction of delivery before 34 weeks. The best period for performing the fetal fibronectin test in twin pregnancies to predict preterm delivery is between 27 and 30 weeks.

  15. Detection of fetal fibronectin in twin pregnancies in relation to gestational age. (United States)

    Oliveira, T A; Carvalho, C M; de Souza, E; Mariani-Neto, C; Camano, L


    The presence of fetal fibronectin in the cervix or vagina has been investigated as a possible marker for the risk of preterm birth. Fetal fibronectin in cervical fluid can provide direct evidence of pathologic changes at the interface of fetal and maternal tissues. To evaluate the presence of fetal fibronectin as a predictor of premature delivery in twin pregnancies in relation to gestational age. Accuracy study. University referral unit. 52 pregnant women with twin pregnancies and gestational age of between 24 and 34 weeks. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and relative risk ratios of the correlation between fetal fibronectin and preterm birth before 34 and 37 weeks using an immediate-reading membrane test on cervicovaginal secretions obtained from participants. The sensitivity varied between 66.7% and 85.7%, whereas the specificity was from 58.3% to 81.8% according to gestational age at the time of sampling. The relative risk of spontaneous preterm birth after a positive fetal fibronectin test, as compared with a negative fetal fibronectin test, rose from 2.8 at 24-26 weeks to 4.1 at 27-30 weeks. Analyses of the risk of delivery before 34 weeks were not statistically significant. Fetal fibronectin in the cervicovaginal secretions of patients with twin pregnancies is a useful tool for the early identification of twin pregnancies likely to deliver before 37 weeks. However, the clinical value of the fibronectin test is limited because of low indices for prediction of delivery before 34 weeks. The best period for performing the fetal fibronectin test in twin pregnancies to predict preterm delivery is between 27 and 30 weeks.

  16. Quantitative, multiplexed workflow for deep analysis of human blood plasma and biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W; Specht, Harrison; Wallace, Luke; Clauser, Karl R; Gillette, Michael A; Carr, Steven A


    Proteomic characterization of blood plasma is of central importance to clinical proteomics and particularly to biomarker discovery studies. The vast dynamic range and high complexity of the plasma proteome have, however, proven to be serious challenges and have often led to unacceptable tradeoffs between depth of coverage and sample throughput. We present an optimized sample-processing pipeline for analysis of the human plasma proteome that provides greatly increased depth of detection, improved quantitative precision and much higher sample analysis throughput as compared with prior methods. The process includes abundant protein depletion, isobaric labeling at the peptide level for multiplexed relative quantification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate-mass, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis of peptides fractionated off-line by basic pH reversed-phase (bRP) chromatography. The overall reproducibility of the process, including immunoaffinity depletion, is high, with a process replicate coefficient of variation (CV) of 4,500 proteins are detected and quantified per patient sample on average, with two or more peptides per protein and starting from as little as 200 μl of plasma. The approach can be multiplexed up to 10-plex using tandem mass tags (TMT) reagents, further increasing throughput, albeit with some decrease in the number of proteins quantified. In addition, we provide a rapid protocol for analysis of nonfractionated depleted plasma samples analyzed in 10-plex. This provides ∼600 quantified proteins for each of the ten samples in ∼5 h of instrument time.

  17. GMP-compliant radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]altanserin and human plasma metabolite studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, F. [University Hospital of Psychiatry, Heffter Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail:; Kuznetsova, O.F.; Krasikova, R.N. [Institute of the Human Brain, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cservenyak, T. [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences of ETH, PSI and University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Quednow, B.B.; Vollenweider, F.X. [University Hospital of Psychiatry, Heffter Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Ametamey, S.M.; Westera, G. [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences of ETH, PSI and University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)


    [{sup 18}F]altanserin is the preferred radiotracer for in-vivo labeling of serotonin 2A receptors by positron emission tomography (PET). We report a modified synthesis procedure suited for reliable production of multi-GBq amounts of [{sup 18}F]altanserin useful for application in humans. We introduced thermal heating for drying of [{sup 18}F]fluoride as well as for the reaction instead of microwave heating. We furthermore describe solid phase extraction and HPLC procedures for quantitative determination of [{sup 18}F]altanserin and metabolites in plasma. The time course of arterial plasma activity with and without metabolite correction was determined. 90 min after bolus injection, 38.4% of total plasma activity derived from unchanged [{sup 18}F]altanserin. Statistical comparison of kinetic profiles of [{sup 18}F]altanserin metabolism in plasma samples collected in the course of two ongoing studies employing placebo, the serotonin releaser dexfenfluramine and the hallucinogen psilocybin, revealed the same tracer metabolism. We conclude that metabolite analysis for correction of individual plasma input functions used in tracer modeling is not necessary for [{sup 18}F]altanserin studies involving psilocybin or dexfenfluramine treatment.

  18. Decrease of plasma and urinary oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen after consumption of watercress by human volunteers. (United States)

    Chen, L; Mohr, S N; Yang, C S


    To investigate the effect of the consumption of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), a cruciferous vegetable, on acetaminophen metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen and its metabolites were studied in a crossover trial of human volunteers. A single oral dose of acetaminophen (1 gm) was given 10 hours after ingestion of watercress homogenates (50 gm). In comparison with acetaminophen only, the ingestion of watercress resulted in a significant reduction in the area under the plasma cysteine acetaminophen (Cys-acetaminophen) concentration-time curve and in the peak plasma Cys-acetaminophen concentration by 28% +/- 3% and by 21% +/- 4% (mean +/- SE; n = 7; p < 0.005), respectively. Correspondingly, the Cys-acetaminophen formation rate constant and Cys-acetaminophen formation fraction were decreased by 55% +/- 9% and 52% +/- 7% (p < 0.01), respectively. Consistent with the results obtained from the plasma, the total urinary excretion of Cys-acetaminophen in 24 hours was also reduced. A decrease of mercapturate acetaminophen, a Cys-acetaminophen metabolite, was also shown in the plasma and urine samples. However, the plasma pharmacokinetic processes and the urinary excretions of acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide, and acetaminophen sulfate were not altered significantly by the watercress treatment. These results suggest that the consumption of watercress causes a decrease in the levels of oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen, probably due to inhibition of oxidative metabolism of this drug.

  19. Directing membrane chromatography to manufacture α1-antitrypsin from human plasma fraction IV. (United States)

    Fan, Jinxin; Luo, Jianquan; Song, Weijie; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua


    The surging demand for plasma proteins, mainly driven by the growing market and the development of new therapeutic indications, is promoting manufacturers to improve the throughput of plasma proteins. Due to the inherent convective mass transfer, membrane chromatography has been proved to be an efficient approach for extracting a small amount of target proteins from large-volume feed. In this study, α1-antitrypsin (AAT) was extracted from human plasma fraction IV by a two-step membrane chromatography. An anion-exchange membrane chromatography (AEMC) was used to capture the plasma proteins in bind/elute mode, and the obtained effluent was further polished by a hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (HIMC) in flow-through mode. Under optimal conditions, the recovery and purity of AAT achieved 87.0% and 0.58 AAT/protein (g/g) by AEMC, respectively. After the precise polishing by HIMC, the purity of AAT was 1.22 AAT/protein (g/g). The comparison results showed that membrane chromatography outperformed column chromatography in both steps because of its high throughput. This two-step membrane chromatography could obtain an AAT recovery of 83.3% and an activity recovery of 91.4%. The outcome of this work not only offers an alternative process for protein purification from plasma, but also provides guidelines for manufacturing product from a large-volume feed with multi-components by membrane chromatography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis for plasma protein biomarkers following an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard. (United States)

    Smith, J Richard; Capacio, Benedict R; Korte, William D; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Barr, John R


    Following an accidental human exposure to a vesicating agent, plasma samples were analyzed for specific biomarkers of sulfur mustard. One individual suffered chemical burns over 6.5% of the body surface area and required hospitalization; the second individual developed a single, small blister. Plasma specimens from both individuals were examined using two different assays. The first assay targeted sulfur mustard adducts to cysteine-34 of albumin using affinity chromatography, enzyme digestion, and analysis of the alkylated peptide fragment using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The second assay targeted alkylation sites of glutamic and aspartic acids of plasma proteins. Following precipitation of plasma proteins, the sulfur mustard adducts were cleaved from the protein using base, derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples obtained over a 42-day period from the individual requiring hospitalization produced positive results for sulfur mustard adducts using both assays. Observed levels of the sulfur mustard biomarker decreased by approximately 75% between days 2 and 42 for both assays. Samples obtained over a six-day period from the individual with a single, small blister produced positive results for the albumin adduct assay. Observed levels were much lower than levels from the hospitalized patient. Blood samples from suspected human exposures to sulfur mustard have only rarely been made available for analysis by sensitive and specific laboratory assays. The data presented here add significantly to the small database of information that currently exists on human biomarkers of sulfur mustard exposure, linking a well-documented exposure event with levels of plasma protein adducts.

  1. Quantification of pharmaceutical peptides in human plasma by LC-ICP-MS sulfur detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura Hyrup; Macherius, André; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj


    A method for quantification of a pharmaceutical peptide in human plasma was developed using gradient elution LC-ICP-MS. A membrane desolvation (MD) system was applied to remove organic solvents from the eluent prior to the detection as SO+ in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP-DRC-MS inst......A method for quantification of a pharmaceutical peptide in human plasma was developed using gradient elution LC-ICP-MS. A membrane desolvation (MD) system was applied to remove organic solvents from the eluent prior to the detection as SO+ in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP......-DRC-MS instrument and subsequent quantification by post-column isotope dilution (IDA). Plasma proteins were precipitated prior to analysis. Analytical figures of merit including linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ and accuracy were considered satisfactory for analysis of plasma samples. The selectivity of the developed...... method was demonstrated for five pharmaceutically relevant peptides: desmopressin, penetratin, substance P, PTH (1-34) and insulin. Preliminary experiments on an ICP-MS/MS system using oxygen to reduce the effect of organic solvents were also performed to compare sensitivity. The results of the study...

  2. Ultra-fast quantitation of voriconazole in human plasma by coated blade spray mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Tascon, Marcos; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen; Boyacı, Ezel; Pawliszyn, Janusz


    Voriconazole is a triazole broad-spectrum antifungal medication often used to treat fungal infections caused by Aspergillus and Fusarium species. One of the main challenges associated with the implementation of this medication is its narrow therapeutic concentration range, demonstrating toxicity at concentrations above 6μg/mL and limited efficacy at concentrations below 2μg/mL. As a result, methodologies which permit the rapid and accurate quantitation of voriconazole in patients are highly desirable. In this work two different approaches based on coated blade spray directly coupled to mass spectrometry (CBS-MS) are introduced; each enabling the quantitation of voriconazole in plasma samples with a simple and fast sample preparation and no chromatographic step. The first approach involves a rapid extraction (1min) of the target analyte from 300μL of human plasma using conventional laboratory vessels (e.g. vial, 96-well plate). Alternatively, the second strategy consists of a 2min extraction from a plasma droplet (10μL) placed on the coated area of the blade. Both procedures were successfully validated and good linearity (R 2 ≥0.998), accuracy (91-122%) and precision (voriconazole in human plasma samples. Indeed, the proposed methodology can be easily used either for routine drug monitoring or for in vitro pharmacokinetic studies in applications where very small sample volumes are available and great temporal resolution is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Drinking on Plasma Vasopressin and Renin in Dehydrated Human Subjects (United States)

    Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Kravik, S. E.; Wade, C. E.; Thrasher, T. N.; Barnes, P. R.; Pyka, G.; Nesvig, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.


    Oropharyngeal mechanisms activated by drinking have been shown to induce a rapid decline in plasma vasopressin which preceeds postabsorptive changes in plasma composition in the dehydrated dog. The present study was undertaken to determine what factor(s) inhibit(s) vasopressin secretion after rehydration in water deprived human subjects. Hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) were determined on the day of the experiment, together with electrolytes and osmolalities which were measured on freshly separated serum. Plasma was immediately frozen and further analyzed by radioimmunoassay for renin activity (PRA), vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone. The data were analyzed using an analysis of variance for repeated measurements and significant differences between the dehydrated control period and various time points after the start of rehydration were determined using a multiple-range test. began and reached water replete levels 15 minutes after drinking in the absence of any detectable decline in serum sodium or osmolality, we conclude that 427 oropharyngeal factors, alone or combined with gastric distension account for the extremely rapid inhibition of AVP secretion after drinking in the water-deprived human, as has been shown to be the case in dogs. Our findings are also in agreement wiht the recent demonstration that at the onset of drinking in the dehydrated monkey, there is an abrupt fall in plasma AVP concentration associated with a considerable decrease in the firing rate of the supraoptic neurosecretory neurons.

  4. Direct injection LC-MS/MS method for the determination of teicoplanin in human plasma. (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Youl; Cho, Sang-Heon; Song, Yong-Hyun; Nam, Moon-Suk; Kim, Cheol-Woo


    A direct injection-based, simple, accurate, and robust LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of teicoplanin in human plasma. Patient plasma samples were diluted in an aqueous buffer prior to injection into the LC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Cadenza HS-C18 column and a gradient mixture of acetonitrile-water (both containing 0.1% formic acid) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min. The analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive ion electrospray ionization. The concentration of teicoplanin was determined as the sum of six components (A3-1, A2-1, A2-2, A2-3, A2-4, and A2-5). The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1-50mg/L, which covered the clinically accepted trough and therapeutic plasma levels. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy values were both less than 15%. This validated method was successfully applied to therapeutic drug monitoring of teicoplanin in routine clinical practice. Thus, we expect it to be useful for the determination of teicoplanin concentration in human plasma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid analysis of acetone in human plasma by derivatization desorption electrospray ionization. (United States)

    Xu, Guangming; Chen, Bo; Liu, Guozhu; Yao, Shouzhuo


    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) is rapidly becoming a powerful analysis tool for a wide variety of samples in the open air. By combining DESI MS and derivatization, acetone in human blood samples, one of the diabetes mellitus (DM) biomarkers, was rapidly analyzed. Prior to DESI, the plasma sample was first exposed to hydroxylamine hydrochloride and acetone in plasma was derived into fixed oxime. The reactive products were validated by DESI/MS/MS. Quantification was performed in the positive-ion electrospray ionization mode by monitoring of the product ions at m/z 74 for acetone oxime and m/z 116 for 4-methyl-2-pentanone oxime as the internal standard. The limit of detection was of the order of magnitude of 0.10 ppbv and the linear range comprised two decades of concentration, covering the relevant concentration range of acetone in plasma samples. The method has achieved fast, high-throughput analysis of acetone in human plasma with little beforehand preparation and an experiment time of only a few seconds.

  6. Distribution of specific collagen types and fibronectin in normal and keratoconus corneas. (United States)

    Tsuchiya, S; Tanaka, M; Konomi, H; Hayashi, T


    The distribution of five types of collagen and fibronectin in 6 normal and 9 keratoconus corneas was examined, using immunofluorescent staining and the enzyme-labeled antibody method. Types I, III and V collagens were detected in the corneal stroma. There was essentially no difference between normal and keratoconus corneas in their distribution. Type IV collagen and fibronectin were detected in the basement membrane of the normal corneal epithelium, while in the keratoconus corneas the disruption of the basement membrane as well as the excrescence of basement membrane materials was observed. The abnormal distribution of the type IV collagen and fibronectin was also observed in the anterior stromal area of keratoconus corneas.

  7. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma and serum Standard Reference Materials using independent analytical methods. (United States)

    Reiner, Jessica L; Phinney, Karen W; Keller, Jennifer M


    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in three National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) (SRMs 1950 Metabolites in Human Plasma, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum) using two analytical approaches. The methods offer some independence, with two extraction types and two liquid chromatographic separation methods. The first extraction method investigated the acidification of the sample followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a weak anion exchange cartridge. The second method used an acetonitrile extraction followed by SPE using a graphitized non-porous carbon cartridge. The extracts were separated using a reversed-phase C(8) stationary phase and a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phase. Measured values from both methods for the two human serum SRMs, 1957 and 1958, agreed with reference values on the Certificates of Analysis. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) values were obtained for the first time in human plasma SRM 1950 with good reproducibility among the methods (below 5% relative standard deviation). The nominal mass interference from taurodeoxycholic acid, which has caused over estimation of the amount of PFOS in biological samples, was separated from PFOS using the PFP stationary phase. Other PFCs were also detected in SRM 1950 and are reported. SRM 1950 can be used as a control material for human biomonitoring studies and as an aid to develop new measurement methods.

  8. Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.


    levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. Objectives The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine – the primary metabolite of nicotine – were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal...... ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99 ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108 ng/g in placenta, and 61 ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. Conclusions PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however......AbstractBackground Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bio-accumulative pollutants, and prenatal exposure to PFASs is believed to impact human foetal development and may have long-term adverse health effects later in life. Additionally, maternal cigarette smoking may be associated with PFAS...

  9. Predictive value of plasma β2-microglobulin on human body function and senescence. (United States)

    Dong, X-M; Cai, R; Yang, F; Zhang, Y-Y; Wang, X-G; Fu, S-L; Zhang, J-R


    To explore the correlation between plasma β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) as senescence factor with age, heart, liver and kidney function as well as the predictive value of β2-MG in human metabolism function and senescence. 387 cases of healthy people of different ages were selected and the automatic biochemical analyzer was used to test β2-MG in plasma based on immunoturbidimetry and also all biochemical indexes. The correlation between β2-MG and age, gender and all biochemical indexes was analyzed. β2-MG was positively correlated to age, r = 0.373; and the difference was of statistical significance (p human body function and anti-senescence and have significant basic research and clinical guidance values.

  10. Proteomic Profiling of Nonenzymatically Glycated Proteins in Human Plasma and Erythrocyte Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.


    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. In this report, a thorough proteomic profiling of glycated proteins was attempted by using phenylboronate affinity chromatography to enrich glycated proteins and glycated, tryptic peptides from human plasma and erythrocyte membranes. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, and 76 and 31 proteins were confidently identified as glycated from human plasma and erythrocyte membrane, respectively. It was observed that most of the glycated proteins can be identified in samples from individuals with normal glucose tolerance, although samples from individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus have slightly higher numbers of glycated proteins and more glycation sites identified.

  11. Circulating Metabolites of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitor Nelfinavir in Humans: Structural Identification, Levels in Plasma, and Antiviral Activities (United States)

    Zhang, Kanyin E.; Wu, Ellen; Patick, Amy K.; Kerr, Bradley; Zorbas, Mark; Lankford, Angela; Kobayashi, Takuo; Maeda, Yuki; Shetty, Bhasker; Webber, Stephanie


    Nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept, formally AG1343) is a potent and orally bioavailable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (Ki = 2 nM) and is being widely prescribed in combination with HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors for the treatment of HIV infection. The current studies evaluated the presence of metabolites circulating in plasma following the oral administration of nelfinavir to healthy volunteers and HIV-infected patients, as well as the levels in plasma and antiviral activities of these metabolites. The results showed that the parent drug was the major circulating chemical species, followed in decreasing abundance by its hydroxy-t-butylamide metabolite (M8) and 3′-methoxy-4′-hydroxynelfinavir (M1). Antiviral assays with HIV-1 strain RF-infected CEM-SS cells showed that the 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of nelfinavir, M8, and M1 were 30, 34, and 151 nM, respectively, and that the corresponding EC50 against another HIV-1 strain, IIIB, in MT-2 cells were 60, 86, and 653 nM. Therefore, apparently similar in vitro antiviral activities were demonstrated for nelfinavir and M8, whereas an approximately 5- to 11-fold-lower level of antiviral activity was observed for M1. The active metabolite, M8, showed a degree of binding to human plasma proteins similar to that of nelfinavir (ca. 98%). Concentrations in plasma of nelfinavir and its metabolites in 10 HIV-positive patients receiving nelfinavir therapy (750 mg three times per day) were determined by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay. At steady state (day 28), the mean plasma nelfinavir concentrations ranged from 1.73 to 4.96 μM and the M8 concentrations ranged from 0.55 to 1.96 μM, whereas the M1 concentrations were low and ranged from 0.09 to 0.19 μM. In conclusion, the findings from the current studies suggest that, in humans, nelfinavir forms an active metabolite circulating at appreciable levels in plasma. The active metabolite M8 may account for

  12. Monocytes conditioned media stimulate fibronectin expression and spreading of inflammatory breast cancer cells in three-dimensional culture: A mechanism mediated by IL-8 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mona M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is the most aggressive form of breast cancer characterized by invasion of carcinoma cells into dermal lymphatic vessels where they form tumor emboli over expressing adhesion molecule E-cadherin. Although invasion and metastasis are dynamic processes controlled by complex interaction between tumor cells and microenvironment the mechanisms by which soluble mediators may regulate motility and invasion of IBC cells are poorly understood. The present study investigated the effect of media conditioned by human monocytes U937 secreted cytokines, chemokines and growth factors on the expression of adhesion molecules E-cadherin and fibronectin of human IBC cell line SUM149. Furthermore, cytokines signaling pathway involved were also identified. Results U937 secreted cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were characterized by cytokine antibody array. The major U937 secreted cytokines/chemokines were interleukin-8 (IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2. When SUM149 cells were seeded in three dimensional (3D models with media conditioned by U937 secreted cytokines, chemokines and growth factors; results showed: 1 changes in the morphology of IBC cells from epithelial to migratory spindle shape branched like structures; 2 Over-expression of adhesion molecule fibronectin and not E-cadherin. Further analysis revealed that over-expression of fibronectin may be mediated by IL-8 via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion The present results suggested that cytokines secreted by human monocytes may promote chemotactic migration and spreading of IBC cell lines. Results also indicated that IL-8 the major secreted cytokine by U937 cells may play essential role in fibronectin expression by SUM149 cells via interaction with IL-8 specific receptors and stimulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  13. Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Tocopherols and Retinol in Human Plasma


    Bell, Edward C.; John, Mathew; Hughes, Rodney J; Pham, Thu


    A rapid, selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the detection and quantification of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma. Alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and retinol are assayed using fluorescence detection. Excitation/emission wavelengths are 295/330 nm and 325/470 nm for the analysis of both tocopherols and retinol, respectively. Retinol acetate is employed as the internal standard. The reversed-phase method incorporates gradient ...

  14. Enantioselective determination of arotinolol in human plasma by HPLC using teicoplanin chiral stationary phase. (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Hefnawy, Mohamed M


    A sensitive enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine S-(+)- and R-(-)-arotinolol in human plasma. Baseline resolution was achieved by using teicoplanin macrocyclic antibiotic chiral stationary phase (CSP) known as Chirobiotic T with a polar organic mobile phase consisting of methanol:glacial acetic acid:triethylamine, 100:0.1:0.1, (v/v/v) at a fl ow rate of 0.8 mL/min and UV detection set at 317 nm. Human plasma was spiked with stock solution of arotinolol enantiomers and labetalol as the internal standard. The assay involved the use of liquid-liquid extraction procedure with ethyl ether under alkaline condition for human plasma sample prior to HPLC analysis. Recoveries for S-(+)- and R-(-)-arotinolol enantiomers were in the range 93-103% at 200-1400 ng/mL level. Intra-day and inter-day precision calculated as %RSD was in the ranges 1.3-3.4 and 1.9-4.5% for both enantiomers, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day accuracies calculated as percentage error were in the ranges 1.2-3.5 and 1.5-6.2% for both enantiomers, respectively. Linear calibration curves in the concentration range 100-1500 ng/mL for each enantiomer showed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) for each enantiomer in human plasma were 100 and 50 ng/mL (S/N = 3), respectively. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Plasma proteome and metabolome characterization of an experimental human thyrotoxicosis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietzner, Maik; Engelmann, Beatrice; Kacprowski, Tim


    BACKGROUND: Determinations of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) represent the gold standard in evaluation of thyroid function. To screen for novel peripheral biomarkers of thyroid function and to characterize FT4-associated physiological signatures in human plasma we used an untargeted...... the reliability of kidney function assessment under hyperthyroid conditions and suggest a link between hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular diseases via increased dimethylarginine levels. CONCLUSION: Our results emphasize the power of untargeted OMICs approaches to detect novel pathways of thyroid hormone action...

  16. Virus inhibition assay for measurement of acyclovir levels in human plasma and urine.


    Moore, D.F.; Taylor, S. C.; Bryson, Y J


    A simple microplate virus inhibition assay which measures the levels of acyclovir in plasma and urine samples from patients was developed. The assay is based upon the inhibition of the cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus type 1 on human fibroblast cells. The extent of inhibition of virus cytopathic effect, caused by dilutions of samples from patients, allowed determination of acyclovir concentrations to be made. The assay, which measured biological activity, could detect acyclovir level...

  17. Identification of calcium-binding proteins associated with the human sperm plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westbrook Anne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The precise composition of the human sperm plasma membrane, the molecular interactions that define domain specific functions, and the regulation of membrane associated proteins during the capacitation process, still remain to be fully understood. Here, we investigated the repertoire of calcium-regulated proteins associated with the human sperm plasma membrane. Methods Surface specific radioiodination was combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, a 45Ca-overlay assay, computer assisted image analysis and mass spectrometry to identify calcium-binding proteins exposed on the human sperm surface. Results Nine acidic 45Ca-binding sperm proteins were excised from stained preparative 2D gels and identified by mass spectrometry. Five of the calcium binding proteins; HSPA2 (HSP70-1, HSPA5 (Bip, HYOU1 (ORP150, serum amyloid P-component (SAP and protein kinase C substrate 80K-H (80K-H were found to be accessible to Iodo-Bead catalyzed 125I-labelling on the surface of intact human sperm. Agglutination and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that SAP is situated on the plasma membrane of intact, motile sperm as well as permeabilized cells. Western blot analysis showed increased phosphorylation of human sperm 80K-H protein following in vitro capacitation. This is the first demonstration of the 80K-H protein in a mammalian sperm. Conclusion The presence of SAP on the surface of mature sperm implies that SAP has a physiological role in reproduction, which is thought to be in the removal of spermatozoa from the female genital tract via phagocytosis. Since 80K-H is a Ca2+-sensor recently implicated in the regulation of both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and transient receptor potential (TRP cation channel activities, its detection in sperm represents the first direct signaling link between PKC and store-operated calcium channels identified in human sperm.

  18. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)


    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. In vitro study of thimerosal reactions in human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples. (United States)

    Trümpler, Stefan; Meermann, Björn; Nowak, Sascha; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe; Sperling, Michael


    Because of its bactericidal and fungicidal properties, thimerosal is used as a preservative in drugs and vaccines and is thus deliberately injected into the human body. In aqueous environment, it decomposes into thiosalicylic acid and the ethylmercury cation. This organomercury fragment is a potent neurotoxin and is suspected to have similar toxicity and bioavailability like the methylmercury cation. In this work, human whole blood and physiological simulation solutions were incubated with thimerosal to investigate its behaviour and binding partners in the blood stream. Inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for total mercury determination in different blood fractions, while liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provided information on the individual mercury species in plasma surrogate samples. Analogous behaviour of methylmercury and ethylmercury species in human blood was shown and an ethylmercury-glutathione adduct was identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase in human plasma using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Uma K.; Lin, Chiann Tso; Kim, Jong Seo; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Wang, Jun; Qian, Weijun; Lin, Yuehe


    Paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate) is an active metabolite of the common insecticide parathion and is acutely toxic due to the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the nervous systems. The Inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity by paraoxon is due to the formation of phosphorylated BChE adduct, and the detection of the phosphorylated BChE adduct in human plasma can serve as an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. In this study, we performed immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for identifying phosphorylated BChE in human plasma treated by paraoxon. BChE was captured by biotinylated anti-BChE polyclonal antibodies conjugated to streptavidin magnetic beads. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody was effective to recognize both native and modified BChE with high specificity. The exact phosphorylation site of BChE was confirmed on Serine 198 by MS/MS with a 108 Da modification mass and accurately measured parent ion masses. The phosphorylated BChE peptide was also successfully detected in the immunoaffinity purified sample from paraoxon treated human plasma. Thus, immunoaffinity purification combined with mass spectrometry represents a viable approach for the detection of paraoxon-modified BChE and other forms of modified BChE as exposure biomarkers of organophosphates and nerve agents.

  1. Properties of recombinant human plasma procarboxypeptidase U produced in mammalian and insect cells. (United States)

    Strömqvist, Mats; Hansson, Lennart; Andersson, Jan-Olof; Johansson, Thord; Edlund, Michael; Enoksson, Maria; Goossens, Filip; Scharpé, Simon; Hendriks, Dirk


    Carboxypeptidase U (EC, TAFIa) is a new member of the metallocarboxypeptidase family circulating in human plasma as a zymogen. It is activated during coagulation and is considered as an important player in the regulation of fibrinolysis. Heterologous expression of human plasma procarboxypeptidase U (proCPU, TAFI) was obtained in mammalian cells (C127 and DON) and in insect cells (Sf21 and H5 cells). Conditioned media were purified by cation-exchange chromatography and plasminogen affinity chromatography to yield an essentially pure protein. All systems gave high expression levels (6-20 mg/l). Due to differences in glycosylation of the activation peptide, the recombinant variants of proCPU migrated differently on SDS-PAGE (52-65 kDa). However, after activation, all active recombinant enzymes migrated at 35 kDa, similar to native CPU and no evidence for post-translational modification of the catalytic domains could be detected. For the mammalian cell produced variants, activation was more efficient after desialylation. After activation, CPU showed low solubility (0.2 mg/ml) but was inhibited similarly as native CPU. Mammalian cell systems were the most efficient for the production of human plasma recombinant proCPU. The obtained zymogen differs with respect to the extent and the heterogeneity of glycosylation but, after activation, the experiments did not reveal any alteration between the recombinant and native protein.

  2. A feeder-free, human plasma-derived hydrogel for maintenance of a human embryonic stem cell phenotype in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Fiona C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs represent a tremendous resource for cell therapies and the study of human development; however to maintain their undifferentiated state in vitro they routinely require the use of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF feeder-layers and exogenous protein media supplementation. Results These well established requirements can be overcome and in this study, it will be demonstrated that phenotypic stability of hESCs can be maintained using a novel, human plasma protein-based hydrogel as an extracellular culture matrix without the use of feeder cell co-culture. hESCs were resuspended in human platelet poor plasma (PPP, which was gelled by the addition of calcium containing DMEM-based hESC culture medium. Phenotypic and genomic expression of the pluripotency markers OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 were measured using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR respectively. Typical hESC morphology was demonstrated throughout in vitro culture and both viability and phenotypic stability were maintained throughout extended culture, up to 25 passages. Conclusions PPP-derived hydrogel has demonstrated to be an efficacious alternative to MEF co-culture with its hydrophilicity allowing for this substrate to be delivered via minimally invasive procedures in a liquid phase with polymerization ensuing in situ. Together this provides a novel technique for the study of this unique group of stem cells in either 2D or 3D both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Quantitative determination of dithiocarbamates in human plasma, serum, erythrocytes and urine: pharmacokinetics of broccoli sprout isothiocyanates in humans. (United States)

    Ye, Lingxiang; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Wade, Kristina L; Zhang, Yuesheng; Shapiro, Theresa A; Talalay, Paul


    Humans are exposed to substantial quantities of isothiocyanates and glucosinolates from vegetables. Since dietary isothiocyanates are widely regarded as potentially important chemoprotectors against cancer, reliable methods for measuring the plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of isothiocyanates and their dithiocarbamate metabolites are essential for defining dosing regimens. Isothiocyanates (ITC) and dithiocarbamates (DTC) react quantitatively with 1,2-benzenedithiol to produce 1,3-benzodithiole-2-thione that can be quantified spectroscopically. Although this cyclocondensation reaction has been highly useful for analyzing plant material and urine samples, the determination of DTC/ITC (the total quantity of DTC and ITC components in a sample that react in the cyclocondensation reaction) in blood and tissues has been hampered by their low levels and the high concentrations of proteins that interfere with the cyclocondensation reaction. The protein content of blood and tissues was reduced by the precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or ultrafiltration, and the sensitivity of the method was increased substantially by the solid phase extraction of the cyclocondensation product. Pharmacokinetic measurements were made in four human volunteers who received single doses of about 200 micromol of broccoli sprout isothiocyanates (largely sulforaphane, with lesser amounts of iberin and erucin). Isothiocyanates were absorbed rapidly, reached peak concentrations of 0.943-2.27 micromol/l in plasma, serum and erythrocytes at 1 h after feeding and declined with first-order kinetics (half-life of 1.77+/-0.13 h). The cumulative excretion at 8 h was 58.3+/-2.8% of the dose. Clearance was 369+/-53 ml/min, indicating active renal tubular secretion. A sensitive and specific method for quantifying DTC levels in human plasma, serum, and erythrocytes has been devised. Determinations of ITC/DTC levels are important because: (i) dietary isothiocyanates are of potential value in reducing

  4. Human recombinant arginase enzyme reduces plasma arginine in mouse models of arginase deficiency. (United States)

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Sun, Qin; Elsea, Sarah H; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Frankel, Arthur E; Stone, Everett; Alters, Susan E; Johnson, Dale E; Rowlinson, Scott W; Georgiou, George; Lee, Brendan H


    Arginase deficiency is caused by deficiency of arginase 1 (ARG1), a urea cycle enzyme that converts arginine to ornithine. Clinical features of arginase deficiency include elevated plasma arginine levels, spastic diplegia, intellectual disability, seizures and growth deficiency. Unlike other urea cycle disorders, recurrent hyperammonemia is typically less severe in this disorder. Normalization of plasma arginine levels is the consensus treatment goal, because elevations of arginine and its metabolites are suspected to contribute to the neurologic features. Using data from patients enrolled in a natural history study conducted by the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, we found that 97% of plasma arginine levels in subjects with arginase deficiency were above the normal range despite conventional treatment. Recently, arginine-degrading enzymes have been used to deplete arginine as a therapeutic strategy in cancer. We tested whether one of these enzymes, a pegylated human recombinant arginase 1 (AEB1102), reduces plasma arginine in murine models of arginase deficiency. In neonatal and adult mice with arginase deficiency, AEB1102 reduced the plasma arginine after single and repeated doses. However, survival did not improve likely, because this pegylated enzyme does not enter hepatocytes and does not improve hyperammonemia that accounts for lethality. Although murine models required dosing every 48 h, studies in cynomolgus monkeys indicate that less frequent dosing may be possible in patients. Given that elevated plasma arginine rather than hyperammonemia is the major treatment challenge, we propose that AEB1102 may have therapeutic potential as an arginine-reducing agent in patients with arginase deficiency. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  5. Analysis of human blood plasma proteome from ten healthy volunteers from Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Gautam

    Full Text Available Analysis of any mammalian plasma proteome is a challenge, particularly by mass spectrometry, due to the presence of albumin and other abundant proteins which can mask the detection of low abundant proteins. As detection of human plasma proteins is valuable in diagnostics, exploring various workflows with minimal fractionation prior to mass spectral analysis, is required in order to study population diversity involving analysis in a large cohort of samples. Here, we used 'reference plasma sample', a pool of plasma from 10 healthy individuals from Indian population in the age group of 25-60 yrs including 5 males and 5 females. The 14 abundant proteins were immunodepleted from plasma and then evaluated by three different workflows for proteome analysis using a nanoflow reverse phase liquid chromatography system coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. The analysis of reference plasma sample a without prefractionation, b after prefractionation at peptide level by strong cation exchange chromatography and c after prefractionation at protein level by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, led to the identification of 194, 251 and 342 proteins respectively. Together, a comprehensive dataset of 517 unique proteins was achieved from all the three workflows, including 271 proteins with high confidence identified by ≥ 2 unique peptides in any of the workflows or identified by single peptide in any of the two workflows. A total of 70 proteins were common in all the three workflows. Some of the proteins were unique to our study and could be specific to Indian population. The high-confidence dataset obtained from our study may be useful for studying the population diversity, in discovery and validation process for biomarker identification.

  6. Alterations of branching and differential expression of sialic acid on alpha-1-acid glycoprotein in human seminal plasma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratz, E; Poland, DC; Dijk, van W.; Katnik-Prastowska, I


    BACKGROUND: The degree of branching and types of fucosylation of glycans on alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) have been found to be associated with alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein concentrations in human seminal plasma. The glycosylation pattern of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein in seminal plasma obtained

  7. [The influence of fibronectin on the formation of multi-cellular spheroid of ovarian cancer]. (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shan-Ling; Wang, He; Lin, Lin; Zhu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Zheng, Ying


    To investigate the role of Fibronectin in the formation of multi-cellular spheroid of ovarian cancer and the integrin receptor involved in the process. In vitro model of multi-cellular spheroid of SKOV3 was constructed by liguid overlay technique. The influence of fibronectin on the formation of the spheroid was observed. The gene expressions of potential integrin receptors were examined from the levels of mRNA and protein using real time reverse transcription PCR and Western-blot. Fibronctin stimulated the formation of multi-cellular spheroid of ovarian cancer larger than 250 microm. fibronectin suppressed the expression of subtype of integrin receptor ITGA5. Fibronectin can enhance the formation of multi-cellular spheroid of ovarian cancer. The subtype of integrin receptor ITGA5 is probably involved in the process.

  8. Enhanced assembly of basement membrane matrix by endodermal cells in response to fibronectin substrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austria, M R; Couchman, J R


    cells, in comparison to cells adherent to type I collagen-coated, vitronectin-coated or uncoated substrata. Direct effects of fibronectin or laminin on the degree of cell spreading or rate of proliferation were not responsible for enhanced matrix deposition. The effect did not result from a redirection....... Experiments with fibronectin fragments showed that a 105 x 10(3) Mr 'cell'-binding domain (containing the cell attachment sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) was an important contributor to enhanced matrix deposition, while the N-terminal 29 x 10(3) Mr heparin-binding domain also contributed to the effect, particularly...... the role of extracellular matrix molecules in the control of basement membrane matrix assembly by cultured endodermal (PFHR-9) cells. In the presence of fibronectin-depleted serum, substrata of fibronectin or laminin induced an increase in deposition of laminin, type IV collagen and proteoglycans by PFHR-9...

  9. Human umbilical cord-derived MSC culture: the replacement of animal sera with human cord blood plasma. (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Yang, Hua; Feng, Jing Bo; Qiu, Ying; Li, Dong Sheng; Zeng, Yi


    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) hold great potential for their therapeutic use in various clinical diseases. Many publications have reported on human blood-derived alternatives to animal serum for culturing mesenchymal stem cells, such as human serum, allogenic umbilical cord blood serum, and human platelet derivatives. However, it is not clear whether human umbilical cord blood plasma (UCBP), as the surplusage of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell extraction, could be used. In this study, in order to make the best of umbilical cord blood, the human UCBP was dialyzed to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture medium. hUC-MSCs were cultured in the new medium. Cell growth rate, specific biomarkers, and differentiation properties were detected to characterize the cell proliferation and MSC-specific properties. The hUC-MSCs cultured in such derived medium were verified with proliferation rate, cluster differentiation markers, cell cycle, as well as differentiation capabilities. Such dialyzed human UCBP is fully comparable with, if not superior to, FBS in deriving and culturing hUC-MSCs.

  10. Site-specific O-Glycosylation Analysis of Human Blood Plasma Proteins. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Marcus; Marx, Kristina; Reichl, Udo; Wuhrer, Manfred; Rapp, Erdmann


    Site-specific glycosylation analysis is key to investigate structure-function relationships of glycoproteins, e.g. in the context of antigenicity and disease progression. The analysis, though, is quite challenging and time consuming, in particular for O-glycosylated proteins. In consequence, despite their clinical and biopharmaceutical importance, many human blood plasma glycoproteins have not been characterized comprehensively with respect to their O-glycosylation. Here, we report on the site-specific O-glycosylation analysis of human blood plasma glycoproteins. To this end pooled human blood plasma of healthy donors was proteolytically digested using a broad-specific enzyme (Proteinase K), followed by a precipitation step, as well as a glycopeptide enrichment and fractionation step via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, the latter being optimized for intact O-glycopeptides carrying short mucin-type core-1 and -2 O-glycans, which represent the vast majority of O-glycans on human blood plasma proteins. Enriched O-glycopeptide fractions were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled online to an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in positive-ion mode. Peptide identity and glycan composition were derived from low-energy collision-induced dissociation fragment spectra acquired in multistage mode. To pinpoint the O-glycosylation sites glycopeptides were fragmented using electron transfer dissociation. Spectra were annotated by database searches as well as manually. Overall, 31 O-glycosylation sites and regions belonging to 22 proteins were identified, the majority being acute-phase proteins. Strikingly, also 11 novel O-glycosylation sites and regions were identified. In total 23 O-glycosylation sites could be pinpointed. Interestingly, the use of Proteinase K proved to be particularly beneficial in this context. The identified O-glycan compositions most probably correspond to mono- and disialylated core-1

  11. Adhesion, unfolding forces, and molecular elasticity of fibronectin coatings: An atomic force microscopy study. (United States)

    Sumarokova, Maria; Iturri, Jagoba; Toca-Herrera, José L


    Fibronectin is an extracellular matrix protein that is involved in cell adhesion, growth, migration, differentiation, and wound healing. Fibronectin coatings are currently used in many laboratories for biomedical and biotechnology purposes. In this study we have investigated the adhesion and mechanical properties of fibronectin coatings. The coatings were also used to study the role of the residence time and the influence of the loading rate in nonspecific interactions. The results showed that the adhesion force between silica and fibronectin increased with loading rate delivering similar values for residence times of 1 and 2 s. Further analysis indicated that the distance to the transition state was about 0.5 nm. Moreover, the adhesion force did not vary with the loading rate for contact time of 0 s. The unfolding of fibronectin domains also depended of the Dwell time (no unfolding events were observed for zero residence time). Applied loads of 2 nN were able to stretch the fibronectin layer up to 200 nm and to unfold the three fibronectin domains, which were similar for a Dwell time of 1 and 2 s. However, the unfolding length increased with loading rate: below 2.5 µm s(-1) the obtained lengths matched the value of FN I (13.5 nm), while for higher speeds the measured values corresponded to the lengths of FN II (18 nm) and FN III (27 nm). This investigation has answered and opened new questions about the mechanical stability and function of fibronectin coatings. The results have also raised theoretical questions about the difference between specific and nonspecific interactions to be addressed in future work. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Interaction between Fibronectin and β1 Integrin Is Essential for Tooth Development (United States)

    Yamada, Aya; Yuasa, Kenji; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Tsutomu; Saito, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi


    The dental epithelium and extracellular matrix interact to ensure that cell growth and differentiation lead to the formation of teeth of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of fibronectin in differentiation of the dental epithelium and tooth formation, we analyzed its expression in developing incisors. Fibronectin mRNA was expressed during the presecretory stage in developing dental epithelium, decreased in the secretory and early maturation stages, and then reappeared during the late maturation stage. The binding of dental epithelial cells derived from postnatal day-1 molars to a fibronectin-coated dish was inhibited by the RGD but not RAD peptide, and by a β1 integrin-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that fibronectin-β1 integrin interactions contribute to dental epithelial-cell binding. Because fibronectin and β1 integrin are highly expressed in the dental mesenchyme, it is difficult to determine precisely how their interactions influence dental epithelial differentiation in vivo. Therefore, we analyzed β1 integrin conditional knockout mice (Intβ1lox-/lox-/K14-Cre) and found that they exhibited partial enamel hypoplasia, and delayed eruption of molars and differentiation of ameloblasts, but not of odontoblasts. Furthermore, a cyst-like structure was observed during late ameloblast maturation. Dental epithelial cells from knockout mice did not bind to fibronectin, and induction of ameloblastin expression in these cells by neurotrophic factor-4 was inhibited by treatment with RGD peptide or a fibronectin siRNA, suggesting that the epithelial interaction between fibronectin and β1 integrin is important for ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation. PMID:25830530

  13. Interaction between fibronectin and β1 integrin is essential for tooth development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Saito

    Full Text Available The dental epithelium and extracellular matrix interact to ensure that cell growth and differentiation lead to the formation of teeth of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of fibronectin in differentiation of the dental epithelium and tooth formation, we analyzed its expression in developing incisors. Fibronectin mRNA was expressed during the presecretory stage in developing dental epithelium, decreased in the secretory and early maturation stages, and then reappeared during the late maturation stage. The binding of dental epithelial cells derived from postnatal day-1 molars to a fibronectin-coated dish was inhibited by the RGD but not RAD peptide, and by a β1 integrin-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that fibronectin-β1 integrin interactions contribute to dental epithelial-cell binding. Because fibronectin and β1 integrin are highly expressed in the dental mesenchyme, it is difficult to determine precisely how their interactions influence dental epithelial differentiation in vivo. Therefore, we analyzed β1 integrin conditional knockout mice (Intβ1lox-/lox-/K14-Cre and found that they exhibited partial enamel hypoplasia, and delayed eruption of molars and differentiation of ameloblasts, but not of odontoblasts. Furthermore, a cyst-like structure was observed during late ameloblast maturation. Dental epithelial cells from knockout mice did not bind to fibronectin, and induction of ameloblastin expression in these cells by neurotrophic factor-4 was inhibited by treatment with RGD peptide or a fibronectin siRNA, suggesting that the epithelial interaction between fibronectin and β1 integrin is important for ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation.

  14. Interaction between fibronectin and β1 integrin is essential for tooth development. (United States)

    Saito, Kan; Fukumoto, Emiko; Yamada, Aya; Yuasa, Kenji; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Tsutomu; Saito, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi


    The dental epithelium and extracellular matrix interact to ensure that cell growth and differentiation lead to the formation of teeth of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of fibronectin in differentiation of the dental epithelium and tooth formation, we analyzed its expression in developing incisors. Fibronectin mRNA was expressed during the presecretory stage in developing dental epithelium, decreased in the secretory and early maturation stages, and then reappeared during the late maturation stage. The binding of dental epithelial cells derived from postnatal day-1 molars to a fibronectin-coated dish was inhibited by the RGD but not RAD peptide, and by a β1 integrin-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that fibronectin-β1 integrin interactions contribute to dental epithelial-cell binding. Because fibronectin and β1 integrin are highly expressed in the dental mesenchyme, it is difficult to determine precisely how their interactions influence dental epithelial differentiation in vivo. Therefore, we analyzed β1 integrin conditional knockout mice (Intβ1lox-/lox-/K14-Cre) and found that they exhibited partial enamel hypoplasia, and delayed eruption of molars and differentiation of ameloblasts, but not of odontoblasts. Furthermore, a cyst-like structure was observed during late ameloblast maturation. Dental epithelial cells from knockout mice did not bind to fibronectin, and induction of ameloblastin expression in these cells by neurotrophic factor-4 was inhibited by treatment with RGD peptide or a fibronectin siRNA, suggesting that the epithelial interaction between fibronectin and β1 integrin is important for ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation.

  15. Enhancement in recovery of drugs with high protein binding efficiency from human plasma using magnetic nanoparticles. (United States)

    Bhati, Aniruddha; Desai, Rucha P; Ramchand, C N


    In this paper, we propose an alternate method for bioanalytical extraction of drugs from human plasma samples using bare magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for deproteination of biological samples that further assist in extraction of plasma bound drugs for bioanalytical studies. The method uses basic solvents (ethanol, methanol, etc.) rather than the expensive and toxic solvents. The MNPs provide several advantages like avoiding the use of centrifuge machine, and making extraction time effective. The average time involved for the sample preparation is around 30-40min. The developed method was examined for seven different drugs having moderate (40-70%) to high (>80%) plasma protein binding efficiency. The present study focuses on the principle of magnetic nanoparticle based extraction of drug that binds with the plasma protein. In calcitriol (protein binding efficiency >99%), it was observed that the drug extraction efficiency could be enhanced by 16% using the present method. However, we assume that still there is a scope for improving the extraction efficiency by optimizing proper solvent for the specific drug. The use of magnetic nanoparticles makes the extraction cost effective and quick with improved efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolism of oxycodone in human hepatocytes from different age groups and prediction of hepatic plasma clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eKorjamo


    Full Text Available Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1 and 10 µM was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 hours, and 1 µM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 µM. Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. In general, this in vitro to in vivo extrapolation method provides valuable information on the maturation of oxycodone metabolism that can be utilized in the design of clinical pharmacokinetic studies in infants and young children.

  17. Enhanced Biological Behavior of In Vitro Human Gingival Fibroblasts on Cold Plasma-Treated Zirconia (United States)

    Zheng, Miao; Yang, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xin; Li, He-Ping; Tan, Jian-Guo


    Objective To evaluate whether atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma treatment of zirconia enhances its biocompatibility with human gingival fibroblasts. Materials and Methods The zirconia disks were divided into four groups and treated using helium atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge plasmas for 30, 60 or 90 s or left untreated. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical elements were analyzed. Fibroblasts density, morphology, morphometry and attachment-related genes expression were measured at different time points from 3 to 72 h. Results After plasma treatment, the surface morphology and roughness remained the same, while the contact angle decreased from 78.31° to 43.71°, and the surface C/O ratio decreased from 3.17 to 0.89. The surficial areas and perimeters of HGFs were increased two-fold in the treated groups at 3 h. Fibroblasts density increased on treated disks at all time points, especially the ones treated for 60 s. Attachment-related genes in the groups treated for 30 and 60 s were significantly higher at 3 and 24 h. Conclusion The helium atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma treatment enhances the biological behavior of fibroblasts on zirconia by increasing the expression of attachment-related genes within 24 h and promoting the cell density during longer culture times. Wettability of zirconia, an important physicochemical property, has a vital influence on the cell behaviors. PMID:26461253

  18. High-throughput sequencing of human plasma RNA by using thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases. (United States)

    Qin, Yidan; Yao, Jun; Wu, Douglas C; Nottingham, Ryan M; Mohr, Sabine; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M


    Next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized transcriptome profiling, gene expression analysis, and RNA-based diagnostics. Here, we developed a new RNA-seq method that exploits thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases (TGIRTs) and used it to profile human plasma RNAs. TGIRTs have higher thermostability, processivity, and fidelity than conventional reverse transcriptases, plus a novel template-switching activity that can efficiently attach RNA-seq adapters to target RNA sequences without RNA ligation. The new TGIRT-seq method enabled construction of RNA-seq libraries from RNA in RNA in 1-mL plasma samples from a healthy individual revealed RNA fragments mapping to a diverse population of protein-coding gene and long ncRNAs, which are enriched in intron and antisense sequences, as well as nearly all known classes of small ncRNAs, some of which have never before been seen in plasma. Surprisingly, many of the small ncRNA species were present as full-length transcripts, suggesting that they are protected from plasma RNases in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and/or exosomes. This TGIRT-seq method is readily adaptable for profiling of whole-cell, exosomal, and miRNAs, and for related procedures, such as HITS-CLIP and ribosome profiling. © 2015 Qin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  19. Changes in various antioxidant levels in human seminal plasma related to immunoinfertility. (United States)

    Palan, P; Naz, R


    The present study was designed (1) to determine levels of antioxidant micronutrients in human seminal plasma, and (2) to evaluate the association between the concentrations of these antioxidants and the antisperm antibody titers in immunoinfertile men. To investigate this, the seminal plasma concentrations of antioxidant beta-carotene, lycopene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography in 37 men (22 fertile and 15 immunoinfertile), aged 27 to 35 years. The SIT (sperm-immobilization technique), TAT (tray-agglutination technique), and IBT (indirect immunobead test) were used to evaluate the antisperm antibody titers. The levels of three antioxidants, namely, beta-carotene, lycopene, and retinol, were significantly (p = .01) decreased and the concentration of alpha-tocopherol was significantly (p = .002) increased in seminal plasma of immunoinfertile men as compared to the levels in fertile men. There was a significant linear correlation between the antisperm antibody titer and beta-carotene level measured by IBT (r = .561, p = .002), whereas no significant correlation was found with the other three seminal plasma antioxidants, namely, lycopene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol levels. These results indicate, for perhaps the first time, the presence of antioxidants in local genital tract secretions of men. Modulation of their concentrations in immunoinfertile men and their correlation with the antisperm antibody titers strongly suggest the involvement of dietary antioxidants in male infertility, especially mediated through immunologic factors.

  20. Simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method to analyse megazol in human and rat plasma. (United States)

    Enanga, B; Labat, C; Boudra, H; Chauvière, G; Keita, M; Bouteille, B; Dumas, M; Houin, G


    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed to measure megazol in human plasma. The method was optimized and validated according to the Washington Concensus Conference on the Validation of Analytical Methods (V.P. Shah et al., Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet., 15 (1991) 249). The criteria of complete validation were specificity, linearity, precision, analytical recovery, dilution and stability. It involved extraction of the plasma with dichloromethane, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a Kromasil C8 column and UV detection at 360 nm. The retention times of the internal standard (tinidazol) and megazol were 6.10 and 9.60 min, respectively. The standard curve was linear from 2 ng ml-1 (limit of quantification) to 2000 ng ml-1. The coefficients of variation for all the criteria of validation were less than 6%; 85 to 92% extraction efficiencies were obtained. Megazol was stable during the storage period (one month at -20 degrees C) in plasma and for two months at 25 degrees C in standard solution. The method was tested by measuring the plasma concentration following oral administration to rat and was shown to be suitable for pharmacokinetic studies.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of rivastigmine in human plasma for application in pharmacokinetic studies. (United States)

    Amini, Hossein; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan


    A simple and reproducible HPLC method with spectrophotometric detection was developed for determination of rivastigmine in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction of rivastigmine and donepezil (as internal standard) from plasma samples was performed with 1-butanol/n-hexane (2:98 v/v) in alkaline condition followed by back-extraction into diluted acetic acid. Chromatography was carried out using a Silica column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) under isocratic elution with acetonitrile-50 mM aqueous sodium dihydrogen phosphate (17: 83 v/v, pH 3.1. Analyses were run at a flow-rate of 1.3 mL/min at of 50°C. The recovery was 90.8% and 95.7% for rivastigmine and the internal standard donepezil, respectively. The precision of the method was 2.6% to 9.1% over the concentration range of 0.5-16 ng/mL for rivastigmine in plasma with a linearity greater than 0.999. The method was specific and sensitive, with a quantification limit of 0.5 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL in plasma. The method was used for a bioequivalence study in healthy subjects.

  2. Effect of plasma on composition of human enamel and cementum pellicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajisa, L.; Prakobphol, A. (Division of Oral Biology, Department of Stomatology, School of Dentistry, University of California at San Francisco (USA)); Schioedt, M. (Department of Oral Medicine and Oral Surgery, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Fisher, S.J. (Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco (USA))


    Slabs of human enamel and cementum were incubated with plasma alone or with various mixtures of plasma and saliva. Proteins and glycoproteins that adsorbed to the surface of the slabs in 0 to 60 min were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed {sup 125}I-iodination and by mild periodate oxidation followed by NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} reduction. The labeled components were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by autoradiography or fluorography. From plasma alone, a 58 and a 66 kDa protein (probably albumin) were adsorbed to the enamel surface in relatively equal amounts, but no {sup 125}I-labeled components were detected on the cementum surface in the absence of saliva. Adding 10% saliva to the incubation mixture promoted the adsorption of the 58 and 66 kDa components to cementum. In Addition, another set of proteins, including components of 44, 47, 29, and 25 kDa, was adsorbed to both cementum and enamel in the presence of saliva. These six proteins were the major {sup 125}I-labeled species in all of the pellicles formed from mixtures of plasma and saliva. The electrophoretic mobility of the major 120 and 140 kDa {sup 3}H-labeled sialoglycoproteins adsorbed to both cementum and enamel was similar to that of the low-molecular-weight mucin of submandibular/sublingual saliva. (author).

  3. Simultaneous Estimation and Validation for Determination of Lamivudine and Zidovudine in Human Plasma By LCMS/MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Parthiban


    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic method with mass detection was developed for determination of Lamivudine and Zidovudine in human plasma. Lamivudine and Zidovudine were extracted from an aliquot of human plasma using Solid Phase Extraction technique, and then injected into a liquid chromatograph equipped with a tandem mass spectrometry detector; quantitation was done by peak area ratio method. A weighted (1/Conc2 linear regression was performed to determine the concentration of analyte. This method demonstrates acceptable performance and is suitable for the determination of Lamivudine and Zidovudine in human plasma over the range of 25.291 to 4046.621 ng/mL and 23.357 to 4057.l4lng/mL respectively using Solid Phase Extraction Procedure. As all the values obtained were within the limits as specified, the method has been successfully used to analyse the human plasma containing Lamivudine and Zidovudine with good recoveries and proved to be robust.

  4. Fibronectin fixation on poly(ethyl acrylate)-based copolymers. (United States)

    Briz, N; Antolinos-Turpin, C M; Alió, J; Garagorri, N; Ribelles, J L Gómez; Gómez-Tejedor, J A


    The aim of this paper is to quantify the adhered fibronectin (FN; by adsorption and/or grafting) and the exposure of its cell adhesive motifs (RGD and FNIII7-10) on poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) copolymers whose chemical composition has been designed to increase wettability and to introduce acid functional groups. FN was adsorbed to PEA, poly(ethyl acrylate-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid), and poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers, and covalently cross-linked to poly(ethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) and poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers. Amount of adhered FN and exhibition of RGD and FNIII7- 10 fragments involved in cell adhesion were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Even copolymers with a lower content of the hydrophilic component showed a decrease in water contact angle. In addition, FN was successfully fixed on all surfaces, especially on the hydrophobic surfaces. However, it was demonstrated that exposure of its cell adhesion sequences, which is the key factor in cell adhesion and proliferation, was higher for hydrophilic surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Small molecule inhibitors target the tissue transglutaminase and fibronectin interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiyor Yakubov

    Full Text Available Tissue transglutaminase (TG2 mediates protein crosslinking through generation of ε-(γ-glutamyl lysine isopeptide bonds and promotes cell adhesion through interaction with fibronectin (FN and integrins. Cell adhesion to the peritoneal matrix regulated by TG2 facilitates ovarian cancer dissemination. Therefore, disruption of the TG2-FN complex by small molecules may inhibit cell adhesion and metastasis. A novel high throughput screening (HTS assay based on AlphaLISA™ technology was developed to measure the formation of a complex between His-TG2 and the biotinylated FN fragment that binds TG2 and to discover small molecules that inhibit this protein-protein interaction. Several hits were identified from 10,000 compounds screened. The top candidates selected based on >70% inhibition of the TG2/FN complex formation were confirmed by using ELISA and bioassays measuring cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and proliferation. In conclusion, the AlphaLISA bead format assay measuring the TG2-FN interaction is robust and suitable for HTS of small molecules. One compound identified from the screen (TG53 potently inhibited ovarian cancer cell adhesion to FN, cell migration, and invasion and could be further developed as a potential inhibitor for ovarian cancer dissemination.

  6. Fibronectin Pattern in Benign Hyperplasia and Cancer of the Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava M. Janković


    Full Text Available Fibronectin (FN is a multifunctional glycoprotein involved in cell-matrix interactions. It exhibits a complex pattern of forms differing in respect to aminoacid and oligosaccharide composition. In this study we examined glycobiochemical and functional properties of the FN in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostatic cancer (PCa, attempting to resolve disease-related differences. Two BPH sera pools and three PCa sera pools were used as the FN source. The affinity-purified molecule was characterized by SDS-PAGE, immuno- and lectin blot, lectin-affinity chromatography and adhesion assay. BPH FN existed as intact molecule, giving the main immunoreactive band at 220 kDa. In contrast, PCa FN comprised three main immunoreactive fragments of 140, 110 and 90 kDa. As for glycosylation the ratio of altogether lectin-reactive PCa FN was different from that of BPH FN manifested as a decrease of Con A- and an increase of LCA-reactive moieties. Fibroblasts adhered to both FN preparations in a concentration dependent manner, but with a significantly lower efficiency to PCa FN. The results obtained showing distinct structural characteristics of PCa FN compared to BPH FN could be important for modulation of its ligand and recognition properties expressed as gain or loss of functions or as specific markers of its origin.

  7. Probing fibronectin conformation on a protein corona layer around nanoparticles. (United States)

    Raoufi, Mohammad; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Kamali Shahri, Seyed Mehdi; Schoen, Ingmar; Linn, Uwe; Mahmoudi, Morteza


    Protein unfolding induced by nanoparticles (NPs) can lead to exposure of cryptic epitopes that might dictate biological identity and affect NP biological fate (e.g., blood circulation time, biodistribution, and tumor accumulation). Here, we monitor the conformation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-labelled fibronectin (FN) on corona-coated gold NPs. We found that the labelled FN proteins, which directly accessed the gold NP surface, underwent more pronounced conformational changes than those associated with the protein corona via protein-protein interactions. FRET and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that NP size/concentration, pH change, and the level of surface coverage by the corona can tune the accessibility of labelled FN to the gold NP surface. Although some subsequently adsorbing proteins accessed the NP surface thanks to incomplete surface coverage and protein exchange (the Vroman effect), most outer-layer proteins could not directly bind to the NP surface, blocked by pre-adsorbed corona layers. This finding was also partially confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis. These results suggest the proof-of-concept that outermost-layer proteins with modestly changed conformation rather than unfolded proteins at the gold NP surface effectively create the NPs' biological identity, which might have important implications on biological fates of gold NPs.

  8. Competitive adsorption of fibronectin and albumin on hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Tagaya, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Nobutaka Hanagata, Tomohiko Yoshioka and Junzo Tanaka


    Full Text Available Competitive adsorption of two-component solutions containing fibronectin (Fn and albumin (Ab on hydroxyapatite (HAp nanocrystals was analyzed in situ using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D technique. Adsorption of the one-component protein (Fn or Ab and the two-component proteins adjusted to different molar ratios of Fn to Ab at a fixed Fn concentration was investigated. The frequency shift (Δf; Hz and the dissipation energy shift (ΔD were measured with the QCM-D technique, and the viscoelastic changes of adlayers were evaluated by the saturated ΔD/Δf value and the Voigt-based viscoelastic model. For the adsorption of the one-component protein, the Fn adlayer showed a larger mass and higher viscoelasticity than the Ab adlayer, indicating the higher affinity of Fn on HAp. For the adsorption of the two-component proteins, the viscoelastic properties of the adlayers became elastic with increase in Ab concentration, whereas the adsorption mass was similar to that of Fn in the one-component solution regardless of the Ab concentration. The specific binding mass of the Ab antibody to the adlayers increased with increase in Ab concentration, whereas that of the Fn antibody decreased. Therefore, Fn preferentially adsorbs on HAp and Ab subsequently interacts with the adlayers, indicating that the interfacial viscoelasticity of the adlayers was dominated by the interaction between Fn and Ab.

  9. Extracellular matrix inspired surface functionalization with heparin, fibronectin and VEGF provides an anticoagulant and endothelialization supporting microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Liu, Tao [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai’an (China); Chen, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Zhang, Kun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); School of Life Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Maitz, Manfred F. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Hohe Str. 06, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Pan, Changjiang [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai’an (China); Chen, Junying, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Huang, Nan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China)


    Highlights: • Surface modification with fibronectin, heparin and VEGF could selectively anticoagulant and promote endothelialization. • The bioactivity of biomolecules was more efficiently maintained via specific intermolecular interaction. • Poly-l-lysine interlayer was more feasible and the degradation product had no harm to human body. - Abstract: The biocompatibility of currently used coronary artery stent is still far from perfect, which closely related to insufficient endothelialization and thrombus formation. In this study, heparin, fibronectin and VEGF were immobilized on Ti surface to construct a multifunctional microenvironment with favorable properties to inhibit thrombosis formation and promote endothelialization simultaneously. The microenvironment on Ti surface was characterized in detail and demonstrated that the Hep/Fn/VEGF biofunctional coating was constructed successfully on Ti surface. The influence of surface properties such as chemical composition, roughness, hydrophilicity, and binding density of biomolecules on the performances of hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility was evaluated and discussed. Modified surface significantly enhanced the AT III binding density and prolonged the clotting time. In vitro platelet adhesion and activation assays further proved that the modified surface presented favorable anti-coagulant property. In addition, the proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) on the Hep/Fn/VEGF biofunctional coating was significantly promoted. In conclusion, the Hep/Fn/VEGF biofunctional coating was successfully constructed with desirable anticoagulant and endothelialization supporting properties. This work may provide a promising approach for biofunctional surface modification of coronary artery stent to acquire a desired multifunctional microenvironment.

  10. A quick and easy high performance liquid chromatography method for evaluation of cefixime in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Danafar


    Full Text Available Cefixime is essential member of orally energetic third generation cephalosporin and has tremendous activity aligned with many pathogens. The virtual bioavailability of a newly industrial dispersible tablet as compared with a recognized identified formulation.  A simple and available reversed-phase HPLC method with UV detection has been urbanized and validate for cefixime evaluate in human plasma using a C18 analytical column and a mobile phase of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (pH 6.5-acetonitrile (3:1 v/v. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. To method observed major linear response-concentration association all through the cefixime concentration range of 15-100 ng/ml, with the average accuracy within-run and between-run values of 97.29% and 99.27%. The average drug recovery from plasma was 98.2% throughout the linear concentration range. The limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ of the method were 5 and 15 ng/ml, respectively. The method is quick, easy, very steady and precise for the partition, assignment, evaluation of cefixime in human plasma.

  11. Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted human plasma (United States)

    Kirk, James T.; Brault, Norman D.; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Jiang, Shaoyi; Ratner, Daniel M.


    A widely acknowledged goal in personalized medicine is to radically reduce the costs of highly parallelized, small fluid volume, point-of-care and home-based diagnostics. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible silicon photonic circuits for biosensing, with the promise of producing chip-scale integrated devices containing thousands of orthogonal sensors, at minimal cost on a per-chip basis. A central challenge in biosensor translation is to engineer devices that are both sensitive and specific to a target analyte within unprocessed biological fluids. Despite advances in the sensitivity of silicon photonic biosensors, poor biological specificity at the sensor surface remains a significant factor limiting assay performance in complex media (i.e. whole blood, plasma, serum) due to the non-specific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. Here, we chemically modify the surface of silicon microring resonator biosensors for the label-free detection of an analyte in undiluted human plasma. This work highlights the first application of a non-fouling zwitterionic surface coating to enable silicon photonic-based label-free detection of a protein analyte at clinically relevant sensitivities in undiluted human plasma. PMID:23202337

  12. Determination of voriconazole in human serum and plasma by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. (United States)

    Theurillat, Regula; Zimmerli, Stefan; Thormann, Wolfgang


    The micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) separation and analysis of voriconazole and UK 115794 (internal standard) were examined and an assay for determination of voriconazole in human plasma and serum was developed. The MEKC medium comprises a 2:15 (v/v) mixture of methanol and a pH 9.3 buffer composed of 5mM Na(2)B(4)O(7), 7 mM Na(2)HPO(4) and 54 mM SDS. Sample preparation is based upon liquid/liquid extraction with ethylacetate and dichloromethane (75%/25%) at physiological pH. Using this approach with 250 microl serum or plasma and reconstitution of the dried extract into 100 microl of a buffer composed of 0.5mM Na(2)B(4)O(7) and 0.7 mM Na(2)HPO(4) (pH 9.3), the detection and quantitation limits were determined to be 0.1 and 0.2 microg/ml, respectively, a sensitivity that is suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole (provisional therapeutic range: 1-6 microg/ml) in human plasma and serum samples. The method was validated and compared to an HPLC method, showing excellent agreement between the two for a set of 91 samples that stemmed from patients being treated with voriconazole. The MEKC assay is also demonstrated to be suitable to explore pharmacokinetic data of voriconazole. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. (United States)

    van de Pas, Niek C A; Woutersen, Ruud A; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A


    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was directly adapted from a PBK model for mice by incorporation of the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol ester transfer protein and contained 21 biochemical reactions and eight different cholesterol pools. The model was calibrated using published data for humans and validated by comparing model predictions on plasma cholesterol levels of subjects with 10 different genetic mutations (including familial hypercholesterolemia and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome) with experimental data. Average model predictions on total cholesterol were accurate within 36% of the experimental data, which was within the experimental margin. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration was mainly dependent on hepatic transport of cholesterol to HDL, cholesterol ester transfer from HDL to non-HDL, and hepatic uptake of cholesterol from non-HDL-C. Thus, the presented PBK model is a valid tool to predict the effect of genetic mutations on cholesterol concentrations, opening the way for future studies on the effect of different drugs on cholesterol levels in various subpopulations in silico.

  14. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans[S (United States)

    van de Pas, Niek C. A.; Woutersen, Ruud A.; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; de Graaf, Albert A.


    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was directly adapted from a PBK model for mice by incorporation of the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol ester transfer protein and contained 21 biochemical reactions and eight different cholesterol pools. The model was calibrated using published data for humans and validated by comparing model predictions on plasma cholesterol levels of subjects with 10 different genetic mutations (including familial hypercholesterolemia and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome) with experimental data. Average model predictions on total cholesterol were accurate within 36% of the experimental data, which was within the experimental margin. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration was mainly dependent on hepatic transport of cholesterol to HDL, cholesterol ester transfer from HDL to non-HDL, and hepatic uptake of cholesterol from non-HDL-C. Thus, the presented PBK model is a valid tool to predict the effect of genetic mutations on cholesterol concentrations, opening the way for future studies on the effect of different drugs on cholesterol levels in various subpopulations in silico. PMID:23024287

  15. Plasma membrane block to polyspermy in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos. (United States)

    Sengoku, K; Tamate, K; Horikawa, M; Takaoka, Y; Ishikawa, M; Dukelow, W R


    The existence and time course of the human plasma membrane block to polyspermy were investigated by an in vitro fertilization assay using zona pellucida-free unfertilized oocytes, pronuclear oocytes and embryos. In the time course study using a high sperm concentration (10(5) spermatozoa ml-1), the number of penetrating spermatozoa at 30 and 60 min after insemination were 1.3 +/- 0.3 and 2.9 +/- 0.4, respectively. By 2 h after insemination, spermatozoa penetration reached a maximum. A lower maximum number of penetrating spermatozoa was observed at a low sperm concentration (10(4) spermatozoa ml-1), but the number of penetrating spermatozoa still reached a maximum by 2 h after insemination. A reinsemination experiment demonstrated that the number of penetrating spermatozoa was not significantly different between control and reinseminated oocytes, while sperm penetration was not observed in the oocyte beyond the two-cell stage. Furthermore, the number of binding spermatozoa decreased after fertilization and most of the four-cell stage embryos displayed no sperm binding. These results suggest that the plasma membrane block plays an important role in the prevention of polyspermy in the human oocyte, and that the plasma membrane block may involve permanent changes in the binding or fusion ability of spermatozoa in the oolemma after fertilization.

  16. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olas


    Full Text Available Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation and the generation of superoxide anion (O2-∙ in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals. The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5– 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2-∙ in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL. The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  17. Competitive Adsorption of Three Human Plasma Proteins onto Sulfhydryl-to-sulfonate Gradient Surfaces† (United States)

    Ding, Yong-Xue; Hlady, Vladimir


    Competitive adsorption of three human plasma proteins: albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (Fgn), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) from their ternary solution mixtures onto a sulfhydryl-to-sulfonate gradient surface was investigated using spatially-resolved total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and autoradiography. The concentration of each protein in the ternary solution mixture was kept at an equivalent of 1/100 of its physiological concentration in blood plasma. The three proteins displayed different adsorption and desorption characteristics. Each protein adsorbed less to the sulfonate region than to the sulfhydryl region of the gradient. The adsorption-desorption kinetics revealed large differences in the adsorption and desorption rates of three proteins. By fitting the experimental data to a simple model of competitive protein adsorption, the affinity of each protein to the surface at the gradient center position was ranked as: Fgn > HSA ≫ IgG. Competitive exchange of adsorbed proteins was related to the magnitude of desorption rate constants. Such competitive adsorption of the three major human plasma proteins illustrates the complex dynamics of blood proteins – biomaterials interactions. PMID:22279244

  18. Rapid and sensitive method for determination of withaferin-A in human plasma by HPLC. (United States)

    Patial, Pankaj; Gota, Vikram


    To develop and validate a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of withaferin-A in human plasma. Withaferin-A, the active molecule of a traditional Indian herb, has demonstrated several biological activities in preclinical models. A validated bioassay is not available for its pharmacokinetic evaluation. The chromatographic system used a reverse-phase C18 column with UV-visible detection at 225 nm. The mobile phase consisted of water and acetonitrile applied in a gradient flow. Withaferin-A was extracted by simple protein-precipitation technique. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.05-1.6 µg/ml. The method has the desired sensitivity to detect the plasma concentration range of withaferin-A that is likely to show biological activity based on in vitro data. This is the first HPLC method ever described for the estimation of withaferin-A in human plasma which could be applied for pharmacokinetic studies.

  19. Lack of Association between Human Plasma Oxytocin and Interpersonal Trust in a Prisoner?s Dilemma Paradigm


    Christensen, James C.; Shiyanov, Pavel A.; Estepp, Justin R.; Schlager, John J


    Expanding interest in oxytocin, particularly the role of endogenous oxytocin in human social behavior, has created a pressing need for replication of results and verification of assay methods. In this study, we sought to replicate and extend previous results correlating plasma oxytocin with trust and trustworthy behavior. As a necessary first step, the two most commonly used commercial assays were compared in human plasma via the addition of a known quantity of exogenous oxytocin, with and wi...

  20. Human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid in seminal plasma and sperm cells. (United States)

    Lai, Y M; Yang, F P; Pao, C C


    To investigate the possible presence and expression of human papillomavirus viruses (HPV) in human plasma and sperm cells. Controlled clinical study. A major medical center affiliated with a medical college. Twenty-four randomly selected patients who attended Fertility Clinics at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Specimens of semen were collected from volunteered patients The presence of HPV types 16 and 18 DNA and RNA sequences were examined by polymerase chain reaction. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 DNA and RNA sequences were found in two and zero seminal plasma specimens, respectively, and in six and two sperm cells specimens, respectively. Deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA sequences of HPV type 18 were found in eight and two seminal specimens and in 11 and 5 sperm cells specimens, respectively. These results seem to suggest that HPV cannot only infect human sperm cells, certain HPV genes are expressed actively in infected sperm cells. The virus-infected sperm cells conceivably can behave as vectors or carriers for the transmission of HPV, to sexual partner during sexual contact, to fetuses through fertilized eggs, or both.

  1. Influence of low and high pressure baroreceptors on plasma renin activity in humans (United States)

    Mark, A. L.; Abboud, F. M.; Fitz, A. E.


    The effects of low and high pressure baroreceptors on plasma renin activity (immunoassay) were evaluated using graded lower body suction (LBS) in six healthy men. LBS at -10 and -20 mmHg for 10 min decreased central venous pressure without changing arterial pressure and thereby presumably reduced low but not high pressure baroreceptor inhibition of renin release. LBS at these levels produced forearm vasoconstriction, but did not increase renin. LBS at -40 mmHG decreased central venous and arterial pulse pressure and thus reduced both low and high pressure baroreceptor inhibition. LBS at this level produced forearm vasoconstriction and tachycardia and increased renin. In summary, reduction in low pressure baroreceptor inhibition in humans did not increase renin in the presence of physiological tonic inhibition from high pressure baroreceptors. Increases in renin did not occur until there was combined reduction of high and low pressure baroreceptor inhibition on plasma renin activity.

  2. LC-coupled ESI MS for quantification of miltefosine in human and hamster plasma. (United States)

    Jaiswal, Swati; Sharma, Abhisheak; Shukla, Mahendra; Lal, Jawahar


    Leishmaniasis, a fatal parasitic disease, is the second largest parasitic killer in the world and miltefosine is the first and only oral drug available for its treatment. A rapid, sensitive and simple LC-MS/MS method for miltefosine quantification in hamster and human plasma was developed and validated over the range of 2.5-400 ng/ml. The mass spectrometric detection of the drug was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring mode (m/z 408.1→125.1) using an electrospray positive ionization. The protein precipitation method was employed for sample (50 µl) cleanup. The proposed method provided accurate and precise high-throughput quantification of miltefosine in plasma and was successfully applied to its oral PK study in Golden Syrian hamsters.

  3. Serum Amyloid P Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels. (United States)

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria; Enghild, Jan J


    The pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) is secreted by the liver and found in plasma at a concentration of approximately 30 mg/L. SAP is a 25 kDa homopentamer known to bind both protein and nonprotein ligands, all in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of SAP is unclear but likely involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to bind to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect them against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma containing the physiological Ca(2+) concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins, of which 24 were direct or indirect interaction partners not previously reported. The SAP interactome can be divided into categories that include apolipoproteins, the complement system, coagulation, and proteolytic regulation.

  4. Rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of ropinirole in human plasma. (United States)

    Bhatt, Jignesh; Jangid, Arvind; Shetty, Raghavendra; Shah, Bhavin; Kambli, Sandeep; Subbaiah, Gunta; Singh, Sadhana


    A rapid and robust liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for non-ergoline dopamine D(2)-receptor agonist, ropinirole in human plasma using Es-citalopram oxalate as an internal standard. The method involves solid phase extraction from plasma, reversed-phase simple isocratic chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometric detection that enables a detection limit at picogram levels. The proposed method was validated with linear range of 20-1,200 pg/ml. The extraction recoveries for ropinirole and internal standard were 90.45 and 65.42%, respectively. The R.S.D.% of intra-day and inter-day assay was lower than 15%. For its sensitivity and reliability, the proposed method is particularly suitable for pharmacokinetic studies.

  5. Culture of Normal Human Blood Cells in a Diffusion Chamber System II. Lymphocyte and Plasma Cell Kinetics

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    Chikkappa, G.; Carsten, A. L.; Chanana, A. D.; Cronkite, E. P.


    Normal human blood leukocytes were cultured in Millipore diffusion chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of irradiated mice. The evaluation of survival and proliferation kinetics of cells in lymphyocytic series suggested that the lymphoid cells are formed from transition of small and/or large lymphocytes, and the lymphoblasts from the lymphoid cells. There was also evidence indicating that some of the cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. The evaluation of plasmacytic series suggested that the plasma cells are formed from plasmacytoid-lymphocytes by transition, and the latter from the transition of lymphocytes. In addition, relatively a small fraction of cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. Mature plasma cells do not and immature plasma cells do proliferate. Estimation of magnitude of plasma cells formed in the cultures at day 18 indicated that at least one plasma cell is formed for every 6 normal human blood lymphocytes introduced into the culture.

  6. The effects of therapeutic concentrations ofamisulpride andrisperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska


    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotics may in different ways affect the oxidative stress measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. Probably some of them may intensify the oxidative balance disturbances occurring in schizophrenia. The effects of amisulpride and risperidone on redox processes are not known sufficiently yet. Aim of the study: Establishment of the effects of amisulpride and risperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation measured by determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, in vitro. Material and methods: Blood for the studies was collected from healthy volunteers (aged 24-26 years for ACD solution. Active substances of the examined drugs were dissolved in 0.01% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to the final concentrations (of amisulpride 578 ng/ml and risperidone 64 ng/ml and incubated with plasma for 1 and 24 hours at 37ºC. For each experiment the control samples of plasma with DMSO (without the drug were performed. The lipid peroxidation level was measured in plasma by determining the TBARS concentration, using the spectrophotometric method (acc. to Rice-Evans, 1991. The results were analysed using the following statistical methods: the paired Student t-test and ANOVA II variance analysis and NIR test (StatSoft Inc., Statistica v. 6.0. Results: The ANOVA II variance analysis indicated significant differences in the effects of both drugs on TBARS level (F=4.26; df=2, p0.05. Conclusion: Amisulpride and risperidone in concentrations corresponding to doses recommended for treatment of acute episode of schizophrenia do not induce oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation. Unlike risperidone, amisulpride exhibits antioxidative effects.

  7. Plasma and lung macrophage responsiveness to carotenoid supplementation and ozone exposure in humans. (United States)

    Steck-Scott, S; Arab, L; Craft, N E; Samet, J M


    To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. A randomized trial. Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after antioxidant supplementation or placebo. Exposures occurred while exercising intermittently in a controlled metabolic chamber at the Human Studies Division, US EPA. In all, 23 healthy subjects between ages of 18 and 35 y. Subjects consumed a low fruit and vegetable diet for 3 weeks. After the first week, subjects underwent a sham exposure to filtered air with exercise, followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Subjects were randomly assigned into supplement (one can vegetable juice, vitamins C and E daily) or placebo (orange soda, placebo pill daily) groups for 2 weeks. After the 2-week intervention, subjects were exposed to 0.4 ppm (784 microg/m(3)) ozone for 2 h with exercise followed by BAL. Blood samples were drawn before, immediately after and 3 h postexposure on each exposure day. The concentrations of nine carotenoids were determined by HPLC in BAL macrophages and plasma samples. Plasma concentrations of all the carotenoids that were present in the vegetable juice (except cis-beta-carotene) increased significantly in the supplemented group. Lung macrophage alpha-carotene concentrations increased significantly, lycopene isomers increased slightly, and all other carotenoids decreased (nonsignificantly) in the supplementation group following the intervention. Ozone exposure resulted in decreases in several carotenoids in plasma of the placebo group, but not in the supplemented group. Lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids can be manipulated by diet. Ozone is a potent environmental oxidant that appears to reduce plasma carotenoids in nonsupplemented individuals.

  8. Long term effects on human plasma lipoproteins of a formulation enriched in butter milk polar lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Åke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids (SL, in particular sphingomyelin (SM are important components of milk fat polar lipids. Dietary SM inhibits cholesterol absorption in rats (Nyberg et al. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 and SLs decrease both cholesterol and TG concentrations in lipid- and cholesterol fed APOE*3Leiden mice (Duivenvoorden et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006. This human study examines effects of a butter milk formulation enriched in milk fat globule membrane material, and thereby in SLs, on blood lipids in healthy volunteers. In a four week parallel group study with 33 men and 15 women we examined the effects of an SL-enriched butter milk formulation (A and an equivalent control formulation (B on plasma lipid levels. Plasma concentrations of HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TG, apolipoproteins AI and B, and lipoprotein (a were measured. The daily dose of SL in A was 975 mg of which 700 mg was SM. The participants registered food and drink intake four days before introducing the test formula and the last four days of the test period. Results A daily increase of SL intake did not significantly influence fasting plasma lipids or lipoproteins. In group B TG, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased, however, but not in group A after four weeks. The difference in LDL cholesterol was seen primarily in women and difference in TG primarily in men. No significant side effects were observed. Conclusion The study did not show any significant decrease on plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels of an SL-enriched formulation containing 2-3 times more SL than the normal dietary intake on cholesterol, other plasma lipids or on energy intake. The formulation A may, however, have counteracted the trend towards increased blood lipid concentrations caused by increased energy intake that was seen with the B formulation.

  9. Vitamin E in fortified cow milk uniquely enriches human plasma lipoproteins. (United States)

    Hayes, K; Pronczuk, A; Perlman, D


    Milk fat may contribute to atherogenesis in humans. We sought to offset the atherogenic potential of milk fat by adding polyunsaturated fat and vitamin E to milk. We measured plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and tocopherol and LDL oxidation in normolipemic adults. In experiment 1 (n = 48), we compared delivery of 100 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/d in capsules, skim milk, and 1%-fat milks containing soybean oil, milk fat, or both (1:1). In experiment 2 (n = 24), we compared delivery of natural (RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) and synthetic (all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) vitamin E in milk with delivery of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate in orange juice (200 mg/d in each group). In experiment 3 (n = 7), we compared delivery of 30 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/d in milks with and without added vitamins A and D. Enrichment of milk fat with soybean oil did not alter plasma lipoproteins. Microdispersion of vitamin E in milks increased the molar ratio of plasma tocopherol to cholesterol by >2-fold compared with the molar ratio after consuming vitamin E capsules, whereas the molar ratios were comparable after ingestion of orange juice and capsules. Synthetic and natural vitamin E performed comparably. The enhanced plasma vitamin E:cholesterol attributed to milk increased protection of LDL against oxidation. Vitamins A and D did not affect vitamin E delivery by milk. Milk augments vitamin E transport by human lipoproteins at intakes of 100-200 but not 30 mg/d. This augmentation is independent of the presence and type of fat in milk, its vitamin A and D contents, and whether the vitamin E is natural or synthetic.

  10. Multiple reaction monitoring-based, multiplexed, absolute quantitation of 45 proteins in human plasma. (United States)

    Kuzyk, Michael A; Smith, Derek; Yang, Juncong; Cross, Tyra J; Jackson, Angela M; Hardie, Darryl B; Anderson, N Leigh; Borchers, Christoph H


    Mass spectrometry-based multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantitation of proteins can dramatically impact the discovery and quantitation of biomarkers via rapid, targeted, multiplexed protein expression profiling of clinical samples. A mixture of 45 peptide standards, easily adaptable to common plasma proteomics work flows, was created to permit absolute quantitation of 45 endogenous proteins in human plasma trypsin digests. All experiments were performed on simple tryptic digests of human EDTA-plasma without prior affinity depletion or enrichment. Stable isotope-labeled standard peptides were added immediately following tryptic digestion because addition of stable isotope-labeled standard peptides prior to trypsin digestion was found to generate elevated and unpredictable results. Proteotypic tryptic peptides containing isotopically coded amino acids ([(13)C(6)]Arg or [(13)C(6)]Lys) were synthesized for all 45 proteins. Peptide purity was assessed by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the peptide quantity was determined by amino acid analysis. For maximum sensitivity and specificity, instrumental parameters were empirically determined to generate the most abundant precursor ions and y ion fragments. Concentrations of individual peptide standards in the mixture were optimized to approximate endogenous concentrations of analytes and to ensure the maximum linear dynamic range of the MRM assays. Excellent linear responses (r > 0.99) were obtained for 43 of the 45 proteins with attomole level limits of quantitation (proteins. Analytical precision for 44 of the 45 assays varied by proteins are within a factor of 2 of reported literature values. This mixture of internal standards has many uses and can be applied to the characterization of trypsin digestion kinetics and plasma protein expression profiling because 31 of the 45 proteins are putative biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.

  11. New evidence that a large proportion of human blood plasma cell-free DNA is localized in exosomes. (United States)

    Fernando, M Rohan; Jiang, Chao; Krzyzanowski, Gary D; Ryan, Wayne L


    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in blood is used as a source of genetic material for noninvasive prenatal and cancer diagnostic assays in clinical practice. Recently we have started a project for new biomarker discovery with a view to developing new noninvasive diagnostic assays. While reviewing literature, it was found that exosomes may be a rich source of biomarkers, because exosomes play an important role in human health and disease. While characterizing exosomes found in human blood plasma, we observed the presence of cfDNA in plasma exosomes. Plasma was obtained from blood drawn into K3EDTA tubes. Exosomes were isolated from cell-free plasma using a commercially available kit. Sizing and enumeration of exosomes were done using electron microscopy and NanoSight particle counter. NanoSight and confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate the association between dsDNA and exosomes. DNA extracted from plasma and exosomes was measured by a fluorometric method and a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method. Size of extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma was heterogeneous and showed a mean value of 92.6 nm and a mode 39.7 nm. A large proportion of extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma were identified as exosomes using a fluorescence probe specific for exosomes and three protein markers, Hsp70, CD9 and CD63, that are commonly used to identify exosome fraction. Fluorescence dye that stain dsDNA showed the association between exosomes and dsDNA. Plasma cfDNA concentration analysis showed more than 93% of amplifiable cfDNA in plasma is located in plasma exosomes. Storage of a blood sample showed significant increases in exosome count and exosome DNA concentration. This study provide evidence that a large proportion of plasma cfDNA is localized in exosomes. Exosome release from cells is a metabolic energy dependent process, thus suggesting active release of cfDNA from cells as a source of cfDNA in plasma.

  12. The PavA-like fibronectin-binding protein of Enterococcus faecalis, EfbA, is important for virulence in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. (United States)

    Torelli, Riccardo; Serror, Pascale; Bugli, Francesca; Paroni Sterbini, Francesco; Florio, Ada Rita; Stringaro, Annarita; Colone, Marisa; De Carolis, Elena; Martini, Cecilia; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella


    Enterococcus faecalis is an established nosocomial pathogen, yet the pathogenesis of enterococcal infections, particularly of urinary tract infections (UTIs), remains to be fully elucidated. Fibronectin-binding proteins have been identified as potent adhesins in pathogenic Gram-positive cocci. Here, we characterized EfbA, which is encoded by the enterococcal orthologue of Streptococcus pneumoniae pavA. Similar to PavA, the anchorless EfbA protein was localized to the enterococcal cell outer surface and bound to immobilized human fibronectin. In addition to abrogated EfbA expression, deletion of the efbA gene eliminated EfbA from the cell surface and drastically reduced the enterococcal cell binding to immobilized fibronectin. The ΔefbA deletion mutant was highly attenuated vs wild-type in a murine ascending UTI model, consistent with an increased tropism for the kidney relative to the bladder. These results provide the first evidence that EfbA of E. faecalis plays a role in UTIs, probably contributing to the pathogenesis in this site.

  13. Overexpression of HTRA1 leads to down-regulation of fibronectin and functional changes in RF/6A cells and HUVECs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Jiang

    Full Text Available Multiple genetic studies have suggested that high-temperature requirement serine protease (HTRA1 is associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. To date, no functional studies have investigated the biological effect of HTRA1 on vascular endothelial cells, essential vascular components involved in polypoidal vascular abnormalities and arteriosclerosis-like changes. In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effect of HTRA1 on the regulation of fibronectin, laminin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR and matrix metalloparoteinases 2 (MMP-2 and the role of HTRA1 in choroid-retina endothelial (RF/6A and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC cells. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of HTRA1 was used to explore effects of the protease on RF/6A and HUVEC cells in vitro. HTRA1 overexpression inhibited the proliferation, cell cycle, migration and tube formation of RF/6A and HUVEC cells, effects that might contribute to the early stage of PCV pathological lesions. Fibronectin mRNA and protein levels were significantly down-regulated following the upregulation of HTRA1, whereas the expressions of laminin, VEGF and MMP-2 were unaffected by alterations in HTRA1 expression. The decreased biological function of vascular endothelial cells and the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, may be involved in a contributory role for HTRA1 in PCV pathogenesis.

  14. The fibronectin-binding integrins alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 differentially modulate RhoA-GTP loading, organization of cell matrix adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danen, Erik H J; Sonneveld, Petra; Brakebusch, Cord


    of RhoA activity at later stages of cell spreading, which are associated with a translocation of focal contacts to peripheral cell protrusions, recruitment of tensin into fibrillar adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Expression of an activated mutant of RhoA stimulates alphavbeta3-mediated...

  15. Sample preparation and orthogonal chromatography for broad polarity range plasma metabolomics: application to human subjects with neurodegenerative dementia. (United States)

    Armirotti, Andrea; Basit, Abdul; Realini, Natalia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piomelli, Daniele


    We describe a simple protocol for the preparation and orthogonal hydrophobic/hydrophilic LC-MS/MS analysis of mouse and human plasma samples, which enables the untargeted ("shotgun") or targeted profiling of hydrophilic, amphipathic, and hydrophobic constituents of plasma metabolome. The protocol is rapid, efficient, and reliable, and offers several advantages compared to current procedures. When applied to a training set of human plasma samples, the protocol allowed for the rapid acquisition of full LogP metabolic profiles in plasma samples obtained from cognitively healthy human subjects and age-matched subjects with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease (n=15 each). Targeted analyses confirmed these findings, which are consistent with data previously published by other groups. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrometric measurement of plasma, erythrocyte, and whole blood cholinesterase activities in healthy human volunteers. (United States)

    Mohammad, F K; Alias, A S; Ahmed, O A H


    The measurement of blood cholinesterase activity is a useful tool for monitoring exposure to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Blood cholinesterase activity is measured colorimetrically or electrometrically. Recently, a simple and practical electrometric method has been described and validated for measuring blood cholinesterase activity in people and animals. The purpose of the present report was to use the modified electrometric technique for measuring blood (plasma, erythrocyte and whole blood) cholinesterase activities in apparently healthy human volunteers in Mosul, Iraq. Cholinesterase activities in the plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood of healthy male (n = 72) and female (n = 31) volunteers were measured by an electrometric method; the method involved the addition of 0.2 ml of blood sample to 3 ml of distilled water followed by 3 ml of barbital-phosphate buffer solution (pH 8.1). The pH (pH1) of the mixture was measured, and then 0.1 ml of 7.5% of acetylcholine iodide, as a substrate, was added. The reaction mixture was incubated at 37 degrees C for 20 minutes. The pH (pH2) of the reaction mixture was measured after the end of the incubation period. Enzyme activity was expressed as DeltapH/20 min = pH1- pH2 - (DeltapH of the blank). The blank was without the blood sample. Following in vitro inhibition of pseudo cholinesterase by quinidine sulfate, true cholinesterase activity was estimated in the plasma of the subjects. After in vitro addition of the organophosphate (chlorpyrifos and methidathion, 0.5 and 1 microM) and carbamate (carbaryl, 5 and 10 microM) insecticides to the reaction mixtures, inhibitions of blood cholinesterases were measured. Mean reference cholinesterase activities (DeltapH/20 min) in the plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood of male subjects were 0.98, 1.39, and 1.41, respectively. Females were 0.85, 1.22, and 1.23, respectively. Ten minutes after in vitro addition of quinidine sulfate to inhibit pseudo cholinesterase

  17. Electron Pathways through Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane in Human Physiology and Pathology: Potential Redox Biomarker?

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    Elena Matteucci


    Full Text Available Erythrocytes are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Since pH is the influential factor in the Bohr-Haldane effect, pHi is actively maintained via secondary active transports Na+/H+ exchange and HC3 -/Cl- anion exchanger. Because of the redox properties of the iron, hemoglobin generates reactive oxygen species and thus, the human erythrocyte is constantly exposed to oxidative damage. Although the adult erythrocyte lacks protein synthesis and cannot restore damaged proteins, it is equipped with high activity of protective enzymes. Redox changes in the cell initiate various signalling pathways. Plasma membrane oxido-reductases (PMORs are transmembrane electron transport systems that have been found in the membranes of all cells and have been extensively characterized in the human erythrocyte. Erythrocyte PMORs transfer reducing equivalents from intracellular reductants to extracellular oxidants, thus their most important role seems to be to enable the cell respond to changes in intra- and extra-cellular redox environments.So far the activity of erythrocyte PMORs in disease states has not been systematically investigated. This review summarizes present knowledge on erythrocyte electron transfer activity in humans (health, type 1 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic uremia and hypothesizes an integrated model of the functional organization of erythrocyte plasma membrane where electron pathways work in parallel with transport metabolons to maintain redox homeostasis.

  18. A simple and sensitive HPLC method for quantification of the metabolin of meclofenoxate in human plasma. (United States)

    Ni, Bin; Zhang, Junren; Zou, Jianjun; Zhao, Wei; Li, JianHua


    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantification of the metabolin of meclofenoxate, chlorophenoxyacetic acid, in human plasma. Ibuprofen was used as an internal standard. The present method used protein precipitation for extraction of chlorophenoxyacetic acid from human plasma. Separation was carried out on a reversed-phase C(18) column. The column effluent was monitored by UV detection at 254 nm. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and water containing 1.0% glacial acetic acid (70:30 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was 20 degrees C. This method was linear over the range of 0.047-28.20 microg/mL with a regression coefficient greater than 0.99. The mean recovery of chlorophenoxyacetic acid and IS were (79.54 +/- 6.33)% and (78.48 +/- 2.14)%, respectively, and the method was found to be precise, accurate, and specific during the study. The method was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic study of chlorophenoxyacetic acid in human.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for bupropion in human plasma: comparison of tritiated and iodinated radioligands

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    Butz, R.F.; Smith, P.G.; Schroeder, D.H.; Findlay, J.W.


    We evaluated the potential usefulness of /sup 125/I-labeled p-hydroxybupropion in a direct radioimmunoassay for bupropion in human plasma as compared with a currently used (/sup 3/H)bupropion dextran-coated charcoal method. In both radioimmunoassay methods succinoylpropylbupropion antiserum was used that was highly specific for unchanged drug, cross reactivities with known bupropion metabolites being less than 0.3%. However, the use of /sup 125/I-labeled p-hydroxybupropion afforded greater sensitivity (0.3 microgram/L vs 0.6 microgram/L with (/sup 3/H)bupropion) and was readily adaptable to the more convenient polyethylene glycol separation method. Between-assay CVs were 3.8 to 12.2% (mean 7.6%) with the /sup 125/I-based radioimmunoassay and 5.1 to 11.5% (mean 7.5%) with the /sup 3/H-based assay. Agreement between the two radioimmunoassay determinations of buproprion in human plasma samples collected over a 60-h period after oral drug administration was excellent (slope . 1.086, r . 0.989). We find the /sup 125/I-based assay a convenient and suitable alternative to the (/sup 3/H)bupropion assay in pharmacokinetic studies in humans.

  20. Radioimmunoassay for bupropion in human plasma: comparison of tritiated and iodinated radioligands. (United States)

    Butz, R F; Smith, P G; Schroeder, D H; Findlay, J W


    We evaluated the potential usefulness of 125I-labeled p-hydroxybupropion in a direct radioimmunoassay for bupropion in human plasma as compared with a currently used [3H]bupropion dextran-coated charcoal method. In both radioimmunoassay methods succinoylpropylbupropion antiserum was used that was highly specific for unchanged drug, cross reactivities with known bupropion metabolites being less than 0.3%. However, the use of 125I-labeled p-hydroxybupropion afforded greater sensitivity (0.3 microgram/L vs 0.6 microgram/L with [3H]bupropion) and was readily adaptable to the more convenient polyethylene glycol separation method. Between-assay CVs were 3.8 to 12.2% (mean 7.6%) with the 125I-based radioimmunoassay and 5.1 to 11.5% (mean 7.5%) with the 3H-based assay. Agreement between the two radioimmunoassay determinations of buproprion in human plasma samples collected over a 60-h period after oral drug administration was excellent (slope = 1.086, r = 0.989). We find the 125I-based assay a convenient and suitable alternative to the [3H]bupropion assay in pharmacokinetic studies in humans.

  1. Levels of contamination for various pollutants present in Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. Van; Goeyens, L. [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Covaci, A. [Toxicological Center, Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Gordon, J.; Chu, A. [Xenobiotic Detection System Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. De [Center of Analysis of residues in Traces (CART), Univ. of Liege (Belgium)


    During the last century, numerous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were banned because of their bioaccumulative and toxic properties, while other compounds, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), appeared on the market and consequently in the environment. The experiences gained from accidents involving PBBs, PCBs or PCDD/Fs are useful to conduct scientific investigations focused on preventing similar catastrophies with the newly introduced compounds. Several studies have reported potential increase in the concentration of PBDEs in food and wildlife. Monitoring the levels of toxic chemicals is therefore useful to understand the exposure pathways, sources and trends. The aim of the paper is to present actual contamination's levels of various pollutants in human plasma from Belgium. Several classes of pollutants, such PCDD/Fs, PCBs and OCPs were determined in 20 human plasmas. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals, which are of current concern, were measured. Although anticipated, concentrations of PBDEs in the same samples were not yet determined. Through this study, a good approximation of the contamination level in Belgian human is given, allowing thus comparison with concentrations observed in other countries.

  2. Fibronectin peptides that bind PDGF-BB enhance survival of cells and tissue under stress (United States)

    Lin, Fubao; Zhu, Jia; Tonnesen, Marcia G.; Taira, Breena R.; McClain, Steve A.; Singer, Adam J.; Clark, Richard A.F.


    Stressors after injury from a multitude of factors can lead to cell death. We have identified four fibronectin (FN) peptides, two from the first FN type III repeat (FNIII1), one from the 13th FN type III repeat (FNIII13), and one from FN variable region (IIICS), that when tethered to a surface acted as platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) enhancers to promote cell survival. One of the FNIII1 peptides and its smallest (14mer) bioactive form (P12) were also active in solution. Specifically, P12 bound PDGF-BB (KD = 200nM), enhanced adult human dermal fibroblast (AHDF) survival under serum starvation, oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressors, and limited burn injury progression in a rat hot comb model. Furthermore, P12 inhibited ER stress-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Although many growth factors have been found to bind FN directly or indirectly, this is the first report to identify peptide sequences of growth factor-binding sites in FN. The finding of these novel peptides further delineated how the extracellular matrix protein FN can support cell survival. Since the peptide P12 is active in either soluble form or tethered to a substrate, it will have multifactorial uses as a bioactive in tissue engineering. PMID:24126844

  3. Fibronectin layers by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation from saline buffer-based cryogenic targets. (United States)

    Sima, F; Davidson, P; Pauthe, E; Sima, L E; Gallet, O; Mihailescu, I N; Anselme, K


    The deposition of fibronectin (FN) from saline buffer-based cryogenic targets by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto silicon substrates is reported. A uniform distribution of FN was revealed by Ponceau staining after control experiments on nitrocellulose paper. Well-organized particulates with heights from hundreds of nanometers up to more than 1 μm packed in homogeneous layers were evidenced by optical microscopy and profilometry on Si substrates. Atomic force microscopy images showed regions composed of buffer and FN aggregates forming a compact film. Comparison of infrared spectra of drop-cast and MAPLE-deposited FN confirmed the preservation of composition and showed no degradation of the protein. The protein deposition on Si was confirmed by antibody staining. Small aggregates and fluorescent fibrils were visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Superior attachment of human osteoprogenitor cells cultivated for 3 h proved the presence of stable and intact FN molecules after transfer. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DAMPs Synergize with Cytokines or Fibronectin Fragment on Inducing Chondrolysis but Lose Effect When Acting Alone

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    Lei Ding


    Full Text Available Objective and Design. To investigate whether endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs or alarmins originated from mitochondria or nucleus stimulates inflammatory response in articular chondrocytes to cause chondrolysis which leads to cartilage degradation featured in posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA. Materials. Primary cultures of bovine or human chondrocytes isolated from cartilage of weight-bearing joints. Treatment. Chondrocytes were subjected to mitochondrial DAMPs (MTDs or HMGB1, a nuclear DAMP (NuD, with or without the presence of an N-terminal 29 kDa fibronectin fragment (Fn-f or proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α. Injured cartilage-conditioned culturing medium containing a mixture of DAMPs was employed as a control. After 24 hrs, the protein expression of cartilage degrading metalloproteinases and iNOS in culture medium or cell lysates was examined with Western blotting, respectively. Results. HMGB1 was synergized with IL-1β in upregulating expression of MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, ADAM-8, and iNOS. Moreover, a moderate synergistic effect was detected between HMGB1 and Fn-f or between MTDs and TNF-α on MMP-3 expression. However, when acting alone, MTDs or HMGB1 did not upregulate cartilage degrading enzymes or iNOS. Conclusion. MTDs or HMGB1 could only stimulate inflammatory response in chondrocytes with the presence of cytokines or Fn-f.

  5. Biocompatibility and favorable response of mesenchymal stem cells on fibronectin-gold nanocomposites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Shan Hung

    Full Text Available A simple surface modification method, comprising of a thin coating with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and fibronectin (FN, was developed to improve the biocompatibility required for cardiovascular devices. The nanocomposites from FN and AuNPs (FN-Au were characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM, UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Vis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The biocompatibility of the nanocomposites was evaluated by the response of monocytes and platelets to the material surface in vitro. FN-Au coated surfaces demonstrated low monocyte activation and platelet activation. The behavior of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on FN-Au was further investigated. MSCs on FN-Au nanocomposites particularly that containing 43.5 ppm of AuNPs (FN-Au 43.5 ppm showed cell proliferation, low ROS generation, as well as increases in the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, which may account for the enhanced MSC migration on the nanocomposites. These results suggest that the FN-Au nanocomposite thin film coating may serve as a potential and simple solution for the surface modification of blood-contacting devices such as vascular grafts.

  6. Adipose progenitor cells increase fibronectin matrix strain and unfolding in breast tumors (United States)

    Chandler, E. M.; Saunders, M. P.; Yoon, C. J.; Gourdon, D.; Fischbach, C.


    Increased stiffness represents a hallmark of breast cancer that has been attributed to the altered physicochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the role of fibronectin (Fn) in modulating the composition and mechanical properties of the tumor-associated ECM remains unclear. We have utilized a combination of biochemical and physical science tools to evaluate whether paracrine signaling between breast cancer cells and adipose progenitor cells regulates Fn matrix assembly and stiffness enhancement in the tumor stroma. In particular, we utilized fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to map the molecular conformation and stiffness of Fn that has been assembled by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in response to conditioned media from MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Our results reveal that soluble factors secreted by tumor cells promote Fn expression, unfolding, and stiffening by adipose progenitor cells and that transforming growth factor-β serves as a soluble cue underlying these changes. In vivo experiments using orthotopic co-transplantation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells and MDA-MB231 into SCID mice support the pathological relevance of our results. Insights gained by these studies advance our understanding of the role of Fn in mammary tumorigenesis and may ultimately lead to improved anti-cancer therapies.

  7. Enzymatic degradation of in vitro Staphylococcus aureus biofilms supplemented with human plasma. (United States)

    Watters, Chase M; Burton, Tarea; Kirui, Dickson K; Millenbaugh, Nancy J


    Enzymatic debridement is a therapeutic strategy used clinically to remove necrotic tissue from wounds. Some of the enzymes utilized for debridement have been tested against bacterial pathogens, but the effectiveness of these agents in dispersing clinically relevant biofilms has not been fully characterized. Here, we developed an in vitro Staphylococcus aureus biofilm model that mimics wound-like conditions and employed this model to investigate the antibiofilm activity of four enzymatic compounds. Human plasma at concentrations of 0%-50% was supplemented into growth media and used to evaluate biofilm biomass accumulation over 24 hours and 48 hours in one methicillin-sensitive and five methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus. Supplementation of media with 10% human plasma resulted in the most robust biofilms in all six strains. The enzymes α-amylase, bromelain, lysostaphin, and papain were then tested against S. aureus biofilms cultured in 10% human plasma. Quantification of biofilms after 2 hours and 24 hours of treatment using the crystal violet assay revealed that lysostaphin decreased biomass by up to 76%, whereas α-amylase, bromelain, and papain reduced biomass by up to 97%, 98%, and 98%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the dispersal agents detached the biofilm exopolysaccharide matrix and bacteria from the growth surface. Lysostaphin caused less visible dispersal of the biofilms, but unlike the other enzymes, induced morphological changes indicative of bacterial cell damage. Overall, our results indicate that use of enzymes may be an effective means of eradicating biofilms and a promising strategy to improve treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

  8. Enzymatic degradation of in vitro Staphylococcus aureus biofilms supplemented with human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watters CM


    Full Text Available Chase M Watters,1,2 Tarea Burton,1 Dickson K Kirui,1 Nancy J Millenbaugh1 1Maxillofacial Injury and Disease Department, Naval Medical Research Unit San Antonio, Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA; 2Wound Infections Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA Abstract: Enzymatic debridement is a therapeutic strategy used clinically to remove necrotic tissue from wounds. Some of the enzymes utilized for debridement have been tested against bacterial pathogens, but the effectiveness of these agents in dispersing clinically relevant biofilms has not been fully characterized. Here, we developed an in vitro Staphylococcus aureus biofilm model that mimics wound-like conditions and employed this model to investigate the antibiofilm activity of four enzymatic compounds. Human plasma at concentrations of 0%–50% was supplemented into growth media and used to evaluate biofilm biomass accumulation over 24 hours and 48 hours in one methicillin-sensitive and five methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus. Supplementation of media with 10% human plasma resulted in the most robust biofilms in all six strains. The enzymes α-amylase, bromelain, lysostaphin, and papain were then tested against S. aureus biofilms cultured in 10% human plasma. Quantification of biofilms after 2 hours and 24 hours of treatment using the crystal violet assay revealed that lysostaphin decreased biomass by up to 76%, whereas a-amylase, bromelain, and papain reduced biomass by up to 97%, 98%, and 98%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the dispersal agents detached the biofilm exopolysaccharide matrix and bacteria from the growth surface. Lysostaphin caused less visible dispersal of the biofilms, but unlike the other enzymes, induced morphological changes indicative of bacterial cell damage. Overall, our results indicate that use of enzymes may be an effective means of eradicating biofilms and a promising strategy to improve

  9. Elucidation of N-glycosites within human plasma glycoproteins for cancer biomarker discovery. (United States)

    Drake, Penelope; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Brad; Fisher, Susan


    Glycans are an important class of post-translational modifications that decorate a wide array of protein substrates. These cell-type specific molecules, which are modulated during developmental and disease processes, are attractive biomarker candidates as biology regarding altered glycosylation can be used to guide the experimental design. The mass spectrometry (MS)-based workflow described here incorporates chromatography on affinity matrices formed from lectins, proteins that bind specific glycan motifs. The goal was to design a relatively simple method for the rapid analysis of small plasma volumes (e.g., clinical specimens). As increases in sialylation and fucosylation are prominent among cancer-associated modifications, we focused on Sambucus nigra agglutinin and AAL, which bind sialic acid- and fucose-containing structures, respectively. Positive controls (fucosylated and sialylated human lactoferrin glycopeptides), and negative controls (high-mannose glycopeptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase) were used to monitor the specificity of lectin capture and optimize the workflow. Multiple Affinity Removal System 14-depleted, trypsin-digested human plasma from healthy donors served as the target analyte. Samples were loaded onto the lectin columns and separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into flow through and bound fractions, which were treated with PNGase F, an amidase that removes N-linked glycans and marks the underlying asparagine glycosite by a +1 Da mass shift. The deglycosylated peptide fractions were interrogated by HPLC ESI-MS/MS on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The method allowed identification of 122 human plasma glycoproteins containing 247 unique glycosites. Notably, glycoproteins that circulate at ng/mL levels (e.g., cadherin-5 at 0.3-4.9 ng/mL, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin which is present at ∼2.5 ng/mL) were routinely observed, suggesting that this method enables the detection of

  10. Predictive value of plasma human chorionic gonadotropin measured 14 days after Day-2 single embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Oldenburg, Anna; Toftager, Mette


    Introduction: Prediction of pregnancy outcome after in vitro fertilization is important for patients and clinicians. Early plasma human chorionic gonadotropin (p-hCG) levels are the best known predictor of pregnancy outcome, but no studies have been restricted to single embryo transfer (SET) of Day......-2 embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of p-hCG measured exactly 14 days after the most commonly used Day-2 SET on pregnancy, delivery, and perinatal outcome. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 466 women who had...

  11. A Fast Response Highly Selective Probe for the Detection of Glutathione in Human Blood Plasma

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    Robert M. Strongin


    Full Text Available A fluorescent probe for glutathione (GSH detection was developed. Our study indicates a possible mechanism which couples a conjugate addition and micelle-catalyzed large membered ring formation/elimination sequence. This method enables excellent selectivity towards GSH over other biological thiols such as cysteine (Cys and homocysteine (Hcy. The proposed method is precise with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D lower than 6% (n = 3 and has been successfully applied to determine GSH in human plasma with recoveries between 99.2% and 102.3%.

  12. Exhaustive and stable electromembrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Seip, Knut Fredrik


    The first part of the current work systematically described the screening of different types of organic solvents as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for electromembrane extraction (EME) of acidic drugs, including different alcohols, ketones, and ethers. Seven acidic drugs with a wide logP range...... to increasing viscosity and decreasing α and π* values. The system-current during EME was found to be dependent on the type and the volume of the SLM. In contact with human plasma, an SLM of pure 1-heptanol was unstable, and to improve stability, 1-heptanol was mixed with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE...

  13. Human plasma contains cross-reactive Abeta conformer-specific IgG antibodies. (United States)

    O'Nuallain, Brian; Acero, Luis; Williams, Angela D; Koeppen, Helen P McWilliams; Weber, Alfred; Schwarz, Hans P; Wall, Jonathan S; Weiss, Deborah T; Solomon, Alan


    Two conformers of aggregated Abeta, i.e., fibrils and oligomers, have been deemed important in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We now report that intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) derived from pools of human plasma contains IgGs that recognize conformational epitopes present on fibrils and oligomers, but not their soluble monomeric precursor. We have used affinity chromatography to isolate these antibodies and have shown that they cross-reacted with comparable nanomolar avidity with both types of Abeta aggregates; notably, binding was not inhibited by soluble Abeta monomers. Our studies provide further support for investigating the therapeutic use of IVIG in Alzheimer's disease.

  14. A biotin enrichment strategy identifies novel carbonylated amino acids in proteins from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Davies, Michael J.


    Protein carbonylation is an irreversible protein oxidation correlated with oxidative stress, various diseases and ageing. Here we describe a peptide-centric approach for identification and characterisation of up to 14 different types of carbonylated amino acids in proteins. The modified residues...... in vitro metal ion-catalysed oxidation. Furthermore, we assigned 133 carbonylated sites in 36 proteins in native human plasma protein samples. The optimised workflow enabled detection of 10 hitherto undetected types of carbonylated amino acids in proteins: aldehyde and ketone modifications of leucine...

  15. Impact of fibronectin on surface properties of intraocular lenses. (United States)

    Schroeder, Andreas C; Lingenfelder, Christian; Seitz, Berthold; Grabowy, Udo; W Spraul, Christoph; Gatzioufas, Zisis; Herrmann, Mathias


    Physical properties of intraocular lens (IOL) surfaces determine biocompatibility. IOL hydrophobicity of commercially available IOLs with and without fibronectin (FN) coating can be determined by surface contact angle (SCA) measurements. SCA data of IOLs may allow for a rational selection of an IOL type as a function of underlying eye disease. University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg (Saar), Germany Thirteen IOL types were tested. IOLs were made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA), acrylate, or silicone. Select IOLs were surface modified by the manufacturer with heparin or a polysaccharide coating. SCA values of IOLs, either uncoated or precoated with FN, were determined using the sessile water drop method. SCA values ranged from 61.3 to 116.1 degrees for unmodified IOLs, with PMMA IOLs being more hydrophilic (median SCA, 74.1 degrees ), silicone IOLs more hydrophobic (median SCA, 113.3 degrees ), and acrylate IOLs intermediate (median SCA, 86.6 degrees ). Upon FN coating, all genuine acrylate lenses became significantly more hydrophilic while this effect was either nonsignificant or opposite on some PMMA and silicon IOLs. Heparin or polysaccharide surface modification resulted in significantly reduced SCA values. On acrylate IOLs, SCA values did not correlate with the aqueous content of the material. This study associates IOL materials, surface modifications, and the role of FN preadsorption with SCA values reflecting surface hydrophobicity versus hydrophilicity. It provides a rationale for specific IOL selection as a function of the clinical setting, and a basis for IOL development using tailored surface physicochemistry to enhance biocompatibility and to reduce susceptibility to implant infection.

  16. Control of intracellular pH and growth by fibronectin in capillary endothelial cells (United States)

    Ingber, D. E.; Prusty, D.; Frangioni, J. V.; Cragoe, E. J. Jr; Lechene, C.; Schwartz, M. A.


    The aim of this work was to analyze the mechanism by which fibronectin (FN) regulates capillary endothelial cell proliferation. Endothelial cell growth can be controlled in chemically-defined medium by varying the density of FN coated on the substratum (Ingber, D. E., and J. Folkman. J. Cell Biol. 1989. 109:317-330). In this system, DNA synthetic rates are stimulated by FN in direct proportion to its effect on cell extension (projected cell areas) both in the presence and absence of saturating amounts of basic FGF. To investigate direct growth signaling by FN, we carried out microfluorometric measurements of intracellular pH (pHi), a cytoplasmic signal that is commonly influenced by soluble mitogens. pHi increased 0.18 pH units as FN coating densities were raised and cells progressed from round to spread. Intracellular alkalinization induced by attachment to FN was rapid and followed the time course of cell spreading. When measured in the presence and absence of FGF, the effects of FN and FGF on pHi were found to be independent and additive. Furthermore, DNA synthesis correlated with pHi for all combinations of FGF and FN. Ethylisopropylamiloride, a specific inhibitor of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, completely suppressed the effects of FN on both pHi and DNA synthesis. However, cytoplasmic pH per se did not appear to be a critical determinant of growth since DNA synthesis was not significantly inhibited when pHi was lowered over the physiological range by varying the pH of the medium. We conclude that FN and FGF exert their growth-modulating effects in part through activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger, although they appear to trigger this system via separate pathways.

  17. from Spiked Human Plasma Using RP-HPLC with UV Detection

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    Monita Gide


    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, selective, and specific reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method with UV detection (315 nm was developed and validated for estimation of febuxostat from spiked human plasma. The analyte and internal standard (diclofenac were extracted using LLE with diethyl ether. The chromatographic separation was performed on Shodex C-18-4E (5 μm; 250×4.6 mm with a mobile phase comprised of methanol : acetate buffer pH 4, 20 mM (90 : 10 v/v, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Febuxostat was well resolved from plasma constituents and internal standard. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 250–8000 ng/mL. The heteroscedasticity was minimized by using weighted least square regression with weighing factor of 1/x. The intraday and interday %RSD was less than 15. Results of recovery studies prove the extraction efficiency. Stability data indicated that febuxostat was stable in plasma after three freeze thaw cycles and upon storage at −20°C for 30 days.

  18. Concurrent profiling of polar metabolites and lipids in human plasma using HILIC-FTMS (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoming; Li, Ruibin


    Blood plasma is the most popularly used sample matrix for metabolite profiling studies, which aim to achieve global metabolite profiling and biomarker discovery. However, most of the current studies on plasma metabolite profiling focused on either the polar metabolites or lipids. In this study, a comprehensive analysis approach based on HILIC-FTMS was developed to concurrently examine polar metabolites and lipids. The HILIC-FTMS method was developed using mixed standards of polar metabolites and lipids, the separation efficiency of which is better in HILIC mode than in C5 and C18 reversed phase (RP) chromatography. This method exhibits good reproducibility in retention times (CVs profiling and smoking-related biomarker discovery in human plasma samples. Heavy smokers could be successfully distinguished from non smokers by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the profiling data, and 62 biomarkers for cigarette smoke were found. These results indicate that our concurrent analysis approach could be potentially used for clinical biomarker discovery, metabolite-based diagnosis, etc.

  19. Preparation, purification and virus inactivation of intravenous immunoglobulin from human plasma. (United States)

    Aghaie, A; Pourfatollah, A A; Bathaie, S Z; Moazzeni, S M; Khorsand Mohammad Pour, H; Banazadeh, S


    IVIG can be prepared from fractionation of normal human plasma and it is used as a therapeutic drug for treatment of various diseases. IVIG has been for some time the high-growth product within the plasma derived products, at both a global and a national country level. Fractionation was performed according to Cohn method with some modifications. Fraction II was first produced and then it was used for purification and virus inactivation steps. Two methods of virus inactivation (pasteurization at 60 degrees C for 10 hours and solvent/detergent treatment with TnBP and Tween 80) were used and validated. A chromatography method (cation exchange chromatography on CM Sepharose FF) was also added to obtain high purity. The final product (in liquid and freeze dried formulation) meets European Pharmacopeias requirements. The amount of PKA and aggregates was beyond the acceptance limit. The intactness of the IVIG was also examined by circular dichroism (secondary and tertiary structure). It was stable after 6 months of storage. Since Iran market is completely dependant on importation of plasma derived products, it is important to develop such methods for production of IVIG to obtain regional demands.

  20. Piperine Decreases Binding of Drugs to Human Plasma and Increases Uptake by Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells. (United States)

    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Leeners, Brigitte; Imthurn, Bruno; Merki-Feld, Gabriele Susanne; Rosselli, Marinella


    We previously reported that piperine, an active alkaloidal principal of black and long peppers, enhances drug bioavailability by inhibiting drug metabolism. Another mechanism influencing drug availability/uptake is its free fraction. Since piperine is highly lipophilic, we hypothesize that it could also interact with drugs through binding displacement and influence their bioavailability. Accordingly, using equilibrium dialysis, we investigated whether piperine alters the binding of model drug ligands, that is flunitrazepam, diazepam, warfarin, salicylic acid, propranolol, lidocaine, and disopyramide to human plasma (n = 4). Since alterations in binding influence drug disposition, we also studied the effects of piperine on the uptake of plasma bound (3) H-propranolol and (14) C-warfarin by cultured bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Piperine (1-1000 μM) increased the free fraction (fu) of both albumin and alpha-acid glycoprotein bound drugs in a concentration-dependent manner (p piperine (10 μM) increased the uptake of (3) H-propranolol and (14) C-warfarin by BMECs (p piperine displaces plasma bound drugs from both albumin and alpha-acid glycoprotein and facilitates drug uptake across biological membranes (e.g. BMEC). Moreover, it is feasible that piperine may similarly facilitate the transport of drugs into tissues, in vivo, and alter both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of administered drugs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Growth of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in human plasma: impacts on virulence and metabolic gene expression

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    Coppée Jean-Yves


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In man, infection by the Gram-negative enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is usually limited to the terminal ileum. However, in immunocompromised patients, the microorganism may disseminate from the digestive tract and thus cause a systemic infection with septicemia. Results To gain insight into the metabolic pathways and virulence factors expressed by the bacterium at the blood stage of pseudotuberculosis, we compared the overall gene transcription patterns (the transcriptome of bacterial cells cultured in either human plasma or Luria-Bertani medium. The most marked plasma-triggered metabolic consequence in Y. pseudotuberculosis was the switch to high glucose consumption, which is reminiscent of the acetogenic pathway (known as "glucose overflow" in Escherichia coli. However, upregulation of the glyoxylate shunt enzymes suggests that (in contrast to E. coli acetate may be further metabolized in Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our data also indicate that the bloodstream environment can regulate major virulence genes (positively or negatively; the yadA adhesin gene and most of the transcriptional units of the pYV-encoded type III secretion apparatus were found to be upregulated, whereas transcription of the pH6 antigen locus was strongly repressed. Conclusion Our results suggest that plasma growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis is responsible for major transcriptional regulatory events and prompts key metabolic reorientations within the bacterium, which may in turn have an impact on virulence.

  2. Proteomic analysis identifies interleukin 11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro (United States)


    Background During the peri-implantation period, the embryo adheres to an adequately prepared or receptive endometrial surface epithelium. Abnormal embryo adhesion to the endometrium results in embryo implantation failure and infertility. Endometrial epithelial cell plasma membrane proteins critical in regulating adhesion may potentially be infertility biomarkers or targets for treating infertility. Interleukin (IL) 11 regulates human endometrial epithelial cells (hEEC) adhesion. Its production is abnormal in women with infertility. The objective of the study was to identify IL11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in hEEC in vitro using a proteomic approach. Methods Using a 2D-differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) electrophoresis combined with LCMS/MS mass spectrometry approach, we identified 20 unique plasma membrane proteins differentially regulated by IL11 in ECC-1 cells, a hEEC derived cell line. Two IL11 regulated proteins with known roles in cell adhesion, annexin A2 (ANXA2) and flotillin-1 (FLOT1), were validated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry in hEEC lines (ECC-1 and an additional cell line, Ishikawa) and primary hEEC. Flotilin-1 was further validated by immunohistochemistry in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle (n = 6-8/cycle). Results 2D-DIGE analysis identified 4 spots that were significantly different between control and IL11 treated group. Of these 4 spots, there were 20 proteins that were identified with LCMS/MS. Two proteins; ANXA2 and FLOT1 were chosen for further analyses and have found to be significantly up-regulated following IL11 treatment. Western blot analysis showed a 2-fold and a 2.5-fold increase of ANXA2 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. Similarly, a 1.8-fold and a 2.3/2.4-fold increase was also observed for FLOT1 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. In vitro, IL11 induced stronger ANXA2 expression on cell surface of primary hEEC and ECC-1 whilst

  3. Proteomic analysis identifies interleukin 11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro

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    Stanton Peter G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the peri-implantation period, the embryo adheres to an adequately prepared or receptive endometrial surface epithelium. Abnormal embryo adhesion to the endometrium results in embryo implantation failure and infertility. Endometrial epithelial cell plasma membrane proteins critical in regulating adhesion may potentially be infertility biomarkers or targets for treating infertility. Interleukin (IL 11 regulates human endometrial epithelial cells (hEEC adhesion. Its production is abnormal in women with infertility. The objective of the study was to identify IL11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in hEEC in vitro using a proteomic approach. Methods Using a 2D-differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE electrophoresis combined with LCMS/MS mass spectrometry approach, we identified 20 unique plasma membrane proteins differentially regulated by IL11 in ECC-1 cells, a hEEC derived cell line. Two IL11 regulated proteins with known roles in cell adhesion, annexin A2 (ANXA2 and flotillin-1 (FLOT1, were validated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry in hEEC lines (ECC-1 and an additional cell line, Ishikawa and primary hEEC. Flotilin-1 was further validated by immunohistochemistry in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle (n = 6-8/cycle. Results 2D-DIGE analysis identified 4 spots that were significantly different between control and IL11 treated group. Of these 4 spots, there were 20 proteins that were identified with LCMS/MS. Two proteins; ANXA2 and FLOT1 were chosen for further analyses and have found to be significantly up-regulated following IL11 treatment. Western blot analysis showed a 2-fold and a 2.5-fold increase of ANXA2 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. Similarly, a 1.8-fold and a 2.3/2.4-fold increase was also observed for FLOT1 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. In vitro, IL11 induced stronger ANXA2 expression on cell surface of primary h

  4. Development of a quantitative bead capture assay for soluble IL-7 receptor alpha in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Faucher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IL-7 is an essential cytokine in T-cell development and homeostasis. It binds to the IL-7R receptor, a complex of the IL-7Ralpha (CD127 and common gamma (CD132 chains. There is significant interest in evaluating the expression of CD127 on human T-cells as it often decreased in medical conditions leading to lymphopenia. Previous reports showed the usefulness of CD127 as a prognostic marker in viral infections such as HIV, CMV, EBV and HCV. A soluble CD127 (sCD127 is released in plasma and may contribute to disease pathogenesis through its control on IL-7 activities. Measuring sCD127 is important to define its role and may complement existing markers used in lymphopenic disease management. We describe a new quantitative assay for the measurement of sCD127 in plasma and report sCD127 concentrations in healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a quantitative bead-based sCD127 capture assay. Polyclonal CD127-specific antibodies were chosen for capture and a biotinylated monoclonal anti-CD127 antibody was selected for detection. The assay can detect native sCD127 and recombinant sCD127 which served as the calibrator. The analytical performance of the assay was characterized and the concentration and stability of plasma sCD127 in healthy adults was determined. The assay's range was 3.2-1000 ng/mL. The concentration of plasma sCD127 was 164+/-104 ng/mL with over a log variation between subjects. Individual sCD127 concentrations remained stable when measured serially during a period of up to one year. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report on the quantification of plasma sCD127 in a population of healthy adults. Soluble CD127 plasma concentrations remained stable over time in a given individual and sCD127 immunoreactivity was resistant to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. This quantitative sCD127 assay is a valuable tool for defining the potential role of sCD127 in lymphopenic diseases.

  5. Atomic force microscopy on plasma membranes from Xenopus laevis oocytes containing human aquaporin 4. (United States)

    Orsini, Francesco; Santacroce, Massimo; Cremona, Andrea; Gosvami, Nitya N; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Hoogenboom, Bart W


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a unique tool for imaging membrane proteins in near-native environment (embedded in a membrane and in buffer solution) at ~1 nm spatial resolution. It has been most successful on membrane proteins reconstituted in 2D crystals and on some specialized and densely packed native membranes. Here, we report on AFM imaging of purified plasma membranes from Xenopus laevis oocytes, a commonly used system for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins. Isoform M23 of human aquaporin 4 (AQP4-M23) was expressed in the X. laevis oocytes following their injection with AQP4-M23 cRNA. AQP4-M23 expression and incorporation in the plasma membrane were confirmed by the changes in oocyte volume in response to applied osmotic gradients. Oocyte plasma membranes were then purified by ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and the presence of AQP4-M23 proteins in the purified membranes was established by Western blotting analysis. Compared with membranes without over-expressed AQP4-M23, the membranes from AQP4-M23 cRNA injected oocytes showed clusters of structures with lateral size of about 10 nm in the AFM topography images, with a tendency to a fourfold symmetry as may be expected for higher-order arrays of AQP4-M23. In addition, but only infrequently, AQP4-M23 tetramers could be resolved in 2D arrays on top of the plasma membrane, in good quantitative agreement with transmission electron microscopy analysis and the current model of AQP4. Our results show the potential and the difficulties of AFM studies on cloned membrane proteins in native eukaryotic membranes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Stereoselective analysis of labetalol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: application to pharmacokinetics. (United States)

    Carvalho, Teresa Maria De Jesus Ponte; Cavalli, Ricardo De Carvalho; Marques, Maria Paula; Da Cunha, Sérgio Pereira; Baraldi, Claúdia De Oliveira; Lanchote, Vera Lúcia


    Labetalol is clinically available as a mixture of two racemates (four stereoisomers). The stereoisomer (R,R) has as main activity the beta1-antagonism and the stereoisomer (S,R) is highly selective for the alpha1 adrenoceptor and is responsible for most of the alpha-blocker activity. In the present investigation, a method for the analysis of labetalol stereoisomers in human plasma was developed and applied to pharmacokinetic studies. Plasma samples (0.5 ml) were extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether at pH 9.5. The four labetalol stereoisomers were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a Chirobiotic V column using a mobile phase consisting of methanol, acetic acid, and diethylamine, with a recovery of more than 90% for all four. The quantitation limit was 0.5 ng/ml and linearity was observed at 250 ng/ml plasma for each stereoisomer. Studies of precision and accuracy presented coefficients of variation and percentage inaccuracy of less than 15%, indicating that the method is precise and accurate. The method was applied to the study of the kinetic disposition of labetalol over a period of 12 h after oral administration of a single 100 mg dose to a hypertensive pregnant woman. The clinical study revealed stereoselectivity in the pharmacokinetics of labetalol, with a lower plasma proportion for the active stereoisomers (R,R)-labetalol and (S,R)-labetalol. The stereoselectivity observed after oral administration is due to the hepatic metabolism and the first pass effect, with an AUC(R,R)/AUC(S,S) ratio of 0.5. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid concentrations required to inhibit fibrinolysis in plasma of dogs and humans. (United States)

    Fletcher, Daniel J; Blackstock, Kelly J; Epstein, Kira; Brainard, Benjamin M


    To determine minimum plasma concentrations of the antifibrinolytic agents tranexamic acid (TEA) and ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA) needed to completely inhibit fibrinolysis in canine and human plasma after induction of hyperfibrinolysis. Pooled citrated plasma from 7 dogs and commercial pooled citrated human plasma. Concentrations of EACA from 0 μg/mL to 500 μg/mL and of TEA from 0 μg/mL to 160 μg/mL were added to pooled citrated canine and human plasma. Hyperfibrinolysis was induced with 1,000 units of tissue plasminogen activator/mL, and kaolin-activated thromboelastography was performed in duplicate. The minimum concentrations required to completely inhibit fibrinolysis 30 minutes after maximum amplitude of the thromboelastography tracing occurred were determined. Minimum plasma concentrations necessary for complete inhibition of fibrinolysis by EACA and TEA in pooled canine plasma were estimated as 511.7 μg/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 433.2 to 590.3 μg/mL) and 144.7 μg/mL (95% CI, 125.2 to 164.2 μg/mL), respectively. Concentrations of EACA and TEA necessary for complete inhibition of fibrinolysis in pooled human plasma were estimated as 122.0 μg/mL (95% CI, 106.2 to 137.8 μg/mL) and 14.7 μg/mL (95% CI, 13.7 to 15.6 μg/mL), respectively. Results supported the concept that dogs are hyperfibrinolytic, compared with humans. Higher doses of EACA and TEA may be required to fully inhibit fibrinolysis in dogs.

  8. Hemocompatible control of sulfobetaine-grafted polypropylene fibrous membranes in human whole blood via plasma-induced surface zwitterionization. (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Han; Chang, Yung; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Wei, Ta-Chin; Higuchi, Akon; Ho, Feng-Ming; Tsou, Chia-Chun; Ho, Hsin-Tsung; Lai, Juin-Yih


    In this work, the hemocompatibility of zwitterionic polypropylene (PP) fibrous membranes with varying grafting coverage of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) via plasma-induced surface polymerization was studied. Charge neutrality of PSBMA-grafted layers on PP membrane surfaces was controlled by the low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment in this study. The effects of grafting composition, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Protein adsorption onto the different PSBMA-grafted PP membranes from human fibrinogen solutions was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Blood platelet adhesion and plasma clotting time measurements from a recalcified platelet-rich plasma solution were used to determine if platelet activation depends on the charge bias of the grafted PSBMA layer. The charge bias of PSBMA layer deviated from the electrical balance of positively and negatively charged moieties can be well-controlled via atmospheric plasma-induced interfacial zwitterionization and was further tested with human whole blood. The optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and keeps its original blood-inert property of antifouling, anticoagulant, and antithrmbogenic activities when it comes into contact with human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PSBMA polymers by controlling grafting quality via atmospheric plasma treatment gives a great potential in the surface zwitterionization of hydrophobic membranes for use in human whole blood.

  9. Determination of platinum surface contamination in veterinary and human oncology centres using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.; Brouwers, E. E M; de Vos, J. P.; de Vries, N.; Schellens, J. H M; Beijnen, J. H.


    The objective of this study was to determine the surface contamination with platinum-containing antineoplastic drugs in veterinary and human oncology centres. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure platinum levels in surface samples. In veterinary and human oncology

  10. Effect of antigravity suit inflation on cardiovascular, PRA, and PVP responses in humans. [Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma VasoPressin (United States)

    Kravik, S. E.; Keil, L. C.; Geelen, G.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.


    The effects of lower body and abdominal pressure, produced by antigravity suit inflation, on blood pressure, pulse rate, fluid and electrolyte shift, plasma vasopressin and plasma renin activity in humans in upright postures were studied. Five men and two women stood upright for 3 hr with the suit being either inflated or uninflated. In the control tests, the suit was inflated only during the latter part of the trials. Monitoring was carried out with a sphygnomanometer, with sensors for pulse rates, and using a photometer and osmometer to measure blood serum characteristics. The tests confirmed earlier findings that the anti-g suit eliminates increases in plasma renin activity. Also, the headward redistribution of blood obtained in the tests commends the anti-g suit as an alternative to water immersion or bed rest for initial weightlessness studies.

  11. Cloud point extraction for analysis of antiretrovirals in human plasma by UFLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Hunzicker


    Full Text Available An analytical methodology based on cloud point extraction (CPE coupled to Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS was developed for analysis of Abacavir (ABC, Efavirenz (EFV, Lamivudine (3 TC and Nelfinavir (NFV in human plasma. It is the first time that CPE was used for extraction of antiretrovirals (ARV from plasma. The effects of relevant physic-chemical variables on analytical response of each ARV, including pH, surfactant concentration, equilibration time and temperature, were study and optimized; as well as its coupling to UFLC-ESI-MS/MS. Under optimized conditions, the resulting methodology was as follows: a 500 μL aliquot of human plasma was diluted with 2 mL deionized water in a 10 mL centrifuge tube. A 500 μL aliquot Triton X-114 5% w/v was added and homogenized using a vortex stirrer. The resulting cloudy solution was kept at 65 °C for 20 min for promoting the condensation of surfactant micelles. Then it was centrifuged at 3000 × g for 5 min for separation of the surfactant-rich phase. After discarding the aqueous supernatant, 400 μL ACN were added to the remaining surfactant rich phase and centrifuged in order to precipitate proteins and separate them. A 150 μL aliquot of the supernatant was transferred to 2 mL vial and further diluted with 400 μL deionized water. A 30 μL aliquot of the so-prepared solution was injected and analyzed into the UFLC-MS/MS. The method detection limits for ABC, EFV, 3 TC and NFV under optimized conditions were 31, 77, 57 and 21 ng mL−1, respectively. The RSD% for the studied analytes were <15%, except at the LOQ, which were <19%. Recovery values ranged from 81 to 107%. The proposed methodology was successfully applied for the analysis of ABC, EFV, 3 TC and NFV in human plasma within the concentration range of 43–6816, 125–4992, 81–3248 and 49–7904 ng mL−1, respectively. Under optimized working conditions the proposed

  12. Interstitial and plasma adenosine stimulate nitric oxide and prostacyclin formation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Thaning, Pia


    One major unresolved issue in muscle blood flow regulation is that of the role of circulating versus interstitial vasodilatory compounds. The present study determined adenosine-induced formation of NO and prostacyclin in the human muscle interstitium versus in femoral venous plasma to elucidate....... In young healthy humans, microdialysate was collected at rest, during arterial infusion of adenosine, and during interstitial infusion of adenosine through microdialysis probes inserted into musculus vastus lateralis. Muscle interstitial NO and prostacyclin increased with arterial and interstitial infusion...... of adenosine. The addition of adenosine to skeletal muscle cells increased NO formation (fluorochrome 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7-difluorescein fluorescence), whereas prostacyclin levels remained unchanged. The addition of adenosine to microvascular endothelial cells induced an increase in NO and prostacyclin...

  13. Expression cloning and production of Human Heavy Chain Only antibodies from murine transgenic plasma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Drabek


    Full Text Available Several technologies have been developed to isolate human antibodies against different target antigens as a source of potential therapeutics, including hybridoma technology, phage and yeast display systems. For conventional antibodies this involves either random pairing of VH and VL domains in combinatorial display libraries, or isolation of cognate pairs of VH and VL domains from human B cells or from transgenic mice carrying human immunoglobulin loci followed by single cell sorting, single cell RT-PCR and bulk cloning of isolated natural VH-VL pairs. Heavy chain only antibodies (HCAbs that naturally occur in camelids require only heavy immunoglobulin chain cloning. Here, we present an automatable novel, high-throughput technology, for rapid direct cloning and production of fully human HCAbs from sorted population of transgenic mouse plasma cells carrying a human HCAb locus. Utility of the technique is demonstrated by isolation of diverse sets of sequence unique, soluble, high affinity influenza A strain X-31 hemagglutinin (HA specific HCAbs

  14. Biological effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on human endometrial fibroblasts. (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; de la Fuente, María; Ferrando, Marcos; Quintana, Fernando; Larreategui, Zaloa; Matorras, Roberto; Orive, Gorka


    To evaluate the biological outcomes of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on human endometrial fibroblasts in culture. PRGF was obtained from three healthy donors and human endometrial fibroblasts (HEF) were isolated from endometrial specimens from five healthy women. The effects of PRGF on cell proliferation and migration, secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), procollagen type I and hyaluronic acid (HA) and contractility of isolated and cultured human endometrial fibroblasts (HEF) were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed in order to compare the effects of PRGF with respect to control situation (T-test or Mann-Whitney U-test). We report a significantly elevated human endometrial fibroblast proliferation and migration after treatment with PRGF. In addition, stimulation of HEF with PRGF induced an increased expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF and favored the endometrial matrix remodeling by the secretion of procollagen type I and HA and endometrial regeneration by elevating the contractility of HEF. These results were obtained for all PRGF donors and each endometrial cell line. The myriad of growth factors contained in PRGF promoted HEF proliferation, migration and synthesis of paracrine molecules apart from increasing their contractility potential. These preliminary results suggest that PRGF improves the biological activity of HEF in vitro, enhancing the regulation of several cellular processes implied in endometrial regeneration. This innovative treatment deserves further investigation for its potential in "in vivo" endometrial development and especially in human embryo implantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human interaction moderates plasma cortisol and behavioral responses of dogs to shelter housing. (United States)

    Shiverdecker, Matthew D; Schiml, Patricia A; Hennessy, Michael B


    Housing in an animal shelter is a stressful experience for dogs. This study examined the effects of different forms of human interaction on concentrations of circulating cortisol and stress-related behaviors of dogs within 40 h of admittance to a county animal shelter. Blood samples were collected before and after 30-min sessions in a secluded area in which dogs received one of three forms of human interaction: exposure to a passive human, petting, or play. Controls were either exposed to the secluded area alone, or remained in the general housing area. There was a substantial and near uniform reduction in plasma cortisol concentrations from pretest to post-test in all three conditions receiving human interaction, but not in control conditions. Human interaction also reduced behavioral signs of excitation/social solicitation (vocalizing) and fear (panting). Finally, pretest cortisol levels were found to predict levels of panting and another fear-related behavior (tongue protrusions) that dogs exhibited during subsequent testing. The findings suggest practical means of reducing stress, and potentially of improving the welfare, of dogs in shelters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hsp90 Binds Directly to Fibronectin (FN) and Inhibition Reduces the Extracellular Fibronectin Matrix in Breast Cancer Cells (United States)

    Kenyon, Amy; Dhanani, Karim C. H.; Prinsloo, Earl; Edkins, Adrienne L.


    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been identified in the extracellular space and has been shown to chaperone a finite number of extracellular proteins involved in cell migration and invasion. We used chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to isolate a complex containing Hsp90 and the matrix protein fibronectin (FN) from breast cancer cells. Further analysis showed direct binding of Hsp90 to FN using an in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay, a solid phase binding assay and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Confocal microscopy showed regions of co-localisation of Hsp90 and FN in breast cancer cell lines. Exogenous Hsp90β was shown to increase the formation of extracellular FN matrix in the Hs578T cell line, whilst knockdown or inhibition of Hsp90 led to a reduction in the levels of both soluble and insoluble FN and could be partially rescued by addition of exogenous Hsp90β. Treatment of cells with novobiocin led to internalization of FN into vesicles that were positive for the presence of the lysosomal marker, LAMP-1. Taken together, the direct interaction between FN and Hsp90, as well as the decreased levels of both soluble and insoluble FN upon Hsp90 inhibition or knockdown, suggested that FN may be a new client protein for Hsp90 and that Hsp90 was involved in FN matrix assembly and/or stability. The identification of FN as a putative client protein of Hsp90 suggests a role for Hsp90 in FN matrix stability, which is important for a number of fundamental cellular processes including embryogenesis, wound healing, cell migration and metastasis. PMID:24466266

  17. A TonB-dependent outer membrane protein as a Bacteroides fragilis fibronectin-binding molecule. (United States)

    Pauer, Heidi; Ferreira, Eliane de Oliveira; dos Santos-Filho, Joaquim; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Soares, Rosangela Maria Araújo; Domingues, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto


    The binding of Bacteroides fragilis to plasmatic fibronectin was investigated using strains isolated from healthy subjects and from patients with bacteremia. They were cultivated in a synthetic media in which variations in cysteine concentrations determined alterations in the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh). All the strains assayed were capable of adhering to plasmatic fibronectin when cultivated under oxidizing and reducing conditions. Bacteroides fragilis 1405 showed the greatest difference when the results under these conditions were compared and it was selected for further investigations. Chemical treatments suggested the involvement of a protein in the interaction between B. fragilis and plasmatic fibronectin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) revealed differences between the extracts obtained from cultures grown under the two conditions. Protein bands of c. 102, 100, 77, 73, 50 and 40 kDa were more highly expressed under oxidizing than reducing conditions. Dot blot analysis showed a stronger recognition of plasmatic fibronectin by OMPs obtained from cultures grown under higher Eh, and Western blot assays confirmed a band of c. 102 kDa as fibronectin-binding protein. This protein was sequenced and revealed to be a putative TonB-dependent OMPs. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of this gene in all the studied strains.

  18. Robotic inhibition assay for determination of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in human plasma. (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Liu, Lida; Hsieh, John Y-K; Zhao, Jamie; Matuszewski, Bogdan K; Rogers, John D; Dobrinska, Michael R


    The cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin (SIMV, Zocor reduced heart attacks by 42% in patients who had high cholesterol levels and suffered from heart disease. Upon oral administration, SIMV is quickly hydrolyzed to its beta-hydroxyacid and other acid metabolites, which are potent inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. A Tecan-based enzyme inhibition assay has been developed to improve the existing Zymark-based assay for the determination of both active and total concentrations of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in human plasma. A Tecan Genesis 200 robotic workstation equipped with eight probes and customized hardware was utilized to achieve higher sample throughput and improve assay reproducibility and mechanical stability. The developed enzyme inhibition assay was validated over two concentration ranges of 0.4-20 ng equivalent/mL, and 2-50 ng equivalent/mL. Intra- and interday precision data (coefficient of variation (CV)) for both concentration ranges were less than 9%, with an accuracy of 93-107%. The interday precision for the determination of quality control (QC) samples was less than 2% and 8%, respectively. The respective interday QC accuracy values were 93-103% and 97-104%. Good linearity across the two concentration ranges was observed, with acceptable reproducibility. This improved enzyme inhibition assay has been utilized to analyze human plasma samples from several clinical studies. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. [Determination of ambroxol and clenbuterol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS method]. (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Song, Bo; Zhong, Da-Fang


    Ambroxol and clenbuterol were extracted from human plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction, ambroxol was separated on a Zorbax XDB-C18 column and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface after oral administration of a compound preparation. Clenbuterol was separated on a Zorbax XDB-C8 column and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization interface. Diphenhydramine is used as the internal standard. The linear concentration ranges of the calibration curves for ambroxol and clenbuterol were 0.080 - 400 microg x L(-1) and 5.0 - 5 000 ng x L(-1), respectively. The lower limits of quantification were 0.080 microg x L(-1) for ambroxol and 5.0 ng x L(-1) for clenbuterol, individually. The inter-day and intra-day precision (RSD) across three validation run over the entire concentration range was below 7.5%, and the accuracy (RE) was within +/- 2.5% for both ambroxol and clenbuterol. The methods were used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ambroxol and clenbuterol in human plasma after oral administration of a compound preparation containing 60 mg ambroxol hydrochloride and 40 microg clenbuterol hydrochloride. The method was proved to be highly sensitive, selective and suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of different compound preparations containing ambroxol and clenbuterol.

  20. Plasma Albumin Induces Cytosolic Calcium Oscilations and DNA Synthesis in Human Cultured Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Vega-Zelaya


    Full Text Available So far, a little is known about transition from normal to focal epileptic brain, although disruption in blood-brain barrier and albumin had recently involved. The main objective of this work is to characterize the response of cultured human astrocytes to plasma albumin, including induction of DNA synthesis. Cortical tissue was obtained from 9 patients operated from temporal lobe epilepsy. Astrocytes were cultured for 3-4 weeks and cytosolic calcium concentration (Ca2+c was measured. Bovine and human plasma albumin were used. We observed that low albumin concentration decreases Ca2+c, while higher concentration, induces increase in Ca2+c. It was shown that increase in Ca2+c was mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and released from internal stores. Increase in Ca2+c was reduced to 19% by blocking the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-βR receptor. Albumin induces DNA synthesis in a dose-response manner. Finally, induction of DNA synthesis can be partially blocked by heparin and block of TGF-β; however, the combination of both incompletely inhibits DNA synthesis. Therefore, results suggest that mechanisms other than Ca2+ signals and TGF-β receptor activation might induce DNA synthesis in a lesser degree. These results may be important to further understand the mechanisms involved in the transition from normal to focal epileptic brain.

  1. Flow induced dispersion analysis rapidly quantifies proteins in human plasma samples. (United States)

    Poulsen, Nicklas N; Andersen, Nina Z; Østergaard, Jesper; Zhuang, Guisheng; Petersen, Nickolaj J; Jensen, Henrik


    Rapid and sensitive quantification of protein based biomarkers and drugs is a substantial challenge in diagnostics and biopharmaceutical drug development. Current technologies, such as ELISA, are characterized by being slow (hours), requiring relatively large amounts of sample and being subject to cumbersome and expensive assay development. In this work a new approach for quantification based on changes in diffusivity is presented. The apparent diffusivity of an indicator molecule interacting with the protein of interest is determined by Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) in a hydrodynamic flow system. In the presence of the analyte the apparent diffusivity of the indicator changes due to complexation. This change in diffusivity is used to quantify the analyte. This approach, termed Flow Induced Dispersion Analysis (FIDA), is characterized by being fast (minutes), selective (quantification is possible in a blood plasma matrix), fully automated, and being subject to a simple assay development. FIDA is demonstrated for quantification of the protein Human Serum Albumin (HSA) in human plasma as well as for quantification of an antibody against HSA. The sensitivity of the FIDA assay depends on the indicator-analyte dissociation constant which in favourable cases is in the sub-nanomolar to picomolar range for antibody-antigen interactions.

  2. Ultra-performance liquid chromatographic determination of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma. (United States)

    Bell, Edward C; John, Mathew; Hughes, Rodney J; Pham, Thu


    A rapid, selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the detection and quantification of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma. Alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and retinol are assayed using fluorescence detection. Excitation/emission wavelengths are 295/330 nm and 325/470 nm for the analysis of both tocopherols and retinol, respectively. Retinol acetate is employed as the internal standard. The reversed-phase method incorporates gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and acetonitrile. Separation of vitamin compounds is achieved using a bridged ethyl hybrid C18 column. The retention times for retinol, retinol acetate, gamma-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol are 1.6, 1.8, 3.9 and 4.3 min, respectively. The limits of quantification for retinol, gamma-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol were 0.02, 0.02 and 0.1 µg/mL, respectively. The assay method is suitable for the analysis of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma. The method may be applied following the ingestion of foods fortified with these fat-soluble vitamins. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  3. Surface modifying of microporous PTFE capillary for bilirubin removing from human plasma and its blood compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Gu [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China)], E-mail:; Yao Qizhi; Zhang Shanzi [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China); AnHui Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, HeFei, 230001 (China)


    In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) was covalently immobilized onto the inner surface of microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (MPTFE) capillaries for direct bilirubin removal from human plasma. To obtain active binding sites for HSA, the MPTFE capillaries were chemically functionalized by using a coating of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) copolymers. Characterization of grafted MPTFE capillaries was verified by XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Non-specific adsorption on the PVA-GMA coated capillary remains low (< 0.38 mg bilirubin/g), and higher affinity adsorption capacity, of up to 73.6 mg bilirubin/g polymer was obtained after HSA is immobilized. Blood compatibility of the grafted MPTFE capillary was evaluated by SEM and platelet rich plasma (PRP) contacting experiments. The experimental data on blood compatibility indicated that PVA-coated and PVA-GMA-HSA coated PTFE capillary showed a sharp suppress on platelets adhesion. The proposed method has the potential of serving in bilirubin removal in clinical application.

  4. Determination of valganciclovir and ganciclovir in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric detection. (United States)

    Singh, Onkar; Saxena, Saurabh; Mishra, Sanjeev; Khuroo, Arshad; Monif, Tausif


    The aim of this work was to develop a simple, sensitive and selective LC/MS/MS method for the assay of valganciclovir and ganciclovir in human plasma. Sample preparation involved solid phase extraction on mix mode cation exchanger. Separation was performed on Chromolith RP18e column using water, trifluoroacetic acid (1M, pH 4.4) and methanol (29.9:0.1:70, v/v) as mobile phase. Both analytes were detected by electro spray ionization mass spectrometry in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. CCs with good linearties having r≥0.9990 and ≥0.9992 were obtained in the range of 5-800ng/mL and 70-11,200ng/mL for valganciclovir and ganciclovir, respectively. The extraction recoveries were around 85% for both the analytes. The method provided a simple and selective procedure that can be easily used for the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic profile of valganciclovir and ganciclovir in human plasma. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reaction rates of α-tocopheroxyl radicals confined in micelles and in human plasma lipoproteins. (United States)

    Vanzani, Paola; Rigo, Adelio; Zennaro, Lucio; Di Paolo, Maria Luisa; Scarpa, Marina; Rossetto, Monica


    α-Tocopherol, the main component of vitamin E, traps highly reactive radicals which otherwise might react with lipids present in plasmatic lipoproteins or in cell membranes. The α-tocopheroxyl radicals generated by this process have also a pro-oxidant action which is contrasted by their reaction with ascorbate or by bimolecular self-reaction (dismutation). The kinetics of this bimolecular self-reaction were explored in solution such as ethanol, and in heterogeneous systems such as deoxycholic acid micelles and in human plasma. According to ESR measurements, the kinetic rate constant (2k(d)) of the bimolecular self-reaction of α-tocopheroxyl radicals in micelles and in human plasma was calculated to be of the order of 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at 37 °C. This value was obtained considering that the reactive radicals are confined into the micellar pseudophase and is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the value we found in homogeneous phase. The physiological significance of this high value is discussed considering the competition between bimolecular self-reaction and the α-tocopheroxyl radical recycling by ascorbate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and Validation of Acyclovir HPLC External Standard Method in Human Plasma: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvadurai Muralidharan


    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of acyclovir in human plasma. The method involves a simple protein precipitation technique. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a reverse phase C18 column using mixture of 5 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (40 : 60, v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 290 nm. The retention time of acyclovir was 4.12 minutes. The method was validated and found to be linear in the range of 25.0–150.0 ng/mL. Validation studies were achieved by using the fundamental parameters, including accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and range, stability studies, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantitation (LOQ. It shows recovery at 91.0% which is more precise and accurate compared to the other method. These results indicated that the bioanalytical method was linear, precise, and accurate. The new bioanalytical method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic linearity study in human plasma.

  7. Involvement of semenogelin-derived peptides in the antibacterial activity of human seminal plasma. (United States)

    Bourgeon, Frédéric; Evrard, Bertrand; Brillard-Bourdet, Michèle; Colleu, Daniel; Jégou, Bernard; Pineau, Charles


    Mechanisms for protecting spermatozoa, and the testes that produce them, from infection are essential, given the importance of these cells and organs for the fertility of the individual and perpetuation of the species. This is borne out by the publication of numerous papers on this subject over the last 50 years. We extended our work and that of others on the anti-infectious defense system of the male genital tract, using a new strategy for the direct identification of antibacterial molecules in human seminal plasma. We subjected a liquefied seminal plasma cationic fraction to reversed-phase HPLC, monitored microbicidal activity by gel overlay and radial diffusion assays, and identified the proteins and/or peptides present in each active fraction by mass spectrometry. In addition to proteins with known potent microbicidal activity--phospholipase A2, lactoferrin, and lysozyme--we also found that peptides produced by cleavage of semenogelin I, the predominant human semen coagulum protein, had high levels of antibacterial activity.

  8. Hybrid Synthetic Receptors on MOSFET Devices for Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen in Human Plasma. (United States)

    Tamboli, Vibha K; Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Bowen, Chris R; Taylor, John T; Bowen, Jenna L; Allender, Chris J; Estrela, Pedro


    The study reports the use of extended gate field-effect transistors (FET) for the label-free and sensitive detection of prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers in human plasma. The approach integrates for the first time hybrid synthetic receptors comprising of highly selective aptamer-lined pockets (apta-MIP) with FETs for sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) at clinically relevant concentrations. The hybrid synthetic receptors were constructed by immobilizing an aptamer-PSA complex on gold and subjecting it to 13 cycles of dopamine electropolymerization. The polymerization resulted in the creation of highly selective polymeric cavities that retained the ability to recognize PSA post removal of the protein. The hybrid synthetic receptors were subsequently used in an extended gate FET setup for electrochemical detection of PSA. The sensor was reported to have a limit of detection of 0.1 pg/mL with a linear detection range from 0.1 pg/mL to 1 ng/mL PSA. Detection of 1-10 pg/mL PSA was also achieved in diluted human plasma. The present apta-MIP sensor developed in conjunction with FET devices demonstrates the potential for clinical application of synthetic hybrid receptors for the detection of clinically relevant biomarkers in complex samples.

  9. Simulation of Human Plasma Concentrations of Thalidomide and Primary 5-Hydroxylated Metabolites Explored with Pharmacokinetic Data in Humanized TK-NOG Mice. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Sayako; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Shibata, Norio; Guengerich, F Peter; Yamazaki, Hiroshi


    Plasma concentrations of thalidomide and primary 5-hydroxylated metabolites including 5,6-dihydroxythalidomide and glutathione (GSH) conjugate(s) were investigated in chimeric mice with highly "humanized" liver cells harboring cytochrome P450 3A5*1. Following oral administration of thalidomide (100 mg/kg), plasma concentrations of GSH conjugate(s) of 5-hydroxythalidomide were higher in humanized mice than in controls. Simulation of human plasma concentrations of thalidomide were achieved with a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in accordance with reported thalidomide concentrations. The results indicate that the pharmacokinetics in humans of GSH conjugate and/or catechol primary 5-hydroxylated thalidomide contributing in vivo activation can be estimated for the first time.

  10. Quantitative determination of famotidine in human maternal plasma, umbilical cord plasma and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Rytting, Erik; Abdelrahman, Doaa R; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Hankins, Gary D V; Ahmed, Mahmoud S


    Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of famotidine in human urine, maternal and umbilical cord plasma was developed and validated. The plasma samples were alkalized with ammonium hydroxide and extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The extraction recovery of famotidine in maternal and umbilical cord plasma ranged from 53 to 64% and 72 to 79%, respectively. Urine samples were directly diluted with the initial mobile phase then injected into the HPLC system. Chromatographic separation of famotidine was achieved by using a Phenomenex Synergi™ Hydro-RP™ column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 10 mm ammonium acetate aqueous solution (pH 8.3, adjusted with ammonium hydroxide). Mass spectrometric detection of famotidine was set in the positive mode and used a selected ion monitoring method. Carbon-13-labeled famotidine was used as internal standard. The calibration curves were linear (r(2) > 0.99) in the concentration ranges of 0.631-252 ng/mL for umbilical and maternal plasma samples and 0.075-30.0 µg/mL for urine samples. The relative deviation of method was cord plasma was less than 17%. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Saliva versus Plasma Relative Bioavailability of Tolterodine in Humans: Validation of Class III Drugs of the Salivary Excretion Classification System. (United States)

    Idkaidek, N; Najib, N; Salem, I I; Najib, O


    Relative bioavailability study of tolterodine in healthy human volunteers was done using saliva and plasma matrices in order to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as a surrogate for bioavailability and bioequivalence of class III drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS). Saliva and plasma samples were collected up to 16 h after 2 mg oral dose. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non compartmental analysis using Kinetica program V5. Human effective intestinal permeability was optimized by SimCYP program V13. Tolterodine falls into class III (High permeability/Low fraction unbound to plasma proteins) and hence was subjected to salivary excretion. A high pearsons correlation coefficient of 0.97 between mean saliva and plasma concentrations, and saliva/plasma concentrations ratio of 0.33 were observed. In addition, correlation coefficients and saliva/plasma ratios of area under curve and maximum concentration were 0.98, 0.95 and 0.42, 0.34 respectively. On the other hand, time to reach maximum concentration was higher in saliva by 2.37 fold. In addition, inter subject variability values in saliva were slightly higher than plasma leading to need for slightly higher number of subjects to be used in saliva studies (55 vs. 48 subjects). Non-invasive saliva sampling instead of invasive plasma sampling method can be used as a surrogate for bioavailability and bioequivalence of SECS class I drugs when adequate sample size is used. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Determination of the Clostridium perfringens-binding site on fibronectin. (United States)

    Katayama, Seiichi; Tagomori, Mika; Morita, Naomi; Yamasaki, Tsutomu; Nariya, Hirofumi; Okada, Mariko; Watanabe, Mariko; Hitsumoto, Yasuo


    The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (Fn) is known to bind to the surface of Clostridium perfringens cells. Fn is a disulfide-linked homodimer protein, with each Fn polypeptide consisting of three types of repeating modules: 12 type I, 2 type II, and 15-17 type III modules. To determine the epitope on Fn recognized by C. perfringens cells, anti-Fn monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and various Fn fragments (III2-10, rIII2-4, rIII5-7, rIII8, rIII9, rIII10) were employed. Although two C. perfringens-derived Fn-binding proteins, FbpA and FbpB, have been reported, they appear not to be the bacterium's surface Fn receptor. Moreover, both FbpA and FbpB were found to bind to C. perfringens cells. To avoid confusion, a mutant C. perfringens lacking both the fbpA and fbpB genes (MW5) was prepared using an in-frame deletion system. MW5 cells bound Fn on their surface, suggesting the presence of a putative Fn receptor(s) on C. perfringens cells. Of several anti-Fn mAbs, both HB39 and MO inhibited the binding of Fn to MW5 cells. HB39 reacted strongly with III2-10 and rIII9, and weakly with rIII2-4, rIII10 and rIII5-7 in Western blotting analysis. Binding of HB39 to Fn was inhibited in the presence of either rIII9 or rIII10, but not in the presence of rIII2-4, rIII5-7, or rIII8. Binding of Fn to MW5 cells was strongly inhibited by both III2-10 and rIII9, marginally inhibited by rIII2-4, but not affected by rIII5-7, rIII8, or rIII10. Significant binding of MW5 cells to immobilized rIII9 and rIII10 as well as immobilized III2-10 was observed. The region of Fn recognized by C. perfringens was thus mapped to the region encompassed by III9 and III10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Comparison of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell culture between using human umbilical cord plasma and using fetal bovine serum]. (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Lu, Zhiyong; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Dongsheng; Zeng, Yi


    To investigate whether human umbilical cord plasma (HUP) can be used to culture human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs), we collected 20 surplus HUP. After being treated with salting out and diasysis, the HUP were used to culture HUCMSCs as 10% volume, and compared with fetal bovine serum (FBS). Morphological characteristics, growth curve and reproductive activity of HUCMSCs cells were observed. The concentration of bFGF and noggin secreted by HUCMSCs cultured with HUP and FBS medium were detected by ELISA. It was found that compared to FBS, the morphology, reproductive activity and characteristic of HUCMSCs cell cultured with HUP were not distinctively different from FBS. The concentration of bFGF in HUP group was significantly higher than that of FBS group, and the concentration of noggin was also different in the two groups. So we concluded that HUP could be used to culture HUCMSCs for a long-time, and the HUP mediumcoild could be more suitable for the culture of human embryonic stem cell (hESC).

  14. Acute effects of thermally processed pili (Canarium ovatum, Engl.) pomace drink on plasma antioxidant and polyphenol status in humans. (United States)

    Arenas, Elizabeth Hashim; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad


    Pili (Canarium ovatum, Engl.) pomace is an underutilized agricultural waste that possesses great potential to be regarded as a functional food ingredient. The aim of this study was to measure the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of pili pomace drink and determine the influence of heating on these parameters. Moreover, it sought to assess the acute effects of thermally processed pili pomace drink on plasma antioxidant and polyphenol status in humans. Ten healthy adults received a single dose (130 ml) of pili pomace drink following an overnight fasting, and blood was collected at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after ingestion of pili pomace. Plasma total polyphenol content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu method, while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in uricase-treated and untreated plasma samples. Significant changes in plasma antioxidant and polyphenol levels were observed, reaching maximum levels at 120 and between 30 - 60 min, respectively (p<0.05). Both plasma polyphenols and TAC remained significantly above baseline values throughout the entire test period (p<0.05). Results raised the possibility that an acute consumption of this phenolic-rich pili pomace drink may enhance plasma antioxidant and polyphenol status in humans. Future studies on other unidentified metabolites from pili pomace that may have enhanced the antioxidant activity of plasma should be done.

  15. [BAME-Esterase activity in plasmas from blood of human placental interveillous space and umbilical cord vessels (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Matheus, M; Salles Meirelles, R


    The authors studied an enzymatic activity (BAME-esterase) from human plasma, intimately related with the bradykinin release mechanisms. The optimal conditions of evaluation of the different plasmas were determined. Lately, the authors showed the results obtained with plasma from maternal peripheral blood, umbilical vessels blood and human placental intervillous space blood. It was concluded: 1. The study of enzymatic kinetics allows to establish a reaction time of 30 minutes, and the enzymatic concentration contained within 0.5 ml. of plasma, as ideal parameters to determine the enzymatic activities into the different compartments. 2. In the cases studied, considered clinically normals, the enzymatic activity in plasma from the interveillous space, before and after the detachment of the placenta, was greater than in peripheral maternal and umbilical vessels bloods. The activity in umbilical artery plasma was greater than in umbilical vein and practically the same as in maternal plasma. 3. The esterase activity values into the compartments studied in pre-eclamptics, were similar to that found in the cases considered clinically normal.

  16. Measuring xenon in human plasma and blood by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Piper, Thomas; Geyer, Hans; Thomas, Andreas; Schaefer, Maximilian S; Kienbaum, Peter; Schänzer, Wilhelm


    Due to the favorable pharmacokinetic properties and minimal side effects of xenon, its use in modern anesthesia has been well accepted, and recent studies further demonstrated the intra- and postoperative neuro-, cardio-, and reno-protective action of the noble gas. Since the production of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its downstream effector erythropoietin as well as noradrenalin reuptake inhibition have been found to play key roles in this context, the question arose as to whether the use of xenon is a matter for doping controls and preventive doping research. The aim of the present study was hence to evaluate whether the (ab)use of xenon can be detected from doping control samples with the instrumentation commonly available in sports drug testing laboratories. Plasma was saturated with xenon according to reported protocols, and the target analyte was measured by means of gas chromatography/time-of-flight and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with headspace injection. Recording the accurate mass of three major xenon isotopes at m/z 128.9048, 130.9045 and 131.9042 allowed for the unequivocal identification of the analyte and the detection assay was characterized concerning limit of detection (LOD), intraday precision, and specificity as well as analyte recovery under different storage conditions. Xenon was detected in fortified plasma samples with detection limits of approximately 0.5 nmol/mL to 50 nmol/mL, depending on the type of mass spectrometer used. The method characteristics of intraday precision (coefficient of variation xenon at non-physiological concentrations in human plasma and blood. Eventually, authentic plasma and blood samples collected pre-, intra-, and post-operative (4, 8, and 24 h) were positively analyzed after storage for up to 30 h, and provided proof-of-concept for the developed assay. If relevant to doping controls, xenon can be determined from plasma and blood samples, i.e. common specimens of routine sports

  17. Sensitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Measuring Plasma and Intracellular Nevirapine Levels in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients (United States)

    Azoulay, Stéphane; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Créminon, Christophe; Heripret, Laurence; Durant, Jacques; Dellamonica, Pierre; Grassi, Jacques; Guedj, Roger; Duval, Danièle


    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay to measure nevirapine (NVP) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Anti-NVP polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits by using a synthetic NVP derivative coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin as the immunogen, and the enzyme tracer was prepared by chemically coupling the NVP derivative with acetylcholinesterase. These reagents were used to develop a sensitive competitive enzyme immunoassay performed in microtitration plates with a 100-pg ml−1 limit of detection and thus ∼100 times more sensitive than previously published techniques. The plasma assay was performed directly without extraction (in this case, a 500-pg ml−1 limit of detection was observed) on a minimum of 30 μl of plasma. This assay shows good precision and efficiency, since recovery from human plasma and cell extracts spiked with NVP ranged between 87 and 104%, with coefficients of variation of <10%. A pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma NVP was performed for seven patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and it gave results similar to published findings. Intracellular concentrations of NVP were measured in cultured human T-lymphoblastoid cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients. The results indicated a very low intracellular/extracellular concentration ratio (0.134), thus demonstrating the absence of intracellular drug accumulation. This is the first intracellular assay of a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor, and this method could be useful in monitoring plasma and intracellular NVP levels in HIV-infected patients. PMID:14693526

  18. Histamine quantification in human plasma using high resolution accurate mass LC-MS technology. (United States)

    Laurichesse, Mathieu; Gicquel, Thomas; Moreau, Caroline; Tribut, Olivier; Tarte, Karin; Morel, Isabelle; Bendavid, Claude; Amé-Thomas, Patricia


    Histamine (HA) is a small amine playing an important role in anaphylactic reactions. In order to identify and quantify HA in plasma matrix, different methods have been developed but present several disadvantages. Here, we developed an alternative method using liquid chromatography coupled with an ultra-high resolution and accurate mass instrument, Q Exactive™ (Thermo Fisher) (LCHRMS). The method includes a protein precipitation of plasma samples spiked with HA-d4 as internal standard (IS). LC separation was performed on a C18 Accucore column (100∗2.1mm, 2.6μm) using a mobile phase containing nonafluoropentanoic acid (3nM) and acetonitrile with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid on gradient mode. Separation of analytes was obtained within 10min. Analysis was performed from full scan mode and targeted MS2 mode using a 5ppm mass window. Ion transitions monitored for targeted MS2 mode were 112.0869>95.0607m/z for HA and 116.1120>99.0855m/z for HA-d4. Calibration curves were obtained by adding standard calibration dilution at 1 to 180nM in TrisBSA. Elution of HA and IS occurred at 4.1min. The method was validated over a range of concentrations from 1nM to 100nM. The intra- and inter-run precisions were <15% for quality controls. Human plasma samples from 30 patients were analyzed by LCHRMS, and the results were highly correlated with those obtained using the gold standard radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. Overall, we demonstrate here that LCHRMS is a sensitive method for histamine quantification in biological human plasmas, suitable for routine use in medical laboratories. In addition, LCHRMS is less time-consuming than RIA, avoids the use of radioactivity, and could then be considered as an alternative quantitative method. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Berberine Suppresses TPA-Induced Fibronectin Expression through the Inhibition of VEGF Secretion in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Kim


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Berberine (BBR is an isoquinoline alkaloid and is beneficial for the anticancer effect on a variety of human tumor cells. However, BBR's anti-angiogenesis property and its clinical potential as an inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of BBR on TPA-induced VEGF and fibronectin (FN as well as VEGF-induced FN in breast cancer cells. Methods: The secretion of VEGF protein was detected by ELISA. Fibronectin mRNA and protein expression was analyzed by Real-Time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The overexpressions of CA-MEK, and CA-Akt were examined by adenovirus system. Results: Our results showed that TPA, a tumor promoter, significantly increased the level of VEGF and FN expression in both MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cells. On the other hand, TPA-induced VEGF and FN expression was suppressed by LY294002, a PI-3K inhibitor. In contrast, the level of FN expression also significantly increased by constitutively active (CA-AKT overexpression. We also found that TPA-induced VEGF and FN expression was decreased by BBR treatment. Finally, our results showed that VEGF augmented the expression of FN whereas VEGF-induced FN expression was decreased by BBR treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, we suggest that BBR may suppress TPA-induced VEGF and FN as well as VEGF-induced FN through the inhibition of the PI-3K/AKT pathway in breast cancer cells. Therefore, we suggest that BBR may be used as a candidate drug for the inhibition of angiogenesis of human breast cancer.

  20. The monoclonal antibody SM5-1 recognizes a fibronectin variant which is widely expressed in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yajun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have generated the monoclonal antibody SM5-1 by using a subtractive immunization protocol of human melanoma. This antibody exhibits a high sensitivity for primary melanomas of 99% (248/250 tested and for metastatic melanoma of 96% (146/151 tested in paraffin embedded sections. This reactivity is superior to the one obtained by HMB-45, anti-MelanA or anti-Tyrosinase and is comparable to anti-S100. However, as compared to anti-S100, the antibody SM5-1 is highly specific for melanocytic lesions since 40 different neoplasms were found to be negative for SM5-1 by immunohistochemistry. The antigen recognized by SM5-1 is unknown. Methods In order to characterize the antigen recognized by mAb SM5-1, a cDNA library was constructed from the metastatic human melanoma cell line SMMUpos in the Uni-ZAP lambda phage and screened by mAb SM5-1. The cDNA clones identified by this approach were then sequenced and subsequently analyzed. Results Sequence analysis of nine independent overlapping clones (length 3100–5600 bp represent fibronectin cDNA including the ED-A, but not the ED-B region which are produced by alternative splicing. The 89aa splicing variant of the IIICS region was found in 8/9 clones and the 120aa splicing variant in 1/9 clones, both of which are included in the CS1 region of fibronectin being involved in melanoma cell adhesion and spreading. Conclusion The molecule recognized by SM5-1 is a melanoma associated FN variant expressed by virtually all primary and metastatic melanomas and may play an important role in melanoma formation and progression. This antibody is therefore not only of value in immunohistochemistry, but potentially also for diagnostic imaging and immunotherapy.

  1. Effect of Plasma Pretreatments on the Bio-adhesive Functionalized by Biomimetic Catechol Groups to Human Dentin (United States)

    Lee, Sangbae; Kim, Kwangmahn; Kim, Kyoungnam


    Plasma pretreatments have been introduced for modifying the surface chemistry of biomaterials. In an effort to improve the strength of the human dentin/bio-adhesive joint, oxygen plasma pretreatments to the bio-adhesive were investigated. Plasma treatments were carried out using custom-built and low pressure. Dentin were treated with plasma and used to prepare lap shear tests. Bio-adhesives were prepared synthesizing dopamine methacrylamide (DMA) monomer. DMA were copolymerized with 2-methoxyethylacrylate (MEA) by free radical polymerization. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (^1H-NMR) and Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis on samples of synthesized p(DMA-co-MEA) was performed to confirm that the resulting materials had the desired chemical structure. The effects of plasma pretreatments on surface chemistry were studied using Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), and contact angle measurements. Oxygen plasma pretreatments enhanced adhesive strength by oxidizing of the catechol residue and creating a cross-linking as compared with control group. Furthermore plasma pretreatments lead to increase hydrophilicity of copolymers. Prospectively, the great potential of advanced technology in creation of the ``Plasma pretreatment to the DOPA adhesives'' would lead to the development of versatile method for coating to medial devices as well as dentin bonding.

  2. Fibronectin induces macrophage migration through a SFK-FAK/CSF-1R pathway. (United States)

    Digiacomo, Graziana; Tusa, Ignazia; Bacci, Marina; Cipolleschi, Maria Grazia; Dello Sbarba, Persio; Rovida, Elisabetta


    Integrins, following binding to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, laminin and fibronectin (FN), are able to transduce molecular signals inside the cells and to regulate several biological functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Besides activation of adaptor molecules and kinases, integrins transactivate Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK). In particular, adhesion to the ECM may promote RTK activation in the absence of growth factors. The Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) is a RTK that supports the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are essential components of innate immunity and cancer development. Macrophage interaction with FN is recognized as an important aspect of host defense and wound repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate on a possible cross-talk between FN-elicited signals and CSF-1R in macrophages. FN induced migration in BAC1.2F5 and J774 murine macrophage cell lines and in human primary macrophages. Adhesion to FN determined phosphorylation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src Family Kinases (SFK) and activation of the SFK/FAK complex, as witnessed by paxillin phosphorylation. SFK activity was necessary for FAK activation and macrophage migration. Moreover, FN-induced migration was dependent on FAK in either murine macrophage cell lines or human primary macrophages. FN also induced FAK-dependent/ligand-independent CSF-1R phosphorylation, as well as the interaction between CSF-1R and β1. CSF-1R activity was necessary for FN-induced macrophage migration. Indeed, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CSF-1R prevented FN-induced macrophage migration. Our results identified a new SFK-FAK/CSF-1R signaling pathway that mediates FN-induced migration of macrophages.

  3. Fibronectin and tenascin-C: accomplices in vascular morphogenesis during development and tumor growth. (United States)

    Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen; Tucker, Richard P; Saupe, Falk; Gasser, Isabelle; Cseh, Botond; Orend, Gertraud


    In addition to soluble factors, the extracellular matrix (ECM) also plays a vital role in normal vasculogenesis and in the pathological angiogenesis of many disease states. Here we will review what is known about the role of the ECM molecules fibronectin and tenascin-C in the vasculature and highlight a potential collaborative interplay between these molecules in developmental and tumorigenic angiogenesis. We will address the evolution of these modular proteins, their cellular interactions and how they become assembled into an insoluble matrix that impacts the assembly of other ECM proteins and the bioavailability of pro-angiogenic factors. The role of fibronectin and tenascin-C networks in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis will be described. We will elaborate on lessons learned about their role in vessel function from the functional ablation or the ectopic expression of both molecules. We will also elaborate on potential mechanisms of how fibronectin and tenascin-C affect cell adhesion and signaling that are relevant to angiogenesis.

  4. Genetic studies of low-abundance human plasma proteins. V. Evidence for a second orosomucoid structural locus (ORM2) expressed in plasma.


    Escallon, M H; Ferrell, R E; Kamboh, M I


    Orosomucoid (ORM) or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein is an acute-phase protein of human plasma whose function is suggested to be the competitive inhibition of cellular recognition by infective agents. Genetically determined variation in ORM has been reported, with two major alleles segregating in all populations studied to date. Isoelectric focusing-immunoblotting studies of ORM revealed the presence of isoprotein species that did not segregate with the predominant alleles at the ORM locus and sugg...

  5. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens. (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K


    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of extraction and quantification methods of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma, serum, and whole blood

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    Reagen, William K. [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)], E-mail:; Ellefson, Mark E. [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences (United States); State University of New York at Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Department of Biology and Chemistry, Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zoology Department, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI (United States); School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)


    Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous in the environment and have been reported to occur in human blood. Accurate risk assessments require accurate measurements of exposures, but identification and quantification of PFCs in biological matrices can be affected by both ion suppression and enhancement in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques (LC/MS-MS). A study was conducted to quantify potential biases in LC/MS-MS quantification methods. Using isotopically labeled perfluorooctanoic acid ([{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid ([{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFNA), and ammonium perfluorooctanesulfonate ([{sup 18}O{sub 2}]-PFOS) spiked tissues, ion-pairing extraction, solid-phase extraction, and protein precipitation sample preparation techniques were compared. Analytical accuracy was assessed using both solvent calibration and matrix-matched calibration for quantification. Data accuracy and precision of 100 {+-} 15% was demonstrated in both human sera and plasma for all three sample preparation techniques when matrix-matched calibration was used in quantification. In contrast, quantification of ion-pairing extraction data using solvent calibration in combination with a surrogate internal standard resulted in significant analytical biases for all target analytes. The accuracy of results, based on solvent calibration was highly variable and dependent on the serum and plasma matrices, the specific target analyte [{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFOA, [{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFNA, or [{sup 18}O{sub 2}]-PFOS, the target analyte concentration, the LC/MS-MS instrumentation used in data generation, and the specific surrogate internal standard used in quantification. These results suggest that concentrations of PFCs reported for human blood using surrogate internal standards in combination with external solvent calibration can be inaccurate unless biases are accounted for in data quantification.

  7. Spatial distribution of enamel proteins and fibronectin at early stages of rat incisor tooth formation. (United States)

    Sawada, T; Nanci, A


    Enamel proteins are secreted very early during amelogenesis, that is prior to mantle dentine formation, raising the possibility that they may participate in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions taking place during tooth development. These first enamel proteins associate with elements of the basement membrane interposed between the differentiating ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Fibronectin, a component of the basement membrane, is redistributed and accumulates along the apical portion of odontoblasts during their terminal differentiation. In order to determine whether any correlation exists between the redistribution of fibronectin and the secretion of the first enamel proteins, the spatial distribution of these two extracellular matrix proteins was examined during the presecretory stage of amelogenesis. Male Wistar rats were perfused with a formaldehyde-based fixative, and undemineralized and EDTA demineralized incisors were dehydrated in methanol and embedded in Lowicryl K4M resin. Ultrathin tissue sections were then processed for post-embedding, colloidal-gold immunocytochemistry with antibodies to enamel proteins, fibronectin or type III collagen. In the region of ameloblasts facing pulp, labelling for fibronectin was weak and mostly associated with the lamina fibroreticularis of the basement membrane separating differentiating ameloblasts and odontoblasts. As the mantle predentine formed the immunoreaction for fibronectin increased, particularly in the region of the basement membrane. Enamel proteins were also immunodetected in association with the lamina fibroreticularis and gradually accumulated as patches within mantle dentine and at its interface with ameloblasts. Von Korff collagen bundles, present between odontoblasts and in dentine, were immunolabelled for fibronectin and for type III collagen. Patches of granular material, immunoreactive for fibronectin and/or enamel proteins, were found along the odontoblastic processes and cell bodies. Although no

  8. [Study on the changes of fibronectin in the resected medial rectus of patients with concomitant exotropia]. (United States)

    Zuo, Xu-hong; Liu, Gui-xiang


    To study the changes of fibronectin in the resected medial rectus muscles in patients with concomitant exotropia and to have a better understanding about the pathomorphological changes of extraocular muscles in the genesis and development of concomitant exotropia. Thirty-five concomitant exotropic patients were chosen as exotropic group and 20 normals were selected as control group. In the exotropic group, the age range 2 to 46 years old (mean, 20.9 ys), deviation range -45(Δ) to -90(Δ) (mean, -67.5(Δ)), 19 males, 16 females, and 8 cases have the family history. Exotropic patients were divided into intermittent exotropic group 16 cases and constant exotropic group 19 cases. In the control group, the age range 15 - 28 years old (mean, 18.8 years), 12 males and 8 females. All the resected tissues of the medial rectus muscles were obtained from patients with concomitant exotropia during resection surgery and cornea donators. Fibronectin was measured its mean average optical by Sp method of immunohistochemistry using image analyzer. The amounts of fibronectin in the resected muscle of patients were compared with normals, as well as correlated clinical data of patients such as different types of exotropia, age, degree of deviation, gender and positive family history. The amounts of fibronectin in the resected medial rectus muscle of patients with constant exotropia (0.4729 ± 0.0872) were significantly lower than those of normals (0.5914 ± 0.0547) and intermittent exotropic group (0.5821 ± 0.0792) respectively (q = 7.0314, 6.1177, P intermittent exotropia did not show significantly lower amounts of fibronectin than those with normals (q = 0.5271, P > 0.05). Neither gender nor positive family was correlated with the amounts of fibronectin (t = 1.1317, 1.6327, P > 0.05) and the amounts of fibronectin had no correlation with age and degree of deviation. The amounts of fibronectin were correlated with the course of development of concomitant exotropia. Some of these

  9. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Assay for Determination of Stavudine in Human Plasma

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    Fengdan Jin


    Full Text Available A LC-MS/MS method for determination of stavudine in human plasma was established and validated, and it was applied to the pharmaceutical formulations bioequivalence study. 0.5 mL plasma sample was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Stavudine was detected by a LC-MS/MS system. The pharmacokinetic parameters of stavudine in different formulations were calculated by noncompartment model statistics. The method was linear over the concentration ranges 5.00–1000 ng/mL in plasma. The intra- and interassay relative standard deviation (RSD was <10%. The average accuracies for the assay at three concentrations (5.00, 80.0, and 900 ng/mL were from 100.2% to 102.5%. Pharmacokinetic parameters of stavudine reference formulation were obtained as follows: Tmax was 0.6±0.2 h, Cmax was 480.7±150.9 g/L, t1/2 was 1.7±0.4 h, and AUC0-t was 872.8±227.8 g·h/L, and pharmacokinetic parameters of stavudine test formulation were obtained as follows: Tmax was 0.5±0.2 h, Cmax was 537.5±178.5 g/L, t1/2 was 1.7±0.3 h, and AUC0-t was (914.1±284.5 g·h/L. Calculated with AUC0-t, the bioavailability of two formulations was 105.0%.

  10. Maldi-tof fingerprinting of seminal plasma lipids in the study of human male infertility. (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Montani, Daniela Antunes; Nichi, Marcílio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta


    This study proposed lipid fingerprinting of human seminal plasma by mass spectrometry as an analytical method to differentiate biological conditions. For this purpose, we chose infertile men as a model to study specific conditions, namely: high and low seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels (sub-study 1.1), high and low sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (sub-study 1.2), and intervention status: before and after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (study 2). Study 1 included 133 patients, of which 113 were utilized for sub-study 1.1 and 89 for sub-study 1.2. Study 2 included 17 adult men submitted to subinguinal varicocelectomy, before and 90 days after varicocelectomy. Lipids were extracted from seminal plasma and submitted to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the positive ionization mode. Spectra were processed using Waters(®) MassLynx, and MetaboAnalyst online software was used for statistical analyses. For sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, univariate analysis revealed 8, 87 and 34 significant ions, respectively. Multivariate analysis was performed through PCA and PLS-DA. PCA generated 56, 32 and 34 components respectively for each study and these were submitted to logistic regression. A ROC curve was plotted and the area under the curve was equal to 97.4, 92.5 and 96.5%. PLS-DA generated a list of 19, 24 and 23 VIP ions for sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, respectively. Therefore, this study established the lipid profile and comparison of patterns altered in response to specific biological conditions.

  11. The impact on blood donor screening for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus using plasma from frozen-thawed plasma preparation tubes. (United States)

    Allison, Kirsty M; Faddy, Helen M; Margaritis, Angelo; Ismay, Susan; Marks, Denese C


    Blood services are required to maintain repositories of frozen samples for confirmation of results and/or retrospective testing. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service archives donor samples in plasma preparation tubes (PPTs). This study aims to evaluate the effect of freeze-thawing and extended frozen storage on the ability to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) using blood donation screening assays in samples stored in PPTs. Whole blood was spiked with HIV-, HCV-, or HBV-reactive plasma at high and low viral loads and stored in PPTs or as plasma aliquots. All samples were frozen and stored at not more than -30°C. At 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 36 months, samples were tested for HIV and HCV antibodies, HBV surface antigen, and viral nucleic acid. Additional samples were thawed and refrozen either once or twice before testing to simulate up to three freeze-thaw cycles. All PPT and plasma aliquots retained appropriate viral reactivity, including those with multiple freeze-thaw cycles, on both nucleic acid testing and serology platforms. Frozen storage of biologicals in PPTs, as opposed to plasma aliquots, does not affect the ability to detect HIV, HCV, and HBV using viral nucleic acid or serology donation screening systems for up to 36 months. Freezing and thawing PPT samples did not impact the ability to detect these viruses. Our study demonstrates that PPTs appear to be an appropriate receptacle for frozen plasma sample archiving for up to 3 years. © 2015 AABB.

  12. Human milk protein and medium-chain triglyceride oil supplementation of human milk: plasma amino acids in very low-birth-weight infants. (United States)

    Rönnholm, K A; Simell, O; Siimes, M A


    Fifty-one very low-birth-weight infants (birth weight less than 1,520 g) randomly fed either human milk or human milk supplemented with human milk protein and/or with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil were observed. Plasma amino acids from these infants were studied at 2, 8, and 10 weeks. Medium-chain triglyceride oil supplementation had minimal or no influence on plasma amino acids. Human milk protein supplementation resulted in increased concentrations of all amino acids at all ages studied. The concentrations were 1.5- to threefold as compared with values in infants not given protein supplements. However, the concentrations of methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and lysine remained far below values considered harmful. The age at which maximal plasma amino acid concentrations in infants given human milk protein supplementation occur coincides with the age of the lowest serum albumin concentrations in infants fed only human milk. This suggests that high plasma amino acid concentrations may hasten albumin synthesis in very low-birth-weight infants.

  13. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma. (United States)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid


    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic solvent used as supported liquid membranes (SLMs), and into 50μL aqueous acceptor solutions. The acceptor solutions were subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using in-source fragmentation and monitoring the m/z 184→184 transition for investigation of phosphatidylcholines (PC), sphingomyelins (SM), and lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PC). In both generic methods, no phospholipids were detected in the acceptor solutions. Thus, PALME appeared to be highly efficient for phospholipid removal. To further support this, qualitative (post-column infusion) and quantitative matrix effects were investigated with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and quetiapine as model analytes. No signs of matrix effects were observed. Finally, PALME was evaluated for the aforementioned drug substances, and data were in accordance with European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Separation and properties of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase from human seminal plasma]. (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Uchijima, Y; Kobayashi, N; Saitoh, H


    N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase from human seminal plasma has been separated by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis into two components, isoenzyme I and II. The two isoenzymes are readily separated on a DEAE-Sephadex column. Isoenzyme I which has adsorbed to the column, is eluted at 0.1 M NaCl, whereas isoenzyme II has passed through the column. The following enzyme properties have been obtained: 1) Both isoenzymes show the same Km values (0.27 X 10(-3) M) towards sodio-m-cresol-sufonphtaleinyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide . 2) Both isoenzymes show the same pH optima of 5.4. 3) Optimal temperature for isoenzyme I is 50 degrees C, while that for isoenzyme II is 65 degrees C. Isoenzyme II is heat stable, while isoenzyme I is easily denatured by heat. These characteristics of isoenzyme I and II coincide with previous reports of NAG A and B from the spleen and the kidney, respectively. The activity ratio of isoenzyme I and II has been studied for the reproductive tissues. The % ratio of isoenzyme I and II in the epididymal head is 62 and 38, that in the epididymal tail is 42 and 58, and 38:62 in the seminal vesicle, 35:65 in the prostatic gland and 27:73 in the seminal plasma.

  15. Quantitative analysis of racecadotril metabolite in human plasma using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Huang, Jinchang; Liu, Fei; Gao, Shu; Guo, Qingxiang


    Orally administered racecadotril is rapidly hydrolyzed to the more potent enkephalinase inhibitor thiorphan in vivo. A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to quantify thiorphan in human plasma using lisinopril as the internal standard. After a simple protein precipitation with methanol, the post-treatment samples were analyzed on a CN column interfaced with a triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometer using negative electrospray ionization. The method was validated to demonstrate the specificity, lower limit of quantification, accuracy, and precision of measurements. The assay was linear over the concentration range 9.38-600 ng/mL using a 5 microL aliquot of plasma. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves ranged from 0.9985 to 0.9995. The intra- and inter-day precisions over the entire concentration were not more than 6.33%. Methanol and water (35:65, v/v) is used as the isocratic mobile phase, with 0.1% of formic acid in water. The method was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic study after a single oral administration of 200 mg racecadotril to 20 healthy volunteers.

  16. Effective method for the detection of piroxicam in human plasma using HPLC

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    Adriana Maria CALVO


    Full Text Available Abstract Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are widely used by the general population to alleviate inflammation and pain after oral surgeries. Piroxicam is among the most commonly used NSAIDs and excels in controlling pain, swelling, trismus and other common symptoms of inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate different concentrations of piroxicam and its major metabolite, 5’-hydroxypiroxicam, in human plasma samples over time using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after liquid-liquid extraction. Briefly, 10 volunteers participated in this study after approval by the Ethics Committee of Bauru School of Dentistry, Universidade de São Paulo – USP, Brazil. Volunteers received a single dose oral of piroxicam (20 mg and had blood collected at various times following an established protocol. The methodology of liquid-liquid extraction was effective for determining concentrations of piroxicam in plasma using HPLC in 10 out of 10 volunteers while 5’-hydroxypiroxicam was only detected in 2 out of 10 volunteers.

  17. In vitro cytotoxicity of carbon black nanoparticles synthesized from solution plasma on human lung fibroblast cells (United States)

    Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Chokradjaroen, Chayanaphat; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Ueno, Tomonaga; Saito, Nagahiro


    Carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs) have been synthesized from liquid benzene by a solution plasma method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The morphological observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed the agglomeration of aggregated fine particles. The synthesized CB-NPs were predominantly amorphous as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro cytotoxicity of CB-NPs on the human lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cell line was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and systematically compared with those of two types of commercial carbon blacks (i.e., Vulcan XC-72 and Ketjenblack EC-600JD). Cell viabilities were studied at different concentrations of 32.5, 65, 125, and 250 µg/mL. It was found that the CB-NPs derived from solution plasma exhibited a lower cytotoxicity on the MRC-5 cells than the other two comparative carbon blacks. The viability of MRC-5 cells exposed to CB-NPs remained higher than 90% even at a high concentration of 250 µg/mL. This result preliminarily confirmed the biosafety and potential use of CB-NPs in the field of biological applications.

  18. Experimental design for optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of benzodiazepines in human plasma. (United States)

    Fernández, P; Vázquez, C; Lorenzo, R A; Carro, A M; Alvarez, I; Cabarcos, P


    A simple and fast microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) method has been evaluated as an alternative to solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the determination of six benzodiazepines widely prescribed in European countries (alprazolam, bromazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam and tetrazepam) in human plasma. For MAE optimization a Doehlert experimental design was used with extraction time, temperature and solvent volume as influential parameters. A desirability function was employed in addition to the simultaneous optimization of the MAE conditions. The analysis of variance showed that the solvent volume had a positive influence on the extraction of all the analytes tested, achieving a statistically significant effect. Also, the extraction time had a statistically significant effect on the extraction of four benzodiazepines. The selected MAE conditions-89 degrees C, 13 min and 8 mL of chloroform/2-propanol (4:1, v/v)-led to recoveries between 89.8 +/- 0.3 and 102.1 +/- 5.2% for benzodiazepines using a high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode-array detection. The comparison of MAE and SPE shows better results for MAE, with a lower number of steps in handling the sample and greater efficiency. The applicability of MAE was successfully tested in 27 plasma samples from benzodiazepine users.

  19. A simple sample preparation method for measuring amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration. (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Chong; Hou, Zi-Li; Jiang, Xin-Hui; Jiang, Ye


    A simple sample preparation method has been developed for the determination of amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration (HF-CF-UF). A 400-μL plasma sample was placed directly into the HF-CF-UF device, which consisited of a slim glass tube and a U-shaped hollow fiber. After centrifugation at 1.25 × 10(3) g for 10 min, the filtrate was withdrawn from the hollow fiber and 20 µL was directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-20 µg/mL (r = 0.9996) and the limit of detection was as low as 0.025 µg/mL. The average recovery and absolute recovery were 99.9% and 84.5%, respectively. Both the intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were less than 3.1% for three concentrations (0.25, 2.5 and 10 µg/mL). The sample preparation process was simplified. Only after a single centrifugal ultrafiltration can the filtrate be injected directly into HPLC. The present method is simple, sensitive and accurate. It could be effective for the analysis of biological samples with high protein contents, especially for the biopharmaceutical analysis of drugs that use traditional isolation techniques for sample preparation such as the protein precipitation method.

  20. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of eptifibatide in human plasma. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Ling; Yu, Xi-Yong; Yang, Min; Mai, Li-Ping; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Deng, Chun-Yu; Shan, Zhi-Xin; Kuang, Su-Juan; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Tie-Feng; Lin, Shu-Guang


    A rapid, selective and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of eptifibatide in human plasma. Eptifibatide and the internal standard (IS), EPM-05, were extracted from plasma samples using solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection of eptifibatide and the IS was achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface in positive ion mode. Traditional multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the transition of m/z 832.6-->m/z 646.4 and m/z 931.6-->m/z 159.4 was performed to quantify eptifibatide and the IS, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantitation validated at 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 13.3%, while the accuracy was within +/-7.6% of nominal values. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of eptifibatide after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a 45 microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide to 8 healthy volunteers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycosaminoglycans affect the interaction of human plasma kallikrein with plasminogen, factor XII and inhibitors

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    Gozzo A.J.


    Full Text Available Human plasma kallikrein, a serine proteinase, plays a key role in intrinsic blood clotting, in the kallikrein-kinin system, and in fibrinolysis. The proteolytic enzymes involved in these processes are usually controlled by specific inhibitors and may be influenced by several factors including glycosaminoglycans, as recently demonstrated by our group. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glycosaminoglycans (30 to 250 µg/ml on kallikrein activity on plasminogen and factor XII and on the inhibition of kallikrein by the plasma proteins C1-inhibitor and antithrombin. Almost all available glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate, chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced (1.2 to 3.0 times the catalytic efficiency of kallikrein (in a nanomolar range on the hydrolysis of plasminogen (0.3 to 1.8 µM and increased (1.9 to 7.7 times the enzyme efficiency in factor XII (0.1 to 10 µM activation. On the other hand, heparin, heparan sulfate, and bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate improved (1.2 to 3.4 times kallikrein inhibition by antithrombin (1.4 µM, while chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced it (1.3 times. Heparin and heparan sulfate increased (1.4 times the enzyme inhibition by the C1-inhibitor (150 nM.

  2. Human seminal plasma allergy: successful pregnancy after prophylactic anti-histamine treatment. (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Deok-In; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok


    Human seminal plasma allergy is a rare phenomenon. Its clinical manifestations are diverse, and range from mild local pruritus to fatal anaphylaxis. Treatment varies with severity of the reactions: abstinence, condom usage or immunotherapy (subcutaneous or intravaginal) with seminal fluid. Local allergic reactions can be managed by prophylactic use of antihistamines or local cromolyn cream. A 33-year-old female visited the Asthma and Allergy Clinic in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital for the recurrent generalized urticarial reactions after sexual intercourse. She had been suffering from asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis for 10 years. She gave birth to a baby 6 months ago and no problem before. However, recently she began to recognize unexpected generalized urticaria that occurred after the sexual intercourse with husband. She wanted to have the second baby but hesitated because of the recurrent symptoms after the intercourse. She showed positive response to skin prick test with her husband's seminal fluid. The IgE-binding components were 15, 22, 28, and 35 kDa. Considering her moderate cutaneous reactions, we decided to try prophylactic treatments with oral anti-histamine one hour before sexual intercourse. She did not experience urticarial reactions with intercourse while oral anti-histamine was administered in advance. Finally, treatment outcome was successful, and the couple successfully gave birth to their second baby. We suppose that prophylactic antihistamine may be also applied in seminal plasma allergy patients if systemic reactions are limited to mild to moderate generalized urticaria.

  3. Human plasma stability during handling and storage: impact on NMR metabolomics. (United States)

    Pinto, Joana; Domingues, M Rosário M; Galhano, Eulália; Pita, Cristina; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Carreira, Isabel M; Gil, Ana M


    This work contributes to fill in some existing gaps in the knowledge of human plasma degradability during handling and storage, a paramount issue in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomics. Regarding the comparison between heparin and EDTA anti-coagulant collection tubes, the former showed no interference of the polysaccharide, while conserving full spectral information. In relation to time/temperature conditions, room temperature was seen to have a large impact on lipoproteins and choline compounds from 2.5 hours. In addition, short-term storage at -20 °C was found suitable up to 7 days but, for periods up to 1 month, -80 °C was recommended. Furthermore, in the case of reusing plasma samples, no more than 3 consecutive freeze-thaw cycles were found advisable. Finally, the impact of long-term -80 °C storage (up to 2.5 years) was found almost negligible, as evaluated on a partially matched non-fasting cohort (n = 49), after having investigated the possible confounding nature of the particular non-fasting conditions employed.

  4. Accumulation of genistein and lipophilic genistein derivatives in lipoproteins during incubation with human plasma in vitro. (United States)

    Kaamanen, Maija; Adlercreutz, Herman; Jauhiainen, Matti; Tikkanen, Matti J


    Atherosclerosis is initiated by the uptake and retention of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) into the arterial intima. We have previously shown that dietary isoflavone phytoestrogens inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro. The inhibition could have been caused by undetected isoflavone metabolites associated with lipoproteins. In the present study, we incubated human plasma with [3H]genistein, both with and without the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) inhibitor dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB). Our results indicated that the 3H-label was attached to both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and LDL, and that it represented both underivatized genistein and lipophilic derivatives of genistein, part of which were identified as fatty acid monoesters. The latter was demonstrated by the findings that DTNB decreased the HDL and LDL associated radioactivity in the lipophilic fraction isolated by hydrophobic chromatography and that saponification hydrolysis liberated a corresponding part of the 3H-label. Two-dimensional reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) demonstrated that a corresponding part of the radioactivity comigrated with genistein monoester standards in the absence of DTNB but was abolished if DTNB had been present in the incubation. In summary, incubation of plasma with [3H]genistein resulted in accumulation of underivatized genistein as well as lipophilic genistein derivatives in lipoproteins. A smaller part of the latter were genistein monoesters, while part remained unidentified. Our results suggest an explanation for the increased oxidation resistance of isolated LDL during intake of soybean isoflavones.

  5. Determination of metformin in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Amini, Hossein; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Gazerani, Parisa


    A simple, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with spectrophotometric detection was developed for the determination of antihyperglycemic agent metformin in human plasma using a novel sample extraction procedure. Liquid-liquid extraction of metformin and ranitidine (as internal standard) from plasma samples was performed with 1-butanol/n-hexane (50:50, v/v) in alkaline condition followed by back-extraction into diluted acetic acid. Chromatography was carried out using a silica column (250 mmx4.6 mm, 5 microm) under isocratic elution with acetonitrile-40 mM aqueous sodium dihydrogen phosphate (25:75, v/v), pH 6. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 15.6 ng/ml and the calibration curves were linear up to 2000 ng/ml. The mean absolute recoveries for metformin and internal standard using the present extraction procedure were 98 and 95%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day coefficient of variation and percent error values of the assay method were all less than 8.3%.

  6. "Determination of mycophenolic acid in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography"

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    "Mehdi Ahadi Barzoki


    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method is presented for determination of mycophenolic acid(MPA in human plasma. Samples were prepared after precipitation of the plasma protein by addition of acetonitrile and naproxen was used as internal standard (I.S.. Separation was performed by reversedphase HPLC, using a Hamilton PRP-C18 Column, 51% acetonitrile and 49% potassium phosphate buffer (20 mM at pH 3.0 as mobile phase, flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and UV detection at 215 nm. MPA and I.S. had retention times of 7.5 and 11.35 min, respectively. The method showed an acceptable linearity in the range of 0.1µg/ml-40µg/ml with r2 of .9992. The concentration of 0.1µg/ml was determined as quantification limit. Mean absolute recovery was 94.8%. The mean intra- and inter-day reproducibility of method was 4.6 and 11.4% respectively.

  7. Validated microbiological and HPLC methods for the determination of moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma

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    Ahmed A. Abdelaziz


    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison between microbiological and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC assays for quantification of moxifloxacin in tablets, ophthalmic solutions and human plasma. The microbiological method employed a cylinder-plate agar diffusion assay using a strain of Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the test organism and phosphate buffer (pH8 as the diluent. The calibration curves were linear (R²> 0.98 over a concentration range of 0.125 to 16 µgml-1. The within day and between days precisions were 0.999 over the range of 0.125 to 16 µg ml-1. The within day and between days precisions were < 4.07% and < 5.09% respectively. Recovery values were between 97.7 and 107.6%. Similar potencies were obtained after the analysis of moxifloxacin tablets and ophthalmic solutions by both methods. Also pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after the analysis of plasma samples of six male healthhy volunteers by both validated methods.

  8. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin in human cell culture. (United States)

    Gassling, Volker L W; Açil, Yahya; Springer, Ingo N; Hubert, Nina; Wiltfang, Jörg


    The clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for preprosthetic surgery has been a matter of controversy until now. Only recently, a new blood preparation has been developed which results in platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). The objective of the present investigation was to examine the growth factor release from PRP and PRF in vitro. Whole blood samples from healthy participants (n = 10) were drawn to generate PRP and PRF. Human osteoblasts (O), human fibroblasts (F), and human osteoblast-derived osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2) were used for the cell culture. Cells of each cell line were cultivated, and PRP- or PRF-preparations added for ten days. The drawn medium was pooled and the quantities of growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor isomers AB and BB, insulin-like growth factor I, and transforming growth factor (TGF) isomers beta1 and beta2) analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In osteoblast and Saos-2 cultures, cytokine concentrations were significantly higher for PRP than for PRF (P < .05). In fibroblast cultures, results were the same with the exception of TGF-beta2 (P < .05). This study demonstrates that PRP application in cell cultures leads to higher levels of growth factors than PRF application.

  9. A New Validated RP- HPLC Method for the Determination of Nevirapine in Human Plasma

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    C. H. Venkata Kumar


    Full Text Available A rapid, selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of nevirapine in human plasma has been developed. Chromatography was carried out on a Hypersil BDS C18 column using a mixture of ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.0 ± 0.05 and acetonitrile (85:15 v/v as the mobile phase. The eluents were monitored for the drug by UV detection at 254 nm. Oxcarbazepine was used as an internal standard for this study. The retention times for nevirapine and oxcarbazepine were found to be 7.2 and 14.7 min respectively. The method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 50 ng/mL to 5003.7 ng/mL. The method was validated as per FDA guidelines and was found to be suitable for bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic studies.

  10. Direct quantification of brown algae-derived fucoidans in human plasma by a fluorescent probe assay

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    Warttinger, Ulrich; Harenberg, Job; Krämer, Roland


    Fucoidan is a generic term for a class of fucose rich, structurally diverse sulfated polysaccharides that are found in brown algae and other marine organisms. Depending on the species from which the fucoidan is extracted, a wide variety of biological activities including antitumor, antiinflammatory, immune-modulating, antiviral, antibacterial and pro- and anticoagulant activities has been described. Fucoidans have the advantage of low toxicity and oral bioavailibiity and are viable drug candidates, preclinical and pilot clinical trials show promising results. The availability of robust assays, in particular for analysing the blood levels of fucoidan, is a fundamental requirement for pharmacokinetic analysis in drug development projects. This contribution describes the application of a commercially availbale, protein-free fluorescent probe assay (Heparin Red) for the direct quantification of several fucoidans (from Fucus vesiculosus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Undaria pinnatifida) in human plasma. By only minor...

  11. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. (Univ. of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))


    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  12. Caffeine intake increases plasma ketones: an acute metabolic study in humans. (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Camille; St-Pierre, Valérie; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Hennebelle, Marie; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Cunnane, Stephen C


    Brain glucose uptake declines during aging and is significantly impaired in Alzheimer's disease. Ketones are the main alternative brain fuel to glucose so they represent a potential approach to compensate for the brain glucose reduction. Caffeine is of interest as a potential ketogenic agent owing to its actions on lipolysis and lipid oxidation but whether it is ketogenic in humans is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the acute ketogenic effect of 2 doses of caffeine (2.5; 5.0 mg/kg) in 10 healthy adults. Caffeine given at breakfast significantly stimulated ketone production in a dose-dependent manner (+88%; +116%) and also raised plasma free fatty acids. Whether caffeine has long-term ketogenic effects or could enhance the ketogenic effect of medium chain triglycerides remains to be determined.

  13. Determination of steroid hormones in human plasma by GC-triple quadrupole MS. (United States)

    Matysik, Silke; Schmitz, Gerd


    A fast and sensitive GC-MS/MS method is proposed to determine pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone and dihydrotestosterone from human plasma. Steroids were extracted by liquid/liquid extraction, and derivatized with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoracetamide. Electron ionization at 30eV was applied to generate high abundant precursor ions. Specific precursor/product transitions were generated a priori for each compound of interest and these assays were then used to selectively detect and quantify these steroids. Using the selected reaction monitoring mode, detection limits in the pg/ml (subnmol/l) range could be achieved for all four steroid compounds. The method was validated for imprecision, and recovery and applied in a pilot study in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Associations of increased cholesterol biosynthesis and low testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations were found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility analysis of a Plasma Focus neutron source for BNCT treatment of transplanted human liver (United States)

    Benzi, V.; Mezzetti, F.; Rocchi, F.; Sumini, M.


    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy preliminary treatments on transplanted human liver have been recently conducted at Pavia University. The need of high fluences of thermal neutrons imposed the use of the available thermal channel of a TRIGA reactor properly modified for this application. We analyse the possibility of using the Plasma Focus (PF) machine as a pulsed neutron source for this medical application instead of a nuclear reactor. Thermalization of the fast (2.45 MeV for D-D reactions) neutrons produced by the PF is gained with a paraffin or polyethylene moderator which contains both the neutron source and the irradiation chamber. The design parameters of a PF optimized for such an application are discussed, as well as other considerations on the advantages that this machine can bring to this kind of cancer therapy.

  15. Dynamics of fibronectin adsorption on TiO2 surfaces. (United States)

    Sousa, S R; Brás, M Manuela; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Barbosa, M A


    In the present work we analyze the dynamics of fibronectin (FN) adsorption on two different stable titanium oxides, with varied surface roughness, and chemically similar to those used in clinical practice. The two types of titanium oxide surfaces used were TiO2 sputtered on Si (TiO2 sp) and TiO2 formed on commercially pure titanium after immersion in H2O2 (TiO2 cp). Surface characterization was previously carried out using different techniques (Sousa, S. R.; Moradas-Ferreira, P.; Melo, L. V.; Saramago, B.; Barbosa, M. A. Langmuir 2004, 20 (22), 9745-9754). Imaging and roughness analysis before and after FN adsorption used atomic force microscopy (AFM) in tapping mode, in air, and in magnetic alternating current mode, in liquid (water). FN adsorption as a function of time was followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), by radiolabeling of FN with 125I (125I-FN), and by ellipsometry. Exchangeability studies were performed using FN and HSA. AFM roughness analysis revealed that, before FN adsorption, both TiO2 surfaces exhibited a lower root-mean-square (Rq) and maximum peak with the depth of the maximum valley (Rmax) roughness in air than in water, due to TiO2 hydration. After protein adsorption, the same behavior was observed for the TiO2 sp substrate, while Rq and Rmax roughness values in air and in water were similar in the case of the TiO2 cp substrate, for the higher FN concentration used. Surface roughness was always significantly higher on the TiO2 cp surfaces. AFM led to direct visualization of adsorbed FN on both surfaces tested, indicating that after 10 min of FN incubation the TiO2 sp surface was partially covered by FN. The adsorbed protein seems to form globular aggregates or ellipsoids, and FN aggregates coalesce, forming clusters as the time of adsorption and the concentration increase. Radiolabeling of FN revealed that a rapid adsorption occurs on both surfaces and the amount adsorbed increased with time, reaching a maximum after 60 min of

  16. Gabapentin Determination in Human Plasma and Capsule by Coupling of Solid Phase Extraction, Derivatization Reaction, and UV-Vis Spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Kazemipour, Maryam; Fakhari, Iman; Ansari, Mehdi


    Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant widely used in the treatment of epilepsy. No peculiar chromophore is available on the gabapentin moiety for direct analysis by absorption spectrophotometry. A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of gabapentin in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma has been developed. In this method, gabapentin directly derivatized with vanillin and analyzed without any extraction in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form and in plasma samples, it was extracted with a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge followed by derivatization with vanillin. Analysis was performed by a spectrophotometer system. The quantitation limit of gabapentin in human plasma was 0.8 mg/L. The method was linear over the concentration range of 10.0-90.0 mg/L and 0.8-10.0 mg/L for pharmaceutical dosage form and plasma, respectively. The method was precise (relative standard deviation, RSD <1.20%) and accurate (relative mean error <5.5%) for both pharmaceutical dosage form and plasma samples. Mean absolute recoveries were 94.5% for plasma.

  17. Determination of eptifibatide concentration in human plasma utilizing the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Duan, Xiaotao; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang


    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the concentration of eptifibatide in human plasma. Following protein precipitation, the analyte was separated on a reversed-phase C(18) column. Acetonitrile:5mM ammonium acetate:acetic acid (30:70:0.1, v/v/v) was used at a flow-rate of 0.5mL/min with the isocratic mobile phase. An API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with a Turbo IonSpray ionization source was used as the detector and was operated in the positive ion mode. "Truncated" multiple reaction monitoring using the transition of m/z 832.6-->m/z 832.6 and m/z 931.3-->m/z 931.3 was performed to quantify eptifibatide and the internal standard (EPM-05), respectively. The method had a lower limit of quantification of 4.61ng/mL for eptifibatide. The calibration curve was demonstrated to be linear over the concentration range of 4.61-2770ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 10.5% for each QC level, and the inter-day relative errors were 2.0%, 5.6%, and 2.8% for 9.22, 184, and 2490ng/mL, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the quantification of eptifibatide concentration in human plasma after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a 270-microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide and i.v. administration of eptifibatide at a constant rate of infusion of 2microg/(kgmin) for 18h in order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics.

  18. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Induces Transcriptional Changes in Ex Vivo Human Corneas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Rosani

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP might be considered a novel tool for tissue disinfection in medicine since the active chemical species produced by low plasma doses, generated by ionizing helium gas in air, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS that kill microorganisms without substantially affecting human cells.In this study, we evaluated morphological and functional changes in human corneas exposed for 2 minutes (min to APCP and tested if the antioxidant n-acetyl l-cysteine (NAC was able to inhibit or prevent damage and cell death.Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses of corneal tissues collected at 6 hours (h post-APCP treatment demonstrated no morphological tissue changes, but a transient increased expression of OGG1 glycosylase that returned to control levels in 24 h. Transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real time PCR performed on different corneas revealed in the treated corneas many differentially expressed genes: namely, 256 and 304 genes showing expression changes greater than ± 2 folds in the absence and presence of NAC, respectively. At 6 h post-treatment, the most over-expressed gene categories suggested an active or enhanced cell functioning, with only a minority of genes specifically concerning oxidative DNA damage and repair showing slight over-expression values (<2 folds. Moreover, time-related expression analysis of eight genes up-regulated in the APCP-treated corneas overall demonstrated the return to control expression levels after 24 h.These findings of transient oxidative stress accompanied by wide-range transcriptome adjustments support the further development of APCP as an ocular disinfectant.

  19. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans. (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B


    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxic metals signature in the human seminal plasma of Pakistani population and their potential role in male infertility. (United States)

    Zafar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bostan, Nazish; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Tahir, Faheem; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Hussain, Alamdar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Huang, Qingyu; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing


    Aims of this study were to provide firsthand data on the incidence of trace metals in human seminal plasma and find possible correlations between levels of toxic metals and semen quality of Pakistani population. Human semen samples were collected from male partners of couples undergoing infertility assessment at the National Institute of Health Islamabad (Pakistan). We investigated seventy-five seminal plasma samples, which were further categorized into three groups (normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia) according to WHO guidelines. The concentration of 17 different toxic metals in human seminal plasma was determined simultaneously by using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Out of 17 trace metals, Cd and Ni showed significant difference (p semen samples, the concentrations of Sn, V, Cu, Pb, Cr and Hg exhibited high levels suggesting a recent human exposure to surrounding sources. In Pakistani human semen samples, the levels of trace metals were lower and/or comparable to that found in populations of other countries. The results show the first evidence of the effect of toxic metals on semen quality and male infertility in Pakistan.

  1. Comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analyses of zebrafish plasma reveals conserved protein profiles between genders and between zebrafish and human (United States)

    Li, Caixia; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Gong, Zhiyuan


    Omic approaches have been increasingly used in the zebrafish model for holistic understanding of molecular events and mechanisms of tissue functions. However, plasma is rarely used for omic profiling because of the technical challenges in collecting sufficient blood. In this study, we employed two mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for a comprehensive characterization of zebrafish plasma proteome, i.e. conventional shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for an overview study and quantitative SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra) for comparison between genders. 959 proteins were identified in the shotgun profiling with estimated concentrations spanning almost five orders of magnitudes. Other than the presence of a few highly abundant female egg yolk precursor proteins (vitellogenins), the proteomic profiles of male and female plasmas were very similar in both number and abundance and there were basically no other highly gender-biased proteins. The types of plasma proteins based on IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) classification and tissue sources of production were also very similar. Furthermore, the zebrafish plasma proteome shares significant similarities with human plasma proteome, in particular in top abundant proteins including apolipoproteins and complements. Thus, the current study provided a valuable dataset for future evaluation of plasma proteins in zebrafish. PMID:27071722

  2. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.; Gan, L.; Yang, X., E-mail:, E-mail: [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lu, R. [School Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xian, Y.; Lu, X., E-mail:, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)


    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-kB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  3. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line (United States)

    Yang, H.; Lu, R.; Xian, Y.; Gan, L.; Lu, X.; Yang, X.


    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-кB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  4. Novel interactions of domain III from the envelope glycoprotein of dengue 2 virus with human plasma proteins. (United States)

    Huerta, Vivian; Ramos, Yassel; Yero, Alexis; Pupo, Dianne; Martín, Dayron; Toledo, Patricia; Fleitas, Noralvis; Gallien, Sebastien; Martín, Alejandro M; Márquez, Gabriel J; Pérez-Riverol, Yasset; Sarría, Mónica; Guirola, Osmany; González, Luis J; Domon, Bruno; Chinea, Glay


    Blood cells and plasma are important media for the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) spreading into an infected person. Thus, interactions with human plasma proteins are expected to be decisive in the course of the viral infection. Affinity purification followed by MS analysis (AP/MS) was used to isolate and identify plasma-derived proteins capable to interact with a recombinant protein comprising the domain III of the envelope protein of DENV2 (DIIIE2). The elution of the AP potently inhibits DENV2 infection. Twenty-nine proteins were identified using a label-free approach as specifically captured by DIIIE2. Of these, a direct interaction with C reactive protein, thrombin and Inter-alpha-inhibitor complexes was confirmed by ELISA. Results provide further evidence of a significant representation of proteins from complement and coagulation cascades on DENV2 interactome in human plasma and stand out the domain III of the viral envelope protein as participant on these interactions. A functional clustering analysis highlights the presence of three structural motifs among putative DIIIE2-binding proteins: hydroxylation and EGF-like calcium-binding- and Gla domains. Early cycles of dengue virus replication take place in human blood cells. Thus, the characterization of the interactome of dengue virus proteins in human plasma can lead to the identification of pivotal interactions for the infection that can eventually constitute the target for the development of methods to control dengue virus-caused disease. In this work we identified 29 proteins from human plasma that potentially interact with the envelope protein of dengue 2 virus either directly or through co-complex formation. C reactive protein, thrombin and Inter-alpha-inhibitor complexes were validated as interactors of the domain III of the envelope protein of dengue 2. Results highlight the presence of three structural motifs among putative DIIIE2-binding proteins: hydroxylation and EGF-like calcium

  5. 1-integrin and MT1-MMP promote tumor cell migration in 2D but not in 3D fibronectin microenvironments (United States)

    Corall, Silke; Haraszti, Tamas; Bartoschik, Tanja; Spatz, Joachim Pius; Ludwig, Thomas; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada


    Cell migration is a crucial event for physiological processes, such as embryonic development and wound healing, as well as for pathological processes, such as cancer dissemination and metastasis formation. Cancer cell migration is a result of the concerted action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), expressed by cancer cells to degrade the surrounding matrix, and integrins, the transmembrane receptors responsible for cell binding to matrix proteins. While it is known that cell-microenvironment interactions are essential for migration, the role of the physical state of such interactions remains still unclear. In this study we investigated human fibrosarcoma cell migration in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) fibronectin (FN) microenvironments. By using antibody blocking approach and cell-binding site mutation, we determined that -integrin is the main mediator of fibrosarcoma cell migration in 2D FN, whereas in 3D fibrillar FN, the binding of - and -integrins is not necessary for cell movement in the fibrillar network. Furthermore, while the general inhibition of MMPs with GM6001 has no effect on cell migration in both 2D and 3D FN matrices, we observed opposing effect after targeted silencing of a membrane-bound MMP, namely MT1-MMP. In 2D fibronectin, silencing of MT1-MMP results in decreased migration speed and loss of directionality, whereas in 3D FN matrices, cell migration speed is increased and integrin-mediated signaling for actin dynamics is promoted. Our results suggest that the fibrillar nature of the matrix governs the migratory behavior of fibrosarcoma cells. Therefore, to hinder migration and dissemination of diseased cells, matrix molecules should be directly targeted, rather than specific subtypes of receptors at the cell membrane.

  6. Metastasis suppressor NME1 regulates melanoma cell morphology, self-adhesion and motility via induction of fibronectin expression. (United States)

    Novak, Marián; Leonard, Mary Kathryn; Yang, Xiuwei H; Kowluru, Anjan; Belkin, Alexey M; Kaetzel, David M


    Expression of the metastasis suppressor NME1 in melanoma is associated with reduced cellular motility and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Herein, we report a novel mechanism through which NME1 controls melanoma cell morphology via upregulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin. Expression of NME1 strongly suppressed cell motility in melanoma cell lines 1205LU and M14. The resulting sedentary phenotype was associated with a more flattened appearance and marked increases in actin stress fibre and focal adhesion formation. NME1-induced focal adhesions were colocalized with dense deposits of fibronectin, which were absent or minimal in the corresponding NME1-deficient parental lines. NME1 was a strong inducer of fibronectin mRNA and protein expression, shown with reciprocal approaches of forced NME1 expression and shRNA-mediated knock-down. Increased synthesis and ECM deposition of fibronectin was necessary for NME1-induced cell spreading, as knock-down of fibronectin opposed the effects of NME1 on cell morphology. Fibronectin knock-down also reversed the ability of NME1 to promote aggregation when cells were plated on a non-adherent substratum. Similarly, inhibiting activation of the fibronectin receptor integrin α4β1 with an anti-α4 antibody reversed the motility-suppressing effect of NME1. A positive correlation was observed between NME1 and fibronectin mRNA in clinical biopsies of normal skin, benign nevi and primary melanomas, but not in metastatic forms, suggesting the NME1/fibronectin axis represents a barrier to melanoma progression. In summary, these findings indicate fibronectin is an important effector of the motility-suppressing function of NME1 in melanoma cells. © 2015 The Authors Experimental Dermatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Identification of the immunodominant regions of Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding protein A. (United States)

    Zuo, Qian-Fei; Cai, Chang-Zhi; Ding, Hong-Lei; Wu, Yi; Yang, Liu-Yang; Feng, Qiang; Yang, Hui-Jie; Wei, Zhen-Bo; Zeng, Hao; Zou, Quan-Ming


    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen responsible for a diverse spectrum of human diseases and a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Development of a vaccine against this pathogen is an important goal. The fibronectin binding protein A (FnBPA) of S. aureus is one of multifunctional 'microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules' (MSCRAMMs). It is one of the most important adhesin molecules involved in the initial adhesion steps of S. aureus infection. It has been studied as potential vaccine candidates. However, FnBPA is a high-molecular-weight protein of 106 kDa and difficulties in achieving its high-level expression in vitro limit its vaccine application in S. aureus infection diseases control. Therefore, mapping the immunodominant regions of FnBPA is important for developing polyvalent subunit fusion vaccines against S. aureus infections. In the present study, we cloned and expressed the N-terminal and C-terminal of FnBPA. We evaluated the immunogenicity of the two sections of FnBPA and the protective efficacy of the two truncated fragments vaccines in a murine model of systemic S. aureus infection. The results showed recombinant truncated fragment F130-500 had a strong immunogenicity property and survival rates significantly increased in the group of mice immunized with F130-500 than the control group. We futher identified the immunodominant regions of FnBPA. The mouse antisera reactions suggest that the region covering residues 110 to 263 (F1B110-263) is highly immunogenic and is the immunodominant regions of FnBPA. Moreover, vaccination with F1B110-263 can generate partial protection against lethal challenge with two different S. aureus strains and reduced bacterial burdens against non-lethal challenge as well as that immunization with F130-500. This information will be important for further developing anti- S. aureus polyvalent subunit fusion vaccines.

  8. Alterations in Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 1 Protein Gene Are Associated with Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Y Deng

    Full Text Available Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs for blood pressure (BP have been detected in rat models of human polygenic hypertension. Great challenges confronting us include molecular identifications of individual QTLs. We first defined the chromosome region harboring C1QTL1 to a segment of 1.9 megabases that carries 9 genes. Among them, we identified the gene encoding the fibronectin type III domain containing 1 protein (Fndc1/activator of G protein signaling 8 (Ags8 to be the strongest candidate for C1QTL1, since numerous non-synonymous mutations are found. Moreover, the 5' Fndc1/Ags8 putative promoter contains numerous mutations that can account for its differential expression in kidneys and the heart, prominent organs in modulating BP, although the Fndc1/Ags8 protein was not detectable in these organs under our experimental conditions. This work has provided the premier evidence that Fndc1/Ags8 is a novel and strongest candidate gene for C1QTL1 without completely excluding other 8 genes in the C1QTL1-residing interval. If proven true by future in vivo function studies such as single-gene Fndc1/Ags8 congenics, transgenesis or targeted-gene modifications, it might represent a part of the BP genetic architecture that operates in the upstream position distant from the end-phase physiology of BP control, since it activates a Gbetagamma component in a signaling pathway. Its functional role could validate the concept that a QTL in itself can influence BP 'indirectly' by regulating other genes downstream in a pathway. The elucidation of the mechanisms initiated by Fndc/Ags8 variations will reveal novel insights into the BP modulation via a regulatory hierarchy.

  9. A plasma signature of human mitochondrial disease revealed through metabolic profiling of spent media from cultured muscle cells. (United States)

    Shaham, Oded; Slate, Nancy G; Goldberger, Olga; Xu, Qiuwei; Ramanathan, Arvind; Souza, Amanda L; Clish, Clary B; Sims, Katherine B; Mootha, Vamsi K


    Mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes can give rise to respiratory chain disease (RCD), a large class of devastating metabolic disorders. Their clinical management is challenging, in part because we lack facile and accurate biomarkers to aid in diagnosis and in the monitoring of disease progression. Here we introduce a sequential strategy that combines biochemical analysis of spent media from cell culture with analysis of patient plasma to identify disease biomarkers. First, we applied global metabolic profiling to spotlight 32 metabolites whose uptake or secretion kinetics were altered by chemical inhibition of the respiratory chain in cultured muscle . These metabolites span a wide range of pathways and include lactate and alanine, which are used clinically as biomarkers of RCD. We next measured the cell culture-defined metabolites in human plasma to discover that creatine is reproducibly elevated in two independent cohorts of RCD patients, exceeding lactate and alanine in magnitude of elevation and statistical significance. In cell culture extracellular creatine was inversely related to the intracellular phosphocreatine:creatine ratio suggesting that the elevation of plasma creatine in RCD patients signals a low energetic state of tissues using the phosphocreatine shuttle. Our study identifies plasma creatine as a potential biomarker of human mitochondrial dysfunction that could be clinically useful. More generally, we illustrate how spent media from cellular models of disease may provide a window into the biochemical derangements in human plasma, an approach that could, in principle, be extended to a range of complex diseases.

  10. Requirement of sperm-oocyte plasma membrane fusion for establishment of the plasma membrane block to polyspermy in human pronuclear oocytes. (United States)

    Sengoku, K; Tamate, K; Takaoka, Y; Horikawa, M; Goishi, K; Okada, R; Tsuchiya, K; Ishikawa, M


    We investigated whether the incorporation of the sperm membrane into the oolemma contributes to the human plasma membrane block to polyspermy. We used zona pellucida-free oocytes fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or activated by parthenogenetic activation. Only two of the 35 pronuclear oocytes fertilized by spermatozoa (control) demonstrated one single penetrating spermatozoa. In contrast, the majority of ICSI and parthenogenetically activated pronuclear oocytes were penetrated with an average of three spermatozoa per oocyte. The number of fused and binding spermatozoa of ICSI and parthenogenetically activated oocytes were significantly higher than in control oocytes (3.5+/-0.6 and 4.3+/-0.6 for ICSI; 3.0+/-0.3 and 3.8+/-0.4 for activated and 0.2+/-0.1 and 0.6+/-0.2 for controls, respectively, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the cortical granules were released from the cortex of ICSI and calcium ionophore-puromycin-activated pronuclear oocytes to the same extent as that of pronuclear oocytes fertilized by spermatozoa. These results suggest that the establishment of the plasma membrane block to sperm penetration in the human oocyte may require a fusion process between sperm and oocyte plasma membranes.

  11. Cellular fibronectin and von Willebrand factor concentrations in plasma of rats treated with monocrotaline pyrrole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, A.E.; Emeis, J.J.; Roth, R.A.


    The monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP)-treated rat is a useful model for the study of certain chronic pulmonary vascular diseases. A single, i.v. administration of a low dose of MCTP causes pneumotoxicity, pulmonary vascular remodeling, sustained increases in pulmonary arterial pressure, and right

  12. Breast Cancer Cells in Three-dimensional Culture Display an Enhanced Radioresponse after Coordinate Targeting of Integrin ?5?1 and Fibronectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jin-Min; Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina J; Park, Catherine C


    Tactics to selectively enhance cancer radioresponse are of great interest. Cancer cells actively elaborate and remodel their extracellular matrix (ECM) to aid in survival and progression. Previous work has shown that {beta}1-integrin inhibitory antibodies can enhance the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic responses of human breast cancer cell lines to ionizing radiation, either when cells are cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich ECM (3D lrECM) or grown as xenografts in mice. Here, we show that a specific {alpha} heterodimer of {beta}1-integrin preferentially mediates a prosurvival signal in human breast cancer cells that can be specifically targeted for therapy. 3D lrECM culture conditions were used to compare {alpha}-integrin heterodimer expression in malignant and nonmalignant cell lines. Under these conditions, we found that expression of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin was upregulated in malignant cells compared with nonmalignant breast cells. Similarly, we found that normal and oncofetal splice variants of fibronectin, the primary ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin, were also strikingly upregulated in malignant cell lines compared with nonmalignant acini. Cell treatment with a peptide that disrupts the interactions of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin with fibronectin promoted apoptosis in malignant cells and further heightened the apoptotic effects of radiation. In support of these results, an analysis of gene expression array data from breast cancer patients revealed an association of high levels of {alpha}5-integrin expression with decreased survival. Our findings offer preclinical validation of fibronectin and {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin as targets for breast cancer therapy.

  13. Ultra sensitive measurement of endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in human plasma by semi-automated SPE-LC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yizhong; Ji, Chengjie; McDonald, Thomas; Walton, Justin; Groeber, Elizabeth A; Steenwyk, Rick C; Lin, Zhaosheng


    Measurement of endogenous epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) in human plasma is very challenging due to lower endogenous concentrations as compared with animal plasma. An LC-MS/MS in combination with alumina-based SPE and derivatization procedure was validated for the measurement of E and NE in human plasma with acceptable intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision. Sample was extracted with semi-automated alumina 96-well solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The r