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Sample records for human papillomavirus e7-positive

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which ... infections? Can HPV infections be prevented? What HPV vaccines are available? Who should get the HPV vaccines? ...

  2. [Human papillomaviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G

    2003-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect exclusively the basal cells of the skin and of mucosal epithelia adjacent to the skin such as the mouth, the upper respiratory tract, the lower genital tract and the anal canal. HPV does not lead to a viremia. Basically there are three different types of HPV infection: Clinically visible lesions, subclinical HPV infections and latent HPV infections. Distinct HPV types induce morphologically and prognostically different clinical pictures. The most common HPV associated benign tumor of the skin is the common wart. Infections of the urogenitoanal tract with specific HPV-types are recognised as the most frequent sexually transmitted viral infections. So-called "high-risk" HPV-types (HPV16, 18 and others) are regarded by the world health organisation as important risk-factors for the development of genital cancer (mainly cervical cancer), anal cancer and upper respiratory tract cancer in both genders. Antiviral substances with a specific anti-HPV effect are so far unknown. Conventional therapies of benign skin warts and of mucosal warts are mainly nonspecific. They comprise tissue-destroying therapies such as electrocautery, cryotherapy and laser. In addition cytotoxic substances such as podophyllotoxin and systemic therapy with retinoids are in use. Systemically and topically administered immunotherapies represent a new approach for treatment. Both interferons and particularly the recently developed imiquimod, an interferon-alpha and cytokine-inductor lead to better results and are better tolerated then conventional therapies. HPV-specific vaccines have been developed in the last 5 years and will be used in future for prevention and treatment of benign and malignant HPV-associated tumors of the genitoanal tract in both sexes.

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Page Content Article Body According to the Centers ... and how to prevent it. How to Prevent HPV: There are 3 types of HPV vaccine: Cervarix , ...

  4. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  5. [Network Research on Human Papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Paniagua, Ramón; Furuya, María ElenaYuriko

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the research in important health questions at a national and institutional levels, the Human Papillomavirus Research Network of the Health Research Coordination of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social offers this supplement with the purpose of assisting patients that daily look for attention due to the human papillomavirus or to cervical cancer.

  6. [Papillomaviruses and human tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonka, V; Hamsíková, E; Sobotková, E; Smahel, M; Kitasato, H; Sainerová, H; Ludvíková, V; Zák, R; Kanka, J; Kolár, Z; Kovarík, J

    2000-12-01

    The report summarizes the main results obtained in the course of our research project. The results of immunological and epidemiological studies provide further proofs that human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiological agents in cervical neoplasia. In addition, they raise hopes that immunological methods may be utilized in diagnostics of cervical cancer and for monitoring the clinical course of this disease in the near future. Since the etiological relationship between HPV and cervical carcinoma seems to be proven beyond reasonable doubt, the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines has become the dominant of the contemporary HPV reseach. For studying immune reactions against HPV-induced tumours we developed a model of HPV16-transformed rodent cells.

  7. Human papillomaviruses and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedicke, Juliane; Iftner, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small oncogenic DNA viruses of which more than 200 types have been identified to date. A small subset of these is etiologically linked to the development of anogenital malignancies such as cervical cancer. In addition, recent studies established a causative relationship between these high-risk HPV types and tonsillar and oropharyngeal cancer. Clinical management of cervical cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is largely standardized and involves surgical removal of the tumor tissue as well as adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Notably, the response to therapeutic intervention of HPV-positive HNSCCs has been found to be better as compared to HPV-negative tumors. Although the existing HPV vaccine is solely licensed for the prevention of cervical cancer, it might also have prophylactic potential for the development of high-risk HPV-associated HNSCCs. Another group of viruses, which belongs to the beta-HPV subgroup, has been implicated in nonmelanoma skin cancer, however, the etiology remains to be established. Treatment of HPV-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer is based on local excision. However, topically applied immune-modulating substances represent non-surgical alternatives for the management of smaller cutaneous tumors. In this review we present the current knowledge of the role of HPV in cancer development and discuss clinical management options as well as targets for the development of future intervention therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; Miclăuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; Băbţan, Anida Maria; Mesaros, Anca; Crişan, Bogdan; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-02-01

    Oral human papillomavirus infection is rare in children, but the presence of a villous lesion with slow but continuous growth concerns parents, who need information and therapeutic solutions from the physician. All these aspects are discussed based on a case report of a 9-year-old child with an oral human papillomavirus infection.

  9. The association between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walvik, Lena; Svensson, Amanda Björk; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence of the association between human papillomavirus and a subset of head and neck cancers. However, the role of human papillomavirus as a causal factor is still debated. This review addresses the association between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell...... of well-defined premalignant lesions. However, a causal relationship between human papillomavirus infection and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma seems evident....

  10. Epigenetics of human papillomaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, Eric [Department of Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lambert, Paul F., E-mail: plambert@wisc.edu [Department of Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Human papilllomaviruses (HPVs) are common human pathogens that infect cutaneous or mucosal epithelia in which they cause warts, self-contained benign lesions that commonly regress. The HPV life cycle is intricately tied to the differentiation of the host epithelium it infects. Mucosotropic HPVs are the most common sexually transmitted pathogen known to mankind. A subset of the mucosotropic HPVs, so-called high risk HPVs, is etiologically associated with numerous cancers of the anogenital tract, most notably the cervix, as well as a growing fraction of head and neck cancers. In these cancers, the HPV genome, which normally exists an a double stranded, circular, nuclear plasmid, is commonly found integrated into the host genome and expresses two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, that are implicated in the development and maintainance of the cancers caused by these high risk HPVs. Numerous studies, primarily on the high risk HPV16, have documented that the methylation status of the viral genome changes not only in the context of the viral life cycle but also in the context of the progressive neoplastic disease that culminates in cancer. In this article, we summarize the knowledge gained from those studies. We also provide the first analysis of available ChIP-seq data on the occupancy of both epigentically modified histones as well as transcription factors on the high risk HPV18 genome in the context of HeLa cells, a cervical cancer-derived cell line that has been the subject of extensive analyses using this technique. - Highlights: • Methylation status of HPV genomes is dynamic. • Changes are seen in both the viral life cycle and neoplasia. • Histone modification status at LCR is predictive of transcription factor occupancy. • Novel transcription factor binding noted by ChIP-seq.

  11. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2014-01-01

    assays. Positive agreement between the assays was measured as the conditional probability that the results of all compared assays were positive given that at least one assay returned a positive result. Of all 5,064 samples, 1,679 (33.2%) tested positive on at least one of the assays. Among these, 41......We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four......% tested positive on all four. Agreement was lower in women aged ≥ 30 years (30%, vs. 49% at samples (29%, vs. 38% in follow-up samples), and in women with concurrent normal cytology (22%, vs. 68% with abnormal cytology). Among primary screening samples from women aged 30...

  12. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  13. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  14. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  15. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  16. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sq how to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention ... go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV We provide ...

  17. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  18. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sq how to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention ... go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV We provide ...

  19. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv.html . CDC review information for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) ...

  20. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  1. Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smola, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population.

  2. Global challenges of implementing human papillomavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Amrita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus vaccines are widely hailed as a sweeping pharmaceutical innovation for the universal benefit of all women. The implementation of the vaccines, however, is far from universal or equitable. Socio-economically marginalized women in emerging and developing, and many advanced economies alike, suffer a disproportionately large burden of cervical cancer. Despite the marketing of Human Papillomavirus vaccines as the solution to cervical cancer, the market authorization (licensing of the vaccines has not translated into universal equitable access. Vaccine implementation for vulnerable girls and women faces multiple barriers that include high vaccine costs, inadequate delivery infrastructure, and lack of community engagement to generate awareness about cervical cancer and early screening tools. For Human Papillomavirus vaccines to work as a public health solution, the quality-assured delivery of cheaper vaccines must be integrated with strengthened capacity for community-based health education and screening.

  3. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Svahn, Malene Frøsig; Faber, Mette Tuxen

    2014-01-01

    HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer.......HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer....

  4. Genetic alterations by human papillomaviruses in oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, P A; Gallego, M I; Ballester, S; Feduchi, E

    1992-03-30

    The integration sites in the cellular genome of human papillomavirus are located in chromosomal regions always associated with oncogenes or other known tumor phenotypes. Two regions, 8q24 and 12q13, are common to several cases of cervical carcinoma and can have integrated more than one type of papillomavirus DNA. These two chromosomal regions contain several genes implicated in oncogenesis. These observations strongly imply that viral integration sites of DNA tumor viruses can be used as the access point to chromosomal regions where genes implicated in the tumor phenotype are located, a situation similar to that of non-transforming retroviruses.

  5. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN LARYNGEAL CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, Mariela C.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Haigentz, Missak; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P.; Olofsson, Jan; Ferlito, Alfio

    2011-01-01

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we revie

  6. Factors affecting transmission of mucosal human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Veldhuijzen; P.J. Snijders; P. Reiss; C.J. Meijer; J.H. van de Wijgert

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The effect of HPV on public health is especially related to the burden of anogenital cancers, most notably cervical cancer. Determinants of exposure to HPV are similar to those for most sexually transmitted infections, but

  7. Parental acceptance of Human Papillomavirus vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenselink, C.H.; Gerrits, M.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Hamont, D. van; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether parents would accept Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their children and which variables may influence their decision, including knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV. STUDY DESIGN: Three hundred and fifty-six parents of children aged 10-12 years were

  8. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN LARYNGEAL CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, Mariela C.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Haigentz, Missak; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P.; Olofsson, Jan; Ferlito, Alfio

    2011-01-01

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we revie

  9. Human papillomavirus infections in laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, M.C.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Haigentz Jr., M.; Dikkers, F.G.; Rinaldo, A.; Takes, R.P.; Olofsson, J.; Ferlito, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we revie

  10. Screening for human papillomavirus: is urine useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hauwers, K.W.M.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet, bec

  11. Human papillomavirus infections in laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, M.C.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Haigentz Jr., M.; Dikkers, F.G.; Rinaldo, A.; Takes, R.P.; Olofsson, J.; Ferlito, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we

  12. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN LARYNGEAL CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, Mariela C.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Haigentz, Missak; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P.; Olofsson, Jan; Ferlito, Alfio

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we

  13. Lichenoid drug eruption after human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, Mary E; Schleichert, Rachel A; Green, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Lichenoid drug reactions have been linked to a long and growing list of medications, most of which are used mainly in adults, making these reactions exceedingly rare in children. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first of a lichenoid drug eruption in a child after human papillomavirus vaccination.

  14. Human papillomavirus targets crossroads in immune signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Persistent infections with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) can progress to cancer. HrHPVs infect keratinocytes (KCs) and successfully suppress host immunity for up to two years despite the fact that KCs are well equipped to detect and initiate immune responses to invading pathogens.

  15. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus recombinant vaccine associated lipoatrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaimi, Samar; Buttery, Jim P; Korman, Tony M

    2009-08-06

    Involutional lipoatrophy, a loss of subcutaneous fat, may be idiopathic, associated with inflammatory skin conditions, or trauma, and has also been reported following injections of medications including insulin, corticosteroids and penicillin. There have also been reports in association with Diptheria Pertussis Tetanus (DPT) vaccine. We report on two cases of lipoatrophy associated with the new Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) recombinant vaccine (Gardasil).

  16. Analysis of human papillomavirus E7 protein status in C-33A cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Jenewein, Brigitte; Pircher, Haymo; Rostek, Ursula; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Zwerschke, Werner

    2015-02-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the main etiologic factor for the development of cervical cancer. Infections by these viruses have been detected in virtually all cervical cancers. C-33A is one of the rare cervical cancer derived cell lines considered as HPV-negative. Employing monoclonal antibodies raised against a conformational epitope of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein, we present evidence suggesting that E7-positive cells can be sporadically and transiently detected in C-33A cell cultures. Immunoblotting with affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal anti-HPV 16 E7 antisera and q-RT-PCR analysis suggest that these cells do probably not express HPV-16 E7. Moreover, we show that the HPV E7 protein level differs considerably between individual cells in cultures of several established cervical cancer cell lines. Our data suggest that expression of the E7 protein is variable in established cervical cancer cell lines including C-33A cells.

  17. Human papillomavirus vaccination crisis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Hans Jürgen; Stiris, Tom; Del Torso, Stefano; Ross-Russell, Robert; Zavrsnik, Jernej; Wettergren, Björn; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Valiulis, Arunas; Hadjipanayis, Adamos

    2015-12-01

    The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) is gravely concerned about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination crisis in Japan and particularly about the negative position taken by governmental authorities. Given that the HPV vaccine is both safe and effective, there is no recognizable reason to date to withhold this lifesaving and cost effective public health measure from a population. Therefore, the EAP strongly encourages the Japanese health authorities to actively support HPV vaccination for the future health of their children and adolescents.

  18. Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosa Garbuglia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is currently considered to be a major etiologic factor, in addition to tobacco and alcohol, for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC development. HPV positive OPCs are epidemiologically distinct from HPV negative ones, and are characterized by younger age at onset, male predominance, and strong association with sexual behaviors. HPV16 is the most prevalent types in oral cavity cancer (OCC, moreover the prevalence of beta, and gamma HPV types is higher than that of alpha HPV in oral cavity.

  19. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  20. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  1. Association of human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression with human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M J; Stanley, M W; Cruikshank, S; Carson, L

    1989-02-01

    Human papillomavirus infection plays an important causal role in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. The rate of infection with human papillomavirus as well as the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma are increased in immunosuppressed patients. We report a possible association between infection with human immunodeficiency virus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with human papillomavirus infection.

  2. Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type IIB and Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA tested the hypothesis that human papillomavirus type 16 oncoprotein E6 (HPV16 E6 is present in human focal cortical dysplasia type IIB (FCDIIB specimens.

  3. Transplacental transmission of Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafini Eduardo P

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1 in the pregnant woman, (a genital; (b peripheral blood; (2 in the newborn, (a oral cavity, axillary and inguinal regions; (b nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c cord blood; (3 in the placenta. The HPV DNA was identified using two methods: multiplex PCR of human β-globin and of HPV using the PGMY09 and PGMY11 primers; and nested-PCR, which combines degenerated primers of the E6/E7 regions of the HPV virus, that allowed the identification of genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Transplacental transmission was considered when type-specific HPV concordance was found between the mother, the placenta and the newborn or the mother and cord blood. The study included 49 HPV DNA-positive pregnant women at delivery. Twelve placentas (24.5%, n = 12/49 had a positive result for HPV DNA. Eleven newborn were HPV DNA positive in samples from the nasopharyngeal or buccal and body or cord blood. In 5 cases (10.2%, n = 5/49 there was HPV type-specific agreement between genital/placenta/newborn samples. In one case (2%, n = 1/49 there was type specific HPV concordance between genital/cord blood and also suggested transplacental transmission. A positive and significant correlation was observed between transplacental transmission of HPV infection and the maternal variables of immunodepression history (HIV, p = 0.011. In conclusion the study suggests placental infection in 23.3% of the cases studied and transplacental transmission in 12.2%. It is suggested that in future HPV DNA be researched in the normal endometrium of women of reproductive age. The possible consequence of fetal exposure to HPV should be observed.

  4. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  5. Systematic review of human papillomavirus vaccine coadministration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Alinea S; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-05-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended in early adolescence, at an age when other vaccines are also recommended. Administration of multiple vaccines during one visit is an opportunity to improve uptake of adolescent vaccines. We conducted a systematic review of safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines coadministered with other vaccines. Our review included 9 studies, 4 of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and 5 of bivalent HPV vaccine; coadministered vaccines included: meningococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, combined hepatitis A and B, tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccines. Studies varied in methods of data collection and measurement of immunogenicity and safety. Noninferiority of immune response and an acceptable safety profile were demonstrated when HPV vaccine was coadministered with other vaccines.

  6. New treatments for human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Santos, C; Pigem, R; Alsina, M

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus infection is very common. In this article, we review the latest developments in the treatment of lesions caused by this virus, with a particular focus on anogenital warts. Sinecatechins and new imiquimod formulations are among the most significant new developments. Others include photodynamic therapy and intralesional immunotherapy, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use. Finally, while therapeutic vaccines and inhibitory molecules appear to hold great promise, they are still in the early phases of investigation. More studies are needed, and these should have similar designs, larger samples, and sufficiently long follow-up periods to enable the direct comparison of the short-term and long-term effectiveness of different treatment options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving Human Papillomavirus Vaccinations in Military Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Sarah; Navarrete, Rebecca; Burkard, Joseph F; Clark, Mary Jo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based project was to provide patient education to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates in military women. Despite the availability of a vaccine, HPV continues to be the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. The goal of this program was to increase patient knowledge and HPV vaccination rates by providing education and a verbal recommendation for vaccination during regularly scheduled well-woman exams. The project resulted in a 65% increase in vaccination rates, raising the preprogram vaccination rate of 55% to a postintervention vaccine percentage of 91%. The results demonstrate the importance of patient education and provider recommendation in vaccine acceptance. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Dania; Stracci, Fabrizio; Buonora, Nicola; Masanotti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils. However, studies of the aetiological role of HPV in colorectal and esophageal malignancies have conflicting results. The aim of this review was to organize recent evidence and issues about the association between HPV infection and gastrointestinal tumours with a focus on esophageal, colorectal and anal cancers. The ultimate goal was to highlight possible implications for prognosis and prevention. PMID:27672265

  9. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: a Mozambique overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Damiano; Putoto, Giovanni; Chhaganlal, Kajal D

    2016-06-01

    Human Papillomavirus is agent of the most common sexually transmitted disease which is able to infect mucosal and cutaneous membranes of the anogenital region, upper aerodigestive tract, and other head and neck mucosal regions. Although mainly HPV infection can be asymptomatic and transient, it may persist and give rise to various lesions such as warts, condyloma dysplasia and cancers depending on low or high risk type of HPV infection. Moreover, growing recent evidence suggests a role of this virus in male and female fertility. To date no effective prevention, test, treatment and control strategies are provided for people in developing countries despite the reported high incidence of HPV both in women and men. This paper reviews the more recent literature about HPV infection highlighting epidemiology, related pathologies and possible fertility effects of HPV in male and female with particular attention to the Mozambique context.

  10. Oral contraceptives, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-03-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus is the key determinant of cervical cancer, but other risk factors interact with it to define individual risk. Among these, there is oral contraceptive (OC) use. A quantitative review of the link between OCs and cervical cancer was performed. Long-term (>5 year) current or recent OC use has been related to an about two-fold excess risk of cervical cancer. Such an excess risk, however, levels off after stopping use, and approaches unity 10 or more years after stopping. The public health implications of OC use for cervical cancer are limited. In any case, such implications are greater in middle-income and low-income countries, as well as in central and eastern Europe and Latin America, where cervical cancer screening and control remain inadequate.

  11. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV. ... Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4 (2013) > ... HIV infection increases HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence and is strongly associated with the development of anogenital ...

  12. Human papillomavirus detection in moroccan patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laantri, Nadia; Attaleb, Mohammed; Kandil, Mostafa; Naji, Fadwa; Mouttaki, Tarik; Dardari, R'kia; Belghmi, Khalid; Benchakroun, Nadia; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Khyatti, Meriem

    2011-01-01

    .... There's is evidence that Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is associated to NPC development. However, many epidemiologic studies point to a connection between viral infections by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and NPC...

  13. [Human papillomavirus prophylactic vaccines: stakes and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantz, S; Alain, S; Denis, F

    2006-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is established as the necessary cause of cervical precancers and cancers. To date, more than 120 genotypes are known, but only high risk oncogen genotypes could induce a cancer. HPV 16 and 18 are implied in nearly 70% of cervical cancer around the world. Although some persistent HPV infections progress to cervical cancer, host immunity is generally able to clear most HPV infections providing an opportunity for cervical cancer prevention through vaccination. Candidate prophylactic vaccines based on papillomavirus L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) are currently on human clinical trials: one targeting cervical cancer with a bivalent VLP L1 vaccine containing the two genotypes most frequently involved in cervical cancer (type 16 and 18) and the other, protecting against warts as well as cervical cancer, with a quadrivalent HPV VLP L1 vaccine containing genotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18. The first clinical trials revealed the satisfactory tolerance and excellent immunogenicity of these vaccines inducing high serum antibody titers with minimal side effects. After more than three years, both clinical trials on women 15 to 25 years old have shown that vaccines are able to type specifically protect against nearly 90% of infection and all cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. The vaccinal strategy defined to date targets preadolescents and adolescent young females (11-13 years) before the first sexual course but some questions are still not resolved concerning the prescriber, the actors of the vaccination and the duration of the protection. Nevertheless cervical cancer screening should be carried on for many years, even if a large vaccinal strategy is decided. Such a vaccine would save lives and reduce the need for costly medical procedures and the psychological stress induced by this cancer.

  14. Phylogeographic analysis of human papillomavirus 58

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus 58 (HPV58) is one type of HPV with high risk of causing cervical cancer. Unusually high prevalence of HPV58 has been reported in Asia, Africa and some other areas. However, due to the scattered distribution of global data, in addition to the lack of data of some HPV58 high-incidence nations and regions, like Mainland China, a comprehensive analysis of the global geographical distribution of HPV58 remains blank so far. In this study, HPV58 from the human cervical cancer tissue was detected in Mainland China, and 14 new HPV58-E6/L1 gene sequences were obtained. Moreover, phylogeographic analysis has been conducted combining the HPV58 sequences that have been deposited in GenBank since 1985. The study result shows that the sequences detected from the Shanghai, Jiangsu and Sichuan areas are homologous with those found in the past from Hong Kong and Xi’an, China, as well as Japan and other Southeast Asian areas. Furthermore, Western Africa is considered to be the "root" source of the HPV58 variant, while Mainland China and Southeast Asia are "transit points" and the new sources of HPV58 after receiving the isolates from the "root" source; like HPV16 and HPV18, the HPV58 might also be one of the major HPV types associated with the development and spread of cervical cancer.

  15. [Human papillomavirus nonavalent vaccine. Update 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F X; Moreno, D; Redondo, E; Torné, A

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of 5% of human cancers. HPV infection is necessary for the development of cervical cancer and is responsible of a variable percentage of cancers of anus, vulva, vagina, penis, and oropharynx. Since 2007, 2 vaccines against HPV have been commercially available in Spain: bivalent (HPV types 16/18), and tetravalent (HPV types 6/11/16/18). In order to extend the protection afforded by HPV vaccines, a clinical program was launched in 2006 for the new nonavalent vaccine, including 9 HPV types (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). These types are responsible for 90% of cervical cancers, 82% of high-grade ano-genital pre-cancerous lesions, and 90% of genital warts. The purpose of this publication is to provide healthcare professionals with the scientific evidence that supports the new vaccine, as well as the clinical value that it offers in our environment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Oropharyngeal perinatal colonization by human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torices, María Soledad; Corrales-Millan, Rocío; Hijona-Elosegui, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common human sexually transmitted disease. It is clinically relevant because this condition is necessary for the development of epithelial cervical cancer, and it is also a factor closely associated with the occurrence of diverse tumours and various benign and malignant lesions of the head and neck area. The infective mechanism in most of these cases is associated with sexual intercourse, but there is recent scientific evidence suggesting that HPV infection may also be acquired by other routes of infection not necessarily linked to sexual contact. One of them is vertical transmission from mother to child, either during pregnancy or at the time of delivery. The aim of our research was to study maternal-foetal HPV transmission during childbirth in detail, establishing the rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV in vaginal deliveries. The presence and type of HPV viral DNA at the time of delivery in samples of maternal cervical secretions, amniotic fluid, venous cord blood samples and neonatal oropharynx in pregnant women (and their babies) were determined. The rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV colonization in vaginal deliveries was 58.24%. The maternal and neonatal HPV colonization mechanism is essentially, but not exclusively, transvaginal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Papillomavirus Laboratory Testing: the Changing Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause essentially all cervical cancers, most anal and oropharyngeal cancers, and some vaginal, vulvar, and penile cancers. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of infection and the availability of newer tests are changing the approach to screening and diagnosis. Molecular tests to detect DNA from the most common high-risk HPVs are FDA approved for use in conjunction with cytology in cervical cancer screening programs. More-specific tests that detect RNA from high-risk HPV types are now also available. The use of molecular tests as the primary screening tests is being adopted in some areas. Genotyping to identify HPV16 and -18 has a recommended role in triaging patients for colposcopy who are high-risk HPV positive but have normal cytology. There are currently no recommended screening methods for anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile, or oropharyngeal HPV infections. HPV testing has limited utility in patients at high risk for anal cancer, but p16 immunohistochemistry is recommended to clarify lesions in tissue biopsy specimens that show moderate dysplasia or precancer mimics. HPV testing is recommended for oropharyngeal squamous cell tumors as a prognostic indicator. Ongoing research will help to improve the content of future guidelines for screening and diagnostic testing. PMID:26912568

  18. [Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, María Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article.

  19. Committee Opinion No. 704: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with anogenital cancer (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and anal), oropharyngeal cancer, and genital warts. The HPV vaccination significantly reduces the incidence of anogenital cancer and genital warts. Despite the benefits of HPV vaccines, only 41.9% of girls in the recommended age group, and only 28.1% of males in the recommended age group have received all recom-mended doses. Compared with many other countries, HPV vaccination rates in the United States are unacceptably low. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved three vaccines that are effective at preventing HPV infection. These vaccines cover 2, 4, or 9 HPV serotypes, respectively. Safety data for all three HPV vaccines are reassuring. The HPV vaccines are recommended for girls and boys aged 11-12 years and can be given to females and males up to age 26 years. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend routine HPV vaccination for girls and boys at the target age of 11-12 years (but it may be given from the age of 9 years) as part of the adolescent immunization platform in order to help reduce the incidence of anogenital cancer and genital warts associated with HPV infection. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should stress to parents and patients the benefits and safety of HPV vaccination and offer HPV vaccines in their offices.

  20. The evolving definition of carcinogenic human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castle Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thirteen human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes have been judged to be carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic, and the cause of virtually all cervical cancer worldwide. Other HPV genotypes could possibly be involved. Although the inclusion of possibly carcinogenic HPV genotypes may hurt test specificity, it may indirectly increase the reassurance following a negative HPV test (i.e. the negative predictive value of an HPV test for cervical precancer and cancer. The future of cervical cancer screening in low-resource setting, however, may include once-in-a-lifetime, low-cost and rapid HPV testing. However, the tradeoff of more false positives for greater reassurance may not be acceptable if the local infrastructure cannot manage the screen positives. Now is the time for the community of scientists, doctors, and public health advocates to use the data presented at the 100th International Agency for Research on Cancer monograph meeting to rationally decide the target HPV genotypes for the next generation of HPV tests for use in high-resource and low-resource settings. The implications of including possibly HPV genotypes on HPV test performance, also for guidance on the use of these tests for cervical cancer prevention programs, are discussed.

  1. Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Khallouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose the unique opportunity in cancer vaccination to target immunologically foreign epitopes. Therapeutic HPV vaccination is therefore an ideal scenario for proof-of-concept studies of cancer immunotherapy. This is reflected by the fact that a multitude of approaches has been utilized in therapeutic HPV vaccination design: protein and peptide vaccination, DNA vaccination, nanoparticle- and cell-based vaccines, and live viral and bacterial vectors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials in therapeutic HPV vaccination (summarized in tables, and also highlights selected promising preclinical studies. Special emphasis is given to adjuvant science and the potential impact of novel developments in vaccinology research, such as combination therapies to overcome tumor immune suppression, the use of novel materials and mouse models, as well as systems vaccinology and immunogenetics approaches.

  2. Requiring human papillomavirus vaccine for immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachey, Krista J; Allen, Rebecca H; Nothnagle, Melissa; Boardman, Lori A

    2009-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 11- to 12-year-old girls, with catch-up vaccination for girls and women aged 13 to 26 years. Although compulsory HPV vaccination is not currently mandated for any U.S. population, immigrant women aged 11-26 years are now required to receive the first injection of the vaccine (the full series consists of three doses) as a result of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act. According to this law, immigrants applying for visas to enter the United States or to adjust their immigration status must receive the inoculations that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends for U.S. residents. In the case of HPV, this law represents not only an undue burden on immigrant women, but also raises scientific and ethical questions regarding the benefit of vaccination in this population. Given these issues, immigrant women should not be required to provide documentation of HPV vaccination at the time of visa application or adjustment of immigration status.

  3. Papillomaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félez-Sánchez, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a numerous family of small dsDNA viruses infecting virtually all mammals. PVs cause infections without triggering a strong immune response, and natural infection provides only limited protection against reinfection. Most PVs are part and parcel of the skin microbiota. In some cases, infections by certain PVs take diverse clinical presentations from highly productive self-limited warts to invasive cancers. We propose PVs as an excellent model system to study the evolutionary interactions between the immune system and pathogens causing chronic infections: genotypically, PVs are very diverse, with hundreds of different genotypes infecting skin and mucosa; phenotypically, they display extremely broad gradients and trade-offs between key phenotypic traits, namely productivity, immunogenicity, prevalence, oncogenicity and clinical presentation. Public health interventions have been launched to decrease the burden of PV-associated cancers, including massive vaccination against the most oncogenic human PVs, as well as systematic screening for PV chronic anogenital infections. Anti-PVs vaccines elicit protection against infection, induce cross-protection against closely related viruses and result in herd immunity. However, our knowledge on the ecological and intrapatient dynamics of PV infections remains fragmentary. We still need to understand how the novel anthropogenic selection pressures posed by vaccination and screening will affect viral circulation and epidemiology. We present here an overview of PV evolution and the connection between PV genotypes and the phenotypic, clinical manifestations of the diseases they cause. This differential link between viral evolution and the gradient cancer-warts-asymptomatic infections makes PVs a privileged playground for evolutionary medicine research. PMID:25634317

  4. Dried cervical spots for human papillomaviruses identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Valérie; Garrigue, Isabelle; Jaquet, Antoine; Horo, Apollinaire; Minga, Albert; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Dabis, François; Fleury, Hervé

    2013-07-01

    Financial and operational constraints limit low-resource countries in the screening of high-risk genital human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV), the etiological agents of cervical cancer. With its simple storage, conservation and shipping, dried cervical sample (DCS) could represent an efficient tool. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of HPV genotyping from DCS. Cervical samples were obtained from 50 women infected with HIV-1 in Côte d'Ivoire. After DNA extraction from both DCS and matched liquid cervical samples (LCS), HPV genotyping was performed and the concordance of genotyping results was evaluated. HPV prevalence was 88% in LCS and 78% in DCS. Kappa statistic was 0.51 for the presence of any genotype (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.77) and 0.73 for HR-HPV (0.45-0.99). Out of 50 samples, 45 were HPV-positive for DCS and/or LCS, and HR-HPV were detected in 37 samples (74%) with 36 HR-HPV multiple infections. Any genotype and HR genotype identification was concordant/compatible in 86% (43/50) and 88% (44/50) of samples, respectively. In most instances, kappa statistics for detection of type-specific HPV was over 0.6 (including HPV-16, -18, -31, -33). An excellent agreement (kappa statistic ≥ 0.81) was found for eight genotypes (HPV-6, -31, -35, -40, -56, -58, -66, and -82). In spite of interfering factors (multiple infections, different HPV loads, amplification competition, different inputs), DCS and LCS led to concordant/compatible results in most cases. DCS could represent an efficient tool for epidemiological field studies in resource-limited settings, and more importantly for improving the screening coverage and care management in women infected with HPV.

  5. [Human papillomavirus vaccine. Efficacy and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Laia; Serrano, Beatriz; Bosch, Xavier; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prophylactic vaccines have been recognized as the most effective intervention to control for HPV-related diseases. This article reviews the major phaseii/iii trials of the bivalent (HPVs16/18), quadrivalent (HPVs6/11/16/18), and the recently approved 9-valent vaccine (HPVs6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). Large trials have been conducted showing the safety, immunogenicity and high efficacy of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in the prevention of pre-invasive lesions and infection, especially when administered at young ages before exposure to HPV. Trials of the 9-valent vaccine have also demonstrated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of infection and disease associated with the vaccine types, and its potential to substantially increase the overall prevention of HPV-related diseases. Post-licensure country reports have shown the recent and early impact of these vaccines at population level after the implementation of established HPV vaccination programs, including decreases in the prevalence of vaccine HPV types, the incidence of genital warts, and the incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities. If widely implemented, current HPV vaccines may drastically reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers and diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Human papillomaviruses genotyping in plantar warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Planell-Mas, Elena; Martínez-Garriga, Blanca; Zalacain, Antonio Jesús; Vinuesa, Teresa; Viñas, Miguel

    2017-05-01

    Plantar warts are caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and have been associated with several HPV genotypes. However, there are few studies focused exclusively on plantar warts. In this work, we aim to identify the HPV genotypes of plantar warts and explore their relation to demographic and clinical characteristics of patients. A total of 72 patients diagnosed with plantar warts were recruited at the Laser unit at Podiatric Hospital, University of Barcelona, Spain. Inner hyperkeratosis laminar sections of warts were collected and DNA of samples were extracted. Amplification of a conserved region of the HPV L1 gene was performed with the SK-Polymerase chain reaction method. DNA amplicons were sequenced and HPV types identified. The most prevalent genotypes detected among the 105 analyzed plantar warts were HPV-57 (37.1%), HPV-27 (23.8%), HPV-1a (20.9%), HPV-2 (15.2%), and HPV-65 (2.8%). The majority of patients (78%) presented one single plantar wart, whereas multiple warts were detected in 22.2% of patients. One patient with multiple warts presented HPV types from two different genera, suggesting the spread of warts by self-inoculation as well as by de novo infection. No significant differences between the number of warts in toes, midfoot and heel were found. The most prevalent HPV types detected in all areas belonged to the alpha genus. This work provides new insight on plantar warts and their associated HPV genotypes, and evidences the usefulness and reliability of both the sample collection procedure and the PCR method used for HPV detection and typing. J. Med. Virol. 89:902-907, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D′Hauwers K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet, because HPV-related, life threatening malignancies in men are rare. The importance of male HPV screening lies mainly in HPV vaccination. Young females are the target group for HPV, but men are considered to be the reservoir for HPV and to have a role in the perpetuation of the infection in the general population. We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  8. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Long-term Study of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Daron; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stan L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS: Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6...

  10. Introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Rebolj, Matejka; Valentiner-Branth, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening has helped decrease the incidence of cervical cancer, but the disease remains a burden for women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is now a promising tool for control of cervical cancer. Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden...

  11. Human papillomavirus prevalence among men in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Munk, Christian; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the available data on the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) among men in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched up to 10 March 2014. Random effects meta-analyses were used to calculate a poole...

  12. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  13. The prevalence of human papillomavirus in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Louise; Thomsen, Louise T; Olesen, Tina Bech

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal cancer has been widely studied with conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in colorectal adenocarcinomas and adenomas, and test the potential association....

  14. Development of a Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intervention for Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Spring C.; Davies, Cristyn; McBride, Kate; Blades, Joanna; Stoney, Tanya; Marshall, Helen; Skinner, S. Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Australia has implemented a nation-wide programme providing a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to girls and boys through school-based programmes. Previous research has identified three distinct areas for attention: (1) lack of understanding about HPV and HPV vaccination, (2) young people's desire for involvement in decision-making…

  15. Biomolecular and epidemiological aspects of human papillomavirus induced cervical carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine Frederike Wilhelmine

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women worldwide. Organised screening programmes aim to trace precursor lesions in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical carcinogenesis. Most HPV infections a

  16. Anal human papillomavirus DNA in women at a colposcopy clinic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the type-specific prevalence of anal and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and the cytology in HIV-negative women without a history of cervical cancer, attending a colposcopy clinic. To examine if an HPV positive anal smear is related to anal pathology and

  17. Anal human papillomavirus DNA in women at a colposcopy clinic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the type-specific prevalence of anal and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and the cytology in HIV-negative women without a history of cervical cancer, attending a colposcopy clinic. To examine if an HPV positive anal smear is related to anal pathology and conseq

  18. Human papillomavirus genital infections among men, China, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2013-06-01

    To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners.

  19. Focal epithelial hyperplasia caused by human papillomavirus 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Natasha R; Scolnik, Dennis; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Koelink, Eric; Craw, Lindsey; Roth, Sherryn; Aronson, Leya; Perusini, Stephen; Silverman, Michael S

    2010-06-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign, papulo-nodular disease of the oral cavity. It is rare, affecting primarily Native American populations during childhood. It is closely associated with human papillomavirus 13 and 32. This report describes the diagnosis of 2 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in children from southern Guyana. The diagnosis was made using clinical criteria, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing.

  20. Identification and validation of human papillomavirus encoded microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Qian

    Full Text Available We report here identification and validation of the first papillomavirus encoded microRNAs expressed in human cervical lesions and cell lines. We established small RNA libraries from ten human papillomavirus associated cervical lesions including cancer and two human papillomavirus harboring cell lines. These libraries were sequenced using SOLiD 4 technology. We used the sequencing data to predict putative viral microRNAs and discovered nine putative papillomavirus encoded microRNAs. Validation was performed for five candidates, four of which were successfully validated by qPCR from cervical tissue samples and cell lines: two were encoded by HPV 16, one by HPV 38 and one by HPV 68. The expression of HPV 16 microRNAs was further confirmed by in situ hybridization, and colocalization with p16INK4A was established. Prediction of cellular target genes of HPV 16 encoded microRNAs suggests that they may play a role in cell cycle, immune functions, cell adhesion and migration, development, and cancer. Two putative viral target sites for the two validated HPV 16 miRNAs were mapped to the E5 gene, one in the E1 gene, two in the L1 gene and one in the LCR region. This is the first report to show that papillomaviruses encode their own microRNA species. Importantly, microRNAs were found in libraries established from human cervical disease and carcinoma cell lines, and their expression was confirmed in additional tissue samples. To our knowledge, this is also the first paper to use in situ hybridization to show the expression of a viral microRNA in human tissue.

  1. Adenocarcinoma in situ and associated human papillomavirus type distribution observed in two clinical trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ault, Kevin A; Joura, Elmar A; Kjaer, Susanne K;

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to describe the detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and associated human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution that was observed in the context of two phase 3 clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. In this intention-to-treat analysis...

  2. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  3. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral warts using in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Orsini Machado de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The human papillomavirus is a group of DNA epitheliotrophic viruses associated with the etiology of benign and malignant oral warts. More than 100 types have been identified and among them, 24 have been found into the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to analyze human papillomavirus prevalence and its subtypes in 50 oral warts, of which 20 were squamous papillomas, 17 condylomaacuminatum and 13 verruca vulgaris. Method: In situ hybridization was used with biotinylated DNA probes for wide-spectrum HPV and with specific probes for human papillomavirus 6/11, human papillomavirus 16/18 and human papillomavirus 31/33. Results: Human papillomavirus was present in ten (20% of the 50 oral wart cases, 03 (3/20 squamous papillomas, 05 (5/17 condyloma acuminatum and 02 (2/13 verruca vulgaris. Of these, 8 (16% were positive to the HPV probe 6/11 being 5 condyloma acuminatum, 1 squamous papilloma and 2 verruca vulgaris. Three cases (6% demonstrated positivity to the human papillomavirus probe 16/18, with 2 being cases of condyloma and the other a case of squamous papilloma. Of the six positive cases to the human papillomavirus probe 31/33, (12% 4 were condyloma acuminatum and 2 squamous papillomas. Conclusion: The human papillomavirus expression (20% found in this study was low, but within the average found in the literature. Nonetheless, in addition to in situ hybridization, other methods may be necessary for confirming the presence of human papillomavirus.

  4. Prognostic significance of tumour progression and human papillomavirus in advanced tonsillar cancer classified as stage IVa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E; Jung, K-Y; Kwon, S-Y; Woo, J-S; Cho, J-G; Park, M W; Kim, I S; Kim, S J; Baek, S-K

    2015-01-01

    To identify clinical factors that can explain the differences in treatment outcome, and examine the value of human papillomavirus infection as a prognostic biomarker in stage IVa tonsillar carcinomas. Fifty-nine patients with tonsillar carcinoma classified as stage IVa were retrospectively analysed for survival outcomes according to various clinical factors. Human papillomavirus infection was evaluated using a human papillomavirus DNA chip test and immunohistochemical staining for p16 and p53. Lower disease-free survival rates were associated with increasing local invasiveness and nodal status. Although human papillomavirus positivity and p16 expression was more common in locally advanced tonsillar carcinomas with advanced nodal status, the overall survival rate was better for patients with human papillomavirus positive, p16-positive tumours. The disease-free survival rate may differ according to local tumour invasiveness and nodal status, even for stage IVa tonsillar cancers. Human papillomavirus infection may be a useful biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes for stage VIa tumours.

  5. A comparison of clinically utilized human papillomavirus detection methods in head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Gerard J Nuovo; Li, Maomi; Dunne, Anne; Kawachi, Nicole; Smith, Richard V.; Burk, Robert D.; Prystowsky, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer has therapeutic implications. In-situ hybridization and immuno-histochemistry for p16 are used by surgical pathologists. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of three popular commercial tests for human papillomavirus detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas to a “gold standard” human papillomavirus PCR assay. One hundred-and-ten prospectively collected, formalin fixed tumor specimens were compiled onto tissue microarr...

  6. Human Papillomavirus Infection Among 2460 Men in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebnes, Julie Buchholt; Munk, Christian; Nøhr, Bugge

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in both men and women, to prevent the increasing HPV-related disease burden in men. Data on HPV prevalence among men in the general population are limited. In this cross-sectional ...... samples as HC2 but includes HPVX, possibly representing cutaneous HPV types found on normal genital skin....

  7. A case study of Gavi'S human papillomavirus vaccine support programme

    OpenAIRE

    Aimee Castro; Margherita Cinà; Mary Helmer-Smith; Christian Vlček; Collins Oghor; Danielle Cazabon

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted DNA virus that can lead to cervical cancer, is the most common cancer among women in developing regions. More than 270,000 women die per year from cervical cancer globally, and 85% of those deaths occur in developing countries. In the past, many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been unable to afford the implementation of HPV vaccination programmes, resulting in high cervical cancer mortality rates. Gavi, an organisation created t...

  8. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Deirdre Therese Little MBBS, DRANZCOG, FACRRM; Harvey Rodrick Grenville Ward Bsc(Med), MBChB, DMCOG, FCOG(SA), MMed (O&G), FRANZCOG

    2014-01-01

    Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been p...

  9. Incidence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pinto, C; García-Carrasco, M; Vallejo-Ruiz, V; Méndez-Martínez, S; Taboada-Cole, A; Etchegaray-Morales, I; Muñóz-Guarneros, M; Reyes-Leyva, J; López-Colombo, A

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Our objective was to study the incidence, persistence and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women and assess risk factors for persistence of human papillomavirus infection. Methods We carried out a prospective, observational cohort study of 127 systemic lupus erythematosus women. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at three years. Traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus women-related disease risk factors were collected. Gynaecological evaluations and cervical cytology screening were made. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping were made by polymerase chain reaction and linear array. Results The cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection increased from 22.8% at baseline to 33.8% at three years; p = systemic lupus erythematosus women, the cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, including high risk-human papillomavirus and multiple human papillomavirus infections, may increase over time. Most persistent infections were low risk-human papillomavirus. The number of lifetime sexual partners and the cumulative cyclophosphamide dose were independently associated with incident human papillomavirus infection.

  10. CIGARETTE-SMOKING AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS IN PATIENTS WITH REPORTED CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BURGER, MPM; HOLLEMA, H; GOUW, ASH; PIETERS, WJLM; QUINT, WGV

    1993-01-01

    Objective-To assess the relation between two risk factors for cervical neoplasia: smoking and infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus. It has been suggested that smoking causes a local immunological defect, which could facilitate the infection and persistence of human papillomavirus. Design-Cr

  11. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cobas 4800 HPV test in urban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iwasaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results: A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17–79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49% samples. Of these, 641 (82.71% were single infections and 134 (17.29% were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.

  12. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  13. Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus among Men in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebnes, Julie B; Olesen, Tina B; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and causes substantial morbidity in both sexes. Most European countries offer HPV vaccination for girls, but vaccine recommendations for boys are warranted. AIMS: The aims of this study were...... influencing prevalence in general and high-risk male populations in Europe. RESULTS: We included 31 articles that gave the prevalence of genital HPV DNA among men in northern, southern and western Europe; no studies from eastern Europe were identified. The pooled HPV prevalence among 1,863 men representing...

  14. Prevalence of tonsillar human papillomavirus infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, M; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Henriksen, Jens-Jacob Mølby;

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of tonsillar carcinomas associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection has increased dramatically over the last three decades. In fact, currently in Scandinavia, HPV-associated cases account for over 80 % of tonsillar carcinoma cases. Yet, the epidemiology and natural history...... % CI 0.03-6.77 %) by nested PCR, and 0 % by CLART HPV2 Clinical Array. The HPV-positive patient was a 16-year-old female with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy. The type detected was HPV6. HPV was not detected in the contralateral tonsil of this patient. Compared to cervical HPV...

  15. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: a multifocal oral human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaitz, C M

    2000-01-01

    Widespread, slightly elevated and confluent nodules are observed throughout the oral mucosa in a young Hispanic girl. Repeated irritation of the soft tissues from a compromised occlusion is an aggravating factor for the spread of these lesions. A diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia, a human papillomavirus infection, is made following histopathologic diagnosis and viral typing. Recognition of this specific type of warts is important in order to avoid the mistaken identification of condyloma acuminata, which may have significant repercussions in the life of a young child.

  16. The moral justification for a compulsory human papillomavirus vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Joseph E

    2009-04-01

    Compulsory human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls has been proposed as a public health intervention to reduce the threat of the disease. Such a program would entail a symbiotic relationship between scientific interests in reducing mortality and morbidity and philosophical interests in promoting morality. This proposal raises the issue of whether government should use its police powers to restrict liberty and parental autonomy for the purpose of preventing harm to young people. I reviewed the scientific literature that questions the value of a HPV vaccination. Applying a principle-based approach to moral reasoning, I concluded that compulsory HPV vaccinations can be justified on moral, scientific, and public health grounds.

  17. Porokeratoma: A Possible Association with Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Caseiro Silverio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratoma is a rare, relatively newly described and still unclear entity. Here, we describe the case of a 52-year-old male patient who presented with four well-defined, verrucous and hyperkeratotic lesions. Microscopically, one of the lesions showed acanthopapillomatosis overlying compact orthokeratosis. Prominent broad and confluent cornoid lamellae were present, with no granular layer and some dyskeratotic keratinocytes. PCR sequencing and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 in the lesion. The association of porokeratoma and HPV infection has not previously been reported.

  18. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Thai Human Papillomavirus Beliefs Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Davidson, Patricia M; Chang, Sungwon; Suwan, Natthawan; Phianmongkhol, Yupin; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of the Thai Human Papillomavirus Beliefs Scale. The Scale was tested on 386 young women aged 18-24 years in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Content validity of the Scale was evaluated by a panel of experts, construct validity was determined using exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was assessed for stability and internal consistency. Factor analysis provided empirical support for the existence of four factors, which accounted for 67.7% of the total variance: perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. Cronbach's α reliability coefficients for the four subscales ranged from 0.59 to 0.86. Factors predicting intention to receive the papillomavirus vaccine were perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. The Thai Human Papillomavirus Beliefs Scale demonstrated promising psychometric properties, indicating that it might be a useful instrument for assessing young women's human papillomavirus and cervical cancer-associated beliefs, and for predicting human papillomavirus vaccination intention.

  19. Epidemiological and functional implications of molecular variants of human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichero L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus genomes are classified into molecular variants when they present more than 98% of similarity to the prototype sequence within the L1 gene. Comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of these viruses have elucidated some features of their phylogenetic relationship. In addition, human papillomavirus intratype variability has also been used as an important tool in epidemiological studies of viral transmission, persistence and progression to clinically relevant cervical lesions. Until the present, little has been published concerning the functional significance of molecular variants. It has been shown that nucleotide variability within the long control region leads to differences in the binding affinity of some cellular transcriptional factors and to the enhancement of the expression of E6 and E7 oncogenes. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed differences in E6 and E7 biochemical and biological properties among molecular variants. Nevertheless, further correlation with additional functional information is needed to evaluate the significance of genome intratypic variability. These results are also important for the development of vaccines and to determine the extent to which immunization with L1 virus-like particles of one variant could induce antibodies that cross-neutralize other variants.

  20. [Human papillomavirus infection in male genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Garfias, R; Villarreal Peral, C; Juárez Azpilcueta, A

    1995-10-01

    A prospective and transversal study in 100 patients since January to December of 1994, was done, to know the human papiloma virus infection prevalence in male genitals. The patients were studied by a clinical history, genital area colposcopic revision after acetic acid 5% application, biopsy of the lesion and histopathology study. The patients age was among 16 to 71 years old, with a media of 38.8 years old. The sexual activity beginning was from 12 to 27 years old, with an average of 18 years old. Forty one percent of the patients have had sexual relations with prostitutes, 26% have had sexually transmitted diseases, 9% of the patients referred only 1 sexual mate and 82% had human papiloma virus infection.

  1. Human papillomavirus-associated diseases and cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Yang; Jianbo Zhu Co-first author; Xiaoyue Song; Yan Qi; Xiaobin Cui; Feng Li 

    2015-01-01

    Human papilomaviruses (HPVs) have been detected in cervical cancer cels and skin papiloma cels, which have a variety of types, including low-risk and high-risk types. HPV genome replication requires the host cel’s DNA synthesis machinery, and HPVs encode proteins that maintain diferentiated epithelial cels in a replication-competent state. HPV types are tissue-specific and generaly produce diferent types of le-sions, either benign or malignant. This review examines diferent HPV types and their associated diseases and presents therapeutic options for the treatment of HPV-positive diseases.

  2. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

  3. Human papillomavirus vaccination in the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Astbury, Katharine

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. Although the introduction of comprehensive screening programs has reduced the disease incidence in developed countries, it remains a major problem in the developing world. The recent licensing of 2 vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and HPV-18, the viruses responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases, offers the hope of disease prevention. In this article, we review the role of HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer and the evidence to support the introduction of vaccination programs in young women and discuss the potential obstacles to widespread vaccination. In addition, we discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated, including the potential need for booster doses of the vaccine and the role of concomitant vaccination in men.

  4. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The Spanish human papillomavirus vaccine consensus group: a working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Bordoy, Javier; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2010-08-01

    Successful implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in each country can only be achieved from a complementary and synergistic perspective, integrating all the different points of view of the diverse related professionals. It is this context where the Spanish HPV Vaccine Consensus Group (Grupo Español de Consenso sobre la Vacuna VPH, GEC-VPH) was created. GEC-VPH philosophy, objectives and experience are reported in this article, with particular attention to the management of negative publicity and anti-vaccine groups. Initiatives as GEC-VPH--adapted to each country's particular idiosyncrasies--might help to overcome the existing barriers and to achieve wide and early implementation of HPV vaccination.

  6. Human papillomavirus: E6 and E7 oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Gaëlle; Horvath, Caroline; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Sahebali, Shaira; Bogers, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The recognition of a causal relationship between human papillomaviruses and cancer almost 30 years ago led to a rapid expansion of knowledge in the field, resulting in the description of the main mediators of HPV-induced carcinogenesis, the viral proteins E6 and E7. These oncoproteins show a remarkable pleiotropism in binding host-cell proteins, with the tumour suppressor genes p53 and pRb as their major targets. These interactions induce proliferation, immortalization and malignant transformation of infected cells. The link between HPV and cervical cancer led to the development of molecular methods, often based on the detection of E6 and E7, for screening and diagnosis. Therapeutic vaccines and gene therapy are primarily directed at E6 and E7. Although prophylactic vaccines are available, further understanding of the viral life cycle and the mechanisms underlying HPV-induced oncogenesis is necessary to face the many challenges in the field of HPV and cancer.

  7. Malakoplakia of the esophagus caused by human papillomavirus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li Yang; Yu-Cheng Xie; Xiao-Ling Li; Jing Guo; Tao Sun; Jing Tang

    2012-01-01

    Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease probably caused by infection and characterized histologically by Michaelis-Gutmann bodies.We report a more rarely seen case esophageal malakoplakia in a 54-year-old woman.She presented with coughing while eating and drinking.Gastroscopy showed yellow nodules in the esophagus,and endoscopic ultrasonography showed a space-occupying lesion in the substratum of the esophageal mucosa.All findings highly resembled esophageal cancer.Histopathological examination finally indentified this space-occupying lesion as malakoplakia and not cancer.Immunohistochemistry showed that she had human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the esophagus,which indicates that infection was responsible for the malakoplakia.This is believed to be the first case of malakoplakia in the esophagus,and more importantly,we established that HPV infection was the initiator of esophageal malakoplakia.

  8. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partners and found that transitions from traditional to gender-similar sexual behavior in women sexual behavior and that increased risk for HPV infection attributable to transition is preventable by early vaccination. Our study highlights the importance of using time-limited opportunities to introduce HPV vaccination in traditional populations before changes in age-specific sexual patterns occur.

  9. Awareness of human papillomavirus after introduction of HPV vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Nygård, Mari; Stensen, Signe;

    2017-01-01

    Using a large, population-based survey, we assessed the levels and correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness among Scandinavian women after introduction of HPV vaccination. In 2011-2012, a random sample of women aged between 18 and 45 years from Denmark, Sweden and Norway received...... a questionnaire on lifestyle, health and HPV awareness. We included 47 895 women (response rate 60.6%) in our study. Country-specific and age-specific proportions of women who had heard of HPV in 2011-2012 (postvaccination survey) were compared with corresponding proportions in an identical survey from 2004......-2005 (prevaccination survey, n=54 079, response rate 71.3%). Correlates of HPV awareness in the postvaccination survey were assessed by logistic regression. In all countries and age groups, awareness of HPV increased from the prevaccination to the postvaccination survey. In the postvaccination survey, HPV awareness...

  10. Impact and Effectiveness of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, Suzanne M; Kjaer, Susanne K; Muñoz, Nubia

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs constitute major public health initiatives worldwide. We assessed the global effect of quadrivalent HPV (4vHPV) vaccination on HPV infection and disease. PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles from...... January 2007 through February 2016 to identify observational studies reporting the impact or effectiveness of 4vHPV vaccination on infection, anogenital warts, and cervical cancer or precancerous lesions. Over the last decade, the impact of HPV vaccination in real-world settings has become increasingly...... evident, especially among girls vaccinated before HPV exposure in countries with high vaccine uptake. Maximal reductions of approximately 90% for HPV 6/11/16/18 infection, approximately 90% for genital warts, approximately 45% for low-grade cytological cervical abnormalities, and approximately 85...

  11. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Delany-Moretlwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of a significant burden of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and associated disease in men. High rates of HPV infection have been observed in men from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is high. HIV infection increases HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence and is strongly associated with the development of anogenital warts and anal, penile and head and neck cancers in men. Despite increasing access to antiretroviral therapy, there appears to be little benefit in preventing the development of these cancers in HIV-positive men, making prevention of infection a priority. New prevention options that are being introduced in many African countries include male circumcision and HPV vaccination. However, more data are needed on the burden of HPV disease in men before boys are included in HPV vaccination programmes.

  12. Human Papillomavirus and the HPV Vaccine: Where Are We Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Leah

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine discussions are an important part of the general pediatrician's day. The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, in particular, has been slow to gain acceptance by the general public. It has recently gained momentum (both positive and negative) on social media, which has led to an increase in questions and concerns from families. It is important that providers are equipped to address these concerns, answer questions, and provide quality information for families to help guide them in their vaccination decisions. Not only is it crucial to be knowledgeable about the vaccines themselves, but providers should also be informed about HPV and its potential disease burden. The HPV vaccine recommendations are also evolving, so it is important to stay abreast with current data to provide the best care for all patients. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(1):e2-e5.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Human papillomavirus infection and fertility alteration: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souho, Tiatou; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2015-01-01

    HPV is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection and its effect in cancer induction is well documented. HPV infections are mostly asymptomatic, but it is unclear whether HPV infections can result in alterations of reproductive health. To determine the relationship between human papillomavirus infections and reproductive health in both men and women. A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed and ScienceDirect data bases from January 1994 through August 2014. HPV infections are shown to be significantly associated to many adverse effects in the reproductive function. These adverse effects were reported in different levels from cells production to pregnancy and may be related to the infecting genotype. It appears from this study that HPV detection and genotyping could be of great value in infertility diagnosis at least in idiopathic infertility cases. Like for the risk of carcinogenesis, another classification of HPV regarding the risk of fertility alteration may be considered after deep investigations.

  14. Human papillomavirus: cause of epithelial lacrimal sac neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac are rare but important entities that may carry grave prognoses. In this study the prevalence and possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac were evaluated. METHODS: Five papillomas and six...... 11 RNA was demonstrated in two papillomas. CONCLUSIONS: By analysing 11 epithelial lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas using PCR, DNA ISH and RNA ISH, we found HPV DNA in all investigated transitional epithelium tumours of the lacrimal sac. HPV RNA was present in two of eight epithelial lacrimal...... sac tumours positive for HPV DNA. As RNA degrades fast in paraffin-embedded tissue, only a small fraction of DNA-positive tumours can be expected to be RNA-positive. We therefore suggest that HPV infection is associated with the development of lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas....

  15. Concordance and Transmission of Human Papillomavirus Within Heterosexual Couples Observed Over Short Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Widdice, Lea; Ma, Yifei; Jonte, Janet; Farhat, Sepideh; Breland, David; Shiboski, Stephen; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background. Because many human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient, rates of transmission may be miscalculated if the interval between testing spans several months. We examined rates of concordance and transmission in heterosexual couples over short intervals.

  16. A multimodal approach to improving human papillomavirus vaccination in a community pharmacy setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hohmeier, Kenneth C; Randolph, Donna D; Smith, Cindy Taliaferro; Hagemann, Tracy M

    2016-01-01

    ...: The primary objective is to describe and report on the impact of a multimodal series of pharmacist-led educational interventions on human papillomavirus vaccination rates in a community pharmacy setting...

  17. Home-Based or Clinic-Based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance; Cervical Carcinoma; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2/3; Health Status Unknown; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Low Grade Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Neoplasia; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer

  18. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in cervical carcinoma in Algerian women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khenchouche, Abdelhalim; Sadouki, Nabila; Boudriche, Arab; Houali, Karim; Graba, Abdelaziz; Ooka, Tadamasa; Bouguermouh, Abdelmadjid

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the implication of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis and prognosis of cervical cancer is well established, the impact of a co-infection with high risk HPV (HR-HPV...

  19. Health awareness among young women vaccinated against human papillomavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bąk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Genital human papillomavirus (HPV infections are essentials factors in the development of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus vaccines can contribute to reducing the high incidence of this disease, provided that this form of prophylaxis is commonly accepted. Participation in vaccinations is restricted by the belief that their implementation and consequent feeling of safety will reduce women’s participation in other forms of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis and will encourage them to be sexually promiscuous. Aim of the research study : To determine the awareness of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis among young women vaccinated against HPV by comparing them with a group of unvaccinated women. Material and methods: The survey covered a group of 210 young women in the age range 18 to 20 years, who were vaccinated against HPV. Within the framework of comparison, the survey covered a group of 255 young HPV-unvaccinated women, adequately selected in respect of age and education. Results: The HPVvaccinated women declared participation in medical check-ups and cytological tests no less frequently than the unvaccinated women. In both groups, the usage of condoms, sexual partners hygiene, monogamy and smoking abstinence were determined as behaviours limiting the occurrence of cervical carcinoma. Conclusions: Awareness of the application of supplementary prophylaxis of cervical carcinoma was high among the HPV vaccinated woman and did not differ from the unvaccinated woman’s awareness. Young women did not show a tendency for promiscuous behaviours, and were more likely touse condoms in the prevention of cervical carcinoma than were the unvaccinated woman.

  20. A comparison of clinically utilized human papillomavirus detection methods in head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Li, Maomi; Dunne, Anne; Kawachi, Nicole; Smith, Richard V.; Burk, Robert D.; Prystowsky, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer has therapeutic implications. In-situ hybridization and immuno-histochemistry for p16 are used by surgical pathologists. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of three popular commercial tests for human papillomavirus detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas to a “gold standard” human papillomavirus PCR assay. One hundred-and-ten prospectively collected, formalin fixed tumor specimens were compiled onto tissue microarrays and tested for human papillomavirus DNA by in-situ hybridization with two probe sets: a biotinylated probe for high-risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 (Dako, CA), and a probe cocktail for 16/18 plus 10 additional high-risk types (Ventana, AZ). P16INK4 expression was also assessed using a Pharmingen immuno-histochemistry antibody (BD Biosciences, CA). Tissue microarrays were stained and scored at expert laboratories. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected by MY09/11-PCR using Gold AmpliTaq and dot-blot hybridization on matched fresh frozen specimens in a research laboratory. Human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7-RNA expression was also measured using RT-PCR. Test performance was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. High-risk human papillomavirus DNA types 16, 18 and 35 were detected by MY-PCR in 28% of tumors, with the majority (97%) testing positive for type 16. Compared to MY-PCR, the sensitivity and specificity for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA detection with Dako in-situ hybridization was 21% (95%CI:7–42) and 100% (95%CI:93–100), respectively. Corresponding test results by Ventana in-situ hybridization were 59% (95%CI:39–78) and 58% (95%CI:45–71), respectively. P16 immuno-histochemistry performed better overall than Dako (p=0.042) and Ventana (p=0.055), with a sensitivity of 52% (95%CI:32–71) and specificity of 93% (95%CI:84–98). Compared to a gold standard human papillomavirus PCR assays, HPV detection by in-situ hybridization was

  1. A multimodal approach to improving human papillomavirus vaccination in a community pharmacy setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Hohmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community pharmacy has become a major access point for several types of vaccinations. Despite the success of vaccination programs like influenza, pneumococcal, and herpes zoster, the rates of human papillomavirus vaccination continue to lag. Objectives: The primary objective is to describe and report on the impact of a multimodal series of pharmacist-led educational interventions on human papillomavirus vaccination rates in a community pharmacy setting. The primary outcome of this study was change in pharmacist-delivered human papillomavirus vaccination throughout a corresponding 8-week period in 2014 and 2015. Methods: A single-center, quasi-experimental interrupted time series mixed-methods pilot study was used to investigate a pharmacist-led, multimodal educational intervention approach to improve human papillomavirus vaccination rates in the community. Results: During the 2014 control period, there were no human papillomavirus vaccines dispensed or administered according to the internal prescription dispensing software. In 2015, a total of 10 patients indicated that they were vaccinated, with 9 patients receiving their first dose and 1 patient receiving his or her second dose at the pharmacy. Pharmacist recommendation was the most reported education method for increasing patient awareness of the human papillomavirus vaccine (n = 10. Conclusion: This study demonstrates pharmacist designed, educational interventions may impact human papillomavirus vaccination rates in the community. Further community-based research with larger sample sizes is warranted to verify these results. Due to the unique barriers to human papillomavirus vaccination, a multimodal and inter-professional approach such as the one presented here is warranted.

  2. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with HPV16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Takako; Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Nishida, Noriyuki; Yamasaki, Kentaro; Miura, Kiyonori; Katamine, Shigeru; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The squamous cell carcinoma antigen is considered the most accurate serologic tumor marker for uterine cervical carcinoma. However, serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels were found to correlate significantly with clinical severity of atopic dermatitis and chronic renal failure. The present study was conducted in patients with human papillomavirus 16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer to determine the plasma level of human papillomavirus 16 DNA and the diagnostic values of...

  3. Incidence rate of external genital lesions (EGL) caused by human papillomavirus infection in Czech population

    OpenAIRE

    Petráš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of external genital lesions (EGL) caused by human papillomaviruses in the Czech population Marek Petráš Abstract Genital warts (condyloma acuminate) caused up to 90% cases by two human papillomaviruses of type 6 and 11 are not life-threatening diseases but can cause not only clinical symptoms (burning, itching, bleeding, and pain) but also psychosocial stress, embarrassment, and anxiety making for impaired quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the p...

  4. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue.......The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  5. Human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and prevention practices among Sierra Sur, Oaxaca college students

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Ramos, Gisela Mayra; Instituto de Investigación sobre la Salud Pública (IISSP), Universidad de la Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México; Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Instituto de Investigación sobre la Salud Pública (IISSP), Universidad de la Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México; Tenahua-Quitl, Inés; Facultad de Enfermería, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, México; Jiménez, Concepción; Estudiante de la licenciatura en Enfermería, Instituto de Investigación sobre la Salud Pública (IISSP), Universidad de la Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México; López Mendoza, Yarely; Estudiante de la licenciatura en Enfermería, Instituto de Investigación sobre la Salud Pública (IISSP), Universidad de la Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the world’s most important sexually transmitted infection and is considered the main agent for cervical cancer. Youngsters are most vulnerable as they usually begin sexual relations without protection. Objectives. To describe students’ knowledge of human papillomavirus infection prevention at Sierra Sur, Oaxaca University. Design. Quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional study. Place. Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, Mexico. Participants. University student...

  6. Human papillomavirus and tumours of the eye region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian

    2005-01-01

    ophthalmology, lacrimal sac, tear sac, papilloma, carcinoma, papillomavirus, HPV, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, RNA, DNA, in situ hybridisation, aetiology, conjunctiva, dysplasia, sex, age, distribution......ophthalmology, lacrimal sac, tear sac, papilloma, carcinoma, papillomavirus, HPV, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, RNA, DNA, in situ hybridisation, aetiology, conjunctiva, dysplasia, sex, age, distribution...

  7. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 13 from focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Pfister, H.; Hettich, I; Runne, U.; Gissmann, L; Chilf, G N

    1983-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck lesions of a Turkish patient were shown to contain papillomavirus-specific DNA, which was molecularly cloned into bacteriophage lambda. It proved to be related to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 DNA and HPV type 11 DNA. Reassociation kinetics revealed a cross-hybridization of 4 and 3%, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with HPV type 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, or 10. This papillomavirus type will be referred to as HPV type 13. The DNA was characterized by c...

  8. A Comparison of the Roche Cobas HPV Test With the Hybrid Capture 2 Test for the Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levi, Angelique W; Bernstein, Jane I; Hui, Pei; Duch, Kara; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C

    2016-01-01

    All Food and Drug Administration-approved methods in the United States for human papillomavirus testing including the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus assay and the Roche cobas human papilloma...

  9. Deep sequencing extends the diversity of human papillomaviruses in human skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Bzhalava, Davit; Mühr, Laila Sara Arroyo; Lagheden, Camilla; Ekström, Johanna; Forslund, Ola; Dillner, Joakim; Hultin, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Most viruses in human skin are known to be human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Previous sequencing of skin samples has identified 273 different cutaneous HPV types, including 47 previously unknown types. In the present study, we wished to extend prior studies using deeper sequencing. This deeper sequencing without prior PCR of a pool of 142 whole genome amplified skin lesions identified 23 known HPV types, 3 novel putative HPV types and 4 non-HPV viruses. The complete sequence was obtained for one...

  10. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  11. [Enhanced molecular techniques for the diagnosis of human papillomavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Onofriescu, M; Nemescu, D; Iancu, Luminiţa Smaranda

    2009-01-01

    optimisation of Real Time PCR technique for quantifying oncogenic types 16 and 18 of Human Papilloma Viruses, genotyped through classic PCR, followed by hybridisation. DNA/ HPV was purified with High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit (ROCHE DIAGNOSTICS), genotyping was performed with Linear Array HPV Genotyping (ROCHE DIAGNOSTICS) and PCR reaction was realized with ABI 9700 Gold Plate System. Absolute quantification of HPV 16 and 18 was performed with Path-HPV16/18 Real-time PCR detection kit for Human Papillomavirus, 2 x Precision Mastermix kits (PrimerDesign), and the instrument used was MX3000P STRATAGENE. I. HPV genotyping was optimised through testing of 12 cervical samples, collected from patients who have signed the informed consent approved by the local Bioethical Committee. Among the tested samples, 5 were negative for any HPV type, 3 patients had unique infections with oncogenic HPV type, and 2 patients had multiple infections, with oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types. Negative and positive controls were validated, identical as the internal control - beta globin gene. II. Absolute quantification for HPV 16 and 18 were performed on two samples tested by the previous method. The number of viral copies was determined using the standard curves procedure, whose parameters values were between the accepted limits. We fulfilled the quality criteria for both techniques: genotyping assay and viral load quantification by Real Time PCR. This allows us to start the study for monitoring persistent infections with HPV 16 and HPV 18.

  12. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L; Gravitt, Patti E; Trimble, Cornelia L; Roden, Richard B S

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies...

  13. Human papillomavirus vaccination guideline update: American Cancer Society guideline endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Debbie; Andrews, Kimberly S; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Loomer, Lacey; Lam, Kristina E; Fisher-Borne, Marcie; Smith, Robert A; Fontham, Elizabeth T H

    2016-09-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The American Cancer Society (ACS) reviewed and updated its guideline on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination based on a methodologic and content review of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) HPV vaccination recommendations. A literature review was performed to supplement the evidence considered by the ACIP and to address new vaccine formulations and recommendations as well as new data on population outcomes since publication of the 2007 ACS guideline. The ACS Guideline Development Group determined that the evidence supports ACS endorsement of the ACIP recommendations, with one qualifying statement related to late vaccination. The ACS recommends vaccination of all children at ages 11 and 12 years to protect against HPV infections that lead to several cancers and precancers. Late vaccination for those not vaccinated at the recommended ages should be completed as soon as possible, and individuals should be informed that vaccination may not be effective at older ages. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:375-385. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  14. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  15. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐倏燊; 刘兰青; 吕绳敏; 任舒月

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To observe the possibility of maternal-fetal vertical transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV)via amniotic fluid. Subjects and methods. Specimens of cervical secretions from 30 pregnant women were obtained during the third trimester before rupture of membrane, and specimens of pharyngeal secretsions of their neonates weee obtained 12-48 h after birth. Amniotic fluids were collected in 13 pregnant women during cesarean section. The presence of HPV types 6,11,16,18,31,33,35,38 deoxyribonucleic acid were detected by consensus polymerase chain reaction. Remits. HPV deoxyribonucleic acid was found in 18 cervical secretions, 14 pharyngeal secretions and in 8 amniotic fluids, the positive rate was 53. 3%, 46.7%, 23. 1% respectively. The pharyngeal secretion was also HPV positive in one of the three neonates from the amnlotic fluid positive mothers. Conclusion. The results indic.am that HPV can be transmitted in utezo through amniotic fluid and cesarean section can not protect the neonates against vertical transmission completely.

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV): making the case for 'Immunisation for All'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, G; Lawler, M; Baker, P; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2017-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to the most common sexually transmitted infections, with repeated and persistent infection with particular types causing disease in both men and women. Infection with low-risk HPV types can lead to genital warts and benign lesions of the oral cavity, while high-risk types can cause various HPV-related malignancies. The incidence of head and neck cancers has been rising in the past number of decades mostly due to oropharyngeal cancer linked to HPV infection. HPV vaccination has been shown to be effective for cervical and other anogenital HPV-related cancers, and there is significant potential for HPV vaccination to prevent oropharyngeal cancers, given that the HPV types implicated in this disease can be protected against by the HPV vaccine. Few countries have implemented a universal HPV vaccination programme for males and females, with many countries arguing that female-only vaccination programmes protect males via herd immunity and that men who have sex with men will be protected via targeted vaccination programmes. We argue these may be limited in their effectiveness. We propose that the most effective, practical, ethical and potentially cost-effective solution is universal HPV vaccination that might lead to control of HPV-related diseases in men and women alike. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Therese Little MBBS, DRANZCOG, FACRRM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence.

  18. Human Papillomavirus and the Development of Different Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ge; Smith, David I

    2017-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are responsible for the development of almost all cervical cancers. HPV is also found in 85% of anal cancer and in 50% of penile, vulvar, and vaginal cancers, and they are increasingly found in a subset of head and neck cancers, i.e., oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC). The model for how HPV causes cancer is derived from several decades of study on cervical cancer, and it is just presumed that this model is not only completely valid for cervical cancer but for all other HPV-driven cancers as well. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has now provided the necessary tools to characterize genomic alterations in cancer cells and can precisely determine the physical status of HPV in those cells as well. We discuss recent discoveries from different applications of NGS in both cervical cancer and OPSCCs, including whole-genome sequencing and mate-pair NGS. We also discuss what NGS studies have revealed about the different ways that HPV can be involved in cancer formation, specifically comparing cervical cancer and OPSCC.

  19. The influence of human papillomavirus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Makoto; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-06-01

    Although Japan is a non-endemic area with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the proportion of WHO type I NPC in Japan are different from that in non-endemic areas such as North America and Europe. Recently, it is said that not only Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but also human papillomavirus (HPV) has an influence on NPC in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of HPV on NPC in Japan. Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were available for 59 patients with NPC diagnosed between 1996 and 2015. We detected the virus status by p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV PCR, and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival by viral status. Among the 59 patients, 49 (83%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 2 (3%) were EBV-positive/HPV-positive, and 8 (16%) were EBV-negative/HPV-negative. All HPV-positive NPCs were co-infected with EBV. There were no significant differences between the overall survival in the three groups (p=0.111). In Japan, HPV was detected in a few patients with NPC, and we suggest that HPV has no influence on NPC carcinogenesis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous papillomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous papilloma (ESP) and determine p16, p53 and Ki67 expression in a Mexican cohort.METHODS: Nineteen cases diagnosed as ESP, corresponding to 18 patients were reviewed; nineteen cases of normal esophageal mucosa were used as negative controls. HPV detection was performed by ,amplified chromogenic in situ hybridization (ACISH) using a wide spectrum-cocktail probe and PCR. RESULTS: The average age at presentation was 46.3 years (range 28-72 years). Patients included four (22.22%) males and 14 (77.77%) females. The most frequent location was upper third (11 cases), followed by middle third (3 cases) and unknown site (5 cases). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed basal and focal p53 expression in 17 cases (89%); p16 was expressed in eight cases (42.10%) and the Ki67 index ranged from 10% to 30%. HPV was detected in 14 out of 16 cases (87.5%) by ACISH: Twelve showed diffuse nuclear patterns and two showed granular patterns. HPV DNA was identified by PCR in 12 out of 14 cases (85.7%). Low-risk HPV types were detected in the most of the cases. CONCLUSION: This study provides identification of HPV infection in almost 80% of ESP using either ACISH or PCR; overall, all of these lesions show low expression of cell-cycle markers. We suggest ACISH as an alternative diagnostic tool for HPV detection in ESP.

  1. Human Papillomavirus 16E6 Oncogene Mutation in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Xiao-qin Ha; Tong-de Lv; Chuan-ping Xing; Bin Liu; Xiao-zhe Cao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are considered to be the major causes of cervical cancer. HPV16 is the most common type of HR-HPVs and HPV16 E6 gene is one of the major oncogenes. Specific mutations are considered as dangerous factors causing CC. This study was designed to find mutations of HPV16 E6 and the relationship between the mutations and the happening of CC.Methods: The tissue DNA was extracted from 15 biopsies of CC. Part of HPV16 E6 gene (nucleotide 201-523) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the CC tissue DNA. The PCR fragments were sequenced and analyzed.Results: The result of PCR showed that the positive rate of HPV16 E6 was 93.33% (14/15). After sequencing and analyzing, in the 13 out of 14 PCR fragments, 4 maintained prototype (30.77%), 8 had a same 350G mutation (61.54%), and 1 had a 249G mutation (7.69%).Conclusion: This study suggest that there is a high infection rate of HPV in cervical cancer and most of the HPV16 E6 gene has mutations. Those mutations may have an association with the development of cervical cancer.

  2. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravud Narin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is a crucial etiological factor for cervical cancer (CC development. From a diagnostic view-point, the consistent presence of HPV in CC allows the viral DNA to be used as a genetic marker. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence, physical status and clinical significant of HPV DNA in circulation of CC patients. Results Whereas 6 out of 50 (12% HPV positive CC patients revealed plasma HPV DNA, it was detected in none of 20 normal controls or 13 HPV negative CC cases. The plasma DNA exhibited an HPV type identical to the HPV in the primary tumors and the DNA from both sources was integrated into host genome. Interestingly, several findings suggested an association between plasma HPV DNA and metastasis. First, three of the HPV DNA positive cases were CC patients with clinical stage IVB or recurrence with distance metastases (P = 0.001, RR = 15.67. Second, the amount of plasma HPV DNA from metastatic patients to be three times more than three other patients without metastases. Finally, the later cases had tendency to develop recurrence distant metastases within one year after complete treatment when compared with other HPV associated CC patients with the same stage but without the present of plasma HPV DNA. Conclusions The plasma HPV DNA originated from the CC, was associated with metastasis and could be used as a marker representing the circulating free CC DNA.

  3. A review of methods for detect human Papillomavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu André L P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted virus. Worldwide, the most common high-risk (HR-HPV are -16/18, and approximately 70% of cervical cancers (CC are due to infection by these genotypes. Persistent infection by HR-HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of this cancer, which develops over a long period through precursor lesions, which can be detected by cytological screening. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of CC, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of women with HPV-related cervical disease, and these biomarkers can also be used to increase the positive predictive value of current screening methods. In addition, they can provide insights into the biology of HPV-induced cancer and thus lead to the development of nonsurgical therapies. Considering the importance of detecting HPV and related biomarkers, a variety of methods are being developed for these purposes. This review summarizes current knowledge of detection methods for HPV, and related biomarkers that can be used to discriminate lesions with a high risk of progression to CC.

  4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping of cutaneous warts in Greek children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Maria; Kakourou, Talia; Theodoridou, Maria; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki; Kabouris, Marios; Louizou, Eirini; Chrousos, George

    2013-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) infects the squamous epithelium of the skin and produces common warts, plantar warts, and flat warts, which occur commonly on the hands, face, and feet. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of HPV in warts in children in order to associate the virus with the disease. Sixty-eight children with clinically diagnosed cutaneous warts were recruited. Skin biopsy samples were examined and DNA was extracted using a commercially available kit. To distinguish between the HPV types, we used a specific pair of primers to amplify the HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the L1 region was followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and Luminex xMAP technology. HPV 57 was the predominant type in our study, although the detection of the high-risk HPV type 16 in 33% of our positive samples indicates the presence of mucosal high-risk HPV types in the skin of children. It seems that the newly introduced Luminex assay maximized the discrimination of genotypes even in the case of multiple HPV infections. Or findings also suggest the presence of high-risk HPV types in cutaneous warts. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Committee Opinion No. 704 Summary: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with anogenital cancer (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and anal), oropharyngeal cancer, and genital warts. The HPV vaccination significantly reduces the incidence of anogenital cancer and genital warts. Despite the benefits of HPV vaccines, only 41.9% of girls in the recommended age group, and only 28.1% of males in the recommended age group have received all recom-mended doses. Compared with many other countries, HPV vaccination rates in the United States are unacceptably low. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved three vaccines that are effective at preventing HPV infection. These vaccines cover 2, 4, or 9 HPV serotypes, respectively. Safety data for all three HPV vaccines are reassuring. The HPV vaccines are recommended for girls and boys aged 11-12 years and can be given to females and males up to age 26 years. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend routine HPV vaccination for girls and boys at the target age of 11-12 years (but it may be given from the age of 9 years) as part of the adolescent immunization platform in order to help reduce the incidence of anogenital cancer and genital warts associated with HPV infection. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should stress to parents and patients the benefits and safety of HPV vaccination and offer HPV vaccines in their offices.

  6. Human Papillomavirus Testing in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wacholder, Sholom; Kinney, Walter; Gage, Julia C.; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence now supports the adoption of cervical cancer prevention strategies that explicitly focus on persistent infection with the causal agent, human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform an evidence-based transition to a new public health approach for cervical cancer screening, we summarize the natural history and cervical carcinogenicity of HPV and discuss the promise and uncertainties of currently available screening methods. New HPV infections acquired at any age are virtually always benign, but persistent infections with one of approximately 12 carcinogenic HPV types explain virtually all cases of cervical cancer. In the absence of an overtly persistent HPV infection, the risk of cervical cancer is extremely low. Thus, HPV test results predict the risk of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3) better and longer than cytological or colposcopic abnormalities, which are signs of HPV infection. The logical and inevitable move to HPV-based cervical cancer prevention strategies will require longer screening intervals that will disrupt current gynecologic and cytology laboratory practices built on frequent screening. A major challenge will be implementing programs that do not overtreat HPV-positive women who do not have obvious long-term persistence of HPV or treatable lesions at the time of initial evaluation. The greatest potential for reduction in cervical cancer rates from HPV screening is in low-resource regions that can implement infrequent rounds of low-cost HPV testing and treatment. PMID:21282563

  7. Human papillomavirus genotypes and cervical cancer in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natphopsuk, Sitakan; Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa; Pientong, Chamsai; Sinawat, Supat; Yuenyao, Pissamai; Ishida, Takafumi; Settheetham, Dariwan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer. More than 100 HPV genotypes have been identified; however the distribution varies geographically and according to ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of HPV subtypes among Northeast Thai women. Subjects included 198 cases of SCCA and 198 age-matched, healthy controls. HPV-DNA was amplified by PCR using the consensus primers GP5+/6+ system followed by reverse line blot hybridization genotyping. The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 21 (10.1%) and 152 (76.8%) in the controls and in the cases, respectively. High-risk HPV significantly increased the risk for cervical cancer with an OR of 42.4 (95%CI: 22.4-81.4, p<0.001) and an adjusted OR of 40.7-fold (95%CI: 21.5-76.8, p <0.001). HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in the SCCA (56.2%) followed by HPV-58 (17.8%) and HPV-18 (13.6%); whereas HPV-58 (46.4%) was a prominent genotype in the controls followed by HPV-16 (39.3%) and unidentified HPV types (25.0%). These findings indicate that HPV infection remains a critical risk factor for SCCA; particularly, HPV-16, HPV-58 and HPV-18. In order to eradicate cervical cancer, sustained health education, promoted use of prophylactics and a HPV-58 vaccine should be introduced in this region.

  8. Current studies on human papillomavirus in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-07-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.

  9. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Targets Crossroads in Immune Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummers, Bart; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infections with a high-risk type human papillomavirus (hrHPV) can progress to cancer. High-risk HPVs infect keratinocytes (KCs) and successfully suppress host immunity for up to two years despite the fact that KCs are well equipped to detect and initiate immune responses to invading pathogens. Viral persistence is achieved by active interference with KCs innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To this end hrHPV utilizes proteins encoded by its viral genome, as well as exploits cellular proteins to interfere with signaling of innate and adaptive immune pathways. This results in impairment of interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and subsequent immune cell attraction, as well as resistance to incoming signals from the immune system. Furthermore, hrHPV avoids the killing of infected cells by interfering with antigen presentation to antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, hrHPV has evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid detection and clearance by both the innate and adaptive immune system, the molecular mechanisms of which will be dealt with in detail in this review. PMID:26008697

  10. Is Human Papillomavirus Associated with Prostate Cancer Survival?

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    Mariarosa Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of human papillomavirus (HPV in prostate carcinogenesis is highly controversial: some studies suggest a positive association between HPV infection and an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa, whereas others do not reveal any correlation. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of HPV infection on survival in 150 primary PCa patients. One hundred twelve (74.67% patients had positive expression of HPV E7 protein, which was evaluated in tumour tissue by immunohistochemistry. DNA analysis on a subset of cases confirmed HPV infection and revealed the presence of genotype 16. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, HPV-positive cancer patients showed worse overall survival (OS (median 4.59 years compared to HPV-negative (median 8.24 years, P=0.0381. In multivariate analysis age (P<0.001, Gleason score (P<0.001, nuclear grading (P=0.002, and HPV status (P=0.034 were independent prognostic factors for OS. In our cohort, we observed high prevalence of HPV nuclear E7 oncoprotein and an association between HPV infection and PCa survival. In the debate about the oncogenic activity of HPV in PCa, our results further confirm the need for additional studies to clarify the possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis.

  11. The role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco A.Ramírez-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The causative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been established into the aetiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Some authors believe that HPV can determinate the prognosis and module treatment response from this kind of malignancies.Methods: Articles published in the last 10 years, focusing on the role of HPV in the development, molecular biology, prognosis and treatment of OSCC were reviewed.Results: Thirty-nine articles from 252 were selected, highlighting 4 meta-analysis, 3 prospective and 2 retrospective studies. According to its role in the development of cervical cancer, HPV is classified into a high risk for malignant lesions subtype and a low-grade malignant lesions subtype. Epidemiology and prevalence of HPV varies according to the published data: large studies tend to have lower rates of HPV (< 50%) than smaller ones (0-100%). Interestingly, HPV+ patients are usually diagnosed at a younger age, mainly those with oropharyngeal tumours. There is a predilection for the oropharynx and Waldeyer ring tumours. Regarding prognosis, OSCC HPV+ patients tend to have better outcome and treatment response.Conclusion: HPV divides OSCC in two types of tumours with different prognostic and therapeutic implications, with increased survival, better treatment response rates and lower risk of death and recurrences.

  12. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: State of the Art and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Tramalloni, Daniela; Valle, Ivana; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a widely distributed and common virus, that causes benign lesions (such as warts and papillomas) but, if not cleared, can lead to malignant lesions as well, such as intraepithelial lesions and neoplasia. An extensive body of researches has demonstrated that E1 and E2 are involved in viral transcription and replication, E5, E6, and E7 act as oncoproteins, whilst L1 and L2 contribute to the formation of the capsid. However, this view has been recently challenged, since also E2 could play a role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Therefore, a complex picture is emerging, opening new ways and perspectives. The present article provides an overview of the biology of HPV, paying particular attention to its structural details and molecular mechanisms. The article also shows how this knowledge has been exploited for developing effective vaccines, both prophilactic/preventive and therapeutic ones. L1-based prophylactic vaccines, like Gardasil, Cervarix, and Gardasil 9, have been already licensed, whilst L2-based second generation preventive vaccines are still under clinical trials. New, highly immunogenic and effective vaccines can be further developed thanks to computer-aided design and bioinformatics/computational biology. The optimization of combinational therapies is another promising opportunity.

  13. Human papillomavirus detection in paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Amicizia, Daniela; Martinelli, Marianna; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Brisigotti, Maria Pia; Colzani, Daniela; Fasoli, Ester; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a well-recognized aetiological role in the development of cervical cancer and other anogenital tumours. Recently, an association between colorectal cancer and HPV infection has been suggested, although this is still controversial. This study aimed at detecting and characterizing HPV infection in 57 paired biopsies from colorectal cancers and adjacent intact tissues using a degenerate PCR approach. All amplified fragments were genotyped by means of sequencing. Overall, HPV prevalence was 12.3 %. In particular, 15.8 % of tumour tissues and 8.8 % of non-cancerous tissue samples were HPV DNA-positive. Of these samples, 85.7 % were genotyped successfully, with 41.7 % of sequences identifying four genotypes of the HR (high oncogenic risk) clade Group 1; the remaining 58.3 % of HPV-genotyped specimens had an unclassified β-HPV. Examining additional cases and analysing whole genomes will help to outline the significance of these findings.

  14. Bacterial Vaginosis and the Natural History of Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C. King

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate associations between common vaginal infections and human papillomavirus (HPV. Study Design. Data from up to 15 visits on 756 HIV-infected women and 380 high-risk HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS were evaluated for associations of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vaginal Candida colonization with prevalent HPV, incident HPV, and clearance of HPV in multivariate analysis. Results. Bacterial vaginosis (BV was associated with increased odds for prevalent (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26 and incident (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.47 HPV and with delayed clearance of infection (aHR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.97. Whereas BV at the preceding or current visit was associated with incident HPV, in an alternate model for the outcome of incident BV, HPV at the current, but not preceding, visit was associated with incident BV. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of prevention and successful treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

  15. Differences in transcriptional activity of cutaneous human papillomaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa; Nielsen, Lone; Doherty, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    and 96 URR was up-regulated by cellular differentiation, linking the activity of these HPVs to the cellular state. UV-B irradiation activated HPV-8 but inhibited HPV-38 and HPV-93 whereas HPV-92 and 96 were not affected. As there are variable UV-B responses among the HPV types, further studies......The interaction between UV-B irradiation and cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been suggested to be of relevance for the development of non-melanoma skin cancers. We investigated the activity within the upstream regulatory region (URR) of the HPV types 8, 38, 92, 93 and 96, as well...... as their responsiveness to UV-B irradiation and cellular differentiation. Promoter activities were higher in HaCaT than in SiHa cells, corresponding to the HPV tissue tropism. Transcriptional start sites were mapped at P(92) (HPV-38), P(45) (HPV-92), P(7439) (HPV-93) and P(256) (HPV-96). Transcription from HPV-8, 93...

  16. Attitudes about human papillomavirus vaccine among family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, J M; Rosenthal, S L; Zimet, G D; Bernstein, D I; Huang, B; Lan, D; Kahn, J A

    2005-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will soon be available for clinical use, and the effectiveness of vaccine delivery programs will depend largely upon whether providers recommend the vaccine. The objectives of this study were to examine family physicians' attitudes about HPV immunization and to identify predictors of intention to recommend immunization. Cross-sectional survey instrument assessing provider and practice characteristics, knowledge about HPV, attitudes about HPV vaccination, and intention to administer two hypothetical HPV vaccines. Surveys were mailed to a national random sample of 1,000 American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) members. Intention to administer two hypothetical HPV vaccines (a cervical cancer/genital wart vaccine and a cervical cancer vaccine) to boys and girls of different ages. One hundred fifty-five surveys (15.5%) were returned and 145 were used in the final sample. Participants reported higher intention to recommend both hypothetical HPV vaccines to girls vs. boys (P HPV, belief that organizations such as the AAFP would endorse vaccination, and fewer perceived barriers to vaccination. Female gender, knowledge about HPV, and attitudes about vaccination were independently associated with family physicians' intention to recommend HPV vaccines. Vaccination initiatives directed toward family physicians should focus on modifiable predictors of intention to vaccinate, such as HPV knowledge and attitudes about vaccination.

  17. [Human papillomavirus and public health: cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Angela Adamski da Silva; Monteiro, Caroline Dias; Paula, Leonardo Barcelos de; Santos, Rodrigo da Silva; Saddi, Vera Aparecida; Cruz, Aparecido Divino da

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of an educational booklet that contained information for the general population about promotion and prevention of infections and neoplasic process caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The study was arranged in two phases. First, the booklet was given to 200 volunteers in the city of Goiânia, Goiás State. The applicability of the booklet was evaluated without the necessity of proving former knowledge. In the second phase, a detailed analysis of the data was made and the booklet revealed applicable. Then, the educational material was published and 2000 copies were distributed in a social event held by the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Góias in the city of Goiânia. In the event, the booklet raised the interest of the general public and gave the volunteers a chance to participate in a study that investigated the presence of the HPV in the genital microbiote. The booklet proved to be applicable and reached its objective to inform and prevent. However, it's necessary to promote and improve campaigns to the population about the HPV and its relations with the neoplasic process.

  18. Target cell cyclophilins facilitate human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following attachment to primary receptor heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG, human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 particles undergo conformational changes affecting the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. This results in exposure of the L2 N-terminus, transfer to uptake receptors, and infectious internalization. Here, we report that target cell cyclophilins, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases, are required for efficient HPV16 infection. Cell surface cyclophilin B (CyPB facilitates conformational changes in capsid proteins, resulting in exposure of the L2 N-terminus. Inhibition of CyPB blocked HPV16 infection by inducing noninfectious internalization. Mutation of a putative CyP binding site present in HPV16 L2 yielded exposed L2 N-terminus in the absence of active CyP and bypassed the need for cell surface CyPB. However, this mutant was still sensitive to CyP inhibition and required CyP for completion of infection, probably after internalization. Taken together, these data suggest that CyP is required during two distinct steps of HPV16 infection. Identification of cell surface CyPB will facilitate the study of the complex events preceding internalization and adds a putative drug target for prevention of HPV-induced diseases.

  19. Animal papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiplexed serologic assay for nine anogenital human papillomavirus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalka, David; Matys, Katie; Bojczuk, Paul; Green, Tina; Gesser, Richard; Saah, Alfred; Haupt, Richard; Dutko, Frank; Esser, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    A multiplexed human papillomavirus (HPV) immunoassay has been developed for the detection of human IgG antibodies to HPV type 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 virus-like particle (VLP) types in serum following natural infection or immunization with VLP-based vaccines. The VLP antigens were covalently conjugated to carboxyl Luminex microspheres (MS) using a carbodiimide chemistry. Antibody (Ab) titers were determined in a direct binding format, in which an IgG1- to -4-specific, phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) (HP6043) binds to human serum IgG antibodies. Pooled serum samples from rhesus macaques immunized with a 9-valent VLP-based vaccine served as the reference standard. The overall specificity of the assay was >99%, and the linearity (parallelism) of the assay was <7% per 10-fold dilution. Total assay precision was <19% across 3 different VLP-microsphere lots, 2 secondary antibody lots, and 2 different operators over a period of 3 weeks. Three different methods were used to evaluate serostatus cutoffs (SCO): (i) a clinical sensitivity/specificity analysis based on "likely negative" and "likely positive" samples from nonvaccinees, (ii) stringent upper tolerance limits on samples from "likely negatives," and (iii) stringent upper tolerance limits from the same "likely negative" sample set after VLP adsorption. Depending on the method to set the serostatus cutoff, the percentage of seropositive samples at the month 48 time point following vaccination with the HPV 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent vaccine ranged from 70% to 100%. This assay has proven useful for measuring the levels of serum antibody to the nine HPV VLPs following natural infection or administration of VLP-based vaccines.

  1. Multiplexed Serologic Assay for Nine Anogenital Human Papillomavirus Types▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalka, David; Matys, Katie; Bojczuk, Paul; Green, Tina; Gesser, Richard; Saah, Alfred; Haupt, Richard; Dutko, Frank; Esser, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    A multiplexed human papillomavirus (HPV) immunoassay has been developed for the detection of human IgG antibodies to HPV type 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 virus-like particle (VLP) types in serum following natural infection or immunization with VLP-based vaccines. The VLP antigens were covalently conjugated to carboxyl Luminex microspheres (MS) using a carbodiimide chemistry. Antibody (Ab) titers were determined in a direct binding format, in which an IgG1- to -4-specific, phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) (HP6043) binds to human serum IgG antibodies. Pooled serum samples from rhesus macaques immunized with a 9-valent VLP-based vaccine served as the reference standard. The overall specificity of the assay was >99%, and the linearity (parallelism) of the assay was <7% per 10-fold dilution. Total assay precision was <19% across 3 different VLP-microsphere lots, 2 secondary antibody lots, and 2 different operators over a period of 3 weeks. Three different methods were used to evaluate serostatus cutoffs (SCO): (i) a clinical sensitivity/specificity analysis based on “likely negative” and “likely positive” samples from nonvaccinees, (ii) stringent upper tolerance limits on samples from “likely negatives,” and (iii) stringent upper tolerance limits from the same “likely negative” sample set after VLP adsorption. Depending on the method to set the serostatus cutoff, the percentage of seropositive samples at the month 48 time point following vaccination with the HPV 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent vaccine ranged from 70% to 100%. This assay has proven useful for measuring the levels of serum antibody to the nine HPV VLPs following natural infection or administration of VLP-based vaccines. PMID:20237197

  2. Adenocarcinoma in situ and associated human papillomavirus type distribution observed in two clinical trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ault, Kevin A; Joura, Elmar A; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2011-01-01

    , we include all women who had at least one follow-up visit postenrollment. Healthy women (17,622) aged 15-26 with no history of HPV disease and a lifetime number of less than five sex partners (average follow-up of 3.6 years) were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at day 1, months 2......The primary objective of this report is to describe the detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and associated human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution that was observed in the context of two phase 3 clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. In this intention-to-treat analysis......, and 6. Women underwent colposcopy and biopsy according to a Papanicolaou triage algorithm. All tissue specimens were tested for 14 HPV types and were adjudicated by a pathology panel. During the trials, 22 women were diagnosed with AIS (six vaccine and 16 placebo). There were 25 AIS lesions in total...

  3. Multicenter Study of Human Papillomavirus and the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Knowledge and Attitudes among People of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Blackman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare knowledge and attitudes of human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccine between different cultures of African descent. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 555 African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans residing in the US and the Bahamas (BHM was conducted. Results. General knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine differed between the two countries significantly. Bahamian respondents were less likely to have higher numbers of correct knowledge answers when compared to Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.30–0.75. Older age, regardless of location, was also associated with answering fewer questions correctly (Adj. OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.92. Attitudes related to HPV vaccination were similar between the US and BHM, but nearly 80% of BHM respondents felt that children should not be able to receive the vaccine without parental consent compared to 57% of American respondents. Conclusions. Grave lack of knowledge, safety and cost concerns, and influence of parental restrictions may negatively impact vaccine uptake among African-American and Afro-Caribbean persons. Interventions to increase the vaccine uptake in the Caribbean must include medical provider and parental involvement. Effective strategies for education and increasing vaccine uptake in BHM are crucial for decreasing cervical cancer burden in the Caribbean.

  4. Potential benefits of second-generation human papillomavirus vaccines.

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    Sorapop Kiatpongsan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV target two oncogenic types (16 and 18 that contribute to 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Our objective was to quantify the range of additional benefits conferred by second-generation HPV prophylactic vaccines that are expected to expand protection to five additional oncogenic types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. METHODS: A microsimulation model of HPV and cervical cancer calibrated to epidemiological data from two countries (Kenya and Uganda was used to estimate reductions in lifetime risk of cervical cancer from the second-generation HPV vaccines. We explored the independent and joint impact of uncertain factors (i.e., distribution of HPV types, co-infection with multiple HPV types, and unidentifiable HPV types in cancer and vaccine properties (i.e., cross-protection against non-targeted HPV types, compared against currently-available vaccines. RESULTS: Assuming complete uptake of the second-generation vaccine, reductions in lifetime cancer risk were 86.3% in Kenya and 91.8% in Uganda, representing an absolute increase in cervical cancer reduction of 26.1% in Kenya and 17.9% in Uganda, compared with complete uptake of current vaccines. The range of added benefits was 19.6% to 29.1% in Kenya and 14.0% to 19.5% in Uganda, depending on assumptions of cancers attributable to multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types. These effects were blunted in both countries when assuming vaccine cross-protection with both the current and second-generation vaccines. CONCLUSION: Second-generation HPV vaccines that protect against additional oncogenic HPV types have the potential to improve cervical cancer prevention. Co-infection with multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types can influence vaccine effectiveness, but the magnitude of effect may be moderated by vaccine cross-protective effects. These benefits must be weighed against the cost of the vaccines in future

  5. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by the hybrid capture assay

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    Carvalho Maria Odete O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is the main cause of cervical cancers and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN worldwide. Consequently, it would be useful to evaluate HPV testing to screen for cervical cancer. Recently developed, the second-generation Hybrid Capture (HCA II test is a non-radioactive, relatively rapid, liquid hybridization assay designed to detect 18 HPV types, divided into high and low-risk groups. We evaluated 1055 women for HPV infection with the HCA II test. Five hundred and ten (48.3% of these women had HPV infection; 60 (11.8% had low cancer-risk HPV DNA; 269 (52.7% had high-risk HPV types and 181 (35.5% had both groups. Hence, 450 women (88.2% in this HPV-infected group had at least one high risk HPV type, and were therefore considered to be at high risk for cancer. Among the group with Papanicolaou (Pap test results, the overall prevalence of HPV DNA was 58.4%. Significant differences in HPV infection of the cervix were detected between Pap I (normal smears and Pap IV (carcinomas (p<0.0001. Values of HPV viral load obtained for Pap I and SILs were significantly different, with an upward trend (p<0.0001, suggesting a positive correlation between high viral load values and risk of SIL. Because of the high costs of the HCA II test, its use for routine cervical mass screening cannot be recommended in poor countries. Nevertheless, it is a useful tool when combined with cytology, diagnosing high-risk infections in apparently normal tissues. Use of this technique could help reduce the risk of cancer.

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal cancer: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Andrew P.; Saha, Sandeep; Kraninger, Jennifer L.; Swick, Adam D.; Yu, Menggang; Lambertg, Paul F.; Kimple, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The global incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been increasing, and it has been proposed that a rising rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated cancers is driving the observed changes in OPSCC incidence. We carried out this systematic review to further examine the prevalence of HPV in OPSCC over time worldwide. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify all articles through January 31, 2014 that reported on the prevalence of HPV in OPSCC. Articles that met inclusion criteria were divided into four time frames (pre-1995, 1995—1999, 2000—2004, and 2005—present) based on the median year of the study's sample collection period. Employing a weighted analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, we examined the trends of HPV-positivity over time worldwide, in North America, and in Europe. Results Our literature search identified 699 unique articles. 175 underwent review of the entire study and 105 met inclusion criteria. These 105 articles reported on the HPV prevalence in 9541 OPSCC specimens across 23 nations. We demonstrated significant increases in the percentage change of HPV-positive OPSCCs from pre-1995 to present: 20.6% worldwide (p-value for trend: p<0.001), 21.6% in North America (p=0.013) and 21.5% in Europe (p=0.033). Discussion Interestingly, while in Europe there was a steady increase in HPV prevalence across all time frames, reaching nearly 50% most recently, in North America HPV prevalence appears to have plateaued over the past decade at about 65%. These findings may have important implications regarding predictions for the future incidence of OPSCC. PMID:26049691

  7. Evidence that human papillomavirus causes inverted papilloma is sparse.

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    Justice, Jeb M; Davis, Kern M; Saenz, Daniel A; Lanza, Donald C

    2014-12-01

    Controversy exists regarding the pathogenesis of inverted papilloma as it relates to the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV). The purpose of this report is to describe the prevalence of HPV in nondysplastic, "early inverted papilloma" and to summarize HPV detection rates in the general population and in other HPV related neoplasia. This case series report characterizes consecutive inverted papilloma patients from January 2005 to August 2012 with regard to smoking history, dysplasia, and HPV detection rates. Presence or absence of low/high risk HPV was determined by standardized in situ hybridization DNA probes. Medline literature review was performed to determine the prevalence of HPV in inverted papilloma without moderate or severe dysplasia. Thirty-six consecutive patients were identified with an average age of 63.6 (range, 40-84) years; gender: 23 men, 13 women. More than half (55%) were active or former smokers (14% active and 41% former). High/low risk HPV was present in 1 in 36 (2.7%) patients and 1 in 36 (2.7%) had mild dysplasia. In the literature review: (1) HPV was detected in 16.4% of inverted papilloma without dysplasia; (2) oral cavity HPV detection was 4.2% to 11.4% in the normal population; and (3) HPV was normally detected in 85% to 95% of HPV-related neoplasia. Given histological features of inverted papilloma and comparatively low detection rates of HPV in inverted papilloma without dysplasia (2.7%), as well as the summary of the world literature, HPV is not related to the initial pathogenesis of inverted papilloma or inverted papilloma's tendency to persist or recur. It is postulated that since inverted papilloma is more an inflammatory polyp, it is susceptible to secondary HPV infection because of its metaplasia. Tobacco and other causes of respiratory epithelium remodeling are more plausible explanations for the initial tissue transformation to inverted papilloma. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  8. [Acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccine in mothers from Valencia (Spain)].

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    Navarro-Illana, P; Caballero, P; Tuells, J; Puig-Barberá, J; Diez-Domingo, J

    2015-11-01

    In October 2008, Valencian Community started its human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination schedules for 14 year-old girls. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccine among the mothers of these girls, and to identify factors associated with the willingness to vaccinate their daughters. Cross-sectional study by means of a questionnaire to mothers of girls born in 1995, and attending secondary schools in the province of Valencia during 2010-2011. Cluster stratified random sample (n=1279). percentages, confidence intervals, OR, Chi-squared and multivariate logistic regression contrasts. A total of 833 (65.1%) questionnaires were completed. The results obtained showed that, 76.6% of mothers had vaccinated their daughters against HPV; 93.8% knew about the vaccine, particularly through television (71.5%); and 78.5% received positive advice from a health professional which increased the vaccination of their daughters (OR: 2.4). There was low overall knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination. Confidence of the mothers in vaccines as a preventative method increases the HPV vaccination (OR: 3.8). The first reason for refusal was the fear of adverse events (45.6%). Apparently, the media does not influence the willingness to vaccinate. It would be desirable to minimize the perception of risk of the vaccine. Positive health advice from a health professional can have a positive effect on vaccination. There is a gap between the level of knowledge and decision-making to vaccinate. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan.

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    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-07-30

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0-91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7-83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9-73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9-71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9-15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3-21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7-19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases.

  10. Human papillomavirus typing of warts and response to cryotherapy.

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    Tomson, N; Sterling, J; Ahmed, I; Hague, J; Berth-Jones, J

    2011-09-01

    Cutaneous warts are common and caused by a number of different types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The aim of this study was to investigate the HPV types causing common warts and to determine any association between the HPV type and the duration of warts and response to cryotherapy. Eighty wart samples from 76 immunocompetent patients were taken from warts by paring prior to cryotherapy and analysed by in situ hybridization (ISH) with HPV probes specific to HPV 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10 and 57 and PCR analysis using degenerate cutaneous HPV primers with subsequent DNA sequencing. Each patient's details, including site, duration and response of the wart to cryotherapy were recorded. Cryotherapy was performed at 2 week intervals for a maximum of 12 weeks. An HPV type was identified in 65 samples. The majority of warts (58 samples) were typed as HPV 2/27/57 by ISH and/or PCR. Three of the 18 samples that were HPV negative with ISH were HPV positive by PCR. Response to treatment did not correlate with HPV type, duration or location. In the 21 wart parings taken from patients aged 16 and under, response to treatment did not correlate with HPV type but warts of shorter duration were more likely to resolve with cryotherapy treatment than longer standing lesions. This study demonstrates that HPV type can be determined from wart parings. HPV-2 related viruses are the prevalent HPV types causing common warts on the hands and feet in this population. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Human papillomavirus infection in women from tlaxcala, Mexico.

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    Velázquez-Márquez, Noé; Jaime Jiménez-Aranda, Lucio; Sánchez-Alonso, Patricia; Santos-López, Gerardo; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica

    2010-07-01

    Cervical cancer is an important health problem in women living in developing countries. Infection with some genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. Little information exists about HPV genotype distribution in rural and suburban regions of Mexico. Thus, we determined the prevalence of HPV genotypes in women from Tlaxcala, one of the poorest states in central Mexico, and we evaluated age infection prevalence and risk factors associated with cervical neoplasm. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 236 women seeking gynecological care at the Mexican Institute for Social Security in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Cervical scrapings were diagnosed as normal, low-grade, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL, HGSIL). Parallel samples were used to detect HPV genotypes by PCR assays using type-specific primers for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, and 31. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied. Prevalence of HPV infection was 31.3%. From the infected samples, prevalence of HPV 16 was 45.9%; HPV 18, 31.1%; HPV 31, 16.2%; HPV 6, 10.8%; HPV 11, 6.7%. With regard to age, the highest HPV prevalence (43.5%) was found in the 18- to 24-year-old group and the lowest (19%) in the 45- to 54-year-old group. None of the risk factors showed association with cervical neoplasia grade. HPV 16 was the most common in cervical lesions. HPV was present in 22% of normal samples and, of these, 82.6% represented high-risk HPVs. Tlaxcala showed HPV prevalence comparable to that of the largest cities in Mexico, with higher prevalence for HPV 31.

  12. Human papillomavirus detection in moroccan patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Belghmi Khalid

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a malignant tumor which arises in surface epithelium of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. There's is evidence that Epstein Barr virus (EBV is associated to NPC development. However, many epidemiologic studies point to a connection between viral infections by the human papillomavirus (HPV and NPC. Method Seventy Moroccan patients with NPC were screened for EBV and HPV. EBV detection was performed by PCR amplification of BZLF1 gene, encoding the ZEBRA (Z Epstein-Barr Virus Replication Activator protein, and HPV infection was screened by PCR amplification with subsequent typing by hybridization with specific oligonucleotides for HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45 and 59. Results The age distribution of our patients revealed a bimodal pattern. Sixty two cases (88.9% were classified as type 3 (undifferentiated carcinoma, 6 (8.6% as type 2 (non keratinizing NPC and only 2 (2.9% cases were classified as type 1 (keratinizing NPC. EBV was detected in all NPC tumors, whereas HPV DNA was revealed in 34% of cases (24/70. Molecular analysis showed that 20.8% (5/24 were infected with HPV31, and the remaining were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 16, 18, 33, 35 and 45. In addition, statistical analysis showed that there's no association between sex or age and HPV infection (P > 0.1. Conclusion Our data indicated that EBV is commonly associated with NPC in Moroccan patients and show for the first time that NPC tumours from Moroccan patients harbour high risk HPV genotypes.

  13. Barriers to human papillomavirus vaccine acceptability in Israel.

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    Fisher, William A; Laniado, Hila; Shoval, Hila; Hakim, Marwan; Bornstein, Jacob

    2013-11-22

    Barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in Israel include Israel's relatively low incidence of cervical cancer; the religiously-based 80% circumcision rate in Israel, which is regarded as contributing to the lower incidence of HPV infection in the country; the fact that HPV vaccine provides immunity against only few virus types; the vaccine's high cost; and the perception that HPV transmission is associated with unacceptable sexual relations. A recent survey has demonstrated that, following media two campaigns, Israeli's level of awareness of the vaccine increased but the actual vaccination rate remained low, at approximately 10%. Survey findings also indicated that an enduring barrier to HPV vaccination is the vaccine's high cost. Recent research on a convenience sample of Israeli undergraduate women 21 to 24 years of age showed that intentions to receive HPV vaccination in the coming year were a function of women's attitudes towards getting vaccinated and their perceptions of social support for doing so. Undergraduate women who intended to be vaccinated perceived the prevention of cervical cancer, avoidance of personal health threat, and avoidance of HPV infection per se to be the advantages of undergoing HPV vaccination. Disadvantages of getting vaccinated included fear of vaccine side effects, cost of the vaccine, and newness of the vaccine, doubts about vaccines, time required to undergo multiple vaccinations, and dislike of injections. Friends', mothers' and physicians' recommendations influenced women's intentions to be vaccinated in the coming year as well. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in Israel" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 8, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Cervical carcinoma in Southern Mexico: Human papillomavirus and cofactors.

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    Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc-Mariano; Antonio-Véjar, Verónica; Zamudio-López, Noelio; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del Carmen; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; Terán-Porcayo, Marco-Antonio; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with cervical cancer (CC) and normal cervical cytology in the Southern region of Mexico, and to know the contribution of HPV types and cofactors in cervical cancer etiology. A case-control study was performed in 133 women with CC and 256 controls. HPV detection was done by MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ PCR systems and typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism or DNA sequencing. HPV was found in 100% of CC and 35.5% of controls. The genotype distribution in CC was: HPV 16 (66.8%), 18 (9%), 31 (7.5%), 45 (4.5%), 58 (3.7%), 69 (3%), 52 (1.6%), 6, 11, 33, 56, and 67 (0.8% each). Among controls, HPV 33 followed by HPV 16 were the most frequent. Cervical cancer was associated with HPV 16 (OR=573.5), HPV 18 (OR=804.4), and undetermined risk HPV (types 67 and 69) (OR=434.3). Age at first intercourse or =3 births (OR=16) were significant risk factors for CC. HPV 16, by far, is the most frequent type in CC, HPV 16 and 18 are responsible for 75.8% of the CC cases and high-risk HPV for 94.7%, which is useful data to take into account in vaccination programs. HPV 33 is the most frequent type in controls and high-risk HPV are more common than low-risk HPV.

  15. Human papillomavirus infection in women from Tlaxcala, Mexico

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    Noé Velázquez-Márquez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is an important health problem in women living in developing countries. Infection with some genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. Little information exists about HPV genotype distribution in rural and suburban regions of Mexico. Thus, we determined the prevalence of HPV genotypes in women from Tlaxcala, one of the poorest states in central Mexico, and we evaluated age infection prevalence and risk factors associated with cervical neoplasm. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 236 women seeking gynecological care at the Mexican Institute for Social Security in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Cervical scrapings were diagnosed as normal, low-grade, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL, HGSIL. Parallel samples were used to detect HPV genotypes by PCR assays using type-specific primers for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, and 31. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied. Prevalence of HPV infection was 31.3%. From the infected samples, prevalence of HPV 16 was 45.9%; HPV 18, 31.1%; HPV 31, 16.2%; HPV 6, 10.8%; HPV 11, 6.7%. With regard to age, the highest HPV prevalence (43.5% was found in the 18- to 24-year-old group and the lowest (19% in the 45- to 54-year-old group. None of the risk factors showed association with cervical neoplasia grade. HPV 16 was the most common in cervical lesions. HPV was present in 22% of normal samples and, of these, 82.6% represented high-risk HPVs. Tlaxcala showed HPV prevalence comparable to that of the largest cities in Mexico, with higher prevalence for HPV 31.

  16. Human papillomavirus infection in women in four regions of Senegal.

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    Mbaye, El Hadji Seydou; Gheit, Tarik; Dem, Ahmadou; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Toure-Kane, Ndeye Coumba; Mboup, Souleymane; Tommasino, Massimo; Sylla, Bakary S; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in Senegal. However, there are few data concerning the human papillomavirus (HPV) types inducing neoplasia and cervical cancers and their prevalence in the general population of Senegal. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HPV infection in Senegalese women aged 18 years and older in Dakar Region and three other regions. Cervical samples were collected from 498 women aged 18-80 years (mean, 42.1 years) in Dakar Region. Also, 438 samples were collected from three other regions: Thiès, Saint-Louis, and Louga. The samples were screened for 21 HPV genotypes using an HPV type-specific E7 PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping assay (TS-MPG). The prevalence of high risk (HR)-HPV in Dakar Region was 17.4%. HPV 52 (3.2%) was the most prevalent HPV type, followed by HPV 31 (3.0%) and HPV 16, 45, and 53 (all 2.8%). In the Thiès, Saint-Louis, and Louga Regions, the prevalence of HR-HPV was 23.2%, 13.1%, and 19.4%, respectively. The study revealed the specificity of HPV prevalence in Dakar Region and other regions of Senegal. The observed patterns show some differences compared with other regions of the world. These findings raise the possibility that, in addition to HPV 16 and HPV 18, other HPV types should be considered for a vaccination program in Senegal. However, additional studies to determine the HPV type distribution in cervical cancer specimens in Senegal are required to further corroborate this hypothesis.

  17. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

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    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  18. The Cell Cycle Timing of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

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    Reinson, Tormi; Henno, Liisi; Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Ustav, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell to optimize conditions for more efficient viral genome replication. One strategy utilized by DNA viruses is to replicate their genomes non-concurrently with the host genome; in this case, the viral genome is amplified outside S phase. This phenomenon has also been described for human papillomavirus (HPV) vegetative genome replication, which occurs in G2-arrested cells; however, the precise timing of viral DNA replication during initial and stable replication phases has not been studied. We developed a new method to quantitate newly synthesized DNA levels and used this method in combination with cell cycle synchronization to show that viral DNA replication is initiated during S phase and is extended to G2 during initial amplification but follows the replication pattern of cellular DNA during S phase in the stable maintenance phase. E1 and E2 protein overexpression changes the replication time from S only to both the S and G2 phases in cells that stably maintain viral episomes. These data demonstrate that the active synthesis and replication of the HPV genome are extended into the G2 phase to amplify its copy number and the duration of HPV genome replication is controlled by the level of the viral replication proteins E1 and E2. Using the G2 phase for genome amplification may be an important adaptation that allows exploitation of changing cellular conditions during cell cycle progression. We also describe a new method to quantify newly synthesized viral DNA levels and discuss its benefits for HPV research.

  19. Can clinical tests help monitor human papillomavirus vaccine impact?

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    Meites, Elissa; Lin, Carol; Unger, Elizabeth R; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan

    2013-09-01

    As immunization programs for human papillomavirus (HPV) are implemented more widely around the world, interest is increasing in measuring their impact. One early measurable impact of HPV vaccine is on the prevalence of specific HPV types in a population. In low-resource settings, a potentially attractive strategy would be to monitor HPV prevalence using clinical cervical cancer screening test results to triage specimens for HPV typing. We assessed this approach in a nationally representative population of U.S. females aged 14-59 years. Using self-collected cervico-vaginal swab specimens from 4,150 women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2003-2006, we evaluated type-specific HPV prevalence detected by the Roche linear array (LA) research test on all specimens, compared with type-specific HPV prevalence detected by LA conducted only on specimens positive by the digene hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) clinical test. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and examined relative type-specific HPV prevalence according to the two testing approaches. The population prevalence of oncogenic HPV vaccine types 16/18 was 6.2% (CI:5.4-7.1) by LA if all specimens were tested, and 2.4% (CI:1.9-3.0) if restricted to positive HC-2. Relative prevalence of individual HPV types was similar for both approaches. Compared with typing all specimens, a triage approach would require testing fewer specimens, but a greater reduction in HPV prevalence or a larger group of specimens would be needed to detect vaccine impact. Further investigation is warranted to inform type-specific HPV monitoring approaches around the world.

  20. Human Papillomavirus and Tonsillar and Base of Tongue Cancer

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    Torbjörn Ramqvist

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 was recognized as a risk factor by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, where tonsillar and base of tongue cancer (TSCC and BOTSCC dominate. Furthermore, patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC, had a much better clinical outcome than those with corresponding HPV-negative cancer and other head and neck cancer. More specifically, survival was around 80% for HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC vs. 40% five-year disease free survival, for the corresponding HPV-negative tumors with conventional radiotherapy and surgery, while this could not be observed for HPV-positive OSCC at other sites. In addition, the past 20–40 years in many Western Countries, the incidence of HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC has risen, and >70% are men. This has resulted in a relative increase of patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC that may not need the intensified chemo-radiotherapy (with many more severe debilitating side effects often given today to patients with head and neck cancer. However, before tapering therapy, one needs to enable selection of patients for such treatment, by identifying clinical and molecular markers that together with HPV-positive status will better predict patient prognosis and response to therapy. To conclude, there is a new increasing group of patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC with good clinical outcome, where options for better-tailored therapy are needed. For prevention, it would be of benefit to vaccinate both girls and boys against HPV16 infection. For potential future screening the ways to do so need optimizing.

  1. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation in minority Americans.

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    De, P; Budhwani, H

    2017-03-01

    Transmission of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant public health concern. HPV is preventable through a series of vaccinations; however, knowledge gaps exist as to which groups are least likely to initiate vaccination. Considering this gap, the aim of this study is to examine HPV vaccine initiation rates in racial minorities, comparing foreign-born individuals to their American-born peers. Population-based data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a repeated large-scale household interview survey of a statistically representative sample of the United States civilian non-institutionalized population, were applied. Data were derived from two survey modules: the family and summary adult modules. Sampling weights were employed to logistic regression modelling the outcome of HPV vaccine initiation. Foreign-born persons, African Americans, males, those lacking health insurance coverage and those without a medical home (usual place to receive care) held statistically lower rates of HPV vaccine initiation. Being college educated was associated with higher odds of HPV vaccine initiation. Our findings support the persistence of health disparities in racial minorities and foreign-born persons residing in the United States. Addressing these gaps will likely require both individual-level (e.g. targeted health education) and system-level (e.g. HPV vaccine promoting policies) interventions. Since health insurance coverage and having a medical home were significant associates of HPV vaccine initiation, attempts to coverage may improve HPV vaccine initiation rates. Additionally, policies which require HPV vaccination for school entry could boost coverage across all population groups, including boys, foreign-born persons and racial minorities. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular epidemiology and pathogenic potential of underdiagnosed human papillomavirus types

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    Sisti Stefano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV tests are crucial diagnostic tools for the prevention of neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. However most commercial methods are designed to detect high-risk (HR HPV types and a limited selection of low-risk ones, thus missing a fair number of intermediate/low-risk types. As a result, many HPV infections remain undiagnosed, generating distrust in virological diagnosis among gynaecologists, who continue to rely preferentially on cytological and colposcopic findings. Results In this study, we tested 6,335 consecutive clinical samples, most of them from Italian patients with cytological abnormalities. The samples, collected in 2000–2007, were analyzed using PCR amplification of a 173–206 bp (depending on HPV type conserved region in the L1 open reading frame, restriction endonuclease analysis and, where required, sequence analysis for type determination. Analysis of a smaller male sample and long term follow-up of a few female subjects was also performed. A total of 2,161 samples tested positive for HPV DNA (32.1%; 21.3% of them were mixed infections. Overall, 59 known and 2 unknown HPV types were detected. Their relative prevalence was calculated; notably, types not clearly identifiable using the most common commercial method accounted for 36% of infections. Clinical findings associated with the underdiagnosed types ranged from H-SIL to low-grade abnormalities, although none of these infections resulted in invasive cancer. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of some underdiagnosed HPV types in the population (principally HPV53, HPV66, HPV84, and HPV87 and their frequent association with cytological abnormalities, techniques capable of detecting and typing them would prove extremely useful.

  3. Immune therapy for human papillomaviruses-related cancers.

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    Rosales, Ricardo; Rosales, Carlos

    2014-12-10

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a large family of double strand DNA viruses comprising more than 180 types. Infection with HPV is very common and it is associated with benign and malignant proliferation of skin and squamous mucosae. Many HPVs, considered low-risk such as HPV 6 and 11, produce warts; while high-risk viruses, such as HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, and 58, induce tumors. About 5% of all cancers in men and women are associated with HPV infection. Because there are not antiviral drugs for HPV infection, current therapies for low-risk HPV infections involve physical removal of the lesion by cryotherapy, trichloracetic acid, laser, or surgical removal. Surgical procedures are effective in the treatment of pre-cancerous lesions, however after these procedures, many recurrences appear due to new re-infections, or to failure of the procedure to eliminate the HPV. In addition, HPV can inhibit recognition of malignant cells by the immune system, leading to the development of cancer lesions. When this occurs, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are then used. Unfortunately, about 50% of the HPV-cancer patients still die. In the past decade, a better knowledge of the natural history of the virus-host interaction and of the immune response against this viral infection has brought new therapeutic strategies geared to modulate the immune system to generate an efficient virus-specific cytotoxic response. Novel HPV protein-expressing vaccines have shown some significant clinical efficacy and systemic HPV-specific cytotoxic T cell responses. This review will describe the current status of the several therapeutic strategies used to treat HPV-induced lesions, and discuss the various new therapies now being tested.

  4. Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Vanuatu.

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    Aruhuri, Bernadette; Tarivonda, Len; Tenet, Vanessa; Sinha, Rohit; Snijders, Peter J F; Clifford, Gary; Pang, James; McAdam, Margaret; Meijer, Chris J L M; Frazer, Ian H; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-05-01

    To provide information on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the distribution of individual HPV types in Pacific Islands, we conducted a population-based survey in Vanuatu, South Pacific. Nine hundred and eighty-seven women between 18 and 64 years of age were included. GP5(+)/6(+)-mediated PCR assay was used for HPV testing. The prevalence of 44 HPV types was 28.4% corresponding to an age (world)-standardized prevalence of 25.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.9%-28.0%]. The prevalence of high-risk (HR) HPV types was 21.7% (age-standardized prevalence of 19.2%; 95% CI, 16.4%-22.0%). Among 840 women with adequate cytologic results, 13.6% showed cervical abnormalities, including 3.6% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 0.8% with invasive cervical carcinoma. HPV prevalence declined from 46.1% in women aged ≤21 to 15.3% in those ≥45 years. Being single was significantly associated with HPV positivity. HR HPV findings by PCR assay and hybrid capture 2 (HC2; conducted in Vanuatu) were moderately correlated (κ test = 0.59). The positive predictive values of HR HPV positivity for HSIL or worse were 27.6% for PCR and 35.2% for HC2 among women aged ≥30. Nearly half of screening-positive women could not be reevaluated mainly on account of the difficulty to trace back women. The availability of a rapid HPV testing method that allows see-and-treat approaches at the same visit would be, therefore, essential. On account of their high cumulative burden of cervical lesions, also women older than 40 years should be included in at least the first screening round in unscreened populations.

  5. Commercially available molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV): 2015 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Oštrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja

    2016-03-01

    Commercial molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV) are invaluable diagnostic tools in cervical carcinoma screening and management of women with cervical precancerous lesions as well as important research tools for epidemiological studies, vaccine development, and implementation and monitoring of vaccination programs. In this third inventory of commercial HPV tests, we identified 193 distinct commercial HPV tests and at least 127 test variants available on the market in 2015, which represents a 54% and 79% increase in the number of distinct HPV tests and variants, respectively, in comparison to our last inventory performed in 2012. Identified HPV tests were provisionally divided into eight main groups and several subgroups. Among the 193 commercial HPV tests, all but two target alpha-HPV types only. Although the number of commercial HPV tests with at least one published study in peer-reviewed literature has increased significantly in the last three years, several published performance evaluations are still not in line with agreed-upon standards in the HPV community. Manufacturers should invest greater effort into evaluating their products and publishing validation/evaluation results in peer-reviewed journals. To achieve this, more clinically oriented external quality-control panels and initiatives are required. For evaluating the analytical performance of the entire range of HPV tests currently on the market, more diverse and reliable external quality-control programs based on international standards for all important HPV types are indispensable. The performance of a wider range of HPV tests must be promptly evaluated on a variety of alternative clinical specimens. In addition, more complete HPV assays containing validated sample-extraction protocols and appropriate internal controls are urgently needed. Provision of a broader range of automated systems allowing large-scale HPV testing as well as the development of reliable, rapid, and affordable molecular

  6. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Findings Standard (liquid and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer. High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15% from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%. Conclusion The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.

  7. Health-economic modelling of human Papillomavirus vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Tjalke Arend

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinatie van 12-jarige meisjes tegen het humaan papillomavirus (HPV) dat baarmoederhalskanker kan veroorzaken, blijkt effectief en kosteneffectief te zijn. UMCG-onderzoeker Tjalke Westra rekende met behulp van modellen de lange termijn effecten door van verschillende HPV-vaccinatiescenario’s waarv

  8. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 vaccination on prevalent infections and rates of cervical lesions after excisional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula; Kreimer, Aimee R; Wacholder, Sholom; Schussler, John; Rodriguez, Ana C; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Sidawy, Mary; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Herrero, Rolando

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus vaccines prevent human papillomavirus infection and cervical precancers. The impact of vaccinating women with a current infection or after treatment for an human papillomavirus-associated lesion is not fully understood. To determine whether human papillomavirus-16/18 vaccination influences the outcome of infections present at vaccination and the rate of infection and disease after treatment of lesions. We included 1711 women (18-25 years) with carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection and 311 women of similar age who underwent treatment for cervical precancer and who participated in a community-based trial of the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus-16/18 virus-like particle vaccine. Participants were randomized (human papillomavirus or hepatitis A vaccine) and offered 3 vaccinations over 6 months. Follow-up included annual visits (more frequently if clinically indicated), referral to colposcopy of high-grade and persistent low-grade lesions, treatment by loop electrosurgical excisional procedure when clinically indicated, and cytologic and virologic follow-up after treatment. Among women with human papillomavirus infection at the time of vaccination, we considered type-specific viral clearance, and development of cytologic (squamous intraepithelial lesions) and histologic (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) lesions. Among treated women, we considered single-time and persistent human papillomavirus infection, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater. Outcomes associated with infections absent before treatment also were evaluated. Infection-level analyses were performed and vaccine efficacy estimated. Median follow-up was 56.7 months (women with human papillomavirus infection) and 27.3 months (treated women). There was no evidence of vaccine efficacy to increase clearance of human papillomavirus infections or decrease incidence of cytologic/histologic abnormalities associated with human

  9. The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey: Nurse-Led Instrument Development and Psychometric Testing to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Series Completion in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami; Dalmida, Safyia; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey (SHPVS) was developed to examine students' perceived benefits or barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Survey development included (a) 2-phase integrative literature reviews; (b) draft of survey items based on the literature; (c) critique of survey items by young adults, nursing and psychology faculty, and health care providers; and (d) pilot testing. The psychometric properties of the SHPVS were evaluated using classical item analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) among a sample of 527 university students' ages 18-24 years. The estimated Cronbach's alpha for the SHPVS is .74. The SHPVS is a measure of young adults HPV perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived barriers, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Group Knowledge, Perceptions and Behaviors about Human Papillomavirus, Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, and Cervical Cancer among Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon M; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Lopez, Cristina M; Ford, Marvella E; Brandt, Heather M; Gore, Elena I; Zapka, Jane G; Alberg, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. Although there has been improvement in uptake, there are notable ethnic/racial disparities. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand factors related to vaccine uptake among female adolescents from 3 racial/ethnic groups: African American (AA), Hispanic, and Caucasian. Findings can inform the development of optimal messages and strategies for clinical and population-based interventions. This mixed-methods descriptive study included completion of a brief structured survey and focus group discussion. Six focus groups were conducted with female adolescents, 2 each in the AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian groups. Brief structured survey questions and the focus group protocol addressed knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors related to HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Participants were 60 female adolescents (ages 13-19, mean age = 16.6 years) recruited from high schools, public health clinics, and churches. Themes across questions were remarkably similar among AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian participants. Each group had high awareness of the terms HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer, but with little in-depth knowledge about these topics. There was a high acceptance of HPV vaccination. Misperceptions about optimal cervical cancer prevention strategies such as simply knowing one's partner and good hygiene were most common among Hispanic adolescents. Awareness about Pap testing was most common among Caucasian adolescents. Predominantly uniform perceptions of HPV vaccines across racial/ethnic groups suggest a "one size fits all" approach will likely have greater reach with cervical cancer prevention messaging than culturally tailored interventions. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Evidence of recombination within human alpha-papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvajal-Rodríguez Antonio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV has a causal role in cervical cancer with almost half a million new cases occurring each year. Presence of the carcinogenic HPV is necessary for the development of the invasive carcinoma of the genital tract. Therefore, persistent infection with carcinogenic HPV causes virtually all cervical cancers. Some aspects of the molecular evolution of this virus, as the putative importance of recombination in its evolutionary history, are an opened current question. In addition, recombination could also be a significant issue nowadays since the frequency of co-infection with more than one HPV type is not a rare event and, thus, new recombinant types could be currently being generated. Results We have used human alpha-PV sequences from the public database at Los Alamos National Laboratory to report evidence that recombination may exist in this virus. A model-based population genetic approach was used to infer the recombination signal from the HPV DNA sequences grouped attending to phylogenetic and epidemiological information, as well as to clinical manifestations. Our results agree with recently published ones that use a different methodology to detect recombination associated to the gene L2. In addition, we have detected significant recombination signal in the genes E6, E7, L2 and L1 at different groups, and importantly within the high-risk type HPV16. The method used has recently been shown to be one of the most powerful and reliable procedures to detect the recombination signal. Conclusion We provide new support to the recent evidence of recombination in HPV. Additionally, we performed the recombination estimation assuming the best-fit model of nucleotide substitution and rate variation among sites, of the HPV DNA sequence sets. We found that the gene with recombination in most of the groups is L2 but the highest values were detected in L1 and E6. Gene E7 was recombinant only within the HPV16 type. The

  13. Human papillomaviruses associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. II. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of human papillomavirus 3a, 8, 10, and 12 genomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kremsdorf, D; Jablonska, S.; Favre, M.; Orth, G

    1983-01-01

    The DNAs of four human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that were found in the benign lesions of three patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis have been characterized. The flat wart-like lesions and the macular lesions of patient 1 contained two viruses, HPV-3a and HPV-8, respectively, whose genomes had previously been only partially characterized. The flat wart-like lesions of patient 2 and the macular lesions of patient 3 each contained a virus previously considered as belonging to t...

  14. Transmission between Archaic and Modern Human Ancestors during the Evolution of the Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenoff, Ville N; de Oliveira, Cristina Mendes; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2017-01-01

    Every human suffers through life a number of papillomaviruses (PVs) infections, most of them asymptomatic. A notable exception are persistent infections by Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), the most oncogenic infectious agent for humans and responsible for most infection-driven anogenital cancers. Oncogenic potential is not homogeneous among HPV16 lineages, and genetic variation within HPV16 exhibits some geographic structure. However, an in-depth analysis of the HPV16 evolutionary history was still wanting. We have analyzed extant HPV16 diversity and compared the evolutionary and phylogeographical patterns of humans and of HPV16. We show that codivergence with modern humans explains at most 30% of the present viral geographical distribution. The most explanatory scenario suggests that ancestral HPV16 already infected ancestral human populations and that viral lineages co-diverged with the hosts in parallel with the split between archaic Neanderthal-Denisovans and ancestral modern human populations, generating the ancestral HPV16A and HPV16BCD viral lineages, respectively. We propose that after out-of-Africa migration of modern human ancestors, sexual transmission between human populations introduced HPV16A into modern human ancestor populations. We hypothesize that differential coevolution of HPV16 lineages with different but closely related ancestral human populations and subsequent host-switch events in parallel with introgression of archaic alleles into the genomes of modern human ancestors may be largely responsible for the present-day differential prevalence and association with cancers for HPV16 variants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Human papillomavirus-32-associated focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying HPV-16-positive papilloma-like lesions in oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Wang, Jiayi; Lei, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Zhou, Min; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2013-05-01

    Human papillomavirus infection can cause a variety of benign or malignant oral lesions, and the various genotypes can cause distinct types of lesions. To our best knowledge, there has been no report of 2 different human papillomavirus-related oral lesions in different oral sites in the same patient before. This paper reported a patient with 2 different oral lesions which were clinically and histologically in accord with focal epithelial hyperplasia and oral papilloma, respectively. Using DNA extracted from these 2 different lesions, tissue blocks were tested for presence of human papillomavirus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Finally, human papillomavirus-32-positive focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying human papillomavirus-16-positive oral papilloma-like lesions were detected in different sites of the oral mucosa. Nucleotide sequence sequencing further confirmed the results. So in our clinical work, if the simultaneous occurrences of different human papillomavirus associated lesions are suspected, the multiple biopsies from different lesions and detection of human papillomavirus genotype are needed to confirm the diagnosis.

  16. Human papillomavirus infection, vaccination, and cervical cancer communication: the protection dilemma faced by women in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Duvall, Kathryn L; Garrett, Linda H

    2011-11-30

    Human papillomavirus is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection and has been recognized as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Understanding the shift in public awareness caused by recent changes to cervical prevention is critical to addressing cervical cancer disparities in Appalachia. Since the human papillomavirus vaccine was approved for prevention, little data have been collected regarding human papillomavirus risk assessment and vaccine perceptions among Appalachian women. The purpose of the authors in this study was to investigate communication and cultural issues via a social scripting framework that could influence human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women; and explore participants' perceptions of human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the vaccine. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed to examine these issues in eight counties in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Thirty-nine women aged 18-49 years participated in a single individual interview or focus group session from October 2007 through August 2008. Interview and focus group data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Two major themes emerged from the data: the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma and spheres of silence surrounding the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma. Study findings suggested areas for future research and may assist healthcare professionals in approaching southern Appalachian women as they make decisions regarding cervical cancer prevention.

  17. NF-kB signalling is attenuated by the E7 protein from cutaneous human papillomaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg, Luise M; Stensson, Jessica; Vasiljevic, Natasa;

    2012-01-01

    -¿B pathway leading to an attenuation of the activity. There is a possible link between development of non melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous Beta-papillomavirus but if these HPV types attenuate the NF-¿B pathway is unclear. Seven different E7 proteins, representing four out of the five different species....... In addition, E7 proteins from the cutaneous HPV types demonstrated interaction with IKKa but not with IKKß. The deregulation of the NF-¿B pathway by cutaneous HPVs might contribute to the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers and its precursors.......The high-risk Alpha-types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the causative agent of cervical cancer, which is the second major cause of death among women worldwide. Recent investigations have shown that E7 from the Alpha-papillomavirus HPV-16 interacts with IKKa and IKKß of the IKK complex in the NF...

  18. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  19. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 16 pseudovirus containing histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kwag, Hye-Lim; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-08-27

    Pseudoviruses (PsVs) that encapsidate a reporter plasmid DNA have been used as surrogates for native human papillomavirus (HPV), whose continuous production is technically difficult. HPV PsVs have been designed to form capsids made up of the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid proteins L2. HPV PsVs have been produced in 293TT cells transfected with plasmid expressing L1 and L2 protein and plasmid containing the reporter gene. Several studies have suggested that naturally occurring HPV virions contain cellular histones, and histones have also been identified in mature HPV PsVs. However, the effect of the histones on the properties of the PsVs has not been investigated. Using heparin chromatography, we separated mature HPV type 16 PsVs into three fractions (I, II, and III) according to their heparin-binding affinities. The amounts of cellular histone and cellular nucleotides per PsV were found to increase in the order fraction I, II and III. It appeared that PsVs in fraction I contains just small amount of cellular histone in Western blot analysis. The proportions of the three fractions in PsV preparations were 83.4, 7.5, and 9.1 % for fraction I, II, and III PsVs, respectively. In the electron microscope PsVs in fraction I appeared to have a more condensed structure than those in fractions II and III. Under the electron microscope fraction II and III PsVs appeared to be covered by substantial amounts of cellular histone while there was no visible histone covering PsVs of fraction I. Also the levels of reporter gene expression in infections of fraction II and III PsVs to 293TT cells were significantly lower than those in infections of fraction I PsV, and fraction II and III particles had significantly reduced immunogenicity. Our findings suggest that the involvement of large amounts of cellular histones during PsV formation interferes with the structural integrity of the PsVs and affects their immunogenicity. The fraction I particle therefore has the most

  20. Human papillomavirus-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Guo, Theresa W; Smith, David F; Wang, Hao; Ogawa, Takenori; Pai, Sara I; Westra, William H

    2013-02-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. p16 immunohistochemical analysis and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcome data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high-risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV-positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (Pcarcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean, 54 y). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high-risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. Although nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma. The

  1. Comparison of two PCR-based human papillomavirus genotyping methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Porras, Carolina; Quint, Wim G; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Gravitt, Patti E; González, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A; Silva, Sandra; Freer, Enrique; Van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Jiménez, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan

    2008-10-01

    We compared two consensus primer PCR human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping methods for the detection of individual HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV genotypes as a group, using a stratified sample of enrollment cervical specimens from sexually active women participating in the NCI/Costa Rica HPV16/18 Vaccine Efficacy Trial. For the SPF(10) method, DNA was extracted from 0.1% of the cervical specimen by using a MagNA Pure LC instrument, a 65-bp region of the HPV L1 gene was targeted for PCR amplification by using SPF(10) primers, and 25 genotypes were detected by reverse-line blot hybridization of the amplicons. For the Linear Array (LA) method, DNA was extracted from 0.5% of the cervical specimen by using an MDx robot, a 450-bp region of the HPV L1 gene was targeted for PCR amplification by using PGMY09/11 L1 primers, and 37 genotypes were detected by reverse-line blot hybridization of the amplicons. Specimens (n = 1,427) for testing by the LA method were randomly selected from strata defined on the basis of enrollment test results from the SPF(10) method, cytology, and Hybrid Capture 2. LA results were extrapolated to the trial cohort (n = 5,659). The LA and SPF(10) methods detected 21 genotypes in common; HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, and -73 were considered the carcinogenic HPV genotypes. There was no difference in the overall results for grouped detection of carcinogenic HPV by the SPF(10) and LA methods (35.3% versus 35.9%, respectively; P = 0.5), with a 91.8% overall agreement and a kappa value of 0.82. In comparisons of individual HPV genotypes, the LA method detected significantly more HPV16, HPV18, HPV39, HPV58, HPV59, HPV66, and HPV68/73 and less HPV31 and HPV52 than the SPF(10) method; inclusion of genotype-specific testing for HPV16 and HPV18 for those specimens testing positive for HPV by the SPF(10) method but for which no individual HPV genotype was detected abrogated any differences between the LA and SPF

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) upregulates the cellular deubiquitinase UCHL1 to suppress the keratinocyte's innate immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, R.; Tummers, B.; Meyers, C.; Biryukov, J.L.; Alam, S.; Backendorf, C.; Jha, V.; Offringa, R.; van Ommen, G.J.; Melief, C.J.; Guardavaccaro, D.; Boer, J.M.; van der Burg, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent infection of basal keratinocytes with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) may cause cancer. Keratinocytes are equipped with different pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) but hrHPV has developed ways to dampen their signals resulting in minimal inflammation and evasion of host immunity

  3. GENOTYPING HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE-16 ISOLATES FROM PERSISTENTLY INFECTED PROMISCUOUS INDIVIDUALS AND CERVICAL NEOPLASIA PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANBELKUM, A; JUFFERMANS, L; SCHRAUWEN, L; VANDOORNUM, G; BURGER, M; QUINT, W

    1995-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence variation in the noncoding region of the genome of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) was determined by direct sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of DNA fragments amplified by PCR. Individuals of diverse sexual promiscuity and/or cervicopathology we

  4. Persistence and reappearance of high-risk human papillomavirus after conization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla Flarup; Huusom, Lene Drasbek; Andersen, Klaus Kaae;

    2013-01-01

    Women with early cervical cancer or intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN2+) are treated by conization; however, they still have a higher risk for subsequent CIN2+ than the general female population. Persistence of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a key factor in the developme...

  5. Investigating Stakeholder Attitudes and Opinions on School-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodulman, Jessica A.; Starling, Randall; Kong, Alberta S.; Buller, David B.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background: In several countries worldwide, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs have been successful; however, little research has explored US stakeholders' acceptance toward school-based HPV vaccination programs. Methods: A total of 13 focus groups and 12 key informant interviews (N?=?117; 85% females; 66% racial/ethnic…

  6. Genotyping human papillomavirus type 16 isolates from persistently infected promiscuous individuals and cervical neoplasia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L. Juffermans (Leon); L. Schrauwen (Lianne); M. Burger; G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); W.G.V. Quint (Wim)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide sequence variation in the noncoding region of the genome of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) was determined by direct sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of DNA fragments amplified by PCR. Individuals of diverse sex

  7. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem....

  8. Human papillomavirus 16 E5 modulates the expression of host microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greco, Dario; Kivi, Niina; Qian, Kui

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a prerequisite of developing cervical cancer, approximately half of which are associated with HPV type 16. HPV 16 encodes three oncogenes, E5, E6, and E7, of which E5 is the least studied so far. Its roles in regulating replication and pathogenesis of HPV...

  9. Improving Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Uptake in College Students: A Socioecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth; Golman, Mandy; Crosslin, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates remain relatively low, despite new recommendations found in "Healthy People 2020." Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine vaccination rates, identify factors that influenced initiation/continuance of HPV vaccine series, and identify levels of influence for HPV health…

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  11. Urine versus brushed samples in human papillomavirus screening: study in both genders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Depuydt, C.; Bogers, J.P.; Stalpaert, M.; Vereecken, A.; Wyndaele, J.J.; Tjalma, W.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether urine is a good medium for screening and whether there is a correlation between the amount of extracted DNA and human papillomavirus (HPV)-positivity. METHODS: In the present study, 30 first-voided urine (FVU) specimens and 20 urethroglandular swabs using cervex-brushes f

  12. The Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination among Women with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Chen, Si-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chang, Mao-Jung; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to explore awareness and acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and to identify factors influencing HPV acceptability among women with physical disabilities in Taiwan. The study participants were 438 adult women with physical disabilities, aged 18-69 years. The participants were all officially registered as…

  13. Attribution of 12 High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes to Infection and Cervical Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joura, Elmar A.; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined a...

  14. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  15. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: Cytology versus human papillomavirus DNA testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the most cost-effective screening programme for cervical cancer. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Setting The Netherlands. Population Dutch women who have not been invited for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods We calibra

  16. Human papillomavirus testing as a cytology gold standard : comparing Surinam with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtel, MS; Boon, ME; Korporaal, H; Kok, LP

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction to detect high- risk human papillomavirus has been suggested as a gold standard for cytology. The Netherlands and Surinam were prospectively compared in regard to the proportions of Negative, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, and Squamous Intraepithelial

  17. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: Cytology versus human papillomavirus DNA testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the most cost-effective screening programme for cervical cancer. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Setting The Netherlands. Population Dutch women who have not been invited for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods We calibra

  18. Human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer in Greenland in 1994-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus Balslev; Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Garnæs, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV), smoking and alcohol. In Greenland, a high rate of HPV-induced cervical cancer and venereal diseases are found, which exposes the population for high risk of HPV infection. In Gree...

  19. Human papillomavirus (HPV) upregulates the cellular deubiquitinase UCHL1 to suppress the keratinocyte's innate immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, R.; Tummers, B.; Meyers, C.; Biryukov, J.L.; Alam, S.; Backendorf, C.; Jha, V.; Offringa, R.; van Ommen, G.J.; Melief, C.J.; Guardavaccaro, D.; Boer, J.M.; van der Burg, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent infection of basal keratinocytes with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) may cause cancer. Keratinocytes are equipped with different pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) but hrHPV has developed ways to dampen their signals resulting in minimal inflammation and evasion of host immunity

  20. Resolution of novel human papillomavirus-induced warts after HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silling, Steffi; Wieland, Ulrike; Werner, Marko; Pfister, Herbert; Potthoff, Anja; Kreuter, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) XS2 was isolated from warts on an immunosuppressed patient. After HPV vaccination, the warts resolved. HPVXS2 was also found in warts and normal skin of HIV-positive patients and rarely in HIV-negative controls. Further studies should elucidate the mechanisms that lead to wart clearance.

  1. Dose-Related Differences in Effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Against Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Maria; Dehlendorff, Christian; Sand, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing the number of doses in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination regimen from 3 to 2 could increase coverage rates. In this cohort study, we assessed the risk of genital warts (GWs) according to timing and number of doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine. METHODS: From population...

  2. The early noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 16 is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Kristiansen, Karen; Durand, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    All human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) early mRNAs are polyadenylated at the poly(A) signal within the early 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). The 3'end of the early E5 open reading frame and the 3'UTR of HPV-16 is very AU-rich, with five regions similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (...

  3. No evidence for active human papillomavirus (HPV) in fields surrounding HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.M.; Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Moukhtari, N.; Bloemena, E.; Brink, A.; Sie, D.; Ylstra, B.; Baatenburg de Jong, R.J.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have a better prognosis than patients with HPV-negative OPSCCs. Important factors contributing to this better prognosis are relatively low numbers of local/regional recurrences (LRRs) and sec

  4. Human papillomavirus testing as a cytology gold standard : comparing Surinam with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtel, MS; Boon, ME; Korporaal, H; Kok, LP

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction to detect high- risk human papillomavirus has been suggested as a gold standard for cytology. The Netherlands and Surinam were prospectively compared in regard to the proportions of Negative, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, and Squamous Intraepithelial

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  6. Effect of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on human papillomavirus detection in young, unscreened women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Lenselink, C.H.; Quint, W.G.V.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted among 2,065 women aged 18-29 years. The women returned a self-collected

  7. Characterization of two novel cutaneous human papillomaviruses, HPV93 and HPV96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa; Hazard, Kristina; Eliasson, Linda;

    2007-01-01

    Two novel human papillomaviruses (HPVs), HPV93 and HPV96, with genomes of 7450 and 7438 bp, respectively, are described. The L1 open reading frame of HPV93 showed highest identity to HPV24 (79%) and that of HPV96 had highest identity to HPV92 (71%). Real-time PCR for HPV92, 93 and 96 on stripped ...

  8. Epidemiological evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia without the presence of human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; Hollema, H; Pieters, WJLM; Schroder, FP; Quint, WGV

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide epidemiological evidence to support the notion that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) without human papillomavirus (HPV) is a true entity. If a diagnosis of HPV-negative cervical neoplasia is erroneous, one would not expect there to be any differences in r

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  10. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in the etiology of testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Hørding, U; Nielsen, H W;

    1994-01-01

    sequences of two viruses with known transforming abilities, human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used. In none of the 19 successfully amplified samples were DNA sequences of HPV type 16 or type 18 detected. In six cases a faint trace...

  11. Effect of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on human papillomavirus detection in young, unscreened women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Lenselink, C.H.; Quint, W.G.V.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted among 2,065 women aged 18-29 years. The women returned a self-collected cervicovagin

  12. Oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes and the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, with more than half a million new cases worldwide each year. In the majority of cervical cancers a persistent infection with high-risk (hr) Human papillomavirus (HPV) types has been proven to be the causative agent. Prevention of cervical ca

  13. Condom use in prevention of Human Papillomavirus infections and cervical neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Rebolj, Matejka; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine;

    2014-01-01

    Based on cross-sectional studies, the data on protection from Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections related to using male condoms appear inconsistent. Longitudinal studies are more informative for this purpose. We undertook a systematic review of longitudinal studies on the effectiveness of male ...

  14. Oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes and the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, with more than half a million new cases worldwide each year. In the majority of cervical cancers a persistent infection with high-risk (hr) Human papillomavirus (HPV) types has been proven to be the causative agent. Prevention of cervical ca

  15. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  16. Type-specific human papillomavirus infections among young heterosexual male and female STI clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Boot, Hein J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Baseline genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence rates and associated risk factors per gender enable future assessment of the impact of vaccination on HPV dynamics. METHODS: Before the start of national HPV vaccination for girls, data were collected cross-sectionally in n

  17. Human papillomavirus, lichen sclerosus and penile cancer: a study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Depuydt, C.E.; Bogers, J.J.; Noel, J.C.; Delvenne, P.; Marbaix, E.; Donders, A.R.T.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The prevalence of penile cancer varies between 1.5 (industrialized countries) and 4.5 per 100,000 men (non-industrialized countries). Predominant histological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in 40-46% of cases: penile cancer is considered to beh

  18. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen;

    2016-01-01

    Based on the current literature, we aimed to provide an overview on Human Papillomavirus prevalence in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase. Data extracted from the articles and used for analysis included HPV pre...

  19. Correlation between human papillomavirus and p16 overexpression in oropharyngeal tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, C; Gyldenløve, M; Jensen, D H

    2014-01-01

    A significant proportion of squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx (OP-SCC) are related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p16 overexpression. This subgroup proves better prognosis and survival but no evidence exists on the correlation between HPV and p16 overexpression based on diag...

  20. Human papillomavirus, lichen sclerosus and penile cancer: a study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Depuydt, C.E.; Bogers, J.J.; Noel, J.C.; Delvenne, P.; Marbaix, E.; Donders, A.R.T.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The prevalence of penile cancer varies between 1.5 (industrialized countries) and 4.5 per 100,000 men (non-industrialized countries). Predominant histological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in 40-46% of cases: penile cancer is considered to beh

  1. Next-generation sequencing analysis for detecting human papillomavirus in oral verrucous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Manar; Wood, Henry; Conway, Caroline; Berri, Stefano; Pentenero, Monica; Gandolfo, Sergio; Cassenti, Adele; Cassoni, Paola; Al Ajlan, Abdulaziz; Barrett, A William; Chengot, Preetha; MacLennan, Kenneth; High, Alec S; Rabbitts, Pamela

    2014-07-01

    The etiology of oral verrucous carcinoma is unknown, and human papillomavirus 'involvement' remains contentious. The uncertainty can be attributed to varied detection procedures and difficulties in defining 'gold-standard' histologic criteria for diagnosing 'verrucous' lesions. Their paucity also hampers investigation. We aimed to analyze oral verrucous lesions for human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype genomes. We used next-generation sequencing for the detection of papillomavirus sequences, identifying subtypes and computing viral loads. We identified a total of 78 oral verrucous cases (62 carcinomas and 16 hyperplasias). DNA was extracted from all and sequenced at a coverage between 2.5% and 13%. An HPV-16 sequence was detected in 1 carcinoma and 1 hyperplasia, and an HPV-2 sequence was detected in 1 carcinoma out of the 78 cases, with viral loads of 2.24, 8.16, and 0.33 viral genomes per cell, respectively. Our results indicate no conclusive human papillomavirus involvement in oral verrucous carcinoma or hyperplasia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sentimentos vivenciados por mulheres submetidas a tratamento para Papillomavirus Humano Sentimientos vivenciados por mujeres sometidas a Tratamiento para el Papillomavirus Humano Feelings experienced by women submitted to a treatment for Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Santos de Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A carência de informações sobre o papillomavirus humano pode gerar idéias errôneas sobre o tratamento, o que interfere no contexto sócio-familiar da mulher. Com o objetivo de conhecer os sentimentos vivenciados por mulheres submetidas a tratamento de lesões por papillomavirus humano, foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa de natureza exploratória com 12 mulheres, baseada na obtenção e análise de depoimentos por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada. As informações foram analisadas de acordo com a literatura e dispostas em duas temáticas: Reações emocionais e Repercussões no relacionamento. Conclui-se que a mulher que está sendo submetida a tratamento de lesões por papillomavirus humano necessita de cuidados, por parte dos enfermeiros, como forma de melhor enfrentar esse período a qual está vivenciando.La carencia de informaciones sobre el papillomavirus humano puede generar ideas erradas sobre el tratamiento, lo que interfiere en el contexto social y familiar de la mujer. Con el objetivo de conocer los sentimientos vividos por mujeres sometidas a tratamiento de lesiones por papillomavirus humanos, fue realizada una investigación cualitativa de naturaleza exploratoria con 12 mujeres, basada en la obtención y análisis de deposiciones por medio de entrevistas medio-estructurada. Las informaciones fueran analizadas conforme con la literatura y dispuestas en dos temáticas: Reacciones emocionales y Repercusiones en el reracionamiento. Concluyese que la mujer que esta siendo sometida al tratamiento de lesiones por papillomavirus humano necesita de cuidados, por parte de los enfermeros, como forma de mejor enfrentar ese periodo el cual esta viviendo.The lack of information on the papillomavirus human can generate misconception on the treatment interfering in the familiar and social context of the woman. With the purpose to know the feelings experienced by women submitted to treatment of lesions by human papillomavirus, was carried

  3. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Egawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted.

  4. The nasal mucosa contains a large spectrum of human papillomavirus types from the Betapapillomavirus and Gammapapillomavirus genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Ola; Johansson, Hanna; Madsen, Klaus Gregaard;

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types from the Betapapillomavirus and Gammapapillomavirus genera are common at cutaneous sites. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of these HPV types in oral and nasal samples....

  5. Distribution of Human Papillomavirus 52 and 58 Genotypes, and Their Expression of p16 and p53 in Cervical Neoplasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Tae Eun; Kim, Hwal Woong; Lee, Kyung Eun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 52 and 58 genotypes among women residing in Busan, and the expression of p16 and p53 proteins in cervical neoplasia with HPV 52 and 58 infections...

  6. Inverted papilloma of the cervix and vagina: report of 2 cases of a rare lesion associated with human papillomavirus 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennell, Claire; Jamison, Jackie; Wells, Michael; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2012-03-01

    We report 2 cases of a lesion that we term inverted papilloma of the lower female genital tract, occurring in the cervix and upper vagina of 60- and 50-year-old women, respectively. Microscopically, the features were similar to those of inverted transitional papilloma of the urinary bladder with interconnecting islands, trabeculae, and solid sheets of bland transitional epithelium with an inverted growth pattern. There were small foci of squamous and glandular differentiation in the cervical case. Linear array human papillomavirus genotyping revealed human papillomavirus type 42 in both cases. Inverted papilloma in the lower female genital tract is extremely rare with, as far as we are aware, only 3 previously reported similar cases in the cervix and none in the vagina. Our results suggest that these neoplasms when occurring in the lower female genital tract may be associated with low-risk human papillomavirus, perhaps specifically human papillomavirus 42. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk Factors for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Detection Among HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Women From Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Munk, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The prevalence is dependent on several known factors notably sexual behavior and age, and factors still under scrutiny....

  8. Population seroprevalence of human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, and 18 in men, women, and children in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newall, Anthony T.; Brotherton, Julia M. L.; Quinn, Helen E.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Backhouse, Josephine; Gilbert, Lynn; Esser, Mark T.; Erick, Joanne; Bryan, Janine; Formica, Neil; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2008-01-01

    Background. Representative population-based data on human papillomavirus (HPV) epidemiology are important for public health decision making but are difficult to obtain. Seroepidemiology is a valuable tool, although the relationship between HPV infection and seropositivity is incomplete. Methods. We

  9. Prevention of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Associated Diseases by Vaccination: A New Hope for Global Public Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harper, Diane M

    2009-01-01

    Cervarix® and Gardasil®, 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, have been approved and implemented globally in young adolescent women with the hope of reducing the incidence of cervical cancer several decades hence...

  10. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  11. Using organotypic (raft) epithelial tissue cultures for the biosynthesis and isolation of infectious human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbun, Michelle A; Patterson, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Papillomaviruses have a strict tropism for epithelial cells, and they are fully reliant on cellular differentiation for completion of their life cycles, resulting in the production of progeny virions. Thus, a permissive environment for full viral replication in vitro-wherein virion morphogenesis occurs under cooperative viral and cellular cues-requires the cultivation of epithelium. Presented in the first section of this unit is a protocol to grow differentiating epithelial tissues that mimic many important morphological and biochemical aspects of normal skin. The technique involves growing epidermal cells atop a dermal equivalent consisting of live fibroblasts and a collagen lattice. Epithelial stratification and differentiation ensues when the keratinocyte-dermal equivalent is placed at the air-liquid interface. The apparent floating nature of the cell-matrix in this method led to the nickname "raft" cultures. The general technique can be applied to normal low passage keratinocytes, to cells stably transfected with papillomavirus genes or genomes, or keratinocytes established from neoplastic lesions. However, infectious papillomavirus particles have only been isolated from organotypic epithelial cultures initiated with cells that maintain oncogenic human papillomavirus genomes in an extrachomosomal replicative form. The second section of this unit is dedicated to a virion isolation method that minimizes aerosol and skin exposure to these human carcinogens. Although the focus of the protocols is on the growth of tissues that yields infectious papillomavirus progeny, this culture system facilitates the investigation of these fastidious viruses during their complex replicative cycles, and raft tissues can be manipulated and harvested at any point during the process. Importantly, a single-step virus growth cycle is achieved in this process, as it is unlikely that progeny virions are released to initiate subsequent rounds of infection.

  12. Transcriptome sequencing demonstrates that human papillomavirus is not active in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arron, Sarah T; Ruby, J Graham; Dybbro, Eric; Ganem, Don; Derisi, Joseph L

    2011-08-01

    β-Human papillomavirus (β-HPV) DNA is present in some cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cuSCCs), but no mechanism of carcinogenesis has been determined. We used ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the cancer transcriptome to assess whether papillomavirus transcripts are present in these cancers. In all, 67 cuSCC samples were assayed for β-HPV DNA by PCR, and viral loads were measured with type-specific quantitative PCR. A total of 31 SCCs were selected for whole transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptome libraries were prepared in parallel from the HPV18-positive HeLa cervical cancer cell line and HPV16-positive primary cervical and periungual SCCs. Of the tumors, 30% (20/67) were positive for β-HPV DNA, but there was no difference in β-HPV viral load between tumor and normal tissue (P=0.310). Immunosuppression and age were significantly associated with higher viral load (P=0.016 for immunosuppression; P=0.0004 for age). Transcriptome sequencing failed to identify papillomavirus expression in any of the skin tumors. In contrast, HPV16 and HPV18 mRNA transcripts were readily identified in primary cervical and periungual cancers and HeLa cells. These data demonstrate that papillomavirus mRNA expression is not a factor in the maintenance of cuSCCs.

  13. Role of papillomavirus oncogenes in human cervical cancer: Transgenic animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griep, A.E.; Lambert, P.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Human papillomaviruses are believed to be etiologic agents for the majority of human cervical carcinoma, a common cancer that is a leading cause of death by cancer among women worldwide. In cervical carcinoma, a subset of papillomaviral genes, namely E6 and E7, are expressed. In vitro tissue culture studies indicate that HPV E6 and E7 are oncogenes, and that their oncogenicity is due in part to their capacity to inactivate cellular tumor suppressor genes. The behavior of E6 and E7 in vitro and the genetic evidence from analysis of human cancers suggest that the E6 and E7 genes play a significant role in the development of cervical cancer. This hypothesis is now being tested using animal models. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the oncogenicity of papillomavirus genes that has been generated through their study in transgenic mice. 82 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 1: Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khammissa Razia AG

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are essential factors for HPV-induced carcinogenesis, and for the maintenance of the consequent neoplastic growth. Cellular transformation is achieved by complex interaction of these oncogenes with several cellular factors of cell cycle regulation including p53, Rb, cyclin-CDK complexes, p21 and p27. Both persistent infection with high-risk HPV genotypes and immune dysregulation are associated with increased risk of HPV-induced squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. Vaccination against the Human Papillomavirus: the lessons we have not learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Brianna

    2009-04-06

    Recent conversations regarding the vaccine against the Human Papillomavirus have focused on scientific concerns of effectiveness and scope of prevention as well as social, political and economic concerns including who should be eligible to receive the vaccine and why. However, discussions to date have not reflected on comparable historical perspectives including lessons learned in the development and marketing of the Hepatitis B vaccine. These two vaccines have remarkably similar public health implications in the prevention of specific cancers as well as generating alike social, political and financial concerns. The present paper examines these similarities with the intention of providing perspective on the current Human Papillomavirus vaccine debate and advocating for more expedient and expansive vaccine availability.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenfeld, Michaela; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2013-08-20

    The World Health Organization recommends establishing that human papillomavirus vaccination is cost-effective before vaccine introduction. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to 1 April 2012 for economic evaluations of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries. We found 25 articles, but almost all low income countries and many middle income countries lacked country-specific studies. Methods, assumptions and consequently results varied widely, even for studies conducted for the same country. Despite the heterogeneity, most studies conclude that vaccination is likely to be cost-effective and possibly even cost saving, particularly in settings without organized cervical screening programmes. However, study uncertainty could be reduced by clarity about vaccine prices and vaccine delivery costs. The review supports extending vaccination to low income settings where vaccine prices are competitive, donor funding is available, cervical cancer burden is high and screening options are limited.

  17. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Bhatla; Kriti Puri; Elizabeth Joseph; Alka Kriplani; Venkateswaran K. Iyer; Sreenivas, V

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is considered a potential cofactor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of CT infection with HPV, other risk factors for cervical cancer, and CIN in symptomatic women. Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, inter...

  18. Population-level impact and herd effects following human papillomavirus vaccination programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drolet, Mélanie; Bénard, Élodie; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes were first implemented in several countries worldwide in 2007. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the population-level consequences and herd effects after female HPV vaccination programmes, to verify whether...... results are promising for the long-term population-level effects of HPV vaccination programmes. However, continued monitoring is essential to identify any signals of potential waning efficacy or type-replacement. FUNDING: The Canadian Institutes of Health Research....

  19. Pain in adolescent girls receiving human papillomavirus vaccine with concomitantly administered vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Emmanuel B; Kemper, Alex R; Dolor, Rowena J; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-02-01

    Using the Faces Pain Scale - Revised, we assessed injection site pain 10 minutes after vaccination in young females randomized to receive either quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before or after concomitantly administered vaccines. Although pain was modestly more after HPV4 injection than after other vaccines, the pain intensity after HPV4 injection was significantly less in those who received HPV4 before receiving other concomitant vaccines.

  20. Development of a National Agreement on Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Japan: An Infodemiology Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakada, Haruka; Yuji, Koichiro; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ohsawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Background A national agreement on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was achieved relatively quickly in Japan as compared to the United States and India. Objective The objective was to identify the role of print and online media references, including references to celebrities or other informants, as factors potentially responsible for the relatively rapid national acceptance of HPV vaccination in Japan. Methods A method of text mining was performed to select keywords, representing the co...

  1. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Ault, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfec...

  2. Human papillomavirus DNA from warts for typing by endonuclease restriction patterns: purification by alkaline plasmid methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinami, M; Tanikawa, E; Hachisuka, H; Sasai, Y; Shingu, M

    1990-01-01

    The alkaline plasmid DNA extraction method of Birnboim and Doly was applied for the isolation of human papillomavirus (HPV) from warts. Tissue from common and plantar warts was digested with proteinase K, and the extrachromosomal circular covalently-closed form of HPV-DNA was rapidly extracted by alkaline sodium dodecyl sulphate and phenol-chloroform treatment. Recovery of HPV-DNA from the tissue was sufficient for determination of endonuclease restriction patterns by agarose gel electrophoresis.

  3. Stress and coping in patients with clinical manifestation of Human papillomavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Cvitanovic; Mirna Šitum; Jelena Meštrović-Štefekov; Liborija Lugović-Mihić

    2017-01-01

    Stressful life events in response to a psychosocial trigger have been reported to negatively affect the course of infections. This study was based on patients with clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and a control group of patients with psoriasis who were admitted over a period of one year to the Dermatology Department of Karlovac General Hospital. A total of 122 patients participated in the study, either with a confirmed diagnosis of clinical manifestations of HP...

  4. Interaction of the host immune system with tumor cells in human papillomavirus associated diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are very common in the sexually active population and contribute to 610,000 cancers per year occurring at different locations. The initial step of HPV-related carcinogenesis is the induction of transforming processes in the host cells mediated by the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 that interfere with critical host cell pathways. The transforming infection is highlighted by overexpression of the tumor suppressor protein p16INK4a. Only a small number of precancerous l...

  5. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 66 from an invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Tawheed, A R; Beaudenon, S; Favre, M.; Orth, G

    1991-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences coexisting with HPV16 and HPV45 were cloned from an invasive cervical carcinoma. The cloned HPV was shown to be a novel type, named HPV66, and is related to HPV56 (an HPV detected in cervical cancer). After screening 160 anogenital biopsies, four specimens exhibited histological features of intraepithelial neoplasia and contained HPV66 sequences. Of these, three were found to be associated with another HPV type.

  6. Molecular diagnosis of human papillomavirus in the development of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl; Tanya Plett-Torres; Claudia L Madrid-González; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a major public health problem in developing countries and its most significant etiological risk factor is infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The main approach to date for the prevention of CC has been through screening programs, using the cervical smear (PAP test) to detect precursory lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of the PAP smear depend on the skills of the observer to recognize and classify a variety of cellular abnormalities. The development of ...

  7. Human papillomavirus DNA and p16 expression in Japanese patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, Hisato; Okamoto, Isamu; Terao, Kyoichi; Sakai, Kazuko; SUZUKI, MINORU; Ueda, Shinya; Tanaka, Kaoru; Kuwata, Kiyoko; Morita, Yume; Ono, Koji; Nishio, Kazuto; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Doi, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major etiologic factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). However, little is known about HPV-related OPSCC in Japan. During the study, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded OPSCC specimens from Japanese patients were analyzed for HPV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the surrogate marker p16 by immuno-histochemistry. For HPV DNA-positive, p16-negative specimens, the methylation status of the p16 gene promoter was examined by methyla...

  8. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease): report of two cases with PCR detection of human papillomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasooriya, P R; Abeyratne, S; Ranasinghe, A W; Tilakaratne, W M

    2004-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) (Heck's disease) is essentially a benign oral infection produced by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, it is relatively rare in South-East Asia. The following report is based on two cases of adult FEH with histopathological features in favour of the disease. In addition, polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of HPV DNA in the lesions in order to confirm the histopathological diagnosis.

  9. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. A unique manifestation of human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, E A M; Arani, S Fallah; Hegt, V Noordhoek; van Praag, M C G

    2009-03-01

    A 34-year old Creole woman appeared at the dermatology department with white-pink spots on the oral mucosa, which had been there for some time. Histology showed lesions characteristic of focal epithelial hyperplasia. The patient was treated with a CO2 laser. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare benign lesion and is caused by human papillomavirus subtypes 13 or 32; it only appears on the oral mucosa.

  10. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its relation with cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Idrees Muhammad; Khan Khalida; Zahra Amreen; Faridi Rabia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, t...

  11. The Digital Distribution of Public Health News Surrounding the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Longitudinal Infodemiology Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, L Meghan; Tang, Tang; Ji, Kai; Ulrich-Schad, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background New media changes the dissemination of public health information and misinformation. During a guest appearance on the Today Show, US Representative Michele Bachmann claimed that human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines could cause “mental retardation”. Objective The purpose of this study is to explore how new media influences the type of public health information users access, as well as the impact to these platforms after a major controversy. Specifically, this study aims to examine th...

  12. DNA vaccines targeting human papillomavirus-associated diseases: progresses in animal and clinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Kyusun Torque; Sin, Jeong-Im

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer and its precancerous diseases. Cervical cancer is the second deadliest cancer killer among women worldwide. Moreover, HPV is also known to be a causative agent of oral, pharyngeal, anal and genital cancer. Recent application of HPV structural protein (L1)-targeted prophylactic vaccines (Gardasil® and Cervarix®) is expected to reduce the incidence of HPV infection and cervical cancer, and possibly other HPV-associated can...

  13. [Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in México: a constant struggle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Given that human papillomavirus and cervical cancer are a health problem in México, since they affect women of reproductive age and have a negative impact on our society, it is crucial to prevent those diseases and to raise awareness among physicians who deal with their clinical and therapeutic management. That is the reason why we show three Original contributions and 13 Current themes in this supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

  14. Detection of human papillomavirus types in balanitis xerotica obliterans and other penile conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in foreskin biopsies from patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and other penile conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS--Foreskin biopsy specimens from 24 patients with penile lesions and 5 control patients were analysed by type-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS--HPV6 or HPV16 were not detected in patients with BXO. HPV6 was detected in 2 controls. CONCLUSIONS--Genital papilloma...

  15. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein mediates CCNA1 promoter methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Chalertpet, Kanwalat; Pakdeechaidan, Watcharapong; Patel, Vyomesh; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins drive distinctive promoter methylation patterns in cancer. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly associated with HPV-associated cancer. CCNA1 methylation is found in HPV-associated cervical cancers, as well as in head and neck squamous cell cancer. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest that E7 may drive CCNA1 methylation. First, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated in HPV-positive epithe...

  16. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  17. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical scrapes from women attended in the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Faccini Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to survey the prevalence of human papillomavirus, associated risk factors and genotype distribution in women who were referred to cervical cancer screening when attended in a Family Health Program. METHOD: we conducted a cross-sectional survey, investigating 351 women. Polymerase chain reaction for DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to detect and typify the papillomavirus. RESULTS: virus infection was detected in 8.8% of the samples. Among the 21 different genotypes identified in this study, 14 were high risk for cervical cancer, and the type 16 was the most prevalent type. The infection was associated with women who had non-stable sexual partners. Low risk types were associated with younger women, while the high risk group was linked to altered cytology. CONCLUSION: in this sample attended a Family Health Program, we found a low rate of papillomavirus infection. Virus frequency was associated to sexual behavior. However, the broad range of genotypes detected deserves attention regarding the vaccine coverage, which includes only HPV prevalent types.

  18. Phosphorylation regulates binding of the human papillomavirus type 8 E2 protein to host chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Vandana; McBride, Alison A

    2012-09-01

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are indispensable for the viral life cycle, and their functions are subject to tight regulation. The E2 proteins undergo posttranslational modifications that regulate their properties and roles in viral transcription, replication, and genome maintenance. During persistent infection, the E2 proteins from many papillomaviruses act as molecular bridges that tether the viral genomes to host chromosomes to retain them within the host nucleus and to partition them to daughter cells. The betapapillomavirus E2 proteins bind to pericentromeric regions of host mitotic chromosomes, including the ribosomal DNA loci. We recently reported that two residues (arginine 250 and serine 253) within the chromosome binding region of the human papillomavirus type 8 (HPV8) E2 protein are required for this binding. In this study, we show that serine 253 is phosphorylated, most likely by protein kinase A, and this modulates the interaction of the E2 protein with cellular chromatin. Furthermore, we show that this phosphorylation occurs in S phase, increases the half-life of the E2 protein, and promotes chromatin binding from S phase through mitosis.

  19. Regression of human papillomavirus intraepithelial lesions is induced by MVA E2 therapeutic vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Ricardo; López-Contreras, Mario; Rosales, Carlos; Magallanes-Molina, Jose-Roberto; Gonzalez-Vergara, Roberto; Arroyo-Cazarez, Jose Martin; Ricardez-Arenas, Antonio; Del Follo-Valencia, Armando; Padilla-Arriaga, Santiago; Guerrero, Miriam Veronica; Pirez, Miguel Angel; Arellano-Fiore, Claudia; Villarreal, Freddy

    2014-12-01

    Human papilloma viruses can induce warts, condylomas, and other intraepithelial cervical lesions that can progress to cancer. Cervical cancer is a serious problem in developing countries because early detection is difficult, and thus proper early treatment is many times missing. In this phase III clinical trial, we evaluated the potential use of MVA E2 recombinant vaccinia virus to treat intraepithelial lesions associated with papillomavirus infection. A total of 1176 female and 180 male patients with intraepithelial lesions were studied. They were injected with 10(7) MVA E2 virus particles directly into their uterus, urethra, vulva, or anus. Patients were monitored by colposcopy and cytology. Immune response was determined by measuring the antibody titer against MVA E2 virus and by analyzing the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells bearing papillomavirus DNA. Papillomavirus was determined by the Hybrid Capture method or by polymerase chain reaction analysis. By histology, 1051 (89.3%) female patients showed complete elimination of lesions after treatment with MVA E2. In 28 (2.4%) female patients, the lesion was reduced to CIN 1. Another 97 (8.3%) female patients presented isolated koilocytes after treatment. In men, all lesions were completely eliminated. All MVA E2-treated patients developed antibodies against the MVA E2 vaccine and generated a specific cytotoxic response against papilloma-transformed cells. Papillomavirus DNA was not detected after treatment in 83% of total patients treated. MVA E2 did not generate any apparent side effects. These data suggest that therapeutic vaccination with MVA E2 vaccine is an excellent candidate to stimulate the immune system and generate regression in intraepithelial lesions when applied locally.

  20. Regression of Human Papillomavirus Intraepithelial Lesions Is Induced by MVA E2 Therapeutic Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Contreras, Mario; Rosales, Carlos; Magallanes-Molina, Jose-Roberto; Gonzalez-Vergara, Roberto; Arroyo-Cazarez, Jose Martin; Ricardez-Arenas, Antonio; del Follo-Valencia, Armando; Padilla-Arriaga, Santiago; Guerrero, Miriam Veronica; Pirez, Miguel Angel; Arellano-Fiore, Claudia; Villarreal, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human papilloma viruses can induce warts, condylomas, and other intraepithelial cervical lesions that can progress to cancer. Cervical cancer is a serious problem in developing countries because early detection is difficult, and thus proper early treatment is many times missing. In this phase III clinical trial, we evaluated the potential use of MVA E2 recombinant vaccinia virus to treat intraepithelial lesions associated with papillomavirus infection. A total of 1176 female and 180 male patients with intraepithelial lesions were studied. They were injected with 107 MVA E2 virus particles directly into their uterus, urethra, vulva, or anus. Patients were monitored by colposcopy and cytology. Immune response was determined by measuring the antibody titer against MVA E2 virus and by analyzing the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells bearing papillomavirus DNA. Papillomavirus was determined by the Hybrid Capture method or by polymerase chain reaction analysis. By histology, 1051 (89.3%) female patients showed complete elimination of lesions after treatment with MVA E2. In 28 (2.4%) female patients, the lesion was reduced to CIN 1. Another 97 (8.3%) female patients presented isolated koilocytes after treatment. In men, all lesions were completely eliminated. All MVA E2–treated patients developed antibodies against the MVA E2 vaccine and generated a specific cytotoxic response against papilloma-transformed cells. Papillomavirus DNA was not detected after treatment in 83% of total patients treated. MVA E2 did not generate any apparent side effects. These data suggest that therapeutic vaccination with MVA E2 vaccine is an excellent candidate to stimulate the immune system and generate regression in intraepithelial lesions when applied locally. PMID:25275724

  1. Human papillomavirus infection and immunohistochemical p16(INK4a) expression as predictors of outcome in penile squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Stephania M; Chaux, Alcides; Ball, Mark W; Faraj, Sheila F; Munari, Enrico; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Sharma, Rajni; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L; Netto, George J

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 50% of penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. We evaluated the correlation of p16(INK4a) expression and HR-HPV with clinicopathological features and outcome in a cohort of patients with penile SCC. Two tissue microarrays were constructed from 53 invasive penile SCC at our hospital. p16(INK4a) expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (CINtec Kit). High-risk human papillomavirus status was assessed by in situ hybridization (INFORM HPV III family 16 probe B cocktail). High-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 8 cases (15%), and p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 23 cases (44%). Both markers showed a significant association with histologic subtype (P = .017 and P = .01, respectively) and lymphovascular invasion (P = .015 and P = .015, respectively). Regarding outcome analyses, neither HPV infection nor p16(INK4a) overexpression significantly predicted overall survival or cancer-specific survival using Cox proportional hazards regression model. High-risk human papillomavirus positivity and p16(INK4a) overexpression were significantly associated with histologic subtype and presence of lymphovascular invasion. Human papillomavirus status was not predictive of outcome in our cohort.

  2. No increased sperm DNA fragmentation index in semen containing human papillomavirus or herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Bungum, Mona; Fedder, Jens

    2013-01-01

    -based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses.......It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR...

  3. Specific chromosomal imbalances in human papillomavirus-transfected cells during progression toward immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas-Toldo, Sabina; Dürst, Matthias; Lichter, Peter

    1997-01-01

    High risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) known to be closely associated with cervical cancer, such as HPV16 and HPV18, have the potential to immortalize human epithelial cells in culture. Four lines of HPV-transfected keratinocytes were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization at different time points after transfection. A number of chromosomal imbalances was found to be highly characteristic for the cultures progressing toward immortality. Whereas several of these were new and previously not found as recurrent aberrations in cervical tumors, some were identical to chromosomal changes observed during cervical carcinogenesis. The data put new emphasis on the studied cell system as a relevant model for HPV-induced pathogenesis. PMID:9108068

  4. Regulation of human genome expression and RNA splicing by human papillomavirus 16 E2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauson, Elaine J; Windle, Brad; Donaldson, Mary M; Caffarel, Maria M; Dornan, Edward S; Coleman, Nicholas; Herzyk, Pawel; Henderson, Scott C; Wang, Xu; Morgan, Iain M

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is causative in human cancer. The E2 protein regulates transcription from and replication of the viral genome; the role of E2 in regulating the host genome has been less well studied. We have expressed HPV16 E2 (E2) stably in U2OS cells; these cells tolerate E2 expression well and gene expression analysis identified 74 genes showing differential expression specific to E2. Analysis of published gene expression data sets during cervical cancer progression identified 20 of the genes as being altered in a similar direction as the E2 specific genes. In addition, E2 altered the splicing of many genes implicated in cancer and cell motility. The E2 expressing cells showed no alteration in cell growth but were altered in cell motility, consistent with the E2 induced altered splicing predicted to affect this cellular function. The results present a model system for investigating E2 regulation of the host genome.

  5. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  6. Cervical Cancer Prevention in Malaysia: Knowledge and Attitude of Undergraduate Pharmacy Students Towards Human Papillomavirus Infection, Screening and Vaccination in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Sze Fang, Kelly Num; Lui, Lai Yun

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge of undergraduate pharmacy students about human papillomavirus infection and their attitude towards its prevention. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 270 undergraduate pharmacy students using a validated questionnaire to assess knowledge about human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer and their attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccines. Eighty-one percent of the respondents knew that human papillomavirus is a cause of cervical cancer, and 87.8 % knew that this infection is preventable. The gender of the respondents showed the strongest correlations with human papillomavirus knowledge. There were no significant correlations between the ethnic group of the respondents and their human papillomavirus-related knowledge. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with relationship status, and respondents who were in a relationship showed greater interest in vaccinating themselves; relationship status emerged as a unique predictor. The results indicated a moderately high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards human papillomavirus vaccination with few disagreements. The results of this study will help to develop and plan appropriate education campaigns for pharmacy students that aim to reduce human papillomavirus infection and, consequently, the incidence of and mortality caused by cervical cancer in Malaysia.

  7. The spectrum of genital human papillomavirus infection among men attending a Swedish sexually-transmitted infections clinic: human papillomavirus typing and clinical presentation of histopathologically benign lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Arne; Vassilaki, Ismini; Hedblad, Mari-Anne; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-03-27

    There have been a number of Swedish studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in men, most of which have used less sensitive HPV-typing techniques. The present study included male patients with genital HPV-induced lesions planned for surgery. Samples were prepared for histopathology and PCR. HPV was detected in 233/253 (92%) and HPV 6 or 11 in 89% of the HPV-positive lesions. There were statistically significant differences regarding morphology (p=0.002), location (p=0.000001) and colour (p=0.005) of the lesions for low- vs. mixed or high-risk HPV types. For example, acuminate lesions were mostly found among men with low-risk HPV types, whereas macular lesions were over-represented among them with mixed or high-risk types. The HPV type distribution is similar to that in earlier studies, but we also found correlations with some clinical parameters.

  8. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  9. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer in Iranian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani-Navai, Versa; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Yahyapour, Yousef; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Abediankenari, Saeid; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Toghani, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most common cancers and account for nearly half of all cancer-related deaths in Iran. There was a strong association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and urogenital cancers, in particular the cervix. However, there is no clear causal relationship in all types of cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, the present study as a systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the prevalence and relation of HPV in GI cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis study assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus in GI cancers in Iran. Data were collected by searching electronic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID and Iranmedex by English and Persian key words up to August 2016. Key words included: Human Papillomavirus, HPV, Cancer, Neoplasm, Carcinoma, Esophageal, colorectal, Gastrointestinal and Iran articles were entered in the EndNote software and duplicate papers were excluded. Data were extracted and analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software, Version 2 (CMA.V2) and random effects model. Finally, we included 17 studies in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of HPV in Iranian patients with GI cancers was 16.4% (CI95%: 10.4-24.9). Considering all HPV types, the odds ratio of GI cancers in positive patients was 3.03 (CI95%: 1.42-6.45) while in patients with HPV-16 was 3.62 (CI: 1.43-4.82). The results show a strong relationship between HPV infection especially high-risk HPV type 16 and GI cancers in Iranian population.

  10. The impact of glucocorticoids and anti-cd20 therapy on cervical human papillomavirus infection risk in women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; Garcia-Carrasco, Mario; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Taboada-Cole, Alejandro; Muñoz-Guarneros, Margarita; Solis-Poblano, Juan Carlos; Pezzat-Said, Elias; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe; de Lara, Luis Vazquez; Ramos-Alvarez, Gloria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Lopez-Colombo, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with systemic lupus erythematosus METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus-related disease risk factors, including conventional and biologic therapies. A gynecological evaluation and cervical cytology screen were performed. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping were undertaken by PCR and linear array assay. RESULTS: A total of 148 patients were included, with a mean age and disease duration of 42.5±11.8 years and 9.7±5.3 years, respectively. The prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesions was 6.8%. The prevalence of human papillomavirus infection was 29%, with human papillomavirus subtype 59 being the most frequent. Patients with human papillomavirus were younger than those without the infection (38.2±11.2 vs. 44.2±11.5 years, respectively; p = 0.05), and patients with the virus had higher daily prednisone doses (12.8±6.8 vs. 9.7±6.7 mg, respectively; p = 0.01) and cumulative glucocorticoid doses (14.2±9.8 vs. 9.7±7.3 g, respectively; p = 0.005) compared with patients without. Patients with human papillomavirus infection more frequently received rituximab than those without (20.9% vs. 8.5%, respectively; p = 0.03). In the multivariate analysis, only the cumulative glucocorticoid dose was associated with human papillomavirus infection. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative glucocorticoid dose may increase the risk of human papillomavirus infection. Although rituximab administration was more frequent in patients with human papillomavirus infection, no association was found. Screening for human papillomavirus infection is recommended in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:24473503

  11. The impact of glucocorticoids and anti-cd20 therapy on cervical human papillomavirus infection risk in women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendoza-Pinto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with systemic lupus erythematosus METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus-related disease risk factors, including conventional and biologic therapies. A gynecological evaluation and cervical cytology screen were performed. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping were undertaken by PCR and linear array assay. RESULTS: A total of 148 patients were included, with a mean age and disease duration of 42.5±11.8 years and 9.7±5.3 years, respectively. The prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesions was 6.8%. The prevalence of human papillomavirus infection was 29%, with human papillomavirus subtype 59 being the most frequent. Patients with human papillomavirus were younger than those without the infection (38.2±11.2 vs. 44.2±11.5 years, respectively; p = 0.05, and patients with the virus had higher daily prednisone doses (12.8±6.8 vs. 9.7±6.7 mg, respectively; p = 0.01 and cumulative glucocorticoid doses (14.2±9.8 vs. 9.7±7.3 g, respectively; p = 0.005 compared with patients without. Patients with human papillomavirus infection more frequently received rituximab than those without (20.9% vs. 8.5%, respectively; p = 0.03. In the multivariate analysis, only the cumulative glucocorticoid dose was associated with human papillomavirus infection. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative glucocorticoid dose may increase the risk of human papillomavirus infection. Although rituximab administration was more frequent in patients with human papillomavirus infection, no association was found. Screening for human papillomavirus infection is recommended in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  12. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundModelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta......-analysis of model predictions of the long-term population-level effectiveness of vaccination against HPV 16, 18, 6, and 11 infection in women and men, to examine the variability in predicted herd effects, incremental benefit of vaccinating boys, and potential for HPV-vaccine-type elimination....

  13. Awareness of human papillomavirus in 23 000 Danish men from the general male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian; Liaw, Kai-Li

    2009-01-01

    Men play an important role in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV). Both in men and in women HPV causes great morbidity, such as cervical cancer, penile and anal cancer, and genital warts. The awareness of HPV and its consequences is essential to a successful vaccination program against HPV....... In this study, we assessed awareness of HPV in Danish men. A random sample of men aged 18-45 years from the general male population was invited to participate in the study. The participants filled in a self-administered questionnaire with questions concerning awareness of HPV, lifestyle, and sexual habits...

  14. Specificity of the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test for detecting human papillomavirus genotype 52 (HPV-52)

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Boštjan; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HPV-52 is one of the most frequent human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes causing significant cervical pathology. The most widely used HPV genotyping assay, the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Linear Array), is unable to identify HPV- 52 status in samples containing HPV-33, HPV-35, and/or HPV-58. Methods: Linear Array HPV-52 analytical specificity was established by testing 100 specimens reactive with the Linear Array HPV- 33/35/52/58 cross-reactive probe, but not with the...

  15. Cross-reactivity profiles of hybrid capture II, cobas, and APTIMA human papillomavirus assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Sarah Nørgaard; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing is replacing cytology in cervical cancer screening as it is more sensitive for preinvasive cervical lesions. However, the bottleneck of HPV testing is the many false positive test results (positive tests without cervical lesions). Here, we...... assays. None of the 35 genotypes was detected in 49 (1.0 %), 162 (3.2 %), and 56 (1.1 %) samples, respectively. In primary screening at age 30 to 65 years (n = 2859), samples of 72 (25 %) out of 289 with high-risk infections on HC2 and 

  16. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2...... (HC2) and other assays. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies of primary screening with HC2 and ≥one more assay, with cross-tabulated testing results for the assays. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and three authors extracted data from included studies. For each inter...

  17. Recurrent optic neuritis and neuromyelitis optica-IgG following first and second human papillomavirus vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyeyeon; Lee, Hye Lim; Yeo, Minju; Kim, Ji Seon; Shin, Dong-Ick; Lee, Sang-Soo; Lee, Sung-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is widely used to prevent cervical cancer caused by certain types of HPV in girls and young women. Demyelinating disorders within months following HPV innoculation have been reported, but the causal link between HPV vaccination and the onset of demyelinating disorders have not been certain. We report a case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) that was noteworthy because optic neuritis (ON) occurred in a very close temporal association with both the first and second HPV vaccinations, which might suggest an association between HPV vaccination and the development of NMO-IgG and recurrent ON. This emphasizes the necessity for continuing surveillance for adverse events after HPV vaccination.

  18. Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonaguro Franco M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with a restricted set of human papillomaviruses (HPV. Some HPV types, like HPV16 and HPV18, are clear and powerful carcinogens. However, the categorization of the most weakly carcinogenic HPV types is extremely challenging. The decisions are important for screening test and vaccine development. This article describes for open discussion an approach recently taken by a World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Monographs Working Group to re-assess the carcinogenicity of different HPV types.

  19. Comparison of Two PCR-Based Human Papillomavirus Genotyping Methods▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Castle, Philip E.; Porras, Carolina; Quint, Wim G.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Gravitt, Patti E.; González, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Silva, Sandra; Freer, Enrique; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Jiménez, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan

    2008-01-01

    We compared two consensus primer PCR human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping methods for the detection of individual HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV genotypes as a group, using a stratified sample of enrollment cervical specimens from sexually active women participating in the NCI/Costa Rica HPV16/18 Vaccine Efficacy Trial. For the SPF10 method, DNA was extracted from 0.1% of the cervical specimen by using a MagNA Pure LC instrument, a 65-bp region of the HPV L1 gene was targeted for PCR amp...

  20. Effects of human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 oncoproteins on the expression of involucrin in human keratinocytes

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    Gyöngyösi Eszter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human papillomavirus (HPV life cycle is closely linked to keratinocyte differentiation. Oncogenic HPV infection has been shown to hamper the normal differentiation of keratinocytes; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are yet to be clarified. Here, we aimed to study the effects of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes on the expression of involucrin (IVL, an established marker of keratinocyte differentiation, in human foreskin keratinocyte (HFK cells. Results The differentiation of HFK cells by serum and high calcium significantly increased both the mRNA and the protein levels of IVL. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HPV16 together caused strong down-regulation of IVL mRNA and protein both in proliferating and in differentiating HFK cells. To study the effects of HPV oncogenes on the IVL promoter, we made transient transfection assays and luciferase tests and found that HPV 16 E6 but not E7 repressed IVL promoter activity in proliferating HFK cells. The inhibitory effect of HPV 16 E6 on the human IVL promoter could be localised to the proximal regulatory region (PRR of the gene. Conclusions These results suggest that the down-regulation of IVL promoter activity by HPV 16 E6 significantly contribute to the inhibition of endogenous IVL expression by the HPV 16 oncoproteins. In contrast, the down-regulation of endogenous IVL expression by HPV16 E7 is probably not caused by a direct and specific effect of E7 on the IVL promoter.

  1. Vacinas contra o Papilomavirus humano Vaccines against human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2006-09-01

    outras doenças anogenitais associadas à infecção pelo HPV.Papillomavirus infection is more common in young sexually active people. It is so prevalent that from 75% to 80% of this population will be infected in their lifetime. Most lesions will be eradicated spontaneously at the point of not being detected even with the most sensible methods. Persistent infections with oncogenic HPV increase intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer risks. Two ways of prevention may be proposed: screening for precursor lesions and immunization against HPV, to avoid them. Although anogenital cancer incidence is decreasing with screening methods, costs are high and emotional disturbance may be caused by an abnormal result. So, vaccines to prevent diseases associated to HPV must be available. In the last decade, clinical tests began with several vaccines targeting the most frequent HPV types. The goal of prophylactic vaccines is to prevent primary or persistent HPV infections, and thus prevent cervical cancer and/or genital warts and the aim of the therapeutic types is to prevent progression of HPV infection, induce regression of intraepithelial neoplasia or condylomata, or eradicate residual cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines in late stages of clinical testing are composed of HPV L1 capsid protein that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs when expressed in recombinant systems, resulting in strong adaptive immune responses that are capable of neutralizing subsequent natural infections. Some studies observed 100% efficacy in preventing clinical disease for specific HPV types at least 5 years after immunization. Vaccines that target E6 and E7 proteins also represent an important strategy to control HPV-associated lesions and are in test in animal models. HPV vaccines seem to be more effective when administered prior to initiation of sexual activity, and vaccination campaigns should target preadolescent and adolescent populations. It is expected that with good coverage of the

  2. [Pap test used for detection of cellular changes associated with human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Carrillo-Pacheco, Adia; Hernández-Quijano, Tomás; Zárate, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Human papilloma virus can infect any mucous of the body and can cause cancer of the uterine cervix. This suggests recommending the Papanicolaou smear combined with a test for detection of human papillomavirus with a frequency interval of 3 years, since it grants greater information and fidelity to the result. The detection studies should begin at the age of 21 years and should stop at 65 years age. Until recently specific treatments did not exist to treat human papilloma virus, but recently some drugs that have demonstrated good effectiveness in curing the infection of human papilloma virus. One example is glycirrhicinic acid, which has demonstrated fewer adverse effects, as well as the possibility that its systemic employment allows treatment of lesions that are difficult to approach. The medical recommendations should be in constant revision, since a clinical trial can modify the interpretation of what is necessary to individualize each patient's treatment.

  3. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  4. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Munoz

    Full Text Available Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204 were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R. HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58 and two low-risk (LR-HPV (HPV-6/11 types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine followed by HPV-31(47.2% in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7% in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  5. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

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    Ina Marie Angèle Traore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3±8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181. The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%, HPV 52 (16.7%, HPV 18 (14.8%, and HPV 35 (13.0%. HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and human papillomavirus in women with cervical neoplasia in Pernambuco-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mayara Costa Mansur; de Macêdo, Jamilly Lopes; de Lima Júnior, Sérgio Ferreira; de Andrade Heráclio, Sandra; Amorim, Melânia Maria Ramos; de Mascena Diniz Maia, Maria; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted disease. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is considered the main etiological agent for cervical neoplasia. Evidences showed that the presence of co-infection of CT and HR-HPV plays a central role in the etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. The goals of this study were: evaluate the human papillomavirus (HPV) and CT prevalence among Brazilian women with abnormal cytology and provide the effect of this association on the severity of cervical neoplasia. The population of this study was composed by 142 women with incident histological incidence of CIN grades I, II, III or cervical cancer from Recife, Northeast of Brazil. The polymerase chain reaction method on a cervical brush specimen was used to detect both agents and the automatic sequencing method was used for HPV genotyping assay. The prevalence of HPV and CT was 100 and 24.65 %, respectively. Thirteen types of HPV were detected; HPV 16, 18, 31 and 33 were the most common. The most prevalent HPV types were HPV 16 and 18. A significant association between CT positive and HPV 16 infection was found (p infections, with high-risk types being the most common. Also, the data collected suggest that CT infection may play an important role in the natural history of HPV infection.

  7. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract: a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yiang; Manna, Pradip; Ou, Joyce J; Kerley, Spencer; Zhang, Cunxian; Sung, C James; Lawrence, W Dwayne; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2015-09-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus infection usually is seen at one anatomic site in an individual. Rarely, infection at multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract in the same individual is encountered either simultaneously and/or at a later date. The current study identifies the various subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in these scenarios and analyzes the potential significance of these findings. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving 22 anatomic sites from 7 individuals was identified after institutional review board approval. Residual paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved, and all 15 high-risk human papillomavirus were identified and viral load quantified using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method. Multiple high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes were identified in 32% of the samples and as many as 5 different subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a single anatomic site. In general, each anatomic site has unique combination of viral subtypes, although one individual showed overlapping subtypes in the vagina, cervix, and vulvar samples. Higher viral load and rare subtypes are more frequent in younger patients and in dysplasia compared with carcinoma. Follow-up ranging from 3 to 84 months revealed persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection in 60% of cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the -Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species 5 (HPV51), 6 (HPV56), 7 (H...

  9. Serology for human papillomavirus Serología para el virus del papiloma humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Coursaget

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties with serology for papillomavirus are associated with the large number of human papillomavirus, cross-reactions between papillomavirus, and to the diversity of lesions and target sites for infection. In addition, the expression of the papillomavirus in the superficial layers of the epithelium gives rise to the weak presentation to immunocompetent cells of viral antigens, which in turn gives rise to a weak serological response. Distinct efforts have been made in previous decades to develop more specific and sensitive serological assays. These former studies use fusion proteins and synthetic peptides, although they remain on the whole uninteresting, due to their lack of sensitivity and specificity. Only in the last few years, and principally due to the advent of various virus-like particles (VLP, have more sensitive and specific assays become available.Las limitaciones para la utilización de la serología para el estudio del virus del papiloma humano con fines clínicos están asociadas con la gran variedad de subtipos humanos, con las reacciones cruzadas que existen entre diversos genotipos, la diversidad de lesiones precursoras de cáncer y con los sitios blancos de infección. Asimismo, la expresión del virus del papiloma humano en las capas superficiales del epitelio dan origen a una débil presentación de células inmunocompetentes de antígenos virales, lo cual origina una elevación de la respuesta serológica. Distintos esfuerzos se han realizado en décadas previas para desarrollar ensayos serológicos más específicos y sensibles. En muchas investigaciones se ha utilizado una fusión de proteínas y péptidos sintéticos que tienen como principal limitación su escasa sensibilidad y especificidad. Sólo en los últimos años, y principalmente debido al arribo de partículas parecidas a este virus, tenemos disponibles ensayos más sensibles y específicos, ampliamente descritos en este artículo.

  10. Correlates to Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Status and Willingness to Vaccinate in Low-Income Philadelphia High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah B.; Leader, Amy; Shwarz, Michelle; Greener, Judith; Patterson, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination or willingness to be vaccinated in urban, minority adolescents. Methods: Using responses to the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Philadelphia, a random sample of high schools provided weighted data representing 20,941 9th to 12th graders. Stratified by…

  11. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  12. Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to…

  13. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Risk Factors, Vaccination Patterns, and Vaccine Perceptions among a Sample of Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B.; Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Charyk, Anna; Sutherland, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates, including initiation and completion of the vaccine series, and barriers to vaccination in a sample of male college students. Participants: Male students between the ages of 18 and 25 who reported being currently or previously sexually active (N = 735). Methods: A cross-sectional…

  14. Recurrent integration of human papillomaviruses 16, 45, and 67 near translocation breakpoints in new cervical cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, L A; Szuhai, K; van Eendenburg, J D; Bezrookove, V; Kenter, G G; Schuuring, E; Tanke, H; Fleuren, G J

    1999-01-01

    Progressive chromosomal changes and integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences mark the development of invasive cervical cancer. Chromosomal localization of HPV integration is essential to the study of genomic regions involved in HPV-induced pathogenesis. Yet, the available information abou

  15. The Uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine among Adolescent Females in the United States: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jacqueline A.; Peterson, Jane Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive review of literature was conducted to identify the barriers and facilitators, from the parents'/guardians' and primary care providers' (PCPs) perspective, that are associated with the uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescent females. Findings from 14 peer-reviewed articles indicate that 37% of adolescent…

  16. ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE-16 E7 RELATED TO CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL-CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAAY, MFD; DUK, JM; BURGER, MPM; WALBOOMERS, J; TERSCHEGGET, J; GROENIER, KH; DEBRUIJN, HWA; STOLZ, E; HERBRINK, P

    1995-01-01

    Aims-To investigate the correlation between antibodies to the transforming protein E7 of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and clinicopathological indices in women with cervical squamous carcinoma. Methods-A synthetic peptide of the HPV type 16 E7 protein (amino acids 6 to 35) was used to screen se

  17. Long-term absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse following human papillomavirus infection: role of persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Susanne K; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk;

    2010-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type-specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection...

  18. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  19. NucliSENS EasyQ HPV v1 test - Testing for oncogenic activity of human papillomaviruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeantet, D.; Schwarzmann, F.; Tromp, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Oosterlaken, T.; Jacobs, M.; Troesch, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analytical sensitivity of DNA-based assays to detect infection with human papillomaviruses is very high, but clinical specificity for cervical cancer strongly depends on the age of the patient and case classification. To solve the dilemma between sensitivity and specificity, a new genera

  20. Human papillomavirus type 16 and TP53 mutation in oral cancer: matched analysis of the IARC multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, M; Clifford, GM; Calvez, F le; Castellsague, X; Snijders, P.J.F.; Pawlita, M; Herrero, R; Hainaut, P; Franceschi, S

    2004-01-01

    TP53 mutations were analyzed in 35 human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA-positive cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx and in 35 HPV DNA-negative cancers matched by subsite, country, sex, age, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Wild-type TP53 was found more frequently in cancer specimens tha

  1. College Students' Perceptions of and Experiences with Human Papillomavirus and Herpes: Implications for College Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler, Christopher; Hope, Andrea; Myers, Jaime L.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections spread through skin-to-skin contact represent unique prevention challenges. This study examines how college students perceive safer sex practices with respect to human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes. Qualitative and quantitative data (n = 275) were collected using an online questionnaire. College students'…

  2. Antibodies to human papillomavirus type 16 E7 related to clinicopathological data in patients with cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.D. Baay (Marc); J.M. Duk; M.P.M. Burger; J. Walboomers; J. ter Schegget; K.H. Groenier; H.W. de Bruijn; E. Stolz (Ernst); P. Herbrink (Paul)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAIMS--To investigate the correlation between antibodies to the transforming protein E7 of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and clinicopathological indices in women with cervical squamous carcinoma. METHODS--A synthetic peptide of the HPV type 16 E7 protein (amino acid

  3. ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE-16 E7 RELATED TO CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL-CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAAY, MFD; DUK, JM; BURGER, MPM; WALBOOMERS, J; TERSCHEGGET, J; GROENIER, KH; DEBRUIJN, HWA; STOLZ, E; HERBRINK, P

    1995-01-01

    Aims-To investigate the correlation between antibodies to the transforming protein E7 of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and clinicopathological indices in women with cervical squamous carcinoma. Methods-A synthetic peptide of the HPV type 16 E7 protein (amino acids 6 to 35) was used to screen se

  4. Comparison of three human papillomavirus DNA assays and one mRNA assay in women with abnormal cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Ejegod, Ditte;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical characteristics of four human papillomavirus (HPV) assays: hybrid capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA in Danish women with abnormal cytology. METHODS: SurePath samples from 367 consecutive women from Copenhagen, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined...

  5. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  6. Prospective follow-up of 2,065 young unscreened women to study human papillomavirus incidence and clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Lenselink, C.H.; Quint, W.G.V.; Witte, B.I.; Berkhof, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. However, HPV is also a very common sexually transmitted virus and many women clear their infection. To study HPV incidence and clearance, 2,065 women, aged 18-29 years, were

  7. A novel strategy for human papillomavirus detection and genotyping with SybrGreen and molecular beacon polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szuhai, K; Sandhaus, E; Kolkman-Uljee, SM; Lemaitre, M; Truffert, JC; Dirks, RW; Tanke, HJ; Fleuren, GJ; Schuuring, E; Raap, AK

    2001-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. For identification of the large number of different HPV types found in (pre)malignant lesions, a robust methodology is needed that combines general HPV detection with HPV genotyping. We have developed for

  8. Human papillomavirus mRNA and DNA testing in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA and DNA testing of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) during cervical cancer screening. Using a nationwide Danish pathology register, we identified women aged 30...

  9. Human papillomavirus type influences the extent of chromosomal lag during mitosis in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; VanLeeuwen, AM; Hollema, H; Quint, WGV; Pieters, WJLM

    1997-01-01

    The level of risk for carcinoma in the uterine cervix depends on the type of human papillomavirus (HPV) present. We examined whether the HPV type influences the proliferation rate and occurrence of mitotic figures with lagging chromosomes in the precursor of cervical carcinoma. The study group compr

  10. Prevalence and Type Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Among 1813 Men in Tanzania and the Relationship to HIV Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Iftner, Thomas; Mwaiselage, Julius;

    2013-01-01

    Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with penile cancer in men, cervical cancer in women, and anal cancer and certain types of head and neck cancers in both sexes. Few studies have assessed the prevalence and type distribution of HPV among men in sub-Saharan Africa...

  11. Risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in relation to smoking among women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Schmiedel, Sven; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with cervical cancer. We examined whether smoking increases the risk for high-grade cervical lesions in women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study, 8,656 women underwent a structured interview, and...

  12. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  13. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination programmes parallel to current routine vaccination of young teenage girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, T.A.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Since 2009, 12-year-old Dutch teenage girls are vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The current uptake of HPV vaccination, being approximately 60% nowadays, is however comparatively low. Consequently, a large group of women are still at risk of developing HPV-induced

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information

  16. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  17. A novel strategy for human papillomavirus detection and genotyping with SybrGreen and molecular beacon polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szuhai, K; Sandhaus, E; Kolkman-Uljee, SM; Lemaitre, M; Truffert, JC; Dirks, RW; Tanke, HJ; Fleuren, GJ; Schuuring, E; Raap, AK

    2001-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. For identification of the large number of different HPV types found in (pre)malignant lesions, a robust methodology is needed that combines general HPV detection with HPV genotyping. We have developed for fo

  18. A Randomized Intervention Study to Evaluate Whether Electronic Messaging Can Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Completion and Knowledge among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R.; Maddy, LaDonna; Torres, Essie; Goldberg, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate an intervention aimed at increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine completion of the 3-dose series and knowledge. Participants: Two hundred sixty-four male and female US college students 18-26 years old who were receiving HPV vaccine dose 1. Methods: Students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group.…

  19. Hybrid Capture 2 and cobas human papillomavirus assays perform similarly on SurePath samples from women with abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornari, D; Rebolj, M; Bjerregaard, B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In two laboratories (Departments of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospitals of Herlev and Hvidovre), we compared cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) assays using SurePath® samples from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) at...

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PROPHYLACTIC VACCINATION AGAINST HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION USING A DYNAMIC-MODELLING APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, T.; Nijman, H.; Wilschut, J.; Daemen, T.; Postma, M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2008, teenage girls are being vaccinated against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Europe. The vaccine coverage did not reach high uptake. The aim of this study is to design a dynamic transmission framework to model HPVtransmission in the population in order to predict epidemiologic an

  1. Human papillomavirus type influences the extent of chromosomal lag during mitosis in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; VanLeeuwen, AM; Hollema, H; Quint, WGV; Pieters, WJLM

    The level of risk for carcinoma in the uterine cervix depends on the type of human papillomavirus (HPV) present. We examined whether the HPV type influences the proliferation rate and occurrence of mitotic figures with lagging chromosomes in the precursor of cervical carcinoma. The study group

  2. Heparin increases the infectivity of Human Papillomavirus type 16 independent of cell surface proteoglycans and induces L1 epitope exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueira, C.; Liu, Y.; Kuhling, L.; Chai, W.; Hafezi, W.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Kuhn, J.E.; Feizi, T.; Schelhaas, M.

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most prevalent type. Several HPVs require heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for cell binding. Here, we analyse the phenomenon that preincubation of HPV-16 with increasing concentrations of heparin resu

  3. The role of acquired immunity in the spread of human papillomavirus (HPV): explorations with a microsimulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsse, S.M.; Rosmalen, J. van; Hontelez, J.A.; Bakker, R; Kok, I.M. de; Ballegooijen, M. van; Vlas, S.J. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular the role of immunity, is crucial in estimating the (cost-) effectiveness of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening strategies, because naturally acquired immunity after clearing an infection may already

  4. The role of acquired immunity in the spread of human papillomavirus (HPV): explorations with a microsimulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsse, S.M.; Rosmalen, J. van; Hontelez, J.A.; Bakker, R; Kok, I.M. de; Ballegooijen, M. van; Vlas, S.J. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular the role of immunity, is crucial in estimating the (cost-) effectiveness of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening strategies, because naturally acquired immunity after clearing an infection may already

  5. Antibodies to human papillomavirus type 16 E7 related to clinicopathological data in patients with cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.D. Baay (Marc); J.M. Duk; M.P.M. Burger; J. Walboomers; J. ter Schegget; K.H. Groenier; H.W. de Bruijn; E. Stolz (Ernst); P. Herbrink (Paul)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAIMS--To investigate the correlation between antibodies to the transforming protein E7 of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and clinicopathological indices in women with cervical squamous carcinoma. METHODS--A synthetic peptide of the HPV type 16 E7 protein (amino acid

  6. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SH; Zali, MR; Raoufi, M; Nadji, M; Kowsarian, P; Nowroozi, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of HPV -16,18, and 33 in cases of cervical cancer from Iran. Material and Methods: This retrospective study covered 100 patients with uterine cervical carcinomas who were referred to two referral centers for cancer in Tehran-Iran. Pathological blocks were collected for these cases and initial review of the blocks showed poor specimens in 18 cases, which left 82 cases for the study. These samples were histologically examined to verify the presence and the type of carcinoma. The next step was in situ hybridzation for the detection of HPV common DNA. In Situ hybridization was preformed on all samples. Finally, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was preformed for the HPV types 16, 18, and 33. PCR amplification of exon 5 of the p53 gene was used as an internal control for the integrity of DNA. Takara PCR Human papilloma Detection method was used which includes primer for HPV 16, 18, and 33. Three primers were used alone, or in combination, in order to increase the sensitivity of the detection. Results: The majority of tumors were squamous cell carcinomas (87%). The rest were adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. None of the 82 different cervical carcinoma tissue samples were found to be positive by in situ hybridization. In the PCR samples, amplification of DNA was observed for 69 tumor specimens. In the remainning13 cases, the DNA in fixed tissue was degraded, as verified by the absence of an internal control band (p53). Out of the total 69 tumors (85.5%) with adequate DNA contained HPV band on PCR. The majority (73.9%) of HPV

  7. p53 represses human papillomavirus type 16 DNA replication via the viral E2 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Iain M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV DNA replication can be inhibited by the cellular tumour suppressor protein p53. However, the mechanism through which p53 inhibits viral replication and the role that this might play in the HPV life cycle are not known. The papillomavirus E2 protein is required for efficient HPV DNA replication and also regulates viral gene expression. E2 represses transcription of the HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes and can thereby modulate indirectly host cell proliferation and survival. In addition, the E2 protein from HPV 16 has been shown to bind p53 and to be capable of inducing apoptosis independently of E6 and E7. Results Here we use a panel of E2 mutants to confirm that mutations which block the induction of apoptosis via this E6/E7-independent pathway, have little or no effect on the induction of apoptosis by the E6/E7-dependent pathway. Although these mutations in E2 do not affect the ability of the protein to mediate HPV DNA replication, they do abrogate the repressive effects of p53 on the transcriptional activity of E2 and prevent the inhibition of E2-dependent HPV DNA replication by p53. Conclusion These data suggest that p53 down-regulates HPV 16 DNA replication via the E2 protein.

  8. Characterisation of human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes in the Azorean population, Terceira island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Fernando

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus detection is very important for the evaluation of prevention strategies in cervical cancer. In the Azorean population, the virus prevalence has never been studied, and there is no data available to preview a successful outcome with HPV vaccination. In this article, our objective is to characterise the HPV genotypes in Terceira Island, contributing for the epidemiological knowledge on the virus infection. Results Cervical samples were collected from 289 women aged 16–81 in the Gynaecological Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital de Santo Espírito de Angra do Heroísmo (HSEAH. HPV DNA was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction using the general consensus primers PGMYO9/PGMY11. Commercially available Papillomavirus Clinical Arrays® kits (Genomica were used to perform HPV genotyping. 30 women were HPV positive, with a median age of 41 years old. Our results show that the overall HPV prevalence was 10.49%. Seventeen genotypes were identified, including 58.82% high risk, 17.65% low risk and 23.53% undetermined risk. Conclusion Unlike other epidemiological studies, HPV31 was the most frequent type (26.67% in Terceira Island, followed by HPV16 (10.00%, HPV51, HPV53, HPV70 and HPV82 (6.67%. Further studies are needed to investigate if the HPV types found in our population are associated with the risk of progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer.

  9. Long-term results of treatment for benign cervical epithelial changes associated with human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kedrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPV and innate immune control responses made it possible to lookfor ways of reducing the replication load of viral proteins and to activate the mechanisms of innate immunity for rapid viral elimination. This is extremely important since persistent infection mainly with papillomavirus types 16, 18, 35, 45, and 52 is the major cause of cervical cancer. Over 3 years, the screening program proposed by the World Health Organization in 2001 could reveal about 10 % of the 30 000 women who had moderate and severe or more cervical epithelial lesion and other 14 % had a HPV positive test showing mainly the presence of several strains. The level of persistent infection (the presence of one type of the virus within 12 months was significantly higher among smokers and women older than 35 years of age. In our trial, the use of Isoprinosine in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 28 days contributed to rapid viral elimination persisting longer than 12 months in 91.8 % of the patients.

  10. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human skin against the background of papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, I V; Reva, G V; Yamamoto, T; Tolmachyov, V E

    2014-09-01

    The cells in the skin tumor developing under conditions of persisting papillomavirus infection are morphologically identical to blast cells in a blood smear from a leukemia patient. The cells filling the lesion focus are morphologically and immunohistochemically related to blood stem cells. A mechanism of epithelial layer modification under conditions of papillomavirus infection leading to carcinogenesis is proposed. The dynamics of structural changes in the skin is characterized by disturbed interactions between the epithelium and adjacent connective tissue, destruction of the basal membrane, disorders in the cambial keratinocyte differentiation, and absence of the spinous and granular layers. We conclude that detection of blast leukocytes in the human skin lesion can be explained by disorders in the cell-cell interactions in the epithelium-mesenchymal tissue system. High proliferative activity followed by death of cambial keratinocytes, migration of effector antigen-presenting CD68 cells to the adjacent connective tissue are the factors inducing migration of blast leukocytic forms to the focus. Not only keratinocyte restitution capacity, but also epithelium-dependent differentiation of young leukocytes disappeared. Undifferentiated cells are migrated from the blood to the epithelium alteration zone, but not in the reverse direction. The insufficiency or the absence of blood blast cell differentiation of the in the focus of epidermal injury and adjacent tissue triggers carcinogenesis. The authors suggest their model of carcinogenesis. The conclusions offer a new concept of cancer pathogenesis and suggest a new strategy in the search for methods for early diagnosis of carcinogenesis.

  11. Seroprevalence of 34 human papillomavirus types in the German general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Michael

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of infections with many human papillomavirus (HPV types is poorly understood. Here, we describe for the first time the age- and sex-dependent antibody prevalence for 29 cutaneous and five mucosal HPV types from 15 species within five phylogenetic genera (alpha, beta, gamma, mu, nu in a general population. Sera from 1,797 German adults and children (758 males and 1,039 females between 1 and 82 years (median 37 years were analysed for antibodies to the major capsid protein L1 by Luminex-based multiplex serology. The first substantial HPV antibody reactions observed already in children and young adults are those to cutaneous types of the genera nu (HPV 41 and mu (HPV 1, 63. The antibody prevalence to mucosal high-risk types, most prominently HPV 16, was elevated after puberty in women but not in men and peaked between 25 and 34 years. Antibodies to beta and gamma papillomaviruses (PV were rare in children and increased homogeneously with age, with prevalence peaks at 40 and 60 years in women and 50 and 70 years in men. Antibodies to cutaneous alpha PV showed a heterogeneous age distribution. In summary, these data suggest three major seroprevalence patterns for HPV of phylogenetically distinct genera: antibodies to mu and nu skin PV appear early in life, those to mucosal alpha PV in women after puberty, and antibodies to beta as well as to gamma skin PV accumulate later in life.

  12. Oncogenic potential diverge among human papillomavirus type 16 natural variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichero, Laura, E-mail: lsichero@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Simao Sobrinho, Joao [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Lina Villa, Luisa [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-10-10

    We compared E6/E7 protein properties of three different HPV-16 variants: AA, E-P and E-350G. Primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFK) were transduced with HPV-16 E6 and E7 and evaluated for proliferation and ability to grow in soft agar. E-P infected keratinocytes presented the lowest efficiency in colony formation. AA and E-350G keratinocytes attained higher capacity for in vitro transformation. We observed similar degradation of TP53 among HPV-16 variants. Furthermore, we accessed the expression profile in early (p5) and late passage (p30) transduced cells of 84 genes commonly involved in carcinogenesis. Most differences could be attributed to HPV-16 E6/E7 expression. In particular, we detected different expression of ITGA2 and CHEK2 in keratinocytes infected with AA and AA/E-350G late passage cells, respectively, and higher expression of MAP2K1 in E-350G transduced keratinocytes. Our results indicate differences among HPV-16 variants that could explain, at least in part, differences in oncogenic potential attributed to these variants.

  13. Increasing Parental Knowledge Related to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Joseph J; Scoloveno, Robert; Kelly, Angela

    2017-08-16

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate parental attitudes toward general vaccination protocols and increase parental knowledge of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. A nonprobability convenience sample (N = 75) using a pre-/postintervention study design was conducted in a pediatric office in southern New Jersey. The Parental Attitudes Module measured the general disposition toward having children receive any type of vaccine. The HPV Knowledge Survey was a second tool used to specifically measures knowledge of the HPV vaccine. A self-directed computer-based learning was part of the educational intervention. A paired t test showed that HPV Knowledge Survey postintervention scores were significantly higher than HPV Knowledge Survey preintervention scores (t = -10.585, p < .001). The Parental Attitudes Module and the HPV Knowledge Survey pretest showed a positive moderate relationship (rs = .552, p < .001). In the 10 years since the HPV vaccine has been on the market, there is a continued need to increase parental knowledge about the HPV vaccine to close the gap on vaccine nonadherence. A self-directed, computer-based learning tablet appears to be an effective tool to educate parents or legal guardians about the purpose, efficacy, and safety of the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human papillomavirus in the HIV-infected host: epidemiology and pathogenesis in the antiretroviral era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Cristina; Palefsky, Joel M

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with essentially all cervical cancers, 80-90 % of anal cancers, and a high proportion of oropharyngeal, vaginal, penile, and vulvar cancers. Malignancy is preceded by the development of precancerous lesions termed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk of HPV-related malignancies. The incidence of anal cancer in particular has markedly risen during the antiretroviral era due to the increased longevity of patients with HIV and the absence of anal malignancy screening programs. HIV infection may facilitate initial HPV infection by disrupting epithelial cell tight junctions. Once infection is established, HIV may promote HSIL development via the up-regulation of HPV oncogene expression and impairment of the immune response needed to clear the lesion. HIV-infected women should be screened for cervical HSIL and cancer, and HIV-infected men and women should be considered for anal screening programs.

  15. Human papillomavirus and p53 protein immunoreactivity in condylomata acuminatum and squamous cell carcinoma of penis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Hua ZHANG; Gui-Qin SUN; Yu YANG; Tai-He ZHANG

    2001-01-01

    To determine the immunoreactive pattem of human papillomavirus (HPV) antigen and p53 protein in condylomata acuminatum (CA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of penis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry for HPV and p53 were performed in 40 specimens of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues using a polyclonal (rabbit) antibody against HPV and a monoclonal (mouse) antibody against human p53 protein. Twenty one cases of CA and nineteen cases of SCC were examined. Results: HPV antigen was detected in all 21 CA and 2 penile SCC. p53 protein overexpression was observed in 12 of 19 (63%) SCC in which 6 cases were strong positive. Five of 21 CA (24%)showed low-grade p53 protein overexpression. Conclusion: CA is related to HPV infection and some cases show p53 protein low-grade overexpression. In contrast, p53 protein overexpression is common in penile SCC, which is seldom related to HPV infection.

  16. Human papillomavirus and its influence on head and neck cancer predisposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil H. Nelke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a virus often infecting humans. It is often present on skin or mucousmembranes. These diverse DNA viruses are often linked to many various benign and malignant neoplasticlesions. Over 40 types of HPV are transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital regionwhich might be secondly transmitted to the oral mucous. Over 150 HPV viruses are defined according tothe invaded site. Oral papillomas are marked with numbers 6, 7, 11, 16 and 32. Squamous cell papillomais often found in laryngeal epithelial tumor associated with HPV-6 and HPV-11 and also HPV-16 in oralsquamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. In the last 15 years OSCC has become more common in children andyoung adults. The role of HPV virus causing oral squamous cell carcinomas is more often realized, butpeople’s lack of knowledge and risky sexual behavior is still the main factor in growing HPV infections.

  17. Detection of human papillomavirus in laryngeal lesions by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Fessler, J N; Warhol, M J

    1994-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with human neoplasms of squamous epithelium. Squamous papillomas and verrucous carcinomas are two types of squamous neoplasms of the larynx that present difficult problems in differential diagnosis. Using in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes......, we examined benign squamous papillomas and verrucous squamous carcinomas of the larynx for the presence of HPV. Forty-two biopsy specimens from 18 patients with laryngeal papillomas and 11 biopsy specimens from seven patients with verrucous carcinomas were obtained from the files of Pennsylvania...... Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Tissue sections were hybridized with an HPV DNA cocktail. The HPV-positive cases then were subtyped further with DNA probes specific for HPV subtypes 6/11, 16/18, and 31/33/35. All benign squamous papillomas (42 of 42) were positive for HPV subtype 6/11. None of the verrucous...

  18. Economic burden of human papillomavirus-related diseases in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Baio

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human papilloma virus (HPV genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 impose a substantial burden of direct costs on the Italian National Health Service that has never been quantified fully. The main objective of the present study was to address this gap: (1 by estimating the total direct medical costs associated with nine major HPV-related diseases, namely invasive cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia, cancer of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and head and neck, anogenital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and (2 by providing an aggregate measure of the total economic burden attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infection. METHODS: For each of the nine conditions, we used available Italian secondary data to estimate the lifetime cost per case, the number of incident cases of each disease, the total economic burden, and the relative prevalence of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, in order to estimate the aggregate fraction of the total economic burden attributable to HPV infection. RESULTS: The total direct costs (expressed in 2011 Euro associated with the annual incident cases of the nine HPV-related conditions included in the analysis were estimated to be €528.6 million, with a plausible range of €480.1-686.2 million. The fraction attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 was €291.0 (range €274.5-315.7 million, accounting for approximately 55% of the total annual burden of HPV-related disease in Italy. CONCLUSIONS: The results provided a plausible estimate of the significant economic burden imposed by the most prevalent HPV-related diseases on the Italian welfare system. The fraction of the total direct lifetime costs attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infections, and the economic burden of noncervical HPV-related diseases carried by men, were found to be cost drivers relevant to the making of informed decisions about future investments in programmes of HPV prevention.

  19. High-risk human papillomavirus and cervical lesions among women living with HIV/AIDS in Brazilian Amazon, Brazil

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    Leila da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection infection and cervical lesions and its associated factors among HIV infected women attending an AIDS clinic in Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Women attending an AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus between March and December 2011 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a standardized interview including demographical, behavioral, and clinical data. Additionally, patients underwent a gynecological evaluation with collection of cervical samples for cytological analysis and high-risk human papillomavirus infection hybrid capture. A blood sample was also obtained to determine CD4 and viral load levels. RESULTS: A total of 310 (82.9% women participated in the study. High-risk human papillomavirus infection was detected in 191 (61.6% cases; 24 (13.5% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL and 4 (2.2% high-grade SIL. No invasive cervical cancer was diagnosed. Median age was 32 (interquartile range (IQR: 27-38 years and median of education was 8.5 (IQR 4-11 years of schooling and 56.1% had a monthly income up to US$180. In multivariate analysis, being less than 30 years old [OR = 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2-2.4,p = 0.005], high-grade SIL [OR = 6.5 (95% CI: 1.6-23.0, p = 0.009], and CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 [OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0, p < 0.001] were associated with high risk human papillomavirus infection infection. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study high-risk human papillomavirus infection was frequent and it was associated to high-SIL. These results show the importance of gynecologic examinations in routine care and follow-up required by those who present with cervical lesions.

  20. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the α-Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species α5 (HPV51), α6 (HPV56), α7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59) and α9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58). Less evidence is available for a thirteenth type (HPV68, α7), which is classified as a 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic). Moreover, seven other phylogenetically related types (HPV26, HPV53, HPV66, HPV67, HPV68, HPV70 and HPV73) were identified as single HPV infections in certain rare cases of cervical cancer and were considered possibly carcinogenic (2B carcinogens). Recently, Halec et al [7] demonstrated that the molecular signature of HPV-induced carcinogenesis (presence of type-specific spliced E6*| mRNA; increased expression of p16; and decreased expression of cyclin D1, p53 and Rb) was similar in cervical cancers containing single infections with one of the eight afore-mentioned 2A or 2B carcinogens to those in cancers with single infections with group 1 carcinogens. Ninety six percent of cervical cancers are attributable to one of the 13 most common HPV types (groups 1 and 2A). Including the additional seven HPV types (group 2B) added 2.6%, to reach a total of 98.7% of all HPV-positive cervical cancers. From recently updated meta-analyses, it was shown that HPV68, HPV26, HPV66, HPV67, HPV73 and HPV82 were significantly more common in cancer cases than in women with normal cervical cytology, suggesting that for these HPV types, an upgrading of the carcinogen classification could be considered. However, there is no need to include them in HPV screening tests or vaccines, given their rarity in

  1. Clinical performance of human papillomavirus E6, E7 mRNA flow cytometric assay compared to human papillomavirus DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottaridi, Christine; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Spathis, Aris; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Pappas, Asimakis; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Karakitsos, Petros

    2011-12-01

    To use flow cytometry to screen cervical samples for the overexpression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 mRNA and compare the performance of this assay with an HPV DNA array for the detection of high-grade cervical lesions. Cervical samples were analyzed for HPV DNA by clinical arrays, and the overexpression of E6 and E7 viral oncogenes was monitored using an HPV mRNA detection kit that quantifies the intracellular HPV E6 and E7 mRNA on a cell-by-cell basis. HPV positivity increased with severity of histologic lesions. On the basis of histology-confirmed CIN 2+ cases the specificity of HPV assay was 73.9% (95% CI 66.07, 80.88), whereas it was 39.3% (95% CI 31.85, 47.1) for the DNA assay. The HPV assay provides an early predictor of persistent HPV infection and may improve cervical cancer screening by increasing the specificity of detecting high-grade lesions.

  2. The human papillomavirus infection in men study: human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Flores, Roberto; Salmeron, Jorge; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha; Jolles, Emily; Nielson, Carrie M; Baggio, Maria Luisa; Silva, Roberto; Quiterio, Manuel

    2008-08-01

    Male sexual behavior influences the rates of cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer, as well as male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease. Unfortunately, little is known regarding male HPV type distribution by age and across countries. In samples combined from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum of 1,160 men from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States, overall HPV prevalence was 65.2%, with 12.0% oncogenic types only, 20.7% nononcogenic types only, 17.8% both oncogenic and nononcogenic, and 14.7% unclassified infections. Multiple HPV types were detected in 25.7% of study participants. HPV prevalence was higher in Brazil (72.3%) than in the United States (61.3%) and Mexico (61.9%). HPV16 (6.5%), HPV51 (5.3%), and HPV59 (5.3%) were the most commonly detected oncogenic infections, and HPV84 (7.7%), HPV62 (7.3%), and HPV6 (6.6%) were the most commonly detected nononcogenic infections. Overall HPV prevalence was not associated with age. However, significant associations with age were observed when specific categories of HPV, nononcogenic, and unclassified HPV infections were considered. Studies of HPV type distribution among a broad age range of men from multiple countries is needed to fill the information gap internationally with respect to our knowledge of HPV infection in men.

  3. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khammissa Razia AG

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx.

  4. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in human papillomavirus equivocal and dysplastic cervical biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroyer, K R; Lovelace, G S; Abarca, M L; Fennell, R H; Corkill, M E; Woodard, W D; Davilla, G H

    1993-09-01

    One hundred twenty-one paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. By in situ hybridization using probes for HPV types 6/11, 16/18, 31/33/35, 42/43/44, 51/52, and 45/56, HPV DNA was found in none of 20 normal/squamous metaplasia biopsy specimens, in one of 76 HPV equivocal biopsy specimens, in seven of 12 condyloma/mild dysplasia biopsy specimens, and in 12 of 13 moderate/severe dysplasia biopsy specimens. Polymerase chain reaction using HPV L1 consensus sequence primers followed by filter hybridization of the amplification products was positive for HPV DNA in two of 20 normal/squamous metaplasia biopsy specimens, in 23 of 76 HPV equivocal biopsy specimens, in eight of 12 condyloma/mild dysplasia biopsy specimens, and in 12 of 13 moderate/severe dysplasia biopsy specimens. Among biopsies that tested positive by polymerase chain reaction but that were negative by in situ hybridization, the most commonly identified HPV was type 16. We conclude that although HPV equivocal biopsy specimens contain HPV DNA more frequently than histologically normal tissue, the majority of biopsy specimens in this category test negative for HPV DNA. The clinical significance of a positive test for HPV, in the absence of unequivocal histologic changes, remains to be determined.

  5. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine as an Anticancer Vaccine: Collaborative Efforts to Promote Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie S; Steele, C Brooke; Hayes, Nikki; Bhatt, Achal; Moore, Angela R

    2017-03-06

    Widespread use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the potential to reduce incidence from HPV-associated cancers. However, vaccine uptake among adolescents remains well below the Healthy People 2020 targets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardees are well positioned to work with immunization programs to increase vaccine uptake. The CDC chronic disease management information system was queried for objectives and activities associated with HPV vaccine that were reported by NCCCP awardees from 2013 to 2016 as part of program reporting requirements. A content analysis was conducted on the query results to categorize interventions according to strategies outlined in The Guide to Community Preventive Services and the 2014 President's Cancer Panel report. Sixty-two percent of NCCCP awardees had planned or implemented at least one activity since 2013 to address low HPV vaccination coverage in their jurisdictions. Most NCCCP awardees (86%) reported community education activities, while 65% reported activities associated with provider education. Systems-based strategies such as client reminders or provider assessment and feedback were each reported by less than 25% of NCCCP awardees. Many NCCCP awardees report planning or implementing activities to address low HPV vaccination coverage, often in conjunction with state immunization programs. NCCCP awardees can play a role in increasing HPV vaccination coverage through their cancer prevention and control expertise and access to partners in the healthcare community.

  6. 253 Use of Transfer Factor in Patients with Persistent Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca Maria; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. About 75 to 80% of sexually active Americans will be infected with HPV at some point in their lifetime. The risk of HPV infection seems to be related with age at first intercourse, younger age and number of sexual partners. HPV infection is limited to the basal cells of stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranas. There is a wide latency period, from months to years, before squamous intraepithelial lesions develop. Most HPV infections are cleared within 2 years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women with “high risk” types the infection persists determining a high risk of developing intraepithelial neoplasias, as cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, penile cancer, and/or anal cancer. The gynecological evaluation and Papanicolau smear are the primary screening tools for detecting HPV infection. There is currently no specific treatment for HPV infection. The Transfer Factor (TF) or Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. TF induces the expression of RNAm and IFN-γ and increases CD4+ cells. The IFN-γ activates macrophages, neutrophils, B lymphocytes, NK cells, and favours the differentiation of T cells into Th1 lymphocytes that are requiried for the control of intracellular patho gens. Methods We used TF in a group of patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection. Results We included 12 patients, aged 19 to 45 years old (mean 30), with 14 to 23 years at first intercourse and a mean of 3 sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options (including cervical freezing, cauterizing loop, imiquimod, podophyllin and/or cervical conization). Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and

  7. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaldi, Thomas G; Almstead, Laura L; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G; Santin, Alessandro D; DiMaio, Daniel

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L. [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Bellone, Stefania [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States); Prevatt, Edward G. [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Santin, Alessandro D. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States); Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028 (United States); DiMaio, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dimaio@yale.edu [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208040, New Haven, CT 06520-8040 (United States); Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208024 (United States); Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028 (United States)

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells.

  9. Identification of a novel human papillomavirus by metagenomic analysis of samples from patients with febrile respiratory illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Mokili

    Full Text Available As part of a virus discovery investigation using a metagenomic approach, a highly divergent novel Human papillomavirus type was identified in pooled convenience nasal/oropharyngeal swab samples collected from patients with febrile respiratory illness. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome and the L1 gene reveals that the new HPV identified in this study clusters with previously described gamma papillomaviruses, sharing only 61.1% (whole genome and 63.1% (L1 sequence identity with its closest relative in the Papillomavirus episteme (PAVE database. This new virus was named HPV_SD2 pending official classification. The complete genome of HPV-SD2 is 7,299 bp long (36.3% G/C and contains 7 open reading frames (L2, L1, E6, E7, E1, E2 and E4 and a non-coding long control region (LCR between L1 and E6. The metagenomic procedures, coupled with the bioinformatic methods described herein are well suited to detect small circular genomes such as those of human papillomaviruses.

  10. Kallikrein-8 Proteolytically Processes Human Papillomaviruses in the Extracellular Space To Facilitate Entry into Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Carla; Samperio Ventayol, Pilar; Vogeley, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The entry of human papillomaviruses into host cells is a complex process. It involves conformational changes at the cell surface, receptor switching, internalization by a novel endocytic mechanism, uncoating in endosomes, trafficking of a subviral complex to the Golgi complex, and nuclear entry during mitosis. Here, we addressed how the stabilizing contacts in the capsid of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) may be reversed to allow uncoating of the viral genome. Using biochemical and cell-biological analyses, we determined that the major capsid protein L1 underwent proteolytic cleavage during entry. In addition to a dispensable cathepsin-mediated proteolysis that occurred likely after removal of capsomers from the subviral complex in endosomes, at least two further proteolytic cleavages of L1 were observed, one of which was independent of the low-pH environment of endosomes. This cleavage occurred extracellularly. Further analysis showed that the responsible protease was the secreted trypsin-like serine protease kallikrein-8 (KLK8) involved in epidermal homeostasis and wound healing. Required for infection, the cleavage was facilitated by prior interaction of viral particles with heparan sulfate proteoglycans. KLK8-mediated cleavage was crucial for further conformational changes exposing an important epitope of the minor capsid protein L2. Occurring independently of cyclophilins and of furin that mediate L2 exposure, KLK8-mediated cleavage of L1 likely facilitated access to L2, located in the capsid lumen, and potentially uncoating. Since HPV6 and HPV18 also required KLK8 for entry, we propose that the KLK8-dependent entry step is conserved. IMPORTANCE Our analysis of the proteolytic processing of incoming HPV16, an etiological agent of cervical cancer, demonstrated that the capsid is cleaved extracellularly by a serine protease active during wound healing and that this cleavage was crucial for infection. The cleavage of L1 is one of at least four structural

  11. Asymptomatic Genital Infection of Human Papillomavirus in Pregnant Women and the Vertical Transmission Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dongrui; WEN Liangzhen; CHEN Wen; LING Xiazhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: To further investigate the vertical transmission route of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the indication for the choice of mode of delivery, the infective status of 152 asymptomatic pregnant wemen and the maternal-fetal transmission were studied. By using general primers in polymerase chain reaction (GP-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, HPV DNA positive rate in cervical secretions and venous blood in asymptomatic pregnant women was 36.21 % and 52.78 %, respectively, and the identified genotypes were mainly HPV16 and 18. The maternal-fetal transmission rate of HPV via genital tract as well as blood was 40.91 % and 57.89 %, respectively. It was concluded that besides the transmission route of genital tract and amniotic fluid, there was also transplacental transmission of HPV in utero. Therefore,in our opinion, it is not an absolut indication to perform a cesarean delivery for the pregnant women with HPV asymtomatic genital infection.

  12. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch F. Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  13. Incremental impact of adding boys to current human papillomavirus vaccination programs: role of herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Marc; van de Velde, Nicolas; Franco, Eduardo L; Drolet, Mélanie; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2011-08-01

    Our aim was to examine the potential incremental impact of vaccinating boys against human papillomavirus (HPV) on vaccine-type infection in females and males, using an individual-based HPV transmission-dynamic model. Under base assumptions (vaccine efficacy = 99%, duration of protection = 20 years, coverage = 70%), vaccinating 12-year-old boys, in addition to girls, resulted in an incremental reduction in HPV-16/18 (HPV-6/11) incidence over 70 years of 16% (3%) in females and 23% (4%) in males. The benefit of vaccinating boys decreased with improved vaccination coverage in girls. Given the important predicted herd immunity impact of vaccinating girls under moderate to high vaccine coverage, the potential incremental gains of vaccinating boys are limited.

  14. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Herd Immunity after Introduction of Vaccination Program, Scotland, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ross L; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Pan, Jiafeng; Love, John; Cuschieri, Kate; Robertson, Chris; Ahmed, Syed; Palmer, Timothy; Pollock, Kevin G J

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program using a bivalent vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18 was implemented in Scotland along with a national surveillance program designed to determine the longitudinal effects of vaccination on HPV infection at the population level. Each year during 2009-2013, the surveillance program conducted HPV testing on a proportion of liquid-based cytology samples from women undergoing their first cervical screening test for precancerous cervical disease. By linking vaccination, cervical screening, and HPV testing data, over the study period we found a decline in HPV types 16 and 18, significant decreases in HPV types 31, 33, and 45 (suggesting cross-protection), and a nonsignificant increase in HPV 51. In addition, among nonvaccinated women, HPV types 16 and 18 infections were significantly lower in 2013 than in 2009. Our results preliminarily indicate herd immunity and sustained effectiveness of the bivalent vaccine on virologic outcomes at the population level.

  15. Splicing and Polyadenylation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 mRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengjun; Kajitani, Naoko; Schwartz, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) life cycle can be divided into an early stage in which the HPV16 genomic DNA is replicated, and a late stage in which the HPV16 structural proteins are synthesized and virions are produced. A strong coupling between the viral life cycle and the differentiation state of the infected cell is highly characteristic of all HPVs. The switch from the HPV16 early gene expression program to the late requires a promoter switch, a polyadenylation signal switch and a shift in alternative splicing. A number of cis-acting RNA elements on the HPV16 mRNAs and cellular and viral factors interacting with these elements are involved in the control of HPV16 gene expression. This review summarizes our knowledge of HPV16 cis-acting RNA elements and cellular and viral trans-acting factors that regulate HPV16 gene expression at the level of splicing and polyadenylation. PMID:28208770

  16. Socioeconomic predictors of human papillomavirus vaccination among girls in the Danish childhood immunization program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slåttelid Schreiber, Selma Marie; Juul, Kirsten Egebjerg; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In 2009, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was introduced in the Danish national childhood immunization program targeting all 12-year-old girls. Previous findings suggest that 10%-13% of girls born in 1996-1997 have not initiated vaccination despite free access. This study aims...... to identify socioeconomic predictors of initiation and completion of HPV vaccination. METHODS: Girls born in 1996-1997 and their guardians were identified through the Danish Civil Registration System. Information on socioeconomic variables and HPV vaccination status was obtained by linkage to Statistics...... Denmark and the Danish National Health Insurance Service Register. Through logistic regression, we examined associations between socioeconomic variables and HPV vaccine initiation (N = 65,926) and completion (N = 61,162). RESULTS: Girls with immigrant ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = .49; 95% confidence...

  17. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    : 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared...... to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority......Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...

  18. Differential detection of Human Papillomavirus genotypes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by four commercial assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories can nowadays choose from >100 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays for cervical screening. Our previous analysis based on the data from the Danish Horizon study, however, showed that four widely used assays, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA, frequently do not detect...... the same HPV infections. Here, we determined the characteristics of the concordant (all four assays returning a positive HPV test result) and discordant samples (all other HPV-positive samples) in primary cervical screening at 30-65 years (n=2859) and in a concurrent referral population from the same...... catchment area (n=885). HPV testing followed the manufacturers' protocols. Women with abnormal cytology were managed according to the routine recommendations. Cytology-normal/HPV-positive women were invited for repeated testing in 18 months. Screening history and histologically confirmed cervical...

  19. Anal human papillomavirus infection: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of related lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolo, Maria; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Ravenda, Paola Simona; Chiocca, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is mostly asymptomatic, but may also have many diverse clinical signs encompassing benign ano-genital lesions, and carcinomas. Recently, interest has also particularly focused on anal cancer since, over the last decades, its incidence has been greatly increasing in developed countries, both in women and men and is drastically higher in specific risk groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 infected individuals. Approximately 88% of anal cancer cases worldwide are associated with HPV infection. This review summarizes our current understanding of anal HPV infection, discussing its epidemiology and risk factors in various populations, and the state of the art in the detection of anal HPV infection and its related lesions through both cytology and histology. Finally, we discuss the clinical management and therapy for these lesions.

  20. Incorporating human papillomavirus testing into cytological screening in the era of prophylactic vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Screening for, and treatment of, pre-cancerous cervical lesions has lead to dramatic reductions in cervical cancer in many countries. In all cases, cervical screening has been based on cytology, but that is beginning to change. Research studies, including randomised trials, clearly show that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could be used to prevent a greater proportion of cervical cancer within a practical screening programme. Meanwhile, young adolescents are being vaccinated against HPV in developed countries, but cervical screening should continue for many years because it will take decades before most of those targeted by screening have been vaccinated. In the HPV vaccination era, the rate of cervical disease will decrease, and so will the positive predictive value of cytology. The screening characteristics of HPV testing make it the preferred choice for primary screening. However, questions regarding how to use HPV testing to screen vaccinated and unvaccinated women in the future remain unanswered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of human papillomavirus testing and cytology in follow-up after conization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Huusom, Lene D; Deltour, Isabelle;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adequate follow-up of women who have undergone conization for high-grade cervical lesions is crucial in cervical cancer screening programs. We evaluated the performance of testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, cytology alone, and combined testing in predicting cervical...... after conization is more sensitive than ASCUS+ cytology for identifying women at risk for relapse of CIN2+ within 2 years. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether HPV testing could be a stand-alone test in follow up after conization....... detection of high-risk HPV. The women were passively followed until 2 years after first follow-up visit by linkage to the nationwide Pathology Data Bank. RESULTS: At first visit after conization (median time, 3.4 months), 20.4% were HPV-positive and 17.2% had atypical squamous intraepithelial lesions...

  2. Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 2 Related Sequence in Oral Papilloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taihei; Shindoh, Masanobu; Amemiya, Akira; Inoue, Nobuo; Kawamura, Masaaki; Sakaoka, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masakazu; Fujinaga, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Oral papilloma is a benign tumourous lesion. Part of this lesion is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We analysed the genetical and histopathological evidence for HPV type 2 infection in three oral papillomas. Southern blot hybridization showed HPV 2a sequence in one lesion. Cells of the positive specimen appeared to contain high copy numbers of the viral DNA in an episomal state. In situ staining demonstrated virus capsid antigen in koilocytotic cells and surrounding cells in the hyperplastic epithelial layer. Two other specimens contained no HPV sequences by labeled probe of full length linear HPVs 2a, 6b, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33 DNA under low stringency hybridization conditions. These results showed the possibility that HPV 2 plays a role in oral papilloma. PMID:9699941

  3. Human papillomavirus detection and p16 methylation pattern in a case of esophageal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, L A; Moysés, N; Cavalcanti, S M B

    2010-07-01

    Esophageal cancer is a prevalent cancer worldwide. Some studies have reported the possible etiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in benign and malignant papillomas of the esophagus but the conclusions are controversial. In the present study, we investigated an esophageal papilloma from a 30-year-old male patient presenting aphasia. HPV DNA was detected by generic PCR using MY09/11 primers, and restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed the presence of HPV54, usually associated with benign genital lesions. Hypermethylation of the pINK4A gene was also investigated due to its relation to malignant transformation, but no modification was detected in the host gene. Except for an incipient reflux, no risk factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse or an infected sexual partner were recorded. Since esophageal lesions may have a malignant potential, HPV detection and typing are useful tools for patient follow-up.

  4. CE: Human Papillomavirus-Related Oral Cancers: The Nurse's Role in Mitigating Stigma and Dispelling Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne

    2017-01-01

    : The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral cancers has been rising, the cancers occurring in adults at a younger age than HPV-negative oral cancers typically do and in men more often than women. Patients who are diagnosed often don't understand the disease's etiology. Because HPV is sexually transmitted, diagnosis with an HPV-related oral cancer may prompt feelings of shame, embarrassment, and guilt. There are currently three vaccines for HPV. It's essential for nurses to educate patients on HPV transmission and HPV-related oral cancer, thus helping to mitigate the stigma and dispel myths, and to promote vaccination in at-risk populations, including children and young adults.

  5. Cellular transformation by human papillomaviruses: Lessons learned by comparing high- and low-risk viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Roman, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of papillomaviruses (PVs) has been appreciated since the 1930s yet the mechanisms of virally-mediated cellular transformation are still being revealed. Reasons for this include: a) the oncoproteins are multifunctional, b) there is an ever-growing list of cellular interacting proteins, c) more than one cellular protein may bind to a given region of the oncoprotein, and d) there is only limited information on the proteins encoded by the corresponding non-oncogenic PVs. The perspective of this review will be to contrast the activities of the viral E6 and E7 proteins encoded by the oncogenic human PVs (termed high-risk HPVs) to those encoded by their non-oncogenic counterparts (termed low-risk HPVs) in an attempt to sort out viral life cycle-related functions from oncogenic functions. The review will emphasize lessons learned from the cell culture studies of the HPVs causing mucosal/genital tract cancers. PMID:22284986

  6. Human papillomavirus immunization uptake among girls with a refugee background compared with Danish-born girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Møller, Sanne; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Refugee children and their families may experience impaired access to healthcare; therefore, we aimed to uncover human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization patterns among a large group of refugee girls compared with Danish-born girls. We also examined possible predictors of uptake among refugee girls....... We used aregister-based cohort design where refugee girls (n = 3264) who, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark, were included and matched on age and sex with Danish-born girls (n = 19 584). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the National...... Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for HPV-immunization in both the ordinary HPV-immunization program and in a catch-up program. We applied logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of uptake. We found that refugee girls had significantly lower HPV-immunization uptake...

  7. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  8. CURRENT ISSUES FACING THE INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINE IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Sam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain human papillomavirus (HPV types are strongly associated with cervical cancer. Recently-described effective vaccines against these HPV types represent a great medical breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer. In Malaysia, the vaccine has just received regulatory approval. We are likely to face similar barriers to implementing HPV vaccination as reported by countries where vaccination has been introduced. Most women have poor understanding of HPV and its link to cervical cancer. Physicians who will be recommending HPV vaccines may not have extensive knowledge or experience with HPV-related disease. Furthermore, a vaccine against a sexually-transmitted infection may elicit negative reactions from potential recipients or their carers, particularly in a conservative society. Given the high cost of the vaccine, reaching the most vulnerable women is a concern. To foster broad acceptance of HPV vaccine, education must be provided to health care providers, parents and young women about the risks of HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination.

  9. Low frequency of human papillomavirus infection in conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma of Mexican patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta Raúl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection and conjunctiva cancer is controversial. HPV detection will provide more information about the role of this infectious agent in the biology of conjunctiva cancer. In the present study, DNA extracted and purified from 36 Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinomas (CSCC was evaluated by PCR for HPV DNA sequences. The results were correlated with the clinical and histopathological variables. Results The results showed that HPV DNA was present in 8 CSCC samples (22%; HPV16 was the sole type detected. Significant association was found between HPV detection and the limbus tumor subtype (p = 0.03. All the samples were non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions The HPV presence in CSCC from Mexican patients is not a common event.

  10. Implication of HLA-C and KIR alleles in human papillomavirus infection and associated cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Roberta; Gentili, Valentina; Rotola, Antonella; Bortolotti, Daria; Cassai, Enzo; Di Luca, Dario

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) regulation of host immune response leads to cervical lesions. In particular, natural killer (NK) cells are crucial for HPV control. Since specific HLA-I/KIR interactions modify NK cell activation, we analyzed HLA-C and KIR alleles in HPV infection and lesion development in 150 controls, 33 condyloma acuminatum, and 111 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) patients. We showed an increase in HLA-C1/KIR2DL2 and HLA-C1/KIR2DL3 pairs in HPV high-risk infected patients (OR 3.05, 3.24) with ICC (OR 1.33, 3.68). These data suggest HLA-C and KIR typing as risk marker for HPV infection and lesion evolution.

  11. Human papillomavirus vaccine stages of change among male and female university students: ready or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A; Grunzweig, Katherine A; Zochowski, Melissa K; Dempsey, Amanda F; Carlos, Ruth C; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2013-01-01

    To examine gender differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine stages of change following the recommendations for permissive use of HPV vaccine in males. Students aged 18-26 attending a large, public, Midwest university in April 2010. Participants completed a self-administered, online questionnaire. HPV vaccine stage of change was assessed according to core constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. Logistic regression was used to identify associations of HPV-related beliefs and attitudes with stage of change. Although most (80.5%) of the 4,019 participants had at least contemplated HPV vaccination, more females had taken observable steps towards vaccination. Significant differences between genders in HPV-related beliefs and attitudes were observed, particularly perceived parental or perceived health care provider approval of HPV vaccination. University students generally agreed with the benefits of HPV vaccination, both for themselves and for society, and these attitudes were significantly associated with having at least contemplated vaccination.

  12. Association Between Vaginal Douching and Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Thai, Thuy Nhu; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Shete, Sanjay S; Ramondetta, Lois M; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2016-11-01

    The very few studies that have examined the association between vaginal douching and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have found contrary results. We investigated the associations between douching and numbers of HPV genotypes infecting 1271 participants aged 20-49 years in the 2003-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After controlling for relevant covariates, douching in the past 6 months was significantly associated with infection by higher numbers of all genital HPV types (relative risk ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.54) and HPV high-risk types (1.40; 1.09-1.80). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sources of information for assessing human papillomavirus vaccination history among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Linda M; McBride, Vanessa; Julian, Pamela R

    2014-05-23

    Assessing history of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is important for monitoring vaccine uptake, impact, and effectiveness. Based on data collected from 1720 women with high-grade cervical lesions reported to a statewide surveillance system in Connecticut, we found that available medical records did not contain HPV vaccination information for 34% of women, and 43% of women could not be reached for interview. When both were used for data collection, concordance of vaccination history (83%) and sensitivity of self-report (96%) were both high. Reviewing medical records based on self-reported information about vaccine providers increased confirmation of vaccination histories in this sample by 18%. The vaccine registry in Connecticut is not currently utilized for HPV vaccinations, but efforts to increase use for adolescent vaccines could be useful in the future to overcome limitations of other sources.

  14. A Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's disease) with PCR Detection of Human Papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Bora; Gunduz, Kaan; Gunhan, Omer; Ozden, Feyza Otan

    2011-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papillomavirus. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region to another. In Caucasians there have been only few cases reported. This paper reports a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia and demonstrates the association with HPV subtype 32 through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of PCR products. A 7-year-old Caucasian girl was admitted to our clinic for investigation of multiple oral mucosal lesions in the mouth. Lesion was excised under local anesthesia without any complication. The lesion was diagnosed as focal epithelial hyperplasia according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental staff should be aware of these kind of lesions and histopathological examination together with a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  15. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of 3 cases with human papillomavirus DNA sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, S E; Tokman Yildirim, Benay; Sarisoy, S

    2011-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a benign proliferative viral infection of the oral mucosa that is related to Human Papil-lomavirus (HPV), mainly subtypes 13 and 32. Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, the reported cases among Caucasians are relatively rare. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Histopathologically, it is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, fusion, and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges and the cells named mitozoids. The purpose of this case report was to present 3 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a pediatric age group. Histopathological and clinical features of cases are discussed and DNA sequencing analysis is reported in which HPV 13, HPV 32, and HPV 11 genomes are detected.

  16. 阴茎癌与HPV感染%Penile cancer and human papillomavirus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟建坡; 王建伟

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the major risk factors for penile cancer. This article presents an overview on the biological characteristics of HPVs, HPV infection in penile cancer, possible carcinogenic mechanisms of HPV, prognostic value of HPV in penile cancer, and HPV vaccine.%HPV感染是阴茎癌重要的致病因素之一.本文对HPVs的生物学特性,HPV在阴茎癌中的感染情况,HPV可能的致癌机制,HPV与阴茎癌预后的关系以及HPV疫苗的应用前景等方面进行了综述.

  17. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: Evidence from a large survey of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo T.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lisen;

    2014-01-01

    . Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who...... than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. CONCLUSION: Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age...

  18. Human papillomavirus and anorectal carcinoma knowledge in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Christopher W; Eden, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a precursor to the development of anorectal carcinoma. Studies have indicated that men who have sex with men (MSM) have significantly higher rates of HPV and HIV than their heterosexual counterparts and are at greater risk for anorectal carcinoma. This article presents findings from a descriptive study to assess knowledge of HPV, anorectal carcinoma, and anorectal screening in a sample of MSM in Orlando, FL. The 89 participants demonstrated knowledge deficits. The average score on knowledge items was only 38% correct. Of the 49 participants who had heard of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smears, only 5 (10.2%) discussed screening with a physician, while 8 (16.3%) had discussed it with a nurse, and 16 (32.7%) with another health care professional. Findings support the need for community outreach efforts to promote knowledge and the need for discussion with providers regarding HPV and anorectal carcinoma in this vulnerable population.

  19. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV and its relation with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, teenage pregnancies, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, having multiple sex partners, hormone replacement therapies and various other unknown factors lead to the onset of the disease. Awareness for various diagnostic procedures such as Pap smears screening prove to be an effective way in eradicating the oncogenic potential of HPV.

  20. College Men and Women and Their Intent to Receive Genital Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Richards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study set out to investigate what influences the intentions of college students to get vaccinated against genital human papillomavirus (HPV. College men and women were surveyed to understand their intentions. Regression was used and supported that the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as well as gender, norms, and information seeking contributed to predicting intent to receive the HPV vaccine, R2 = .61, F(6, 159 = 39.41, p < .001. Benefits and barriers were the most influential variable, and men were more likely to intend to receive the vaccine. The findings should be applied to future campaigns aimed at increasing preventive health behaviors, especially vaccinations among college students.

  1. [News items on human papillomavirus and its vaccine in the Valencian press (2006-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuells, José; Duro Torrijos, José Luis; Chilet Rosell, Elisa; Pastor Villalba, Eliseo; Portero Alonso, Antonio; Navarro Ortiz, Carmen; Galiana de la Villa, Eva María

    2013-01-01

    The process of introducing the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine aimed at teenage girls has not been entirely without controversy in Spain. This vaccine was originally hyped as a preventive measure in the fight against cervical cancer but the resulting euphoria was tempered by a message calling for evidence. During administration of the second dose of the vaccine in February 2009, an unexpected turn of events attracted vast media coverage when two teenagers experienced adverse effects after immunization in Valencia (Spain). This study analyzes the scope and content of news items on HPV, immunization and cervical cancer published between 2006 and 2011 in two widely disseminated regional newspapers in Valencia. We also discuss the extent to which the messages transmitted may have influenced acceptability of the vaccine. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. [Research progress in roles of high-risk human papillomavirus E2 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, En-Qi; Tang, Yuan-Yu

    2014-03-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of various cancers including cervical cancer, anal cancer, vulvar cancer, and some head and neck cancers. In the viral life cycle, by interacting with both viral and host DNA and proteins, the HPV E2 protein plays a pivotal role in viral transcriptional regulation and DNA replication, and it is also associated with modification of various cellular processes, including host gene transcription, RNA processing, apoptosis, ubiquitination, and intracellular trafficking, to create a convenient environment for a replicative cycle of the virus and contribute to the HPV pathogenesis. Elucidating the roles of E2 protein throughout the viral life cycle will improve our understanding of the viral life cycle and pathogenesis and help us identify novel antiviral agents with therapeutic potential. This article reviews the research progress in the structure, roles, and activity of high-risk HPV E2 protein, particularly that of HPV-16.

  3. The invisible enemy - how human papillomaviruses avoid recognition and clearance by the host immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Riemer, Angelika B

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) needs to persist in squamous epithelia for a certain amount of time to complete its reproductive cycle. Therefore, the virus has evolved multiple immune evasion strategies. The interplay of these immune evasion mechanisms with the host immune system decides whether a HPV infection is cleared or becomes persistent. Clearance of HPV-induced lesions is mediated by a cellular immune response, consisting of both cytotoxic T lymphocyte and T helper cell responses. Persistent HPV infection, on the other hand, is the single most important risk factor for the development of HPV-associated premalignant lesions and HPV-driven cancers. This article reviews the immune evasion mechanisms employed by high-risk HPVs to escape host immune recognition and attack.

  4. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion. High-risk HPV analysis and immunostaining for P16 were both positive. A biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy followed by a radical vulvectomy. During treatment, her CD4 T-lymphocyte count decreased to 120 advancing her condition from HIV to AIDS. This case suggests that all HPV-associated cancers should be included as AIDS defining illnesses.

  5. HLA-DP is the cervical cancer susceptibility loci among women infected by high-risk human papillomavirus: potential implication for triage of human papillomavirus-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Meiqun; Han, Jing; Hang, Dong; Jiang, Jie; Wang, Minjie; Wei, Baojun; Dai, Juncheng; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Lanwei; Qi, Jun; Ma, Hongxia; Shi, Jufang; Ren, Jiansong; Hu, Zhibin; Dai, Min; Li, Ni

    2016-06-01

    Given that only a small proportion of women infected by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) develop cervical cancer, it's important to identify biomarkers for distinguishing women with hrHPV positivity who might develop cervical cancer from the transient infections. In this study, we hypothesized that human leukocyte antigens (HLA) susceptibility alleles might contribute to cervical cancer risk among females infected by hrHPV, and interact with hrHPV types. A case-control study with 593 cervical cancer cases and 407 controls (all hrHPV positive) was conducted to evaluate the effect of eight HLA-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their interactions with hrHPV types on the risk of cervical cancer. Three HLA-DP SNPs (rs4282438, rs3117027, and rs3077) were found to be significantly associated with risk of cervical cancer (rs4282438: odds ratio (OR) = 0.72, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.56-0.93; rs3117027: OR = 1.41, 95 % CI = 1.10-1.83; and rs3077: OR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.80) among women infected with hrHPV. An additive interaction between HPV16 and rs4282438 for cervical cancer risk was also found (P for interaction = 0.002). Compared with subjects carrying variant genotypes (GG/TG) and non-HPV16 infections, those carrying wild-type genotype (TT) of rs4282438 and HPV16 positive had a 5.22-fold increased risk of cervical cancer (95 % CI = 3.39-8.04). Our study supported that certain HLA-DP alleles in concert with HPV16 could have a predisposition for cervical cancer development, which may be translated for triage of hrHPV-positive women.

  6. Enhanced immunization after intranasal coadministration of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit and human papillomavirus 16-L1 DNA vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; ZHAO Chang-an; WANG Kai; ZHENG Jin; WANG Yi-li; SI Lü-sheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Human papillomavirus (HPV), mainly types 16 and 18, are the most important initiating agents of cervical cancer.1 Prevention of high-risk HPV infections is a potentially effective approach to control HPV associated cervical cancer.

  7. Human papillomavirus type 29 (HPV-29), an HPV type cross-hybridizing with HPV-2 and with HPV-3-related types.

    OpenAIRE

    Favre, M.; Croissant, O; Orth, G

    1989-01-01

    The cloning and partial characterization of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 29 is presented. By hybridization analyses, this virus appears to be related to HPV types associated with common warts and HPV types associated with flat warts.

  8. Determinants of human papillomavirus load among women with histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3: dominant impact of surrounding low-grade lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman, Mark E; Wang, Sophia S; Wheeler, Cosette M; Rich, Laurie; Gravitt, Patti E; Tarone, Robert; Schiffman, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA load has been suggested as a means for improving the positive predictive value of HPV testing for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and cancer (CIN3...

  9. Antagonist-mediated down-regulation of Toll-like receptors increases the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Shui-Lian; Chan, Paul K S; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Ho, Suzanne C; So, Karine; Yu, May M Y; Yim, So-Fan; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Wong, Martin C S; Cheung, Jo L K; Yeung, Apple C M; Li, Edmund K; Tam, Lai-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of an abnormal Papanicolaou smear was significantly increased in lupus patients in cross-sectional studies, associated with a higher prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection...

  10. The relationship between Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections with breast cancer of Iranian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Tahmasebi fard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the malignancy in humans and other mammals. Several risk factors are involved in their appearance such as higher hormone levels and obesity. Identification of a mouse mammary tumor virus supports a viral etiology for breast tumors in animals. Viruses have been implicated in the development of various cancers, but viral induction for formation breast cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was investigation of the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) &...

  11. Scale-Up of an Human Papillomavirus Testing Implementation Program in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Morales Velado, Mario; Felix, Juan; Castle, Philip E; Kim, Jane; Gage, Julia C

    2017-01-01

    The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador is a demonstration project to introduce a lower-cost human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA test into a public sector project. Started in October 2012, The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador consists of 3 phases and will ultimately screen 30,000 women. Results of phase 2 of the project are presented. The objective of this project was to compare colposcopy and noncolposcopy-based management for HPV-positive women. In phase 2, a total of 8,050 women, aged 30 to 49 years, were screened; 6,761 provided both self- and provider-collected specimens and 1,289 provided only provider-testing specimens. HPV results from self-collected specimens were not used in clinical management decisions. Women with provider-collected HPV-positive results were treated based on the strategy assigned to their community; the strategy was colposcopy management (CM) or screen-and-treat (ST) management if they were cryotherapy eligible or colposcopy if not eligible. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after screening. Overall, 489 (12.3%) of 3,963 women receiving CM and 465 (11.4%) of 4,087 women receiving ST tested HPV positive. In the CM cohort, 216 (44.2%) of 489 completed their intervention (203 treated, 11 diagnosed negative, 2 pregnant). In the ST cohort, 411 (88.4%) of 465 completed their intervention (407 treated, 2 diagnosed negative, 1 pregnant). Overall agreement between HPV test results from self-collected and provider-collected specimens was 93.7%, with a κ value of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.68-0.73). Human papillomavirus testing with ST management resulted in an approximately twice completion rate compared with CM management. Agreement between self- and provider-based sampling was good and might be used to extend screening to women in areas that are more difficult to reach.

  12. Supporting Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Adolescents: Perspectives From Commercial and Medicaid Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Judy H; Sobel, Katherine; Roth, Lindsey; Byron, Sepheen C; Lindley, Megan C; Stokley, Shannon

    An estimated 79 million Americans are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). Vaccination can reduce the burden of infection and HPV-associated cancers; yet, vaccination rates remain low. Little is known about why some health plans achieve higher vaccination rates. This study sought to identify strategies used by higher-performing health plans to support HPV vaccination. We used 2013 data from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Female Adolescents measure to identify high-performing plans. The measure examines the percentage of female adolescent plan members who received 3 doses of HPV vaccine by their 13th birthday. High performers were defined as the subset of commercial plans with the top 10 rates and the subset of Medicaid plans with the top 10 rates. An interview guide was developed to assess activities related to providing HPV vaccination. Interviews were conducted with selected plans and audio-recorded. Transcripts were reviewed independently by 2 interviewers and analyzed by hand to identify key themes. Staff members representing 10 plans agreed to be interviewed, representing a diversity of plan size (range, 5500 to >2.7 million members); plan type (about half were commercial, half were Medicaid plans); patient population, from predominantly white to predominantly nonwhite; and geographic region. Plans Participants highlighted multiple strategies that support HPV vaccination, particularly the "normalizing" of the vaccine. Plans' efforts highlighted patient and provider education, reminders, feedback loops, community collaborations, immunization registries, and use of medical home concepts-including team-driven efforts and coordination. There is an important need to improve the uptake of HPV vaccination. As health coverage expands to more organizations and individuals, it will be critical for health plans to consider the strategies implemented by higher-performing organizations. Although HPV

  13. Electrochemical paper-based peptide nucleic acid biosensor for detecting human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teengam, Prinjaporn; Siangproh, Weena; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Henry, Charles S; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2017-02-01

    A novel paper-based electrochemical biosensor was developed using an anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA) probe (AQ-PNA) and graphene-polyaniline (G-PANI) modified electrode to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). An inkjet printing technique was employed to prepare the paper-based G-PANI-modified working electrode. The AQ-PNA probe baring a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus was immobilized onto the electrode surface through electrostatic attraction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to verify the AQ-PNA immobilization. The paper-based electrochemical DNA biosensor was used to detect a synthetic 14-base oligonucleotide target with a sequence corresponding to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA by measuring the electrochemical signal response of the AQ label using square-wave voltammetry before and after hybridization. It was determined that the current signal significantly decreased after the addition of target DNA. This phenomenon is explained by the rigidity of PNA-DNA duplexes, which obstructs the accessibility of electron transfer from the AQ label to the electrode surface. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit of HPV type 16 DNA was found to be 2.3 nM with a linear range of 10-200 nM. The performance of this biosensor on real DNA samples was tested with the detection of PCR-amplified DNA samples from the SiHa cell line. The new method employs an inexpensive and disposable device, which easily incinerated after use and is promising for the screening and monitoring of the amount of HPV-DNA type 16 to identify the primary stages of cervical cancer.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections in cervical samples from cuban women older than 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Yudira; Torres, Griselda; Kourí, Vivian; Limia, Celia María; Goicolea, Adibel; Capó, Virginia; Pérez, Lissette; de la Torre, Ana Isabel; López, Ledy Xiomara; Govín, Anamays; Correa, Consuelo Beatriz; Alemán, Yoan; Alvarez, Alina Ana; Manzano, Blanca Rosa

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to provide information about the molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a group of Cuban women. DNA from cervical samples was analyzed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects 6 of the clinically most relevant high-risk HPV types. Furthermore, end point PCR and sequencing were performed. Three hundred twenty-two women (211 with positive and 111 with negative cytologic results) aged between 30 and 69 years were enrolled. Risk factors associated with HPV infections and premalignant lesions were also investigated. HPV DNA was detected in 76.1% (245/322) of the studied population, and 34 different genotypes were found. There was an association between HPV infection and low educational level, history of oral contraceptives, menopausal stage, as well as cigarette and/or alcohol consumption. Besides, in a multivariate analysis, previous positive Pap test result and positive colposcopy finding were both predictor variables for HPV infections and for premalignant lesions. Human papillomavirus infection was found in 94.3% of women (199/211) with positive cytologic result and in 41.4% (46/111) of those with negative results, being more likely that the first group was infected with any HPV (odds ratio = 23.43; 95% CI = 11.70-46.92; p = .000). The most common genotypes were HPV types 16, 18, 31, 58, 33, and 45. All the cases with HPV positive findings had at least 1 high-risk HPV genotype. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of HPV in Cuban women, based on results from a DNA sequence and quantitative PCR. Most individuals were infected with high-risk HPV types. These findings support the inclusion of HPV vaccine in Cuba.

  15. Factors influencing the recommendation of the human papillomavirus vaccine by Serbian pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Zeljka; Matejic, Bojana; Kesic, Vesna; Eric Marinkovic, Jelena; Jovic Vranes, Aleksandra

    2015-02-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding Human Papillomavirus infection and the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among pediatricians who work in primary health care and to determine their intention to recommend the HPV vaccine as an important measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. We assessed the factors associated with the intention to recommend the vaccine. This cross-sectional study was conducted in March and April 2012. This research included all pediatricians who worked with school children in public primary health care institutions in Belgrade. A research instrument questionnaire had been designed for this study. The response rate was 78.7%. The knowledge of pediatricians related to HPV infection and the HPV vaccine was estimated as poor. However, pediatricians recognized the need for additional education in this field. The most-frequently reported barrier to HPV vaccination was the financial concern (68.2%). Alternatively, according to the pediatricians, the most common parental barrier to vaccination was the lack of information on the vaccine (67.2%). Nearly two-thirds of the pediatricians were willing to recommend the vaccine (60.2%). The factors associated with the pediatricians' intention to recommend the vaccine included the parents' attitudes. The majority of pediatricians accept the HPV vaccine and recommend it to their patients. It is necessary to improve cooperation between parents and pediatricians to increase immunization coverage and develop national consulting strategies with a focus on the prevention of HPV infection. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural optimization of a retrograde trafficking inhibitor that protects cells from infections by human polyoma- and papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Daniel W; Nelson, Christian D S; Ferris, Bennett D; Stevens, Julia P; Lipovsky, Alex; Kazakov, Teymur; DiMaio, Daniel; Atwood, Walter J; Sello, Jason K

    2014-09-01

    Human polyoma- and papillomaviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses that cause severe pathologies and mortalities. Under circumstances of immunosuppression, JC polyomavirus causes a fatal demyelinating disease called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and the BK polyomavirus is the etiological agent of polyomavirus-induced nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis. Human papillomavirus type 16, another non-enveloped DNA virus, is associated with the development of cancers in tissues like the uterine cervix and oropharynx. Currently, there are no approved drugs or vaccines to treat or prevent polyomavirus infections. We recently discovered that the small molecule Retro-2(cycl), an inhibitor of host retrograde trafficking, blocked infection by several human and monkey polyomaviruses. Here, we report diversity-oriented syntheses of Retro-2(cycl) and evaluation of the resulting analogs using an assay of human cell infections by JC polyomavirus. We defined structure-activity relationships and also discovered analogs with significantly improved potency as suppressors of human polyoma- and papillomavirus infection in vitro. Our findings represent an advance in the development of drug candidates that can broadly protect humans from non-enveloped DNA viruses and toxins that exploit retrograde trafficking as a means for cell entry.

  17. Human papillomavirus in young women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection 7 years after the Australian human papillomavirus vaccination programme: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Danielewski, Jennifer A; Fehler, Glenda; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Matthew G; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Garland, Suzanne M; Chen, Marcus Y; Fairley, Christopher K

    2015-11-01

    The national quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccination programme was launched in Australia in April, 2007. In this study, we aimed to explore the prevalence of vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) types contained in the 4vHPV and nine-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccines detected in young women diagnosed with chlamydia. In this cross-sectional study, we identified specimens from women aged 25 years or younger who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (Melbourne, VIC, Australia) diagnosed with chlamydia. We calculated the prevalence of 4vHPV types (6, 11, 16, and 18) and the extra five 9vHPV types (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 alone) excluding 4vHPV types, stratified by Australian financial year (and according to the prevaccination and postvaccination periods) and self-reported vaccination status, for all women, Australian-born women, Australian-born women aged 21 years and younger, and overseas-born women. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios using binomial log linear regression. Between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2014, we included 1202 women. The prevalence of 4vHPV types in Australian-born women decreased during this period (HPV 6 and 11: 2004-05 nine [16%, 95% CI 8-28] of 56 vs 2013-14 one [2%, 0-9] of 57, p<0·0001; HPV 16 and 18: 17 [30%, 19-44] vs two [4%, 0-12], p<0·0001). In Australian-born women aged 21 years and younger, HPV 6 and 11 prevalence remained at 0% for all years after 2008-09, and we detected HPV 16 and 18 in 5% or less of samples for the same period. In unvaccinated Australian-born women, we noted a significant decrease in 4vHPV types from 66 (41%, 95% CI 34-49) of 160 in the prevaccination period (from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2007) to five (19%, 6-38) of 27 in the postvaccination period (July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2014; p=0·031), but not in the 9vHPV types, excluding 4vHPV (36 [23%, 95% CI 16-30] vs seven [26%, 11-46]; p=0·805). The three-dose vaccination coverage was sufficient for the 4vHPV types to almost disappear in

  18. Human Papillomavirus 16 E6 Upregulates APOBEC3B via the TEAD Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Seiichiro; Takeuchi, Takamasa; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Yugawa, Takashi; Kiyono, Tohru; Nishina, Hiroshi; Kukimoto, Iwao

    2017-03-15

    The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) underlies the genetic heterogeneity of several human cancers, including cervical cancer, which is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We previously identified a region within the A3B promoter that is activated by the viral protein HPV16 E6 in human keratinocytes. Here, we discovered three sites recognized by the TEAD family of transcription factors within this region of the A3B promoter. Reporter assays in HEK293 cells showed that exogenously expressed TEAD4 induced A3B promoter activation through binding to these sites. Normal immortalized human keratinocytes expressing E6 (NIKS-E6) displayed increased levels of TEAD1/4 protein compared to parental NIKS. A series of E6 mutants revealed that E6-mediated degradation of p53 was important for increasing TEAD4 levels. Knockdown of TEADs in NIKS-E6 significantly reduced A3B mRNA levels, whereas ectopic expression of TEAD4 in NIKS increased A3B mRNA levels. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated increased levels of TEAD4 binding to the A3B promoter in NIKS-E6 compared to NIKS. Collectively, these results indicate that E6 induces upregulation of A3B through increased levels of TEADs, highlighting the importance of the TEAD-A3B axis in carcinogenesis.IMPORTANCE The expression of APOBEC3B (A3B), a cellular DNA cytidine deaminase, is upregulated in various human cancers and leaves characteristic, signature mutations in cancer genomes, suggesting that it plays a prominent role in carcinogenesis. Viral oncoproteins encoded by human papillomavirus (HPV) and polyomavirus have been reported to induce A3B expression, implying the involvement of A3B upregulation in virus-associated carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms causing A3B upregulation remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that exogenous expression of the cellular transcription factor TEAD activates the A3B promoter. Further, the HPV oncoprotein E6 increases the levels of endogenous TEAD1

  19. Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus in relation to Financial Crisis: The "Evaluation and Education of Greek Female Adolescents on Human Papillomaviruses' Prevention Strategies" ELEFTHERIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Theodoridou, Maria; Koutsaftiki, Chryssie; Bertsias, George; Sourvinos, George; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2016-08-01

    In this study we aimed to explore financial and other sociodemographic factors that affect nonvaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) in Greece, one of the first European Union countries to introduce the vaccination against HPV into its National Immunization Programme in 2008. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six hundred thirty-two female adolescents (aged 11-16 years) from Greece completed a pilot cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey (ELEFTHERIA study) from 2008 to 2014. Overall, only 8.9% (56 of 632) of the female adolescents reported that they had received all 3 doses of the HPV vaccination. The HPV vaccination uptake rates increased gradually from 3.2% (3 of 95) in 2008 to 17.1% (14 of 82) in 2011. However, it abruptly decreased to 2.1% (2 of 95) in 2012 and it reached 9.2% (8 of 87) in 2013 and 11.5% (11 of 96) in 2014. The most common factors for nonvaccination included fear of side effects, which decreased (Spearman ρ = -0.860; P = .024) and financial issues, which increased statistically significantly (Spearman ρ = 0.890; P = .012) during the years 2008 to 2014. In our study we addressed the novel topic of the association of financial issues with HPV vaccination compliance and highlighted the urgent need to provide and maintain health insurance coverage to children in Greece, a country in financial crisis. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human papillomavirus infection in Bowen disease: negative p53 expression, not p16(INK4a) overexpression, is correlated with human papillomavirus-associated Bowen disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, Kazutoshi; Yoshioka, Rika; Kubo, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    Genital Bowen disease (BD) has been linked to the high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Recently, it has been recognized that HPV also can be associated with extragenital BD. HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 interfere with the function of p53 and pRb, respectively, leading carcinogenesis. p16(INK4a) overexpression induced by inactivation of pRb is recognized as a surrogate marker for HPV-associated cervical cancer. In this study, we examined the presence of HPV DNA in 142 BD lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and determined the type of HPV by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism or direct DNA sequencing. HPV DNA was detected in 66.7% of genital BD and 8.3% of extragenital BD. The types of HPV detected were HPV types 6, 16, 33, 52, 56, 58 and 59. We also investigated the expression of p16(INK4a) , pRb and p53 by immunohistochemistry. Positive expression was detected in 88.6% for p16(INK4a) , 25.2% for pRb, and 63.8% for p53. There was no significant difference in p16(INK4a) and pRb expression between HPV-positive and -negative BD. However, a strong correlation of HPV positivity with p53 negativity was found. A total of 66.7% of HPV-positive BD showed no p53 expression, whereas the corresponding rate was 32.8% of HPV-negative BD. This study demonstrated that HPV can participate in the development of BD, not only in the genital lesion, but also in extragenital lesion. p16(INK) (4a) overexpression is not a marker for HPV infection in BD. Instead, negative p53 expression is correlated with HPV-associated BD.

  1. Differences in incidence and co-occurrence of vaccine and nonvaccine human papillomavirus types in Finnish population before human papillomavirus mass vaccination suggest competitive advantage for HPV33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikukka, Marko; Kaasila, Marjo; Namujju, Proscovia B; Palmroth, Johanna; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Paavonen, Jorma; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Lehtinen, Matti

    2011-03-01

    To understand likelihood of type replacement after vaccination against the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, we evaluated competition of the seven most common genital HPV types in a population sample of unvaccinated, fertile-aged Finnish women. First trimester sera from two consecutive pregnancies were retrieved from 3,183 Finnish women (mean age, 23.1 years) of whom 42.3% had antibodies to at least one HPV type (6/11/16/18/31/33/45) at the baseline. Antibody positivity to more than one HPV types by the second pregnancy was common among the baseline HPV seropositives. However, compared to baseline HPV-seronegative women, significantly increased incidence rate ratios (IRRs), indicating an increased risk to seroconvert for another HPV type, were consistently noted only for HPV33 among baseline HPV16 or HPV18 antibody (ab)-positive women: HPV(16ab only) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.4] and HPV(18ab only) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-6.0), irrespectively of the presence of antibodies to other HPV types at baseline: HPV(16ab) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.2) and HPV(18ab) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 3.6 (95% CI 2.1-5.9). Our findings suggest a possible competitive advantage for HPV33 over other genital HPV types in the unvaccinated population. HPV33 should be monitored for type replacement after HPV mass vaccination. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus Infection in 18-Year-Old Women: Baseline Report of a Prospective Study on Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igidbashian, Sarah; Boveri, Sara; Bottari, Fabio; Vidal Urbinati, Ailyn; Preti, Eleonora; Casadio, Chiara; Landoni, Fabio; Sideri, Mario; Sandri, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Italy before the age of 25. At the European Institute of Oncology, a prospective observational study on cervical HPV infection in 18-year-old women undergoing quadrivalent HPV vaccination is ongoing. At the first visit before vaccination, all the young women answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and then, the presence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) was tested. Samples positive for hrHPV were genotyped. Liquid-based cytology was done only to women declaring not to be virgins. Any positivity at cytology or HPV testing was completed with colposcopy and eventually biopsies. Seven hundred and thirty women were enrolled. Two hundred sixty-six women were virgins; 7 (2.6%) of these resulted positive to hrHPV: 1 had HPV16 and CP6108, whereas the other 6 resulted negative at genotyping. Of the 464 nonvirgins, 61 (13.1%) were HPV positive: 19 had HPV16, 4 were positive to HPV18 with other hrHPVs, 25 to other hrHPVs, 7 to low-risk HPV, whereas 13 resulted negative at genotyping. HPV positivity was significantly associated to both smoking and having more than 3 partners. Cervical cytology was negative in 433 cases (93.3%), ASC-US in 10 cases (2.2%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 20 cases (4.3%), and ASC-H in 1 case (0.2%). No CIN2+ was identified. Overall, we found a low positivity to HPV in this population; however, the rate of HPV positivity was significantly related to smoking and sexual life. The cytology result low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was more frequent than in the screening population, whereas no CIN2+ was identified, confirming the indication to avoid screening at this age.

  3. The clearance of oral high-risk human papillomavirus infection is impaired by long-term persistence of cervical human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvanto, K; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Grénman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2014-11-01

    Persistence of high-risk (HR-) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the uterine cervix increases the risk of cervical cancer. Oral HPV infections are among potential covariates of long-term genotype-specific persistent cervical HR-HPV infections. It is not known whether this persistence reflects inability of the host to reject HPV infections in general. A case-control setting was designed to estimate the covariates of long-term persistent cervical HR-HPV infections using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. HPV was detected with PCR using GP05+/GP06+-primers and genotyped for 24 HPVs with a Multimetrix-kit. The cases (n=43) included women who had genotype-specific persistent cervical HR-HPV infection for at least 24 months (24M+) and controls were women who tested repeatedly HPV-negative in their cervical samples (n=52). These women represent a sub-cohort of the Finnish Family HPV Study. The cases differed significantly from the HPV-negative controls in several aspects: they were younger, had a longer mean time to incident oral HPV infection (40.7 versus 23.6 months), longer duration of oral HPV persistence (38.4 versus 14.1 months), and longer time to clearance of their oral HPV infection (50.0 versus 28.2 months). In multivariate GEE analysis, the second pregnancy during the follow up was the only independent predictor with significant protective effect against 24M+ persistent cervical HR-HPV infections, OR of 0.15 (95% CI 0.07-0.34). To conclude, long-term persistent cervical HR-HPV infections are associated with a prolonged clearance of oral HR-HPV infections while new pregnancy protects against persistent cervical HR-HPV infections. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  4. Immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes by various human papillomavirus DNAs corresponds to their association with cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, C.D.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Normal human foreskin keratinocytes cotransfected with the neomycin resistance gene and recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) that have a high or moderate association with cervical malignancy acquired immortality and contained integrated and transcriptionally active viral genomes. Only transcripts from the intact E6 and E7 genes were detected in at least one cell line, suggesting that one or both of these genes are responsible for immortalization. Recombinant HPV DNAs with low or no oncogenic potential for cervical cancer (HPV1a, -5, -6b, and -11) induced small G418-resistant colonies that senesced as did the nontransfected cells. These colonies contained only episomal virus DNA; therefore, integration of HPV sequences is important for immortalization of keratinocytes. This study suggests that the virus-encoded immortalization function contributes to the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  5. Worldwide Genomic Diversity of the High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types 31, 35, 52, and 58, Four Close Relatives of Human Papillomavirus Type 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Macias, Itzel E.; Villa, Luisa L.; Prado, Jose C.; Kalantari, Mina; Allan, Bruce; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Chung, Lap-Ping; Collins, Robert J.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Dunn, S. Terence; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Cubie, Heather A.; Cuschieri, Kate; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Martins, Claudia R.; Sanchez, Gloria I.; Bosch, F. Xavier; Munoz, Nubia; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Among the more than one hundred formally described human papillomavirus (HPV) types, 18 are referred to as high-risk HPV types due to their association with anogenital cancer. Despite pathogenic similarities, these types form three remotely related taxonomic groups. One of these groups is called HPV species 9 and is formed by HPV-16, the most common and best-studied type, together with HPV-31, -33, -35, -52, -58, and -67. Previous worldwide comparisons of HPV-16 samples showed about 2% nucleotide diversity between isolates, which were subsequently termed variants. The distribution of divergent variants has been found to correlate frequently with the geographic origin and the ethnicity of the infected patients and led to the concept of unique African, European, Asian, and Native American HPV-16 variants. In the current study, we address the question of whether geography and ethnicity also correlate with sequence variations found for HPV-31, -35, -52, and -58. This was done by sequencing the long control region in samples derived from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and from immigrant populations in North and South America. We observed maximal divergence between any two variants within each of these four HPV types ranging from 1.8 to 3.6% based on nucleotide exchanges and, occasionally, on insertions and deletions. Similar to the case with HPV-16, these mutations are not random but indicate a relationship between the variants in form of phylogenetic trees. An interesting example is presented by a 16-bp insert in select variants of HPV-35, which appears to have given rise to additional variants by nucleotide exchanges within the insert. All trees showed distinct phylogenetic topologies, ranging from dichotomic branching in the case of HPV-31 to star phylogenies of the other three types. No clear similarities between these types or between these types and HPV-16 exist. While variant branches in some types were specific for Europe, Africa, or East Asia, none of the four trees

  6. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Unselected SurePath Samples Using the APTIMA HPV mRNA Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte M;

    2013-01-01

    The APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay detects E6/E7 mRNA from 14 human papillomavirus genotypes. Horizon was a population-based split-sample study among well-screened women, with an aim to compare APTIMA, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), and liquid-based cytology (LBC) using SurePath samples. APTIMA...... agreement between APTIMA and HC2. This is the first APTIMA study using SurePath samples on the PANTHER platform. The trends in positivity rates on SurePath samples for APTIMA, HC2, and LBC were consistent with studies based on PreservCyt samples, and the agreement between the two HPV assays was substantial....... The high proportions of women testing positive suggest that in countries with a high HPV prevalence, caution will be needed if HPV tests, including mRNA-based tests, are to replace LBC....

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA detected in pulmonary metastases from a penile squamous cell carcinoma: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzon, Laura; Benevolo, Maria; Visca, Paolo; Venturo, Irene; Filippetti, Massimo; Piro, Francesca Romana; Rollo, Francesca; Vocaturo, Amina

    2013-02-01

    This report describe the case of a patient presenting with pulmonary metastases from a penile cancer, where the presence of the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA both in the primary tumor and in the distant metastases confirmed the spreading of the disease, ruling out a possible primary lung squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, according to the findings, the HPV genotyping test might help in the identification of metastatic disease from anogenital malignancies or other HPV-related cancers.

  8. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Initiation, Coverage, and Compliance Among U.S. Active Component Service Women, 2006-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Eick -Cost, PhD, ScM; Uma D. Yeru- bandi, MS; Joel C. Gaydos, MD, MPH human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted pathogen detected...liations: Henry M. Jackson Foun- dation, Bethesda, MD (Drs. Maktabi, Eick - Cost, Gaydos, Ms. Yerubandi). Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center...Drs. Maktabi, Ludwig, Eick -Cost, Gaydos; Ms. Yerubandi). R E F E R E N C E S 1. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Sexually transmitted

  9. Conjunctival papilloma caused by human papillomavirus type 11 treated with systemic interferon in a five-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Gökhan; Ayan, Inci; Karslioğlu, Safak; Altiok, Ender; Yenmiş, Güven; Vural, Gürcan

    2010-01-01

    Conjunctival papilloma is a benign tumor of the conjunctival mucosa. In childhood, papilloma represents 7-10% of conjunctival tumors. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-6 and HPV-11 are the major HPV types responsible for conjunctival lesions. A five-year-old boy with a two-year history of conjunctival papilloma caused by HPV type 11 treated with systemic interferon alpha is reported and the literature is reviewed.

  10. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslaw Szydłowski; Katarzyna Jonczyk-Potoczna; Beata Pucher; Beata Buraczyńska-Andrzejewska; Magdalena Prauzińska; Jagoda Kolasińska-Lipńska; Hanna Krauss; Jacek Piątek; Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-01-01

    [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) in children is connect...

  11. Feasibility and Implementation of a Literature Information Management System for Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Cancers with Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dee H; Matthiesen, Chance L; Alleman, Anthony M; Fournier, Aaron L; Gunter, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the feasibility and implementation of information service-orientated architecture (ISOA) on an emergent literature domain of human papillomavirus, head and neck cancer, and imaging. From this work, we examine the impact of cancer informatics and generate a full set of summarizing clinical pearls. Additionally, we describe how such an ISOA creates potential benefits in informatics education, enhancing utility for creating enduring digital content in this clinical domain. PMID:25392683

  12. Two novel genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, related to the potentially oncogenic HPV39.

    OpenAIRE

    Longuet, M; Beaudenon, S; Orth, G

    1996-01-01

    The genomes of two novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, were cloned from a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and a vulvar papilloma, respectively, and partially sequenced. Both types are related to HPV39, a potentially oncogenic virus. HPV68 and HPV70 were also detected in genital intraepithelial neoplasia from three patients and one patient, respectively. Comparison with sequence data in the literature indicates that the subgenomic ME180-HPV DNA fragment, clone...

  13. PCR analysis of the upstream regulatory region of human papillomavirus genomes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Y K; Arends, M. J.; Duvall, E.; Bird, C C

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To test whether human papillomavirus (HPV) variants with large scale sequence alterations to the upstream regulatory region are present in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) and cervical carcinomas. METHODS--New PCR based assays were designed specifically to detect large scale insertion/deletion alterations in the upstream regulatory region of HPV 16 and 18. The assays were applied to 24 cases of CIN and 34 cases of cervical carcinoma previously shown to contain these two high ri...

  14. A Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck’s disease) with PCR Detection of Human Papillomavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Ozden, Bora; Gunduz, Kaan; Gunhan, Omer; Ozden, Feyza Otan

    2011-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck’s disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papillomavirus. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region to another. In Caucasians there have been only few cases reported. This paper reports a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia and demonstrates the association with HPV subtype 32 through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of PCR products. A 7-year-old Caucasian girl was admitted to our cli...

  15. Awareness of human papillomavirus and factors associated with intention to obtain HPV vaccination among Korean youth: quasi experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hae Won

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the awareness among fifth-grade girls and boys of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV), and to determine the factors associated with intention to obtain the HPV vaccination. Methods A quasi experimental design was employed with Korean fifth-grade students as the subjects for this study (n=117). Prior to providing HPV education, the awareness and health beliefs regarding STDs and cancer prevention were assessed ac...

  16. Feasibility and implementation of a literature information management system for human papillomavirus in head and neck cancers with imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dee H; Matthiesen, Chance L; Alleman, Anthony M; Fournier, Aaron L; Gunter, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the feasibility and implementation of information service-orientated architecture (ISOA) on an emergent literature domain of human papillomavirus, head and neck cancer, and imaging. From this work, we examine the impact of cancer informatics and generate a full set of summarizing clinical pearls. Additionally, we describe how such an ISOA creates potential benefits in informatics education, enhancing utility for creating enduring digital content in this clinical domain.

  17. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As2O3 induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As2O3 on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As2O3 than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As2O3 than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As2O3 treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As2O3 is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  18. Simultaneous detection, typing and quantitation of oncogenic human papillomavirus by multiplex consensus real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Andrew; Allum, Anne-Gry; Strand, Linda; Aakre, Randi Kersten

    2013-02-01

    A consensus multiplex real-time PCR test (PT13-RT) for the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 66 is described. The test targets the L1 gene. Analytical sensitivity is between 4 and 400 GU (genomic units) in the presence of 500 ng of human DNA, corresponding to 75,000 human cells. HPV types are grouped into multiplex groups of 3 or 4 resulting in the use of 4 wells per sample and permitting up to 24 samples per run (including controls) in a standard 96-well real-time PCR instrument. False negative results are avoided by (a) measuring sample DNA concentration to control that sufficient cellular material is present and (b) including HPV type 6 as a homologous internal control in order to detect PCR inhibition or competition from other (non-oncogenic) HPV types. Analysis time from refrigerator to report is 8 h, including 2.5 h hands-on time. Relative to the HC2 test, the sensitivity and specificity were respectively 98% and 83%, the lower specificity being attributable to the higher analytical sensitivity of PT13-RT. To assess type determination comparison was made with a reversed line-blot test. Type concordance was high (κ=0.79) with discrepancies occurring mostly in multiple-positive samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting the Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Oncogenes through Expression of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Stimulates Cellular Motility▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Monique A.; Morreale, Richard J.; Akunuru, Shailaja; Kofron, Matthew; Zheng, Yi; Wells, Susanne I.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes is essential for the initiation and maintenance of cervical cancer. The repression of both was previously shown to result in activation of their respective tumor suppressor targets, p53 and pRb, and subsequent senescence induction in cervical cancer cells. Consequently, viral oncogene suppression is a promising approach for the treatment of HPV-positive tumors. One well-established method of E6/E7 repression involves the reexpression of the viral E2 protein which is usually deleted in HPV-positive cancer cells. Here, we show that, surprisingly, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 but not RNA interference-mediated E6/E7 repression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells stimulates cellular motility and invasion. Migration correlated with the dynamic formation of cellular protrusions and was dependent upon cell-to-cell contact. While E2-expressing migratory cells were senescent, migration was not a general feature of cellular senescence or cell cycle arrest and was specifically observed in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, E2-expressing cells not only were themselves motile but also conferred increased motility to admixed HeLa cervical cancer cells. Together, our data suggest that repression of the viral oncogenes by E2 stimulates the motility of E6/E7-targeted cells as well as adjacent nontargeted cancer cells, thus raising the possibility that E2 expression may unfavorably increase the local invasiveness of HPV-positive tumors. PMID:21835799

  20. Targeting the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes through expression of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein stimulates cellular motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Monique A; Morreale, Richard J; Akunuru, Shailaja; Kofron, Matthew; Zheng, Yi; Wells, Susanne I

    2011-10-01

    Expression of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes is essential for the initiation and maintenance of cervical cancer. The repression of both was previously shown to result in activation of their respective tumor suppressor targets, p53 and pRb, and subsequent senescence induction in cervical cancer cells. Consequently, viral oncogene suppression is a promising approach for the treatment of HPV-positive tumors. One well-established method of E6/E7 repression involves the reexpression of the viral E2 protein which is usually deleted in HPV-positive cancer cells. Here, we show that, surprisingly, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 but not RNA interference-mediated E6/E7 repression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells stimulates cellular motility and invasion. Migration correlated with the dynamic formation of cellular protrusions and was dependent upon cell-to-cell contact. While E2-expressing migratory cells were senescent, migration was not a general feature of cellular senescence or cell cycle arrest and was specifically observed in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, E2-expressing cells not only were themselves motile but also conferred increased motility to admixed HeLa cervical cancer cells. Together, our data suggest that repression of the viral oncogenes by E2 stimulates the motility of E6/E7-targeted cells as well as adjacent nontargeted cancer cells, thus raising the possibility that E2 expression may unfavorably increase the local invasiveness of HPV-positive tumors.

  1. Construction of a recombinant adenovirus Vector of human papillomavirus type 16 L1_E7c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses are closely associated with human cervical cancer, especially HPV types 16 and 18. At present, HPV can not be produced in large quantity; it also has tumorgenicity and these properties of HPV have seriously hampered the development of HPV vaccine. HPV type 16 L1 proteins can assembled into virus-like particles (VLP), which are morphologically identical to the nature virion. In order to develop the recombinant adenovirus vectors of HPV, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus shuttle plasmid pCA14 L1-E7c. Methods: Human papillomavirus type 16 L1 open reading frame without terminator codon (TAA) (5559- 7152) and E7c (682- 855) were amplified using PCR. The L1 and E7c fragments were inserted into pGEM-T easy vectors by T- A strategy, named pTAL1 and pTAE7c. pTAL1 was cut with Hind III and BglII, the pTAE7c with BamHI and ClaI. The L1 DNA fragment, E7c and pBluesscript SK were ligated together using T4 DNA ligase. pBSL1-E7c and pBSL1-E7c was digested with Hind III and Xhol. The L1-E7c fragment was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmids pCAl4, named pCAl4L1-E7c. DNA sequence results indicated that The L1-E7c DNA fragment can encode the HPV16L1-E7 fusion protein correctly. Results: The L1 and E7c DNA fragments were amplified by PCR and recombinant plasmid pTAL1, pTAE7c, pBSL1-E7c and pCA14L1-E7c were constructed correctly. The pCAl4L1-E7c can be used in the further research work, cotransfected the 293 cell with the parent adenovirus pBHG10. Conclusion: Our results indicated that we have constructed a HPV16L1-E7 fusion DNA fragments and the adenovirus shuttle plasmids pCALl-E7c for the further research.

  2. HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelium facilitates paracellular penetration by human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugizov, Sharof M; Herrera, Rossana; Chin-Hong, Peter; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Michael Berry, J; Pilcher, Christopher D; Shiboski, Caroline H; Jay, Naomi; Rubin, Mary; Chein, Aung; Palefsky, Joel M

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated epithelial lesions is substantially higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than in HIV-uninfected individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the increased risk of HPV infection in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. We found that HIV proteins tat and gp120 were expressed within the oral and anal mucosal epithelial microenvironment of HIV-infected individuals. Expression of HIV proteins in the mucosal epithelium was correlated with the disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ). Treatment of polarized oral, cervical and anal epithelial cells, and oral tissue explants with tat and gp120 led to disruption of epithelial TJ and increased HPV pseudovirion (PsV) paracellular penetration in to the epithelium. PsV entry was observed in the basal/parabasal cells, the cells in which the HPV life cycle is initiated. Our data suggest that HIV-associated TJ disruption of mucosal epithelia may potentiate HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-associated neoplasia.

  3. DEFB1 polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection in Brazilian gynaecological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovica Segat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The human beta defensin 1 (hBD-1 antimicrobial peptide is a member of the innate immune system known to act in the first line of defence against microorganisms, including viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV. In this study, five functional polymorphisms (namely g-52G>A, g-44C>G and g-20G>A in the 5’UTR and c.*5G>A and c.*87A>G in the 3’UTR in the DEFB1 gene encoding for hBD-1 were analysed to investigate the possible involvement of these genetic variants in susceptibility to HPV infection and in the development of HPV-associated lesions in a population of Brazilian women. The DEFB1 g-52G>A and c.*5G>A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the GCAAA haplotype showed associations with HPV-negative status; in particular, the c.*5G>A SNP was significantly associated after multiple test corrections. These findings suggest a possible role for the constitutively expressed beta defensin-1 peptide as a natural defence against HPV in the genital tract mucosa.

  4. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses activate the tumor-associated lens epithelial-derived growth factor (LEDGF gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Leitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV E6/E7 oncogenes is crucial for HPV-induced malignant cell transformation. The identification of cellular targets attacked by the HPV oncogenes is critical for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HPV-associated carcinogenesis and may open novel therapeutic opportunities. Here, we identify the Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF gene as a novel cellular target gene for the HPV oncogenes. Elevated LEDGF expression has been recently linked to human carcinogenesis and can protect tumor cells towards different forms of cellular stress. We show that intracellular LEDGF mRNA and protein levels in HPV-positive cancer cells are critically dependent on the maintenance of viral oncogene expression. Ectopic E6/E7 expression stimulates LEDGF transcription in primary keratinocytes, at least in part via activation of the LEDGF promoter. Repression of endogenous LEDGF expression by RNA interference results in an increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancer cells towards genotoxic agents. Immunohistochemical analyses of cervical tissue specimens reveal a highly significant increase of LEDGF protein levels in HPV-positive lesions compared to histologically normal cervical epithelium. Taken together, these results indicate that the E6/E7-dependent maintenance of intracellular LEDGF expression is critical for protecting HPV-positive cancer cells against various forms of cellular stress, including DNA damage. This could support tumor cell survival and contribute to the therapeutic resistance of cervical cancers towards genotoxic treatment strategies in the clinic.

  5. Induction of dormancy in hypoxic human papillomavirus-positive cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Bossler, Felicitas; Lohrey, Claudia; Bulkescher, Julia; Rösl, Frank; Jansen, Lars; Mayer, Arnulf; Vaupel, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are closely linked to major human malignancies, including cervical and head and neck cancers. It is widely assumed that HPV-positive cancer cells are under selection pressure to continuously express the viral E6/E7 oncogenes, that their intracellular p53 levels are reconstituted on E6/E7 repression, and that E6/E7 inhibition phenotypically results in cellular senescence. Here we show that hypoxic conditions, as are often found in subregions of cervical and head and neck cancers, enable HPV-positive cancer cells to escape from these regulatory principles: E6/E7 is efficiently repressed, yet, p53 levels do not increase. Moreover, E6/E7 repression under hypoxia does not result in cellular senescence, owing to hypoxia-associated impaired mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling via the inhibitory REDD1/TSC2 axis. Instead, a reversible growth arrest is induced that can be overcome by reoxygenation. Impairment of mTOR signaling also interfered with the senescence response of hypoxic HPV-positive cancer cells toward prosenescent chemotherapy in vitro. Collectively, these findings indicate that hypoxic HPV-positive cancer cells can induce a reversible state of dormancy, with decreased viral antigen synthesis and increased therapeutic resistance, and may serve as reservoirs for tumor recurrence on reoxygenation. PMID:28115701

  6. Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses Activate the Tumor-Associated Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF) Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Jenny; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Lohrey, Claudia; Honegger, Anja; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Llano, Manuel; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogenes is crucial for HPV-induced malignant cell transformation. The identification of cellular targets attacked by the HPV oncogenes is critical for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HPV-associated carcinogenesis and may open novel therapeutic opportunities. Here, we identify the Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF) gene as a novel cellular target gene for the HPV oncogenes. Elevated LEDGF expression has been recently linked to human carcinogenesis and can protect tumor cells towards different forms of cellular stress. We show that intracellular LEDGF mRNA and protein levels in HPV-positive cancer cells are critically dependent on the maintenance of viral oncogene expression. Ectopic E6/E7 expression stimulates LEDGF transcription in primary keratinocytes, at least in part via activation of the LEDGF promoter. Repression of endogenous LEDGF expression by RNA interference results in an increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancer cells towards genotoxic agents. Immunohistochemical analyses of cervical tissue specimens reveal a highly significant increase of LEDGF protein levels in HPV-positive lesions compared to histologically normal cervical epithelium. Taken together, these results indicate that the E6/E7-dependent maintenance of intracellular LEDGF expression is critical for protecting HPV-positive cancer cells against various forms of cellular stress, including DNA damage. This could support tumor cell survival and contribute to the therapeutic resistance of cervical cancers towards genotoxic treatment strategies in the clinic. PMID:24604027

  7. Molecular detection of cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 2, human papillomavirus 16-18 in Turkish pregnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Dinc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common cause of viral intrauterine infections in the world. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 and human papillomavirus (HPV are the main agents of viral sexually transmitted diseases, which cause genital ulcers and genital warts, respectively. HPV infection has been linked to the majority of the anogenital malignancies. The aim of this study was to detect the existence of CMV, HSV-2 and HPV type 16-18 in Turkish pregnants by using sensitive molecular assays. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four women (18-41 years old; mean age ± SD: 27 ± 8 applied to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in between 18th - 22nd weeks of their pregnancy and a control group of 99 healthy women (15-39 years old; mean age ± SD: 24 ± 8 were included in the study. Cervical smear samples were used for DNA extraction. CMV, HSV-2 and HPV 16-18 detections were carried out by real time PCR and in house PCR method, respectively. RESULTS: Three patients (3/134; 2.2% were found to be positive for each HPV and HSV-2. Dual infection with HPV and HSV was found in just one patient. HPV 18 was detected in all positive samples. CMV was found to be positive in two patients (2/134; 1.4 %. CONCLUSION: HPV, HSV and CMV must be screened due to high prevalence of these viruses in pregnants by using sensitive molecular methods.

  8. Vaccines against human papillomavirus and perspectives for the prevention and control of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Carrancá Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, "persistent" infections by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV are considered necessary for developing cervical cancer. Producing efficient vaccines against these viruses may eventually lead to a great reduction in incidence and mortality rates of this cancer. In the case of HPV, the production of traditional vaccines usually based in dead or attenuated viruses is not possible due in part to the lack of systems where large quantities of viral particles could be obtained. Fortunately, the expression of the late L1 protein alone, or in combination with L2, leads to the generation of structures resembling true virions that have been called virus-like particles (VLPs and constitute excellent candidates as prophylactic vaccines. VLPs have shown to be very immunogenic, and have prevented development of natural or challenged infections in both animal systems and humans. Recently, HPV16 VLPs were shown to be very efficient to prevent the development of "persistent" infections, as determined by PCR assays, in a large group of vaccinated women. Therapeutic vaccines, on the other hand, are expected to have an impact on advanced lesions and residual illness, by taking advantaje of the fact that early E6 and E7 genes are thought to be constitutively expressed in cervical tumors and precursor lesions. Finally, DNA-based vaccines could represent a useful alternative for preventing infections by genital HPV.

  9. Potensi Gen Oncoprotein Human Papillomavirus Tipe 16 Sebagai Kandidat Vaksin Kanker Serviks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opik Taupiqurrohman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ervical cancer is the second largest cause of death for Indonesian women, with increasing number of cases every year. This cancer is mostly caused by human papillomavirus (HPV infection, in which HPV 16 is the most prevalent type in Indonesia. Although HPV vaccine has been developed and commercially available, the other alternative of vaccine based on E (early gene is required. Genes of E6 and E7 are important oncogenes in the development of cervical cancer. This study was conducted at the Laboratory of Computational Chemistry and Bioinformatics, Universitas Padjadjaran, from December 2015 to February 2016. In this study, the candidates of HPV peptide vaccine were discovered using immunoinformatics method. In silico-analysis of HPV type 16, it was shown gene E7 is not homologous with human genome and it is predicted to have a good affinity with major histocompability complex (MHC. Hence, it was proposed as a potential source of peptide vaccine. It is concluded that he candidates forHPV vaccine from E7 peptides are YMLDLQPET and HVDIRTLEDLLMGTL.

  10. Clinical cancer chemoprevention: From the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Horng-Jyh

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV), a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is generally accepted as prerequisite for cervical cancer diagnosis; however, cervical cancer is a rare complication of HPV infections. This is due to the fact that such infections tend to be transient. The safety and efficacy of both available HPV quadrivalent vaccine and bivalent vaccine are not in doubt at the present time. Until a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine becomes available, simple hygienic practices, such as hand washing, can prevent CMV infection both before and during pregnancy. Each country should establish her official guidelines regarding which vaccines should be used to treat various conditions, the target population (i.e., universal or limited to a selected population), and the immunization schedules. After a vaccine is recommended, decisions regarding reimbursement by the public health care fund are evaluated. The guidelines become part of the immunization schedule, which is updated annually and published in the official bulletin. In conclusion, both HBV and HPV vaccines are considered major successes in the chemoprevention of cancer.

  11. Deregulation of the miRNAs Expression in Cervical Cancer: Human Papillomavirus Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Gómez-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non coding RNAs of 18–25 nucleotides in length. The temporal or short-lived expression of the miRNAs modulates gene expression post transcriptionally. Studies have revealed that miRNAs deregulation correlates and is involved with the initiation and progression of human tumors. Cervical cancer (CC displays notably increased or decreased expression of a large number of cellular oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs, respectively. However, understanding the potential role of miRNAs in CC is still limited. In CC, the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs infection can affect the miRNAs expression through oncoprotein E6 and E7 that contribute to viral pathogenesis, although other viral proteins might also be involved. This deregulation in the miRNAs expression has an important role in the hallmarks of CC. Interestingly, the miRNA expression profile in CC can discriminate between normal and tumor tissue and the extraordinary stability of miRNAs makes it suitable to serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancer. In this review, we will summarize the role of the HR-HPVs in miRNA expression, the role of miRNAs in the hallmarks of CC, and the use of miRNAs as potential prognostic biomarkers in CC.

  12. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses activate the tumor-associated lens epithelial-derived growth factor (LEDGF) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Jenny; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Lohrey, Claudia; Honegger, Anja; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Llano, Manuel; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2014-03-01

    The expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogenes is crucial for HPV-induced malignant cell transformation. The identification of cellular targets attacked by the HPV oncogenes is critical for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HPV-associated carcinogenesis and may open novel therapeutic opportunities. Here, we identify the Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF) gene as a novel cellular target gene for the HPV oncogenes. Elevated LEDGF expression has been recently linked to human carcinogenesis and can protect tumor cells towards different forms of cellular stress. We show that intracellular LEDGF mRNA and protein levels in HPV-positive cancer cells are critically dependent on the maintenance of viral oncogene expression. Ectopic E6/E7 expression stimulates LEDGF transcription in primary keratinocytes, at least in part via activation of the LEDGF promoter. Repression of endogenous LEDGF expression by RNA interference results in an increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancer cells towards genotoxic agents. Immunohistochemical analyses of cervical tissue specimens reveal a highly significant increase of LEDGF protein levels in HPV-positive lesions compared to histologically normal cervical epithelium. Taken together, these results indicate that the E6/E7-dependent maintenance of intracellular LEDGF expression is critical for protecting HPV-positive cancer cells against various forms of cellular stress, including DNA damage. This could support tumor cell survival and contribute to the therapeutic resistance of cervical cancers towards genotoxic treatment strategies in the clinic.

  13. Clinical cancer chemoprevention: From the hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine to the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Jyh Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV, a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV, a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is generally accepted as prerequisite for cervical cancer diagnosis; however, cervical cancer is a rare complication of HPV infections. This is due to the fact that such infections tend to be transient. The safety and efficacy of both available HPV quadrivalent vaccine and bivalent vaccine are not in doubt at the present time. Until a human cytomegalovirus (CMV vaccine becomes available, simple hygienic practices, such as hand washing, can prevent CMV infection both before and during pregnancy. Each country should establish her official guidelines regarding which vaccines should be used to treat various conditions, the target population (i.e., universal or limited to a selected population, and the immunization schedules. After a vaccine is recommended, decisions regarding reimbursement by the public health care fund are evaluated. The guidelines become part of the immunization schedule, which is updated annually and published in the official bulletin. In conclusion, both HBV and HPV vaccines are considered major successes in the chemoprevention of cancer.

  14. Communication and US-Somali Immigrant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Phokeng M; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-09-01

    The current study uses a multiple goal theoretical perspective to explore how Somali immigrant families living in Ohio, USA, make decisions regarding whether to vaccinate their children against human papillomavirus (HPV)-a leading cause of cervical cancer. A focus was placed on the communication goals of parents in HPV vaccine discussions with their child and health care provider. Semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Key themes are the implications of the vaccine for early sexual activity, confusion between HPV and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the perception that the HPV vaccine is unnecessary, uncertainty about the vaccine's efficacy and side effects, avoidance of parent-child communication about the vaccine, and a preference for framing the vaccine as a health promotion behavior. Framing the threat of HPV in the context of initiation of sexual activity, uncertainty regarding vaccine efficacy, and anticipated regret account for the inconsistency in HPV vaccine uptake among Somali parents. Clinicians should consider talking about HPV as a distal versus an immediate threat and HPV vaccine uptake as a health-promotion behavior rather than a sexually transmitted infection prevention behavior.

  15. HLA Immunogenotype Determines Persistent Human Papillomavirus Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meys, Rhonda; Purdie, Karin J; de Koning, Maurits N C; Quint, Koen D; Little, Ann-Margaret; Baker, Finnuala; Francis, Nick; Asboe, David; Hawkins, David; Marsh, Steven G E; Harwood, Catherine A; Gotch, Frances M; Bunker, Christopher B

    2016-06-01

    A proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients develop persistent, stigmatizing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cutaneous and genital warts and anogenital (pre)cancer. This is the first study to investigate immunogenetic variations that might account for HPV susceptibility and the largest to date to categorize the HPV types associated with cutaneous warts in HIV-positive patients. The HLA class I and II allele distribution was analyzed in 49 antiretroviral (ART)-treated HIV-positive patients with persistent warts, 42 noninfected controls, and 46 HIV-positive controls. The allele HLA-B*44 was more frequently identified in HIV-positive patients with warts (P = .004); a susceptible haplotype (HLA-B*44, HLA-C*05; P = .001) and protective genes (HLA-DQB1*06; P = .03) may also contribute. Cutaneous wart biopsy specimens from HIV-positive patients harbored common wart types HPV27/57, the unusual wart type HPV7, and an excess of Betapapillomavirus types (P = .002), compared with wart specimens from noninfected controls. These findings suggest that HLA testing might assist in stratifying those patients in whom vaccination should be recommended. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Oral human papillomavirus infection incidence and clearance: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Zoe C; Bain, Christopher J; Smith, David D; Whiteman, David C; Antonsson, Annika

    2017-04-01

    Subclinical oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection that persists for decades is likely to precede an HPV-driven squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, but little is known about the natural history of oral HPV. We systematically reviewed and abstracted data from nine manuscripts that examined human immunodeficiency virus-negative and cancer-free subjects for oral HPV DNA to determine the pooled baseline prevalence and incidence of newly acquired oral HPV infections, and specifically for HPV-16. We also documented the clearance rate and the median time to clearance, where data existed. Of 3762 individuals, 7.5 % had an oral infection with any HPV type (1.6 % for HPV-16). Meta-regression analysis estimated the 12-month cumulative incidence to be 4.8 % (95 % confidence interval 3.2-7.3 %). The overall oral HPV clearance was reported to be 0-80 % between studies, and the median time to clearance from 6.5 to 18 months. Oral HPV-16 clearance was 43-83 %, and median time to clearance for HPV-16 was 7-22 months. Oral HPV prevalence, incidence and clearance vary considerably between published studies from different geographical regions. Further research is required to identify predictors of persistent oral HPV infection. Measurable baseline prevalence was observed in all studies, as well as non-trivial incidence of newly acquired oral HPV infections and incomplete clearance.

  17. Papillomavirus in cervicovaginal smears of women infected with human immunodefficiency virus

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    Edenilson Eduardo Galore

    Full Text Available It has been described that women infected with the human immunodeffciency virus (HIV present more frequent cytological abnormalities in cervicovaginal smears, generally related to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV. The present work is a study of cervicovaginal smears of 147 HIV-seropositive women submitted to routine gynecological examinations. The smears were stained by the Papanicolaou method. Cytopathic effects of HPV were found in 38 (25.8% cases. Nuclear atypias of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were evident in 36 (24.5% of these cases: 27 (18.4%, CIN I; 6 (4.0%, CIN II and 3 (2.0% CIN III. Also 2 (1.4% invasive carcinomas and one (0.7% endocervical dysplasia were found. Other agents observed were: Candida sp, 19 (12.9% cases, Gardnerella vaginalis, 19 (12.9%, Trichomonas vaginalis, 13 (8.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis 5 (3.4%, Mobiluncus sp 2 (1.4% and Herpes simplex virus 1 (0.7%. This study emphasizes the high frequency of HPV/CIN cervicovaginal abnormalities in HIV-seropositive in our population. It is possible that immunological factors and sexual promiscuity are involved in this phenomenon.

  18. Requirement for estrogen receptor alpha in a mouse model for human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Wiedmeyer, Kerri; Shai, Anny; Korach, Kenneth S; Lambert, Paul F

    2008-12-01

    The majority of human cervical cancers are associated with the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), which encode the potent E6 and E7 oncogenes. On prolonged treatment with physiologic levels of exogenous estrogen, K14E7 transgenic mice expressing HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein in their squamous epithelia succumb to uterine cervical cancer. Furthermore, prolonged withdrawal of exogenous estrogen results in complete or partial regression of tumors in this mouse model. In the current study, we investigated whether estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is required for the development of cervical cancer in K14E7 transgenic mice. We show that exogenous estrogen fails to promote either dysplasia or cervical cancer in K14E7/ERalpha-/- mice despite the continued presence of the presumed cervical cancer precursor cell type, reserve cells, and evidence for E7 expression therein. We also observed that cervical cancers in our mouse models are strictly associated with atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM), which is believed to be the precursor for cervical cancer in women. Consistently, E7 and exogenous estrogen failed to promote ASM in the absence of ERalpha. We conclude that ERalpha plays a crucial role at an early stage of cervical carcinogenesis in this mouse model.

  19. 人乳头瘤病毒与宫颈癌%Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守真; 夏和霞; 张炜

    2016-01-01

    宫颈癌是常见的妇科三大恶性肿瘤之一,严重威胁着女性的生命和健康。研究发现,人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomaviruses, HPV)感染与宫颈癌的发生、发展关系密切。HPV致癌是一个多步骤的、渐进的复杂过程,其中早期基因编码的E6、E7蛋白起着关键作用,早期基因编码的E2蛋白和晚期基因编码的L1蛋白也参与了致癌过程。阐明HPV致癌的机制有助于临床工作者加深对宫颈癌的认识、积极筛查和治疗HPV感染以减少宫颈癌的发生,有利于对已确诊为宫颈癌或癌前病变患者的治疗评估和风险分析。%Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignant tumors and can seriously threaten the health of women. There are many studies which conifrmed that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was an essential condition for the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Carcinogenesis of HPV is a gradual complex process with multiple steps, in which protein E6 and E7 encoded by early genes are thought to play a key role, while protein E2 and L1 are also involved in the carcinogenesis. Elucidation of the mechanism of carcinogenic HPV is helpful for gynecologists to deepen the awareness of cervical cancer and to actively screen and treat HPV infection so as to reduce the occurrence of cervical cancer, which is of beneift to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cervical cancer or precancerous lesions.

  20. Role and uptake of human papillomavirus vaccine in adolescent health in the United States

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    Sudenga SL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Staci L Sudenga, Kathryn E Royse, Sadeep ShresthaDepartment of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Both the prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines, Gardasil® and Cervarix®, are licensed for the prevention of cervical cancer in females, and Gardasil is also licensed for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer in both males and females. This review focuses on the uptake of these vaccines in adolescent males and females in the USA and the barriers associated with vaccine initiation and completion. In the USA in 2009, approximately 44.3% of adolescent females aged 13–17 years had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine, but only 26.7% had received all three doses. In general, the Northeast and Midwest regions of the USA have the highest rates of HPV vaccine initiation in adolescent females, while the Southeast has the lowest rates of vaccine initiation. Uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine in adolescent females did not vary by race/ethnicity; however, completion of all three doses is lower among African Americans (23.1% and Latinos (23.4% compared with Caucasians (29.3%. At present, vaccination rates among adolescent females are lower than expected, and thus vaccine models suggest that it is more cost-effective to vaccinate both adolescent males and females. Current guidelines for HPV vaccination in adolescent males is recommended only for “permissive use,” which leaves this population out of routine vaccination for HPV. The uptake of the vaccine is challenged by the high cost, feasibility, and logistics of three-dose deliveries. The biggest impact on acceptability of the vaccine is by adolescents, physicians, parents, and the community. Future efforts need to focus on HPV vaccine education among adolescents and decreasing the barriers associated with poor vaccine uptake and completion in adolescents before their sexual debut, but Papanicolau

  1. Scale-Up of an Human Papillomavirus Testing Implementation Program in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Morales Velado, Mario; Felix, Juan; Castle, Philip E.; Kim, Jane; Gage, Julia C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador is a demonstration project to introduce a lower-cost human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA test into a public sector project. Started in October 2012, The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador consists of 3 phases and will ultimately screen 30,000 women. Results of phase 2 of the project are presented. The objective of this project was to compare colposcopy and noncolposcopy-based management for HPV-positive women. Material and Methods In phase 2, a total of 8,050 women, aged 30 to 49 years, were screened; 6,761 provided both self- and provider-collected specimens and 1,289 provided only provider-testing specimens. HPV results from self-collected specimens were not used in clinical management decisions. Women with provider-collected HPV-positive results were treated based on the strategy assigned to their community; the strategy was colposcopy management (CM) or screen-and-treat (ST) management if they were cryotherapy eligible or colposcopy if not eligible. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after screening. Results Overall, 489 (12.3%) of 3,963 women receiving CM and 465 (11.4%) of 4,087 women receiving ST tested HPV positive. In the CM cohort, 216 (44.2%) of 489 completed their intervention (203 treated, 11 diagnosed negative, 2 pregnant). In the ST cohort, 411 (88.4%) of 465 completed their intervention (407 treated, 2 diagnosed negative, 1 pregnant). Overall agreement between HPV test results from self-collected and provider-collected specimens was 93.7%, with a κ value of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.68–0.73). Conclusions Human papillomavirus testing with ST management resulted in an approximately twice completion rate compared with CM management. Agreement between self- and provider-based sampling was good and might be used to extend screening to women in areas that are more difficult to reach. PMID:27922905

  2. Encapsidating artificial human papillomavirus-16 mE7 protein in human papillomavirus-6b L1/L2 virus like particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yu-fei; WANG Qing-yong; ZHANG Hong-tao; HAN Ye-hua; SONG Guo-xing; XU Xue-mei

    2007-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can infect squamous or mucosal epithelia and cause cervical cancer or genital warts. Coinfection with multiple HPV types is a common finding of many epidemiological studies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a vaccine, which can eradicate established HPV infections and prevent other HPV infections. In this study, we generated chimeric virus like particles (cVLPs) composed of HPV-6b L1, HPV-6b L2 and one artificial HPV-16 mE7 proteins.Methods The artificial HPV-16 mE7 gene was designed by codon modification, point mutation and gene shuffling then chemically synthesized and subcloned behind HPV-6b L2. HPV-6b L1 and L2-mE7 were expressed in insect cells by using Bac-to-Bac system. The generated cVLPs were purified by CsCl gradient ultracentrifuge and analyzed by immunoblot, electron microscope and haemagglutination assay.Results The HPV-6b L1 and L2-mE7 proteins were well expressed in insect cells and could selfassemble into cVLPs,whose diameter was about 55 nm and similar to that of HPV-6b L1/L2 VLPs. Intact cVLPs could be recognized by H6.M48 neutralizing monoclonal antibody and HPV-6b L2 polyclonal antibody, while the denatured cVLPs, but not the intact cVLPs, were reactive to HPV-16 E7 polyclonal antibody. HPV-6b L1/L2-mE7 cVLPs haemagglutinated mouse erythrocytes as efficiently as HPV-6b L1/L2 VLPs did.Conclusions The insertion of the 158 amino acid HPV-16 mE7 protein behind L2 did not disrupt the correct assembling of cVLPs. The morphological characteristics and haemagglutinating activity of cVLPs were similar to those of HPV-6b L1/L2 VLPs. The cVLPs retained conformational B cell epitopes of HPV-6 VLPs and HPV-16 mE7 protein had an internal location in the cVLPs. Therefore, large modified E7 protein with higher immunogenicity could be incorporated into cVLPs by fusing to the C-terminus of L2, which would help to improve the therapeutic effects of L1/L2-E7 cVLPs.

  3. Replicative Intermediates of Human Papillomavirus Type 11 in Laryngeal Papillomas: Site of Replication Initiation and Direction of Replication

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    Auborn, K. J.; Little, R. D.; Platt, T. H. K.; Vaccariello, M. A.; Schildkraut, C. L.

    1994-07-01

    We have examined the structures of replication intermediates from the human papillomavirus type 11 genome in DNA extracted from papilloma lesions (laryngeal papillomas). The sites of replication initiation and termination utilized in vivo were mapped by using neutral/neutral and neutral/alkaline two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis methods. Initiation of replication was detected in or very close to the upstream regulatory region (URR; the noncoding, regulatory sequences upstream of the open reading frames in the papillomavirus genome). We also show that replication forks proceed bidirectionally from the origin and converge 180circ opposite the URR. These results demonstrate the feasibility of analysis of replication of viral genomes directly from infected tissue.

  4. Proteflazid® and local immunity in diseases caused by human papillomavirus, herpesvirus and mixed urogenital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Vjacheslav; Chernyshov, Viktor; Grynevych, Oleksandr; Benyuk, Vasil; Kornatskaya, Alla; Shalko, Miroslava; Usevich, Igor; Revenko, Oleg; Shepetko, Maxim; Solomakha, Ludmila

    2017-03-21

    Reporting of clinical trials results for Proteflazid® in the drug formulation suppositories and vaginal swabs soaked in the solution of the drug to the local immunity of the female reproductive tract. The aim of study was to examine the state of local immunity in the reproductive tract of women with sexually transmitted diseases caused by human papillomavirus, herpes viruses (Type 1, 2) and mixed infection (herpes viruses + chlamydia). The trials involved 216 women with viral sexually transmitted diseases: Cervical Dysplasia associated with papillomavirus infection (HPV) (Group 1); Herpes genitalis type 1 (HSV- 1) and type 2 (HSV-1) (Group 2); mixed infection - HSV-1, HSV-2 and chlamydia (Group 3). Treatment results have confirmed that Proteflazid® contributes to sustainable performance improvement of basic factors of local immunity - sIgA, lysozyme and complement component C3 in the cervical mucus for all three groups of women. Proteflazid® enhances level of local immunity markers (sIgA, lysozyme, C3 complement component) and improves their ratios. Also it intensifies anticontagious activity of mucosal protection and female reproductive system as whole, during treatment diseases caused by human papillomavirus, herpesvirus and mixed urogenital infections (herpesvirus and chlamydia).

  5. Characterization of neutralizing epitopes within the major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 33

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    Sapp Martin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with papillomaviruses induce type-specific immune responses, mainly directed against the major capsid protein, L1. Based on the propensity of the L1 protein to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs, type-specific vaccines have already been developed. In order to generate vaccines that target a broader spectrum of HPV types, extended knowledge of neutralizing epitopes is required. Despite the association of human papillomavirus type 33 (HPV33 with cervical carcinomas, fine mapping of neutralizing conformational epitopes on HPV33 has not been reported yet. By loop swapping between HPV33 and HPV16 capsid proteins, we have identified amino acid sequences critical for the binding of conformation-dependent type-specific neutralizing antibodies to surface-exposed hyper variable loops of HPV33 capsid protein L1. Results Reactivities of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs H33.B6, H33.E12, H33.J3 and H16.56E with HPV16:33 and HPV33:16 hybrid L1 VLPs revealed the complex structures of their conformational epitopes as well as the major residues contributing to their binding sites. Whereas the epitope of mAb H33.J3 was determined by amino acids (aa 51–58 in the BC loop of HPV33 L1, sequences of at least two hyper variable loops, DE (aa 132–140 and FGb (aa 282–291, were found to be essential for binding of H33.B6. The epitope of H33.E12 was even more complex, requiring sequences of the FGa loop (aa 260–270, in addition to loops DE and FGb. Conclusion These data demonstrate that neutralizing epitopes in HPV33 L1 are mainly located on the tip of the capsomere and that several hyper variable loops contribute to form these conformational epitopes. Knowledge of the antigenic structure of HPV is crucial for designing hybrid particles as a basis for intertypic HPV vaccines.

  6. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV).

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    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Jindra, Christoph; Christensen, Neil; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa) 17-36) on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV) neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross-) protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76), while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target cutaneous HPV

  7. Human papillomavirus vaccination: the policy debate over the prevention of cervical cancer--a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoops, Katherine E M; Twiggs, Leo B

    2008-07-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) family causes a variety of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions in men and women. HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for causing 70% of all cases of cervical cancer each year. Recently, a vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer by protecting women from infection with the most common types of HPV has been made available. Following Food and Drug Administration approval and endorsement by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the right and the duty of the state legislatures to implement vaccination programs. This vaccine, a vaccine for a sexually transmitted disease, has stirred a fierce debate. Religion and sexuality have dominated the discussion, and political calculations are inherent to the process; nonetheless, epidemiological analyses are also essential to the decision to mandate the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccine program implementation processes are at many stages in many states, and programs vary widely. Some provide information to families, whereas others allot a range of funding for voluntary vaccination. Virginia is, thus far, the only state to have enacted a mandate. This article discusses the various programs in place, the proposed legislation, and the debate surrounding the political process.

  8. Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus Infection and Development of Subsequent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

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    Shalaka S. Hampras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV infection in the development of subsequent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is unknown. Pathologically confirmed cases of SCC (n=150 enrolled in a previously conducted case-control study were included in a retrospective cohort study to examine the association of cutaneous HPV at the time of SCC diagnosis with the risk of subsequent SCC development. Data on HPV seropositivity, HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EB and SCC tumors were available from the parent study. Incidence of subsequent SCC was estimated using person-years of follow up. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were estimated to evaluate the associations of both, HPV seropositivity and HPV DNA positivity with subsequent SCC. The five year cumulative incidence of subsequent SCC was 72%. Seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was not associated with the risk of subsequent SCC (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.41–1.67. Any beta HPV infection in EB was associated with reduced risk (HR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11–0.78 of subsequent SCC among cases who were positive for beta HPV DNA in tumor tissue. Infection with beta HPV type 2 (HR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.12–0.86 in EB was associated with reduced risk of subsequent SCC among HPV DNA positive SCCs. In conclusion, beta HPV infection was inversely associated with the risk of subsequent SCC.

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus cervical infection in an Italian asymptomatic population

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    Sirito Rodolfo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade many studies have definitely shown that human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the major cause of cervical carcinogenesis and, in the last few years, HPV testing has been proposed as a new and more powerful tool for cervical cancer screening. This issue is now receiving considerable attention in scientific and non scientific press and HPV testing could be considered the most important change in this field since the introduction of cervical cytology. This paper reports our prevalence data of HPV infection collected in the '90s, while a follow up of these patients is ongoing. Methods For this study we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR to search HPV DNA sequences in cervical cell scrapings obtained from 503 asymptomatic women attending regular cervical cancer screening program in the city of Genova, Italy. All patients were also submitted to a self-administered, standardized, questionnaire regarding their life style and sexual activity. On the basis of the presence of HPV DNA sequences women were separated into two groups: "infected" and "non infected" and a statistical analysis of the factors potentially associated with the infection group membership was carried out. Results The infection rate was 15.9% and the most frequent viral type was HPV 16. Conclusion Our HPV positivity rate (15.9% was consistent to that reported by other studies on European populations.

  10. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

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    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  11. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in pterygia from different geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F; Moore, P S; Ugalde, J; Perra, M T; Scarpa, A; Sirigu, P

    2003-01-01

    Background/aims: The aetiology and pathogenesis of pterygia remain unclear and the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) is controversial. 41 pterygia from two geographic locations were evaluated for the presence of HPV DNA. Methods: 41 pterygium biopsies (17 from Italy and 24 from Ecuador) were analysed using the L1C1 and PU-1ML primer sets by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis. Results: 22 of the 41 pterygia (54%) were positive for HPV, including all 17 Italian cases and 5/24 (21%) Ecuadorean cases. DNA sequencing of the 22 positive cases showed that 11 were HPV type 52, four were type 54, five were candHPV90, and two of unknown genotype. Conclusions: The major differences in the frequency of HPV in geographically distant populations might suggest a possible explanation for the vast differences in the reported detection rates. Three subtypes of HPV were found in this sample of pterygia. None the less, these results suggest that HPV may have a pathogenic role in pterygium. PMID:12812887

  12. Evidence of disrupted high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in morphologically normal cervices of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah M; Pereira, Merlin; Roberts, Sally; Cuschieri, Kate; Nuovo, Gerard; Athavale, Ramanand; Young, Lawrence; Ganesan, Raji; Woodman, Ciarán B

    2016-02-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes nearly 100% of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear whether HPV can establish a latent infection, one which may be responsible for the second peak in incidence of cervical carcinoma seen in older women. Therefore, using Ventana in situ hybridisation (ISH), quantitative PCR assays and biomarkers of productive and transforming viral infection, we set out to provide the first robust estimate of the prevalence and characteristics of HPV genomes in FFPE tissue from the cervices of 99 women undergoing hysterectomy for reasons unrelated to epithelial abnormality. Our ISH assay detected HR-HPV in 42% of our study population. The majority of ISH positive samples also tested HPV16 positive using sensitive PCR based assays and were more likely to have a history of preceding cytological abnormality. Analysis of subsets of this population revealed HR-HPV to be transcriptionally inactive as there was no evidence of a productive or transforming infection. Critically, the E2 gene was always disrupted in those HPV16 positive cases which were assessed. These findings point to a reservoir of transcriptionally silent, disrupted HPV16 DNA in morphologically normal cervices, re-expression of which could explain the increase in incidence of cervical cancer observed in later life.

  13. Human papillomavirus-16 is integrated in lung carcinomas: a study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, F; Castillo, A; Koriyama, C; Higashi, M; Itoh, T; Capetillo, M; Shuyama, K; Corvalan, A; Eizuru, Y; Akiba, S

    2007-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected in 20 (29%) out of 69 lung carcinomas (LCs) in Chile, by PCR and Southern blot, and was more frequently detected in squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) than in adenocarcinomas (46 vs 9%, P=0.001). HPV-16, positive in 11 cases, was the most frequently detected HPV genotype determined by DNA sequencing. HPV-16 E2/E6 ratio, estimated from real-time PCR analysis, was much lower than the unity, suggesting that at least a partial HPV-16 genome was integrated in all but one HPV-16-positive SQCs. The remaining one case was suspected to have only episomal HPV-16. Although the viral load was low in most of the LCs, a case showed the HPV-16 copy number as high as 8479 per nanogram DNA, which was even a few times higher than the minimum viral load of seven cervical carcinomas (observed viral load: 3356–609 392 per nanogram DNA). The expression of the HPV-16/18 E6 protein was found in only two HPV-16-positive SQCs (13%) but not in the case with the highest viral load. Although the viral load was in general very low and HPV E6 expression is none or weak, further studies seem warranted to examine aetiological involvement of high-risk HPV in lung carcinogenesis. PMID:17579626

  14. Analisis Filogenetik Gen L1 Human Papillomavirus 16 pada Penderita Kanker Serviks di Bandung

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    Fitri Rahmi Fadhilah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with high-risk (hr human papillomavirus (HPV can lead to cervical cancer. Various hrHPV genotypes have been identified and HPV genotype 16 is the most common genotypes that infect cervical cancer. HPV L1 fragment can identify the origin of HPV. The purpose of this study was to explore the origins of HPV-16 by making a phylogenetic tree. This study used analytical descriptive method and was was conducted at the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Health Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung in the period of February to August 2013. Biopsy from cervical cancer patient was donated by the Department of Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. Isolation of DNA was prepared from tissue biopsies of cervical cancer and L1 fragment was amplified with the specific primer. Infection with HPV-16 was confirmed by Linear Array test (Roche design. The sequence then was constructed using the phylogenetic program (MEGA5. Results showed that the isolate from patient with cervical cancer from Bandung was in one subgroup with HPV from Asia and East Asia. In conclusion, cluster HPV of Bandung is in the same strain as the strain in Asia and East Asia

  15. Detection of sexually transmitted infection and human papillomavirus in negative cytology by multiplex-PCR

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    Chung Hyun-Jae

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. Methods We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology findings in a liquid-based cervical smear. STIs were identified by multiplex PCR, and HPV genotypes by multiplex PCR, hybrid capture 2, and DNA microaray; discordant results were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Approximately 96.6% of patients with negative cytology results were positive for pathogens that cause STIs. The pathogens most frequently detected were Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. The incidence of HPV in negative cytology was 23.3%. Low-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Chalmaydia trachomatis, and high-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Group β streptococcus. The analytical sensitivities of the multiplex PCR and DNA microarray were higher than 80%, and the analytical specificity was nearly 100% for all tests. Conclusions Multiplex PCR yielded results that most of patients with negative cytology were positive for pathogens that cause STIs, and were more similar to that of DNA microarray, than that of hybrid capture 2 in terms of analytical sensitivity and prediction value of HPV infection.

  16. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus in women screened for cervical cancer in Labrador, Canada

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    Alberto Severini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. A higher incidence of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been reported in northern Canada and in First Nation, Métis and Inuit women, with some evidence to suggest that the HPV type distribution in these populations may be different from the rest of Canada. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the HPV type prevalence in Labrador women to determine if significant differences in HPV types could reduce the effectiveness of HPV vaccination. Design. The prevalence of HPV types was determined in 1,370 women presenting for routine pap screening in Labrador between February and November 2010. Cervical cytology and HPV genotyping were performed on the same liquid-based cytology specimens. Results. The overall prevalence of HPV was 21.4%; cytological abnormalities were found in 8.8% of the participants. HPV 16 and 18 were the most common high-risk HPV types. These two types were found in 52.4% of high-grade lesions. The prevalence in HPV infections was comparable across the Labrador regions. Conclusions. The present results support the potential effectiveness of the HPV immunization program in Labrador.

  17. [The relationship between herpes simplex virus II, human papillomavirus infection and infertility after artificial abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Huang, T; Zhang, Z

    1998-06-01

    In order to study the relationship between infection of sexually transmitted virus Herpes simplex virus II (HSV2), Human papillomavirus (HPV) and female infertility after artificial abortion, we collected 60 genital samples from infertile women who had accepted artificial abortions and 39 genital samples from normal women. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect HSV2 and HPV. The results were compared by x2. The positive rate of HSV2 in infertile and normal women were 80.0% and 25.6% respectively, there was a significant difference (P 0.05). Mixed infection rates of HSV2 and HPV were 43.3% and 23.1% in infertile and normal women, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was statistically calculated. The results showed that there was a relationship between infertility after artificial abortion and genital infection of HSV2 and HPV or mited infection of HSV 2 and HPV. Taking total 99 genital samples into calculation, the mired infection rate of HSV 2 was 35.35%, a significant relatedness of HSV2 and HPV infection to infertility was proved by chi 2, chi 2 = 12.5, P < 0.01.

  18. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin Hang, E-mail: shlee01@snet.net; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William [Department of Pathology, Milford Hospital, 300 Seaside Ave., Milford, CT 06460 (United States)

    2014-10-02

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  19. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

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    Adams, Allie K. [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wise-Draper, Trisha M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wells, Susanne I., E-mail: Susanne.Wells@cchmc.org [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  20. Role of human papillomavirus and tumor suppressor genes in oral cancer.

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    Manvikar, Vardendra; Kulkarni, Rama; Koneru, Anila; Vanishree, M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high and is associated with many deaths in both Western and Asian countries. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are now well known, including smoking, drinking and consumption of smokeless tobacco products. Genetic predisposition to oral cancer has been found in certain cases, but its components are not yet entirely clear. In accordance with the multi-step theory of carcinogenesis, the natural history of oral cancer seems to gradually evolve through transitional precursor lesions from normal epithelium to a full-blown metastatic phenotype. A number of genomic lesions accompany this transformation and a wealth of related results has appeared in recent literature and is being summarized here. Furthermore, several key genes have been implicated, especially well-known tumor suppressors such as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, TP53 and RB1 and oncogenes such as the cyclin family, epidermal growth factor receptor and RAS. Viral infections, particularly oncogenic human papillomavirus subtypes and Epstein-Barr virus, can have a tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia and their role is discussed, along with potential therapeutic interventions. A brief explanatory theoretical model of oral carcinogenesis is provided and potential avenues for further research are highlighted.

  1. Role of human papillomavirus and tumor suppressor genes in oral cancer

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    Vardendra Manvikar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of oral cancer remains high and is associated with many deaths in both Western and Asian countries. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are now well known, including smoking, drinking and consumption of smokeless tobacco products. Genetic predisposition to oral cancer has been found in certain cases, but its components are not yet entirely clear. In accordance with the multi-step theory of carcinogenesis, the natural history of oral cancer seems to gradually evolve through transitional precursor lesions from normal epithelium to a full-blown metastatic phenotype. A number of genomic lesions accompany this transformation and a wealth of related results has appeared in recent literature and is being summarized here. Furthermore, several key genes have been implicated, especially well-known tumor suppressors such as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, TP53 and RB1 and oncogenes such as the cyclin family, epidermal growth factor receptor and RAS. Viral infections, particularly oncogenic human papillomavirus subtypes and Epstein-Barr virus, can have a tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia and their role is discussed, along with potential therapeutic interventions. A brief explanatory theoretical model of oral carcinogenesis is provided and potential avenues for further research are highlighted.

  2. Human Papillomavirus types distribution among women with cervical preneoplastic, lesions and cancer in Luanda, Angola

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    Damião, Paciência de Almeida; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Moreira, Miguel Ângelo; Poliakova, Natalia; de Lima, Maria Emilia RT; Chiovo, José; Nicol, Alcina Frederica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Angola and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for the development of pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions. The diversity and frequency of HPV types in Angola has yet to be reported. Aim To determine the frequency of HPV among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions from women in Luanda, Angola. Methods Study participants included women diagnosed with cytological abnormalities that voluntarily provided Pap smears (n = 64). Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples for use as templates in the PCR amplification of HPV sequences. PCR products were sequenced to determine HPV type. Results HPV DNA was detected in 71.9% (46/64) in the samples. A higher diversity of HPV types was found in the cytological lesions, such as ASCUS and LSIL (HPV16, 6, 18, 31, 58, 66, 70 and 82, in order of frequency) than that detected for HSIL and SSC (HPV16, 18, 6 and 33). The most prevalent HPV type were: HPV16, HPV6 and HPV18. Conclusion This is the first report on HPV type diversity and frequency in woman of Angola. The results suggest that large-scale studies across Africa would improve our understanding of interrelationship between HPV infections and cervical cancer. More directly, the identification of the HPV types most prevalent suggests that women in Angola would benefit from currently available HPV vaccines. PMID:28154623

  3. Bap31 is a novel target of the human papillomavirus E5 protein.

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    Regan, Jennifer A; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2008-10-01

    The E5 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small hydrophobic proteins that are expressed in the early and late stages of the viral life cycle; however, their role in HPV pathogenesis is not clearly understood. In this study, a split-ubiquitin yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid system was used to identify B-cell-associated protein 31 (Bap31) as a binding partner of HPV E5 proteins. The association of these proteins was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of complexes of Bap31 with either HPV type 16 (HPV16) or HPV31 E5. In addition, Bap31 and E5 were found to colocalize in perinuclear patterns consistent with localization to the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutational analysis of E5 identified amino acids in the extreme C terminus as important for stabilizing the interaction with Bap31. Deletion of these C-terminal amino acids of E5 in the context of complete HPV31 genomes resulted in impaired proliferative capacity of HPV-positive keratinocytes following differentiation. When small interfering RNAs were used to reduce the levels of Bap31, the proliferative ability of HPV-positive keratinocytes upon differentiation was also reduced, implicating Bap31 as a regulator of this process. These studies identify a novel binding partner of the high-risk HPV E5 proteins and provide insight into how the E5 proteins may modulate the life cycle in differentiating cells.

  4. Human Papillomavirus Types 52 and 58 Are Prevalent in Uterine Cervical Squamous Lesions from Japanese Women

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    Kazuhiro Takehara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the prevalence and genotypes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV focusing HPV 16, 18, 52, and 58 in Japan. Methods. Liquid-base cytology specimens were collected from Japanese women (n=11022, aged 14–98. After classifying cytodiagnosis, specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by the multiplex polymerase chain reaction method, where 1195 specimens were positive for cervical smear, except adenomatous lesions. Result. HPV genotypes were detected in 9.5% of NILM and 72.2% of ASC-US or more cervical lesions. In positive cervical smears, HPV genotypes were HPV 52 at 26.6%, HPV 16 at 25.2%, HPV 58 at 21.8%, and HPV 18 at 7.1%. Most patients infected with HPV 16 were between 20–29 years old, decreasing with age thereafter. As for HPV 52 and 58, although the detection rate was high in 30- to 39-year-olds, it also was significant in the 50s and 60s age groups. Conclusion. In Japan, as a cause of abnormal cervical cytology, HPV52 and 58 are detected frequently in addition to HPV 16. In older age groups, HPV 52 and 58 detection rates were higher than that observed for HPV 16. After widespread current HPV vaccination, we still must be aware of HPV 52 and 58 infections.

  5. Sexual behavior of women with human papillomavirus in reference services of Fortaleza, Ceará

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    Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa Machado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sexual behavior of women with human papillomavirus (HPV admitted to two referral health units for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in the city of Fortaleza. Methods: A quantitative and descriptive study, conducted in the months of August- September 2005 in two referral units for STDs. A questionnaire was applied to all women who were undergoing treatment for HPV in clinical or subclinical forms. The questionnaire comprised sociodemographic variables, behavioral and sexual. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistics using Epi Info, version 15.1. Results: Joined in the study 39 women, of whom 25 (64.1% had clinical form of the disease. Most 22 (56.4% were in the age group of 20-29 years and 16 (41% had completed or incompleted high school. Most 31 (79.5% hace a steady partner, and of these, 19 (48.7% lived with their partners. Of all women, 29 (74.4% began their sexual life with less than 19 years. In 21 (53.8% cases the sexual partners had no verrucous lesions. The number of partners ranged from two to four for 20 (51.3% women, 27 (73% denied the concomitant presence of other STD and 32 (82.1% had already been tested for HIV. Conclusion: Women with HPV were generally young, with a steady partner. More than half of the partners had no symptoms. It is necessary to developpreventive strategies and of health promotion for youth.

  6. Human papillomavirus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a retrospective study

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    M.O.O Carvalho

    Full Text Available There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788, ranging from 25% (NORMAL to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.

  7. Development and initial feedback about a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comic book for adolescents.

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    Katz, Mira L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Goodwin, Jennifer; Reiter, Paul L; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates do not meet the Healthy People 2020 objective of 80% coverage among adolescent females. We describe the development and initial feedback about an HPV vaccine comic book for young adolescents. The comic book is one component of a multilevel intervention to improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents. Parents suggested and provided input into the development of a HPV vaccine comic book. Following the development of the comic book, we conducted a pilot study to obtain initial feedback about the comic book among parents (n = 20) and their adolescents ages 9 to 14 (n = 17) recruited from a community-based organization. Parents completed a pre-post test including items addressing HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine attitudes, and about the content of the comic book. Adolescents completed a brief interview after reading the comic book. After reading the comic book, HPV knowledge improved (2.7 to 4.6 correct answers on a 0-5 scale; p comic book's content was acceptable and adolescents liked the story, found it easy to read, and thought the comic book was a good way to learn about being healthy. Parents provided valuable information in the development of a theoretically-based comic book and the comic book appears to be an acceptable format for providing HPV vaccine information to adolescents. Future research will include the comic book in an intervention study to improve HPV vaccination rates.

  8. Infection with human papillomaviruses of sexual partners of women having cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

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    Rombaldi R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies show that human papillomaviruses (HPV are strongly related to cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN. Unlike the case for women, there are no consistent data on the natural history of HPV in the male population even though these viruses are prevalent in males. We carried out a prospective study to assess the prevalence of HPV in males as well as the factors that determine such infections in 99 male sexual partners of women with CIN. The genitalia of the males were physically examined and subjected to peniscopy for the collection of scrapings which were subjected to the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect HPV. Of the 99 males sampled, 54 (54.5% were positive for HPV DNA, 24% of whom presented normal peniscopy, 28% presented evident clinical lesions and 48% isolated lesions consistent with subclinical infection. In the HPV-negative group, 53% showed normal peniscopy, 4% presented evident clinical lesions and 42% isolated lesions consistent with subclinical infection. The study detected a statistically significant association (P < 0.02, Pearson chi-square test between HPV infection and both the mean number of sexual partners which a male had during his life and the mean number of sexual partners in the year prior to testing. Viral types 6 and 11 were most frequently encountered. The study shows that infection with HPV was frequent in male sexual partners of women with CIN.

  9. Easy and fast detection and genotyping of high-risk human papillomavirus by dedicated DNA microarrays.

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    Albrecht, Valérie; Chevallier, Anne; Magnone, Virginie; Barbry, Pascal; Vandenbos, Fanny; Bongain, André; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2006-11-01

    Persistent cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is correlated with an increased risk of developing a high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion. A two-step method was developed for detection and genotyping of high-risk HPV. DNA was firstly amplified by asymmetrical PCR in the presence of Cy3-labelled primers and dUTP. Labelled DNA was then genotyped using DNA microarray hybridization. The current study evaluated the technical efficacy of laboratory-designed HPV DNA microarrays for high-risk HPV genotyping on 57 malignant and non-malignant cervical smears. The approach was evaluated for a broad range of cytological samples: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and atypical squamous cells of high-grade (ASC-H). High-risk HPV was also detected in six atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) samples; among them only one cervical specimen was found uninfected, associated with no histological lesion. The HPV oligonucleotide DNA microarray genotyping detected 36 infections with a single high-risk HPV type and 5 multiple infections with several high-risk types. Taken together, these results demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the HPV DNA microarray approach. This approach could improve clinical management of patients with cervical cytological abnormalities.

  10. Adherence to ACIP Recommendation for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among US Adolescent Girls.

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    Rahman, Mahbubur; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use according to Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)'s recommendations among US adolescent girls. We used National Immunization Survey of Teens 2013 data. Based on provider-verified (n = 9403) information, 57.3, 39.1 and 19.0 % of adolescent girls, initiated, completed and completed the HPV vaccine according to ACIP's recommendation (by age 12), respectively. Hispanic race/ethnicity, a physician recommendation for HPV vaccine and ≥1 influenza vaccine in the past 3 years were all associated with a higher likelihood of compliance with ACIP's recommendation. Girls from a larger family and those whose immunization provider was a STD/school/teen clinic were less likely to receive the vaccine at the recommended age compared to a girl raised in a smaller sized family and received immunization from a hospital facility, respectively. Only one-fifth of 13-17 yo girls receive the HPV vaccine by age 12 as recommended by ACIP. Physician visits and influenza vaccination settings are opportunities to improve vaccine series completion at the recommended age.

  11. The estimated lifetime probability of acquiring human papillomavirus in the United States.

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    Chesson, Harrell W; Dunne, Eileen F; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2014-11-01

    Estimates of the lifetime probability of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) can help to quantify HPV incidence, illustrate how common HPV infection is, and highlight the importance of HPV vaccination. We developed a simple model, based primarily on the distribution of lifetime numbers of sex partners across the population and the per-partnership probability of acquiring HPV, to estimate the lifetime probability of acquiring HPV in the United States in the time frame before HPV vaccine availability. We estimated the average lifetime probability of acquiring HPV among those with at least 1 opposite sex partner to be 84.6% (range, 53.6%-95.0%) for women and 91.3% (range, 69.5%-97.7%) for men. Under base case assumptions, more than 80% of women and men acquire HPV by age 45 years. Our results are consistent with estimates in the existing literature suggesting a high lifetime probability of HPV acquisition and are supported by cohort studies showing high cumulative HPV incidence over a relatively short period, such as 3 to 5 years.

  12. Cruising the cellular highways: How human papillomavirus travels from the surface to the nucleus.

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    DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Guion, Lucile G; Sapp, Martin

    2017-03-02

    The non-enveloped human papillomaviruses (HPVs) specifically target epithelial cells of the skin and mucosa. Successful infection requires a lesion in the stratified tissue for access to the basal cells. Herein, we discuss our recent progress in understanding binding, internalization, uncoating, and intracellular trafficking of HPV particles. Our focus will be on HPV type 16, which is the most common HPV type associated with various anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. The study of HPV entry has revealed a number of novel cellular pathways utilized during infection. These include but are not restricted to the following: a previously uncharacterized form of endocytosis, membrane penetration by a capsid protein, the use of retromer complexes for trafficking to the trans-Golgi network, the requirement for nuclear envelope breakdown and microtubule-mediated transport during mitosis for nuclear entry, the existence of membrane-bound intranuclear vesicles harboring HPV genome, and the requirement of PML protein for efficient transcription of incoming viral genome. The continued study of these pathways may reveal new roles in basic biological cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Self-Assembling DNA Nano Chip for Rapid Detection of Human Papillomavirus Genes

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    Li, Xin; Li, Yanbo; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of tumor-associated DNA such as Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has important clinical value for the early screening of tumors. By attaching oligonucleotides or cDNA onto the chip surface, DNA chip technology provides a rapid method to analyze gene expression. However, challenges remain regarding increasing probe density and improving detection time. To address these challenges, we proposed a DNA chip that was self-assembled from single stranded DNA in combination with high probe density and a rapid detection method. Over 200 probes could be attached to the surface of this 100-nm diameter DNA chip. For detection, the chips were adsorbed onto a mica surface and then incubated for ten minutes with HPV-DNA; the results were directly observable using atomic force microscopy (AFM). This bottom-up fabricated DNA nano chip combined with high probe density and direct AFM detection at the single molecule level will likely have numerous potential clinical applications for gene screening and the early diagnosis of cancer. PMID:27706184

  14. Roles of human papillomavirus infection and stathmin in the pathogenesis of sinonasal inverted papilloma.

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    Lin, Hai; Lin, Dong; Xiong, Xi-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate roles of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and stathmin in sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP). HPV DNA detection was performed by the fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Stathmin protein expression was investigated by the immunohistochemistry method and mRNA expression of stathmin, Kif2a, and cyclin D1 were assessed by real-time PCR in SNIP and control subjects. The positive rate of HPV DNA detected in SNIP was about 53.6% (15 of 28). Recurrent cases showed a higher rate of HPV infection compared with initial cases and higher Krouse stage (T3 + T4) cases showed higher rate of HPV infection than lower Krouse stage (T1 + T2) cases. Stronger expression of stathmin, Kif2a, and cyclin D1 were observed in SNIP, especially HPV(+) SNIP. HPV infection was closely associated with recurrence and progression of SNIP. Stathmin is a valuable prognostic marker and could be considered as a therapeutic target in patients with SNIP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Esophageal papilloma: case report, molecular identification of human papillomavirus and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Yanina; Jiménez, Félix; Tedeschi, Fabián; Zalazar, Fabián

    2013-09-01

    sophageal squamous papilloma is an uncommon, usually asymptomatic, benign tumor of the squamous epithelium consisting of a raised, sessile, small and round (smooth or rough) lesion. The prevalence is between 0.01 and 0.45% of cases, with a male/female ratio of 3:1. The etiology and pathogenesis appear to be a mechanical or chemical irritation of the mucosa in addition to the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), important agent in the evolution to a squamous carcinoma, especially HPV types 16 and 18. In this paper, we describe a case of esophageal papilloma whose diagnosis involved endoscopic images, pathological studies and detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction. By using molecular techniques (PCR-RFLP) a profile consistent with HPV type 16 has been obtained. The patient underwent polypectomy and currently, after 3 years of diagnosis, he remains asymptomatic. This work is one of the first national reports of a patient with esophageal papilloma in which one of the most frequently HPV genotypes associated with esophageal carcinoma (HPV 16) has been detected.

  16. The prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Iranian patients with sinonasal inverted papilloma.

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    Jalilvand, Somayeh; Saidi, Masoumeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Ghavami, Nastaran; Hamkar, Rasool

    2016-03-01

    Inverted papilloma (IP) is an uncommon disease which arises in the mucosal membrane of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus. It has been proposed that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causal agent in the pathogenesis of IP and plays a key role in the progression from benign IP to malignancy. As there are no prior studies that focus on an Iranian population, this study intended to characterize the prevalence of HPV types in benign and malignant forms of IP. In this retrospective study, we included a total of 40 IP patients [37 benign IP and 3 IP/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] who were referred to Amiralam Hospital in Tehran from 2004-2006. HPV was detected in 18.9% and 100% of IP and IP/SCC cases, respectively. In all HPV positive cases of IP and IP/SCC cases, HPV6/11 and HPV16/18 were detected, respectively. Therefore, HPV types were different between the IP and IP/SCC patients, and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.002). This study suggests that HPV6 and 11 may be involved in the development of IP, but HPV16 and 18 likely play an important role in the progression from benign to malignant form of IP. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  17. Detection of human papillomavirus in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma by hybrid capture II and PCR assays.

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    Takamura, Y; Kubo, E; Tsuzuki, S; Akagi, Y

    2008-11-01

    To elucidate the putative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma. Hybrid capture II (HC-II) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect HPV in pterygium (42 samples obtained from 40 patients) and conjunctival papilloma (8 samples from 6 patients). The amount of HPV DNA was evaluated by measurement of relative light units (RLUs) on a luminometer. All papilloma samples were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and HC-II. The RLU values for specimens of recurrent and re-recurrent papilloma were markedly higher than those for specimens of primary lesions. HPV was detected by PCR in 2 of 42 (4.8%) beta-globin-positive pterygium specimens, whereas HC-II showed that HPV was negative in all pterygium samples. Our results support the hypothesis that HPV DNA is associated with the pathogenesis of conjunctival papilloma, but not pterygium. RLU measurement by HC-II may serve as a marker for evaluating the activity of HPV in conjunctival tumours.

  18. Model systems to study the life cycle of human papillomaviruses and HPV-associated cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louise; T.Chow

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent human papillomaviruses(HPVs) infect either cutaneous or mucosal epithelium. Active Infections lead to epithelial hyperprolifeation and are usually cleared in healthy individuals within a year. Persistent infections in the anogenital tracts by certain high-risk genotypes such as HPV-16, HPV-18 and closely related types, can progress to high grade dysplasias and carcinomas in women and men, including cervical, vulva, penile and anal cancers. A significant fraction of the head and neck cancers are also caused by HPV-16. The viral oncogenes responsible for neoplastic conversion are E6 and E7 that disrupt the pathways controlled by the two major tumor suppressor genes, p53 and members of p RB family. Because HPV cannot be propagated in conventional submerged monolayer cell cultures, organotypic epithelial raft cultures that generate a stratified and differentiated epithelium have been used to study the viral life cycle. This article describes several systems to examine aspects of the viral productive phase, along with the advantages and limitations. Animal model systems of HPV carcinogenesis are also briefly described.

  19. The human papillomavirus vaccine: A powerful tool for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.

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    Nubia Muñoz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine is the most promissory public health tool for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Immunization of females before the acquisition of HPV infection has the greatest impact in preventing pre-neoplasic lesions and cervical cancer. Current HPV vaccines do not eliminate cervical cancer risk, therefore, screening should continue covering vaccinated as well as women that do not get the vaccine. The strategies that include combination of high-coverage vaccination of HPV-unexposed adolescents with screening using methods with higher sensitivity than cytology as HPV test may be more cost-effective than the strategies currently used. The cytology-based screening programs of Latin America countries including Colombia are very ineffective. The evidence in favor of the cost-effectiveness of other screening strategies such as HPV tests and visual inspection followed by immediate treatment for women with difficult access to health care services in developing countries warrants the immediate revision of the current strategies.

  20. The role of human papillomavirus infection in the pathogenesis of penile squamous cell carcinomas.

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    Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that penile cancer follows 2 etiologic pathways, 1 related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the other related to other factors including phimosis, chronic inflammation, and lichen sclerosus. HPV DNA is found in 47% to 48% of all penile tumors, and most of these cases correspond to high-risk genotypes, preferentially HPV-16. HPV status is associated with histologic subtype, with higher detection ratios in warty-basaloid carcinomas and lower detection ratios in keratinizing variants (ie, verrucous, papillary, and usual squamous cell carcinomas). It is the cell type, rather than a distinctive architecture, that is more strongly associated with HPV presence. The detection ratio is higher in tumors composed entirely or partially of cells with basaloid features. In addition, a few studies have evaluated the impact of HPV infection on the prognosis of patients with penile cancer. However, results are controversial, and more data are needed to clarify this matter. A proper understanding of the role of HPV in penile carcinogenesis might help in planning intervention strategies such as vaccination against HPV infection.